WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying psychological issue

  1. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  2. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

  3. [Homelessness: psychological and behavioral issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuel, Alain

    2013-02-01

    Risk factors lead to social exclusion and their accumulation can lead to homelessness. This inevitably contributes to a progressive increase in psychological distress or aggravates a pre-existing mental illness. Over the years, homeless people, who are never happy, develop various survival strategies and mental defenses that can sometimes prove effective. Other individuals who are less"adapted" to living in the street may suffer from both mental and physical collapse. Proactive programs designed to facilitate access to healthcare and welfare have been created in order to offer solutions designed to enable homeless people to leave the street, through access to medical care, accommodation and civil rights. The psychiatric sector has been slow to adapt to the needs of this population, although several teams specializing in mental illness and precariousness have been created These teams explore every possible avenue to help homeless people with mental health issues to recover a psychological balance that allows them to choose a recovery pathway and thus to regain a dignified lifestyle.

  4. Evolving Internship Issues in School Psychology Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Swerdlik, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Current issues relevant to school psychology internships are reviewed. The movement toward professional competencies and behavioral benchmarks as they relate to school psychology internships is discussed, with a concentration on American Psychological Association and National Association of School Psychologists standards. Given the emphasis on…

  5. Publications in psychology: French issues

    OpenAIRE

    FRANK ARNOULD; ENZA MORALE; LAURENT PANES

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the situation of psychology publications in France, in particular, the visibility of French research through journals and bibliographic databases; the role of publications for the evalua-tion of researchers and laboratories, and the contribution of French psychologists to a national publica-tions archiving platform.

  6. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The face is a vital component of one′s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families.

  7. Is evolutionary psychology a metatheory for psychology? A discussion of four major issues in psychology from an evolutionary developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Raijmakers, M.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has been proposed as a metatheoretical framework for psychology. We argue that evolutionary psychology should be expanded if it is to offer new insights regarding the major issues in psychology. Evolutionary developmental biology can provide valuable new insights into issues

  8. Overlapping Issues in Medical Psychology, Rehabilitation Psychology and Behavioral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Wayne A.

    Behavioral medicine is a field which attempts to integrate social, behavioral, and biological sciences through an application of bio-behavioral methods to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness. Because behavioral medicine overlaps many psychological disciplines, some disciplines of psychology such as medical psychology and…

  9. Internships in School Psychology: Selection and Accreditation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilin, W. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral students in school psychology often report unique issues and challenges when seeking a doctoral internship. The number and range of accredited internship positions available to School Psychology (SP) students in the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) Match is quite limited, and they often obtain…

  10. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues is dedicated to the scientific investigation of psychological issues and related phenomena in Africa. The Journal does not undertake to specify rigidly an appropriate domain of content, but intends rather to reflect current significant research in ...

  11. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues is dedicated to the Scientific investigation of psychological and social issues and related phenomenon in Africa. The journal does not undertake to specify rigidly an appropriate domain of context, but intends rather to reflect current significant ...

  12. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues is dedicated to the Scientific investigation of psychological and social issues and related phenomenon in Africa. The journal does not undertake to specify rigidly an appropriate domain of context, but intends rather to reflect current significant research of ...

  13. Computer-aided psychological treatments: evolving issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Isaac; Cavanagh, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is growing that several computer-aided psychotherapy (CP) systems can effectively improve a range of common mental health problems. Most clients find CP acceptable because of its convenience, confidentiality, and reduction of stigma. CP can be accessed in a clinic, but recently clients have used CP especially on the Internet at home, with brief support on a telephone helpline and/or by email. Brief and efficient screening and support greatly reduce attrition. CP's efficacy, and encouragement of its dissemination and implementation by some national funding bodies and governmental agencies, has led to its spread as a regular care option and is increasing access to psychological therapies in some countries. Transfer of this new approach from use in tight research studies to use as an integrated part of everyday care under widely varying conditions generates teething problems that are being managed in diverse ways across different centers. Anonymized Internet audit of CP outcomes facilitates effective care and clinical governance. This review examines the current state of the art as well as the science and broad applications of CP.

  14. Adolescent Abortion: Psychological and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Findings from empirical research differ greatly from the Supreme Court's assumptions about psychological factors in adolescent abortion. Psychologists should preserve adolescent clients' privacy in counseling about pregnancy-related decisions. Government should encourage counseling services for pregnant adolescents and research on psychological…

  15. Psychology and Nuclear Weapon Issues: Topics, Concepts, and Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden, Comp.

    The document outlines 15 topics, each with concepts and selected references, to illustrate the relevance of psychology for understanding and coping with the threat of nuclear war. Awareness of the literature is intended to encourage psychologists to become more active in applying psychological concepts to nuclear weapons issues. The articles and…

  16. Mental Health Issues and Higher Education Psychology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on widening participation and accessibility in relation to mental health issues and undergraduate psychology students. Sections 1 and 2 set the context and outline the scope and aims of this paper. Section 3 presents evidence of the student experience from the Improving Provisions for Disabled Psychology Students (IPDPS)…

  17. Big Data in Psychology: Introduction to Special Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Harlow, Lisa L.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction to this special issue on psychological research involving big data summarizes the highlights of 10 articles that address a number of important and inspiring perspectives, issues, and applications. Four common themes that emerge in the articles with respect to psychological research conducted in the area of big data are mentioned, including: 1. The benefits of collaboration across disciplines, such as those in the social sciences, applied statistics, and computer science. Doin...

  18. Community Social Psychology dimensions facing ethnic and racial issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Olivatto Da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic and racial issues lead to new forms to the Brazilian psychological praxis. Psychological suffering from racists’ relations resulted from psychosocial dynamics of long-term. On the opposite, social behavior of black people overcomes that by perpetuating meaningful and symbolical process through the whole Colonial and Republic Brazilian lifespan. We will demonstrate that psychological contingency can help to understand psychosocial process related to a long-term period. Maritza Montero’s psychological dimensions and Social Sciences interface will explain contingency approach. Thus, we conclude that psychological dimensions show a new way of observing social behavior of Brazilian black people, whom promoted identity links in daily relationships, through collective and affectional recognition, whereas social asymmetry perpetuated itself in Brazilian Social History.

  19. Changing psychology: history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Díaz, Lillian

    2009-10-01

    The history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (American Psychological Association Division 45) for its first 20 years are reviewed. The legitimization of the ethnic minority scholarship within organized psychology is chronicled, highlighting the central role of advocacy and activism. Multiculturalism is presented as a paradigm for the globalization of the United States. It is concluded that ethnic minority psychology has changed the field and equips us for the challenges of the internationalization of the world. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Psychology of terrorism: Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, John G

    2017-04-01

    Despite the extraordinary social and political consequences often associated with terrorist violence, as well as our responses to it, psychological research on terrorist behavior is conspicuously underdeveloped. This special issue of American Psychologist presents a series of articles that showcase new conceptual, theoretical, and empirical advances in our understanding of terrorism. In doing so, it seeks to not merely summarize recent accomplishments, but to highlight the immense value of explicitly psychological research on these issues, far more of which is called for to realize the potential for informing solutions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Integrating Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Issues into Mainstream Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfried, Marvin R.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates how clinical and research writings on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues remain invisible to mainstream psychology in such areas as life span development and aging, teen suicide, substance abuse, victimization, and family and couple relationships, examining determinants of wellbeing among GLBs and discussing what mainstream…

  2. Ethical Issues in Mentoring Doctoral Students in Clinical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Anna; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical issues abound in any relationship that is defined by differences between the parties in rank, status, and power. Such is the case in the relationship between a doctoral student in clinical psychology and his or her mentor. In this article, we examine several potential areas of ethical concern within the mentor-student relationship. We…

  3. Contemporary discursive psychology: issues, prospects, and Corcoran's awkward ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    This paper is both an overview of the status of contemporary discursive psychology and a response to Corcoran's critical article. The first part of the paper reports on the main traditions that make up contemporary discursive psychology and how they relate to one another. Then it responds to Corcoran's claims that much of contemporary discursive psychology: (a) is over concerned with epistemic issues at the expense of ontological issues; (b) is too concerned with data purity while failing reflexively to address its own practices; (c) fails to address ethical, applied, and political issues in the way that a reformed 'ontological' discursive psychology would be able to; (d) fails to provide an adequate and rich account of relationality (of the kind offered by thinkers such as Bakhtin, Shotter, and Chouliaraki). The limitations of each point are addressed in turn, highlighting errors and confusions. The broadly epistemic focus is appropriate for the subject matter of discursive psychology; discursive psychology is less concerned with data purity than with pursuing the radical and empirically progressive possibilities in studying records of people living their lives in everyday and institutional settings (a surprising oversight in a discipline focused on the actions of human beings) and it has a reflexive tradition going back two decades; it has a strong and distinctive focus on ethical, applied, and political issues; it has an account of relationality that is grounded in conversational materials. A single example from interaction on a child protection helpline is analysed to illustrate the way relationality, knowledge, and intersubjectivity have been made analytically tractable in contemporary discursive research.

  4. Ethical issues is psychological screening of nuclear power personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ethical issues of mandatory psychological screening of nuclear power plant personnel have not been explored adequately. This paper examines several ethical issues in this area that need more attention. (1) Informed Consent: psychologists' ethics (like those of virtually all science and practice-oriented disciplines) require subjects participating in research or practice to be informed of procedures applied to them, the purposes, and possible consequences. (2) Feedback: psychologists' ethical guidelines require feedback to assesses when it is requested. (3) Validity: psychologists' ethics require that they use instrumentation only for the purposes intended and only for uses for which there is a preponderance of validity data available. In short, there is no question that psychological tests can significantly improve the effectiveness of a work force when they are properly (i.e., validly) used by well-trained and qualified professional psychologists. However, with the abundance of clinicians who are providing such services and with the complexity of the ethical issues involved in conducting these screenings, employers in psychologically high-risk settings should proceed with great caution to assure that assesses are treated in a fair and ethical manner

  5. Big Data in Psychology: Introduction to Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Lisa L.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction to this special issue on psychological research involving big data summarizes the highlights of 10 articles that address a number of important and inspiring perspectives, issues, and applications. Four common themes that emerge in the articles with respect to psychological research conducted in the area of big data are mentioned, including: 1. The benefits of collaboration across disciplines, such as those in the social sciences, applied statistics, and computer science. Doing so assists in grounding big data research in sound theory and practice, as well as in affording effective data retrieval and analysis. 2. Availability of large datasets on Facebook, Twitter, and other social media sites that provide a psychological window into the attitudes and behaviors of a broad spectrum of the population. 3. Identifying, addressing, and being sensitive to ethical considerations when analyzing large datasets gained from public or private sources. 4. The unavoidable necessity of validating predictive models in big data by applying a model developed on one dataset to a separate set of data or hold-out sample. Translational abstracts that summarize the articles in very clear and understandable terms are included in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms relevant to big data research discussed in the articles is presented in Appendix B. PMID:27918177

  6. Big data in psychology: Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Lisa L; Oswald, Frederick L

    2016-12-01

    The introduction to this special issue on psychological research involving big data summarizes the highlights of 10 articles that address a number of important and inspiring perspectives, issues, and applications. Four common themes that emerge in the articles with respect to psychological research conducted in the area of big data are mentioned, including: (a) The benefits of collaboration across disciplines, such as those in the social sciences, applied statistics, and computer science. Doing so assists in grounding big data research in sound theory and practice, as well as in affording effective data retrieval and analysis. (b) Availability of large data sets on Facebook, Twitter, and other social media sites that provide a psychological window into the attitudes and behaviors of a broad spectrum of the population. (c) Identifying, addressing, and being sensitive to ethical considerations when analyzing large data sets gained from public or private sources. (d) The unavoidable necessity of validating predictive models in big data by applying a model developed on 1 dataset to a separate set of data or hold-out sample. Translational abstracts that summarize the articles in very clear and understandable terms are included in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms relevant to big data research discussed in the articles is presented in Appendix B. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Health psychology meets behavioral economics: introduction to special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew

    2013-09-01

    Introduces the special issue of Health Psychology, entitled Health Psychology Meets Behavioral Economics. Psychologists have long been interested in understanding the processes that underlie health behaviors and, based on health behavior models that they have developed, have devised a spectrum of effective prevention and treatment programs. More recently, behavioral economists have also provided evidence of effective behavior change strategies through nonprice mechanisms in a variety of contexts, including smoking cessation, weight loss, and illicit drug use. Yet, although all are addressing similar issues, surprisingly little cross-fertilization has taken place between traditional economists, behavioral economists, and psychologists. This special issue is rooted in the assumption that collaboration between economists and psychologists can promote the development of new methodologies and encourage exploration of novel solutions to enduring health problems. The hope is that readers will be intrigued and inspired by the methodologies used in the different articles and will explore whether they might be applicable to the problems they are addressing. Collaborative efforts, although challenging and at times risky, are a promising way to produce more innovative studies, results, and interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Common Issues Seen in Paediatric Diabetes Clinics, Psychological Formulations, and Related Approaches to Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Deeb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease and its management is associated with multiple challenges. This is particularly the case in children and adolescents. Factors that contribute to difficulties in managing diabetes in youth include psychological characteristics, family dynamics, and social behavior. The purpose of this article is to highlight some psychological issues in children and adolescents with diabetes. We aim to present selected case scenarios encountered by health professionals and to provide tips on strategies for managing psychological aspect of diabetes. We tackle the psychological issues related to diabetes under four main categories: maladaptive disorders, eating disorders, family psychopathology, and family dysfunction. Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are useful modalities in diabetes management. The psychological intervention is aimed at supporting patients and families to reach a balance between a normal family routine and a good glycemic control. We demonstrate unique requirements in coordinating care for children and adolescents with diabetes and highlight the importance of encouraging a positive behavior. Managing diabetes in children and adolescents needs to be in the form of a collaborative work between health care professionals, children and adolescents, and their families. Caring, supportive family backed up by experienced multidisciplinary team is the best approach to prevent psychological difficulties.

  9. Common Issues Seen in Paediatric Diabetes Clinics, Psychological Formulations, and Related Approaches to Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Asma; Akle, Mariette; Al Ozairi, Abdulla; Cameron, Fergus

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease and its management is associated with multiple challenges. This is particularly the case in children and adolescents. Factors that contribute to difficulties in managing diabetes in youth include psychological characteristics, family dynamics, and social behavior. The purpose of this article is to highlight some psychological issues in children and adolescents with diabetes. We aim to present selected case scenarios encountered by health professionals and to provide tips on strategies for managing psychological aspect of diabetes. We tackle the psychological issues related to diabetes under four main categories: maladaptive disorders, eating disorders, family psychopathology, and family dysfunction. Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are useful modalities in diabetes management. The psychological intervention is aimed at supporting patients and families to reach a balance between a normal family routine and a good glycemic control. We demonstrate unique requirements in coordinating care for children and adolescents with diabetes and highlight the importance of encouraging a positive behavior. Managing diabetes in children and adolescents needs to be in the form of a collaborative work between health care professionals, children and adolescents, and their families. Caring, supportive family backed up by experienced multidisciplinary team is the best approach to prevent psychological difficulties.

  10. Concerning the Importance of Ontological Issues for Cultural Psychology: a Reply to Comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironenko, Irina A

    2017-09-01

    The paper continues the "ontological" discussion in IBPS, addressing the question of the importance of ontological issues for contemporary development of cultural psychology. The language psychological science speaks is considered as an ontological issue and a most topical one for cultural psychology, aiming at "constructing a psychology that is universal while being culture-inclusive" (Valsiner 2009, p.2). Ontological issues could stay implicit and neglected, as long as the 'etant, "the mode of being", "the particularities" were discussed within the circle of adherents of one and the same school, who implicitly had in mind the same 'entre. However, as soon as the discussion involves representatives of different schools, ontological issues become crucial for mutual understanding and meanings of the words have to be explicated. Same words like "psyche", "subjectivity", "social", "culture", etc., - often mean different things when they are pronounces or written by representatives of different theoretical trends. The discussion of the 'etant without clear indicating of the 'entre under consideration is likely to turn into a Babel. Global modernity requires constant efforts and insistent desire for mutual understanding across the diversified global scientific community. Thus, creative collaboration in epistemological developments has to ground on clear comprehension of the ontological stances of the debaters.

  11. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  12. Embedding Career Issues in Advanced Psychology Major Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jane S.; Dunn, Dana S.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the psychology major, complaints regularly arise about the value of majoring in psychology. This article reviews the workforce advantages that accrue to successful psychology students and encourages new strategies for emphasizing the professional development goal in the American Psychological Association's…

  13. Methodological issues in the psychology of religion: toward another paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzen, Jacob A; Hood, Ralph W

    2006-01-01

    Recent evaluations have identified the psychology of religion as a field in crisis and have called for a new multilevel interdisciplinary paradigm. However, a critical meta-perspective on methods reveals a broad range of methodologies, each appropriate for particular levels of complexity in the psychology of religion. No single methodology is appropriate for every level, nor can higher levels of complexity be explained by data from lower levels. The authors identify the different types of research practiced in the psychology of religion and critically discuss philosophical presuppositions involved in two major methodological traditions, the empiricist-analytical and the hermeneutical, often identified as quantitative and qualitative traditions, respectively.

  14. Reviewing outcomes of psychological interventions with torture survivors: Conceptual, methodological and ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimisha; C de C Williams, Amanda; Kellezi, Blerina

    2016-01-01

    Torture survivors face multiple problems, including psychological difficulties, whether they are refugees or remain in the country where they were tortured. Provision of rehabilitation varies not only with the needs of survivors and resources available, but also with service models, service provider preferences and the local and country context. Despite increasing efforts in research on effectiveness of psychological interventions with torture survivors, results are inconclusive. We undertook a Cochrane systematic review of psychological, social and welfare provision, with meta-analysis to best estimate efficacy. The process raised conceptual, methodological and ethical issues of relevance to the wider field. We searched very widely, but rejected hundreds of papers which recommended treatment without providing evidence. We found nine randomised controlled trials, from developed and under-resourced settings. All conceptualised survivors' problems in psychiatric terms, using outcomes of post-traumatic stress symptoms, distress, and quality of life, by self-report, with or without translation or unstandardised interpretation, and with little mention of cultural or language issues. None used social or welfare interventions. Four related studies used narrative exposure therapy (NET) in a brief form, and without ensuring a safe setting as recommended. Five used mixed methods, including exposure, cognitive behavioural therapy, and eye movement desensitisation. Combined, the studies showed no immediate improvement in PTSD, distress, or quality of life; at six months follow-up, a minority showed some improvement in PTSD and distress, although participants remained severely affected. While applauding researchers' commitment in running these trials, we raise ethical issues about exposure in particular, and about the effects of shortcomings in methodology, particularly around assessment using unfamiliar cultural frameworks and language, and the lack of concern about dropout

  15. Current exploratory and confirmatory issues in data analysis in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; University of Adelaide - Universidad del Valle

    2015-01-01

    In 1968 John Tukey gave a speech at the American Psychological Association in San Francisco about the relevance of proper data analysis in Psychology (Tukey, 1969). His closing message was that “data analysis needs to be both exploratory and confirmatory” (p. 90). Exploratory data analysis (or EDA) is an approach to analysing data in order to formulate sound hypotheses, whereas confirmatory data analysis (CDA) is a method to test those hypotheses (a.k.a., statistical hypothesis testing). As T...

  16. Psychological issues facing obese pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Nascimento, Simony Lira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto

    2017-01-01

    To identify, by qualitative and quantitative studies, the psychological aspects considered and/or evaluated during the prenatal care of obese pregnant women, as well as the psychological interventions adopted by health services. Systematic review of literature using a mixed method approach, integrating both quantitative and qualitative studies. We used databases (Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and SciELO) and publications from January 2003 to June 2013 using "Obesity," "Pregnancy," "Psy,*" or "Psychology" as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms). Prospective cohort, cross-sectional, case-control, clinical trial, and qualitative research studies were included. Eight articles are included in this review, three with qualitative and five with quantitative methodology. The majority of the studies demonstrate that emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, and stress are associated with the raising of Body Mass Index (BMI) during pregnancy. The results of the qualitative studies show psychological distress related to humiliation and exposure to stigmas surrounding obesity and its connection with gestation. There is an emotional demand related to obesity during pregnancy, which should be considered by prenatal multidisciplinary care team. There is a need to increasing attention and support provided for obese pregnant women.

  17. Black Psychology and Black Personality: Some Issues for Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses an emerging body of psychological literature by black behavioral scientists assumed to represent a radical departure in its conceptual orientation from the social pathology tradition advanced primarily by white behavioral scientists; and focuses on the construct of Self-Extension Orientation, a dynamic process which is assumed to…

  18. The Role of Bisexual Issues in Lesbian and Gay Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Sari H.

    Recent studies show that those lesbians and gays who are comfortable and "out" with their identities exhibit better psychological adjustment than those who are unaccepting and hidden. This paper explores the experiences of bisexuals within the gay and lesbian movement and shows how what is known about sexual orientation and the development of a…

  19. Psychological issues in oral and maxillofacial reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2008-12-01

    Many psychological problems affect patients who have oral and maxillofacial operations. This article reviews these problems among patients with craniofacial conditions, facial injuries, facial cancer, and those having orthognathic surgery. Facial cosmetic surgery is not addressed. Problems such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, poor social relationships, and changes in body image are considered. The roles of mental health professionals is emphasised to enhance postoperative satisfaction and to provide a better quality of life for these patients.

  20. Behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Alan J; Nezu, Arthur M

    2013-04-01

    This issue represents the 4th Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology special issue on behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology over the past 4 decades. Recent developments in health care policy, as well as in the maturation of the science, make a special issue in this area particularly timely. This collection includes state of the clinical science reviews, reports of clinical trials, and articles addressing theory and methods in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology. A multilevel, ecological perspective that considers multiple levels of influences (e.g., cultural influences on behavior-health linkages, individual differences) is salient throughout many of the articles. Our hope is that this sampling of this broad field, and coverage of some key issues and areas, will play a role in stimulating the next 10 years of research, practice, and policy implementation in behavioral medicine and clinical health psychology.

  1. Cross-cultural and psychological issues in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Padhy, Susanta Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders encountered by gastroenterologists worldwide. Of all the etiological factors that had been postulated to explain the pathophysiology of IBS, cultural and psychological factors are unique and difficult to understand. Culture plays an important role in coloring the presentation of IBS, and many a times, it has a significant role in several treatment aspects too. Psychological aspects like personality profiles, family relationships, societal myths, and abuse in any form are equally important in the management perspectives of IBS. In this brief review, we had tried to specifically focus on these aspects in IBS and have explained the evidences in favor of these factors. Knowledge about various cross-cultural aspects and psychological factors in patients with IBS is essential for taking an appropriate history and for undertaking a holistic approach for the management of the same. A collaborative team effort by psychiatrists and gastroenterologists could help in reducing the burden of this difficult to treat functional bowel disorder. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Effect of Psychological Intervention on Marital Satisfaction of Mothers with Slow Pace Under 5 Years Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Objective of this study was investigating impact of early psychological interventions on marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children. Considering variables of the research, that is, early psychological interventions and marital satisfaction, research hypotheses was as follows: "early psychological interventions affect marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children" and it was examined. Methods: This research is of experimental type and pretest-posttest plan with control groups was used. Statistical population included all mothers with slow pace under 5 years children in Urmia. To this end, 40 mothers with slow pace children were selected as the sample in a non-random manner by convenience sampling. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 20 (20 test group and 20 control group, and finally psychological interventions were conducted on one of groups randomly. In order to evaluate marital satisfaction, Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire with 47 items was used. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of covariance. Results: findings showed that there is significant difference between two groups in posttest in overall score of marital satisfaction as well as in some elements such as conventional responses, marital satisfaction, personality issues, marital relationships, conflict resolution, leisure, parenting, family and friends, and ideological orientation and sexual relations (P<0.005, and no significant difference was observed in financial supervision and roles related to gender equality. Discusion: Psychological interventions were effective in promoting marital satisfaction in mothers with slow pace under 5 years children.

  3. Teenagers’ engaging to sports as a psychological and pedagogical issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamaeva G.I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available the given article justifies the necessity to engage adolescent students to physical culture. Based upon the analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature, the author concludes that a traditional approach in physical culture classes, used in the majority of schools, is unattractive for teenagers. They are interested in other sports, which are popular among their age mates. The conclusion is that in the current situation it is necessary to review the content of physical education (taking into account dominant motivation of school students to physical culture and sports based on gender preferences.

  4. Psychology teaching in nursing education: a review of and reflection on approaches, issues, and contemporary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan M A; Timmins, Fiona

    2012-11-01

    This paper highlights the relevance of psychology for nurses and the issues around the inclusion of psychology as an essential part of nursing education. Considerable international variations in the extent to which psychology is incorporated in nursing education suggest a need for discussion and reflection on this topic. This paper aims to (a) examine and reflect on scholarly literature in English addressing psychology of nursing in education and (b) present and reflect on an example of psychology teaching in a school of nursing and midwifery in Ireland. A review of the literature took place, which included a search of various databases and an analysis of emerging psychology for nursing textbooks over the period 1906-2011. Findings were used as a framework for reflection on a local example. The literature review yielded numerous commentaries, discussion papers, textbook reviews and editorials but very few empirical studies. Three topics were identified as appearing most frequently in the literature: the relevance of psychology in the nursing curriculum; depth and content of coverage; and whether integrated or separate instruction of psychology should be chosen. Findings suggest that overall the relevance of psychology to nursing education is not contested, but debates have emerged regarding how best to approach and integrate psychology. The outcomes of these debates are mostly inconclusive at present. Educators are encouraged to become active in these discussions and reflections, which are hampered by lack of empirical evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. From Psychology Of Race To Issue Of Skin Color: Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the aftermath of Western domination is the trivialization of skin color as significant issue among peoples of African descent. Regrettably, research by psychologists the world over emphasize race in the study of human social conditions. Despite the fact that race is increasingly irrelevant Western psychologists continually ...

  6. Safety issues and updates under MR environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Kyung Ah, E-mail: bellenina@daum.net

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Unexpected biological effects can occur within stronger magnetic fields. • MR safety for MR conditional items is not guaranteed beyond the tested conditions. • Updated knowledge about MR-related safety is important for a safe MR environment. - Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a useful imaging tool with superior soft tissue contrast for diagnostic evaluation. The MR environments poses unique risks to patients and employees differently from ionizing radiation exposure originated from computed tomography and plain x-ray films. The technology associated with MR system has evolved continuously since its introduction in the late 1970s. MR systems have advanced with static magnetic fields, faster and stronger gradient magnetic fields and more powerful radiofrequency transmission coils. Higher field strengths of MR offers greater signal to noise capability and better spatial resolution, resulting in better visualization of anatomic detail, with a reduction in scan time. With the rapid evolution of technology associated with MR, we encounter new MR-related circumstances and unexpected dangerous conditions. A comprehensive update of our knowledge about MR safety is necessary to prevent MR-related accidents and to ensure safety for patients and staff associated with MR. This review presents an overview about MR-related safety issues and updates.

  7. Big Data Issues under the Copernicus Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Braucks, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Copernicus Programme of Earth observation satellites (http://copernicus.eu) will be affected by a growing volume of data and information. The first satellite (Sentinel 1A) has just been launched. Seven additional satellites are to be launched by the end of the decade. These will produce 8 TB of data per day, i.e. considerably more than can be downloaded via normal Internet connections.There is no definitive answer to the many challenges of big data but there are gradual solutions for Copernicus in view of the progressive roll out of the space infrastructure and the thematic services which the European Commission will develop. This presentation will present several approaches to the big data issue. It will start from the needs of the Copernicus users, which are far from being homogeneous. As their needs are different, the European Commission and ESA will have to propose different solutions to fulfil these needs, taking into account the present and future state of technology. The presentation will discuss these solutions, both with regard to a better use of the network and with regard to hosted processing.

  8. A survey of sports medicine physicians regarding psychological issues in patient-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Barton J; Grana, William A; Indelicato, Peter A; O'Neill, Daniel F; George, Steven Z

    2007-12-01

    To determine the extent to which sports medicine physicians encounter and discuss psychological issues among athletes they treat and to evaluate physicians' perceptions of the availability and efficacy of sport psychologists and other mental health resources. Cross-sectional study. A survey was sent via e-mail to all physician members of 4 prominent sports medicine professional associations: the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine. The extent to which respondents discuss psychological issues with athletes varied by subspecialty and by specific issues assessed. Fears about reinjury, fears related to surgery, and lack of patience with recovery/rehabilitation were the 3 most common injury-related topics discussed with patient-athletes. The 3 most common non-injury-related topics discussed were stress/pressure, anxiety, and burnout. Family practitioners were more likely to discuss injury-related psychological issues than were orthopaedic surgeons. Orthopaedic surgeons reported the lowest frequencies of discussing non-injury-related psychological issues. Only 19% of all respondents indicated there were adequate numbers of sport psychologists and other mental health professionals in their geographical area to treat the needs of athletes. Three quarters of respondents reported they rarely or never referred athletes to sport psychologists for injury-related issues, and two thirds indicated they rarely or never referred athletes to sport psychologists for non-injury-related problems. Respondents rated sport psychologists and athletic trainers/physical therapists to be moderately effective in working with athletes regarding psychological problems. Sports medicine physicians frequently encounter psychological issues with patient-athletes. There is a need for tools to facilitate assessment of these problems as well as greater

  9. Psychology of Game Playing: Introduction to a Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Colman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Game theory has focused attention on different problems at different times in its history. Currently, attention is devoted to investigating how human decision makers with bounded rationality choose strategies in interactive decisions. Behavioral economics, and more generally experimental games, have appeared in the literature with accelerating frequency since 1990, and this cannot continue indefinitely without a proportional expansion of journal space. This Special Issue includes contributions to behavioral economics, experimental games, and evolutionary game theory, using theoretical, experimental, and agent-based modeling techniques.

  10. Psychological issues in the evaluation and treatment of tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Noah L

    2012-12-01

    Tension-type headache is the most common headache disorder, affecting approximately 40 % of Americans within a one-year span. Although the most common form, episodic tension-type headache, is rarely impairing, more frequent tension-type headache can occur with significant disability and psychological comorbidity. Appreciating the psychological impact, assessing the associated biopsychosocial issues, and understanding patients' coping styles are important in forming an appropriate treatment plan and maximizing treatment outcomes. A range of psychological therapies including relaxation training, cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback and mindfulness have demonstrated utility in treating chronic pain conditions and reducing the associated disability. This may be particularly applicable to special populations, including pediatric patients, pregnant patients and geriatric. Psychological assessment and treatment may be done conjointly with medication management and expands treatment options. There is great need to continue researching the effects of psychological treatments, standardizing interventions and making them available to the wider population.

  11. Piaget's epistemic subject and science education: Epistemological vs. psychological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1993-06-01

    Many individuals claim that Piaget's theory of cognitive development is empirically false or substantially disconfirmed by empirical research. Although there is substance to such a claim, any such conclusion must address three increasingly problematic issues about the possibility of providing an empirical test of Piaget's genetic epistemology: (1) the empirical underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence, (2) the empirical difficulty of testing competence-type explanations, and (3) the difficulty of empirically testing epistemic norms. This is especially true of a central epistemic construct in Piaget's theory — the epistemic subject. To illustrate how similar problems of empirical testability arise in the physical sciences, I briefly examine the case of Galileo and the correlative difficulty of empirically testing Galileo's laws. I then point out some important epistemological similarities between Galileo and Piaget together with correlative changes needed in science studies methodology. I conclude that many psychologists and science educators have failed to appreciate the difficulty of falsifying Piaget's theory because they have tacitly adopted a philosophy of science at odds with the paradigm-case of Galileo.

  12. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues - Vol 16 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. ... Sociological Factors as Predictors of Academic Emotion among Nigeria University Students · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Work Stress Adaptation: Roles of Gender, Social Support and Personality · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  13. Advancing Our Understanding of Cross-Cultural Issues in Consumer Science and Consumer Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Torelli, Carlos J.; van Herk, Hester; Torelli, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has resulted in a more complex marketplace. Growing multi-culturalism of consumer markets and increased global competition are pushing marketing scholars to better understand cross-cultural issues in consumer science and consumer psychology. The chapters in this book cover the field to

  14. Instructional Material in Population Education for Teachers. Socio-Psychological Aspects of Population Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi (India).

    Human suffering in India will continue as long as population growth is not checked. A change in this trend is dependent on the citizens of the country. Population education is an important priority in India. Included in this document are four essays covering various socio-psychological aspects of population issues and designed to be of use to…

  15. Values underlying perceptions of breach of the psychological contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Botha

    2010-10-01

    Research purpose: The study identifies the most important breaches and investigates which values underlie employee perceptions of breach of the psychological contract. It also addresses values that lead to employees interpreting incidents as breaches. Motivation for the study: The study calls on the fact that employees make inconsequential contributions to the terms of many formal employment contracts may imply that such contracts cannot be viewed as documents between equals. Research design, approach and method: The study identifies the most prominent breaches of the psychological contract and the values underlying the perceptions that violations have occurred. Main findings: The data revealed lack of promotion, poor interpersonal relations between colleagues and bad treatment by seniors as three main breaches of the contract, and social recognition, world of peace and sense of accomplishment as three dominant values that underlie perceptions of contract violation. Practical/managerial implications: The competent and intelligent manner in which lack of promotion is handled and communicated to employees is vital because it has implications for their willingness to contribute, their career prospects and their intention to stay in the organisation. Contribution/value-add: This research can serve as the basis for the development of survey or research instruments that are appropriate and relevant to the population.

