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Sample records for underlying progesterone withdrawal

  1. Inhibition of Progesterone Metabolism Mimics the Effect of Progesterone Withdrawal on Forced Swim Test Immobility

    OpenAIRE

    Beckley, Ethan H.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Withdrawal from high levels of progesterone in rodents has been proposed as a model for premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Forced swim test (FST) immobility, used to model depression, was assessed in intact female DBA/2J mice following progesterone withdrawal (PWD) or treatment with the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Following 5 daily progesterone injections (5 mg/kg IP) FST immobility increased only in mice withdrawn for 3 days (p < .05). In another experiment, 3 days of PW...

  2. Inhibition of progesterone metabolism mimics the effect of progesterone withdrawal on forced swim test immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Ethan H; Finn, Deborah A

    2007-10-01

    Withdrawal from high levels of progesterone in rodents has been proposed as a model for premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Forced swim test (FST) immobility, used to model depression, was assessed in intact female DBA/2J mice following progesterone withdrawal (PWD) or treatment with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Following 5 daily progesterone injections (5 mg/kg IP) FST immobility increased only in mice withdrawn for 3 days (pimmobility. PWD and finasteride treatment, both of which reduce allopregnanolone levels, were associated with increased FST immobility in female DBA/2J mice. These findings suggest that decreased levels of the GABAergic neurosteroid allopregnanolone contribute to symptoms of PWD. Future studies of PWD may provide information about human conditions that are associated with hormone changes such as premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression.

  3. Environmental enrichment prevents anxiety-like behavior induced by progesterone withdrawal in two strains of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Preciado, D; López-Rubalcava, C; González-Olvera, J; Gallardo-Tenorio, A; Estrada-Camarena, E

    2016-11-12

    Stress vulnerability could influence the treatment response to anxiety associated with abrupt hormonal suppression. The present study explored the effects of different treatments on experimental anxiety induced by progesterone withdrawal (PW) in a stress-sensitive rat strain, Wistar Kyoto (WKY), in the burying behavior test (BBT). The following experimental series was conducted using independent groups of Wistar (control strain) and WKY ovariectomized rats: Experiment 1: Rats were treated for 5days with oil, a constant dose of progesterone (0.5mg/rat, s.c) or a combination of progesterone (0.5mg/rat, s.c) plus fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p); on day 6, all rats were subjected to BBT. Experiment 2: Rats received corn oil or decreasing doses of progesterone (0.84, 0.67, 0.5, 0.33 and 0.17mg/rat; one dose daily); on day 6, the rats were subjected to BBT. Experiment 3: Rats were divided into two groups that were subjected to 30days of standard conditions or environmental enrichment (EE); from days 25 to 30, all rats received a fixed dose of progesterone (0.5mg/rat, s.c.) or vehicle. On day 31, the rats were tested with BBT. Results showed that PW increased anxiety in both strains, and fluoxetine prevented anxiety in WKY rats. In contrast, a gradual reduction of progesterone prevents the anxiety in Wistar but not in WKY. EE was preventive against the anxiety induced by PW in both strains of rats. Thus, the results suggest that anxiety induced by PW is prevented by EE while the anxiolytic effect of pharmacological treatments depends on stress vulnerability. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Progesterone Withdrawal-Evoked Plasticity of Neural Function in the Female Periaqueductal Grey Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Lovick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclical changes in production of neuroactive steroids during the oestrous cycle induce significant changes in GABAA receptor expression in female rats. In the periaqueductal grey (PAG matter, upregulation of α4β1δ GABAA receptors occurs as progesterone levels fall during late dioestrus (LD or during withdrawal from an exogenous progesterone dosing regime. The new receptors are likely to be extrasynaptically located on the GABAergic interneurone population and to mediate tonic currents. Electrophysiological studies showed that when α4β1δ GABAA receptor expression was increased, the excitability of the output neurones in the PAG increased, due to a decrease in the level of ongoing inhibitory tone from the GABAergic interneurones. The functional consequences in terms of nociceptive processing were investigated in conscious rats. Baseline tail flick latencies were similar in all rats. However, acute exposure to mild vibration stress evoked hyperalgesia in rats in LD and after progesterone withdrawal, in line with the upregulation of α4β1δ GABAA receptor expression.

  5. Neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal in addicted patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Babhadiashar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphine is one of the most potent alkaloid in opium, which has substantial medical uses and needs and it is the first active principle purified from herbal source. Morphine has commonly been used for relief of moderate to severe pain as it acts directly on the central nervous system; nonetheless, its chronic abuse increases tolerance and physical dependence, which is commonly known as opiate addiction. Morphine withdrawal syndrome is physiological and behavioral symptoms that stem from prolonged exposure to morphine. A majority of brain regions are hypofunctional over prolonged abstinence and acute morphine withdrawal. Furthermore, several neural mechanisms are likely to contribute to morphine withdrawal. The present review summarizes the literature pertaining to neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal. Despite the fact that morphine withdrawal is a complex process, it is suggested that neural mechanisms play key roles in morphine withdrawal.

  6. Progestins Upregulate FKBP51 Expression in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells to Induce Functional Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Withdrawal: Implications for Contraceptive- Associated Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

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    Ozlem Guzeloglu Kayisli

    Full Text Available Use of long-acting progestin only contraceptives (LAPCs offers a discrete and highly effective family planning method. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB is the major side effect of, and cause for, discontinuation of LAPCs. The endometria of LAPC-treated women display abnormally enlarged, fragile blood vessels, decreased endometrial blood flow and oxidative stress. To understanding to mechanisms underlying AUB, we propose to identify LAPC-modulated unique gene cluster(s in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs. Protein and RNA isolated from cultured HESCs treated 7 days with estradiol (E2 or E2+ medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA or E2+ etonogestrel (ETO or E2+ progesterone (P4 were analyzed by quantitative Real-time (q-PCR and immunoblotting. HSCORES were determined for immunostained-paired endometria of pre-and 3 months post-Depot MPA (DMPA treated women and ovariectomized guinea pigs (GPs treated with placebo or E2 or MPA or E2+MPA for 21 days. In HESCs, whole genome analysis identified a 67 gene group regulated by all three progestins, whereas a 235 gene group was regulated by E2+ETO and E2+MPA, but not E2+P4. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor (GR activation as one of upstream regulators of the 235 MPA and ETO-specific genes. Among these, microarray results demonstrated significant enhancement of FKBP51, a repressor of PR/GR transcriptional activity, by both MPA and ETO. q-PCR and immunoblot analysis confirmed the microarray results. In endometria of post-DMPA versus pre-DMPA administered women, FKBP51 expression was significantly increased in endometrial stromal and glandular cells. In GPs, E2+MPA or MPA significantly increased FKBP51 immunoreactivity in endometrial stromal and glandular cells versus placebo- and E2-administered groups. MPA or ETO administration activates GR signaling and increases endometrial FKBP51 expression, which could be one of the mechanisms causing AUB by inhibiting PR and GR

  7. Progestins Upregulate FKBP51 Expression in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells to Induce Functional Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Withdrawal: Implications for Contraceptive- Associated Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeloglu Kayisli, Ozlem; Kayisli, Umit A; Basar, Murat; Semerci, Nihan; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Use of long-acting progestin only contraceptives (LAPCs) offers a discrete and highly effective family planning method. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major side effect of, and cause for, discontinuation of LAPCs. The endometria of LAPC-treated women display abnormally enlarged, fragile blood vessels, decreased endometrial blood flow and oxidative stress. To understanding to mechanisms underlying AUB, we propose to identify LAPC-modulated unique gene cluster(s) in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Protein and RNA isolated from cultured HESCs treated 7 days with estradiol (E2) or E2+ medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or E2+ etonogestrel (ETO) or E2+ progesterone (P4) were analyzed by quantitative Real-time (q)-PCR and immunoblotting. HSCORES were determined for immunostained-paired endometria of pre-and 3 months post-Depot MPA (DMPA) treated women and ovariectomized guinea pigs (GPs) treated with placebo or E2 or MPA or E2+MPA for 21 days. In HESCs, whole genome analysis identified a 67 gene group regulated by all three progestins, whereas a 235 gene group was regulated by E2+ETO and E2+MPA, but not E2+P4. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation as one of upstream regulators of the 235 MPA and ETO-specific genes. Among these, microarray results demonstrated significant enhancement of FKBP51, a repressor of PR/GR transcriptional activity, by both MPA and ETO. q-PCR and immunoblot analysis confirmed the microarray results. In endometria of post-DMPA versus pre-DMPA administered women, FKBP51 expression was significantly increased in endometrial stromal and glandular cells. In GPs, E2+MPA or MPA significantly increased FKBP51 immunoreactivity in endometrial stromal and glandular cells versus placebo- and E2-administered groups. MPA or ETO administration activates GR signaling and increases endometrial FKBP51 expression, which could be one of the mechanisms causing AUB by inhibiting PR and GR-mediated transcription

  8. 42 CFR 426.423 - Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under... LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.423 Withdrawing a complaint regarding an LCD under review. (a) Circumstance under which an aggrieved party may withdraw a complaint regarding an LCD. An...

  9. Progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 increases depression-like behavior in mice without affecting locomotor ability

    OpenAIRE

    Beckley, Ethan H.; Scibelli, Angela C.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal has been proposed as an underlying factor in premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression. Progesterone withdrawal induces forced swim test (FST) immobility in mice, a depression-like behavior, but the contribution of specific receptors to this effect is unclear. The role of progesterone’s GABAA receptor-modulating metabolite allopregnanolone in depression- and anxiety-related behaviors has been extensively documented, but little attention has been paid to the role ...

  10. A role for the endocannabinoid system in premature luteal regression and progesterone withdrawal in lipopolysaccharide-induced early pregnancy loss model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schander, Julieta Aylen; Correa, Fernando; Bariani, María Victoria; Blanco, Julieta; Cymeryng, Cora; Jensen, Federico; Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Franchi, Ana María

    2016-11-01

    What is the role of the endocannabinoid system (eCS) in the alterations of the endocrine system in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced miscarriage? In 7-days pregnant wild type, but not cannabinoid receptor type 1 knockout (CB1-KO) mice, LPS increased COX-2 expression and prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) production in the uterus leading to lower expression of prolactin receptor in the ovary and a marked regression of corpora lutea (CL), suggesting that the eCS mediates the deleterious effects of LPS on reproductive events. Appropriate systemic progesterone levels are critical for a successful pregnancy outcome. Precocious loss of luteal progesterone (P4) secretion leads to miscarriage in rodents. We have previously shown that LPS administration to pregnant mice induces embryonic resorption accompanied by a dramatic decrease in systemic progesterone levels in a murine model of inflammatory miscarriage, with the eCS mediating these LPS-induced deleterious effects. CD1 wild-type (WT) and CB1-KO mice were randomly allocated to Vehicle (saline; i.p.) or LPS (0.5 μg/g body weight; i.p.) treated groups: (WT-Vehicle; WT-LPS; CB1-KO-Vehicle and CB1-KO-LPS). A single injection was given on day 7 of pregnancy and tissues (blood, ovary, uterus) were collected 6, 12, 24 and 48 h later. P4 and PGF2α plasma levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (Western blot) content in uterus was assayed. COX-2 and prolactin receptor (PrlR) mRNA levels in the ovary were assayed by RT-PCR. Tissue morphology of the CL was assessed by haematoxylin-eosin staining. Treatment of 7-day pregnant WT mice with LPS induced a P4 withdrawal (p endocannabinoid system in the physiopathology of reproduction as well as the role of this endogenous system as a mediator of LPS deleterious effects on reproductive tissues. None. Dr Ana María Franchi was funded by Agencia Nacional para la Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2010/0813 and

  11. Progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 increases depression-like behavior in mice without affecting locomotor ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Ethan H.; Scibelli, Angela C.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal has been proposed as an underlying factor in premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression. Progesterone withdrawal induces forced swim test (FST) immobility in mice, a depression-like behavior, but the contribution of specific receptors to this effect is unclear. The role of progesterone’s GABAA receptor-modulating metabolite allopregnanolone in depression- and anxiety-related behaviors has been extensively documented, but little attention has been paid to the role of progesterone receptors. We administered the classic progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU-38486) and the specific progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 to mice that had been primed with progesterone for five days, and found that both compounds induced FST immobility reliably, robustly, and in a dose-dependent fashion. Although CDB-4124 increased FST immobility, it did not suppress initial activity in a locomotor test. These findings suggest that decreased progesterone receptor activity contributes to depression-like behavior in mice, consistent with the hypothesis that progesterone withdrawal may contribute to the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. PMID:21163582

  12. 48 CFR 52.214-23 - Late submissions, modifications, revisions, and withdrawals of technical proposals under two-step...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., modifications, revisions, and withdrawals of technical proposals under two-step sealed bidding. 52.214-23... Late submissions, modifications, revisions, and withdrawals of technical proposals under two-step..., Modifications, Revisions, and Withdrawals of Technical Proposals Under Two-Step Sealed Bidding (NOV 1999) (a...

  13. Progesterone analogues reduce plasma Epstein–Barr virus DNA load and improve pain control in recurrent/metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients under supportive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Hung

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Progesterone analogues improve quality of life in terms of performance status, pain control, and plasma EBV DNA load in patients with locally recurrent/metastatic NPC under palliative care.