  16. Physicians under the influence: social psychology and industry marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Sunita; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and medical device companies apply social psychology to influence physicians' prescribing behavior and decision making. Physicians fail to recognize their vulnerability to commercial influences due to self-serving bias, rationalization, and cognitive dissonance. Professionalism offers little protection; even the most conscious and genuine commitment to ethical behavior cannot eliminate unintentional, subconscious bias. Six principles of influence - reciprocation, commitment, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity - are key to the industry's routine marketing strategies, which rely on the illusion that the industry is a generous avuncular partner to physicians. In order to resist industry influence, physicians must accept that they are vulnerable to subconscious bias and have both the motivation and means to resist industry influence. A culture in which accepting industry gifts engenders shame rather than gratitude will reduce conflicts of interest. If greater academic prestige accrues to distant rather than close relationships with industry, then a new social norm may emerge that promotes patient care and scientific integrity. In addition to educating faculty and students about the social psychology underlying sophisticated but potentially manipulative marketing and about how to resist it, academic medical institutions should develop strong organizational policies to counteract the medical profession's improper dependence on industry. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. Performing under pressure: Exploring the psychological state underlying clutch performance in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Christian; Crust, Lee; Jackman, Patricia; Vella, Stewart A; Allen, Mark S; Keegan, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Clutch performance is improved performance under pressure. However, little research has examined the psychological state experienced by athletes in these situations. Therefore, this study qualitatively examined the subjective experience underlying clutch performance across a range of sports (e.g., team, individual) and standards (Olympic to recreational athletes). Sixteen athletes (M age  = 27.08 years; SD = 6.48) took part in in-depth, semi-structured interviews primarily after an exceptional performance (M = 4.38 days later; SD = 3.14). Data were analysed inductively and thematically. Clutch states involved 12 characteristics, including heightened and deliberate concentration, intense effort, and heightened awareness, which distinguished the experience of clutch from other optimal psychological states such as flow. Other characteristics, such as perceptions of control, were also reported and supported previous experimental research on clutch. These findings present in-depth qualitative insights into the psychological state underlying clutch performance, and are discussed in relation to the existing literature on optimal psychological states in sport.

  18. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  19. Assessment of positive functioning in clinical psychology: theoretical and practical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephen; Wood, Alex

    2010-11-01

    Positive psychology has led to an increasing emphasis on the promotion of positive functioning in clinical psychology research and practice, raising issues of how to assess the positive in clinical setting. Three key considerations are presented. First, existing clinical measures may already be assessing positive functioning, if positive and negative functioning exist on a single continuum (such as on bipolar dimensions from happiness to depression, and from anxiety to relaxation). Second, specific measures of positive functioning (e.g., eudemonic well-being) could be used in conjunction with existing clinical scales. Third, completely different measures would be needed depending on whether well-being is defined as emotional or medical functioning, or as humanistically orientated growth (e.g., authenticity). It is important that clinical psychologists introduce positive functioning into their research and practice in order to widen their armoury of therapeutic interventions, but in doing so researchers and practitioners need also to be aware that they are shifting the agenda of clinical psychology. As such, progress in clinical psychology moving toward the adoption of positive functioning requires reflection on epistemological foundations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. TEENAGE SCHOOLCHILDREN’S TIME PERSPECTIVE AS A PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Vasyura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article deals with human psychological time. Though there are observational studies focused on this topic, the psychological, pedagogical, and age-related aspects of this issue require more attention. The development of the human time perspective during the teenage period is in the authors’ field of view. The aim of the study is to identify main characteristics of teenagers’ time perspective depending on their generalized anxiety level and use them as a basis for working out a psychological and pedagogical support model for teenagers’ time perspective development. Materials and Methods: to study specific aspects of the time perspective formed by teenagers having various generalised anxiety levels, the psychodiagnostic methods were used: a trait anxiety scale for 10–16 years old students by A. M. Prikhozhan; anxiety research methods by C. D. Spielberger and Yu. L. Khanina; and the methods enabling diagnostics of the attitude to past, present, and future by A. M. Prikhozhan. The mathematical statistics methods were applied: Mann-Whitney U Test, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and Fisher’s angular transformation φ-index. Results: the specific aspects of the time perspective have been revealed; its interrelation with the various levels of the teenage schoolchildren’s generalised anxiety levels has been established. Based on the obtained research results, a psychological and pedagogical support model of teenage schoolchildren’s time perspective development was elaborated. The main components of this model have been introduced. Discussion and Conclusions: the time perspective of the teenagers having a higher anxiety level is inconsistent. It is characterised by a negative attitude to past, present and future. The psychological and pedagogical support to teenage schoolchildren in terms of their time perspective development will provide: psychological and pedagogical support to reduce teenagers’ personal

  1. Italian psychology under protection: Agostino Gemelli between Catholicism and fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Giannone, Anna; Giuliani, Alessia

    2013-05-01

    Between the 1930s and 1940s, Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) was the main Italian psychologist; he accepted and promoted an empirical conception of psychology influenced by neo-Thomism. The views of Gemelli were a landmark for many psychologists and psychological models in Catholic universities. Gemelli, moreover, throughout his scientific activity, continued ongoing work of expertise in matters concerning science, morality, and psychology. He was a Franciscan monk but also an officer of the Italian air force, a psychologist, and a rector. During the period of fascist rule in Italy, Gemelli sought compromise solutions to foster the survival of psychological institutions. Around his story, contrasting interpretations have emerged. The aim of this article is to look at Agostino Gemelli as an important historical subject to understand the ways in which scientific enterprises and institutions are likely to be influenced by political regimes and by the dogmatic and intolerant milieu. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Psychological risks associated with appearance-altering procedures: issues "facing" cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Walter F; Prstojevich, Steven J; Langley, Harriet S; Hlavacek, Matthew R

    2010-11-01

    There is a dynamic and fluid relationship between cosmetic surgery and psychology that requires careful and constant attention from the surgeon. Surgeons all desire a "short and sweet" checklist evaluation that tells them if it is safe for the patient to undergo an elective surgical procedure. Obviously, this is wishful thinking. It is asking too much for surgeons to be able to quantify the overall psychological risk. Rather, they should objectively screen, review, and evaluate as many of the variables as possible. These include but are not limited to the surgical issue, the personality of the patient, the patient's family and/or relationships, and the overall context of the situation. Surgeons should also reflect on both their technical expertise and limitations and the patient's personal resiliency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  4. Psychological markers underlying murder weapon profile: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaluddin, M R; Othman, A; Ismail, K H; Mat Saat, G A

    2017-12-01

    The horrific nature of murder using different types of weapons has been an important focal point of many criminological studies. Weapons that are used in murders seem to play dominant roles in murder investigations as they may provide information leading to arrest. The established factors for weapon usage include environmental context, demography and availability of weapons. However, there is insufficient research attention on the psychological functioning of murderers for particular weapon usage. In light of this, the current study seeks to narrow this gap of information by identifying the influences of psychological traits on weapon usage among a sample of male murderers. The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 71 male murderers incarcerated in 11 prisons within Peninsular Malaysia. The selection of the sample was based on predetermined selection criteria using a purposive sampling method. A guided self-administered questionnaire comprising sociodemography variables and four Malay validated psychometric instruments: Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire-40-Cross-Culture, Self-control Scale, "How I Think" Questionnaire and Aggression Questionnaire; was used. Independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score differences of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple weapons while Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the differences between the specific types of weapons used among the murderers. Following this, one-way ANOVA was carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences among the murderers according to the different sources of weapon. Results indicated specific psychological traits influenced the number(s), source(s) and type(s) of weapon used in committing murder. The findings have implications for the psychological profiling of unknown murderers within the Malaysian context.

  5. Psychological Correlates of Cortisol Excretion in Normal Individuals Under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-22

    physiological response associations (e.g., Lazarus & Folkman , 1984). This conclusion must be tentative, because two studies are insufficient to establish...adjustment in Navy recruit training. Journal of Co uunity Psychology, 5, 46-51. Lazarus , R.S., 4 Folkman , S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. MY

  6. Symptom validity issues in the psychological consultative examination for social security disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Michael D

    2010-08-01

    This article is about Social Security Administration (SSA) policy with regard to the Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) for Social Security Disability, particularly with respect to validation of the responses and findings. First, the nature of the consultation and the importance of understanding the boundaries and ethics of the psychologist's role are described. Issues particular to working with low-functioning claimants usually form a large part of these examinations. The psychologist must understand various forms of non-credible behavior during the PCE, and how malingering might be considered among other non-credible presentations. Issues pertaining to symptom validity testing in low-functioning claimants are further explored. SSA policy with respect to symptom validity testing is carefully examined, with an attempt to answer specific concerns and show how psychological science can be of assistance, particularly with evidence-based practice. Additionally, the nature and importance of techniques to avoid the mislabeling of claimants as malingerers are examined. SSA requires the use of accepted diagnostic techniques with which to establish impairment, and this article describes the implementation of that requirement, particularly with respect to validating the findings.

  7. Issues related to a programme of activities under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2006-05-15

    Emissions of CO2 from the energy and land-use change and forestry sectors are responsible for the majority of emissions in non-Annex I Parties to the UNFCCC. Tackling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from these sectors is a key to slowing the growth in GHG emissions in non-Annex I countries. Implementing Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects can help achieve this aim, while also assisting non-Annex I countries to move towards sustainable development and Annex I countries achieve their emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. There has been rapid progress in the CDM over the last year - in terms of the number of projects in the pipeline and registered, and in terms of credits issued. However, some important sectors are notable by their small share in the CDM portfolio. Several countries have also called attention to the need to accelerate the process of approving CDM methodologies and projects. In order to improve the effectiveness of the CDM to achieve its dual objectives, the COP/MOP agreed a decision on 'further guidance relating to the clean development mechanism. This decision lays out guidance on how to improve the operation of the CDM, and includes provisions that allow: (1) Bundling of project activities; and (2) Project activities under a programme of activities, to be registered as a CDM project activity. At present, of the 172 currently registered CDM project activities, 27 involve programmes or bundles. These project activities can include more than one project type, be implemented in several locations, and/or occur in more than one sector. This paper assesses how project activities under a programme of activities under the CDM (referred to here as PCDM) could help to increase the effectiveness of the CDM by encouraging a wide spread of emission mitigation activities. This paper also explores the key issues that may need to be considered for the PCDM concept to be further implemented. The paper concludes that: (1) Key concepts and issues

  8. Whatever happened to the human experience in undergraduate psychology? Comment on the special issue on undergraduate education in psychology (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana; Hook, Derek

    2017-01-01

    This comment addresses the omission of a series of critical reflections in recent discussions of undergraduate education in psychology. The lack of a stronger focus on human meaning and experience, on social context, on methodological diversity, and on social critique limits the critical horizons of undergraduate psychology education. Many perspectives are routinely excluded from undergraduate psychology curricula and associated guidelines, particularly psychoanalytic theories, human science approaches, and related critical standpoints. These perspectives can offer an educational focus vital for development of students capable of critical reflection and social action. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Student Reviews of Selected Current Articles in Adolescent Psychology: Academics, Developmental Issues, Psychopathology, Sexual Behavior, Substance Abuse, and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, H. Lee, Ed.; Sirmans, Amanda, Ed.

    Critical annotations of articles written in 1988 or 1989 and selected from "PSYCHSCAN: Clinical Psychology" are presented in this document. The annotations were written by college students in an undergraduate adolescent psychology class. The annotations are clustered under the following topics: (1) academics, including learning disabilities, sleep…

  10. Disaster Mental Health and Positive Psychology: An Afterward to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Satodiya, Ritvij; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-12-01

    The articles in this Special Issue are devoted to integrating the fields of disaster mental health and positive psychology. Their focus on resilience building, individual and community preparation, meaning making, and posttraumatic growth represents an important new development in disaster mental health. The overarching goal of this effort is to inform strategies to help both individuals-including children, adolescent, adult disaster survivors, and relief workers-and communities prepare for, respond to, recover from, and possibly even grow stronger in the face of adversity. To achieve this goal, this body of literature suggests that it is important for disaster mental health workers to partner with community leaders, organizations, and the population at large to understand community vulnerabilities, take advantage of existing strengths, and respect cultural factors implicated in disaster recovery. It further suggests that an effective community-based approach to disaster recovery will make psychosocial support and skill-building programs available to large numbers of survivors, which is critical for responding to future national and international disasters. Continued high-quality research that is comprehensive and considers not only relevant psychological, social, cultural, and biological factors but also interrelations between individuals, organizations and communities is needed to advance this relatively new and important direction of the disaster mental health field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Division 45: The Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eduardo; Lau, Michael Y.; Ballesteros, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article covers the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Psychology, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association (APA) in understanding the relationship of ethnic minority psychological associations with Division 17. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling…

  12. 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association-Accomplishments and challenges: Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandenBos, Gary R; Hogan, John D; Kazak, Anne E

    2017-11-01

    In 2017, the American Psychological Association (APA) celebrates the 125th anniversary of its founding. This special issue commemorates this milestone by providing long- and short-term views on the history of APA and its role in psychology in America. The opening paper presents an overview of initiatives and challenges facing the field of psychology and APA in five periods, each roughly 25 years in length. The remaining eight articles review specific issues and areas of activity over varying lengths of time in more recent years. Issues of policy involvement, relations with the media, and involvement with the courts are described, as well as developments related to social justice, education, science, practice, and publications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Psychological effects of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads under advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Steven J; Simmons, Tony; Fitzgerald, David M; Mitchell, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are standard therapy for patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death. Device implantation is a stressful event that has been associated with patient and anticipatory anxiety. While the psychological effects of normally functioning ICDs are known, only a dearth of literature evaluates how a warning about the potential for malfunction of an ICD lead, related to a device advisory, influences the degree of psychological distress. These effects are evaluated in a patient population with the Medtronic Sprint Fidelis defibrillation lead 6949 (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). A sample of 413 patients were studied. Groups included 158 with an advisory Medtronic 6949 and 255 with an ICD that had no current advisories. Patients were administered a validated disease-specific metric assessing concerns over ICDs, as well as a demographics questionnaire. The primary outcome was the total score on the ICD concerns (ICDC). Analysis was with one-way Analysis of Variance with preplanned orthogonal contrasts and multivariate regression. The advisory group tended to have higher numbers of high school and college graduates. The average length of device implant in the nonadvisory group was higher at 4.29 years versus 3.99 years in the advisory group (t = 0.901, P ≤ 0.5). A higher percentage of those with an advisory experienced more shocks (39% vs 32%; z =-1.51, P ≤ 0.5). Average ICDC scores in the advisory group with previous shock were significantly higher than in the nonadvisory group with prior shock ([27.7 standard deviation (SD) ± 14.5] vs [18.5 SD ± 12.5], P = 0.0001) . Average ICDC score in the advisory group without shock was also significantly elevated compared to the nonadvisory group (18.5 SD ± 14.5 vs 10.8, SD ± 12.5, P = 0.0001). There was a significant effect of having an advisory on total ICDC scores (F = 21.32, P ≤ 0.0001). History of shock also significantly increased total ICDC scores (F = 20.07, P

  14. Reliability Issues and Solutions in Flexible Electronics Under Mechanical Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seol-Min; Choi, In-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Joon; Joo, Young-Chang

    2018-03-01

    Flexible devices are of significant interest due to their potential expansion of the application of smart devices into various fields, such as energy harvesting, biological applications and consumer electronics. Due to the mechanically dynamic operations of flexible electronics, their mechanical reliability must be thoroughly investigated to understand their failure mechanisms and lifetimes. Reliability issue caused by bending fatigue, one of the typical operational limitations of flexible electronics, has been studied using various test methodologies; however, electromechanical evaluations which are essential to assess the reliability of electronic devices for flexible applications had not been investigated because the testing method was not established. By employing the in situ bending fatigue test, we has studied the failure mechanism for various conditions and parameters, such as bending strain, fatigue area, film thickness, and lateral dimensions. Moreover, various methods for improving the bending reliability have been developed based on the failure mechanism. Nanostructures such as holes, pores, wires and composites of nanoparticles and nanotubes have been suggested for better reliability. Flexible devices were also investigated to find the potential failures initiated by complex structures under bending fatigue strain. In this review, the recent advances in test methodology, mechanism studies, and practical applications are introduced. Additionally, perspectives including the future advance to stretchable electronics are discussed based on the current achievements in research.

  15. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Future of Counseling Psychology: Improving Quality of Life for Persons with Chronic Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwalisz, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    The literature review and focus group findings that compose the Major Contribution illustrate how counseling psychologists can integrate expertise from various subdisciplines (vocational psychology, health psychology, multicultural psychology) to effectively address the needs of those living with HIV. Given changes in the nature of health problems…

  17. Special issue: Supply chain and logistics decisions under environmental aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Demirel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This editor’s note has a twofold objective: (1 to present a brief summary about the environmental issues in supply chain and logistics decisions (2 to present general information about the papers published in the special issue.

  18. Culture as moderator variable in psychological test performance: Issues and trends in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bedell

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the recognition of cultural variation and related variables as moderators of psychological test performance in South Africa. Attention is paid to historical approaches, present issues and trends emerging in this field. The studies discussed include those on cognitive and personality tests and factors surrounding their use and interpretation. The comparability of test scores and how this relates to bias and fairness are discussed. Related perspectives from industry and questions as to future options regarding assessment are also raised. Opsomming Hierdie artikel handel oor die erkenning van die moderator- of bemiddelingsrol wat kulturele variasie en verwante veranderlikes speel by sielkundige toetsprestasie in Suid Afrika. Aandag word geskenk aan histonese benaderings, huidige kwessies en neigings wat in die veld ontstaan. Studies van kognitiewe en persoonlikheidstoetse en faktore wat hierdie toetse se gebruik en interpretasie omvou, word bespreek. Die verband tussen die vergelykbaarheid van toetscellings en sydigheid en billikheid word aangedui. Verwante sienings vanuit die nywerheidswêreld, en vrae oor toekomstige moontlikhede met betrekking tot evaluering word ook gelug.

  19. Operational decisionmaking and action selection under psychological stress in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, D.I.; Haney, L.N.; Jenkins, J.P.; Blackman, H.S.

    1985-05-01

    An extensive review of literature on individual and group performance and decisionmaking under psychological stress was conducted and summarized. Specific stress-related variables relevant to reactor operation were pinpointed and incorporated in an experiment to assess the performance of reactor operators under psychological stress. The decisionmaking performance of 24 reactor operators under differing levels of workload, conflicting information, and detail of available written procedures was assessed in terms of selecting immediate, subsequent, and nonapplicable actions in response to 12 emergency scenarios resulting from a severe seismic event at a pressurized water reactor. Specific personality characteristics of the operators suggested by the literature to be related to performance under stress were assessed and correlated to decisionmaking under stress. The experimental results were statistically analyzed, and findings indicated that operator decisionmaking under stress was more accurate under lower levels of workload, with the availability of detailed procedures, and in the presence of high conflicting information

  20. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  1. Effects of psychological training on the serum protein expression in soldiers under mental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong ZHANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the changes of serum protein expression in soldiers under mental stress,who have undergone different psychological trainings,and to evaluate the effect of the psychological training.Methods Ninety-six male commando soldiers were randomly assigned into the common psychological training group,the circulation psychological training group,and the control group(each group comprising 32 soldiers.After four weeks of training,the soldiers in the three groups attended a high-intensity simulated anti-riot exercise.The changes in their serum protein expression were then determined using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry(SELDI-TOF-MS combined with ProteinChip technology.Results The variance analysis showed that significant differences existed among the three groups(P < 0.05 in the relative contents of proteins,with M/Z values of 6417.8,9134.2,15171.9,and 14972.7 Da.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 9134.2 and 15171.9 Da increased in the common psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of all four proteins increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the common psychological training group(P < 0.05.The classification tree formed by proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da classified the 96 soldiers correctly,both in the learning mode and in the test mode.Conclusion Psychological training may upregulate the expression of proteins that are downregulated after stress and may improve the adaptability of soldiers to psychological stress.The effect of circulation psychological training is better than that of common psychological training.

  2. Elite Athletes’ In-event Competitive Anxiety Responses and Psychological Skills Usage under Differing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hagan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Even though the assessment of competitive anxiety responses (intensity, interpretation, and frequency using the time-to-event paradigm has gained much attention, literature on the account of these same experiences in-event and their corresponding psychological skills adopted under differing conditions is limited. This is a follow up investigation to establish the extent to which associated anxiety responses are stable or dynamic and whether this pattern could be related to reported psychological skills under low or high stressful conditions across gender.Methods: Twenty-three high level (N = 13 males and 10 females Ghanaian Table Tennis players provided data through completion of modified versions of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, incorporated with directional and frequency of intrusion scales and the Test of Performance Strategies inventory during breaks within competitive fixtures.Results: MANCOVAs (gender × stress condition with follow-up analyses revealed no significant interactions and no main effect for gender but significant main effects were realized for all anxiety dimensions and psychological skills for only the second factor. Specifically, the intensity and frequency of cognitive and somatic state anxiety symptoms increased and were interpreted as debilitative under the high stress condition, although self-confidence and other array of psychological skills were highly displayed under the same stressful condition.Conclusion: Findings highlight the dynamic characteristics of in-event associated anxiety responses and ineffectiveness of deployed psychological skills regardless of gender. These perhaps show the exceptionality of affective experiences in an African setting, suggesting a culturally diversified approach to psychological skills application, if desirable effects are to be attained.

  3. Elite Athletes’ In-event Competitive Anxiety Responses and Psychological Skills Usage under Differing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, John E.; Pollmann, Dietmar; Schack, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Even though the assessment of competitive anxiety responses (intensity, interpretation, and frequency) using the time-to-event paradigm has gained much attention, literature on the account of these same experiences in-event and their corresponding psychological skills adopted under differing conditions is limited. This is a follow up investigation to establish the extent to which associated anxiety responses are stable or dynamic and whether this pattern could be related to reported psychological skills under low or high stressful conditions across gender. Methods: Twenty-three high level (N = 13 males and 10 females) Ghanaian Table Tennis players provided data through completion of modified versions of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, incorporated with directional and frequency of intrusion scales and the Test of Performance Strategies inventory during breaks within competitive fixtures. Results: MANCOVAs (gender × stress condition) with follow-up analyses revealed no significant interactions and no main effect for gender but significant main effects were realized for all anxiety dimensions and psychological skills for only the second factor. Specifically, the intensity and frequency of cognitive and somatic state anxiety symptoms increased and were interpreted as debilitative under the high stress condition, although self-confidence and other array of psychological skills were highly displayed under the same stressful condition. Conclusion: Findings highlight the dynamic characteristics of in-event associated anxiety responses and ineffectiveness of deployed psychological skills regardless of gender. These perhaps show the exceptionality of affective experiences in an African setting, suggesting a culturally diversified approach to psychological skills application, if desirable effects are to be attained. PMID:29312103

  4. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues - Vol 13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of psychological test for the selection of automobile drivers in commercial banks: a content-oriented approach · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Bolajoko ...

  5. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues - Vol 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential efficacy of two psychological intervention programmes in the improvement of self image of police officers in Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Aremu ...

  6. Constructivism, the psychology of learning, and the nature of mathematics: Some critical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Paul

    1993-03-01

    Constructivism is one of the central philosophies of research in the psychology of mathematics education. However, there is a danger in the ambiguous and at times uncritical references to it. This paper critically reviews the constructivism of Piaget and Glasersfeld, and attempts to distinguish some of the the psychological, educational and epistemological consequences of their theories, including their implications for the philosophy of mathematics. Finally, the notion of ‘cognizing subject’ and its relation to the social context is examined critically.

  7. A Review of Current Issues Underlying Colon Cleansing before Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C Hookey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review examines four current issues related to the efficacy, patient tolerance and safety of the following bowel cleansing agents: oral sodium phosphate (NaP, polyethylene glycol (PEG and magnesium citrate (Pico-Salax, Ferring Pharmaceuticals Inc, Canada, an agent recently made available in Canada. MedLine and PubMed databases were systematically searched to identify studies related to the efficacy of altered PEG solutions combined with adjunct treatments; the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Pico-Salax; the association between nephrocalcinosis, and chronic renal failure and oral NaP use; and the role of diet. Although lower volume PEG solutions combined with adjuvant agents were generally associated with better patient tolerance, their efficacy was varied and interpretation of this end point is complicated by study design issues. There are very few reported studies of Pico-Salax, and as a result, there are insufficient data to draw conclusions about the efficacy of this agent. The available data suggest that Pico-Salax may be better tolerated by patients, than oral NaP and PEG solutions. There is a paucity of hemodynamic monitoring data pre- and postadministration, but the available data suggests that this small-volume osmotic agent could cause subclinical contraction of the intravascular space. Recent case reports suggest an association between nephrocalcinosis and oral NaP ingestion, but to date, these reports have been confined to a single centre. Preliminary studies suggest that this is not a widespread problem, but more studies are needed. There are only a few studies examining diet and patient tolerability, but they do suggest that diet may be liberalized with some cleansing regimens to enhance tolerability without decreasing efficacy. The present review highlights current controversies and advances in colon cleansing before colonoscopy, and also identifies areas for further study.

  8. Evaluate, Analyze, Describe (EAD: Confronting Underlying Issues of Racism and Other Prejudices for Effective Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Velasco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Racism and other prejudices have hindered efforts to diversify and further many fields, including education, psychology, politics, law, and healthcare (Race for Opportunity, 2010. Although there are many ways to combat these prejudices, intercultural communication continues to be a vital component in assisting individuals and groups with valuing the past, understanding the present, and preparing for the future of communication in a global society (Sadri and Flammia, 2011, p. 19. This paper provides a brief overview of pertinent research and major theories related to communicating with people of different cultural backgrounds, as well as useful techniques and strategies to use when teaching in international or multinational classrooms, and working or consulting in international or multinational companies, organizations, and educational institutions. It also includes data collected via surveys and interviews that helps to shed light on underlying issues of racism and discontent in Japanese and Nigerian populations within Japan, and concludes with a description of a new approach to one of the most common intercultural communication exercises called the E.A.D. (Evaluate, Analyze, Describe. While this exercise has proved to increase cultural awareness and open the lines of communication between individuals from various cultural and lingual backgrounds, research also shows that other strategies may be necessary to achieve desired levels of communication.

  9. Measurement issues of the social class in social psychology of education: Is it a category mistake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Chetan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the measurement of social class in the social psychology of education research. It was evident that social class experiences are conflated with the socioeconomic status (SES indicators and the subjective measure of the class context was underrepresented. However, this was discussed in Rubin et al (2014 about the intersectional nature of social class taking into account both objective and subjective indicators. The derivation of the social class experience from the objective and subjective measures were critically discussed. An effort was made to understand whether these translations are category mistake or not. Three trajectories will be utilized to address the category mistake, that is, 1 subjectivity and objectivity debate in the measurement of social class in social psychology of education, 2 debates encircling around the position of social psychology and its underutilized concept such as social class as scientifically objective facets in social sciences and 3 operationalism of social class and category mistake.

  10. [The Nature and Issues of Drug Addiction Treatment under Constraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, Bastien

    2014-01-01

    This article is exploring different forms of constraint that are exerted in the field of drug addiction treatment. The objective of this article is to establish benchmarks and to stimulate reflection about the ethical and clinical implications of those constraints in the field of drug addiction treatment. This article is presenting a critical review of different forms of constraint that can be exerted in Canada in regard to the treatment of drug addiction. In the first section of the article, a definition of therapeutic intervention is proposed, that includes the dimension of power, which justifies the importance of considering the coercive aspects of treatment. The second section, which represents the core section of the paper, is devoted to the presentation of different levels of constraint that can be distinguished in regard to drug addicts who are under treatment. Three levels of constraint are exposed: judicial constraint, institutional constraint and relational constraint. The coercive aspect of treatment can then be recognized as a combination of all tree levels of constraint. Judicial constraint refers to any form of constraint in which the court or the judge is imposing or recommending treatment. This particular level of constraint can take different forms, such as therapeutic remands, conditions of a probation order, conditions of a conditional sentence of imprisonment, and coercive treatment such as the ones provided through drug courts. Institutional constraint refers to any form of constraint exerted within any institutional setting, such as correctional facilities and programs offered in community. Correctional facilities being limited by their own specific mission, it might have a major impact on the way the objectives of treatment are defined. Those limitations can then be considered as a form of constraint, in which drug users don't have much space to express their personal needs. Finally, relational constraint refers to any form of constraint in

  11. Methodological Issues for Psychological Evaluation across the Lifespan of Individuals with a Difference/Disorder of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alberton, Franco; Vissani, Sofia; Ferracuti, Chiara; Pasterski, Vickie

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current report is to provide guidance relevant to psychological evaluation for healthcare providers and researchers working in the field of disorders of sexual development (DSD). In doing so, we give careful consideration to methodological issues and limitations that may influence the utility of investigations. For example, rarity and heterogeneity of DSD conditions restrict sample sizes when conducting evaluations aimed at establishing condition-specific psychological outcomes. At the same time, the potential for stigmatization by virtue of conducting psychological evaluations is particularly high given the fundamental contribution of sex and gender to one's sense of self and integrity. This article will provide basic theory for psychological evaluation as well as give a review of specific measures that can be employed for clinical purposes depending on a variety of parameters, including life stage of the patient and goal(s) of the evaluation. Care providers and service users may benefit from guidance in coping with the difficulties inherent in having and/or treating DSD. The potential for identification with the patient with DSD is higher than in other domains of medicine because sexual and gender identities are fundamental to all humans and are continually evolving from a sociological perspective. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Disaster Mental Health and Positive Psychology-Considering the Context of Natural and Technological Disasters: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2016-12-01

    This article serves as an introduction to the Journal of Clinical Psychology's special issue on disaster mental health and positive psychology. The special issue comprises two sections. The first section presents a series of data-driven articles and research-informed reviews examining meaning and resilience in the context of natural and technological disasters. The second section presents key topics in the area of disaster mental health, with particular relevance for positive psychology and related frameworks. The special issue is intended to bridge the gap between these two areas of applied science, with the audience being experienced clinicians or clinicians in training. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A psychology literature study on modality related issues for multimodal presentation in crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The motivation of this psychology literature study is to obtain modality related guidelines for real-time information presentation in crisis management environment. The crisis management task is usually companied by time urgency, risk, uncertainty, and high information density. Decision makers

  14. Teaching Sensitive Issues: Psychological Literacy as an Antidote to Pedagogic Frailty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstone, Naomi E.; Kinchin, Ian M.

    2017-01-01

    Many topics within the psychology curriculum can be described as "sensitive", with potential for students to experience distress and discomfort. Given the pressure experienced by academics in Higher Education, the potential for student distress or complaints might lead lecturers to adopt a risk-averse approach to teaching, which is well…

  15. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues - Vol 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of leadership styles on organisational commitment and job satisfaction in some Nigerian public service organisations · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Education and marital-gender differences as psychological indices of attribution of assault among some married Nigerians · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  16. Recognizing Business Issues in Professional Psychology for Clinical PsyD Trainees and Early Career Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The largest number of licensed psychologists are centralized in California. More PsyD than PhD degrees in clinical psychology are now awarded, and California houses 16 of the 59 APA-accredited programs. Post-millennia Early Career Psychologists (ECPs) typically accumulate over $120,000 in education debt, and may be concerned with the cost-benefit…

  17. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues - Vol 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological distress after war and stress in communities stress in communities violence: Effects on families and intervention models · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Post disaster psychiatric disorder: A case of study of a Liberian refuge woman in Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  18. Gulliver's Eggs: Why Methods are not an Issue of Qualitative Research in Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    The future of qualitative methods regards the kind of object cultural psychology is interested and the kind of questions it can ask. I propose that the object should be experiencing, understood as a complex whole, consisting of lived-by action and counter-action, that is contextual inter-action with the world in the form of an experiencing subject and otherness. The kind of questions cultural psychology can ask is instead related to the epistemological status attributed to both researcher and participant. Probably few scholars such as Vygotsky, Piaget and Lewin understood to what extent experiencing is always changing, because the relationship between mind, alterity and culture is co-generative. This also implies a relativization and a decentralization of the psychology's perspective. Finally, I provide some examples from the history of psychology and some suggestions to work at the level of such complexity by using methods that can work with complex objects such as products of human activity (e.g., art, literature, architecture, etc.).

  19. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... . List of Subjects Environmental protection, Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides and pests. Dated: February... Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program: New Data Compensation Claims... required recipients to submit specific screening data on hormonal effects under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor...

  20. A Cross-Cultural Approach to Psychological Mechanisms Underlying Emotional Reactions to Music

    OpenAIRE

    Barradas, Gonçalo

    2017-01-01

    Music plays a crucial role in everyday life by enabling listeners to seek individual emotional experiences. To explain why such emotions occur, we must understand the underlying process that mediates between surface-level features of the music and aroused emotions. This thesis aimed to investigate how musical emotions are mediated by psychological mechanisms from a cross-cultural perspective. Study I manipulated four mechanisms by selecting ecologically valid pieces of music that featured inf...