  14. Progesterone levels and follicular dynamic during holstein cows postpartum under low tropic conditions in Colombia

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    Carolina Pinzón S.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen Holstein cows were selected at random and followed, every three days, from the 7th day postpartum until they got pregnant again or day 120 postpartum. Ovarian activity was determined through use of dynamic follicular ultrasounds and the measurement of progesterone levels (RIA. The intervals: delivery first estrus observed, first insemination, first ovulation, first rise in progesterone (>1ng/ml and first dominant follicle were 67.3, 70.3, 27, 36 and 26 days respectively. The conception rate at first insemination was 54.4%. The patterns of follicular growth were inconsistent during the first 15 days postpartum. Some cows showed inactive ovaries and others showed follicles with diameters over 10mm. 72.6% of the cows had “silent” estrous cycles with a luteal phase shorter than those with estrus behavior (12 vs. 15 days and lower progesterone concentration at day 15 ( 1.994 vs. 3.3873 ng/ml. Earlier luteal activity (day 3 was observed in pregnant cows than in open cows (day 6. Pregnant cows had higher progesterone levels at day 15 (over 3 ng/ml while open cows levels went down gradually revealing early luteolysis. Results show that the beginning of postpartum ovarian activity (follicular and hormonal dynamic is not determined by the first estrous behavior. Use of RIA is a tool to detect where in the cycle is the subject animal when there are no external signs of estrus. The delay in reproductive activity, as evaluated based the wide range of open days and the number of services per pregnancy, is not due to a lack of early ovarian activity. It is necessary to analyze together other factors, such as productive pressure and nutritional problems that could be affecting reproductive efficiency in future investigations.

  15. Progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.M.; Redshaw, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claims a radioimmunoassay for progesterone, which comprises contacting, in an acidic medium a sample of liquid with a predetermined amount of antibodies raised against a progesterone-protein complex, the protein being attached to the 11-position of progesterone by means of a bridging group and with a predetermined amount of a progesterone derivative having an iodinatable group attached to its 3-position by means of a bridging group, the iodinatable group being iodinated with one or more atom(s) of a radioisotope of iodine, separating the steroid bound in the resulting antibody-antigen complex from the free steroid and measuring the radioactivity of the free steroid component or of the antibody-antigen complex. Sufficient sensitivity has been achieved to enable a progesterone assay to be carried out directly on a sample of biological fluid, such as serum, plasma, urine or milk. (U.K.)

  16. The neurosteroid progesterone underlies estrogen positive feedback of the LH surge

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    Paul E Micevych

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding the steroid regulation of neural function has rapidly evolved in the past decades. Not long ago the prevailing thoughts were that peripheral steroid hormones carried information to the brain which passively responded to these steroids. These steroid actions were slow, taking hours to days to be realized because they regulated gene expression. Over the past three decades, discoveries of new steroid receptors, rapid membrane initiated signaling mechanisms and de novo neurosteroidogenesis have shed new light on the complexity of steroids actions within the nervous system. Sexual differentiation of the brain during development occurs predominately through timed steroid-mediated expression of proteins and long term epigenetic modifications. In contrast across the estrous cycle, estradiol release from developing ovarian follicles initially increases slowly and then at proestrus increases rapidly. This pattern of estradiol release acts through both classical genomic mechanisms and rapid membrane-initiated signaling in the brain to coordinate reproductive behavior and physiology. This review focuses on recently discovered estrogen receptor- (ER membrane signaling mechanisms that estradiol utilizes during estrogen positive feedback to stimulate de novo progesterone synthesis within the hypothalamus to trigger the luteinizing hormone surge important for ovulation and estrous cyclicity. The activation of these signaling pathways appears to be coordinated by the rising and waning of estradiol throughout the estrous cycle and integral to the negative and positive feedback mechanisms of estradiol. This differential responsiveness is part of the timing mechanism triggering the luteinizing hormone surge.

  17. Annual pattern of plasma melatonin and progesterone concentrations in hair and wool ewe lambs kept under natural photoperiod at lower latitudes in the southern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L A; Rodrigues, P A; Nonaka, K O; Sasa, A; Balieiro, J C C; Vicente, W R R; Cipolla-Neto, J

    2006-09-01

    To study the annual pattern of plasma melatonin and progesterone concentrations in hair [Santa Inês (SI)] and wool [Romney Marsh (RM) and Suffolk (SU)] ewe lambs kept under natural photoperiods at 21 degrees 59'S, 12 ewe lambs (four/breed) were used. For melatonin, blood samples were collected monthly throughout the year at the onset (17:00, 19:00 and 21:00 hr) and end (04:00, 06:00 and 08:00 hr) of the night, and for progesterone the samples were collected in the morning, two to three times a week throughout the year. Plasma melatonin concentrations at different times of the day changed according to the season. In diurnal periods (17:00 and 8:00 hr) no seasonal differences were observed but they became evident in the nocturnal intervals (21:00 and 4:00 hr) and transitional night-day (6:00 hr) times. The patterns of melatonin secretion were higher in winter and autumn than in spring and summer. The patterns of plasma progesterone secretion were affected by interaction between breed and season. There was no seasonal variation in plasma progesterone concentrations for SI females. The progesterone pattern for RM and SU females varied with season. The plasma levels were higher in autumn and winter than in spring and summer. At 21 degrees 59'S hair and wool ewe lambs showed the same annual pattern of plasma melatonin concentration while the annual progesterone profiles were quite different. For SI females this pattern was constant along all seasons and for RM and SU females this pattern was higher during autumn and winter than spring and summer.

  18. Progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroufova, A.; Kozlova, J.

    1976-01-01

    RIA methods of determining progestorone using the SORIN kit made in Italy and the NEN kit made in Great Britain were compared. Plasma extraction, the initial sample size for examination and recovery, the range of calibration curves of the two kits, the variation coefficient, the values of the blank sample and the values of progesterone determined in the normal menstrual cycle are discussed in detail. Variation coefficient: Sorin (calibration curve 9 to 11%, biological material 9.2%), NEN (calibration curve 12%, biological material 27.8%); determinations of progesterone levels during a normal menstrual cycle were 10 to 15% higher with the NEN kit; tritiated samples were measured with a 30 to 37% efficiency using the SORIN kit and 15 to 18% efficiency using the NEN kit. The turbidity and later sediment which formed during the determination of steroid hormones in biological materials after the addition of the scintillation solution did not reduce the efficiency of measurement. Priority is given to the SORIN kit. (L.O.)

  19. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering : abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Paul F M; Koning, Jeroen P F; Heinen, Nadia; Laheij, Robert J F; van Cauter, R M Victory; De Jong, Cor A J

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  20. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering: abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, P.F.M.; Koning, J.P.; Heinen, N.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Cauter, R.M.V. van; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  1. Groundwater Withdrawals under Drought: Reconciling GRACE and Models in the United States High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, W.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Kumar, S.; Rodell, M.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced Land Surface Models (LSM) offer a powerful tool for studying and monitoring hydrological variability. Highly managed systems, however, present a challenge for these models, which typically have simplified or incomplete representations of human water use, if the process is represented at all. GRACE, meanwhile, detects the total change in water storage, including change due to human activities, but does not resolve the source of these changes. Here we examine recent groundwater declines in the US High Plains Aquifer (HPA), a region that is heavily utilized for irrigation and that is also affected by episodic drought. To understand observed decline in groundwater (well observation) and terrestrial water storage (GRACE) during a recent multi-year drought, we modify the Noah-MP LSM to include a groundwater pumping irrigation scheme. To account for seasonal and interannual variability in active irrigated area we apply a monthly time-varying greenness vegetation fraction (GVF) dataset to the model. A set of five experiments were performed to study the impact of irrigation with groundwater withdrawal on the simulated hydrological cycle of the HPA and to assess the importance of time-varying GVF when simulating drought conditions. The results show that including the groundwater pumping irrigation scheme in Noah-MP improves model agreement with GRACE mascon solutions for TWS and well observations of groundwater anomaly in the southern HPA, including Texas and Kansas, and that accounting for time-varying GVF is important for model realism under drought. Results for the HPA in Nebraska are mixed, likely due to misrepresentation of the recharge process. This presentation will highlight the value of the GRACE constraint for model development, present estimates of the relative contribution of climate variability and irrigation to declining TWS in the HPA under drought, and identify opportunities to integrate GRACE-FO with models for water resource monitoring in heavily

  2. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination through the use of progesterone RIA in Venezuela and its improvement with temporary calf removal and progesterone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Belloso, E.; Portillo Martinez, G.; De Ondiz, A.; Rojas, N.; Soto Castillo, G.; Aranguren, J.; Ramirez Iglesia, L.; Perera, F.

    2001-01-01

    A survey was carried out to evaluate the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination (AI). Defatted milk samples were taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay at the moment of AI (day 0), 10 days and 22 days after AI and at manual pregnancy diagnosis. Six farms located in the western region of Venezuela were used in this study and a total of 600 AI were included. The calving to first service interval (CFSI) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) showed no significant differences between the hand milking (suckling) and machine milking (non suckling) systems. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were found among farms within the traditional and hand milking system. The mean (± SEM) CFSI for first calving heifers and for cows with second or higher parity was 141.9 ± 6.9 and 71.8 ± 4.2 days (P<0.05), and the CCI for these two groups was 154 ± 8.9 and 80.8 ± 5.5 days (P<0.05), respectively. Cows calving in the dry season had CFSI and CCI of 115.4 ± 5.2 and 123.8 ± 6.8 days, while for those calving in the rainy season the intervals were 98.3 ± 5.5 and 111.1 ± 7.2 days respectively (P<0.05). Predominantly Bos indicus cows had shorter CFSI and CCI (P<0.05) than predominantly Bos taurus cows. Overall conception rate, analyzed by Chi-square, showed significant differences due to predominant breed and parity. Correct heat detection, as determined by low progesterone levels at AI, was 95.5% in the best farm and 83.3% in the worst farm. The results of this study identify a postpartum anoestrus problem, especially in the first calf heifers with an important effect of season, breed, farm, and heat detection on the reproductive efficiency of farms under AI. After this survey a study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of calf removal for 96 hours compared with treatment using norgestomet implants and PMSG for oestrus induction and fertility in crossbred primiparous acyclic zebu. cows which were suckled twice a day

  3. Projected freshwater withdrawals in the United States under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge A. Ramirez

    2013-01-01

    Relying on the U.S. Geological Survey water use data for the period 1960 2005, this paper summarizes past water use and then projects future water use based on the trends in water use efficiency and major drivers of water use. Water use efficiency has improved in most sectors. Over the past 45 years, withdrawals in industry and at thermoelectric plants have steadily...

  4. Plasma progesterone levels in progesterone treated cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosskopf, J.F.W.; Van Niekerk, C.H.; Morgenthal, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for the radioimmunoassay of progesterone in plasma is described. In one trial the oestrous cycles of four cycling cows and in another trial of one non-cycling cow and two cycling heifers were synchronized by the administration of progesterone. Each female received either 50 mg or 0,1 mg/kg of progesterone intramuscularly on alternate days in two courses of four and six injections respectively. Blood samples of the animals were collected either daily or two-daily before, over the entire period of treatment and for eight days after the last progesterone injection. The results of the progesterone assays are represented graphically for each individual cow or heifer. The plasma progesterone levels during treatment were maintained reasonably well at levels corresponding to those normally encountered during the luteal phase of the cycle. The progesterone levels, however, did not drop as rapidly as desired after the last injection but might have been influenced by a residual corpus luteum from a previous ovulation

  5. Altrenogest and progesterone therapy during pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with progesterone insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Todd R; Gill, Claudia; Doescher, Bethany M; Sweeney, Jay; De Laender, Piet; Van Elk, Cornelis E; O'Brien, Justine K

    2012-06-01

    Progesterone production is essential for growth and development of the conceptus during pregnancy. Abnormal development of the corpus luteum (CL) after conception can result in early embryonic loss or fetal abortion. Routine monitoring of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) pregnancy after artificial insemination or natural conception with ultrasonography and serum progesterone determination has allowed for the establishment of expected fetal growth rates and hormone concentrations. Using these monitoring techniques, we revealed four pregnant dolphins (12-24 yr old) with abnormally low progesterone production indicative of luteal insufficiency. Once diagnosed, animals were placed on altrenogest (0.044-0.088 mg/kg once daily) alone or with oral progesterone (50-200 mg twice daily). Doses of hormone were increased or decreased in each animal based on how fetal skull biparietal and thoracic growth rates compared with published normal values. Hormones were withdrawn starting from day 358 of gestation in animals 1 and 2, with labor occurring 6 and 7 days after withdrawal and at 376 and 373 days of gestation, respectively. Both deliveries were dystocic, with each calf requiring manual extraction and fetotomy for calf 1. The fetuses in animals 3 and 4 died at 348 and 390 days of gestation, respectively. Induction of labor was attempted in both animals, after fetal death, by using a combination of rapid progesterone withdrawal and steroid and prostaglandin F2alpha administration. The calf of animal 4 had to be removed with manual cervical dilation and fetotomy All adult females survived the procedures. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that the CL is the primary source of progesterone throughout pregnancy in the bottlenose dolphin. Until further characterization of hormones required during pregnancy and at parturition has been accomplished, the exogenous progestagen supplementation protocol described here cannot be recommended for treatment of progesterone

  6. Sexual Absorption of Vaginal Progesterone: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. Merriam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if sexual intercourse reduces absorption of vaginal progesterone gel in women and to determine if progesterone is absorbed by the male during intercourse. Study Design. Prospective, randomized, cross over, controlled study of 20 reproductive-aged women and their male sexual partners randomized to receive vaginal progesterone gel (Crinone 8% gel, Actavis Inc., USA or placebo cream. Serum progesterone for both male and female partners were measured 10 hours after intercourse. One week later, subjects were crossed over to receive the opposite formulation. In the third week, women used progesterone gel at night and abstained from intercourse. Results. Serum progesterone was significantly reduced with vaginal progesterone gel + intercourse compared with vaginal progesterone gel + abstinence (P=0.0075. Men absorbed significant progesterone during intercourse with a female partner using vaginal progesterone gel compared to placebo (P=0.0008. Conclusion(s. Vaginal progesterone gel is reduced in women after intercourse which may decrease drug efficacy during luteal phase support. Because men absorb low levels of progesterone during intercourse, exposure could cause adverse effects such as decreased libido. This study is registered under Clinical Trial number NCT01959464.

  7. Area under the curve of temporal estrogen and progesterone measurements during assisted reproductive technology: Which hormone is the main determinant of cycle outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Enis; Kutlu, Tayfun; Abide Yayla, Cigdem; Kayatas Eser, Semra; Sanverdi, Ilhan; Devranoglu, Belgin

    2018-02-01

    Is there any relationship between estrogen and progesterone concentrations during assisted reproductive technology (ART)? Which hormone is the main determinant of impaired endometrial receptivity? This study was conducted from July to December 2016 at the in vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection unit at Zeynep Kamil Women and Children's Health Training and Research Hospital. A total of 289 women who underwent ART were prospectively screened and areas under the curve of temporal estrogen (AUCEM) and progesterone measurements (AUCPM) were calculated for each participant. Women were included if they had regular menstrual cycles, normal serum prolactin levels and had not received hormone treatment within three months. ART was indicated in all patients for unexplained infertility. Patients were divided into two groups: with (n = 90) and without (n = 199) embryo implantation. The relationship between the two AUCs and ART success was assessed in terms of embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy. Implantation was successful in 90 (31.1%) women, and a fetal heart rate was detected in 83 (28.7%) cases. There was a significant correlation between AUCEM and AUCPM (r = 0.525, P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed significant associations between failure of implantation, lack of clinical pregnancy and AUCEM (beta coefficient = 0.311, P < 0.001; beta coefficient = 0.297, P < 0.001, respectively) after adjusting for AUCPM. Our data showed that the degree of endometrial estrogen exposure is the main factor functioning as a detrimental effect of ovarian stimulation on endometrial receptivity. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Fuel pin behaviour under conditions of control rod withdrawal accident in CABRI-2 experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, Joelle; Lemoine, Francette; Sato, Ikken; Struwe, Dankward; Pfrang, Werner

    1994-01-01

    Simulation of the control rod withdrawal accident has been performed in the international CABRI-2 experimental programme. The tests realized with industrial pins led to clarification of the influence of the pellet design and have shown the important role of fission products on the solid fuel swelling which promotes early pin failure with solid fuel pellet. With annular pellet design, large fuel swelling combined to low smear density leads to degradation of fuel thermal conductivity and thus reduces power to melt. However, the high margin to deterministic failure is confirmed with hollow pellets. Improvements of the modelling were necessary to describe such behaviours in computer codes as SAS-4A, PAPAS-2S and PHYSURAC. (author)

  9. Ovarian stimulation with follicle-stimulating hormone under increasing or minimal concentration of progesterone in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherry, T M; Matsui, M; Kida, K; Miyamoto, A; Megahed, G A; Shehata, S H; Miyake, Y-I

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence or absence of Corpus luteum (CL) on the follicular population during superstimulation in dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cattle). Animals were divided into two groups as follows: (1) Growing CL group (G1): Cows (n=7) received a total dose of 28 Armour units (AU) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) through the first 4 d (twice daily) after spontaneous ovulation (Day 0). (2) CL Absence group (G2): Cows (n=10) received prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) at 9 or 10 d after ovulation. After 36h, all the follicles (larger than 5mm) were aspirated (Day 0). The FSH treatment started 24h after aspiration and continued for 4 d. The number of small (3 to or = 8mm) follicles was examined on Days 1, 3, and 5 in all groups. Blood samples were collected daily for 5 d, and progesterone (P(4)), estradiol (E(2)), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH) in plasma were measured by enzyme immunoassays. The results showed that in G1, the P(4) level increased gradually from 0.5 ng/mL at Day 1 to 2 ng/mL at Day 5, whereas in G2, the P(4) level was completely below 0.5 ng/mL. All cows of the G2 group showed an increase of E(2) at Day 3 or Day 4 followed by an increase of IGF-1 within 24h, while GH increased concomitantly with the E(2) increase in 8 of 10 trials. On the other hand, cows of the G1 group showed neither E(2) nor IGF-1 increase. Moreover, at the end of the treatment, the number of follicles in the G2 group was significantly increased compared with that of the G1 group (22.8+/-2.0 vs. 11.6+/-2.0). In conclusion, low P(4) level during FSH treatment enhanced multiple follicular growth and E(2) secretion, which was followed by increase of IGF-1 and GH. Therefore, the absence of the CL may play a critical role in the superovulation response by controlling the number of growing follicles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, Olive; Lethaby, Anne; Roberts, Helen; Mol, Ben Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 5% of women experience severe symptoms called premenstrual syndrome (PMS), only in the two weeks before their menstrual periods. Treatment with progesterone may restore a deficiency, balance menstrual hormone levels or reduce effects of falling progesterone levels on the brain or

  11. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women...... with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment...... renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone resistant state...

  12. Withdrawal from bariatric treatment – an analysis under various demographic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Szeliga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Poland is high on a list of countries affected by epidemics of obesity, a problem that has especially suddenly increased in the post-transformation period. Materials and method. Documentation of 115 subsequent patients diagnosed with grade 3 obesity, considered eligible for surgical treatment, was analysed since 2015. A subgroup of 68 patients was selected from this group and the included patients who decided to cancel their treatment at various stages. Their history since presentation at the obesity treatment centre, BMI with its history, age, education and place of residence were analysed, followed by a telephone survey. 42 patients were finally contacted. Special attention was placed on the analysis of patients taking into account their place of residence. Patients were divided into inhabitants of rural and urban areas. Results. In the study group of 68 patients, 19 (27.9% were inhabitants of rural areas and 49 (72.1% of urban areas. Women accounted for 67.6%, and men for 32.4%. The mean age of patients when they presented for treatment was 43 years. On average, men presented 5 years later compared to women. The mean BMI on qualification for treatment of obesity was 47.6 kg/m2. The mean BMI max – 49.6 kg/m2. There were no differences regarding education in both populations. Despite the lack of differences regarding changes in the BMI since withdrawal from treatment, as many as 63% of patients from rural areas reached the BMI max in this time. Conclusions. There were demographic differences between the degree of obesity observed among patients receiving bariatric treatment, and inhabitants of urban areas were favoured. Patients from rural areas who withdrew from bariatric treatment and were left without medical care significantly more often achieved their maximum body weight, when compared to those living in urban areas. The active participation of physicians, both specialists and general practitioners, in the life of obese patients is

  13. Prolonged hypogonadism in males following withdrawal from anabolic-androgenic steroids: an under-recognized problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; DeLuca, James; Isaacs, Stephanie; Baggish, Aaron; Weiner, Rory; Bhasin, Shalender; Pope, Harrison G

    2015-05-01

    To assess the frequency and severity of hypogonadal symptoms in male long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misusers who have discontinued AAS use. Cross-sectional, naturalistic. Out-patient facility. Twenty-four male former long-term AAS users and 36 non-AAS-using weightlifters, recruited by advertisement in Massachusetts, USA. Five of the former users were currently receiving treatment with physiological testosterone replacement, leaving 19 untreated users for the numerical comparisons below. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, questions regarding history of AAS use, physical examination, serum hormone determinations and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Compared with the 36 non-AAS-using weightlifters, the 19 untreated former AAS users displayed significantly smaller testicular volumes [estimated difference, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3 (0.1, 4.5) ml; P = 0.042] and lower serum testosterone levels [estimated difference: 95% CI = 131 (25, 227) dl; P = 0.009], with five users showing testosterone levels below 200 ng/dl despite abstinence from AAS for 3-26 months. Untreated former users also displayed significantly lower scores on the IIEF sexual desire subscale [estimated difference: 95% CI = 2.4 (1.3, 3.4) points on a 10-point scale; P anabolic-androgenic steroid misusers, anabolic-androgenic steroid-withdrawal hypogonadism appears to be common, frequently prolonged and associated with substantial morbidity. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Role of CYP27A1 in progesterone metabolism in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Geneviève; Vögeli, Isabelle; Escher, Robert; Tuckey, Robert C; Erickson, Sandra; Krozowski, Zygmunt; Frey, Felix J

    2009-10-01

    In the kidney, progesterone is inactivated to 20alpha-dihydro-progesterone (20alpha-DH-progesterone) to protect the mineralocorticoid receptor from progesterone excess. In an attempt to clone the enzyme with 20alpha-hydroxysteroid activity using expression cloning in CHOP cells and a human kidney expression library, serendipitously cDNA encoding CYP27A1 was isolated. Overexpression of CYP27A1 in CHOP cells decreased progesterone conversion to 20alpha-DH-progesterone in a dose-dependent manner, an effect enhanced by cotransfection with adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase. Incubation of CHOP cells with 27-hydroxycholesterol, a product of CYP27A1, increased the ratio of progesterone to 20alpha-DH-progesterone in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that the effect of CYP27A1 overexpression was mediated by 27-hydroxycholesterol. To analyze whether these observations are relevant in vivo, progesterone and 20alpha-DH-progesterone were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectometry in 24-h urine of CYP27A1 gene knockout (ko) mice and their control wild-type and heterozygote littermates. In CYP27A1 ko mice, urinary progesterone concentrations were decreased, 20alpha-DH-progesterone increased, and the progesterone-to-20alpha-DH-progesterone ratio decreased threefold (P CYP27A1 modulates progesterone concentrations. The underlying mechanism is inhibition of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase by 27-hydroxycholesterol.

  15. Progesterone is neuroprotective by inhibiting cerebral edema after ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan-zheng Zhao; Min Zhang; Heng-fang Liu; Jian-ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic edema can alter the structure and permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Recent studies have reported that progesterone reduces cerebral edema after cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, progesterone effectively reduced Evans blue extravasation in the ischemic penumbra, but not in the ischemic core, 48 hours after cerebral ischemia in rats. Progesterone also inhibited the down-regulation of gene and pr...

  16. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  17. Withdrawal Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Zhi-Feng Xiang & Li-Xin Deng (2014): Complete mitochondrial genome of white Bengal tiger, Panthera tigris tigris, DOI: 10.3109/19401736.2013.873912. This article, published online ahead of print on 17 January 2014, has been withdrawn by the authors due to an error identified in the data. This updated withdrawal notice replaces the original withdrawal notice, which still included the published article in full.

  18. Radiation effect on pregnant rats receiving progesterone and Biochemical changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Abdel-Gawad, I.I.

    1996-01-01

    The following terms were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of the radiation induced biochemical changes in pregnant rats with and without progesterone injections. 1- serum total proteins. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant increase in serum total proteins on the day 8 of gestation in irradiated animals as compared to control animals, while on the other days serum total proteins increased significantly in irradiated animals compared to control animals. 2- serum total lipids. Animals irradiated on the third day of gestation and 8 th day all showed significant increase in serum total lipids with exception of those on the 14 th which showed nonsignificant change. Those on the 21 st showed a reverse effect of decrease. 3- serum progesterone. It is evident that animals irradiated on third day sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant change in serum progesterone on the day 8, but on the other days it is significantly decreased compared to control levels. 4-Calcium. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on the 8 th day change in calcium level, others showed a significant decrease compared to control level. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Study on the Withdrawal Way of Silk Road Fund under the Belt and Road Initiative Based on Game Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Yingying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Fund is an important financial support of The Belt and Road Initiative, it has a strict investment operation process to realize the capital appreciation, so the withdrawal is crucial. This paper models the utility game and find the game mechanism between Silk Road Fund and target enterprise. And then we put forward some referential suggestions such as choosing suitable withdraw opportunity, perfecting talent team and information transmission mechanism,strengthening cooperation with local government, making effective use of gambling agreement and actively exploring new exit mode.