  1. Psychological issues of the russian sport (towards the 31st Summer Olympic games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Morozov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the psychological issues of the Russian sport in general (including internal and external, objective and subjective ones. The attitudes of the most authoritative sports experts are analyzed. Various media discuss the performance of Russians in the Olympics of the third Millennium, the role and importance of psychology in modern sport and also in preparation of elite sport athletes for such important tournaments as the Olympic Games. The paper discusses fundamental differences of psychological preparation of the Russian and foreign athletes, comparative analysis of national team performances of Russia in the summer Olympics and Paralympic Games over the past 20 years, i.e. in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012. The paper analyses the strongest team performances on the global level in the latest Summer Olympic games and the probabilistic prediction of the performance results in the Summer Olympics in Brazil in reference with November doping scandal in the Russian Athletics Federation associated with charges of the Russian athletes in the mass doping followed by a loud dismissal of a number of sports officials and coaches, with two Russian athletes to be disqualified and stripped of their medals of London Olympics-2012, and also a RAF member in the IAAF to be suspended, which puts into question the possibility of Russian national athletics team participating in the next Olympics. The paper outlines current problematic issues the solution of which is urgent for the 21st Summer Olympics 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and should contribute to a fundamental change in the psychological, spiritual, moral atmosphere not only of an individual athlete, but for all Russian sport in general.

  2. Issues of the economic risks theory under direct taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich Slavin

    2015-09-01

    perturbation described by periodic functions of time their frequency equal to the frequency of technological cycles of the firm production units. The work states a number of correlations between the indicators of production processes and taxation processes. The effect of progressive taxation on the company is described. Scientific novelty for the first time the aricle demonstrates the possibility to theoretically describe the economic risks of the taxation company and to establish the economic nature of their essential characteristics. Practical significance the obtained results allow to form a complex of practical programs aimed at the optimization of the company performance indicators for the purpose of reducing the probability its assets of loss under taxation. nbsp

  3. International Perspectives on Academic and Professional Preparation of School and Educational Psychologists: Introduction to a Special Issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the "International Journal of School & Educational Psychology" is devoted to promoting an understanding of some current features of school psychology programs and to suggest ways to further strengthen preparation. Information summarized in these 12 articles is intended to assist us in determining the relevance…

  4. Topical issues of psychological research materials on matters related to extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekerazh T.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological support psychological and linguistic research "extremist" materials. Presents a comprehensive psycho-linguistic approach to the examination of information materials on matters related to combating extremism and terrorism, and certain provisions of the methodology developed by the Russian federal center of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of the "verbal" crimes related to criminal legal interpretation of extremism and terrorism, highlighted the types of prohibited public expression of communicative action, corresponding to the seven types of "extremist" values. The article outlines the key features of psychological analysis "extremist" materials research stages. It is shown that the complex (psycho-linguistic approach to the study of materials of extremist orientation, is scientifically sound, methodically proven, appropriate to the needs of law enforcement, judicial and investigative practice.

  5. Psychological and Behavioral Health Issues of Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksuzian, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    It will be the responsibility of the long-duration space flight crew to take the actions necessary to maintain their health and well-being and to cope with medical emergencies without direct assistance from support personnel, including maintaining mental health and managing physiological and psychological changes that may impair decision making and performance. The Behavior and Performance Integrated Product Team at Johnson Space Center, working, within the Space Medicine, Monitoring, and Countermeasures Program, has identified critical questions pertaining to long-duration space crew behavioral health, psychological adaptation, human factors and habitability, and sleep and circadian rhythms. Among the projects addressing these questions are: the development of tools to assess cognitive functions during space missions; the development of a model of psychological adaptation in isolated and confined environments; tools and methods for selecting individuals and teams well-suited for long-duration missions; identification of mission-critical tasks and performance evaluation; and measures of sleep quality and correlation to mission performance.

  6. Staying Well: A Follow Up of a 5-Week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Programme for a Range of Psychological Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Melanie; Heads, Gary

    2015-11-01

    112 women and 37 men, with an average age of 50 years were referred for MBSR training with a range of chronic psychological issues. All participants completed the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (Tennant et al. in Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 5:63, 2007) before and after the mindfulness training programme. A significant overall effect of pre/post training was found and this difference was not related to a specific disorder. The results suggest that a 'brief' dose of MBSR can have a positive impact on measures of well-being in a manner that is not related to patient characteristics. A follow-up of 28 participants confirms that participation in the 5-week Living Mindfully MBSR programme significantly enhances psychological well-being immediately after training, and this benefit is maintained up to 4 years after training. Continued practice in mindfulness meditation showed an insignificant relationship to well-being scores at follow up. Qualitative data suggest that the 5 week MBSR is an effective means of developing emotion regulation and psychological well-being.

  7. Psychology and the issues related to violence and human rights: the role and positioning of the psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mérly Luane Vargas Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of violence and human rights, although not recent, have complex determinations and conditions, so that evoke iterant discussions in the field of human sciences, as well as challenge the professionals from different areas of knowledge whose search tools and strategies to deal with the different social demands outlined from them. The objective of this paper is to discuss some concepts and issues that unfold from that, specifically with regard to the provision of scientific and professional field of psychology. Thus, some considerations about the social and conceptual definitions given to violence and human rights are made, for, from that, better situate the demand addressed to psychologist as well as to enable critical reflection on this demand and make a few observations about its answering.

  8. Sleep Problems as Consequence, Contributor, and Comorbidity: Introduction to the Special Issue on Sleep, Published in Coordination With Special Issues in Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology and Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Dean W

    2016-07-01

    Despite long-standing public and scientific interest in the phenomenon of sleep, the current decade has shown tremendous growth in our understanding of the sleep of children who have medical or developmental conditions. To accommodate, promote, and guide that growth, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, and Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics have published coordinated special issues, encompassing >30 relevant articles. This article introduces the special issue in Journal of Pediatric Psychology, highlighting papers that illustrate how sleep problems are not only commonly comorbid with childhood medical and developmental conditions; they are also likely caused by and contribute to these conditions. In doing so, these coordinated special issues guide clinical care and reveal opportunities for future research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Exploring the psychological processes underlying touch: lessons from the Alexander Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T; Glover, L

    2014-01-01

    The experience of touch is significant; both in its positive implications and in how it attracts caution and controversy. Accordingly, physical contact within psychological therapy has been shown to improve well-being and the therapeutic relationship, yet the majority of therapists never or rarely use touch. This research aimed to explore psychological processes underlying touch through the Alexander Technique, a psycho-physical technique taught one to one using touch. Six individuals who had received the Alexander Technique were interviewed, and 111 completed surveys. Interview data suggested an incompatibility between touch and the spoken word, which was understood through the way touch lacks verbal discourses in our society. The largely simplistic and dichotomous verbal understanding we have (either only very positive or very negative) could help understand some of the societal-level caution surrounding touch. Touch was seen also as a nurturing experience by interviewees, which influenced inter-personal and intra-personal relational processes. Developmental models were used to frame the way touch strengthened the pupil-teacher relationship and the way pupils' intra-personal psychological change seemed linked to this relational experience. The surveys largely supported these findings, and discussion is made around the notable way pupils negatively interpreted the intention of the survey. Implications for the use of touch in psychological therapies are discussed, as are limitations and ideas for future research. Touch is a powerful experience, and physical contact within psychological therapy has been shown to improve well-being and the therapeutic relationship, yet the majority of therapists never or rarely use touch. The AT is an alternative therapeutic approach to psycho-physical well-being that offers an interesting model to study the impact of touch. Findings from those that have used the technique reaffirmed that touch can improve well-being and can be a

  10. Readiness for commitment: applying psychological constructs to pastoral issues in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The current crisis in marriage is partly related to people having problems in living their commitments. To investigate this phenomenon, a self-report instrument, the Commitment to Partnership Scale (CPS) was adopted to identify and measure those factors considered essential to marriage commitment: Attachment, Trust, Maturity, Investment, and Values. The CPS was given to 430 people in a significant relationship, from a Roman Catholic population, and from two different groups. One group was a sample of engaged couples during their marriage preparation courses (N=234). The other group consisted of a number of people who had their marriage annulled on psychological grounds (N=49). T-test results showed a significant difference between the two groups on all factors. The CPE was able to identify problem areas with lower than average scores. These were confirmed when a feedback was given. The CPS showed discriminant validity, a reasonable predictable value for commitment, and real possibilities as a valid pastoral tool.

  11. The Psychology of Confessions: A Review of the Literature and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassin, Saul M; Gudjonsson, Gisli H

    2004-11-01

    the modern police interrogation, a guilt-presumptive process of social influence during which trained police use strong, psychologically oriented techniques involving isolation, confrontation, and minimization of blame to elicit confessions. Fourth, we examine the confession itself, discussing theoretical perspectives and research on why people confess during interrogation. In particular, we focus on the problem of false confessions and their corrupting influence in cases of wrongful convictions. We distinguish among voluntary, compliant, and internalized false confessions. We describe personal risk factors for susceptibility to false confessions, such as dispositional tendencies toward compliance and suggestibility, youth, mental retardation, and psychopathology. We then examine situational factors related to the processes of interrogation and show that three common interrogation tactics-isolation; the presentation of false incriminating evidence; and minimization, which implies leniency will follow-can substantially increase the risk that ordinary people will confess to crimes they did not commit, sometimes internalizing the belief in their own culpability. Fifth, we examine the consequences of confession evidence as evaluated by police and prosecutors, followed by judges and juries in court. Research shows that confession evidence is inherently prejudicial, that juries are influenced by confessions despite evidence of coercion and despite a lack of corroboration, and that the assumption that "I'd know a false confession if I saw one" is an unsubstantiated myth. Finally, we address the role of psychologists as expert witnesses and suggest a number of possible safeguards. In particular, we argue that there is a need to reform interrogation practices that increase the risk of false confessions and recommend a policy of mandatory videotaping of all interviews and interrogations. © 2004 Association for Psychological Science.

  12. Medicinal plants consumption by patients under psychological treatment in a municipality in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramírez-Tagle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: High levels of mental illness are found today in the population of Chile and the consumption of medicinal herbs could be included in the scope of complementary therapies for the treatment of mental illnesses. In Chile there is no information respect to consumption of medicinal herbs in patients under psychological treatment. Aims: To characterize the consumption of medicinal herbs by patients treated in a mental health clinic. Methods: In this quantitative cross-sectional study (n = 100, patients were administered a closed-response survey to determine the frequency of medicinal plant consumption as complementary treatment and subsequently to characterize such consumption. Results: Among the patients surveyed, 36% consumed medicinal herbs to treat a psychological pathology as a complementary treatment. Among those who consumed medicinal herbs, 65% consumed Cannabis sativa (marijuana either exclusively (42% or in conjunction with other plants (23%, 80% reported that their therapist was aware of this behavior, and 35% consumed medicinal herbs once or twice a day. Conclusions: In the present study, there was significant use of medicinal plants by patients treated at the mental health clinic, especially marijuana consuming. This demonstrates the importance of recognizing citizens´ right to free and equal access to healthcare and acknowledging the responsibility of the state to ensure the safety and quality of the services offered to the population.

  13. Invited commentary: childhood and adolescent obesity: psychological and behavioral issues in weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Dilks, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss. Despite these concerns, a relatively modest body of research has focused on the treatment of adolescent obesity. Results from trials investigating the efficacy of behavioral and pharmacological treatments, like studies of these interventions with adults, suggest that individuals typically lose 5-10% of their initial weight. Unfortunately, weight regain is common. Given the increase in the number of obese adolescents, coupled with the modest results from more conservative treatment approaches, it is not surprising that bariatric surgery for adolescents who suffer from extreme obesity has grown in popularity. The weight losses after surgery are impressive and many adolescents, like adults, experience significant improvements in their physical and mental health postoperatively. However, only a small fraction of adolescents and adults who are heavy enough for bariatric surgery present for surgical treatment. Among those who undergo surgery, a significant minority appear to struggle with a number of behavioral and psychosocial issues that threaten their lifelong success. With all of this in mind, the current obesity problem in the United States and other Westernized countries likely will present a significant challenge to both current and future medical and mental health professionals who work with adolescents and young adults.

  14. Individual differences in impression management: an exploration of the psychological processes underlying faking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSE A. MUELLER-HANSON

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes and tests a model of psychological processes underlying faking, which integrates concepts from earlier models of faking by McFarland and Ryan (2000; 2001 and Snell, Sydell, and Lueke (1999. The results provided partial support for the model, suggesting personality factors and perceptions of situational factors contribute to faking behavior. The implications of these findings are (a people differ with regard to how much they will fake on a personality test in a simulated employment setting with some people faking substantially and others faking very little or not at all, and (b the extent to which an individual fakes is partially determined by the person’s attitudes and personality characteristics. The present findings are interpreted, discussed, and might be useful for the prevention and mitigation of faking by altering people's beliefs about their ability to fake and the appropriateness of faking.

  15. Basic psychological skills usage and competitive anxiety responses: perceived underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon

    2008-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between basic psychological skills usage (i.e., goal-setting, imagery, self-talk, and relaxation) and the intensity and directional dimensions of competitive anxiety. Semistructured interviews were used on a sample of 15 elite athletes (M age = 24.3 years, SD = 4.2) from a variety of team and individual sports. Findings revealed that the participants maintained the intensity of their anxiety response prior to competition and could deploy goal-setting, imagery, or self-talk to enable facilitative interpretations of anxiety-related symptoms to performance. Higher levels of self-confidence and an optimistic outlook toward forthcoming competition were also expressed. The underlying mechanisms perceived to be responsible for these effects included effort and motivation, attentional focus, and perceived control over the anxiety response.

  16. Important accounting issues for carbon dioxide capture and storage projects under the UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefeli, S.; Bosi, M.; Philibert, C.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) provides options for making continued use of fossil fuels more compatible with pollution abatement policies. This paper evaluated policy issues related to CCS, with particular focus on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into geological storage sites. Before any carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) CCS activities can be included in the portfolio of climate change mitigation activities, several issues need to be resolved such as the development of appropriate accounting and baselines rules and monitoring modalities. Guidance and policies on baselines and the accounting of emission reductions are critical to ensure that CCS projects can benefit from CO 2 markets and are recognized under various mitigation schemes. This paper examined the major issues that should considered along with changes to current accounting approaches. Issues that need to be addressed in order to prepare national inventories for the inclusion of CCS under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and emission reduction schemes such as the European greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme were first presented, followed by an examination of CCS issues under project-based mechanisms such as the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism. The importance of clear definitions and monitoring guidelines for the proper accounting of CCS were also highlighted. 12 refs., 2 figs

  17. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  18. 30 CFR 285.200 - What rights are granted with a lease issued under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What rights are granted with a lease issued under this part? 285.200 Section 285.200 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  19. Introducing positive psychology to SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mercer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA. This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work, including the humanistic movement in language teaching, models of motivation, the concept of an affective filter, studies of the good language learner, and the concepts related to the self. There are reasons for both encouragement and caution as studies inspired by positive psychology are undertaken. Papers in this special issue of SSLLT cover a range of quantitative and qualitative methods with implications for theory, research, and teaching practice. The special issue serves as a springboard for future research in SLA under the umbrella of positive psychology.

  20. Theorizing political psychology: Doing integrative social science under the condition of postmodernity

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Shawn W.

    2003-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the field of political psychology; like the social sciences more generally, is being challenged. New theoretical direction is being demanded from within and a greater epistemological sophistication and ethical relevance is being demanded from without. In response, direction for a reconstructed political psychology is offered here. To begin, a theoretical framework for a truly integrative political psychology is sketched. This is done in light of the appar...

  1. Experimental occlusal disharmony - A promoting factor for anxiety in rats under chronic psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuan; Li, Jian; Jiang, Ting; Han, Shu-Hui; Yao, Dong-Yuan

    2017-04-03

    Clinically, patients under chronic psychological stress (PS) appear to be more susceptible to occlusal disharmony (OD) compared with those without PS. OD was proved to introduce anxiety-like stress. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate whether OD would affect psychological stress-induced anxiety and its underlying mechanisms. Chronic PS was induced by a communication box, and OD was produced by bonding a 0.3mm-thick crown on the right maxillary first molar of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Sixty-seven rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: (A) chronic PS plus OD group (n=6); (B) chronic PS plus sham OD group (n=6); (C) chronic PS only group (n=6); (D) OD group (n=6); (E) sham OD group (n=6); (F) control group (n=6); (G) naive group (n=6); (H) foot-shock group (n=25). Open-field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze test (EPM) were conducted on the 7th, 21th, 35th day to measure the anxiety level of each group except naive and foot-shock group. In addition, corticosterone (CORT) level in serum, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-HT 2A receptor (5-HT 2A R) expressions in prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) areas were measured on the 35th day to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which the exacerbation occurred. The significant differences in OFT and EPM tests on day 21 or day 35 between groups (p0.05), together with a gradual decrease in values of all the parameters mentioned above from group A to group G. The significant changes in exploratory behaviors, serum CORT concentration, 5-HT and 5-HT 2A R expressions induced by OD in rats with or without chronic PS, and more obvious alterations in rats with chronic PS, may indicate that OD may be a promoting factor for anxiety through both peripheral and central pathways via the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and 5-HT system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SPSS and SAS programs for addressing interdependence and basic levels-of-analysis issues in psychological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brian P

    2004-02-01

    Levels-of-analysis issues arise whenever individual-level data are collected from more than one person from the same dyad, family, classroom, work group, or other interaction unit. Interdependence in data from individuals in the same interaction units also violates the independence-of-observations assumption that underlies commonly used statistical tests. This article describes the data analysis challenges that are presented by these issues and presents SPSS and SAS programs for conducting appropriate analyses. The programs conduct the within-and-between-analyses described by Dansereau, Alutto, and Yammarino (1984) and the dyad-level analyses described by Gonzalez and Griffin (1999) and Griffin and Gonzalez (1995). Contrasts with general multilevel modeling procedures are then discussed.

  3. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  4. Vygotsky's Stage Theory: The Psychology of Art and the Actor under the Direction of "Perezhivanie"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Vygotsky's writings on arts (particularly logocentric art including the theater) and emotions, drawing on his initial exploration in "The Psychology of Art" and his final considerations set forth in a set of essays, treatises, and lectures produced in the last years of his life. The review of "The Psychology of Art" includes…

  5. Models of psychological service provision under Australia's Better Outcomes in Mental Health Care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Kohn, Fay; Morley, Belinda; Blashki, Grant; Naccarella, Lucio

    2006-08-01

    The Access to Allied Psychological Services component of Australia's Better Outcomes in Mental Health Care program enables eligible general practitioners to refer consumers to allied health professionals for affordable, evidence-based mental health care, via 108 projects conducted by Divisions of General Practice. The current study profiled the models of service delivery across these projects, and examined whether particular models were associated with differential levels of access to services. We found: 76% of projects were retaining their allied health professionals under contract, 28% via direct employment, and 7% some other way; Allied health professionals were providing services from GPs' rooms in 63% of projects, from their own rooms in 63%, from a third location in 42%; and The referral mechanism of choice was direct referral in 51% of projects, a voucher system in 27%, a brokerage system in 24%, and a register system in 25%. Many of these models were being used in combination. No model was predictive of differential levels of access, suggesting that the approach of adapting models to the local context is proving successful.

  6. Assessing Anxiety, Depression and Psychological Wellbeing Status of Urban Elderly Under Represent of Tehran Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Alizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the present study describes assessing mental health status (anxiety, depression, and psychological wellbeing of old people in different age groups in tehran metropolitan city. The outcomes of this study could help to health policy makers to develop of better health policy in gerontology field by determine of priorities of mental care in different age groups of old people. Methods & Materials: this was a cross sectional study in 2010. The participants were (n=402 aged 60 years old and over which have underrepresented from Shahid Beheshti University. The survey methods were via face-to-face interviews, and just in a few cases as telephone interviews. The instrument to data collection included demographic questionnaire, k6 and yeild tools. Data analyzed by Stata and SPSS ver.15 through t-test, one-way anova. Regression models applied as well. Results: based on results in the past 4 weeks,10.9% of elderly had sever anxiety or depression symptoms and about half of them (46.5% had moderate psychological distress. The rate of psychological distress increased with age growing, specifically in 60- 79 years old however, this rate declined from age of 80 years and over. Psychological distress levels among elderly women were more than old men in all age groups, except of 60-69 years old people. Regarding psychological wellbeing, feeling of tireless, lone less, and depression are the most common complain of house dowelling old people in tehran metropolitan area. As the results show 43.1% elderly participants were in moderate level and 17% of them were in the bad level of psychological wellbeing. Based on regression model, sex (P=0.012, housing (P=0.004, and retirement salary (P=0.048 were significant variables that effect on psychological distress. The income rate was only important component that effect on psychological wellbeing of elderly participants. There was no significant different between aged groups 60-64 and 65-69 in psychological

  7. Circumstances and underlying causes of suicidal attempts in teen patients of mental health facilities – a psychological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Stradomska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper brings together and summarizes the results of a study carried out in 2011–2015, aimed at analysing circumstances and reasons underlying adolescent suicidal attempts. Material and methods: The studied group comprised 115 patients hospitalised due to having attempted suicide, aged 13–19 years old, based in 3 voivodeships, namely the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Lubelskie Voivodeship, and Podkarpackie Voivodeship. The results of the study have been subject to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: Our analysis has demonstrated that in the opinion of 95% of the patients another suicide previously committed in their environment inspired their own suicidal attempt. A significant proportion of the participants of the study (88% claims suicidal behaviours in a person’s environment to be conducive to similar behaviours not only in adolescents, but across all age groups alike. A majority of participants have admitted possessing a lack of sufficient knowledge concerning mental health and wellbeing. Nor do they receive effective help, feeling emotional distress, yet failing to meet with any response on the part of their relatives and friends, who seem not to take teenagers’ psychological condition seriously. Suicidal and depressive disposition is commonly regarded as a sign of mere moodiness, fanciness, being spoilt, or being prone to playing practical jokes. According to the majority of the participants (71%, their relatives had directly influenced their decision to attempt suicide. As much as 88% of the responses provided in the study indicated causes stemming from inadequate communication. Teenagers’ attempts to talk about death-related issues (suicidal issues failed, not being met with understanding on the part of their parents and other caregivers. Conclusions: There is a need for education, prophylaxis, and raising social awareness concerning the problem of suicides. Education on a broad scale

  8. Statistical and Epistemological Issues in the Evaluation of Treatment Efficacy of Pharmaceutical, Psychological, and Combination Treatments for Women's Sexual Desire Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Meredith L; Basson, Rosemary; Brotto, Lori A; Graham, Cynthia A; Stephenson, Kyle R

    2017-04-03

    We were grateful to receive responses from Leonore Tiefer, Anita Clayton and Robert Pyke, and Richard Balon and Robert Segraves, to our commentary (Brotto et al., 2016 ) on Pyke and Clayton ( 2015 ). These commentaries raise a number of substantive statistical and epistemological issues relating to the evaluation of treatment efficacy in pharmaceutical, psychological, and combination treatments for sexual desire difficulties and caution researchers to remain mindful of sources of bias as we do the science. In what follows, we discuss each of these issues in turn in hopes of encouraging our field to adopt the highest possible standards when carrying out and interpreting treatment outcome research.

  9. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation and the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs Under Conditions of Severe Resource Scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, Marieke Christina; Navarrete Berges, Andrés; Omarshah, Tariq; Benton, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    An emerging field of research is beginning to examine the ways in which socioeconomic disparities affect emotional, cognitive, and social processes. In this study, we took a two-step approach to examining the role that resource scarcity plays in the predictive power of intrinsic motivation on school attendance, as well as its influence on the precursors of intrinsic motivation: the psychological needs of relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Results revealed that intrinsic motivation predicts school attendance even under conditions of extreme adversity. The satisfaction of the basic needs is more important for participants who are exposed to severe rather than mild levels of deprivation. Our findings illustrate ecological effects on the mechanism underlying goal-directed behavior. They provide evidence in favor of self-determination theory's depiction of humans as active, growth-oriented organisms and for the potential of psychological interventions to reduce poverty.

  10. 29 CFR 2700.20 - Notice of contest of a citation or order issued under section 104 of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of contest of a citation or order issued under... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Contests of Citations and Orders § 2700.20 Notice of contest of a citation or order issued under section 104 of the Act. (a) Who may contest. (1) An...

  11. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  12. Feeling Closer to the Future Self and Doing Better: Temporal Psychological Mechanisms Underlying Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Robert Mark; Herrmann, Sarah D.; Bodford, Jessica E.; Barbour, Joseph E.; Graudejus, Oliver; Okun, Morris A.; Kwan, Virginia S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    This research examined the function of future self-continuity and its potential downstream consequences for academic performance through relations with other temporal psychological factors and self-control. We also addressed the influence of cultural factors by testing whether these relations differed by college generation status. Undergraduate…

  13. Reaction to the Special Issue on Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This reaction article comments on the Major Contribution "Centralizing the Experiences of LGB People of Color in Counseling Psychology." The content analysis of the published literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people of color from 1998 to 2007 provides much-needed information that will help psychologists set future research agendas and…

  14. Using Virtual Online Simulations in Second Life® to Engage Undergraduate Psychology Students with Employability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony; Falconer, Liz; Frutos-Perez, Manuel; Williams, Bryn; Johns, James; Harold, Sinead

    2016-01-01

    This study compares online simulation in Second Life® (Linden Labs, San Francisco, California, USA) with equivalent face-to-face activities for three scenarios. The intention was that the three sets of activities would increase participant awareness of how psychology is applied in relation to work-based contexts. These were a Dragons' Den-style…

  15. Dual Psychological Processes Underlying Public Stigma and the Implications for Reducing Stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Glenn D.; Pryor, John B.

    2008-01-01

    People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g., shame and lowered self-esteem) or public stigma (e.g., the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized). This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative proces...

  16. Feeling Closer to the Future Self and Doing Better: Temporal Psychological Mechanisms Underlying Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Robert Mark; Herrmann, Sarah D; Bodford, Jessica E; Barbour, Joseph E; Graudejus, Oliver; Okun, Morris A; Kwan, Virginia S Y

    2017-06-01

    This research examined the function of future self-continuity and its potential downstream consequences for academic performance through relations with other temporal psychological factors and self-control. We also addressed the influence of cultural factors by testing whether these relations differed by college generation status. Undergraduate students enrolled at a large public university participated in two studies (Study 1: N = 119, M age  = 20.55, 56.4% women; Study 2: N = 403, M age  = 19.83, 58.3% women) in which they completed measures of temporal psychological factors and psychological resources. In Study 2, we also obtained academic records to link responses to academic performance. Future self-continuity predicted subsequent academic performance and was related positively to future focus, negatively to present focus, and positively to self-control. Additionally, the relation between future focus and self-control was stronger for continuing-generation college students than first-generation college students. Future self-continuity plays a pivotal role in academic contexts. Findings suggest that it may have positive downstream consequences on academic achievement by directing attention away from the present and toward the future, which promotes self-control. Further, the strategy of focusing on the future may be effective in promoting self-control only for certain cultural groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. High school to college transition: a profile of the stressors, physical and psychological health issues that affect the first-year on-campus college student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Terence; Heastie, Samuel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to profile identified stressors, physical and psychological health issues that affect first-year campus college students as they transition from high school to college. The Health Behaviors, Self-Rated Health and Quality of Life (QOL) questionnaire was administered to 514 university college students. Results from this study determined that there were significant differences among student life stressors and physical and psychological health status between first-year on-campus and first-year off-campus college students. Most importantly this study documented compelling information regarding selection of roommate, poor housing, chronic and temporary diseases, injury and prescription medicine among college students attending a university in North Carolina. Implications for university health administrators, student affairs personnel, counselors and faculty are discussed.

  18. Methodology and Psychological Knowledge Issues in the Procedural Differentiation Sphere and the Evidence Doctrine: Problems of Theory and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Tsyganenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to actual problems of the theory and legislation of the modern criminal trial based on provisions of differentiation of a procedural form. Its basic provisions belong also to questions of evidentiary activity. Characteristics of knowledge on criminal case will claim the psychological knowledge and categories included in the mechanism of legal regulation of criminal procedure activity. Key role is allocated for the principle of freedom of an assessment of proofs. In this case the assessment of proofs is carried out on internal belief. Historically it is connected with institute of jury trial and competitiveness. Both the principle of freedom of assessment of proofs, and many other provisions of the procedural theory and the legislation need interpretation and an explanation with use of modern psychological knowledge. At the same time in modern Russian criminal procedure as well as in foreign types of criminal trial the reduced summary or special procedural jurisdictions are actively applied. It means formation of the differentiated model of criminal legal proceedings at which there is a summary process. Simplification of an order of proof on a criminal case through a wide range of exceptions is characteristic of them that constitutes a theoretical and practical problem. At their decision it is necessary to use a modern arsenal of methodology and the theory, including new achievements in the field of psychological knowledge.

  19. Cybernetic welness of the youth: Psychological aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Zinnatova, M. V.; Zeer, E. F.; Zavyalova, E. V.; Sorokin, V. A.; Yudina, M. S.; Зеер, Э. Ф.

    2016-01-01

    The ever more growing relevance of the issue under evaluation is explained by the wide expansion of digital technology that leads to the necessity to ensure cybernetic wellness of the population, especially the young. The goal of this article is to detect the psychological peculiarities of the Internet dependence of the youth. The leading approach to this issue is the empirical one (psychological evaluation); it allows detection of differences in socialization levels depending on severity of ...

  20. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  1. The three visions of design in the field of Cognitive Design Studies. Introduction to issue 2 of Collection, on "Art + Design & Psychology"

    OpenAIRE

    Visser , Willemien

    2010-01-01

    There is a French version of this paper: W. Visser (2010). Les trois visions du design dans le champ des Cognitive Design Studies. Introduction au numéro 2 de Collection : " Art + Design & Psychologie ". Collection [version française](2), 7-9. see http://www.parsons-paris.com/pages/detail/624/Collection-2; International audience; This text is the introduction to issue 2 of Collection, on "Art + Design & Psychology". It briefly presents the three visions of design in the field of Cognitive Des...

  2. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quantitative representation of the sustainable development state of the water resources compound system. Four cities in China, Beijing, Fuzhou, Urumqi, and Lhasa, were selected as the study areas. The differences in the three types of mechanisms and the water quotient of the water resources compound system of each city in 2013 were compared. The results indicate that the different subsystems that comprise the compound system of a given area have different development mechanisms and resistant mechanisms. There are clear differences in the mechanisms and the water quotients for the water resources compound systems of different regions. Pertinent measures should be taken into account during integrated water resource management to improve the sustainable development status of regional water resources compound systems.

  3. Salivary Testosterone Levels Under Psychological Stress and Its Relationship with Rumination and Five Personality Traits in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrisham, Reza; Sadegh-Nejadi, Sahar; SoliemaniFar, Omid; Kooti, Wesam; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Alamiri, Fatima; Aberomand, Mohammad; Najjar-Asl, Sedigheh; Khaneh-Keshi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the salivary testosterone levels under psychological stress and its relationship with rumination and five personality traits in medical students. A total of 58 medical students, who wanted to participate in the final exam, were selected by simple random sampling. Two months before the exam, in the basal conditions, the NEO Inventory short form, and the Emotional Control Questionnaire (ECQ) were completed. Saliva samples were taken from students in both the basal conditions and under exam stress. Salivary testosterone was measured by ELISA. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures, paired samples t-test, Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis. Salivary testosterone level of men showed a significant increase under exam stress (pstress. Salivary testosterone reactivity to stress can be determined by sexual differences, personality traits, and emotional control variables which may decrease or increase stress effects on biological responses, especially the salivary testosterone.

  4. A qualitative study of life events and psychological needs underlying the decision to have cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Katia; Boccara, David; De Runz, Antoine; Fournier, Mathilde; Chaouat, Marc; Villa, François; Mimoun, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Objective A thorough psychological assessment of patients requesting cosmetic surgery can help to protect them from the risk of postoperative dissatisfaction and the onset and/or aggravation of psychiatric disorders. This study seeks to shed more light on why people desire cosmetic surgery and thus help surgeons, psychiatrists, and psychologists to conduct assessments before surgery. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 subjects who requested cosmetic surgery. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and then analyzed qualitatively with Grounded Theory. Themes and categories were identified and compared in logical order, to build a consistent theoretical model. Results In each interview, we identified one or more recent events that the subjects considered to be contributing factors in their decisions to have cosmetic surgery. We observed that 33 of 35 patients said they sought cosmetic surgery at a time when they were experiencing, or had just experienced, one or more major changes in their bodies or their relationships. Recent life events triggered or strengthened specific psychological needs in the subjects: to cope with the past and with change, attain a consistent identity, find or regain a positive self-image, alter others' perceptions, define themselves in relation to others, or please themselves or others. Patients said that they chose plastic surgery to fulfill one or more of these needs. Conclusions This study identifies the role of recent events in inciting individuals to resort to cosmetic surgery. This factor provides new perspectives for surgeons to understand those patients and opens new avenues for research.

  5. An intelligent ecosystem to support the psychological diagnosis and intervention of children under social vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesántez-Avilés, Fernando; Cevallos-León Wong, Verónica; Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir; Borck-Vintimilla, Estefanía.; Flores-Andrade, Santiago; Pineda-Villa, Yenner; Pacurucu-Pacurucu, Ana

    2015-12-01

    When children are taken apart from their parents because of many violence situations, they are taken to foster homes, where they share place with kids who have lived similar situations. United Nations Children's Fund (2014) refer that Children who have been abused or neglected, often may have low self-esteem and other emotional problems, which can lead, at worst, to risky behaviors and self-harm . They also could tend to internalize that behavior, repeating the pattern of violence and abuse as a response to their environment. In this line, the latest estimates provided by SOS Children's Village International show a global complex picture: around 24 million of children in the world live in foster homes, one billion of children live in conflict-affected areas; and, furthermore, there is a lack of mental health professionals in most of the countries. On those grounds, in this paper we propose an intelligent ecosystem to provide support for psychologists during the psychodiagnosis and intervention with children, especially the ones who are in foster homes. Currently, the system is able to automatically determine some psychological traits, according to responses provided by each patient. One part of the diagnostic system is based on two psychological tests: the Draw-A-Person test and the Draw-A-Family test. The results obtained on the first stage let the system establish different challenges according to the skills that the evaluated child needs to develop. Our proposed approach was tested in a population of 124 children (93 school students, and 31 living in shelters), and has achieved encouraging results (80% of precision in patient's profile determination).

  6. Evaluate, Analyze, Describe (EAD): Confronting Underlying Issues of Racism and Other Prejudices for Effective Intercultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Racism and other prejudices have hindered efforts to diversify and further many fields, including education, psychology, politics, law, and healthcare (Race for Opportunity, 2010). Although there are many ways to combat these prejudices, intercultural communication continues to be a vital component in assisting individuals and groups with valuing…

  7. 75 FR 77561 - Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape and Plum Act; Revision to the Minimum Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 35 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0091; FV11-35-1 PR] Regulations Issued Under the Export Grape... under the Export Grape and Plum Act. The proposed action would change the minimum bunch weight requirement for grapes exported to Japan, Europe, and Greenland from one-half pound to one-quarter pound. This...

  8. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  9. Facial Surgery and an Active Modification Approach for Children with Down Syndrome: Some Psychological and Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearig, Judith S.

    1985-01-01

    The article summarizes some major issues involved including social acceptance of and expectations for individuals with Down syndrome; valuing of physical appearance; relevance of intellectual functioning; infliction of avoidable pain or trauma; origins and import of medical professionals' opinions; and the individual's desire for and reactions to…

  10. Perfusion functional MRI reveals cerebral blood flow pattern under psychological stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiongjiong; Rao, Hengyi; Wetmore, Gabriel S.; Furlan, Patricia M.; Korczykowski, Marc; Dinges, David F.; Detre, John A.

    2005-12-01

    Despite the prevalence of stress in everyday life and its impact on happiness, health, and cognition, little is known about the neural substrate of the experience of everyday stress in humans. We use a quantitative and noninvasive neuroimaging technique, arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI, to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes associated with mild to moderate stress induced by a mental arithmetic task with performance monitoring. Elicitation of stress was verified by self-report of stress and emotional state and measures of heart rate and salivary-cortisol level. The change in CBF induced by the stress task was positively correlated with subjective stress rating in the ventral right prefrontal cortex (RPFC) and left insula/putamen area. The ventral RPFC along with right insula/putamen and anterior cingulate showed sustained activation after task completion in subjects reporting a high stress level during arithmetic tasks. Additionally, variations of baseline CBF in the ventral RPFC and right orbitofrontal cortex were found to correlate with changes in salivary-cortisol level and heart rate caused by undergoing stress tasks. We further demonstrated that the observed right prefrontal activation could not be attributed to increased cognitive demand accompanying stress tasks and extended beyond neural pathways associated with negative emotions. Our results provide neuroimaging evidence that psychological stress induces negative emotion and vigilance and that the ventral RPFC plays a key role in the central stress response. anterior cingulate cortex | arterial spin labeling | right prefrontal cortex

  11. Effects of a psychological intervention on the quality of life of obese adolescents under a multidisciplinary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila R.M. Freitas

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The inclusion of a psychological counseling component in multidisciplinary treatment for adolescent obesity appears to provide benefits observed for improved QOL as compared with treatment without psychological counseling.

  12. International school psychology: psychology's worldwide portal to children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas D

    2003-11-01

    International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development. Nine issues that will help shape the future of international school psychology are also identified. The importance of psychology, including school psychology, in promoting children's needs and rights is underscored. (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  14. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-09-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals' internalized homophobia and their friend's sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities ( N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend's sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities' resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research.

  15. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  16. Evolutionary psychology. Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confer, Jaime C; Easton, Judith A; Fleischman, Diana S; Goetz, Cari D; Lewis, David M G; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from hypotheses that go against traditional psychological theories; some from empirical findings that may have disturbing implications; some from misunderstandings about the logic of evolutionary psychology; and some from reasonable scientific concerns about its underlying framework. This article identifies some of the most common concerns and attempts to elucidate evolutionary psychology's stance pertaining to them. These include issues of testability and falsifiability; the domain specificity versus domain generality of psychological mechanisms; the role of novel environments as they interact with evolved psychological circuits; the role of genes in the conceptual structure of evolutionary psychology; the roles of learning, socialization, and culture in evolutionary psychology; and the practical value of applied evolutionary psychology. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current evolutionary psychology. 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. 19 CFR 0.2 - All other CBP regulations issued under the authority of the Department of Homeland Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false All other CBP regulations issued under the authority of the Department of Homeland Security. 0.2 Section 0.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSFERRED OR DELEGATED AUTHORITY...

  18. 19 CFR 0.1 - Customs revenue function regulations issued under the authority of the Departments of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the authority of the Departments of the Treasury and Homeland Security. 0.1 Section 0.1 Customs Duties... TRANSFERRED OR DELEGATED AUTHORITY § 0.1 Customs revenue function regulations issued under the authority of... authority to prescribe all CBP regulations relating to customs revenue functions, except that the Secretary...

  19. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  20. Psychology or Psychological Science?: A Survey of Graduate Psychology Faculty Regarding Program Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collisson, Brian; Rusbasan, David

    2018-01-01

    The question of renaming graduate psychology programs to psychological science is a timely and contentious issue. To better understand why some programs, but not others, are changing names, we surveyed chairpersons (Study 1) and faculty (Study 2) within graduate psychology and psychological science programs. Within psychology programs, a name…

  1. Psychological Knowledge and Education Practices: Tradition and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    This article is aimed to propose a main issue for the Psychology and Education: relationships between psychological knowledge and educational practices. These relationships have not been established without any problem, on the contrary, it has generated debates and controversies, which were expressed under certain ruptures between psychological…

  2. Issues and Practices in the Identification and Education of Gifted Students From Under-represented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James

    2004-01-01

    In this monograph, I discuss the current and historic under-representation of economically disadvantaged students, students of color, students from ethnic minorities, and students with limited English proficiency in programs for gifted students. I examine the likely causes of the under-representation of these students, drawing on research and…

  3. 17 CFR 259.206 - Form U-6B-2, for notification of security issues exempt under section 6(b) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of security issues exempt under section 6(b) of the Act. 259.206 Section 259.206 Commodity and... security issues exempt under section 6(b) of the Act. This form shall be filed pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act as the certificate of notification of the issue, sale, renewal, or guaranty of securities...

  4. Southwest: a region under stress. [Analysis of environmental, resource-revenues, and water-resources issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Kneese, A.V.

    1978-05-01

    The southwestern states of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona share some of the nation's richest natural resources and the poorest people. One goal in the development of the area's resources will be to provide a means of raising the economic level of these people. Three major regional issues (environmental preservation, resource revenues, and water resources) must be faced in terms of the conflicting claims of the states involved. A summary of these issues illustrates the emotional and political strains that have developed. Justification for optimism is seen in the adaptability of new water users, the institutional evolution toward more flexibility in the water rights market, and the growing sophistication and assertiveness of interested parties determined to see that all positions are heard. 14 references.

  5. Diving under the influence: issues in researching personality and inert gas narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H; Martin, Jarred H; Meintjes, Willem A J

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between measures of personality and mood states, and susceptibility to inert gas narcosis. It briefly reviews the topics of inert gas narcosis affecting personality, and personality affecting the susceptibility to inert gas narcosis. There appears to be is a theoretical argument for a possible relationship between measures of personality, mood states, and susceptibility to narcosis. Practically, such a relationship may speak to issues in selection, training and preparation, risk assessments, and even accident investigation in the diving and/or hyperbaric environment. Twenty one divers completed measures of personality and mood states, and were then compressed to 709 kPa (equivalent to 60 msw) in a dry compression chamber, where they completed a task measuring speed of information processing, and a scale measuring subjective narcosis. The main finding was the absence of any significant correlations between measures of personality traits and mood, and susceptibility to inert gas narcosis. Although the study found no evidence of any major relationship, it is presented as a case study to highlight some of the issues and pitfalls involved in such research. The lessons learned - including the careful defining and describing of concepts, and choosing of samples and measurements - are used to discuss some of the methodological and conceptual issues and future directions for researchers to consider.

  6. 10 CFR 72.212 - Conditions of general license issued under § 72.210.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... days prior to first storage of spent fuel under this general license. The notice may be in the form of... site parameters, including analyses of earthquake intensity and tornado missiles, are enveloped by the...

  7. Comparative Study of Issuing Bank’s Obligations towards Beneficiary of the Letter of Credit under UCP and English Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Process of international trade is complicated and risky. Risks will be more considerable when times come to deal with receiving/sending payments from/to unknown business partners in remote geographic areas. Employing documentary letters of credit (LC is one of the ways to reduce payment risk in international business especially when partner’s financial standing is unknown to each other. By using the LC as method of payment, parties will shift payment obligation from buyer as a natural person to the guarantee of bank as a legal person. The process of using LC is complicated and involves different players and relations between them. Amongst all relations in process of LC transaction, relation between issuing bank and beneficiary is the most complicated and least clear from legal stand point. This article tries to shed light on vague aspects of relations between issuing bank and beneficiary by studying obligations of the issuing bank towards beneficiary under the law of documentary letters of credit while comparing provisions of UCP with English Common Law on subject matter. Main objective of paper is providing answer to the question of what is the role of issuing bank in the process of LC transaction and which liabilities does it have towards beneficiary? Article consists of five main parts. Part one will provide an introduction to function and relation among different parties in process of an international LC transaction. Further, it endeavors to tap on principle of autonomy and strict compliance as governing principles of documentary letters of credit. Part two and three will take a comprehensive look at legal basis of relations between issuing bank and beneficiary, as well as bank’s obligations under documentary credit law. Part four will discuss liabilities of issuing banks towards beneficiary and finally part five will touch upon situation in which bank will right to recourse against beneficiary.

  8. Comparative Study of Issuing Bank’s Obligations towards Beneficiary of the Letter of Credit under UCP and English Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Process of international trade is complicated and risky. Risks will be more considerable when times come to deal with receiving/sending payments from/to unknown business partners in remote geographic areas. Employing documentary letters of credit (LC is one of the ways to reduce payment risk in international business especially when partner’s financial standing is unknown to each other. By using the LC as method of payment, parties will shift payment obligation from buyer as a natural person to the guarantee of bank as a legal person. The process of using LC is complicated and involves different players and relations between them. Amongst all relations in process of LC transaction, relation between issuing bank and beneficiary is the most complicated and least clear from legal stand point. This article tries to shed light on vague aspects of relations between issuing bank and beneficiary by studying obligations of the issuing bank towards beneficiary under the law of documentary letters of credit while comparing provisions of UCP with English Common Law on subject matter. Main objective of paper is providing answer to the question of what is the role of issuing bank in the process of LC transaction and which liabilities does it have towards beneficiary? Article consists of five main parts. Part one will provide an introduction to function and relation among different parties in process of an international LC transaction. Further, it endeavours to tap on principle of autonomy and strict compliance as governing principles of documentary letters of credit. Part two and three will take a comprehensive look at legal basis of relations between issuing bank and beneficiary, as well as bank’s obligations under documentary credit law. Part four will discuss liabilities of issuing banks towards beneficiary and finally part five will touch upon situation in which bank will right to recourse against beneficiary.

  9. Disguised Distress in Children and Adolescents "Flying under the Radar": Why Psychological Problems Are Underestimated and How Schools Must Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    It is now recognized that there is a very high prevalence of psychological disorders among children and adolescents and relatively few receive psychological treatment. In the current article, we present the argument that levels of distress and dysfunction among young people are substantially underestimated and the prevalence of psychological…

  10. Effects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoto, Ai; Motoki, Mao; Murao, Sato; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2012-10-29

    L-theanine, an amino acid contained in green tea leaves, is known to block the binding of L-glutamic acid to glutamate receptors in the brain, and has been considered to cause anti-stress effects by inhibiting cortical neuron excitation. Both L-theanine and caffeine, which green tea contains, have been highlighted for their beneficial effects on cognition and mood. In this study, we investigated the effects of orally administered L-theanine or caffeine on mental task performance and physiological activities under conditions of physical or psychological stress in humans. Fourteen participants each underwent three separate trials, in which they orally took either L-theanine + placebo, caffeine + placebo, or placebo only. The results after the mental tasks showed that L-theanine significantly inhibited the blood-pressure increases in a high-response group, which consisted of participants whose blood pressure increased more than average by a performance of a mental task after placebo intake. Caffeine tended to have a similar but smaller inhibition of the blood-pressure increases caused by the mental tasks. The result of the Profile of Mood States after the mental tasks also showed that L-theanine reduced the Tension-Anxiety scores as compared with placebo intake. The findings above denote that L-theanine not only reduces anxiety but also attenuates the blood-pressure increase in high-stress-response adults.

  11. Effects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoto Ai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-theanine, an amino acid contained in green tea leaves, is known to block the binding of L-glutamic acid to glutamate receptors in the brain, and has been considered to cause anti-stress effects by inhibiting cortical neuron excitation. Both L-theanine and caffeine, which green tea contains, have been highlighted for their beneficial effects on cognition and mood. Methods In this study, we investigated the effects of orally administered L-theanine or caffeine on mental task performance and physiological activities under conditions of physical or psychological stress in humans. Fourteen participants each underwent three separate trials, in which they orally took either L-theanine + placebo, caffeine + placebo, or placebo only. Results The results after the mental tasks showed that L-theanine significantly inhibited the blood-pressure increases in a high-response group, which consisted of participants whose blood pressure increased more than average by a performance of a mental task after placebo intake. Caffeine tended to have a similar but smaller inhibition of the blood-pressure increases caused by the mental tasks. The result of the Profile of Mood States after the mental tasks also showed that L-theanine reduced the Tension-Anxiety scores as compared with placebo intake. Conclusions The findings above denote that L-theanine not only reduces anxiety but also attenuates the blood-pressure increase in high-stress-response adults.

  12. 78 FR 66841 - Israel Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2003...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Borrower. Person means any legal person, including any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization, or government or any agency or political... by reason of the Borrower's failure to comply on a timely basis with any obligation it may have under...

  13. Changes in Chinese Education under Globalisation and Market Economy: Emerging Issues and Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao; Guo, Yan; Beckett, Gulbahar; Li, Qing; Guo, Linyuan

    2013-01-01

    Fuelled by forces of globalisation, China has gradually shifted from a centrally planned economy to the "socialist market economy". This study examines changes in Chinese education under globalisation and market economy, focusing on the teaching and living conditions of teachers. The study reveals that the profound transformation of…

  14. Criminal Policy Challenges under Conditions of Hybrid War: Some Issues and Solutions from Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysmenskyy Yevhen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the specifics of national criminal policy implementation under the influence of extraordinary geopolitical factors on it. Such policy will be reviewed with Ukraine serving as an appropriate example. This country has been recently forced to adjust its own ways of implementation of the state policy against crime based on atypical modern challenges and threats. This refers to the special nature of a hybrid war, which has been actively fought on the territory of Ukraine since 2014. The author examines two key areas of criminal policy (definition of the limits of criminal behavior and establishing criminal law consequences of the committed offenses, implemented under the extraordinary circumstances of hybrid war. Symptomatic features of the hybrid form of foreign aggression are defined in the piece. At the same time, options of criminal law in combating and preventing such aggression are researched.

  15. Part-construction licenses and preliminary licenses issued within the licensing procedure under atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    The author elaborates a delimitation in terms of law of various licenses available under atomic energy law within the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, such as the part-construction license, preliminary license and preliminary approval of the overall concept, preliminary conceptual approval and conceptual license, preliminary conceptual approval subject to subsequent examinations and decisions, preliminary site ruling and site approval, advance permits and subsequent partial licenses. Such a delimitation becomes particularly significant in case of the plant conceptual design or the site being the subject under review, and the definitions stated also have considerable impact on administrative court proceedings. In this review the author tries to bear in mind the various interests of all parties involved in the licensing procedure. (HSCH) [de

  16. Psychological Harassment At Work Under The Perspective Of Social Security And The Suitability Of Its Equalization To Work Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Ota Longo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was intended to investigate the treatment given to psychological harassment by Social Security, from the analysis of data extracted from its Statistical Yearbooks, and to situate it as contemporary factor of precarious work, seeking to expand the view of occupational accident. As psychological harassment is a serious problem to challenge an urgent solution to the effective protection of worker’s mental health, among the proposals based on the legal and social impact of the phenomenon, it was evidenced, through critical analysis of Bill n. 7.202/2010, the suitability of equalization of psychological harassment in employment context to accident work (FAPESP.

  17. Theoretical Issues in Environmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshansky, Harold M.

    1974-01-01

    Author addressed a central task in the development of an interdisciplinary field of inquiry into manenvironment relations: namely, theory development. He decried the lack of comprehensive theoretical reasoning that has characterized environmental research and suggested directions for expanded conceptual work. (Editor/RK)

  18. Clinical review: Balancing the therapeutic, safety, and economic issues underlying effective antipseudomonal carbapenem use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Thomas G

    2008-01-01

    Antipseudomonal carbapenems have played a useful role in our antimicrobial armamentarium for 20 years. However, a review of their use during that period creates concern that their clinical effectiveness is critically dependent on attainment of an appropriate dosing range. Unfortunately, adequate carbapenem dosing is missed for many reasons, including benefit/risk misconceptions, a narrow therapeutic window for imipenem and meropenem (due to an increased rate of seizures at higher doses), increasingly resistant pathogens requiring higher doses than are typically given, and cost containment issues that may limit their use. To improve the use of carbapenems, several initiatives should be considered: increase awareness about appropriate treatment with carbapenems across hospital departments; determine optimal dosing regimens for settings where multidrug resistant organisms are more likely encountered; use of, or combination with, an alternative antimicrobial agent having more favorable pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, or adverse event profile; and administer a newer carbapenem with lower propensity for resistance development (for example, reduced expression of efflux pumps or greater stability against carbapenemases). PMID:18983709

  19. Weight stigma "gets under the skin"-evidence for an adapted psychological mediation framework: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Luppa, Melanie; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-02-01

    Research consistently shows a negative view of individuals with obesity in the general public and in various other settings. Stigma and discrimination can be considered chronic stressors, as these factors have a profound impact on the psychological well-being of the affected individuals. This article proposes a framework that entails a mediation of the adverse effects of discrimination and stigmatization on mental well-being through elevated psychological risk factors that are not unique to weight but that could affect overweight and normal-weight individuals alike. A systematic review was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychological risk factors, such as self-esteem and coping, in individuals with obesity. Forty-six articles were assessed and included for detailed analysis. The number of studies on these topics is limited to certain dimensions of psychological processes. The best evaluated association of obesity and psychosocial aspects is seen for self-esteem. Most studies establish a negative association of weight and self-esteem in children and adults. All studies with mediation analysis find a positive mediation through psychological risk factors on mental health outcomes. This review shows that elevated psychological risk factors are existent in individuals with obesity and that they may be a mediator between weight discrimination and pathopsychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  20. Issues with data and analyses: Errors, underlying themes, and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew W; Kaiser, Kathryn A; Allison, David B

    2018-03-13

    Some aspects of science, taken at the broadest level, are universal in empirical research. These include collecting, analyzing, and reporting data. In each of these aspects, errors can and do occur. In this work, we first discuss the importance of focusing on statistical and data errors to continually improve the practice of science. We then describe underlying themes of the types of errors and postulate contributing factors. To do so, we describe a case series of relatively severe data and statistical errors coupled with surveys of some types of errors to better characterize the magnitude, frequency, and trends. Having examined these errors, we then discuss the consequences of specific errors or classes of errors. Finally, given the extracted themes, we discuss methodological, cultural, and system-level approaches to reducing the frequency of commonly observed errors. These approaches will plausibly contribute to the self-critical, self-correcting, ever-evolving practice of science, and ultimately to furthering knowledge.

  1. Cybernetic Wellness of the Youth: Psychological Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnatova, Mariya V.; Zeer, Evald F.; Zavyalova, Ekaterina V.; Sorokin, Vladimir ?.; Yudina, Marina S.

    2016-01-01

    The ever more growing relevance of the issue under evaluation is explained by the wide expansion of digital technology that leads to the necessity to ensure cybernetic wellness of the population, especially the young. The goal of this article is to detect the psychological peculiarities of the Internet dependence of the youth. The leading approach…

  2. REGULATING FIRMS’ BEHAVIOR IN THE MARKET UNDER THE COMPETITION LAW: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasarudin Abdul Rahman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of competition law is to protect the process of rivalry between firms in the market.  It prohibits any anti-competitive behaviors such as cartel and abuse of dominant position. However, in practice regulating firms’ behaviors in the market is not an easy task.  It requires both legal and economic analysis to determine whether a firm is occupying a dominant position and whether the conduct is abusive. This paper seeks to identify the important provisions of “anti-competitive agreements” and “abuse of dominant position” under the Malaysian Competition Act 2010. It is observed that competition law across the counties have been heavily influenced by the UK and EU competition law. Despite the similar concepts applied across the jurisdictions, in practice the implementation differs. This paper seeks to explore the benefits of adopting foreign concepts on competition law and how the rules will be implemented especially in response to the different political, economic and social environment. This paper will also include the approach taken by Indonesia with regard to implementation of foreign ideas on competition law to suit the local need.

  3. Effects of a psychological intervention on the quality of life of obese adolescents under a multidisciplinary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila R.M. Freitas

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate the effects of multidisciplinary treatment with and without psychological counseling on obese adolescents' self-reported quality of life. Methods: Seventy-six obese adolescents (15.87 ± 1.53 y were allocated into psychological counseling group (PCG; n = 36 or control group (CG; n = 40 for 12 weeks. All participants received the same supervised exercise training, nutritional and clinical counseling. Participants in PCG also received psychological counseling. QOL was measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention by Generic Questionnaire for the Evaluation of Quality of Life (SF-36. Results: The dropout rate was higher in GC (22.5% when compared with PCG (0.0% (p < 0.001. After 12 weeks, participants from PCG presents lower body weight, relative fat mass and higher free fat mass (p < 0.001 for all compared to GC. QOL improved among adolescents from both groups (p < 0.05, however, a better QOL was reported from those adolescents enrolled in PCG. Conclusion: The inclusion of a psychological counseling component in multidisciplinary treatment for adolescent obesity appears to provide benefits observed for improved QOL as compared with treatment without psychological counseling.

  4. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  5. Mine and land ownership in operation planning procedures. On the framing of issues of conflicting civil rights under administrative law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Assmann, E.; Schoch, F.

    1994-01-01

    On the framing of issues of conflicting civil rights under administrative law. The available arsenal of legal instruments for solving conflicts between proprietary titles to land surfaces and mines is more extensive and differentiated and, if properly deployed, more effective than one might at first expect. The control mechanisms become effective either immediately through laws or through administrative or private acts and are based on public or on private law. They range from the sphere of mining rights, operation planning law, the law on the prevention of damage to private persons over to the regulations under mining law on the payment of damages. The constitutionality of the mining regulations examined here is beyond dispute. They comply with the constitutional requirement to frame the issue concerned and afford protection while at the same time providing the required measure of openness and flexibility for conforming to the peculiarities of the mining business and permitting the necessary sensitivity of administrative control for managing this multipolar legal relationship. At the statutory level the regulatory purpose of the mining law in force is thus fulfilled. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. 'Health psychology' or 'psychology for health'? A history of psychologists' engagement with health in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jeffery; Vaccarino, Oriana

    2018-03-01

    In contrast to the institutionalization of health psychology in North America and Europe, much psychological work on health issues in South Africa emerged as part of a critical revitalization of South African psychology as a whole, coinciding with the dismantling of Apartheid and global shifts in health discourse. The field's development reflects attempts to engage with urgent health problems in the context of rapid sociopolitical changes that followed democratic transition in the 1990s, and under new conditions of knowledge production. We provide an account of these issues, as well as reflections on the field's future, as inflected through the experiences of 12 South African psychologists whose careers span the emergence of health-related psychology to the present day.

  7. Revisiting the study of pedophilia phenomenon and related issues in Russia and in the world on the basis of Yuri Burlan’s System vector Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Vinevskaya, Anna; Ochirova, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    The paper is about pedophilia phenomenon. Pedophilia is a phenomenon that should be studied through innovative approaches in science. The causes of pedophilia and the early prophylaxis methods have been discovered in Yuri Burlan’s System-Vector Psychology.

  8. Psychological well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS under the new epidemic characteristics in China and the risk factors: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wu, Ming; Qu, Peng; Lu, Chunming; Wang, Lie

    2014-11-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in China is growing and the main transmission mode has changed from contaminated blood products to sexual contact. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of anxiety (SAS; Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale) and depression (CES-D; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) under the new epidemic characteristics and to examine associated factors. The sample size (N=800) was calculated on the basis of the lowest prevalence of psychological disorders among PLWHA and was enlarged taking into consideration a loss of response. Participants were sampled randomly among all PLWHA registered in Liaoning Province. Questionnaires pertaining to the SAS, CES-D, and related factors were distributed between December 2010 and April 2011; 772 effective responses were received. The prevalence of anxiety (SAS ≥40) and depression (CES-D ≥16) were 49.0% and 73.1%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that SAS was associated with self-rated health, condom use at the last sexual contact, perceived social support, alcohol consumption, and transmission; CES-D was associated with self-rated health, perceived social support, job, and sex. PLWHA under the new epidemic characteristics in China suffer from serious psychological problems. To improve their psychological well-being, efforts should be focused on improving perceptions of their health condition and increasing perceived social support.

  9. Sport Psychology: An Emerging Domain in the Counseling Psychology Profession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Trent A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…

  10. Psychology is about processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Stellan

    2007-03-01

    Out of the eight points of methodological criticism against contemporary psychology formulated by Watson (Psychological Bulletin 31:755-776, 1934) and put forward by Toomela in this issue, the overemphasis on prediction, the neglect of individual differences, the habit of the differences between the mental states of subjects in objective experimental conditions are particularly important. Modem cognitive psychology has began to remedy those problems, in part by proposing broad, integrative theories. It is not useful to subdivide psychology into "schools of thought" defined by their methodological practices.

  11. Psychological processes underlying the association between childhood trauma and psychosis in daily life: an experience sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininghaus, U; Gayer-Anderson, C; Valmaggia, L; Kempton, M J; Calem, M; Onyejiaka, A; Hubbard, K; Dazzan, P; Beards, S; Fisher, H L; Mills, J G; McGuire, P; Craig, T K J; Garety, P; van Os, J; Murray, R M; Wykes, T; Myin-Germeys, I; Morgan, C

    2016-10-01

    Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure stress, threat anticipation, negative affect, and psychotic experiences in 50 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, 44 At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) participants, and 52 controls. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations of minor socio-environmental stress in daily life with negative affect and psychotic experiences were modified by sexual abuse and group (all p FWE childhood sexual abuse and psychosis.

  12. African Journals Online: Psychology & Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... The African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues is dedicated to the Scientific investigation of psychological and social issues and related phenomenon in Africa. The journal does not undertake to specify rigidly an appropriate domain of context, but intends rather to reflect current significant ...

  13. Is Psychology a Science?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/11/0059-0066. Author Affiliations.

  14. Addressing issues of vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment in the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination decision-making: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Marta; Depping, Miriam K; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-09-02

    Whether or not to vaccinate one's child is one of the first health-related decisions parents have to make after their child's birth. For the past 20 years, the share of parents choosing not to immunize their children has increased in many countries, for various reasons. Among these, rumors affirming that vaccinations contain dangerous chemicals or might trigger severe chronic diseases have negatively affected parental attitudes towards pediatric immunizations, particularly the vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), raising a number of public health concerns. The primary aim of this qualitative study is to understand what drives parents' decision, giving special attention to vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment in such a context. Twenty individual semi-structured interviews were conducted in the Canton of Ticino (Switzerland) between January and June 2014. Participants were either mothers or fathers of children less than 1 year old living in Switzerland. An inductive thematic analysis was performed to identify the main themes with regard to vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment in the MMR vaccination decision-making. Parents' reports yielded four main themes: (a) the paradox of the free choice, referring to the misinterpretation of current vaccination policies; (b) giving up the power, pointing at the outcomes of a low perceived competence; (c) a far-reaching decision, reflecting the importance attributed to the MMR choice and the different levels of impact the decision can have; (d) the demand for shared-decision making, referring to the parental needs in relation to the child's healthcare provider. Understanding what drives parents' management of their children's immunization schedule in terms of vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment can help health professionals to communicate more effectively with parents in order to facilitate an informed decision, and stakeholders to design tailored health education

  15. Flooded homes, broken bonds, the meaning of home, psychological processes and their impact on psychological health in a disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Bob; Morbey, Hazel; Balogh, Ruth; Araoz, Gonzalo

    2009-06-01

    In 2005, Carlisle suffered severe flooding and 1600 houses were affected. A qualitative research project to study the social and health impacts was undertaken. People whose homes had been flooded and workers who had supported them were interviewed. The findings showed that there was severe disruption to people's lives and severe damage to their homes, and many suffered from psychological health issues. Phenomenological and transactional perspectives are utilised to analyse the psychological processes (identity, attachment, alienation and dialectics) underlying the meaning of home and their impact on psychological health. Proposals for policy and practice are made.

  16. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  17. Cuestiones Epistemológicas Relativas al Estudio Psicológico de la Vivencia Religiosa Epistemological Issues in the Psychological Study of Religious Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Muñoz

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio psicológico de la vivencia religiosa es una de las posibles alternativas que ofrece el universo científico configurado por las ciencias de las religiones. Esta aproximación multidisciplinar es la más adecuada para la descripción y explicación del hecho religioso. La integración de conclusiones provenientes de diferentes perspectivas y métodos, y la aceptación de la complementariedad de diferentes aportaciones, son aún dos tareas por conseguir, especialmente entre la psicología y la teología. Este artículo establece las bases epistemológicas para una psicología de la religión que respete la identidad y aportes de la teología, mediante el desarrollo de un cuerpo de conocimientos teóricos y empíricos basados en el positivismo lógico, el método experimental, la asunción de la comprensión y la descripción como tareas propias derivadas de la influencia del fenomenalismo filosófico. Este enfoque implica la toma de conciencia que toda experiencia, cognición, o conducta religiosa, adquiere forma y se integra en el conjunto de habilidades, competencias, personalidad, y demás rasgos que definen nuestra identidad humana.Psychological research about religious cognition, behavior, and experience is one of the perspectives that aim to understand the religious dimension of human existence. The multidisciplinary approach is the most relevant way to describe and explain the religious experience. The integration of results that come from different methods and paradigms, and the acceptance of the idea that this perspectives are complementary, is a task that have no ended yet. This is specially important between psychology and theology. This article sets the epistemological foundations for a psychology of religion that considers theology's identity and contributions, through the development of empirical and theoretical knowledge based on logical positivism, experimental method, and the assumption of comprehension and description

  18. The Asian Psychological Association founding convention, Bali, Indonesia, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Michael

    2008-04-01

    The First Convention of the Asian Psychological Association (APsyA) was held in Bali from 18-20th August 2006. This historic event marked the founding of the APsyA which is the first association in the Asian region with an individual membership spanning the whole field of psychology. The Conference was organized under the presidency of Sarlito Sarwono and was supported institutionally by the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Indonesia, Tarumanagara University, the Catholic University of Indonesia, the Indonesian Police Force, the International Council of Psychologists, Division 52 (International Psychology) of the American Psychological Association and the International Association of Applied Psychology. The Conference attracted over 120 participants from 17 countries; its Scientific Program covered matters such as indigenous Asian psychology, the contributions of psychology towards national development, and special issues in Asia. The principal symposium of the Conference dealt with terrorism and covered research into the psychology of terrorists, the process by which people become terrorists, and the rehabilitation of terrorists.

  19. How Not to Evaluate a Psychological Measure: Rebuttal to Criticism of the Defining Issues Test of Moral Judgment Development by Curzer and Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Stephen J.; Bebeau, Muriel J.; Narvaez, Darcia

    2016-01-01

    In a 2014 paper in "Theory and Research in Education," Howard Curzer and colleagues critique the Defining Issues Test of moral judgment development according to eight criteria that are described as difficulties any measure of educational outcomes must address. This article highlights how Curzer et al. do not consult existing empirical…

  20. Conservation Psychology: A Gap in Current Australian Undergraduate Psychology Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa Pearson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human actions have contributed to numerous environmental challenges, including climate change and a significant loss of the world’s biodiversity. As the scientific study of human thought and behaviour, psychology has much to offer in better understanding these issues, as well as fostering greater sustainability in human actions. Yet, despite this recognition, and increasing calls from leaders in psychology education to produce graduates capable of applying their disciplinary knowledge to such real-world issues to solve worldwide behaviourally-based problems; this may not be adequately addressed in current psychology training. The present study assessed the content of all APAC (Australian Psychology Accreditation Council approved psychology programs within Australia to determine the proportion which offered a psychology-focused course (unit specifically in conservation or sustainability. Based on the data advertised through each university website, it appears that only one of 39 programs currently offers such a course, with one other university implementing a conservation psychology course in 2013. Thus 95% of current APAC-accredited programs in Australia do not have a strong focus on training psychology graduates to contribute to addressing these important issues. The need for greater integration of conservation psychology content into undergraduate psychology education in Australia and beyond is discussed.