  20. Artificial induction of lactation in ewes: the involvement of progesterone and prolactin in lactogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, W J; Hooley, R D; McDowell, G H; Fell, L R

    1976-10-01

    An attempt has been made to evaluate the importance of prolactin and 'progesterone withdrawal' for lactogenesis. The experimental model system used was the ovariectomized, non-pregnant ewe induced to lactate artifically by treatment with trigger hormone (either oestrogen, glucocorticoid or oxytocin) alone or in combination with progesterone. It appears from the results that prolactin is important in the lactogenic responses elicited by oestrogen and oxytocin but not as important in the response elicited by glucocorticoid. Moreover, the results suggest that, in the ewe, an appropriate positive hormonal stimulus will overcome the inhibitory influence of progesterone on lactogenesis.

  1. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so they can monitor you for symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Prevention Reduce or avoid alcohol. If you have a drinking problem, you should ... team. 02-05-18: Editorial update. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Read more ... HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A. ...

  2. Effects of progesterone on male-mediated infant-directed aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johanna S; Burgess, Carly; Horton, Teresa H; Levine, Jon E

    2009-05-16

    Many species that engage in parental behavior exhibit infanticide under certain circumstances. The neural signals regulating the transition from infant care giver to infant killer and back remain unclear. Previously we demonstrated that progesterone (P) and its receptor (PR) have inhibitory effects on parental behavior and increase infant-directed aggression in male mice. In the present studies we sought to elucidate the mechanisms by which the effects of P are manifested. Because the onset of parental behavior in females is associated with the withdrawal of P at the end of pregnancy we tested the hypothesis that withdrawal of P would similarly enhance parental behavior in males. Virgin male mice were implanted with P or vehicle for 21 days, replicating the duration of pregnancy in females. Tests were run for parental and infanticidal behavior 5 days after removal of the capsules. P increased the proportion of nonparental males that attacked pups. However, neither the number of males exhibiting parental care nor the quality of care was affected by P treatment. Serum P and testosterone (T) levels were not different from controls at the time of behavioral testing indicating continued elevations in peripheral hormones are not required for the expression of infanticide. In conclusion, withdrawal of P does not trigger the onset of parental behavior in males. Rather, prior exposure to P induces persistent infanticidal behavior in adult male mice.

  3. Quality of Life, Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer under Short Term Hypothyroidism Induced by Levothyroxine Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badihian, S; Jalalpour, P; Mirdamadi, M; Moslehi, M

    We studied quality of life (QOL), anxiety, and depression in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) either during treatment with levothyroxine or during withdrawal from levothyroxine when whole-body scanning (WBS) needed to be performed. DTC patients projected to undergo WBS were included in the study. They were studied at two time-points - the day before levothyroxine withdrawal, and one month after levothyroxine withdrawal. They were asked to fill WHOQOL-Bref, BDI-II, and HADS questionnaires at both time-points, and blood samples were taken to measure TSH, Tg, and TgAb levels. Twenty-nine subjects (11 males) with a mean age of 42.6 ± 14.1 years entered the study. From the first to second time-point, the mean TSH level increased from 0.73 to 106.9 U/ml and the mean Tg level increased from 20.4 to 63.6 ng/ml. QOL scores decreased in four dimensions (physical health: 67.8 to 25.7; psychological: 58.9 to 38.9; social relationship: 67.5 to 56; and environment: 57.2 to 48.8). Patients also felt more depressed (48.3% to 93.2%) and anxious (65.5% to 89.6%). All changes were statistically significant (p levothyroxine withdrawal. Our findings suggest that alternative therapies, such as those employing rhTSH, should be considered for these patients. Psycho-oncological support might also be useful in helping them overcome their symptoms during short-term hypothyroidism; however, considering the reversibility of their symptoms, supportive care might be more effective.Key words: quality of life - anxiety - depression - thyroid cancer - hypothyroidism - levothyroxine - whole body scanning.

  4. Opiate and opioid withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000949.htm Opiate and opioid withdrawal To use the sharing features on this page, ... or withdrawing from opiates. Alternative Names Withdrawal from opioids; Dopesickness; Substance use - opiate withdrawal; Substance abuse - opiate withdrawal; Drug abuse - opiate withdrawal; ...

  5. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to estrogen in stroke ischemia. Nasrin Sheikh1, Heidar Tavilani1* and Aliakbar Rezaie2. 1Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran. 2Department of Neurology, School of ...

  6. Progesterone receptor modulators in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    WIEHLE, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has been treated successfully with selective estrogen receptor antagonists (SERMs) such as tamoxifen, receptor-depleting agents such as fulvestrant, and aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs or PRMs) have not been studied as much and are currently under investigation for inhibition of mammary carcinogenesis in animal models and breast cancer prevention trials in women. They might follow tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors in t...

  7. Progesterone arrested cell cycle progression through progesterone receptor isoform A in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Samaneh; Kasajima, Atsuko; Onodera, Yoshiaki; McNamara, Keely May; Ise, Kazue; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Tachibana, Tomoyoshi; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Unno, Michiaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2018-04-01

    In pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (Pan-NEN) progesterone signaling has been shown to have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects on cell proliferation. The ability of progesterone to inhibit tumor proliferation is of particular interest and is suggested to be mediated through the less abundantly expressed progesterone receptor (PR) isoform A (PRA). To date the mechanistic processes underlying this inhibition of proliferation remain unclear. To examine the mechanism of PRA actions, the human Pan-NEN cell line QGP-1, that endogenously expresses PR isoform B (PRB) without PRA, was transfected with PRA. PRA transfection suppressed the majority of cell cycle related genes increased by progesterone including cyclin A2 (CCNA2), cyclin B1 (CCNB1), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Importantly, following progesterone administration cell cycle distribution was shifted to S and G2/M phases in the naïve cell line but in PRA-transfected cells, this effect was suppressed. To see if these mechanistic insights were confirmed in patient samples PRA, PRB, CCNA2, CCNB, CDK1 and CDK2 immunoreactivities were assessed in Pan-NEN cases. Higher levels of cell cycle markers were associated with higher WHO grade tumors and correlations between the markers suggested formation of cyclin/CDK activated complexes in S and G2/M phases. PRA expression was associated with inverse correlation of all cell cycle markers. Collectively, these results indicate that progesterone signals through PRA negatively regulates cell cycle progression through suppressing S and G2/M phases and downregulation of cell cycle phases specific cyclins/CDKs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Withdrawal Method (Coitus Interruptus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withdrawal method (coitus interruptus) Overview The withdrawal method of contraception, also known as coitus interruptus, is the practice of withdrawing the penis from the vagina and away from a woman's external ...

  9. Results of applications of DISKOT system and of RIA determination of progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranek, J.

    1989-01-01

    Milk for progesterone determination was taken from cows picked out for insemination, cows following insemination and cows with reproduction disorders. The samples were taken in test tubes containing potassium dichromate. Progesterone was determined by RIA of skimmed milk and the results were transmitted to the DISKOT system in the data processing centre. The use of the DISKOT system output and the monitoring of progesterone in milk by the RIA laboratory improved reproduction indexes of the herd under study. (E.J.). 2 tabs

  10. OVULATORY RESFONSE IN PROGESTERONE SYNCHRONIZED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conception rate and ovarian function following estrus control by progestetone injections in dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 14, 224. VAN NIEKERK, C.H., BELONJE, P.C. & SPREETH, E.B., 1970. Post partum synchronization of the oestrus period of lactating friesland cows with 6-methyl-17-acetozy-Progesterone. (MAP) and PMSG.

  11. expression of oestrogen and progesterone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-07-02

    Jul 2, 2001 ... cancer may be more aggressive in the sub-Saharan female than in her Western counterpart. The aggressiveness of a tumour is dependent upon several factors. These include tumour size, histological type and grade, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status, proliferation rate, DNA ploidy and disease ...

  12. 19 CFR 144.37 - Withdrawal for exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Class 9 warehouse withdrawals for exportation—(1) Applicability of sales ticket procedure. Merchandise... be eligible for withdrawal under the sales ticket procedure specified in this paragraph. (2) Sales ticket content and handling. Sales ticket withdrawals must be made only under a blanket permit to...

  13. Progesterone is essential for protecting against LPS-induced pregnancy loss. LIF as a potential mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of progesterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Aisemberg

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration to mice on day 7 of gestation led to 100% embryonic resorption after 24 h. In this model, nitric oxide is fundamental for the resorption process. Progesterone may be responsible, at least in part, for a Th2 switch in the feto-maternal interface, inducing active immune tolerance against fetal antigens. Th2 cells promote the development of T cells, producing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, which seems to be important due to its immunomodulatory action during early pregnancy. Our aim was to evaluate the involvement of progesterone in the mechanism of LPS-induced embryonic resorption, and whether LIF can mediate hormonal action. Using in vivo and in vitro models, we provide evidence that circulating progesterone is an important component of the process by which infection causes embryonic resorption in mice. Also, LIF seems to be a mediator of the progesterone effect under inflammatory conditions. We found that serum progesterone fell to very low levels after 24 h of LPS exposure. Moreover, progesterone supplementation prevented embryonic resorption and LPS-induced increase of uterine nitric oxide levels in vivo. Results show that LPS diminished the expression of the nuclear progesterone receptor in the uterus after 6 and 12 h of treatment. We investigated the expression of LIF in uterine tissue from pregnant mice and found that progesterone up-regulates LIF mRNA expression in vitro. We observed that LIF was able to modulate the levels of nitric oxide induced by LPS in vitro, suggesting that it could be a potential mediator of the inflammatory action of progesterone. Our observations support the view that progesterone plays a critical role in a successful pregnancy as an anti-inflammatory agent, and that it could have possible therapeutic applications in the prevention of early reproductive failure associated with inflammatory disorders.

  14. Molecular profiles of progesterone receptor loss in human breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creighton, Chad J.; Kent Osborne, C.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Foekens, John A.; Klijn, Jan G.; Horlings, Hugo M.; Nuyten, Dimitry; Wang, Yixin; Zhang, Yi; Chamness, Gary C.; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Lee, Adrian V.; Schiff, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Background Patient prognosis and response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer correlate with protein expression of both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), with poorer outcome in patients with ER+/PR- compared to ER+/PR+ tumors. Methods To better understand the underlying

  15. Progesterone prevents development of neuropathic pain in a rat model: Timing and duration of treatment are critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry JL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Liliane J Dableh, James L HenryDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Progesterone is emerging as an important protective agent against various injuries to the nervous system. Neuroprotective and remyelinating effects have been documented for this neurosteroid, which is synthesized by, and acts on, the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neuropathic pain is a severe, persistent condition that is generally resistant to treatment, and poses major personal, social, and economic burdens. The purpose of this study was to determine if single-dose or repeated progesterone administration would alleviate tactile hypersensitivity in a rat model of neuropathic pain, and to determine if early versus late initiation of treatment has an effect on the outcome.Methods: Rats were unilaterally implanted with a polyethylene cuff around the sciatic nerve, and sensitivity to von Frey filament stimulation was measured over approximately 12 weeks.Results: Rats given progesterone starting one hour after cuff implantation, and daily until day 4, exhibited tactile hypersensitivity similar to that of vehicle-treated rats for the duration of the study. When progesterone was started one hour after cuff implantation and given daily until day 10, rats exhibited no tactile hypersensitivity in the later part of the study, after treatment had stopped. When progesterone treatment was initiated at 20 days, once the model had been fully established, and given daily for 4 or even 11 days, no differences in withdrawal thresholds were observed compared with controls. Progesterone did not have any effect on withdrawal thresholds when given as a single dose, as measured at 30, 60 and 90 minutes after administration.Conclusion: These results indicate that progesterone, when administered immediately after nerve injury, and for a sufficient period of time, can prevent the development of neuropathic pain, and may

  16. Enhanced food intake by progesterone-treated female rats is related to changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmańska, Ewa; Sucajtys-Szulc, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone-treated females eat more food, but the mechanism underlying this effect is not well understood. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of progesterone on neuropeptide genes expression in rat hypothalamus. Experiments were carried out on female and male Wistar rats. Animals were treated with progesterone (100 mg per rat) for 28 days. NPY and CART mRNA levels in hypothalamus were quantified by real-time PCR. The serum progesterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Progesterone administration to females caused an increase in food intake, body mass, and white adipose tissue mass. Elevated circulating progesterone concentration up-regulated NPY and down-regulated CART genes expression in hypothalamus of females. In males, elevated blood progesterone concentration had no effect on food intake, body and fat mass and on the neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus. Moreover, administration of progesterone in females resulted in decrease of PR mRNA level in hypothalamus. No effect of progesterone administration on PR mRNA level in hypothalamus of males was found. The changes in neuropeptide genes expression in hypothalamus may lead to stimulation of appetite and might explain the observed increase in food intake, body and adipose tissue mass in progesterone-treated females.

  17. Does smoking abstinence influence distress tolerance? An experimental study comparing the response to a breath-holding test of smokers under tobacco withdrawal and under nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Anna Aldi, Giulia; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-09-30

    Distress tolerance has been operationalized as task persistence in stressful behavioral laboratory tasks. According to the distress tolerance perspective, how an individual responds to discomfort/distress predicts early smoking lapses. This theory seems weakly supported by experimental studies since they are limited in number, show inconsistent results, do not include control conditions. We tested the response to a stressful task in smokers under abstinence and under no abstinence to verify if tobacco abstinence reduces task persistence, thus distress tolerance. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used. Twenty smokers underwent a breath holding test after the administration of nicotine on one test day and a placebo on another test day. Physiological and psychological variables were assessed at baseline and directly before and after each challenge. Abstinence induced a statistically significant shorter breath holding duration relative to the nicotine condition. No different response to the breath holding test was observed when nicotine and placebo conditions were compared. No response to the breath holding test was found when pre- and post-test values of heart rate, blood pressure, Visual Analogue Scale for fear or discomfort were compared. In brief, tobacco abstinence reduces breath holding duration but breath holding test does not influence discomfort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility of progesterone treatment for ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire L; Bath, Philip M

    2016-03-01

    Two multi-centre phase III clinical trials examining the protective potential of progesterone following traumatic brain injury have recently failed to demonstrate any improvement in outcome. Thus, it is timely to consider how this impacts on the translational potential of progesterone treatment for ischaemic stroke. A wealth of experimental evidence supports the neuroprotective properties of progesterone, and associated metabolites, following various types of central nervous system injury. In particular, for ischaemic stroke, studies have also begun to reveal possible mechanisms of such neuroprotection. However, the results in traumatic brain injury now question whether further clinical development of progesterone for ischaemic stroke is relevant. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Stress Sensitive Healthy Females Show Less Left Amygdala Activation in Response to Withdrawal-Related Visual Stimuli under Passive Viewing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeken, Chris; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Raedt, Rudi; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Mey, Johan; Bossuyt, Axel; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The amygdalae are key players in the processing of a variety of emotional stimuli. Especially aversive visual stimuli have been reported to attract attention and activate the amygdalae. However, as it has been argued that passively viewing withdrawal-related images could attenuate instead of activate amygdalae neuronal responses, its role under…

  20. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mary Beth; Leeman, Lawrence; Hsi, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome is common due to the current opioid addiction epidemic. Infants born to women covertly abusing prescription opioids may not be identified as at risk until withdrawal signs present. Buprenorphine is a newer treatment for maternal opioid addiction and appears to result in a milder withdrawal syndrome than methadone. Initial treatment is with nonpharmacological measures including decreasing stimuli, however pharmacological treatment is commonly required. Opioid monotherapy is preferred, with phenobarbital or clonidine uncommonly needed as adjunctive therapy. Rooming-in and breastfeeding may decease the severity of withdrawal. Limited evidence is available regarding long-term effects of perinatal opioid exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Progesterone and prevention of preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F; Senat, M-V

    2015-10-01

    The literature confirms the interest of progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in specific indications for patients carrying a singleton pregnancy. In contrast, randomized trials have shown no benefit using progesterone in the prevention of prematurity in twins and even an adverse effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Milk progesterone concentrations: an accurate early pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by milk progesterone quantitation was determined as well as the diagnostic efficiency of the test for days 14- 24 ... Progesterone was quantitated utilizing a single antibody non- extraction iodine - 125radioimmunoassay employing ... with horseradish peroxidase as tracer. The antiserum against the bovine serum albumin ...

  3. Progesterone stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, AG; Schuiling, GA; Liem, SMS; Moes, H; Koiter, TR; Uilenbroek, JTJ

    Treatment of cyclic and pregnant rats with progesterone stimulates cell proliferation within the islets of Langerhans. It was investigated whether this effect of progesterone depends on sex and/or the presence of the gonads or the presence of oestradiol, For this purpose, Silastic tubes containing

  4. Progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormone replacement therapy in women who have passed menopause (the change of life) and have not had a hysterectomy (surgery to remove the uterus). Hormone replacement therapy usually includes estrogen, which is used to treat symptoms of menopause and reduce the risk of developing certain diseases. ...

  5. Progesterone Signaling Mechanisms in Brain and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Shaila K.; Oyola, Mario G.

    2011-01-01

    Steroid hormone, progesterone, modulates neuroendocrine functions in the central nervous system resulting in alterations in physiology and behavior. These neuronal effects are mediated primarily by intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) in the steroid-sensitive neurons, resulting in transcription-dependent genomic actions (classical mechanism). In addition to progesterone, intracellular PRs can also be activated in a “ligand-independent” manner by neurotransmitters, peptide growth factors, cyclic nucleotides, and neurosteroids. Recent studies indicate that rapid, non-classical progesterone actions involving cytoplasmic kinase signaling and/or extranuclear PRs can result in both transcription-independent and transcription-dependent actions. Cross-talk between extranuclear and classical intracellular signaling pathways promotes progesterone-dependent behavior in mammals. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which progesterone-initiated signaling mechanisms converge with PRs in the brain to modulate reproductive behavior in female rodents. PMID:22649404

  6. Profil Metabolit Hormon Estrogen dan Progesteron Feses selama Kebuntingan serta Pola Kelahiran Rusa Sambar (Cervus unicolor)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitepu, Sukma Aditya

    2012-01-01

    Sukma Aditya Sitepu, 2012. Profile of Estrogen and Progesterone Hormone Metabolites Feces during Gestation and Pattern Birth of Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor), under supervised by Dr. Ir. Ristika Handarini, MP and Prof. Dr. Ir. Sayed Umar, MS. Sampling by non invasive methode is used for wildlife, but for the domesticating animals that are still be used when experiencing difficulties in blood sampling. The aim of this study was to observe metabolites profiles of estrogen and progesterone ho...

  7. The metabolic clearance of progesterone in the pregnant rat: Absence of a physiological role for the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, B.J.; Bruce, N.W. (Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands)

    1989-06-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of progesterone is among the highest for all steroid hormones studied, yet it is difficult to apportion this high MCR to specific organ contributions. The isolated lung has been shown to metabolize progesterone, and since this tissue receives the entire cardiac output, potentially it could make a major contribution to the overall MCR. This possibility was examined in the present study by measuring lung extraction of (3H)progesterone under steady-state conditions in the intact pregnant rat. Anesthetized rats (n = 6) were infused with (3H)progesterone via a femoral vein for 100 min on Day 16 of pregnancy. After the onset of steady state (40 min), four blood samples were obtained at 20-min intervals from the right ventricle and from the aorta, and the concentrations of (3H)progesterone and its metabolites were determined. Throughout the sampling period, mean arterial pressure and heart rate remained stable (two-way analysis of variance), as did the production rate (3.76 +/- 0.35 mg/day; mean +/- SEM) and the MCR (34.8 +/- 3.5 ml/min) of progesterone. Despite this high rate of clearance, there was no difference between the concentration of (3H)progesterone in arterial and right ventricular blood, indicating no net extraction of progesterone during passage through the lung. Furthermore, there was no change in the concentration of either lipid-soluble or aqueous-soluble (3H)progesterone metabolites during trans-lung passage. These observations demonstrate that the lung does not contribute to the MCR of progesterone when measured under physiological and steady-state conditions. Therefore, the relationship, MCR (ml/min) = whole-body extraction (%) x cardiac output (ml/min), is upheld for progesterone in the rat.

  8. Visualization of groundwater withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Richard B.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2017-12-21

    Generating an informative display of groundwater withdrawals can sometimes be difficult because the symbols for closely spaced wells can overlap. An alternative method for displaying groundwater withdrawals is to generate a “footprint” of the withdrawals. WellFootprint version 1.0 implements the Footprint algorithm with two optional variations that can speed up the footprint calculation. ModelMuse has been modified in order to generate the input for WellFootprint and to read and graphically display the output from WellFootprint.

  9. Mammary gland lactose, plasma progesterone and lactogenesis in the marsupial Macropus eugenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, L; Ward, K L; Renfree, M B

    1983-06-01

    Mammary gland lactose concentrations in pregnant tammar wallabies remained low at 115 +/- 24 (S.E.M.) micrograms/g wet weight of tissue until immediately before parturition, then increased to 1274 +/- 262 micrograms/g after birth. Concentrations in non-pregnant cyclic animals were generally low (143 +/- 36 micrograms/g), but were raised in three animals around the time of oestrus. Removal of the corpus luteum on day 18 of pregnancy or the oestrous cycle caused an increase in lactose concentrations in both lutectomized and sham-operated animals. This occurred despite a significant lowering of peripheral plasma progesterone concentration in only the lutectomized group. Plasma cortisol concentrations were high in some of these animals, but showed no consistent relationships with the raised lactose concentrations. The increased peripartum lactose concentration normally coincides with a sharp fall in peripheral plasma progesterone concentration, but artificial maintenance of high progesterone levels had no effect on the increase of mammary gland lactose at parturition. Mammary gland lactose concentrations in tammar wallabies are therefore a useful indicator of biosynthetic activity and as an index of lactogenesis but the role, if any, of progesterone withdrawal in lactogenesis remains unclear.

  10. Premature progesterone rise in ART-cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, B; Melado, L; Fatemi, H M

    2018-01-06

    Premature rise of progesterone during the late follicular phase in stimulated IVF cycles is a frequent event and its effect on the endometrial receptivity and on the ART (Assisted Reproductive Technique) - outcome has become a matter of intense debate and research. An emerging body of evidence demonstrates that premature progesterone rise does have a negative impact on the outcome of the ART-success. Until now, the exact cause of progesterone elevation is not fully clear, however lately published studies points to the fact, that premature progesterone elevation might be caused by enhanced FSH stimulation. The impact of elevated peripheral progesterone levels seems to be mainly on the endometrium and the window of implantation, leading to an asynchrony between the endometrium and the developing embryo. Hence, new data show additional an influence on the embryo quality. This review aims to summarize the up-to-date knowledge on the causes of premature progesterone rise during hormonal stimulation, on its influence on endometrial receptivity and embryo quality, on the impact on pregnancy and live birth rates as well as on the possible strategies to prevent this event or to deal with premature progesterone elevation in case it could not be avoided. Copyright © 2018 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Withdrawal Method (Coitus Interruptus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluid and pregnancy Withdrawal method (coitus interruptus) About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  12. High dose progesterone effects the growth of early chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.; Qamar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of high dose progesterone on the development of early chick embryo. Study Design: Lab based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of study: This study was carried out in Army Medical College and Post Graduate Institute of Poultry Sciences, Rawalpindi from June 2010 - December 2010. Material and Methods: Forty five specific pathogen free, fertile, eggs of Fyoumi species of chick were selected at zero hour of incubation. They were incubated at 37.5oC and 75% relative humidity for 26 hrs until the embryos reached stage 8 of the development. Then on stage 8 the eggs were divided into three groups consisting of 15 eggs per group. The first group (GI) was incubated without any operation. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were injected with two and twenty times more than physiologic does of progesterone respectively. After 48 hours of incvbation, all embryos were examined for their development under light microscopy. Results: All the embryos of G1 and G2 showed normal development according to their stage of development, while 4 out of 11 embryos of G3 were under developed and their survival rate was also less. Conclusion: Exogenous progesterone at levels twenty times above its physiologic range effects the development of chick embryos. Further studies are needed to explain the mechanisms of this effect. (author)

  13. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Miriam; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro

    2002-01-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  14. Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zia, Asif I.

    2012-05-01

    The reported research work uses a real time and noninvasive method to detect progesterone hormone concentration in purified water using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (E.I.S.) technique. Planar capacitive sensor, consisting of inter-digitated microelectrodes, is designed and fabricated on silicon substrate using thin-film Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based semiconductor device fabrication technology. The sensor in conjunction with EIS is used to evaluate conductivity, permeability and dielectric properties of reproductive hormone progesterone and its concentration quantification in purified water. Impedance spectrums are obtained with various concentrations of the hormone in purified water by using an electric circuit in order to extract sample conductance. Relationship of sample conductance with progesterone concentration level is studied in this research work. The ability of E.I.S. to detect progesterone concentration is aimed to be used in dairy farming industry in order to obtain better reproductive performance of the dairy cattle. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Chemical Kinetics of Progesterone Radioimmunoassay System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Moustsfs, K.A.; El-Kolally, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    Progesterone is one of the steroids secreted by the corpus Iuteum in females during the menstrual cycle, and in a much higher amount by the placenta during pregnancy. It is also secreted in a minor quantities by the adrenal cortex in both males and females. Measurement of serum progesterone represents one of diagnostic values in menstrual disorders and infertility. The progesterone radioimmunoassay is based on the competition between unlabelled progesterone and a fixed quantity of 125 I-labeled progesterone for a limited number of binding sites on progesterone specific antibody. Allowing for a fixed amount of magnetizable immunosorbent to react, the antigen-antibody complex is bound on solid particles which are then separated by magnetic rack, and the radioactivity of the solid phase was counted using gamma counter. In this work, the chemical kinetics of the assay was followed, where the specific rate constant (K) was calculated at 4 degree and 37 degree and the activation energy (E act ) were calculated and the reaction rate was deduced

  16. Evaluation of Progesterone and Ovulation-stimulating Drugs on the Glandular Epithelium and Angiogenesis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human endometrium is a dynamic tissue during the menstrual cycle can be influenced by ovarian hormones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the endometrium angiogenesis under the influence of human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (HMG and HCG that stimulate ovulation and progesterone. Materials and Methods: In this study, thirty adult female mice were randomly divided into three groups as: control, gonadotropin and gonadotropin + progesterone. The mice in the other two groups except the control group received 7.5 IU HMG and later HCG. Subsequently, the mice were placed in a cage for mating. Gonadotropin + progesterone group was administered, 1 mg/mouse progesterone in 24, 48, and 72 h interval, after HMG injection. Ninety-six hours after HMG injection, animals were sacrificed, and their uterine specimens were prepared by immunohistochemistry technique for light microscopic studies, and statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Endometrium angiogenesis in control group showed that mean ± standard deviation was 24.15 ± 11.15, gonadotropin group was 62.50 ± 24.16, and gonadotropin + progesterone group was 41.85 ± 19.54. Significant difference between the control group and gonadotropin group and between the control group and gonadotropin + progesterone was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed in all groups in the endometrial angiogenesis (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Ovarian induction with gonadotropins and gonadotropins + progesterone could not change the morphometrically index of endometrial glandular epithelium in mice. Ovarian stimulation followed by progesterone injection could modify the angiogenesis of mice endometrium.