  1. Practice research under changing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Ole

    particularly important in unraveling what is glossed over or reinterpreted beyond recognition. Doing so helps putting psychology back on its feet. But practice research was developed under other social, political and professional conditions and under other regimes of knowledge than we find today where...... research in critical psychology is based on a science of the subject – as opposed to the science of control dominating psychology. Of course, projects involve many subjects with diverse perspectives on the issues at hand. Descriptions of practices from subject positions previously considered negligible......The tradition of practice research emerged in critical psychology in Germany and Denmark about twenty-five years ago. It emphasizes the relevance of knowledge - above all knowledge for change - by researching exemplary scopes of possibilities for agents in particular kinds of situations. A key...

  2. Psychological issues and construction of the mother-child relationship in women with cancer during pregnancy: a perspective on current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Federica; Faccio, Flavia; Peccatori, Fedro; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2018-03-16

    Cancer during pregnancy is a rare event. However, knowledge about treatment has progressed in recent years with improved maternal and neonatal outcomes. The number of women who decide to continue their pregnancy and undergo cancer treatment is increasing. Women face two critical events simultaneously; oncological illness and pregnancy, with different and conflicting emotions. In addition, the last trimester of gestation sets the ground for construction of the mother-child relationship, which is of great importance for the child's development. Studies have showed that maternal exposure to stressful events during pregnancy is linked to adverse outcomes in children. Although several authors consider cancer to be a 'critical life event', studies that address the psychosocial implications of cancer in expecting mothers are scarce. There are no studies addressing the possible negative impact of a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy on the mother-child relationship and on the child's development. It is important to emphasize the need for in-depth knowledge of the contributing psychological factors involved in order to provide holistic, individualised, and supportive care. An analysis of cognitive aspects, emotional processes, and maternal attachment in cases of cancer during pregnancy may contribute to the development of a model of care, both in an evolutionary and in a psycho-oncology context, with implications for clinical practice.

  3. A questão do método na psicologia La cuestión del método en la psicología The issue of method in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Furlan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Do ponto de vista da experiência do pensamento, nossa intenção é discutir a questão do método em psicologia e mostrar que não há independência entre método, questão e teoria. Em rigor, há questões metodológicas no enfrentamento do conhecimento da realidade.Desde punto de vista de la experiencia del pensamiento, nuestra intención es discutir la cuestión del método en la psicología, y mostrar que no hay la independencia entre método, cuestión y teoría. Estrictamente, hay cuestiones metodológicas en el enfrentamiento del conocimiento de la realidad.The issue of method in Psychology is discussed from the standpoint of the thinking experience. Analysis shows that no independence exists between method, issue and theory. Strictly speaking, there are methodological issues in the act of coping with the knowledge of reality.

  4. Psychology of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hoc, J-M

    1991-01-01

    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.

  5. Biotechnologies that empower transgender persons to self-actualize as individuals, partners, spouses, and parents are defining new ways to conceive a child: psychological considerations and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condat, Agnès; Mendes, Nicolas; Drouineaud, Véronique; Gründler, Nouria; Lagrange, Chrystelle; Chiland, Colette; Wolf, Jean-Philippe; Ansermet, François; Cohen, David

    2018-01-17

    Today, thanks to biomedical technologies advances, some persons with fertility issues can conceive. Transgender persons benefit also from these advances and can not only actualize their self-identified sexual identities but also experience parenthood. Based on clinical multidisciplinary seminars that gathered child psychiatrists and psychoanalysts interested in the fields of assisted reproduction technology (ART) and gender dysphoria, philosophers interested in bioethics, biologists interested in ART, and endocrinologists interested in pubertal suppression, we explore how new biotechnical advances, whether in gender transition or procreation, could create new ways to conceive a child possible. After reviewing the various medical/surgical techniques for physical gender transition and the current ART options, we discuss how these new ways for persons to self-actualize and to experience parenthood can not only improve the condition of transgender persons (and the human condition as a whole through greater equity) but also introduce some elements of change in the habitual patterns of thinking especially in France. Finally, we discuss the ethical issues that accompany the arrival of these children and provide creative solutions to help society handle, accept, and support the advances made in this area.

  6. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  7. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  8. Should economic psychology care about personality structure?

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter, Hermann

    1993-01-01

    Since economic psychology is primarily interested in (a) how people in general react to the economic aspects of their environment, and (b) how these reactions change the economic components of their environment, as yet individual differences are not an important issue in economic-psychological research. After a brief look at how economic psychology used to deal with individual differences in the past, some suggestions are given, based on literature from social psychology, economic psychology,...

  9. The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in basic psychological processes, history of psychology, and other related topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoa, J M

    2001-11-01

    This article presents a review of research published by Spanish Faculty from the area of basic psychology in the decade 1989-1998. It provides information about research on basic psychological processes commonly studied under the labels of experimental and cognitive psychology, plus a number of topics from other research areas, including some applied psychology issues. The review analyzes the work of 241 faculty members from 27 different Spanish universities, as reflected in 1,882 published papers, book chapters, and books. The analyses carried out in this report include a description of the main research trends found in each area, with some representative references of the published materials, and statistics showing the distribution of this research work in various relevant publications (both Spanish and foreign), with figures that reveal the impact of this work both at a national and international scale.

  10. El impacto de las representaciones sociales en la psicología de los conocimientos sociales: problemas y perspectivas The impact of social representations on the psychology of social knowledge: issues and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Castorina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios psicológicos sobre la formación de nociones sociales de los niños se han llevado a cabo en los términos de una actividad intelectual exclusivamente individual y en una secuencia temporal. Se muestran las dificultades de este enfoque, como por ejemplo, que no explican la perduración de nociones "personalizadas" de la historia durante el desarrollo, más allá del avance propiamente conceptual. Se propone utilizar a la teoría de las representaciones sociales, que considera a al niño como un actor social y cuyo foco está en los valores, que no pueden ser organizados en una secuencia lógica. Luego, se examinan los problemas que involucra utilizar las representaciones sociales en la psicología del desarrollo: si su definición es aceptable, si corresponde al orden simbólico y no a una actividad individual; si son irracionales o tienen otra lógica que los conceptos individuales. Finalmente, se aclaran cuáles son las condiciones epistémicas mínimas para establecer un diálogo entre algunos programas de investigación en psicología del conocimiento y la psicología de las representaciones sociales.Psychological studies on the formation of social notions by children have been conducted in terms of an exclusively individual intellectual activity in a time sequence. We show the difficulties of this approach, which does not, for example, explain the persistence of "personalized" notions of history during development, besides actual conceptual advancement. We propose to use the theory of social representations, which considers the child as a social actor and focuses on values, which may not be organized in a logical sequence. We then examine the issues posed by using social representations in developmental psychology: whether its definition is acceptable, whether it corresponds to the symbolic order and not to an individual activity; whether it is irrational or has a logic other than individual concepts. We finally shed light on

  11. A synopsis of South African psychology from apartheid to democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Saths

    2014-11-01

    In this concatenated overview, the development of psychology in South Africa is traced from its origins in the late 19th century to the present. The seminal influences on the science and practice of psychology of the racialized polity and the responses to the prevailing regimen are also explored. The significant events in the patinated layers of psychological discourse and consequent policies in these constrained circumstances are traversed. Despite the nonracial era occasioned by the formation of the Psychological Society of South Africa three months before the advent of democracy under Nelson Mandela in 1994, the profession of psychology remains demographically skewed. Nevertheless, psychology in the current democratic dispensation enjoys a high profile and is actively engaged in ongoing and reflexive self-examination to ensure that it is more accessible and truly serves humanity. If Africa is psychology's last frontier, the critical denouement of the various issues confronting psychology in the southern tip of the African continent will provide a positive growth path that is likely to merit attention beyond its borders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Decision making under uncertainty: An investigation into the application of formal decision-making methods to safety issue decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, M.P.

    1992-12-01

    As part of the NRC-sponsored program to study the implications of Generic Issue 57, ''Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment,'' a subtask was performed to evaluate the applicability of formal decision analysis methods to generic issues cost/benefit-type decisions and to apply these methods to the GI-57 results. In this report, the numerical results obtained from the analysis of three plants (two PWRs and one BWR) as developed in the technical resolution program for GI-57 were studied. For each plant, these results included a calculation of the person-REM averted due to various accident scenarios and various proposed modifications to mitigate the accident scenarios identified. These results were recomputed to break out the benefit in terms of contributions due to random event scenarios, fire event scenarios, and seismic event scenarios. Furthermore, the benefits associated with risk (in terms of person-REM) averted from earthquakes at three different seismic ground motion levels were separately considered. Given this data, formal decision methodologies involving decision trees, value functions, and utility functions were applied to this basic data. It is shown that the formal decision methodology can be applied at several different levels. Examples are given in which the decision between several retrofits is changed from that resulting from a simple cost/benefit-ratio criterion by virtue of the decision-makinger's expressed (and assumed) preferences

  14. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  15. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters...... Psychology series aims to highlight and develop new ideas that advance our understanding of these issues. This first volume in the series features an address by Prof. Jaan Valsiner, which is followed by ten commentary chapters and his response to them. In his lecture, Valsiner explores what Niels Bohr......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...

  16. New Start of “Psychological Thought”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The history and the mission of Psychological Thought are presented. The scientific journal “Psychological Thought” started its existence as an idea of the colleagues at the Department of Psychology at South-West University “Neofit Rilski” in 2006. Seven print issues were published from 2006 to 2009 (2 issues per year. Each issue included average ten articles published in Bulgarian or in English.

  17. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  18. Psychology and Education, Together Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between psychology and education has waxed and waned over the past century. In addition, a core issue for psychologists is how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in applied settings such as schools. While acknowledging the work that has been done, it is apparent that the effective dissemination of psychology to…

  19. Psychology's dilemma: An institutional neurosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzko, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The term psychology refers both to an institutional discipline and to a subject matter. Henriques, in his article "Psychology Defined" (this issue) , emphasizes the second reference, and its focus can be sharpened by taking into account the first reference. On the one hand, epistemic progress in

  20. 77 FR 40790 - Republic of Tunisia Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Fiscal Agent. Person means any legal person, including any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, joint stock company, trust, unincorporated organization, or government or any agency... Borrower's failure to comply on a timely basis with any obligation it may have under an Eligible Note to...

  1. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  2. Psychological interventions in cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Grieteke

    2009-01-01

    Currently cancer is the first cause of death in Western society, but also: many patients survive, due to improved treatments. During the past 30 years psycho-oncology has grown from a non-issue to an important aspect of cancer-rehabilitation. Psychological adaptation to cancer is a complex process,

  3. Suicide or accident? A psychological autopsy study of suicide in youths under the age of 16 compared to deaths labeled as accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freuchen Anne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In the present paper, we describe suicide in youths under 16 years of age and compare their risk factors for suicide to those of older adolescents as described in the literature. Furthermore, we evaluate the possible mislabeling of suicides as accidents, and vice versa. Method We used the data from a nationwide psychological autopsy of youths 15 years and younger who had committed suicide or died in accidents in Norway from 1993 to 2004 (n = 84. We additionally constructed a suicide index to distinguish between the two causes of death. Results The young suicide victims presented, with little gender difference, fewer obvious risk factors and less suicide intent than commonly described for older adolescents. The suicide index distinguished quite well between suicides and accidents, with few cases indicating a possible mislabeling, although some suicide cases could have been labeled as uncertain. Conclusion In line with previous research, suicides in 11-15-year-olds have many similarities to suicides in older adolescents in terms of external circumstances, but they present less apparent warning signs. In our total sample of 84 deaths, there were few indications of incorrect labeling.

  4. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  5. Psychology defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Gregg R

    2004-12-01

    A new form of knowledge technology is used to diagnose psychology's epistemological woes and provide a solution to the difficulties. The argument presented is that psychology has traditionally spanned two separate but intimately related problems: (a) the problem of animal behavior and (b) the problem of human behavior. Accordingly, the solution offered divides the field into two broad, logically consistent domains. The first domain is psychological formalism, which is defined as the science of mind, corresponds to animal behavior, and consists of the basic psychological sciences. The second domain is human psychology, which is defined as the science of human behavior at the individual level and is proposed as a hybrid that exists between psychological formalism and the social sciences. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A psychological intervention programme for patients with breast cancer under chemotherapy and at a high risk of depression: A randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Choi, Kyung Sook; Han, Kihye; Kim, Hae Won

    2018-02-01

    To develop a nurse-led psychological intervention programme and to evaluate its effects on psychological distress and quality of life in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy and at a high risk of depression. Depression is common among patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Psychological intervention programmes that improve psychological distress and quality of life have previously been lacking in South Korea. This was a pre- and post-test randomised controlled trial. The nurse-led psychological intervention programme comprised seven weekly counselling sessions delivered face to face and telephonically. These aimed to provide emotional support to patients and to enable them to express their feelings. Patients at a high risk of depression were recruited from an oncology outpatient clinic in a university hospital. Sixty participants were evenly and randomly allocated to either the intervention group or the control group. The effects of the intervention on psychological distress (mood disturbance, anxiety and depression) and quality of life were examined using linear mixed models. Compared with the control group, the intervention group reported significantly lower mood disturbance, anxiety and depression and showed an improved global health status and physical, role and emotional functions. They also reported fewer symptoms such as fatigue, nausea/vomiting, pain and insomnia. Our nurse-led psychological intervention programme might reduce patients' uncertainty and encourage them to be proactive and self-controllable. Nurse-led psychological intervention programmes should be implemented to reduce psychological distress and improve quality of life in patients with breast cancer, particularly those at a high risk of depression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  8. Deep Brain Stimulation for Tremor Associated with Underlying Ataxia Syndromes: A Case Series and Discussion of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genko Oyama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS has been utilized to treat various symptoms in patients suffering from movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Though ataxia syndromes have not been formally or frequently addressed with DBS, there are patients with ataxia and associated medication refractory tremor or dystonia who may potentially benefit from therapy.Methods: A retrospective database review was performed, searching for cases of ataxia where tremor and/or dystonia were addressed by utilizing DBS at the University of Florida Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration between 2008 and 2011. Five patients were found who had DBS implantation to address either medication refractory tremor or dystonia. The patient's underlying diagnoses included spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2, fragile X associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, a case of idiopathic ataxia (ataxia not otherwise specified [NOS], spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17, and a senataxin mutation (SETX.Results: DBS improved medication refractory tremor in the SCA2 and the ataxia NOS patients. The outcome for the FXTAS patient was poor. DBS improved dystonia in the SCA17 and SETX patients, although dystonia did not improve in the lower extremities of the SCA17 patient. All patients reported a transient gait dysfunction postoperatively, and there were no reports of improvement in ataxia‐related symptoms.Discussion: DBS may be an option to treat tremor, inclusive of dystonic tremor in patients with underlying ataxia; however, gait and other symptoms may possibly be worsened.Erratum published on July 27, 2016

  9. Foreword to 'Multiscale structural biology: biophysical principles and mechanisms underlying the action of bio-nanomachines', a special issue in Honour of Fumio Arisaka's 70th birthday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Damien; Takagi, Junichi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2018-03-02

    This issue of Biophysical Reviews, titled 'Multiscale structural biology: biophysical principles and mechanisms underlying the action of bio-nanomachines', is a collection of articles dedicated in honour of Professor Fumio Arisaka's 70th birthday. Initially, working in the fields of haemocyanin and actin filament assembly, Fumio went on to publish important work on the elucidation of structural and functional aspects of T4 phage biology. As his career has transitioned levels of complexity from proteins (hemocyanin) to large protein complexes (actin) to even more massive bio-nanomachinery (phage), it is fitting that the subject of this special issue is similarly reflective of his multiscale approach to structural biology. This festschrift contains articles spanning biophysical structure and function from the bio-molecular through to the bio-nanomachine level.

  10. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in cha...

  11. Psychological effects of Helicobacter pylori-associated atrophic gastritis in patients under 50 years: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Atsushi; Tayama, Jun; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Sagara, Ikuko; Ogawa, Sayaka; Saigo, Tatsuo; Hayashida, Masaki; Yamasaki, Hironori; Fukudo, Shin; Shirabe, Susumu

    2017-12-01

    While gastrointestinal function is known to be closely related to psychological status, the influence of Helicobacter pylori-associated atrophic gastritis is currently unknown. We aimed to determine whether atrophic gastritis status or H. pylori infection is associated with psychological distress or depressed mood. We performed a cross-sectional, observational study involving 975 Japanese individuals (503 females; mean age, 44 ± 8 years) who underwent a health checkup. Psychological distress was defined as a Kessler-6 Scale score ≥13 and depressive mood as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score ≥ 16. The odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals assessing the risk of psychological distress or depressive mood associated with H. pylori infection (H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G levels >10 U/mL) and atrophic gastritis status (pepsinogen I levels gastritis had a significantly higher risk of experiencing psychological distress, with younger females (pylori infection status. Among females aged pylori-seropositive participants with atrophic gastritis (HP+AG+) showed the highest risk of psychological distress (OR, 16.4; 95% CI, 3.45-94.9) and depression (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.31-6.05), using HP-AG- status as the reference. Our findings support the results of previous animal studies regarding the psychological response to gastritis in humans. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether H. pylori eradication provides psychological benefits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. HIV Disease in the Psychology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Ann R.

    2000-01-01

    Provides ideas for relating HIV topics to psychology content. Suggests three methods of curriculum integration: (1) using traditional course content (research methods, abnormal psychology, health psychology, gender and ethnic studies, drugs and behavior); (2) exploring diversity issues; and (3) challenging students' critical thinking skills. (CMK)

  13. [International adoption and child psychological vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérouse de Montclos, M-O

    2011-04-01

    Child psychiatry consultations specialised in filiation and international adoption help adopted children with psychological troubles and their adoptive parents. Regardless to this experience and to recent issues in the fields of attachment and narrativity, psychotraumatism and transcultural, some psychological risk factors for internationnally adopted children are described, requiring specialised psychological help. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Community Psychology, Evaluation, and Social Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Community psychology blends psychological science, a community-level perspective on social issues, and a social justice orientation. Despite important difference between community psychology and program evaluation, program evaluation is a key component of many community psychologists' practice and holds a central place in my own. In this…

  15. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  16. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  17. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  18. To the Issue of Application of L. Ron Hubbard Detoxication Method Under the Program of Semipalatinsk Region Population Rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apusheva, B.K.; Nurumbetova, R.M.; Tuleubaev, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    The detoxification is one of the most acute problems of the population rehabilitation program of Semipalatinsk region suffered from the nuclear tests in 1949 - 1989. It is known that a Humanitarian Detoxification Service is success-fully functioning in Russia and facilitates the creation of improving centers for the removal of toxic chemical deposits, radiation decay products, and drugs out of the human organism. A method, which permits the successful removal of chemical deposits from the organism, consists of a number of procedures including the intake of a balanced amount of vitamins and minerals, physical exercises and sauna. It is based on the developments of an American scientist L. Ron Hubbard and analytical results of different biologists, physicians and pharmacologists. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed with the numerous clinical tests and examination of over 20,000 patients. The positive results were also obtained during the application of method to the people suffered from the Chernobyl accident. It is proposed to establish such detoxification centre in Kurchatov in order to perform similar investigations among the population of Semipalatinsk region affected by the nuclear testing. It will be created under the auspices of the Kazakh Detoxification Centre and the Pavlodar Centre of the Dianetika International Public Movement. The stable and successive functioning of the Centre is entirely dependent on the financing from the different funds and contract works. This paper proposes the ways of practical solution of man detoxification problem and the introduction of the method into the existing system of population rehabilitation

  19. Oxygen accumulation on metal surfaces investigated by XPS, AES and LEIS, an issue for sputter depth profiling under UHV conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, R.; Celedón, C. E.; Bruckner, B.; Roth, D.; Duchoslav, J.; Arndt, M.; Kürnsteiner, P.; Steck, T.; Faderl, J.; Riener, C. K.; Angeli, G.; Bauer, P.; Stifter, D.

    2017-07-01

    Depth profiling using surface sensitive analysis methods in combination with sputter ion etching is a common procedure for thorough material investigations, where clean surfaces free of any contamination are essential. Hence, surface analytic studies are mostly performed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions, but the cleanness of such UHV environments is usually overrated. Consequently, the current study highlights the in principle known impact of the residual gas on metal surfaces (Fe, Mg, Al, Cr and Zn) for various surface analytics methods, like X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). The investigations with modern, state-of-the-art equipment showed different behaviors for the metal surfaces in UHV during acquisition: (i) no impact for Zn, even after long time, (ii) solely adsorption of oxygen for Fe, slight and slow changes for Cr and (iii) adsorption accompanied by oxide formation for Al and Mg. The efficiency of different counter measures was tested and the acquired knowledge was finally used for ZnMgAl coated steel to obtain accurate depth profiles, which exhibited before serious artifacts when data acquisition was performed in an inconsiderate way.

  20. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris; Witten, Karen

    2017-09-01

    New Zealand's Psychoactive Substances Act (2013) established the world's first regulated market for 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs'). Under an interim PSA regime, 47 existing products were permitted to be continued to be sold. To explore issues with the implementation of regulatory systems to monitor the safety of products on the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act regime. Semi-structured interviews with 30 key stakeholders, including industry, government agency, health and drug service professionals were conducted, transcribed and analysed thematically. In retrospect stakeholders questioned the decision to approve strong synthetic cannabinoid smoking products, noting their health risks because of product formulation, inconsistent manufacturing practices and smoking as the means of administration. Industry actors claimed the decision to approve synthetic cannabinoid smokeable products prevented potentially safer products from gaining market share. The system for withdrawing approved products which were subsequently found to be harmful was criticised for the poor quality of data available, limited engagement with health professionals and the slowness of product withdrawal. Many of the problems with the regime were attributed to the urgency under which the legal market under the interim Psychoactive Substances Act was established and implemented. The selection of 'safer' products, implementation of the product monitoring system, and engagement with health professionals may have benefited from more time and resources. An incremental approach to establishing the new market may have made the regulatory management of the new regime more workable. [Rychert M, Wilkins C, Witten K. Issues with monitoring the safety of psychoactive products under a legal regulated market for new psychoactive substances ('legal highs') in New Zealand. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Oxygen accumulation on metal surfaces investigated by XPS, AES and LEIS, an issue for sputter depth profiling under UHV conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, R., E-mail: roland.steinberger@jku.at [Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Celedón, C.E., E-mail: carlos.celedon@usm.cl [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom- und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valaparaíso, Casilla 110-V (Chile); Bruckner, B., E-mail: barbara.bruckner@jku.at [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom- und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Roth, D., E-mail: dietmar.roth@jku.at [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Abteilung für Atom- und Oberflächenphysik, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Duchoslav, J., E-mail: jiri.duchoslav@jku.at [Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Arndt, M., E-mail: martin.arndt@voestalpine.com [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, voestalpine-Straße 3, 4031 Linz (Austria); Kürnsteiner, P., E-mail: p.kuernsteiner@mpie.de [Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); and others

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Investigation on the impact of residual gas prevailing in UHV chambers. • For some metals detrimental oxygen uptake could be observed within shortest time. • Totally different behavior was found: no changes, solely adsorption and oxidation. • The UHV residual gas may severely corrupt results obtained from depth profiling. • A well-considered data acquisition sequence is the key for reliable depth profiles. - Abstract: Depth profiling using surface sensitive analysis methods in combination with sputter ion etching is a common procedure for thorough material investigations, where clean surfaces free of any contamination are essential. Hence, surface analytic studies are mostly performed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions, but the cleanness of such UHV environments is usually overrated. Consequently, the current study highlights the in principle known impact of the residual gas on metal surfaces (Fe, Mg, Al, Cr and Zn) for various surface analytics methods, like X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). The investigations with modern, state-of-the-art equipment showed different behaviors for the metal surfaces in UHV during acquisition: (i) no impact for Zn, even after long time, (ii) solely adsorption of oxygen for Fe, slight and slow changes for Cr and (iii) adsorption accompanied by oxide formation for Al and Mg. The efficiency of different counter measures was tested and the acquired knowledge was finally used for ZnMgAl coated steel to obtain accurate depth profiles, which exhibited before serious artifacts when data acquisition was performed in an inconsiderate way.

  2. Has psychology "found its true path"? Methods, objectivity, and cries of "crisis" in early twentieth-century French psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how French psychologists understood the state of their field during the first quarter of the twentieth century, and whether they thought it was in crisis. The article begins with the Russian-born psychologist Nicolas Kostyleff and his announcement in 1911 that experimental psychology was facing a crisis. After briefly situating Kostyleff, the article examines his analysis of the troubles facing experimental psychology and his proposed solution, as well as the rather muted response his diagnosis received from the French psychological community. The optimism about the field evident in many of the accounts surveying French psychology during the early twentieth century notwithstanding, a few others did join Kostyleff in declaring that all was not well with experimental psychology. Together their pronouncements suggest that under the surface, important unresolved issues faced the French psychological community. Two are singled out: What was the proper methodology for psychology as a positive science? And what kinds of practices could claim to be objective, and in what sense? The article concludes by examining what these anxieties reveal about the type of science that French psychologists hoped to pursue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Questões éticas da pesquisa em Psicologia do Desenvolvimento Cuestiones éticas de la investigación en Psicología del Desarrollo Ethical issues in research on Developmental Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alvarenga

    2012-01-01

    investigación en Psicología. Sin embargo, se constató la existencia de varios vacíos en la literatura sobre el tema, lo que indica la necesidad de profundizarse en el debate sobre la ética en la investigación en la Psicología del desarrollo.Research in developmental psychology imposes challenges and particular ethical dilemmas for researchers, especially when children and adolescents are concerned. The present study aims to present and discuss some of those ethical issues such as obtaining the informed consent, the participants' referral to treatment and the evaluations, the use of instruments that were not validated, dilemmas regarding adolescents' sexuality and health, and ethical issues concerning carrying out case studies. The questions and reflections proposed were based, essentially, on the authors' research practice, largely backed by the Brazilian legislation and by the literature on research ethics with human beings and on Psychology research. However, several gaps were observed in the literature on the theme, that indicate the need for further debate on research ethics in developmental psychology.

  4. Xenophobia: Contemporary Issues in Psychology | Alarape | IFE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many countries grow far more quickly than they would otherwise have done because of the opening up of international trade. Millions of people are better off in some Asian countries as a result of export-led growth that was the centerpiece of their industrial policy. The forces of globalization have brought rapid sociopolitical ...

  5. Dyscalculia: Issues for Practice in Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, James

    2012-01-01

    Dyscalculia has been described as a specific learning difficulty affecting the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. In recent years, it has become a topic for discussion in the popular media, yet there has been little research undertaken by educational psychologists. This paper provides a summary of neuroscientific research into the development…

  6. Some Issues of Ethics and Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephen G.; Gunn, Steven P.

    1978-01-01

    It is argued that there is a fundamental difference in the perception of the nature of man on the part of humanistic critics and traditional experimental social psychologists which leads to different assessments of the long-term effects of deception research on subjects. (Author/AM)

  7. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  9. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2018-02-12

    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin

    1999-01-01

    “Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

  11. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...

  12. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  13. Introduction to December 2013 issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wendy A

    2013-12-01

    In this introduction to the December 2013 issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, the editor discusses her goals to get the Journal back on track. She gives thanks for the research that continues to advance both science and practice in experimental psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Menopause: Salient Issues for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Marilyn M.; Lynch, Ann Q.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding menopause, with the idea that counselors are in an ideal position to help change attitudes toward viewing menopause as a time of positive change rather than a time of psychological distress. Reviews historical, sociological, psychological, and attitudinal factors that account for negative responses associated with…

  15. Peculiarities of psychological, clinical and instrumental indicators in children with vegetative dysfunction and hypotension under the influence of innovative psychocorrective program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Mitjurjajeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study the features of psychological state, clinical and instrumental parameters in children with vegetative dysfunction (VD and hypotension influenced by comprehensive treatment with the inclusion of the innovative psychocorrective program with elements of music therapy, visual art therapy and gelotology. Materials and methods. The study included 57 patients with VD and hypotension aged 12 to 17 years, 37 of them received psychotherapy with innovative program “Our drugs — music, laughter, creativity” in comprehensive treatment, 20 children (control group received basic treatment without psychological assistance. General clinical, laboratory, instrumental and psychodiagnostic studies were performed both in main and control groups. Results. Using innovative psychocorrective program in children with VD and hypotension as a part of comprehensive treatment contributed to the improvement of clinical and instrumental data: number of cases with autonomic influences on the heart reduced (from 22.1 to 5.25 %, р < 0.05, orthostatic test autonomic provision was normalized in 40.5 % of children, psychological state improvement was observed in 74.1 % of cases. Conclusions. Innovative psychocorrective program with elements of music therapy, visual art therapy and gelotology can be recommended as a part of comprehensive treatment of children with VD and hypotension in hospital environment and in future psychological support of patients.

  16. Stereotypes Can “Get Under the Skin”: Testing a Self-Stereotyping and Psychological Resource Model of Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Luis M.; Paredez, Stefanie M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors draw upon social, personality, and health psychology to propose and test a self-stereotyping and psychological resource model of overweight and obesity. The model contends that self-stereotyping depletes psychological resources, namely self-esteem, that help to prevent overweight and obesity. In support of the model, mediation analysis demonstrates that adult Hispanics who highly self-stereotype had lower levels of self-esteem than those who self-stereotype less, which in turn predicted higher levels of body mass index (overweight and obesity levels). Furthermore, the model did not hold for the referent sample, White participants, and an alternative mediation model was not supported. These data are the first to theoretically and empirically link self-stereotyping and self-esteem (a psychological resource) with a strong physiological risk factor for morbidity and short life expectancy in stigmatized individuals. Thus, this research contributes to understanding ethnic-racial health disparities in the United States and beyond. PMID:25221353

  17. Psychological impact of unexpected explicit recall of events occurring during surgery performed under sedation, regional anaesthesia, and general anaesthesia: data from the Anesthesia Awareness Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, C D; Mashour, G A; Metzger, N A; Posner, K L; Domino, K B

    2013-03-01

    Anaesthetic awareness is a recognized complication of general anaesthesia (GA) and is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although complete amnesia for intraprocedural events during sedation and regional anaesthesia (RA) may occur, explicit recall is expected by anaesthesia providers. Consequently, the possibility that there could be psychological consequences associated with unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation and RA has not been investigated. This study investigated the psychological sequelae of unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation/RA that was reported to the Anesthesia Awareness Registry. The Registry recruited subjects who self-identified as having had anaesthetic awareness. Inclusion criteria were a patient-reported awareness experience in 1990 or later and availability of medical records. The sensations experienced by the subjects during their procedure and the acute and persistent psychological sequelae attributed to this explicit recall were assessed for patients receiving sedation/RA and those receiving GA. Among the patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, medical record review identified 27 sedation/RA and 50 GA cases. Most patients experienced distress (78% of sedation/RA vs 94% of GA). Approximately 40% of patients with sedation/RA had persistent psychological sequelae, similar to GA patients. Some sedation/RA patients reported an adverse impact on their job performance (15%), family relationships (11%), and friendships (11%), and 15% reported being diagnosed with PTSD. Patients who self-reported to the Registry unexpected explicit recall of events during sedation/RA experienced distress and persistent psychological sequelae comparable with those who had reported anaesthetic awareness during GA. Further study is warranted to determine if patients reporting distress with explicit recall after sedation/RA require psychiatric follow-up.

  18. [Psychological time, definition and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2012-10-01

    Psychological time comprises different forms of time. Each form of time corresponds to different psychological mechanisms. The human being is subject to distortions of time under the effect of emotions. The effectiveness of social interaction depends on our aptitude to synchronise ourselves with others.

  19. Inflation. National Issues Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Agenda Foundation, New York, NY.

    This booklet is designed to help citizens understand public issues concerning chronic inflation and to work toward acceptable solutions for ending inflation. There are seven chapters. Chapter one provides a brief explanation of the nation's inflation problem. The psychological, social, and economic impact of inflation is the topic of chapter two.…

  20. Editorial Special Issue: Neuronus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Kuniecki, Michal

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the 12th volume of Advances in Cognitive Psychology is devoted to the Neuronus conference that took place in Kraków in 2015. In this editorial letter, we will focus on a selection of the materials and some follow-up research that was presented during this conference. We will

  1. Black Psychology. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    This book is the third edition of a resource for advanced students and professionals in black psychology in the form of 41 papers organized under 5 subheadings. The "overview" section includes one classic article and offers a new, world view paper. A "perspectives" section treats Afrocentric, humanistic, historical,…

  2. Legal issues relating to the feed-in of biogas under the Gas Network Access Ordinance; Rechtsfragen der Biogaseinspeisung nach der GasNZV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stappert, Holger; Johannsen, Sven Leif Erik [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In the authors' view, the legislature has set itself ambitious goals in regulating the feed-in of biogas into the natural gas grid. Aside from the economic considerations that are leading investors to prefer other investment opportunities there are also a number of unresolved technical issues relating to the feed-in of biogas. Furthermore, network operators find themselves confronted with considerable legal uncertainty as they process grid connection applications, i.e. in the time interval from application submission until contract conclusion. In spite of being allowed only 3 months for processing connection applications, grid operators are required to bind themselves to a high degree in approving an application. This is a particular cause of difficulty given the as yet unresolved technical problems and is accordingly subject to controversy. In those difficult cases where it not possible to guarantee year-round feed-in of biogas into the grid because of unavailability of deodorant plants that would be needed for the ability to backfeed biogas into upstream grids, resolution would often nevertheless be possible if it was clearly indicated that use of a ''bypass solution'' as a means of ensuring overall cost-effectiveness would be accepted as a capacity-enhancing measure for purposes of cost allocation. This would provide grid operators a way of reliably circumventing the technical difficulties associated with deodorisation, enabling them to connect biogas production plants to the grid without having to deal with these technical issues which still await their final resolution. Under the law currently in force there is no legal impediment, subject to the specifics of the individual case, to accepting a bypass solution as a capacity enhancing measure. It would help grid operators in obtaining legal certainty, and ultimately promote investment in biogas projects, if the legislature were to clarify these issues in the Gas Network Access Ordinance.