  17. A Gata2-Dependent Transcription Network Regulates Uterine Progesterone Responsiveness and Endometrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory A. Rubel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Altered progesterone responsiveness leads to female infertility and cancer, but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Mice with uterine-specific ablation of GATA binding protein 2 (Gata2 are infertile, showing failures in embryo implantation, endometrial decidualization, and uninhibited estrogen signaling. Gata2 deficiency results in reduced progesterone receptor (PGR expression and attenuated progesterone signaling, as evidenced by genome-wide expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation. GATA2 not only occupies at and promotes expression of the Pgr gene but also regulates downstream progesterone responsive genes in conjunction with the PGR. Additionally, Gata2 knockout uteri exhibit abnormal luminal epithelia with ectopic TRP63 expressing squamous cells and a cancer-related molecular profile in a progesterone-independent manner. Lastly, we found a conserved GATA2-PGR regulatory network in both human and mice based on gene signature and path analyses using gene expression profiles of human endometrial tissues. In conclusion, uterine Gata2 regulates a key regulatory network of gene expression for progesterone signaling at the early pregnancy stage.

  18. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeon, A

    2008-08-01

    The alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common management problem in hospital practice for neurologists, psychiatrists and general physicians alike. Although some patients have mild symptoms and may even be managed in the outpatient setting, others have more severe symptoms or a history of adverse outcomes that requires close inpatient supervision and benzodiazepine therapy. Many patients with AWS have multiple management issues (withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, seizures, depression, polysubstance abuse, electrolyte disturbances and liver disease), which requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Although AWS may be complex, careful evaluation and available treatments should ensure safe detoxification for most patients.

  19. Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  20. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

  1. Serum progesterone levels using radioimmunoassay during the oestrous cycle of indigenous Damascus does

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2000-11-01

    An experiment was conducted on Damascus does to characterize the oestrous cycle, the activity of the corpus luteum and to determine normal progesterone profiles during different phases of the oestrous cycle using radioimmunoassay. Fifteen indigenous cycling Damascus does were used during the normal breeding season for two consecutive oestrous cycles. Average length of the oestrous cycles was 21.2 ± 1.5 days (range: 19 - 26 days), divided into: 2.9 ± 0.8 days (2 - 5 days), where progesterone level was low averaging 0.69 ± 0.85 nmol l -1 (range: 0.00 - 3.08 nmol l -1 , followed by a sharp increase in progesterone secretion, i.e. presence of active corpora lutea, lasted on average for 15.3 ± 1.4 days (range: 13 - 20 days), with an average progesterone level of 13.4 nmol l -1 (range: 3.26 - 27.98 nmol l -1 ), followed by a sharp decline in progesterone level, i.e. inactive corpora lutea, lasted on average for 3.1 ± 0.6 days (range: 2 - 5 days), with an average progesterone level of 0.68 nmol l -1 (range: 0.00 - 2.81 nmol l -1 ). Maximum progesterone level during the luteal phase averaged 18.67 ± 3.15 nmol l -1 (range: 14.00 - 27.98 nmol l -1 ), occurred on average on 12.2 ± 3.2 days of the oestrous cycle. It was possible, for the first time, to characterize the oestrous cycle of the Damascus doe, and to determine normal progesterone profiles during different phases of oestrous cycle. Based on the results reported above, it is also concluded that progesterone levels under 3.18 nmol l -1 were found on average during 2.9 days at the start of the oestrous cycle and during 3.1 days at the end of the oestrous cycle (follicular phase), and that progesterone levels above 3.18 nmol l -1 were found during the luteal phase lasting on average 15.3 days. (Author)

  2. 27 CFR 19.1002 - Prohibited uses, transfers, and withdrawals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... person shall withdraw, use, sell, or otherwise dispose of distilled spirits (including fuel alcohol... withdraws, uses, sells or otherwise disposes of distilled spirits (including fuel alcohol) produced under... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited uses, transfers...

  3. Is this ?complicated? opioid withdrawal?

    OpenAIRE

    Parkar, S.R.; Seethalakshmi, R; Adarkar, S; Kharawala, S

    2006-01-01

    Seven patients with opioid dependence admitted in the de-addiction centre for detoxification developed convulsions and delirium during the withdrawal phase. After ruling out all other possible causes of these complications, opioid withdrawal seemed to emerge as the most likely explanation. The unpredictability of the course of opioid dependence and withdrawal needs to be considered when treating patients with opioid dependence.

  4. Progesterone Receptor Subcellular Localization and Gene Expression Profile in Human Astrocytoma Cells Are Modified by Progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliesha González-Arenas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular progesterone receptor (PR has been identified in human astrocytomas, the most common and aggressive primary brain tumors in humans. It has been reported that PR cell distribution affects their transcriptional activity and turnover. In this work we studied by immunofluorescence the effects of estradiol and progesterone on the subcellular localization of PR in a grade III human astrocytoma derived cell line (U373. We observed that total PR was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm without hormonal treatment. Estradiol (10 nM increased PR presence in the cytoplasm of U373 cells, whereas progesterone (10 nM and RU486 (PR antagonist, 1 μM blocked this effect. To investigate the role of PR activity in the regulation of gene expression pattern of U373 cells, we evaluated by microarray analysis the profile of genes regulated by progesterone, RU486, or both steroids. We found different genes regulated by steroid treatments that encode for proteins involved in metabolism, transport, cell cycle, proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis, processing of nucleic acids and proteins, adhesion, pathogenesis, immune response, cytoskeleton, and membrane receptors. We determined that 30 genes were regulated by progesterone, 41 genes by RU486 alone, and 13 genes by the cotreatment of progesterone+RU486, suggesting that there are many genes regulated by intracellular PR or through other signaling pathways modulated by progesterone. All these data suggest that PR distribution and activity should modify astrocytomas growth.

  5. Progesterone, selected heavy metals and micronutrients in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone, selected heavy metals and micronutrients in pregnant Nigerian women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion. ... (zinc, copper and vitamin E) may contribute to recurrent spontaneous abortion. Keywords: progesterone, oxidative stress, recurrent spontaneous abortion, trace metals, antioxidants ...

  6. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.

    2016-01-01

    from 1009 lactations, was obtained from the Danish Cattle Research Centre in Foulum, Denmark. Milk samples were analyzed daily using a Ridgeway ELISA-kit. Oestrus cycles with less than ten data points or shorter than four days were discarded, after which 1006 cycles remained in the analysis. A median...... to classify progesterone profiles without recourse to an a priori set of rules, which arbitrarily segment the natural variability in these profiles. Using data-derived profile shapes may allow a more accurate assessment of the effects of for example nutritional management or breeding system on progesterone...

  7. Use of radioimmunoassay for quantitative determination of progesterone in milk samples from dairy cows in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymark, P.J.; McCabe, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum 90-day service interval is an important economic factor in dairying. The determination of pregnancy at 21 to 26 days post-insemination can ensure that particular attention is paid to non-pregnant cows at subsequent heats, and thus help reduce this interval. In Zimbabwe a radioimmunoassay for milk progesterone using an iodinated tracer was developed in 1982 from a previously established assay for plasma progesterone. Progesterone antiserum is produced locally and the assay is used as an early pregnancy diagnosis test in dairy cattle. During 1983 two pilot schemes were instituted to investigate breed differences, logistics, and feasibility under the local conditions, and to identify constraints. Milk samples taken 24 days post-insemination were found to differentiate best between pregnant and non-pregnant cows for both major breeds in the country (Friesian/Holstein and Jersey). Pregnant cows had an average of 13.76 ng/mL (+-1.06) progesterone on day 24 while non-pregnant cows averaged 0.34 ng/mL (+-0.13) of progesterone. Apparently 12.2% of cows subsequently lost their embryos after day 24, and these cows averaged 9.98 ng/mL (+-1.52). Milk samples were also taken on the day of insemination; the results showed that 11% of cows were incorrectly inseminated when progesterone concentrations were high (2.59 ng/mL+-0.80). A National Early Pregnancy Diagnosis Scheme using milk progesterone was implemented in December 1984 and results to date are discussed in the paper. (author)

  8. Exogenous Cushing's syndrome and glucocorticoid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Rachel L; Leinung, Matthew C

    2005-06-01

    Glucocorticoid therapy in various forms is extremely common for a wide range of inflammatory, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders. It is therefore important for the physician to be aware of the possibility of both iatrogenic and factitious Cushing's syndrome. Although most common with oral therapy, it is also important to be alert to the fact that all forms of glucocorticoid delivery have the potential to cause Cushing's syndrome. Withdrawal from chronic glucocorticoid therapy presents significant challenges. These include the possibility of adrenal insufficiency after discontinuation of steroid therapy, recurrence of underlying disease as the glucocorticoid is being withdrawn, and the possibility of steroid withdrawal symptoms. Nonetheless, with patience and persistence, a reasonable approach to withdrawal of glucocorticoid therapy can be achieved.

  9. Toward a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is aimed at the development of a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in cow's milk. Progesterone is a steroid hormone and regulates ovulation in female mammals. The concentration of progesterone in blood and in milk is in accordance with the reproductive cycle of the individual

  10. Effect of exogenous progesterone on oestrus response of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four (24) healthy, parous West African dwarf (WAD) does aged 2 – 3 years were used to study the effects of varying doses of progesterone on oestrus synchronization and plasma progesterone levels. The does were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups consisting of 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 mg progesterone ...

  11. Influence of monoolein on progesterone transdermal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa de Souza Cardoso Quintão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This work aimed to investigate in vitro the influence of monoolein (MO on progesterone (PG transdermal delivery and skin retention. Information about the role of MO as an absorption enhancer for lipophilic molecules can help on innovative product development capable of delivering the hormone through the skin in a consistent manner, improving transdermal therapy of hormonal replacement. MO was dispersed in propylene glycol under heat at concentrations of 0% (control, 5% w/w, 10% w/w and 20% w/w. Then, 0.6% of PG (w/w was added to each formulation. Permeation profile of the hormone was determined in vitro for 48 h using porcine skin in Franz diffusion cells. PG permeation doubled when 5% (w/w of MO was present in formulation in comparison to both the control and higher MO concentrations (10% and 20% w/w. An equal trend was observed for PG retention in stratum corneum (SC and reminiscent skin (E+D. PG release rates from the MO formulations, investigated using cellulose membranes, revealed that concentrations of MO higher than 5% (w/w hindered PG release, which indeed negatively reflected on the hormone permeation through the skin. In conclusion, this work demonstrated the feasibility of MO addition (at 5% w/w in formulations as a simple method to increase transdermal PG delivery for therapies of hormonal replacement. In contrast, higher MO concentrations (from 10% to 20% w/w can control active release, and this approach could be extrapolated to other lipophilic, low-molecular-weight molecules.

  12. Progesterone receptor modulators for endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jing; Song, Hao; Zhou, Min; Zhu, Huili; Wang, Yuhe; Chen, Hengxi; Huang, Wei

    2017-07-25

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue (glands and stroma) outside the uterine cavity. This condition is oestrogen-dependent and thus is seen primarily during the reproductive years. Owing to their antiproliferative effects in the endometrium, progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) have been advocated for treatment of endometriosis. To assess the effectiveness and safety of PRMs primarily in terms of pain relief as compared with other treatments or placebo or no treatment in women of reproductive age with endometriosis. We searched the following electronic databases, trial registers, and websites: the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) Specialised Register of Controlled Trials, the Central Register of Studies Online (CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, clinicaltrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) platform, from inception to 28 November 2016. We handsearched reference lists of articles retrieved by the search. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in all languages that examined effects of PRMs for treatment of symptomatic endometriosis. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. Primary outcomes included measures of pain and side effects. We included 10 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with 960 women. Two RCTs compared mifepristone versus placebo or versus a different dose of mifepristone, one RCT compared asoprisnil versus placebo, one compared ulipristal versus leuprolide acetate, and four compared gestrinone versus danazol, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, or a different dose of gestrinone. The quality of evidence ranged from high to very low. The main limitations were serious risk of bias (associated with poor reporting of methods and high or unclear rates of attrition in most studies), very serious imprecision (associated with low event rates and wide confidence intervals), and indirectness (outcome assessed in a select subgroup

  13. 19 CFR 19.6 - Deposits, withdrawals, blanket permits to withdraw and sealing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to individuals departing directly from the customs territory for exportation under the sales ticket...-free stores. Withdrawals under blanket permit from duty-free stores must be made on the sales ticket described in § 144.37(h) of this chapter. The sales ticket need not contain the summary statement described...

  14. Progesterone Receptor Scaffolding Function in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    response. PR are expressed in multiple human tissues including the uterus, mammary gland , brain, pancreas, thymus , bone, ovary, testes, and in the...ABSTRACT Progesterone receptors (PR) are critical mediators of mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression. Progestin...receptors (PR) are critical for massive breast epithelial cell expansion during mammary gland development and contribute to breast cancer progression

  15. Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study design: This is a descriptive study to detect the level of Estrogen (ER) and Progesterone (PR) receptors in a sample of biopsies from Sudanese women with breast cancer presented at Khartoum teaching Hospital Material and Methods: Forty biopsies from breast cancer patients were examined with immunostaining

  16. The use of the milk progesterone assay in cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, E.; Choi, H.S.; Moestl, E.

    1981-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk-fat was determined in samples from 167 cows in 51 herds taken on day 0, 6 and 20 after artificial insemination. The rectal palpation verified pregnancy in 85% of the cows classified on their milk-progesterone concentration as ''probably pregnant''. According to the milk progesterone concentration it was possible already three weeks after artificial insemination to classify 25% of all examined cows as ''non pregnant''. Seven cows were inseminated at an inappropriate time as revealed by a high progesterone concentration in milk-fat on the day of insemination. The relevance of milk progesterone determinations as an aid for veterinary surgeons is briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Phenanthrenequinone disrupts progesterone production in rat luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykamp, J A; Bols, N C; Carlson, J C

    2001-01-01

    The ability of the environmental contaminant phenanthrene (PH) and its photooxidized product phenanthrenequinone (PHQ) to disrupt progesterone secretion was examined in a model system of in vitro suspensions of luteal cells from the rat. Treatment with PHQ dramatically inhibited luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulated progesterone secretion. PHQ also generated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the absence of LH, however, PHQ stimulated a small increase in basal progesterone secretion. The parent compound, PH, did not alter progesterone or ROS release. Since there is evidence that PHQ lowers the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and that nitric oxide (NO) affects progesterone production, we examined the response to the NOS inhibitors N-monomethyl-L-arginine, Zn protoporphyrin-9, and aminoguanidine in luteal cells. However, there was no effect of these agents on LH stimulated progesterone secretion. These results indicated that PHQ is a potent disrupter of progesterone secretion and should perhaps be considered in assessing the risk of PH to humans.

  18. Post-transplant withdrawal of lamivudine results in fatal hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-transplant withdrawal of lamivudine results in fatal hepatitis flares in kidney transplant recipients, under immune suppression, with inactive hepatitis B infection. Bin Miao, Xiang-Ming Lao, Guo-Li Lin ...

  19. Oxidative stress effect on progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) binding to PIBF-receptor in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haba, Carlos; Palacio, José R; Palkovics, Tamas; Szekeres-Barthó, Júlia; Morros, Antoni; Martínez, Paz

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-ligand binding is an essential interaction for biological function. Oxidative stress can modify receptors and/or membrane lipid dynamics, thus altering cell physiological functions. The aim of this study is to analyze how oxidative stress may alter receptor-ligand binding and lipid domain distribution in the case of progesterone-induced blocking factor/progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor. For membrane fluidity regionalization analysis of MEC-1 lymphocytes, two-photon microscopy was used in individual living cells. Lymphocytes were also double stained with AlexaFluor647/progesterone-induced blocking factor and Laurdan to evaluate -induced blocking factor/progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor distribution in the different membrane domains, under oxidative stress. A new procedure has been developed which quantitatively analyzes the regionalization of a membrane receptor among the lipid domains of different fluidity in the plasma membrane. We have been able to establish a new tool which detects and evaluates lipid raft clustering from two-photon microscopy images of individual living cells. We show that binding of progesterone-induced blocking factor to progesterone-induced blocking factor-receptor causes a rigidification of plasma membrane which is related to an increase of lipid raft clustering. However, this clustering is inhibited under oxidative stress conditions. In conclusion, oxidative stress decreases membrane fluidity, impairs receptor-ligand binding and reduces lipid raft clustering. © 2013.

  20. Estimating probability of insemination success using milk progesterone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavy, P; Friggens, N C; Nielsen, K R; Christensen, J M; Derks, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of progesterone profile features and other cow-level factors on insemination success to provide a real-time predictor equation of probability of insemination success. Progesterone profiles from 26 dairy herds were analyzed and the effects of profile features (progesterone slope, cycle length, and cycle height) and cow traits (milk yield, parity, insemination during the previous estrus) on likelihood of artificial insemination success were estimated. The equation was fitted on a training data set containing data from 16 herds (6,246 estrous cycles from 3,404 lactations). The equation was tested on a testing data set containing data from 10 herds (8,105 estrous cycles from 3,038 lactations). Predictors were selected to be implemented in the final equation if adding them to a base model correcting for timing of insemination and parity decreased the overall likelihood distance of the model. Selected variables (cycle length, milk yield, cycle height, and insemination during the previous estrus) were used to build the final model using a stepwise approach. Predictors were added 1 by 1 in different order, and the model that had the smallest likelihood distance was selected. The final equation included the variables timing of insemination, parity, milk yield, cycle length, cycle height, and insemination during the previous estrus, respectively. The final model was applied to the testing data set and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. On the testing data set, the final model had an AUC of 58%. When the farm effect was taken into account, the AUC increased to 63%. This equation can be implemented on farms that monitor progesterone and can support the farmer in deciding when to inseminate a cow. This can be the first step in moving the focus away from the current paradigm associated with poorer estrus detection, where each detected estrus is automatically inseminated, to near perfect estrus detection, where the

  1. Rapid effects of progesterone on ciliary beat frequency in the mouse fallopian tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billig Håkan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological regulation of ciliary beat frequency (CBF within the fallopian tube is important for controlling the transport of gametes and the fertilized ovum. Progesterone influences gamete transport in the fallopian tube of several mammalian species. In fallopian tubes isolated from cows, treatment with 20 micromolar progesterone caused a rapid reduction of the tubal CBF. The aims of this study were to establish methodology for studying fallopian tube CBF in the mouse, as it is an important model species, and to investigate if progesterone rapidly affects the CBF of mice at nM concentrations. Methods A method to assess tubal CBF of mice was developed. Fallopian tubes were dissected and the tissue was cut in small pieces. Tissue samples with moving cilia were located under an inverted bright field microscope and held still against the bottom of a petri dish by a motorized needle system. Images were acquired over 90 minutes at 35 degrees C with a high-speed camera and used for assessing changes in the CBF in response to the addition of hormone. Results The baseline CBF of the mouse fallopian tube was 23.3 +/- 3.8 Hz. The CBF was stable over at least 90 minutes allowing establishment of a baseline frequency, addition of hormone and subsequent recordings. Progesterone at concentrations of 20 micromolar and 100 nM significantly reduced the CBF by 10% and 15% respectively after 30 minutes compared with controls. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the mouse, despite its small size, is a useful model for studying the fallopian tube CBF ex vivo. The rapid reduction in CBF by 100 nM progesterone suggests that gamete transport in the fallopian tube could be mediated by progesterone via a non-genomic receptor mechanism.

  2. The impacts of U.S. withdrawal from the Paris Agreement on the carbon emission space and mitigation cost of China, EU, and Japan under the constraints of the global carbon emission space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Cheng Dai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model and scenario analysis, the impacts of the U.S. withdrawal from the Paris Agreement on the carbon emission space and mitigation cost in China, European Union (EU, and Japan are assessed under Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs and 2 °C scenarios due to the changed emission pathway of the U.S. The results show that, under the condition of constant global cumulative carbon emissions and a fixed burden-sharing scheme among countries, the failure of the U.S. to honor its NDC commitment to different degrees will increase the U.S. carbon emission space and decrease its mitigation cost. However, the carbon emission space of other parties, including China, EU, and Japan, will be reduced and their mitigation costs will be increased. In 2030, under the 2 °C target, the carbon price will increase by 4.4–14.6 US$ t−1 in China, by 9.7–35.4 US$ t−1 in the EU, and by 16.0–53.5 US$ t−1 in Japan. In addition, China, EU, and Japan will incur additional Gross Domestic Production (GDP loss. Under the 2 °C target, the GDP loss of China would increase by US$22.0–71.1 billion (equivalent to 16.4–53.1 US$ per capita, the EU's GDP loss would increase by US$9.4–32.1 billion (equivalent to 20.7–71.1 US$ per capita, and Japan's GDP loss will increase by US$4.1–13.5 billion (equivalent to 34.3–111.6 US$ per capita.

  3. Progesterone and women's anxiety across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tania A; Makhanova, Anastasia; Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Jasienska, Grazyna; McNulty, James K; Eckel, Lisa A; Nikonova, Larissa; Maner, Jon K

    2018-04-24

    Animal models and a few human investigations suggest progesterone may be associated with anxiety. Progesterone naturally fluctuates across the menstrual cycle, offering an opportunity to understand how within-person increases in progesterone and average progesterone levels across the cycle correspond to women's anxiety. Across two longitudinal studies, we simultaneously modeled the between- and within-person associations between progesterone and anxiety using multilevel modeling. In Study 1, 100 Polish women provided saliva samples and reported their anxiety at three phases of the menstrual cycle: follicular, peri-ovulatory, and luteal. A significant between-person effect emerged, revealing that women with higher average progesterone levels across their cycles reported higher levels of anxiety than women with lower progesterone cycles. This effect held controlling for estradiol. In Study 2, 61 American women provided saliva samples and reported their attachment anxiety during laboratory sessions during the same three cycle phases. A significant between-person and within-person association emerged: women with higher average progesterone levels reported higher levels of attachment anxiety, and as women's progesterone levels increased across their cycles, so too did their attachment anxiety. These effects held controlling for cortisol. In sum, both studies provide support for a link between menstrual cycle progesterone levels and subjective anxiety. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Estrogen, Progesterone and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Shuk-Mei

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian carcinoma (OCa continues to be the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancies and the vast majority of OCa is derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE and its cystic derivatives. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones, primarily estrogens and progesterone, are implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, it has proved difficult to fully understand their mechanisms of action on the tumorigenic process. New convincing data have indicated that estrogens favor neoplastic transformation of the OSE while progesterone offers protection against OCa development. Specifically, estrogens, particularly those present in ovulatory follicles, are both genotoxic and mitogenic to OSE cells. In contrast, pregnancy-equivalent levels progesterone are highly effective as apoptosis inducers for OSE and OCa cells. In this regard, high-dose progestin may exert an exfoliation effect and rid an aged OSE of pre-malignant cells. A limited number of clinical studies has demonstrated efficacies of antiestrogens, aromatase inhibitors, and progestins alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of OCa. As a result of increased life expectancy in most countries, the number of women taking hormone replacement therapies (HRT continues to grow. Thus, knowledge of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones on the OSE and OCa is of paramount significance to HRT risk assessment and to the development of novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of OCa.

  5. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  6. Afghanistan after NATO Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojor Laviniu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of a conflict, called by some American analysts as “America’s Longest War”, after the withdrawal of the majority of NATO military forces, requires a careful analysis of the conditions and security environment that ISAF mission, International Security Afghan Forces, leaves as legacy to the Afghan military forces. The transfer of authority towards a strong government, recognized by most Afghan provinces, and benefiting from the support of national military forces able to cope with terrorist and insurgent threats on its own, are the minimum and necessary conditions leading the country towards a stable and secure environment and towards a sustainable development. Given these realities, any approach on the consequences of the transition towards self-sustainable governance becomes interesting and timely for any military political study. These are the prospects that we propose in our paper.