  3. Between history and cultural psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Innis’ and Brinkmann’s papers (this issue) tackle two key aspects in cultural psychology: the mediating role played by the different systems of meanings throughout history in making sense of the world, and the normative role of those systems, including psychology itself. This paper offers...... a reflection on these two issues. It begins by highlighting the contribution of psychology and history, as emerging disciplines in the 19th Century, to the creation of a normative framework for the subject of modernity according to the needs of modern nation states. It also alludes to both disciplines’ common...... accounts. Drawing on this assumption, it is discussed how past events are constructed, thus bringing mediation and meaning-making to the fore. Special attention is paid to narratives as symbolic meaning-making tools. We will conclude by discussing usage of the past and the role that cultural psychology can...

  4. Twenty-two years of psychological science in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alvarez, Julio; Palomar-García, Ma Angeles

    2014-02-01

    The journal Psychological Science (PS) has undergone various changes over 22 years since its birth in 1990. Analysis of Web of Science's records shows that the publication has increased in volume and collaborations between authors, and has become more international. Keyword analysis suggests the new role of neuroscience in contemporary psychology and indicates that the PS of today is more oriented than in the 1990s towards psychosocial and emotional issues as well as natural situations in our daily lives (ecological validity). © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  5. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  6. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  7. Psychological literacy: proceed with caution, construction ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch DD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Douglas D Murdoch Department of Psychology, Mount Royal University, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightened legislation, and many other areas make this a desirable goal. It has been proposed that this should become the primary goal of an undergraduate psychology education to benefit the majority who do not go on to graduate school and even those who only take a few psychology courses. This idea has significant merit and warrants further investigation and development. However, there are major concerns that need to be addressed. First, what are uniquely psychological skills and knowledge? Many of the skills psychology undergraduates acquire are generic to university and not specific to psychology. Second, psychology can be as harmful when misapplied as it can be beneficial when ethically applied. Third, psychology departments will need to address pragmatic as well as ethical issues, including issues of competency, boundaries, accountability, and confidentiality. Fourth, the available empirical evidence to direct such efforts is primarily at the anecdotal, case example, and pilot study stages. Significant improvements are needed in measuring psychological literacy, choice of outcome measures, and research methodologies before these advantages can be realized in an empirically supported manner. Currently, best practices in the undergraduate curriculum are the mindful and purposeful design of courses and experiential opportunities. It is proposed that psychological literacy is best conceptualized as a meta-literacy and that it should become a goal of psychology

  8. Integrating psychobiography into psychology's mainstream: Introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Psychobiography, the intense study of a particular person, has long existed at the fringes of mainstream psychology. This special section is comprised of two articles that take important steps to integrate psychobiography into the mainstream of psychology. Schultz and Lawrence (2017) do so by reviewing recent examples of how contemporary psychobiographers have used empirically supported methods and theories to reach conclusions about the individuals under study. Ponterotto and Reynolds (2017) do so by articulating important ethical issues relevant to the practice of psychobiography, a topic on which the American Psychological Association's current ethical code provides little guidance (American Psychological Association, 2017). This introduction closes by proposing that mainstream psychology might better appreciate how psychobiography contributes to psychological knowledge and practice if psychobiographers also clearly articulated their criteria for "good science," better explained how psychobiographical methods complement more mainstream methodological approaches, and empirically tested whether training in psychobiography helps clinicians better understand and treat their clients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. CyberPsychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyberspace. Existing research findings indicate that the learners’ initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners’ interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue. This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners’ psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyberspace and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners’ situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners’ psychological reactions and their observable features in cyberspace. Finally, this paper puts forward a CyberPsychological computation method to estimate the learners’ psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners’ habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns.

  10. The cultural psychology of emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Batja; Leu, Janxin

    2007-01-01

    Bringing together leading authorities, this definitive handbook provides a comprehensive review of where the field of cultural psychology is today and where it may be headed in the future. Major theoretical perspectives are explained, and methodological issues and challenges are discussed. The volume examines how topics fundamental to psychology--identity and social relations, the self, cognition, emotion and motivation, and development--are influenced by cultural meanings and practices. It a...

  11. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  12. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  13. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A.

    2011-01-01

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  14. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  15. Current status of psychology and clinical psychology in India - an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudhagirinathan, Baboo Sankar; Karunanidhi, Subbiah

    2014-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of the social and cultural context for the emergence and development of psychology in India and also more specifically of the development of clinical psychology. It details the range of universities offering psychology programmes and the various bodies involved in supporting the development of the psychology. The paper also describes the development of clinical psychology in India and the variety of roles undertaken by clinical psychologists. Finally, it raises a number of issues facing the development of Indian psychology into the future.

  16. New directions in qualitative research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology organized at Aalborg University, and several contributions that resulted from it.

  17. New Directions in Qualitative Research in Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing...... misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology...

  18. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  19. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    there is a very real and palpable sense that psychologists working with deployed service personnel have an imperative to assist those who give of themselves to defend their countries. Deployment psychology's introduction begins and ends with testimonial accounts from US soldiers' experiences in theatres of war and ...

  20. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  1. Teaching Nuclear Issues. Occasional Paper No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, David W.

    The nuclear debate is one of critical importance and should be explored as part of the school curriculum. The psychology of denying the issue of nuclear arms and the psychological effects of the arms race on children is examined in this paper. A number of topics that might be included in discussion of nuclear issues are the arms race, politics,…

  2. Psychology is about persons: on Brinkmann's expansion of Harré's hybrid psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Alfredo; Cornejo, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Brinkmann has recently put forward an integrative theory of the mind by expanding Harré's hybrid psychology. The theory is integrative because it establishes that in order for one to gain a full understanding of the mind-which is represented as a set of dispositions-one has to take into account theories about the brain, the body, social practices, and technological artifacts. All of these are said to be 'mediators' upon which the mind depends. An important claim underlying the theory is that in psychology the basic ontological unit is the person. We agree with Brinkmann both on this and on the dispositional nature of the mind. Still, he does not make a strong case for the latter. Furthermore, we believe the concept of mediation is by no means helpful to produce an integrative view in psychology, not only because the theoretical job of such a concept is unclear but also because qua unifying concept it may end up undermining the ontological primacy of the person (in psychology). In this paper we refer to these issues and suggest some ideas that may help improve Brinkmann's (and Harré's) proposal.

  3. [Effects in the adherence treatment and psychological adjustment after the disclosure of HIV/AIDS diagnosis with the "DIRE" clinical model in Colombian children under 17].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Ana María; Reyes, Lizeth; Bahamon, Marly Johana; Alarcón, Yolima; Gaviria, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    A study in five Colombian cities in 2006, confirms the findings of other international studies: the majority of HIV-positive children not know their diagnosis, caregivers are reluctant to give this information because they believe that the news will cause emotional distress to the child becoming primary purpose of this study to validate a model of revelation. We implemented a clinical model, referred to as: "DIRE" that hypothetically had normalizing effects on psychological adjustment and adherence to antiretroviral treatment of HIV seropositive children, using a quasi-experimental design. Test were administered (questionnaire to assess patterns of disclosure and non-disclosure of the diagnosis of VIH/SIDA on children in health professionals and participants caregivers, Family Apgar, EuroQol EQ- 5D, MOS Social Support Survey Questionnaire Information treatment for VIH/SIDA and child Symptom Checklist CBCL/6-18 adapted to Latinos) before and after implementation of the model to 31 children (n: 31), 30 caregivers (n: 30) and 41 health professionals. Data processing was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science version 21 by applying parametric tests (Friedman) and nonparametric (t Student). No significant differences in adherence to treatment (p=0.392), in the psychological adjustment were found positive significant differences at follow-ups compared to baseline 2 weeks (p: 0.001), 3 months (p: 0.000) and 6 months (p: 0.000). The clinical model demonstrated effectiveness in normalizing of psychological adjustment and maintaining treatment compliance. The process also generated confidence in caregivers and health professionals in this difficult task.

  4. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Magid, Kesson; Hussain, Delwar

    2016-01-01

    Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD) countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i) 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii) 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii) non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media), with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact) and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission), or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly) despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly). Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of migrant

  5. How Do People Become W.E.I.R.D.? Migration Reveals the Cultural Transmission Mechanisms Underlying Variation in Psychological Processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mesoudi

    Full Text Available Cultural psychologists have shown that people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich, Democratic (WEIRD countries often exhibit different psychological processing to people from less-WEIRD countries. The former exhibit more individualistic and less collectivistic social orientation, and more analytic and less holistic cognition, than non-Westerners. Yet the mechanisms responsible for maintaining this cultural variation are unclear. Immigration is an ideal 'natural experiment' for uncovering such mechanisms. We used a battery of psychological measures previously shown to vary cross-culturally to compare the social orientation and cognitive style of 286 residents of East London from three cultural backgrounds: (i 1st-generation British Bangladeshi immigrants; (ii 2nd-generation British Bangladeshis raised in the UK to Bangladeshi-raised parents; and (iii non-migrants whose parents were born and raised in the UK. Model comparison revealed that individualism and dispositional attribution, typical of Western societies, are driven primarily by horizontal cultural transmission (e.g. via mass media, with parents and other family members having little or no effect, while collectivism, social closeness and situational attribution were driven by a mix of vertical/oblique cultural transmission (e.g. via family contact and horizontal cultural transmission. These individual-level transmission dynamics can explain hitherto puzzling population-level phenomena, such as the partial acculturation of 2nd-generation immigrants on measures such as collectivism (due to the mix of vertical and horizontal cultural transmission, or the observation in several countries of increasing individualism (which is transmitted horizontally and therefore rapidly despite little corresponding change in collectivism (which is transmitted partly vertically and therefore more slowly. Further consideration of cultural transmission mechanisms, in conjunction with the study of

  6. Comparison of pain, cortisol levels, and psychological distress in women undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy under local anaesthesia versus intravenous sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Dan J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The weight of evidence suggests that women who freely choose to terminate a pregnancy are unlikely to experience significant mental health risks, however some studies have documented psychological distress in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the aftermath of termination. Choice of anaesthetic has been suggested as a determinant of outcome. This study compared the effects of local anaesthesia and intravenous sedation, administered for elective surgical termination, on outcomes of pain, cortisol, and psychological distress. Methods 155 women were recruited from a private abortion clinic and state hospital (mean age: 25.4 ± 6.1 years and assessed on various symptom domains, using both clinician-administered interviews and self-report measures just prior to termination, immediately post-procedure, and at 1 month and 3 months post-procedure. Morning salivary cortisol assays were collected prior to anaesthesia and termination. Results The group who received local anaesthetic demonstrated higher baseline cortisol levels (mean = 4.7 vs 0.2, more dissociative symptoms immediately post-termination (mean = 14.7 vs 7.3, and higher levels of pain before (mean = 4.9 vs 3.0 and during the procedure (mean = 8.0 vs 4.4. However, in the longer-term (1 and 3 months, there were no significant differences in pain, psychological outcomes (PTSD, depression, self-esteem, state anxiety, or disability between the groups. More than 65% of the variance in PTSD symptoms at 3 months could be explained by baseline PTSD symptom severity and disability, and post-termination dissociative symptoms. Of interest was the finding that pre-procedural cortisol levels were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms at both 1 and 3 months. Conclusion High rates of PTSD characterise women who have undergone surgical abortions (almost one fifth of the sample meet criteria for PTSD, with women who receive local anaesthetic experiencing more

  7. Standards for educational and psychological testing

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and employment. It includes changes in federal law and measurement trends affecting validity, testing individuals with disabilities or different linguistic backgrounds, and new types of tests, as well as new uses of existing tests.

  8. Archives: Journal of Psychology in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: Journal of Psychology in Africa. Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Psychology in Africa. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 4 of 4 Items. 2005. Vol 15 ...

  9. History of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Imagine: towards an integrated and applied social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jackie; Walton, Chris

    2010-12-01

    This commentary does not aim to engage with the epistemological and ontological technicalities of the discursive psychology maintained by epistemological constructionism and discursive psychology reliant on ontological constructionism approaches that form the basis of the two papers under discussion; other commentators, both in this issue and in the future, are likely to do that. Instead, this commentary aims to situate both papers within a broader frame of contemporary, primarily British social psychology, to ponder the circumstances that gave rise to them and their implications for social psychologists, discursive and non-discursive, alike. We have organized this commentary into two parts. The first part considers two simple questions. First, why does Corcoran critique DPEC for failing to do things that other discursive approaches provide for? And, second, why does Corcoran take DPEC research to task for having too little potential for or made too little contribution to improving the lives and subjectivities of people in general? These two questions are not unrelated, but for clarity's sake we will try to answer them separately. The second part of this commentary will consider the influence of discursive psychology on social psychology more generally.

  11. Teaching Psychology: The Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, John

    2008-01-01

    In this commentary, the author raises two critical aspects not adequately addressed in John Radford's (2008) wide ranging article on the teaching of psychology in higher education. The first aspect is the relevance of boundaries. The second aspect is the political context(s). These two issues, though artificially dissociated for current purposes,…

  12. Psychological literacy: proceed with caution, construction ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Douglas D

    2016-01-01

    Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightened legislation, and many other areas make this a desirable goal. It has been proposed that this should become the primary goal of an undergraduate psychology education to benefit the majority who do not go on to graduate school and even those who only take a few psychology courses. This idea has significant merit and warrants further investigation and development. However, there are major concerns that need to be addressed. First, what are uniquely psychological skills and knowledge? Many of the skills psychology undergraduates acquire are generic to university and not specific to psychology. Second, psychology can be as harmful when misapplied as it can be beneficial when ethically applied. Third, psychology departments will need to address pragmatic as well as ethical issues, including issues of competency, boundaries, accountability, and confidentiality. Fourth, the available empirical evidence to direct such efforts is primarily at the anecdotal, case example, and pilot study stages. Significant improvements are needed in measuring psychological literacy, choice of outcome measures, and research methodologies before these advantages can be realized in an empirically supported manner. Currently, best practices in the undergraduate curriculum are the mindful and purposeful design of courses and experiential opportunities. It is proposed that psychological literacy is best conceptualized as a meta-literacy and that it should become a goal of psychology undergraduate education but not necessarily the goal. PMID:27540315

  13. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  14. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  15. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  16. Editorial Special Issue: Neuronus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Lubbe, Rob H. J.; Kuniecki, Michał

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the 12th volume of Advances in Cognitive Psychology is devoted to the Neuronus conference that took place in Kraków in 2015. In this editorial letter, we will focus on a selection of the materials and some follow-up research that was presented during this conference. We will also briefly introduce the conference contributions that successfully passed an external reviewing process. PMID:28154611

  17. Evolutionary psychology and evolutionary developmental psychology: understanding the evolution of human behavior and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Causey, Kayla

    2010-02-01

    This is an introduction to this special issue on evolutionary psychology (EP) and evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP). We suggest here that, contrary to some common assumptions, mainstream psychology continues to be essentially non Darwinian and that EP and EDP are new approaches that can potentially help us to change this situation. We then present the organization of the special issue (composed of six papers). We conclude that evolution is certainly not the final consideration in psychology, but emphasize its importance as the basis upon which all modern behaviors and development are built.

  18. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...

  19. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  20. Puerto Rican Psychology: A Review of Issues Pertaining to Assessment and Counseling = La Psicologia Puertorriquena: Una Revision de la Problematica Relacionada con la Medicion y la Consejeria. Monograph #135.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O., Ed.

    This is a collection of papers related to psychological assessment and counseling in Puerto Rico. Included are: (1) an introduction (in Spanish), by Joseph O. Prewitt-Diaz; (2) "A Procedure for Constructing Valid Cross-Cultural Attitude Measures for Use in Puerto Rico," by Cecil R. Trueblood; (3) "Perfil de Personalidad en el…

  1. Community psychology practice: expanding the impact of psychology's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom

    2014-11-01

    This article introduces the reader to community psychology practice by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology practice looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology practice. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology practice for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology practice offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The Innermost Kernel Depth Psychology and Quantum Physics. Wolfgang Pauli's Dialogue with C.G Jung

    CERN Document Server

    Gieser, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    "The Innermost Kernel" recounts the physicist and Nobel Laureate Wolfgang Pauli and his interest in Jungian psychology, philosophy and western world-view. It is also an exploration of the intellectual setting and context of Pauli's thinking, which has its starting point in the cultural and intellectual climate of fin-de-siècle Europe. As a contribution to the general history of quantum physics this study has a special focus on the psychological and philosophical issues discussed by physicists belonging to the Copenhagen school. The work is mainly based on the correspondence of the principle characters and explores some of the central issues discussed there, as for instance the subject-object relation, complementarity, the relation of conscious and unconscious, the process underlying concept-formation, the psychology of scientific discovery, the symbolic world of alchemy, the theories of archetypes and of synchronicity. Ultimately this book is about a remarkable scientist searching for a new understanding of ...

  3. Narrative health psychology: Once more unto the breach: editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sools, Anna Maria; Murray, Michael; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this editorial, we position narrative health psychology as a variety of narrative psychology, a form of qualitative research in health psychology, and a psychological perspective that falls under the interdisciplinary term narrative health research. The aim of this positioning is to explore what

  4. Bridging history and social psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psycholog......This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other’s work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social...... psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other...... hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can “test” these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special...

  5. Environmental psychology matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.

  6. High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H; Macdonald, S; Richardson, P

    1997-03-01

    To pilot data collection instruments and to make a preliminary estimate of the level of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife, Scotland. Cross sectional survey of cars containing adults and children at a number of public sites across Fife in 1995 to assess use of car occupant restraints. Trained road safety officers assessed whether seat restraints were appropriate for the age of the passengers and whether restraints were used correctly. These assessments were based on standards published by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. The survey gathered data from 596 occupants in 180 cars: 327 adults and 269 children. Ten per cent of drivers who were approached refused to participate. Car occupant restraint was assessed in 180 drivers, 151 front seat passengers, and 265 rear seat passengers. Three hundred and sixty one occupants wore seat belts, 68 were restrained by a seat belt and booster cushion, 63 in toddler seats, 25 in two way seats, and 18 in rear facing infant carriers. Ninety seven per cent of drivers, 95% of front seat passengers, and 77% of rear seat passengers were restrained. However, in 98 (52%) vehicles at least one passenger was restrained by a device that was used incorrectly. Seven per cent of adults and 28% of children were secured incorrectly. The commonest errors were loose seat belts and restraint devices not adequately secured to the seat. Rates of incorrect use were highest in child seat restraints, reaching 60% with two way seats and 44% with rear facing infant seats. The incorrect use of car occupant restraints is an under-recognised problem, both by health professionals, and the general public. Incorrect use has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of restraints, can itself result in injury, and is likely to be an important factor in child passenger injuries. The correct use of car seat restraints merits greater attention in strategies aiming to reduce road traffic casualties. Areas of intervention that could be

  7. Psychology, Social Science and the Management of Violent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychology, Social Science and the Management of Violent Conflicts in Nigeria. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Some of the significant observations are that; (a) within the Institute, among the members of the social science family, psychology is the least associated with the multidisciplinary ...

  8. Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 2014 Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2014

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and…

  9. The role of sleep in the psychological functioning of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kalak, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents’ sleep is related to psychological functioning. The present cumulative dissertation examined three main issues: First, whether parents’ sleep patterns are associated with their adolescent children’ sleep Patterns using objective assessment of sleep, and whether adolescents’ sleep is associated with their psychological well-being. Second, whether regular physical activity is associated with increased sleep quality and improved psychological functioning. Third, whether interrelation...

  10. [Artistic creativity in the light of Jungian analytical psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trixler, Mátyás; Gáti, Agnes; Tényi, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    C.G. Jung's analytical psychology points at important issues in the psychological understanding of creativity. The theories of the Collective Unconscious and the Archetypes contributed to important discoveries in the interpretation of artistic creativity. Jung was concerned to show the relevance of Analytical Psychology to the understanding of European Modernism. Our paper deals with a short Jungian interpretation of Csontvary's art, too.

  11. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  12. How Statewide LGB Policies Go From “Under Our Skin” to “Into Our Hearts”: Fatherhood Aspirations and Psychological Well-Being Among Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65 % White; 92 % gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  13. How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men.

  14. Reproductive issues in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Zerwas, Stephanie C; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of menstrual irregularities, women with anorexia nervosa are becoming pregnant. The physical and psychological demands of pregnancy and motherhood can represent an immense challenge for women already struggling with the medical and psychological stress of an eating disorder. This article summarizes key issues related to reproduction in women with anorexia nervosa, highlighting the importance of preconception counseling, adequate gestational weight gain, and sufficient pre- and post-natal nutrition. Postpartum issues including eating disorder symptom relapse, weight loss, breastfeeding, and risk of perinatal depression and anxiety are also discussed. PMID:22003362

  15. Psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyankov, I.

    2009-01-01

    The psychological consequences caused by eventual nuclear terrorist act are believed to be some of the most: serious. in this article are presented the issues concerning psychological effects as psychological suffering, alteration of risk estimation, changes of individual and social behavior, etc. The most common psychological consequences as a result of the most popular large-scale nuclear accidents in Chernobyl, TMI (USA), Goiania (Brazil) are described. Some of the main factors, such as sex, age, health status, social status and etc, are analyzed. These factors determine the expression of psychological reactions provoked by nuclear accidents or eventual act of nuclear terrorism. In addition, the main precautions to cope with psychological consequences caused by nuclear terrorism are listed

  16. Responsive Social Psychologies to Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we approach some clues of research that move at the interface between Social Psychology and Ethology, discussing responsive relationships with animals from the contributions of Vinciane Despret. We argue that to be apart of the emerging social psychology of aspects critical in Latin America after the 1970s crisis, ethology has become not to evolutionary social psychologists interested in the study of the agency not restricted to human. What practices can bring the Ethology for Social Psychologies? Which derive stories (reencounter between the animal studies in this field translated and placed under other questions by the Social Psychologies? From a body in movement, employed as psychosocial research method, we have testimony of production which is beyond survival through pairing elements and paired opposites that lead the body to resistance limits, the limits of the human borders.

  17. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues ...

  18. Emotional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Care for Duchenne / Emotional Issues Print Email Emotional Issues Duchenne’s emotional toll on a child can manifest in a ... important things you can provide to ensure the emotional health of your child. Parents of a child ...

  19. Military Psychology for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Adelaide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available African Military Psychology community. Twenty-two years into democracy, this book Military psychology for Africa brings ‘wholeness’ for African soldiers, their families, psychological scientists, university scholars and practitioners. The scope...

  20. Rethinking Education in Psychology and Psychology in Education: The Inaugural Education Leadership Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belar, Cynthia D.; Nelson, Paul D.; Wasik, Barbara Hanna

    2003-01-01

    The inaugural Education Leadership Conference was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) in October 2001 to provide a forum for groups and organizations across all levels of education and training to address issues of mutual concern, to promote a shared disciplinary identity among education and training leaders in psychology, and…

  1. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  2. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  3. NETWORK ANALYSIS IN PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to introduce a new approach called network analysis for its application in the field of psychology. In this paper we present the network model in a brief, entertaining and simple way and, as far as possible, away from technicalities and the statistical point of view. The aim of this outline is, on the one hand, to take the first steps in network analysis, and on the other, to show the theoretical and clinical implications underlying this model. Firstly, the roots of this approach are discussed as well as its way of understanding psychological phenomena, specifically psychopathological problems. The concepts of network, node and edge, the types of networks and the procedures for their estimation are all addressed. Next, measures of centrality are explained and some applications in the field of psychology are mentioned. Later, this approach is exemplified with a specific case, which estimates and analyzes a network of personality traits within the Big Five model. The syntax of this analysis is provided. Finally, by way of conclusion, a brief recapitulation is provided, and some cautionary reflections and future research lines are discussed.

  4. Sequential Order and Plasticity in Early Psychological Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. McVicker

    Four issues related to psychological development are discussed. These issues concern: (1) the criteria by which the separate levels, or structures, or stages of psychological development are to be identified; (2) the principle by means of which these configurations are to be ordered; (3) the nature of the transitions taking place between…

  5. Concussion Management in Schools: Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Angela I.; Pierson, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    The school psychology literature base is lacking in information and resources for working with students with traumatic brain injuries, and concussions specifically. This special issue includes five articles from school psychology based researchers committed to increasing the awareness of the identification, assessment, and intervention for…

  6. Data sharing in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Maryann E; Garcia-Castro, Alexander; VandenBos, Gary R

    2018-01-01

    Routine data sharing, defined here as the publication of the primary data and any supporting materials required to interpret the data acquired as part of a research study, is still in its infancy in psychology, as in many domains. Nevertheless, with increased scrutiny on reproducibility and more funder mandates requiring sharing of data, the issues surrounding data sharing are moving beyond whether data sharing is a benefit or a bane to science, to what data should be shared and how. Here, we present an overview of these issues, specifically focusing on the sharing of so-called "long tail" data, that is, data generated by individual laboratories as part of largely hypothesis-driven research. We draw on experiences in other domains to discuss attitudes toward data sharing, cost-benefits, best practices and infrastructure. We argue that the publishing of data sets is an integral component of 21st-century scholarship. Moreover, although not all issues around how and what to share have been resolved, a consensus on principles and best practices for effective data sharing and the infrastructure for sharing many types of data are largely in place. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Applied cognitive psychology: Implications of cognitive psychology for clinical psychology and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, Michael W

    2004-04-01

    Cognitive psychology has made numerous contributions to clinical psychology, and these contributions are considered especially with reference to the anxiety disorders. It is argued that there are four major contributions that can be identified. First, the cognitive approach has led to the development of complex models showing the main cognitive processes and structures of relevance to an understanding of anxiety disorders. Second, controlled laboratory studies permit a more detailed investigation of cognitive biases in anxious patients than generally is feasible in more naturalistic settings. Third, the cognitive approach provides relevant evidence with respect to the issue of whether cognitive biases play a role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Fourth, the enhanced understanding of the anxiety disorders that has arisen from the cognitive approach has had beneficial effects on therapeutic practice in a number of significant ways. In sum, it is claimed that clinical psychology has benefited considerably from cognitive theory and research. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol.

  8. A Global Community Psychology of Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart C. Carr

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This special issue heralds the coalescence of a new field in social sciences – the psychology of global mobility. This field whilst distinctive is certainly not insular. Contributions in this special issue are interdisciplinary and cross-level, reflecting an open systems perspective. Political motivation, sociological networks, community inclusion, educational institutions, socio-cultural identity processes, and organizational processes are all represented in the collection. Organizational dynamics are perhaps a special theme that runs throughout. They are a timely reminder that the organizational level of analysis in general, and the psychology of work in particular, is a major yet often overlooked component in the study of global mobility processes, including policy development. In a wider sense, the contributions in this special issue cast new light on the interaction between psychology and social/community structures, and the role of these essentially interactive processes in human development. The special issue is about a developing global consciousness, and a role that psychology as one discipline and applied profession can play in this process. A major challenge remains, of course: Connecting psychological research and evidence with social policymaking. To achieve more credibility in the policy domain, psychology will need itself to become more political, and overtly skilled in social advocacy. As these papers remind us, we will need to build more stakeholder alliances, including between research and community groups.

  9. Teaching Sensitive Issues in Cyberpsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jacqui; McAlaney, John; Muir, Sarah; Cole, Terri

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the helpful sources of guidance and regulations for researchers designing and conducting experiments in cyberpsychology, there is very little guidance available for academics and teachers teaching sensitive issues related to behavior in the online world. There are many potential dangers for psychology students when learning about…

  10. The Psychological problems of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Mašková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to summarize findings of causes and consequences of obesity, the most common health problem in the world. The theoretical part deals with many key issues of obesity, from definition through the epidemiology, etiology and obesity prevention and treatment. However the main topics of this thesis are the psychological characteristics that are associated with obesity. It includes personality factors of obese people, willpower and self-control and specific psychopathology....

  11. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  12. Utah Youth Suicide Study: Psychological Autopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskos, Michelle; Olson, Lenora; Halbern, Sarah; Keller, Trisha; Gray, Doug

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a psychological autopsy study to further understand youth suicide in Utah. While traditional psychological autopsy studies primarily focus on the administration of psychometric measures to identify any underlying diagnosis of mental illness for the suicide decedent, we focused our interviews to identify which contacts in the…

  13. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing

  14. Women and men’s psychological adjustment after abortion: a six months prospective pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Background: The psychological impact of abortion is a controversial issue. While some studies indicate that women who had elective abortions present lower psychological distress when compared with those who had spontaneous or therapeutic abortions, other studies found abortion to be associated with significant psychological distress. Objectives: To assess psychological adjustment (emotional disorder, trauma symptoms and couple relationship) one and six months after abortion,...

  15. Sexual harassment: issues for forensic psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, R L

    1992-01-01

    The number of civil lawsuits related to sexual harassment is increasing. The author bases this paper on her experience as an expert witness in 28 sexual harassment cases over the last 10 years. She delineates the psychological and legal issues about which forensic psychiatrists may be consulted. These include issues related to helping a jury determine the veracity of the complaints of harassment, the psychological effects of the harassment, the prognosis, and the treatment for women who have been harassed. The author gives examples of cases where psychiatric testimony was given to help in the decision making about damages related to the psychological effects of sexual harassment.

  16. Psychological conditions in adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Mary; Golden, Sherita Hill; Wagner, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Type 1 (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represent a demanding set of biopsychosocial challenges for patients and their families, whether the age of disease onset occurs in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. Psychological conditions, defined as syndromes, disorders, and diabetes-specific psychological issues affect a larger proportion of individuals with T1D and T2D compared to the general population. In this review, we summarize the prevalence, impact and psychological treatments associated with the primary categories of psychological conditions that affect adults with T1D and T2D: depressive symptoms and syndromes, anxiety disorders, eating behaviors and disorders and serious mental illness. The implications of the literature for psychologists are discussed, and priorities for future research to advance the science of psychological conditions for adults with T1D and T2D are identified. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The study of associative learning: mapping from psychological to neural levels of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Andrew R; Lattal, K Matthew

    2014-02-01

    One of the major achievements of the last century of research in experimental psychology is the identification of a coherent set of theories and principles to characterize the nature of simple forms of associative learning. Major advances are also currently being made at a rapid pace in the neurobiology of associative learning, and, interestingly, we are beginning to see how a mapping from a psychological level of analysis to underlying neurobiological mechanisms is possible. This collection of papers honors the illustrative careers of four major learning theorists from the experimental psychology tradition (Robert Rescorla, Allan Wagner, Nicholas Mackintosh, Anthony Dickinson) who have helped shape our understanding of behavioral principles. The collection of works in this special issue reflects common interests among researchers working at both psychological and neurobiological levels of analysis towards a more comprehensive understanding of basic associative learning processes as they relate to several key issues identified and intensively studied by these influential learning theorists. These consist of the questions regarding (1) the critical conditions enabling learning, (2) the contents of learning, and (3) the rules that translate learning into performance. In one way or another, the separate contributions in this issue address these fundamental questions as they relate to a wide variety of currently exciting topics in the study of the neurobiology of learning and memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Role of Emotion in Psychological Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Buzzella, Brian A.; Ellard, Kristen K.; Barlow, David H.

    2007-01-01

    This Special Issue of Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice provides a series of articles detailing efforts to consider the concepts of emotion and emotion regulation in relation to clinical assessment and psychopathology intervention efforts across the lifespan. In our commentary, we review some common themes and challenges presented in these articles to move forward the discussion of emotion’s role in psychological therapy. We discuss efforts to conceptualize the role of context in defi...

  19. Cultural Psychology and Deconstructing Developmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Crafter, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at points of convergence and divergence between the different branches of cultural psychology and Burman's ideas in Deconstructing Developmental Psychology (DDP). The paper discusses the relationship between the developing ideas in cultural psychology over time and some of the shared theoretical and conceptual criticisms put forward in DDP. This takes into account some of the differences between symbolic approach, activity theory and an individualistic approach to cultural ps...

  20. Psychological harm after PANE: NEPA's requirement to consider psychological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.S. III

    1984-01-01

    In Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE), the Supreme Court held that the National Environmental Policy Act does not require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider the probable impact of its actions on psychological health. The Court's opinion, however, supports the conclusion that NEPA generally requires federal agencies to consider such probable impacts. This article examines the scope of federal responsibility following this decision. It delineates the causal relationship test that the Court adopted in PANE, and discusses possible obstacles to the consideration of psychological impacts under NEPA. It divides federal actions into four categories, then considers the benefits and burdens of the ruling using the NRC's responsibility to consider psychological health effects before licensing new nuclear reactors. 221 references

  1. The contribution of safety issues to public perceptions of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Thomas, Kerry

    1978-01-01

    Public opposition is an important consideration for those responsible for energy planning. An attitude model was applied to identify the underlying determinants of public perceptions of five energy systems: nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro. Empirical results are reported in which these energy systems were found to be perceived in terms of four basic dimensions: psychological aspects; economics benefits; socio-political implications; environmental and physical safety issues. For the total sample, safety issues made an appreciable contribution to attitudes toward all of the systems except nuclear energy, where it was not significant. A differential analysis of two sub-samples, those respondents PRO and CON nuclear energy, showed that benefits and safety issues were important determinants of PRO attitudes while CON attitudes were primarily due to psychological aspects and concerns about personal and political power. The role of technical information in the formation of public attitudes toward technological policies is discussed [fr

  2. Psychologic correlates of dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurs, A H; Duivenvoorden, H J; Thoden van Velzen, S K; Verhage, F; Makkes, P C; Eijkman, M A

    1986-04-01

    In an attempt to establish the relationships between dental anxiety and personality traits, such as neuroticism and locus of control, a survey has been carried out among 30-40-yr-olds in a Dutch town. In the first instance, the questionnaires comprising the psychologic items were treated by Non-Metric Principal Components analysis to detect the underlying structure. The principal components found were then used in a second-stage analysis. The results appear to be at variance with the literature, i.e. subgroups discernible in the sample by sets of psychologic features were not associated with dental anxiety categories.

  3. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  4. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  5. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  6. Positive psychology. An introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, M E; Csikszentmihalyi, M

    2000-01-01

    A science of positive subjective experience, positive individual traits, and positive institutions promises to improve quality of life and prevent the pathologies that arise when life is barren and meaningless. The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living. Hope, wisdom, creativity, future mindedness, courage, spirituality, responsibility, and perseverance are ignored or explained as transformations of more authentic negative impulses. The 15 articles in this millennial issue of the American Psychologist discuss such issues as what enables happiness, the effects of autonomy and self-regulation, how optimism and hope affect health, what constitutes wisdom, and how talent and creativity come to fruition. The authors outline a framework for a science of positive psychology, point to gaps in our knowledge, and predict that the next century will see a science and profession that will come to understand and build the factors that allow individuals, communities, and societies to flourish.

  7. 5 CFR 511.607 - Nonappealable issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonappealable issues. 511.607 Section 511... UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Classification Appeals § 511.607 Nonappealable issues. (a) The following issues are not appealable to the Office under this subpart. Such issues may be reviewed under...

  8. Discussion and Reflection on Several Core Issues in the Grand Canal Heritage Conservation Planning Under the Background of Application for World Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the century, a series of new heritage concepts have appeared in the area of international cultural heritage protection, such as cultural landscape, cultural route, heritage corridor, heritage canal, which presents the development of people’s recognition of cultural heritage. According to The Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, management planning must be contained in the material used to apply for world heritage. The State Administration of Cultural Heritage designed the mission and work schedule of China’s Grand Canal conservation planning in 2008. This research will introduce the working system of China’s Grand Canal conservation planning on three levels: city, province and nation. It will also summarize the characteristics of the core technologies in China’s Grand Canal conservation planning, including key issues like the identification of the core characteristic of China’s Grand Canal, value assessment and determination of the protection scope. Through reviewing, thinking and analyzing the previous accomplishments, the research will offer some advices for the similar world heritage conservation planning after.

  9. Measuring women's psychological well-being in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, E; Wong, E L; Hardee, K; Irwanto; Poerwandari, E K; Severy, L J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a set of measures of women's psychological well-being in Indonesia, identifies meaningful clusters of women based on the well-being measures, and explores the sociodemographic factors associated with these well-being clusters. This is the first published study to measure psychological well-being among a large sample of Indonesians and the first to focus on women in that country. Rather than use standard measures of psychological well-being developed in Western nations and untested among Asian women, focus groups were conducted to develop an understanding of Indonesian women's perceptions of their own well-being. The focus group findings were used to develop 41 questionnaire items to measure psychological well-being, and the questionnaire was administered to 796 women in Sumatra and Lampung. Factor analysis reduced the well-being variables into five factors accounting for 45% of the total variance: (1) general negative feelings; (2) satisfaction with relationships and ability to control fertility; (3) satisfaction with economic, family and personal conditions; (4) negative feelings regarding marital and domestic issues; and (5) ability to pursue activities outside the home. We constructed five scales based on these factors. Based on their scores on these scales, women grouped into three clusters differentiated by their scores on four of the five scales. Low levels of psychological well-being were associated in bivariate analyses with: (1) rural residence; (2) young age (under age 30); (3) marriage before age 20; (4) low socioeconomic status; and (5) lower educational attainment.

  10. Psychology in Teacher Preparation. Monograph Series No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, John, Ed.; Ausubel, David P., Ed.

    The underlying assumption of this collection of papers written by professors of educational psychology in universities or colleges in Canada, the United States, and Britain is that "teachers are receiving an entirely inadequate preparation in psychology" and that educational psychology as it is now taught in teacher-preparation programs ought to…

  11. Understanding the Development of School Psychology in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Rik Carl; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Zhao, B. Yang; Hu, Juan

    2013-01-01

    School psychology is an important area within psychology, which has a short developmental history in Mainland China. Nonetheless, along with economic advances and social changes in Mainland China, school psychology is developing and becoming more important. Currently, people need to work harder and longer. This places many under pressure that may…

  12. Mental health issues in Australian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, David

    2003-07-01

    Mental illness is common, under detected and often poorly managed in residential aged care facilities. These concerns have achieved greater prominence as the worldwide population ages. Over 80% of people in nursing home care fulfill criteria for one or more psychiatric disorders in an environment that often presents significant difficulties for assessment and treatment. This article aims to provide an overview of the important mental health issues involved in providing medical care for patients with behavioural and psychological problems in residential aged care facilities. Recent developments in education and training, service development and assessment and treatment strategies show some promise of improving the outcome for aged care residents with mental health problems. This is of especial relevance for primary care physicians who continue to provide the bulk of medical care for this population.

  13. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  14. Humanistic Psychology and Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders Richards, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The place of the encounter group within the framework of humanistic psychology is examined and an assessment of the moral significance of the humanistic psychology movement and the encounter group technique is attempted. (Editor)

  15. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. ...

  16. Psychological aspects of bariatric surgery as a treatment for obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Jumbe, S.; Hamlet, C.; Meyrick, J.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the psychological effects on life after bariatric surgery despite the high prevalence of psychological disorders in candidates seeking this procedure. Our review discusses the psychological impact of bariatric surgery, exploring whether the procedure addresses underlying psychological conditions that can lead to morbid obesity and the effect on eating behaviour postoperatively.\\ud \\ud Findings show that despite undisputed significant weight loss and improvements in comor...

  17. Negativland - a home for all findings in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Laws, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    Psychology has been historically plagued by the under-reporting of both replications and null findings. The avoidance of these core ingredients of scientific practice means that the psychology literature is unquestionably distorted. The bias in psychology is pervasive and systemic, afflicting researchers, reviewers, editors and journals, all of whom are wed to pursuing the novel and the curious at the expense of the reliable. Psychology therefore operates in a manner that is askew of other sc...

  18. Psychologic effects of residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, D B

    1983-03-01

    The intense situational and physiologic stresses that accompany postgraduate training may have serious psychosocial ramifications. Although only a small proportion of residents have overt psychiatric illness, virtually all display some psychologic impairment. Contributing factors include life-changes, stresses associated with providing patient care, loss of social support, long working hours, sleep deprivation, and underlying personality traits of residents. The manifestations of this impairment are variable and may be subtle. In response to these problems, residency programs have taken steps to provide psychosocial support. Unfortunately, most programs do not offer formal support groups or seminars to discuss difficulties that accompany residency. Further definition of the psychosocial effects of residency may prompt changes that make the training of physicians a more humane process.

  19. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  20. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  1. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  2. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  3. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334 ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  4. Is Psychoanalysis a Folk Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arminjon, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these “extensionists,” asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett’s theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues. PMID:23525879

  5. The psychology of computer programming

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Gerald Marvin

    1998-01-01

    This landmark 1971 classic is reprinted with a new preface, chapter-by-chapter commentary, and straight-from-the-heart observations on topics that affect the professional life of programmers. Long regarded as one of the first books to pioneer a people-oriented approach to computing, The Psychology of Computer Programming endures as a penetrating analysis of the intelligence, skill, teamwork, and problem-solving power of the computer programmer. Finding the chapters strikingly relevant to today's issues in programming, Gerald M. Weinberg adds new insights and highlights the similarities and differences between now and then. Using a conversational style that invites the reader to join him, Weinberg reunites with some of his most insightful writings on the human side of software engineering. Topics include egoless programming, intelligence, psychological measurement, personality factors, motivation, training, social problems on large projects, problem-solving ability, programming language design, team formati...

  6. Dealing with Diversity Issues in the Classroom: A Survey of the STP Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Loreto R.; Whittlesey, Valerie; Herbert, Diane; Ocampo, Carlota; Schomburg, Allison; So, Dominicus

    2009-01-01

    We examined how psychology educators regarded and addressed diversity issues in their classrooms. The approximately 650 psychology educators who took part in this survey indicated a high level of personal acceptance of diverse persons and acknowledged the importance of infusing diversity issues into courses across the psychology curriculum. Our…

  7. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…

  8. Durability and Design Issues of Thermal/environmental Barrier Coatings on Sic/sic Ceramic Matrix Composites Under 1650 C Test Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Choi, Sung R.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic thermal/environmental barrier coatings for SiC-based ceramics will play an increasingly important role in future gas turbine engines because of their ability to effectively protect the engine components and further raise engine temperatures. However, the coating durability remains a major concern with the ever-increasing temperature requirements. Currently, advanced T/EBC systems, which typically include a high temperature capable zirconia- (or hahia-) based oxide top coat (thermal barrier) on a less temperature capable mullite/barium-strontium-aluminosilicate (BSAS)/Si inner coat (environmental barrier), are being developed and tested for higher temperature capability Sic combustor applications. In this paper, durability of several thermal/environmental barrier coating systems on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites was investigated under laser simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic, and 1650 C (3000 F) test conditions. The coating cracking and delamination processes were monitored and evaluated. The effects of temperature gradients and coating configurations on the ceramic coating crack initiation and propagation were analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA) models based on the observed failure mechanisms, in conjunction with mechanical testing results. The environmental effects on the coating durability will be discussed. The coating design approach will also be presented.

  9. Under-representation of developing countries in the research literature: ethical issues arising from a survey of five leading medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siribaddana Sisira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely acknowledged that there is a global divide on health care and health research known as the 10/90 divide. Methods A retrospective survey of articles published in the BMJ, Lancet, NEJM, Annals of Internal Medicine & JAMA in a calendar year to examine the contribution of the developing world to medical literature. We categorized countries into four regions: UK, USA, Other Euro-American countries (OEAC and (RoW. OEAC were European countries other than the UK but including Australia, New Zealand and Canada. RoW comprised all other countries. Results The average contribution of the RoW to the research literature in the five journals was 6.5%. In the two British journals 7.6% of the articles were from the RoW; in the three American journals 4.8% of articles were from RoW. The highest proportion of papers from the RoW was in the Lancet (12%. An analysis of the authorship of 151 articles from RoW showed that 104 (68.9% involved authorship with developed countries in Europe or North America. There were 15 original papers in these journals with data from RoW but without any authors from RoW. Conclusions There is a marked under-representation of countries in high-impact general medical journals. The ethical implications of this inequity and ways of reducing it are discussed.

  10. Bruner's Search for Meaning: A Conversation between Psychology and Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Cheryl; Lutkehaus, Nancy C; Throop, C Jason

    2008-03-01

    We introduce a special issue of Ethos devoted to the work of Jerome Bruner and his careerlong attempts to seek innovative ways to foster a dialogue between psychology and anthropology. The articles in this special issue situate Bruner's meaning-centered approach to psychology and his groundbreaking work on narrative in the broader context of the developmental trajectory of both of fields of inquiry. Bruner's work has been enormously influential in the subfields of cultural psychology and psychological anthropology, especially because of his important contributions to our understanding of the intimate relationship between culture and mind. We examine Bruner's past and ongoing engagement with such luminary figures as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Alfred Kroeber, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Clifford Geertz to highlight points of convergence and tension between his version of cultural psychology and contemporary theorizing and practice in psychological anthropology. We also review his practical and theoretical contributions to the fields of medicine, law, and education.

  11. Bruner's Search for Meaning: A Conversation between Psychology and Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Cheryl; Lutkehaus, Nancy C.; Throop, C. Jason

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a special issue of Ethos devoted to the work of Jerome Bruner and his careerlong attempts to seek innovative ways to foster a dialogue between psychology and anthropology. The articles in this special issue situate Bruner's meaning-centered approach to psychology and his groundbreaking work on narrative in the broader context of the developmental trajectory of both of fields of inquiry. Bruner's work has been enormously influential in the subfields of cultural psychology and psychological anthropology, especially because of his important contributions to our understanding of the intimate relationship between culture and mind. We examine Bruner's past and ongoing engagement with such luminary figures as Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Alfred Kroeber, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Clifford Geertz to highlight points of convergence and tension between his version of cultural psychology and contemporary theorizing and practice in psychological anthropology. We also review his practical and theoretical contributions to the fields of medicine, law, and education. PMID:20706551

  12. Toward a psychology of human survival: Psychological approaches to contemporary global threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, R.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear weapons, population explosion, resource and food-supply depletion, and environmental deterioration have been posing increasing threats to human survival. Moreover, for the first time in history, all these major global threats are human caused and can, therefore, be traced in large part to psychological origins. After a brief overview of the nature and extent of current threats, this paper suggests criteria for an adequate psychology of human survival. The causes and effects of the threats are examined from various psychological perspectives and the psychological principles underlying effective responses are deduced. The ways in which mental health professionals may contribute to this most crucial task are discussed. 76 references

  13. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. New approaches to sport and exercise psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    : they contribute something new or different to the field of sport and exercise psychology, for example, a new epistemological understanding, a new theoretical approach, a new research method or a new perspective on the applicability of sport psychology to different settings in the domain of sport, games......This book contains articles based on selected presentations at the 11th European Congress of Sport Psychology, a congress arranged by the Danish Forum of Sport Psychology and the Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, between 22 and 27 July 2003 in Copenhagen, Denmark.1......) The intention of this publication is to introduce the reader to a selection of articles which the editors would like to summarize under the title New Approaches to Sport and Exercise Psychology. Despite the diversity in content and form, all the articles have been selected on the basis of one common orientation...

  15. New approaches to sport and exercise psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains articles based on selected presentations at the 11th European Congress of Sport Psychology, a congress arranged by the Danish Forum of Sport Psychology and the Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, between 22 and 27 July 2003 in Copenhagen, Denmark.1......) The intention of this publication is to introduce the reader to a selection of articles which the editors would like to summarize under the title New Approaches to Sport and Exercise Psychology. Despite the diversity in content and form, all the articles have been selected on the basis of one common orientation......: they contribute something new or different to the field of sport and exercise psychology, for example, a new epistemological understanding, a new theoretical approach, a new research method or a new perspective on the applicability of sport psychology to different settings in the domain of sport, games...

  16. Neoscholastic psychology revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmann, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Beginning around 1879, a Neoscholastic psychology developed, an experimental psychology with a soul. Opposed to materialism, it sought to renew Scholastic philosophy by incorporating the findings of the natural sciences. Neoscholastic psychology is an important chapter in the history of the relationships between science and religion in the 20th century. Neoscholastic psychology was both experimental and philosophical. This article presents the main accomplishments of North American Neoscholastic psychology in academic and applied areas. Neoscholastic psychologists championed scientific psychology while insisting on a better conception of human nature. Philosophical critiques led to a decline of Neoscholasticism; after the 1960s it was no longer official Catholic philosophy. Neoscholasticism gave psychologists concerned with philosophical questions impetus to turn to phenomenology, existentialism, and humanistic psychology.

  17. Giambattista Vico and the psychological imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This special issue originates from an international workshop on “Vico and imagination,” that took place at Aalborg University in 2014, within a research project on Giambattista Vico and the epistemology of psychology. Imagination has inexplicably been relegated to the background in contemporary...... psychology, despite the fact that imaginative processes are involved in even the most mundane activities. In this editorial, I first present the rationale and the content of the articles and commentaries. Then I outline a brief history of the concept of imagination before Vico, drawing some consequences...... for contemporary psychology. Finally, I provide the proposal for a new research program on imagination as a higher psychological function that enables us to manipulate complex meanings of both linguistic and iconic forms in the process of experiencing....

  18. A Global Community Psychology of Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Stuart C.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue heralds the coalescence of a new field in social sciences – the psychology of global mobility. This field whilst distinctive is certainly not insular. Contributions in this special issue are interdisciplinary and cross-level, reflecting an open systems perspective. Political motivation, sociological networks, community inclusion, educational institutions, socio-cultural identity processes, and organizational processes are all represented in the collection. Organizational dy...

  19. Report from the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, L D

    1989-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the difficult circumstances that the American Psychological Association (APA) and the mental health community are facing during the 1980s. While a great deal has been learned about mental health issues of older persons and research has demonstrated that they can benefit by appropriate services, the majority of elders needing mental health services are still not receiving them. Service, research and policy issues of concern to APA are discussed and several positive APA activities are noted.

  20. [Psychological evaluation of uterus transplantation trial participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmel, Roman; Pastor, Zlatko; Nováčková, Marta; Matěcha, Jan; Čekal, Miloš; Zámečníková, Renata; Froněk, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Uterus transplantation is a life-giving and quality-of-life enhancing transplantation. Life with transplanted uterus is a transitional phase of life for both recipients and their partners. Six deliveries of healthy children from five transplanted mothers out of 9 uterus transplantations in Sweden may encourage untimely hopes of thousands of women with absolute uterine factor infertility worldwide. Psychological evaluation might be included into all trials regarding new treatment methods and treatment procedures. Main psychological issues connected with the infertility treatment in women with absent uterus are clearly defined (especially in vitro fertilization, uterus transplantation, compliance with immunosuppressive treatment, ultrasound examinations of uterine vascular perfusion, rejection signs surveillance, embryo transfer, pregnancy, cesarean section, preterm delivery risk, puerperium, hysterectomy and immunosuppressive treatment termination). The role of psychological evaluation of participants before the admission to complicated treatment process is to choose those who will be able to cope all mentioned difficulties and unexpected complications including potential failure of the whole treatment without serious negative impact on their psychological situation. Up to now experience with psychological stability of our 7 uterus recipients and 3 uterus living donors are good although post-transplant period is especially in recipients connected with everyday psychological adaptation on the significant life changes. We are aware that psychological evaluation of our study participants will require further 3 years of follow up with publication of our results.

  1. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    requirements and sets standards that will take time and money to meet. It is an opportunity because the DODI will fo- cus attention on CBRN... infertile by Salt. Source: Death Valley (photo courtesy of pdphoto.org). Combating WMD Journal Issue 3 56 the earliest use of weapons. Poi...considered a psychological weapon. The recipients of a barrage of Greek fire could not explain how the fire would ignite spontaneously, rise up, be

  2. Environmental Issues are Controversial Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary Allaire

    The extensive social-scientific interest and continuing relevance of environmental study assure its immediate and long-range importance in the social studies. But the crisis atmosphere surrounding this issue threatens a thoughtful, systematic approach to the subject, and poses the danger of a careless rush to activity. As social studies educators,…

  3. Is multicultural psychology a-scientific?: diverse methods for diversity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauce, Ana Mari

    2011-07-01

    This article asks, and answers three separate questions: What is multicultural psychology? What is psychological science? Are multicultural psychology and (empirical/positivist) psychological science incompatible? A brief overview of the history of science is provided emphasizing the emancipatory impulses behind a modernist, empirical, positivist approach to science. It is argued that such an approach is not incompatible with multicultural psychology. The author concludes that multicultural psychological will be strengthened if psychologists draw upon both qualitative and quantitative methods, including those that come from a positivist tradition, when investigating psychological and social issues as they affect diverse populations.

  4. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  5. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  6. Seymour Sarason Remembered: "Plus ça change…", "Psychology Misdirected", and "Community Psychology and the Anarchist Insight".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J

    2015-12-01

    The intellectual legacy of Seymour Sarason continues to serve as a critical resource for the field of community psychology. The present paper draws on one of Sarason's favorite aphorisms and two of his seminal writings to suggest the relevance of ideas articulated 35-40 years ago for the current time. Each in their own way highlights the importance of unearthing and interrogating core assumptions underlying our research and our efforts to make a positive difference. The aphorism reminds us that the rhetoric of change is far easier to articulate than to enact and all too often ignores or disguises issues of power among actors. The "misdirection" of Psychology reflected his assertion that the asocial, acultural, and ahistorical nature of American Psychology reflected American culture more generally and ill prepared it to understand and engage in social change, particularly with respect to educational reform. The "anarchist insight" articulated his belief in interrogating the implications of the increasingly interdependent relationship of science and the state for the autonomy of scientists and scientific inquiry. The evidence-based practice movement is offered as an example of the current day relevance of the aphorism and core insights of these two papers. The paper concludes with a plea to rekindle the discussion and continued examination of Sarason's paradigmatic insights for the intellectual and social development of the field.

  7. Applying Cognitive Psychology to User Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Sabeen; Durrani, Qaiser S.

    This paper explores some key aspects of cognitive psychology that may be mapped onto user interfaces. Major focus in existing user interface guidelines is on consistency, simplicity, feedback, system messages, display issues, navigation, colors, graphics, visibility and error prevention [8-10]. These guidelines are effective indesigning user interfaces. However, these guidelines do not handle the issues that may arise due to the innate structure of human brain and human limitations. For example, where to place graphics on the screen so that user can easily process them and what kind of background should be given on the screen according to the limitation of human motor system. In this paper we have collected some available guidelines from the area of cognitive psychology [1, 5, 7]. In addition, we have extracted few guidelines from theories and studies of cognitive psychology [3, 11] which may be mapped to user interfaces.

  8. Peace psychology should include the study of peaceful individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden L

    2014-09-01

    The selection of topics for the special issue on peace psychology (October 2013) probably gave readers the impression that peace psychology should be defined as the study of conflict and peace at intergroup, societal, and global levels. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Milovich, Marilyn M.; Moussier, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the coverage of Stanford prison experiment (SPE), including criticisms of the study, in introductory psychology courses through an online survey of introductory psychology instructors (N = 117). Results largely paralleled those of the recently published textbook analyses with ethical issues garnering the most coverage,…

  10. Psychology and Environmental Sustainability: A Call for Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koger, Susan M.; Scott, Britain A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental scientists warn that the health of the planet is rapidly deteriorating, and the primary cause of the crisis is human behavior. Psychology can contribute greatly to understanding and changing behaviors that negatively impact global ecosystems; however, environmental issues are not generally included in psychology curricula, and…

  11. Psychological meaning of the living room: a multidimensional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Some methodological issues in se- mantic differential research. Psychological Bulletin 72. (6): 406–422. HOMER, PM & KAHLE, LR. 1988. A structural equa- tion test of the value-attitude-behavior hierarchy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54(4):. 638–646. HONIKMAN, B. 1971. An investigation of a method for.

  12. Psychology's Future in Medical Schools and Academic Health Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the history of psychology's development and growth in medical centers, its current status, and some goals for the future of psychology in medical schools and academic health care centers. Explores issues related to the education and training of psychologists. (SLD)

  13. Optimal assembly of psychological and educational tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1998-01-01

    The advent of computers in psychological and educational measurement has led to the need for algorithms for optimal assembly of tests from item banks. This paper reviews optimal test assembly literature and introduces the contributions to this Special Issue. Four approaches to computerized test

  14. Misconceptions about Psychological Science: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sean; Lyddy, Fiona; Lambe, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the available evidence on psychological misconceptions, including key findings, current directions and emerging issues for investigation. We begin by defining misconceptions and then examine their prevalence and persistence, discuss their implications for student learning and highlight potential strategies to…

  15. Not All Bad Treatment Is Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    2011-01-01

    One of the conceptual and definitional issues that has plagued the study of child maltreatment is the relationship between intention and outcome. This paper flows from the finding that the common developmentally destructive element in all forms of child maltreatment is psychological maltreatment, that the study of child abuse and neglect is the…

  16. IFE PsychologIA - Vol 16 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /ifep.v16i3.23777 · Black On Black: Xenophobic Attacks and Inter-State Relations. A Olukoju. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ifep.v16i3.23776 · Xenophobia: Contemporary Issues in Psychology. AI Alarape ... Xenophobia – Carl Jung Perspective.

  17. Counseling Psychology and Professional School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical, political, and organizational analysis regarding counseling psychology's involvement in professional school counseling. Issues discussed include collaboration, curriculum and training, and professional identity, as well as the commonalities that bind counselor education/professional school counseling and…

  18. Darwin's Legacy to Comparative Psychology and Ethology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Gordon M.

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin made numerous seminal contributions to the study of animal behavior over his long career. This essay places these contributions in the context of Darwin's life, showing his long-standing interest in psychological and behavioral issues encompassing all species, including humans. Ten areas are highlighted: natural history;…

  19. Positive Psychology and War: An Oxymoron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The author was deeply disturbed by the January 2011 issue of the "American Psychologist," which engendered a series of emotions in the author: first dismay, then anger, and finally a sense of shame about the current state of the profession. This was ostensibly an exposition of "positive psychology" principles and how they are to be applied in a…

  20. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  1. Research Paper An exploratory study of psychological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Paper An exploratory study of psychological and developmental issues facing HIV and AIDS affected adolescents living in a residential care facility. Myrthe Van Vilsteren, Sadiyya Haffejee, Rabia Patel, Brett Bowman ...

  2. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Psychological Aspects of Bariatric Surgery as a Treatment for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumbe, Sandra; Hamlet, Claire; Meyrick, Jane

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the psychological effects on life after bariatric surgery despite the high prevalence of psychological disorders in candidates seeking this procedure. Our review discusses the literature around the psychological impact of bariatric surgery, exploring whether the procedure addresses underlying psychological conditions that can lead to morbid obesity and the effect on eating behaviour postoperatively. Findings show that despite undisputed significant weight loss and improvements in comorbidities, current literature suggests some persisting disorder in psychological outcomes like depression and body image for patients at longer term follow-up, compared to control groups. Lack of postoperative psychological monitoring and theoretical mapping limits our understanding of reasons behind these findings. Reframing bariatric approaches to morbid obesity to incorporate psychological experience postoperatively would facilitate understanding of psychological aspects of bariatric surgery and how this surgical treatment maps onto the disease trajectory of obesity.

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... accounting, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran ... except the effect of management participation on marketing innovation and product innovation ... Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons ...

  5. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... We are listed under Research Associations category. ... SKJalan Hang he validity showedstrong eanwhile the reliability of sess the flexibility of the nts should be tested with. Research Article. Special Issue ... Studies have shown that the problems of diseases such as hypertension, heart disease and.

  6. Forest products issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton T. Munger

    1935-01-01

    This issue of Forest Research Notes is devoted to abstracts of projects under way or recently completed by the Section of Forest Products. This section conducts research designed to contribute to better and more economic utilization of the products of the forest. As shown by the variety of subjects presented in these notes, the projects range from the statistics of...

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International ... Iran's medication system faces problems such as indiscriminate .... bysome scholars who argue that advertising results in "human slavery" (10, 11, 14 and ...

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-05

    Jun 5, 2016 ... Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. ... of inspiration to composed Badi'iyah is Busiri slave. ... Muslim defeated Omavian and entered Mesopotamia and Omavian government ended.

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries ... has been associated with problems. ..... Ardabil, Ali, "the philosophy of procrastination penalty", the newspaper supported, No. 2531, date ...

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 ... [12] allows to develop creativity at younger school students, to create at them positive mood. .... cultural product of society - fiction and animated films are connected with it.

  11. Integrating positive psychology into health-related quality of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L

    2015-07-01

    Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.

  12. Community Psychology and Community Mental Health: A Call for Reengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Brown, Molly; Sylvestre, John

    2018-03-01

    Community psychology is rooted in community mental health research and practice and has made important contributions to this field. Yet, in the decades since its inception, community psychology has reduced its focus on promoting mental health, well-being, and liberation of individuals with serious mental illnesses. This special issue endeavors to highlight current efforts in community mental health from our field and related disciplines and point to future directions for reengagement in this area. The issue includes 12 articles authored by diverse stakeholder groups. Following a review of the state of community mental health scholarship in the field's two primary journals since 1973, the remaining articles center on four thematic areas: (a) the community experience of individuals with serious mental illness; (b) the utility of a participatory and cross-cultural lens in our engagement with community mental health; (c) Housing First implementation, evaluation, and dissemination; and (d) emerging or under-examined topics. In reflection, we conclude with a series of challenges for community psychologists involved in future, transformative, movements in community mental health. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  13. The relationship between Counseling Psychology and Positive Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Vossler, Andreas; Steffen , Edith; Joseph, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to explore the relation between the professional specialty of counseling psychology and positive psychology. Following a brief historical overview of counseling psychology, we explore its theoretical convergence with positive psychology and examine how the ideas from positive psychology have been received by counseling psychologists. We argue that although counseling psychology has its roots in ideas that are consistent with positive psychology, the profession has d...

  14. DISTANCE FORMAT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPETENCIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunona M. Ilina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the conceptual model of the distance learning course (DLC “Success” aimed at the development of psychological competencies. The course was developed on the basis of design technology method and intended for adults that are in need of psychological competencies development, i.e. inhabitants of villages, towns, people with special needs, university faculty, trainers and social workers, educators, who want to use DLC in the process of psychological competencies development that are the result in enhancement of life quality. The structure of the distance learning course “Success” and underlying principles is described.

  15. Is atypical odontalgia a psychological problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, S B; Solberg, W K

    1993-05-01

    Several authors have asserted that psychological factors are the underlying cause of atypical odontalgia. However, objective evidence is lacking to support this claim. In this study, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was used to assess psychological functioning of an atypical odontalgia population. Means of the standard scores for each Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scale were within normal ranges. Standard scores for atypical odontalgia profiles compared with standard scores for a chronic headache group (matched for age, sex, and chronicity) were similar and scales for both groups were within normal ranges. These findings fail to support psychological dysfunction as a primary condition associated with patients suffering from atypical odontalgia.

  16. PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anida Fazlagić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, postpartum depression may include any nonpsychotic depressive disorder during the first four weeks of postpartum, according to research criteria during the first year after birth. The exact cause of postpartum depression is not yet known, and most researchers believe that postpartum depression is a bio-psycho-social problem. So far, the biological aspect of the disease is explained by changing the levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, and by decrease of hormone levels after birth. Psychological correlates are often associated with low selfesteem, pessimism as a personality trait, bad strategies of coping with stress, mood swings and emotional reactions. The social aspect of the disease is associated with the existential conditions of pregnant woman, support of partners and education level. This paper will include issues like hereditary causes and possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention. Nowadays, it is estimated that on average 15% of women, regardless of the pregnancy outcome, are suffering from postpartum depression. However, this information includes only those women who were diagnosed with postpartum depression and who themselves reported about it. Almost every woman receives basic care during pregnancy to prevent complications in the physiological level. This paper has shown possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention, the impact of optimism, self-esteem and coping skills.

  17. Editing as a psychological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, John

    2006-06-01

    The experience of the Jungian analyst in the role of editor of manuscripts by creative colleagues is examined. Historical precedents include Michael Fordham's editorial correspondence with Jung around the latter's synchronicity essay; Jung's handling of manuscripts submitted by Sabina Spielrein to the Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen and various authors to the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie und ihre Grenzgebiete, and the author's close editing of a paper submitted by Andrew Samuels to the Journal of Analytical Psychology. In addition to mustering an adequate amount of generosity, erudition, and availability, the analytic editor must know how to clarify a psychological argument and to gauge the psychological impact of the written text. Notwithstanding transference/countertransference phenomena that can emerge around issues of competition, envy, and territoriality when author and editor are also fellow-authors working in the same field, the editor needs to be comfortable about serving as the author's selfobject and midwife. From an analytic perspective, although communicating decisions about the best way to put ideas into words can sometimes attract transference to the editor, the more profound transference that analysts experience in the editing situation is toward the text being edited, which helps to motivate donated time spent caring for journal manuscripts.

  18. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  19. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  20. Psychology and criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  1. Economics, psychology, and happiness

    OpenAIRE

    KOYASU, Masuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the relationships between economics, psychology, and happiness. Economics was originally a moral philosophy which focused on some psychological processes of economic events. However, nineteenth century economists tried to change the nature of economics from that of being a moral philosophy to that of a more specialized scientific area. Some of the twentieth century psychologists have tried to reinstate economics as a moral science with the help of psychological cons...

  2. A longitudinal study of perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2007-01-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents (N = 2,758) responded to instruments measuring their perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being, including hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, and self-esteem. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that perceived parental psychological control was concurrently related to adolescent psychological well-being at Time 1 and Time 2. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the relationships between perceived parental psychological control and adolescent psychological well-being over time were bidirectional in nature. Regarding the differential contribution of paternal and maternal psychological control to adolescent psychological well-being over time, paternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction at Time 2, particularly for adolescent girls. On the other hand, maternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent self-esteem at Time 2. Relative to those conditions in which one or none of the adolescents' parents was perceived to display high psychological control at Time 1, the psychological well-being of adolescents at Time 2 was poorer under the condition in which both parents were perceived to display high levels of psychological control at Time 1. The clinical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The measurement of psychological literacy: a first approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody; Gasson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Psychological literacy, the ability to apply psychological knowledge to personal, family, occupational, community and societal challenges, is promoted as the primary outcome of an undergraduate education in psychology. As the concept of psychological literacy becomes increasingly adopted as the core business of undergraduate psychology training courses world-wide, there is urgent need for the construct to be accurately measured so that student and institutional level progress can be assessed and monitored. Key to the measurement of psychological literacy is determining the underlying factor-structure of psychological literacy. In this paper we provide a first approximation of the measurement of psychological literacy by identifying and evaluating self-report measures for psychological literacy. Multi-item and single-item self-report measures of each of the proposed nine dimensions of psychological literacy were completed by two samples (N = 218 and N = 381) of undergraduate psychology students at an Australian university. Single and multi-item measures of each dimension were weakly to moderately correlated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of multi-item measures indicated a higher order three factor solution best represented the construct of psychological literacy. The three factors were reflective processes, generic graduate attributes, and psychology as a helping profession. For the measurement of psychological literacy to progress there is a need to further develop self-report measures and to identify/develop and evaluate objective measures of psychological literacy. Further approximations of the measurement of psychological literacy remain an imperative, given the construct's ties to measuring institutional efficacy in teaching psychology to an undergraduate audience. PMID:25741300

  4. The measurement of psychological literacy: a first approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D; Heritage, Brody; Gasson, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Psychological literacy, the ability to apply psychological knowledge to personal, family, occupational, community and societal challenges, is promoted as the primary outcome of an undergraduate education in psychology. As the concept of psychological literacy becomes increasingly adopted as the core business of undergraduate psychology training courses world-wide, there is urgent need for the construct to be accurately measured so that student and institutional level progress can be assessed and monitored. Key to the measurement of psychological literacy is determining the underlying factor-structure of psychological literacy. In this paper we provide a first approximation of the measurement of psychological literacy by identifying and evaluating self-report measures for psychological literacy. Multi-item and single-item self-report measures of each of the proposed nine dimensions of psychological literacy were completed by two samples (N = 218 and N = 381) of undergraduate psychology students at an Australian university. Single and multi-item measures of each dimension were weakly to moderately correlated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of multi-item measures indicated a higher order three factor solution best represented the construct of psychological literacy. The three factors were reflective processes, generic graduate attributes, and psychology as a helping profession. For the measurement of psychological literacy to progress there is a need to further develop self-report measures and to identify/develop and evaluate objective measures of psychological literacy. Further approximations of the measurement of psychological literacy remain an imperative, given the construct's ties to measuring institutional efficacy in teaching psychology to an undergraduate audience.

  5. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Disaster psychology, stress, crisis, trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Miroslav Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophe or disaster entails material destruction - ecological and psychosocial - that transcends the coping capacities of the affected community. Undesirable consequences of disasters, which can be due to both human and natural causes, are reflected in the loss of life of millions in the last decades of the twentieth century, as well as in detrimental influence on the lives of several hundred million people and multi-billion dollar material and financial losses. For these reasons, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the 1990s as the decade of prevention and reduction of the incidence of disasters under resolution 42/169. In order to succeed in preventing and reducing the incidence of disasters, as well as help those affected by them, we have to enrich our theoretical knowledge (i.e., get to know the nature of disaster psychology, understand stress, crisis and trauma, as International Classification of Diseases ISC-10 determines and describes psychosocial psychological reactions and psychological disorders… and practical, experiential and research results. The research we have conducted shows that as far as the spectrum of psychosocial reactions and psychological disorders is concerned, individuals who experience disasters most often exhibit anxiety-, depression-, and anxiety-depression-related disorders, Among the anxiety-related reactions, the most common ones are elevated tension and uneasiness. In some individuals, we can also expect the appearance of fears that were formerly not present, such as fears of being hurt, of mutilation and death. Our experience from working with the refugee population warns us that psychosocial reactions and reactive psychological disorders can emerge even years after disasters such as war and refuge, as well as that individuals affected by such disasters always deserve special attention and psychotherapeutic treatment.

  7. Causality in criminal forensic and in civil disability cases: Legal and psychological comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Causality (or causation) is central to every legal case, yet its underlying philosophical, legal, and psychological definitions and conceptions vary. In the criminal context, it refers to establishing the responsibility of the perpetrator of the criminal act at issue in terms of the person's mental state (mens rea), and whether the insanity defense applies. In the forensic disability and related context, it refers to whether the index event is a material or contributing cause in the multifactorial array that led to the psychological condition at issue. In both the criminal and tort contexts, the legal test is a counterfactual one. For the former, it refers to whether the outcome involved would have resulted absent the act (e.g., in cases of simultaneous criminal lethal action, which one is the but-for responsible one). For the latter, it concerns whether the claimed psychological condition would be present only because of the incident at issue. The latter event at issue is distinguished from the criminal one by its negligence compared to the voluntary intent in the criminal case. The psychological state of the perpetrator of criminal conduct can be analyzed from a biopsychosocial perspective as much as the civil one. In this regard, in the civil case, such as in forensic disability and related assessments, pre-existing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors need to be considered causally, with personal and social resilience and protective factors added, as well. In the criminal context, the same biopsychosocial model applies, but with mental competence and voluntariness added as a critical factor. The advent of neurolaw has led to use of neuroscience in court, but it risks reducing the complexity of criminal cases to unifactorial, biological models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  9. Identidade judaica: formação, manutenção e possível modificação à luz da Psicologia Social Jewish identity: Formation, maintenance and possible modification under Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Epelboim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa examinou a configuração de ser judeu, a partir da Psicologia Social. Tal proposta reuniu considerações teóricas e observações empíricas. Quanto àquelas, foram elaborados comentários sobre identidades psicossociais, judaísmo, entre outras questões. Quanto aos aspectos empíricos, foi desenvolvido estudo de campo, com aplicação de questionário com perguntas abertas, cujas respostas foram examinadas com base na análise de conteúdo. Participaram da pesquisa 80 israelitas, sendo 40 ashkenazim e 40 sefaradim, cujas idades variaram entre 15 e 81 anos. Estes grupos foram compostos, respectivamente, por 20 homens e mulheres, dos quais 10 apresentavam nível médio e 10 superior de escolaridade. Resultados indicaram presença comum de categorias entre ashkenazim e sefaradim. Concluiu-se que ser judeu compreendia, sobretudo, aspectos religiosos e culturais. Quanto aos processos de formação, manutenção e modificação, houve predominância de fatores culturais e educacionais; culturais, religiosos, emocionais e sociais; e socioculturais.The research examined the configuration of being Jewish, under Social Psychology. This research made theoretical considerations and empirical observation. As regards the theoretical considerations, commentaries were made concerning psychosocial identity and Judaism. The empirical observations were based on a field study, with the application of a questionnaire, whose answers were examined through analyses of the content. The participants were 80 Israelis, being 40 ashkenazim and 40 sefaradim, with ages ranged from 15 to 81 years old. These groups were composed, respectively, by 20 men and women, each one with 10 participants with medium level of education and ten with high level. Results showed the common presence of categories. Being Jewish included, above all, religious and cultural aspects. As regards the processes of formation, maintenance and modification the predominance of cultural and

  10. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  11. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The psychological distance of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alexa; Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Avoiding dangerous climate change is one of the most urgent social risk issues we face today and understanding related public perceptions is critical to engaging the public with the major societal transformations required to combat climate change. Analyses of public perceptions have indicated that climate change is perceived as distant on a number of different dimensions. However, to date there has been no in-depth exploration of the psychological distance of climate change. This study uses a nationally representative British sample in order to systematically explore and characterize each of the four theorized dimensions of psychological distance--temporal, social, and geographical distance, and uncertainty--in relation to climate change. We examine how each of these different aspects of psychological distance relate to each other as well as to concerns about climate change and sustainable behavior intentions. Results indicate that climate change is both psychologically distant and proximal in relation to different dimensions. Lower psychological distance was generally associated with higher levels of concern, although perceived impacts on developing countries, as an indicator of social distance, was also significantly related to preparedness to act on climate change. Our findings clearly point to the utility of risk communication techniques designed to reduce psychological distance. However, highlighting the potentially very serious distant impacts of climate change may also be useful in promoting sustainable behavior, even among those already concerned. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Unifying Psychology and Experiential Education: Toward an Integrated Understanding of "Why" It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houge Mackenzie, Susan; Son, Julie S.; Hollenhorst, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the significance of psychology to experiential education (EE) and critiques EE models that have developed in isolation from larger psychological theories and developments. Following a review of literature and current issues, select areas of psychology are explored with reference to experiential learning processes. The state…

  14. Socio-cultural and psychological problems of foreign students adaptation in a higher school

    OpenAIRE

    RUDENKO N.

    2016-01-01

    The issues related to socio-cultural and cross-cultural adaptation of foreign students have been analysed, the indicators of psychological adaptation have been identified, some aspects of their psychological adjustment have been studied, the concept of «culture shock» in the process of psychological adaptation to the cultural differences between countries has been analysed.

  15. Guidelines for Preparing High School Psychology Teachers: Course-Based and Standards-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is one of the most popular elective high school courses. The high school psychology course provides the foundation for students to benefit from psychological perspectives on personal and contemporary issues and learn the rules of evidence and theoretical frameworks of the discipline. The guidelines presented here constitute the second…

  16. Introduction to special issue: moving forward in pediatric neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P; Giovannetti, Tania; Zabel, T Andrew; Chute, Douglas L

    2011-08-01

    This special issue of The Clinical Neuropsychologist focuses on advances in the emerging subspecialty of pediatric neuropsychology. The national and international contributions in this issue cover a range of key clinical, research, training, and professional issues specific to pediatric neuropsychology. The genesis for this project developed out of a series of talks at the Philadelphia Pediatric Neuropsychology Symposium in 2010, hosted by the Stein Family Fellow, the Department of Psychology of the College of Arts and Sciences at Drexel University, and the Philadelphia Neuropsychology Society. Articles that explore clinical practice issue focus on the assessment of special medical populations with congenital and/or acquired central nervous system insults. Research articles investigate the core features of developmental conditions, the use of technology in neuropsychological research studies, and large sample size genomic, neuropsychological, and imaging studies of under-represented populations. The final series of articles examine new considerations in training, advocacy, and subspecialty board certification that have emerged in pediatric neuropsychology. This introductory article provides an overview of the articles in this special issue and concluding thoughts about the future of pediatric neuropsychology.

  17. [Status of health psychology teaching in Chilean schools of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Jaime T; Pinedo, José P; Repetto, Paula L

    2012-07-01

    Physicians should be exposed, during their training to basic concepts in psychology. To describe the current status of the formal teaching of health psychology or medical psychology in Chilean medical schools. We reviewed the programs of the courses including topics of Medical Psychology, Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine at 18 medical schools in Chile, using a focused coding method. The contents and the time spent on these courses were considered and analyzed. Eighty three percent of medical schools have a Medical Psychology or related program, 56.3% are carried out during the first year of medical School teaching and the weekly load has an average of 4 hours. The contents are mixed and predominantly concerning general and developmental psychology, but also address specific issues of Medical Psychology in most cases. There is little clarity about the training issues to be addressed in medical psychology for medical students in Chile. It is necessary to define the minimum content that all medical graduates should learn.

  18. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  19. The Psychology of Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of globalization on psychological functioning, describing globalization worldwide and its psychological consequences. Notes that most people now develop bicultural identities that combine local identity with global culture-related identity. Identity confusion is increasing among young people in non-western cultures because…

  20. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  1. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  2. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  3. Anthropomorphism in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, David

    This article presents an address on anthropomorphism in psychology. Anthropomorphism assures that human beings are given human characteristics when participating in psychological research. This is significant because the research community does not often report results of studies in the language of feelings, thoughts, or desires, which has led to…

  4. Environmental Psychology: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's

  5. Discursive social psychology now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    Abstract. Using the archival method of investigation, this paper explores the subject of psychological empowerment (particularly in relation to youths) and national development. The specific objective of the paper is to explore and establish the importance of psychological empowerment of the masses and particularly the.

  7. European Psychology Map

    OpenAIRE

    DANA SCHÖN

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID) compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.

  8. Social psychology and energy attitude consumer change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, Y.; Saffarinia, M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most issues in social Psychology is study of attitude. Attitudes are causes of human behavior. If we regard energy consumption as a behavior for changing behavior in field of energy we must to study attitude and attitude change.In social psychology attitude define as positive and negative affective state to a matter of object. In this paper try it describe approaches and theories about attitudes and attitude change such as classical conditioning operant conditioning, social learning and cognitive. We hope this paper will be useful for planners and expert that work in this field

  9. [Psychological function in aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kenji; Yamamoto, Mikie; Nakashima, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    Physical function was declined in aging as well as sensory function in human. Motor slowness and unbalance gait occur as well as decline of ability visual acuity and hearing let elderly people live in limited daily activity. Psychological functions are also thought to be decline in aging. In International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health(ICF), psychological functions are classified into attention, memory, psychomotor, emotion, perception, thought, higher-level cognitive functions, language, calculation, sequencing complex movements, experience of self and time functions and unspecified functions. It is difficult to assess an individual psychological function itself, because some functions may affect each other and results of evaluations of a psychological function may not represent the meaning of the function. There were numerous reports on physical function in aging in a cross sectional or a longitudinal study design. In this article, we review changes of psychological function in aging.

  10. Historiography of Czech psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskovcová, Simona; Hoskovec, Jirí; Plháková, Alena; Sebek, Michael; Svancara, Josef; Voboril, Dalibor

    2010-08-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the development of the Czech historiography of psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychotherapy is mentioned as a special thematic development. Contemporary problems and perspectives in the field of the history of psychology in the Czech Republic are discussed, sources of information are given.

  11. Introduction to the Virtual Issue on Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tummers, Lars; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Jilke, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    For public administration scholars, psychological theories and methods can be extremely helpful, especially when studying attitudes or behaviors of (groups of) citizens, public professionals, or public managers. Behavioral public administration explicitly connects public administration...... of these articles in particular. These eight articles are excellent examples of the potential added value of psychological insights to key public administration questions. We hope that this Virtual Issue inspires scholars and practitioners to deepen the dialogue between public administration and psychology....

  12. Franz Brentano and the beginning of experimental psychology: implications for the study of psychological phenomena today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas; Hackert, Benedikt; Weger, Ulrich

    2018-03-01

    The manifestation of psychology as an academic discipline more than a 100 years ago was accompanied by a paradigm shift in our understanding of psychological phenomena-with both its light and shadow sides. On the one hand, this development allowed for a rigorous and experimentation-based approach to psychological phenomena; on the other, it led to an alienation from the experiential-or qualia-facets as the topics under inquiry were researched increasingly through third-person (e.g., behavioral or physiological) measures. At the turning point of this development stood an eminent but little known European scholar, Franz Brentano, who called for a synthesis of both third-person and first-person research methods in the study of psychological phenomena. On the occasion of his death, a hundred years ago on March 17, 1917 we wish to illustrate the historical background, introduce the reader to Brentano's approach and work and discuss its relevance for experimental psychology today.

  13. Integrating cognitive psychology, neurology and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, L M

    2001-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase in research effectively integrating cognitive psychology, functional neuroimaging, and behavioral neurology. This new work is typically conducting basic research into aspects of the human mind and brain. The present review features as examples of such integrations two series of studies by the author and his colleagues. One series, employing object recognition, mental motor imagery, and mental rotation paradigms, clarifies the nature of a cognitive process, imagined spatial transformations used in shape recognition. Among other implications, it suggests that when recognizing a hand's handedness, imagining one's body movement depends on cerebrally lateralized sensory-motor structures and deciding upon handedness depends on exact match shape confirmation. The other series, using cutaneous, tactile, and auditory pitch discrimination paradigms, elucidates the function of a brain structure, the cerebellum. It suggests that the cerebellum has non-motor sensory support functions upon which optimally fine sensory discriminations depend. In addition, six key issues for this integrative approach are reviewed. These include arguments for the value and greater use of: rigorous quantitative meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies; stereotactic coordinate-based data, as opposed to surface landmark-based data; standardized vocabularies capturing the elementary component operations of cognitive and behavioral tasks; functional hypotheses about brain areas that are consistent with underlying microcircuitry; an awareness that not all brain areas implicated by neuroimaging or neurology are necessarily directly involved in the associated cognitive or behavioral task; and systematic approaches to integrations of this kind.

  14. The psychological aspects of a well-known issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arka, Ioanna

    2018-01-01

    From the PhD through several post-doctoral positions, to the few permanent academic posts, the selection processes determining who will populate the upper echelons of academic astronomy might not involve just merit, hard work or dedication.

  15. Developmental Psychology of Adolescent Girls: Conflicts and Identity Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Katherine C.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents, particularly girls, have many identity conflicts and low self-esteem that may affect school success and development of a healthy identity. Many teenagers experience new societal expectations and responsibilities giving rise to identity confusion or internal conflicts that need to be resolved during adolescence. Their conflicts may…

  16. Fears in the Classroom: Psychological Issues and Pedagogical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluty, Robert H.; DeVitis, Joseph L.

    1996-01-01

    Explores common clinical childhood fears (separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder) and suggests balancing treatment with input from psychologists, teachers, and parents. (Author/JOW)

  17. Psychological impact of infertility: identifying issues and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, D P

    1986-01-01

    During interviews, married couples experiencing infertility reported emotional reactions such as sadness, depression, anger, confusion, desperation, hurt, embarrassment, and humiliation. Behavioral reactions to infertility included disorganization, distractability, exhaustion, moodiness and obsessive thoughts and behaviors. Participants also described multiple sources of stress and utilized a variety of coping strategies. Implications for social work clinical and research practitioners are discussed.

  18. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  19. Francis Bacon's behavioral psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Paul S

    2007-01-01

    Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of

  1. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, R

    1992-01-01

    Ethical issues of RU-486 in the US are the same as those of any new medical technology, but the politics of abortion can tempt us to believe that antiprogestins pose new ethical hazards. Good facts are needed to have good ethics. Risk-benefit assessments reveal medical facts and begin with clinical trials, evaluating RU-486's effectiveness and the degree and likelihood it causes harm, discomfort, and side effects. They should also consider social and psychological risks and benefits. Clinical trails in Los Angeles show that women who had previously undergone a surgical abortion method found RU-486 to be a less violent abortion method. Antiabortion proponents misconstrue this benefit to be a disadvantage, because they believe women undergoing abortion should suffer from pain and suffering. Even though an international convention ensures reproductive freedom for women, women must be informed about and have access to all family planning services in order to exercise this right. Ethics and the law require voluntary, informed consent. Yet, the US prevents workers at federally-funded family planning programs from providing clients any information on abortion, thereby violating this ethical requirement. Ethical precepts are also violated by denying women their right to privacy and by the punitive actions taken against women undergoing abortion by physicians, other health workers, and antiabortion proponents. Ru-486 allows women to undergo an abortion in private. Abortion opponents consider this privacy a disadvantage, because they lose targets for picketing, harassment, and violence. They believe that the improved access to abortion awarded by RU-486 would make abortion emotionally easier for women, leading to an increase in the number of abortions. Yet, there is no empirical evidence to support this. Again they see a benefit (decreased psychological stress) as a disadvantage. Ethical arguments show that RU-486 provides women greater health benefits, fosters their right

  2. The winds of change: some challenges in reconfiguring social psychology for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    In this short article, I celebrate the plurality and eclecticism of the British Journal of Social Psychology. I argue that this approach offers the best hope for an uncertain future. The powerful narrative on which social psychology was once based is fragmenting in part due to Research Assessment Exercise (RAE/REF) pressures. Social psychological topics and research are migrating outside institutional Psychology, and the BJSP needs to follow. Examples of recent social research on affect and emotion are used to illustrate the new spreading and reach of social psychological topics and issues. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Ergonomics Issues in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    H. S. Loo; Stanley Richardson

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Ergonomics so far has had little impact in Malaysia. For most Malaysian managers, ergonomics is not considered to be associated with performance, but rather with occupational health and safety and legislation. Approach: This study reviews the development of ergonomics in Malaysia and the underlying issues related to national development. Results: Many changes need to be made within the ergonomics research, education and practice community by integrating concepts from the so...

  4. Malaysia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Malaysia highlights quantitative assessment of additional measures required during the medium term to achieve fiscal targets. The authorities aim to lower the budget deficit to about 3 percent of GDP by 2015, down from 4.0 percent in 2013, and to balance the budget by 2020. It suggests that ranking fiscal instruments under different fiscal policy goals can help policymakers identify the composition of fiscal adjustment based on their preferences. By combining ran...

  5. Emerging Issues and Models in College Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Ben; Wallace, David; Brunner, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of the psychological issues facing today's college students, information about students receiving mental health services, and an evidence-based model describing the practice and functions of today's counseling centers.

  6. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. 2009 Division 35 Presidential Address: Feminist Psychology and Women with Disabilities--An Emerging Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Martha E.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an application of the "Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Girls and Women" to psychological issues faced by Women with Disabilities. It includes culture-specific issues faced by Women with Disabilities, the multiple roles of Women with Disabilities, the importance of informal support systems, and the intersection between…

  8. The Case for Pedagogical Action Research in Psychology Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Lin

    2014-01-01

    It is just over 12 years since "Psychology Teaching Review"'s first Special Issue on action research psychology. In the guest editorial for that issue Lin Norton suggested that pedagogical action research can be controversial, and that for some academic psychologists it appears to be more than curriculum development rather than…

  9. The cultural background of the non-academic concept of psychology in Japan: its implications for introductory education in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashitaka, Yuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2014-06-01

    No research has empirically explored the non-academic concept of psychology itself (implicit theories) in non-Western cultures despite a widely held belief that this understanding differs cross-culturally. This study examined whether the non-academic concept of psychology among inexperienced Japanese students differed from the concept held by students of other countries. In Japanese, psychology is referred to as , which includes the ideographic character , literally meaning heart. This fact led us to hypothesize that psychology will be disproportionately associated with emotion among Japanese students. Indeed, our findings among Japanese students produced a J-curve, indicating that our prediction was true. We posit that this issue has never been discussed in Japan because a majority of people share this concept of psychology. In our second study, we examined not only preference in students' association of intelligence or emotion but also heart or mind with psychology. Finally, we identified whether students' believe that psychology encompasses both the heart and the mind. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of explicitly defining the non-academic concept of psychology in early psychology education in Japan. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Differential efficacy of two psychological intervention programmes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (1996) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. A Short History of the Future: Feminism and Clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecek, Jeanne; Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.

    1991-01-01

    This brief history of feminism in clinical psychology traces the movement from its early criticism of the mental health establishment through the gender role issues of the present. Feminist innovations in theory are detailed, and feminists are urged to concentrate on issues of gender and power. (SLD)

  12. Multiple Regression Analyses in Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, James; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida

    2006-01-01

    A major form of data analysis in clinical child and adolescent psychology is multiple regression. This article reviews issues in the application of such methods in light of the research designs typical of this field. Issues addressed include controlling covariates, evaluation of predictor relevance, comparing predictors, analysis of moderation,…

  13. Introduction: Piotr Gal'perin and the content of psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, J.P.P.

    1992-01-01

    This is the second special issue of this journal centering on the work of Piotr Iakovlevich Gal'perin (1902-1988). The first issue (1989, Vol. 27, No. 3) contained articles directly related to Gal'perin's theory of learning and instruction. In Soviet psychology his name is especially associated with

  14. How to build substantive judicial-psychological examination

    OpenAIRE

    Safuanov F.S.

    2017-01-01

    The methodology of the subject types of forensic examinations with the application of psychological knowledge is analyzed. The history of the formation of subject types of forensic psychological examination and a comprehensive forensic psychological and psychiatric examination is considered. Shows their transformation and expansion under the influence of changes of domestic legislation. Based on the definition of the research subject of a legal expert- psychologist, concluded that the first s...

  15. Psychological adjustment to amputation: variations on the bases of sex, age and cause of limb loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Haider, S.K.F.

    2017-01-01

    Amputation is the removal of a limb or part of a limb by a surgical procedure in order to save the life of a person. The underlying reasons behind the occurrence of this tragic incidence may be varied. However, irrespective of its cause limb loss is associated with wide range of life challenges. The study was done to investigate the psychological sequel of an individual after losing a limb and to know the level of strain and pressure they experience after this traumatic event. It also attempts to examine the moderating role of some demographic traits such as age, sex and cause of limb loss in psychosocial adjustment to amputation. Methods: The study includes 100 adult amputees of both genders and the data was collected from major government and private hospitals of Peshawar district. Demographic data sheet was constructed in order to know the demographics traits of amputees and a standardize Psychological Adjustment Scale developed by Sabir (1999) was used to find out the level of psychological adjustment after limb loss. Results: Nearly all the amputees' exhibit signs of psychological maladjustment at varying degrees. Males showed much greater signs of maladjustment than women and young adults were much psychologically shattered and disturbed as a result of limb loss. Amputation caused by planned medical reasons leads to less adjustment issues as compared to unplanned accidental amputation in which patient were not mentally prepare to accept this loss. Conclusion: Psychological aspect of amputation is an important aspect of limb loss which needs to be addressed properly in order to rehabilitate these patients and helps them to adjust successfully to their limb loss. (author)

  16. Ethical issues in public health promotion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... psychological or cognitive factors, such as beliefs, attitudes and self- efficacy, and to an extent the social environment.[7]. Ethical issues raised by health promotion strategies. Concerns raised about health promotion can be divided into two groups: (i) efficacy-based considerations – are they cost-effective or ...

  17. Treating Spiritual Issues in Secular Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminiak, Daniel A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses spirituality as a spiritual phenomenon that is independent of, yet open to, matters of personal religion and belief in God. Proposes that an elaborated psychology of spirituality helps therapists focus the psychotherapeutically relevant and spiritual issues in the client's presentation; build on the client's healthy commitments; and…

  18. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 1: The Psychological Literature Review for the IDHEAS Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Katya L. Le Blanc; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    In response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is sponsoring work to update the technical basis underlying human reliability analysis (HRA) in an effort to improve the robustness of HRA. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a hybrid of existing methods addressing limitations of current HRA models and in particular issues related to intra- and inter-method variabilities and results. This hybrid method is now known as the Integrated Decision-tree Human Event Analysis System (IDHEAS). Existing HRA methods have looked at elements of the psychological literature, but there has not previously been a systematic attempt to translate the complete span of cognition from perception to action into mechanisms that can inform HRA. Therefore, a first step of this effort was to perform a literature search of psychology, cognition, behavioral science, teamwork, and operating performance to incorporate current understanding of human performance in operating environments, thus affording an improved technical foundation for HRA. However, this literature review went one step further by mining the literature findings to establish causal relationships and explicit links between the different types of human failures, performance drivers and associated performance measures ultimately used for quantification. This is the first of two papers that detail the literature review (paper 1) and its product (paper 2). This paper describes the literature review and the high-level architecture used to organize the literature review, and the second paper (Whaley, Hendrickson, Boring, & Xing, these proceedings) describes the resultant cognitive framework.

  19. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  20. A 'new' psychological contract for nurses: some management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, S J

    1996-03-01

    Changes within the health services are raising a number of employment issues for nurses. The idea that a professional qualification and a job will lead to security of employment and career development is rapidly changing. These assumptions, the 'old' psychological contract, is giving way to new expectations from employers and employees; the emergence of a 'new' psychological contract. A psychological contract is an implicit agreement between employer and employee that each party will treat the other fairly. Such contracts are maintained by virtue of all parties wanting to seek agreement on issues where possible and to maintain trust. While such a contract is not a legally binding agreement it is nonetheless a binding understanding between people. Changes to this psychological contract can have important implications for individuals and their employer in terms of work and organizational commitment. This paper will discuss some of the issues surrounding psychological contracts and the impact of violating them. It will also discuss, from a management perspective, how psychological contracts develop between employer and employee, and how to form a 'new' psychological contract based upon mutual benefit and shared values.

  1. Psychology and economics rather than psychology versus economics: cultural differences but no barriers!

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter, Hermann; Güth, Werner; Kliemt, Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    During the last three decades the ascent of behavioral economics clearly helped to bring down artificial disciplinary boundaries between psychology and economics. Noting that behavioral economics seems still under the spell of the rational choice tradition - and, indirectly, of behaviorism - we scrutinize in an exemplary manner how the development of some kind of "cognitive economics" might mirror the rise of "cognitive psychology" without endangering the advantages of the division of labor a...

  2. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  3. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  4. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  5. [Psychological consequences of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment.

  6. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...

  7. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  8. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  10. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  11. International School Psychology: Psychology's Worldwide Portal to Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…

  12. Psychological perspectives in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Roldus Andy Bunga

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Obesity has become a leading public health concern. Over 1 billion people are now overweight or obese, and the prevalence of these conditions is rising rapidly. Psychological aspects of obesity are so important, psychological assessments and interventions have become an integral part of a multidisciplinary approach to treating obesity. Multiple environmental, genetic, neuro-endocrinological, and psychosocial factors contribute to the development of obesity. Though there are many d...

  13. Psychological therapies for thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia

    2014-03-06

    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions

  14. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY IN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    LUIS FLÓREZ-ALARCÓN

    2006-01-01

    An historical analysis about the evolution of health psychology in Colombia is made, taking as starting point someinvestigations carried out in the field of the behavioral medicine in the decade of the 70’s, and concluding with thedescription of 25 investigation groups that right now exist in many universities of the country, which carry out researchactivities in psychology and health. It is underlined that the development of this investigation field and practice inpsychology have been bound ...

  15. Positive psychology and war: an oxymoron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Sean

    2011-10-01

    The author was deeply disturbed by the January 2011 issue of the American Psychologist, which engendered a series of emotions in the author: first dismay, then anger, and finally a sense of shame about the current state of the profession. This was ostensibly an exposition of "positive psychology" principles and how they are to be applied in a colossal experiment designed to support our military in their fight against the ideology of jihadist Islam. The author found it hard to see what was positive in the presentation. Not one of the authors in this special issue discussed applying positive psychology principles to the reduction of conflict between nations, to the prevention of war, or to the promotion of peace. How about a positive psychology that questions the wisdom of leaders who tell us that the use of force is unavoidable, and seeks instead to help them find alternative, peaceful solutions? A true positive psychology should be primarily addressed to eradicating the disease of war, not to supporting those who fight it.

  16. From computers to cultivation: reconceptualizing evolutionary psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eBarrett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behaviour, and the rigour with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated. While the framing of the current research topic places the brain-as-computer metaphor in opposition to evolutionary psychology, the most prominent school of thought in this field (born out of cognitive psychology, and often known as the Santa Barbara school is entirely wedded to the computational theory of mind as an explanatory framework. Its unique aspect is to argue that the mind consists of a large number of functionally specialized (i.e., domain-specific computational mechanisms, or modules (the massive modularity hypothesis. Far from offering an alternative to, or an improvement on, the current perspective, we argue that evolutionary psychology is a mainstream computational theory, and that its arguments for domain-specificity often rest on shaky premises. We then go on to suggest that the various forms of e-cognition (i.e., embodied, embedded, enactive represent a true alternative to standard computational approaches, with an emphasis on cognitive integration or the extended mind hypothesis in particular. We feel this offers the most promise for human psychology because it incorporates the social and historical processes that are crucial to human ‘mind-making’ within an evolutionarily-informed framework. In addition to linking to other research areas in psychology, this approach is more likely to form productive links to other disciplines within the social sciences, not least by encouraging a healthy pluralism in approach.

  17. Energy sustainable communities: Environmental psychological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer-Ries, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Energy sustainability is becoming an increasing issue-or rather 'the' issue in our society. Often it is reduced to a purely technical problem. Renewable energies and energy-efficient technologies are developed to solve the problem, but finally the end-users will 'decide' how much and what kind of energy they are going to consume. This article is targeted on showing the environmental psychological aspects of the change of energy demand and supply. It builds upon a transactional model of human technology interchange and summarises environmental psychological work done during more than 5 years. It refers to the idea of energy sustainable communities (ESCs), shows the development of one example community and concentrates on one aspect of the social dimension of ESCs, the 'acceptance of renewable energy technology', its definition and measurement in Germany

  18. Measures of psychological acculturation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Tomomi

    2006-09-01

    This article reviews conceptual and methodological issues in the measurement of psychological acculturation. The major issues involve the question of dimensionality and the assessment of specific domains of cultural change. Bidimensional scales that cover both overt and internal domains are more informative for the assessment of general levels of psychological acculturation. The validity of such scales must be examined in terms of the actual exposure of individuals to and involvement in each culture, and the influence of sociocultural factors on the course of acculturation. The parallel application of qualitative and quantitative methods may be useful for validity studies. The complementary use of emic and etic approaches will enhance the psychometric soundness of acculturation scales.

  19. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  20. Environmental psychology 1989-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, E; Bell, P A; Busby, P L; Asmus, C

    1996-01-01

    A review of research and theory on transactions between people and physical environments emphasizes new contributions to theory and empirical research published in major journals of environmental psychology, 1989-1994. Theories focused on arousal, load, stress, privacy-regulation, behavior settings, and transactional analysis; new theory increasingly incorporated situational and contextual variables. Empirical research emphasized field settings over the laboratory and employed increasingly diverse methods, populations, and cultures. Environmental design studies integrated scientific and applied goals through post-occupancy evaluation. New findings concerned features of residences, work places, hospitals, schools, prisons, and larger community environments. New studies also addressed environmental stressors (e.g., temperature, noise); effects of attitudes and behaviors on conservation, crime, pollution, and hazards; and issues for neighborhoods, public places, and natural environments. Directions for the future include integrated theory to guide research, more design experiments, and development of conventions for case studies.