  7. Childhood conditions influence adult progesterone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Núñez-de la Mora

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Average profiles of salivary progesterone in women vary significantly at the inter- and intrapopulation level as a function of age and acute energetic conditions related to energy intake, energy expenditure, or a combination of both. In addition to acute stressors, baseline progesterone levels differ among populations. The causes of such chronic differences are not well understood, but it has been hypothesised that they may result from varying tempos of growth and maturation and, by implication, from diverse environmental conditions encountered during childhood and adolescence.To test this hypothesis, we conducted a migrant study among first- and second-generation Bangladeshi women aged 19-39 who migrated to London, UK at different points in the life-course, women still resident in Bangladesh, and women of European descent living in neighbourhoods similar to those of the migrants in London (total n = 227. Data collected included saliva samples for radioimmunoassay of progesterone, anthropometrics, and information from questionnaires on diet, lifestyle, and health. Results from multiple linear regression, controlled for anthropometric and reproductive variables, show that women who spend their childhood in conditions of low energy expenditure, stable energy intake, good sanitation, low immune challenges, and good health care in the UK have up to 103% higher levels of salivary progesterone and an earlier maturation than women who develop in less optimal conditions in Sylhet, Bangladesh (F9,178 = 5.05, p < 0.001, standard error of the mean = 0.32; adjusted R(2 = 0.16. Our results point to the period prior to puberty as a sensitive phase when changes in environmental conditions positively impact developmental tempos such as menarcheal age (F2,81 = 3.21, p = 0.03 and patterns of ovarian function as measured using salivary progesterone (F2,81 = 3.14, p = 0.04.This research demonstrates that human females use an extended period of the life cycle prior

  8. Ovarian Hormones and Transdermal Nicotine Administration Independently and Synergistically Suppress Tobacco Withdrawal Symptoms and Smoking Reinstatement in the Human Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Raina D; Liautaud, Madalyn M; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Leventhal, Adam M

    2018-03-01

    Modeling intra-individual fluctuations in estradiol and progesterone may provide unique insight into the effects of ovarian hormones on the etiology and treatment of nicotine dependence. This randomized placebo-controlled laboratory study tested the independent and interactive effects of intra-individual ovarian hormone variation and nicotine on suppression of tobacco withdrawal symptoms and smoking behavior. Female smokers randomized to 21 mg nicotine (TNP; n=37) or placebo (PBO; n=43) transdermal patch following overnight abstinence completed three sessions occurring during hormonally distinct menstrual cycle phases. At each session, participants provided saliva for hormone assays and completed repeated self-report measures (ie, tobacco withdrawal symptoms, smoking urge, and negative affect (NA)) followed by an analog smoking reinstatement task for which participants could earn money to delay smoking and subsequently purchase cigarettes to smoke. Higher (vs lower) progesterone levels were associated with greater reductions in NA. Higher (vs lower) progesterone levels and progesterone to estradiol ratios were associated with reducing smoking urges over time to a greater extent with TNP compared to PBO. There was an interaction between Patch and estradiol on NA. With TNP, higher-than-usual estradiol was associated with greater decreases in NA. However with PBO, lower-than-usual estradiol was associated with greater decreases in NA. These results suggest that the effects of TNP on mood- and smoking-related outcomes may vary depending on the ovarian hormone levels.

  9. Nicotine Withdrawal; Measure Your Symptoms (Quiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Free Resources Medications Can Help You Quit Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy Busting NRT Myths Smokefree Phone Apps ... Withdrawal Understanding Withdrawal Quiz: How Strong is Your Nicotine Addiction? Quiz: What Are Your Withdrawal Symptoms? Dealing ...

  10. Autoimmune Progesterone Dermatitis Presenting as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayer, Sara M; Laufer, Larry R; Farrell, Maureen E

    2017-10-01

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is an uncommon disease presenting with cyclical skin eruptions corresponding with the menstrual cycle luteal phase. Because symptoms are precipitated by rising progesterone levels, treatment relies on hormone suppression. A 22-year-old nulligravid woman presented with symptoms mistaken for Stevens-Johnson syndrome. A cyclic recurrence of her symptoms was noted, and the diagnosis of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis was made by an intradermal progesterone challenge. After 48 months, she remained refractory to medical management and definitive surgical treatment with bilateral oophorectomy was performed. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis is a challenging diagnosis owing to its rarity and variety of clinical presentations. Treatment centers on suppression of endogenous progesterone and avoidance of exogenous triggers. When these modalities fail, surgical management must be undertaken.

  11. Progesterone resistance in endometriosis: origins, consequences and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bansari G; Rudnicki, Martin; Yu, Jie; Shu, Yimin; Taylor, Robert N

    2017-06-01

    Endometriosis is a common cause of pelvic pain and affects up to 10% of women of reproductive age. Aberrant progesterone signaling in the endometrium plays a significant role in impaired decidualization and establishment of ectopic endometrial implants. Eutopic endometrial cells from women with endometriosis fail to downregulate genes needed for decidualization, such as those involved in cell cycle regulation, leading to unbridled proliferation. Several causes of progesterone resistance in the endometrium have been postulated, including congenital "preconditioning", whereby the in utero environment renders infants susceptible to neonatal uterine bleeding and endometriosis. Progesterone action is crucial to decreasing inflammation in the endometrium, and deviant progesterone signaling results in a proinflammatory phenotype. Conversely, chronic inflammation can induce a progesterone-resistant state. Repetitive retrograde endometrial shedding begets chronic peritoneal inflammation, which further exacerbates progesterone resistance. Genetic causes of progesterone resistance include progesterone receptor gene polymorphisms, altered microRNA expression, and epigenetic modifications to progesterone receptors and their targets. Environmental toxins such as dioxin play a possible role in the genesis of endometriosis by permitting an inflammatory milieu. A consequence of impaired progesterone action is that hormonal therapy is rendered ineffective for a subset of women with endometriosis. Synthetic progestins, such as dienogest, may overcome this phenomenon by increasing progesterone receptor expression and decreasing proinflammatory cytokines. Other modalities include high dose depot formulations of progestins, medicated intrauterine devices and the likely advent of oral GnRH antagonists. Unearthing root causes of progesterone inaction in endometriosis will aid in the development of novel therapeutics geared toward prevention and treatment. © 2017 Nordic Federation of

  12. The benefits of progesterone therapy in imminent abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of imminent abortion are multi-factorial. The biggest causal factor is the low level of serum progesterone level. The lowest critical level of serum progesterone for survivability of pregnancy is 10 ng/ml. Eighty percent of patients experiencing abortion showed that their progesterone level was < 10 ng/ml. Patients who realized that their pregnancy would experience hemorrhage generally would suffer from depression. Stress was one of the factors responsible for the occurence of abortion. Administration of natural progesterone substitution (not  progestogen accelerates the disappearance of uterine contractions, and speeds up the stoppage of bleeding. In addition, progesterone has the effect of anti-anxiety. Adminstration of oral progesterone would result in metabolism in the intestine and liver, such that physiological level of serum progesterone could not be reached, while administration of suppositoria progesterone would result in physiological level of serum, such that it was effective to prevent imminent abortion. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:258-62Keywords: progesterone, imminent abortion

  13. Control rod withdrawal monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisuya, Mitsuo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the power ramp even if a plurality of control rods are subjected to withdrawal operation at a time, by reducing the reactivity applied to the reactor. Constitution: The control rod withdrawal monitoring device is adapted to monitor and control the withdrawal of the control rods depending on the reactor power and the monitoring region thereof is divided into a control rod group monitoring region a transition region and a control group monitoring not interfere region. In a case if the distance between a plurality of control rods for which the withdrawal positions are selected is less than a limiting value, the coordinate for the control rods, distance between the control rods and that the control rod distance is shorter are displayed on a display panel, and the withdrawal for the control rods are blocked. Accordingly, even if a plurality of control rods are subjected successively to the withdrawal operation contrary to the control rod withdrawal sequence upon high power operation of the reactor, the power ramp can be prevented. (Kawakami, Y.)

  14. Immunoenzymetic veterinary test - system for progesterone determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garavshina, G. R.; Chistyakov, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    Radiopreparat enterprise specializes in manufacturing of radioisotope labeled compounds including radioimmunological test - systems for qualitative and quantitative determination of components of the blood and markers of a viruses. By the reason that the sensitivity of RIA is in 2 - 4 times less then sensitivity of immunoenzymetic test systems we have started the development this type of immunodiagnostic kits where as the detector acts the Peroxidase from horse redish instead of Iodine-125 as in RIA. One from the latest our developments is immunoenzymetic test system as the alternative variant of RIA for determination progesterone in blood of animals

  15. Role of CYP27A1 in progesterone metabolism in vitro and in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Escher Geneviève; Vögeli Isabelle; Escher Robert; Tuckey Robert C; Erickson Sandra; Krozowski Zygmunt; Frey Felix J

    2009-01-01

    In the kidney progesterone is inactivated to 20alpha dihydro progesterone (20alpha DH progesterone) to protect the mineralocorticoid receptor from progesterone excess. In an attempt to clone the enzyme with 20alpha hydroxysteroid activity using expression cloning in CHOP cells and a human kidney expression library serendipitously cDNA encoding CYP27A1 was isolated. Overexpression of CYP27A1 in CHOP cells decreased progesterone conversion to 20alpha DH progesterone in a dose dependent manner a...

  16. Housing equity withdrawal in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, R.; Jefferson, T.; Austen, S.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Wood, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    More Australian home owners are using housing equity withdrawal to unlock financial resources to fund living expenses, especially in retirement. Policy is needed to address potential adverse consequences of these strategies.

  17. Pseudopheochromocytoma induced by anxiolytic withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páll, Alida; Becs, Gergely; Erdei, Annamária; Sira, Lívia; Czifra, Arpád; Barna, Sándor; Kovács, Péter; Páll, Dénes; Pfliegler, György; Paragh, György; Szabó, Zoltán

    2014-10-08

    Symptomatic paroxysmal hypertension without significantly elevated catecholamine concentrations and with no evidence of an underlying adrenal tumor is known as pseudopheochromocytoma. We describe the case of a female patient with paroxysmal hypertensive crises accompanied by headache, vertigo, tachycardia, nausea and altered mental status. Previously, she was treated for a longer period with alprazolam due to panic disorder. Causes of secondary hypertension were excluded. Neurological triggers (intracranial tumor, cerebral vascular lesions, hemorrhage, and epilepsy) could not be detected. Setting of the diagnosis of pseudopheochromocytoma treatment was initiated with alpha- and beta-blockers resulting in reduced frequency of symptoms. Alprazolam was restarted at a daily dose of 1 mg. The patient's clinical condition improved rapidly and the dosage of alpha- and beta-blockers could be decreased. We conclude that the withdrawal of an anxiolytic therapeutic regimen may generate sympathetic overdrive resulting in life-threatening paroxysmal malignant hypertension and secondary encephalopathy. We emphasize that pseudopheochromocytoma can be diagnosed only after exclusion of the secondary causes of hypertension. We highlight the importance of a psychopharmacological approach to this clinical entity.

  18. Neural substrates of opiate withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, G F; Maldonado, R; Stinus, L

    1992-05-01

    Drug withdrawal is an integral part of most types of dependence and, to a large extent, opiate withdrawal has been considered the prototypic, classic measure of opiate dependence. The opiate withdrawal syndrome is characterized by multiple behavioral and physiological signs such as behavioral activation, ptosis, diarrhea, 'wet dog' shakes and motivational dysfunction, which may be represented in the CNS at multiple sites. It seems that the activating effects associated with the opiate withdrawal syndrome may be mediated by the nucleus locus coeruleus. Other signs such as wet dog shakes may involve sites in the hypothalamus important for temperature regulation. Certain other signs such as diarrhea and lacrimation may be dependent on peripheral opiate receptors. The motivational aspects of opiate withdrawal as demonstrated by the aversive stimulus effects or negative reinforcing effects (e.g. disrupted lever-pressing for food and place aversions) may involve those elements of the nucleus accumbens that are known to be important for the acute reinforcing effects of opiates in nondependent rats. Evidence exists at the cellular and molecular level for both 'within-system' and 'between-system' adaptations to dependence. Elucidation of the neural networks, cellular mechanisms and molecular elements involved in opiate withdrawal may provide not only a model for our understanding of the adaptive processes associated with drug dependence but also of those associated with other chronic insults to CNS function.

  19. Effect Of Exogenous Progesterone On Blood Chemistry Of Large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exogenous hormones are major economic factors in swine production. This study evaluate the effects of exogenous administration of progesterone on the blood chemistry of pigs.Experiment involved weekly injections of progesterone to 24 pigs (12 males and 12 females)from day old to 24 weeks and only corn oil to another ...

  20. Progesterone profiles of postpartum dairy cows as an aid to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk progesterone levels were measured on a daily basis for 44 dairy cows from calving to conception in order to use the progesterone profiles in diagnosing and treating reproductive disorders related to the oestrous cycle. Some of the profiles could be used to identify reproductive abnormalities, for example, silent heats ...

  1. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis: Case report with history of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is a rare autoimmune response to raised endogenous progesterone levels that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Cutaneous, mucosal lesions and other systemic manifestations develop cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle when ...

  2. Hair progesterone contents during oestrus cycle and pregnancy in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xianyin; Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi

    1991-01-01

    Hair progesterone contents during gestasion and milk progesterone levels during oestrus cycle in Saanen(S), crosses F 1 (SXChengdu Mah) and F 2 (SX(SXChengdu Mah)) goats were determined using the RIA kit. The results showed that progesterone in goats hair could be detected using the RIA kit. In pregnant goats, hair progesterone contents was correlated with the milk progesterone profile during 1-28 days after oestrus (r=0.5458, p<0.01). In non-pregnant goats, similar correlation was observed (r=7832, p<0.01). After milk samples were collected 22 days, 3.9ng/ml of progesterone was taken as the discriminatory level, and precision of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis were 82.4% and 100% respectively. After hair samples were collected 22 days, 3.7ng/50mg of progesterone was taken as discriminatory level, and precision of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis were 77.8% and 100% respectively. During gestation, hair progesterone content increased gradually from day 30(5.67±0.98ng/50mg hair)to day 120 (9.85±1.20ng/50mg) and decreased rapidly from -8(before parturition, 7.73±1.91ng/50mg) to day 0(parturition, 4.93±0.25ng/50mg)

  3. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two of the many factors which may affect the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis using milk progesterone levels are day of sampling and number of samples taken per cow. These two aspects were analysed using information obtained from progesterone profiles encompassing 359 pregnancy tests. Where a single sample was ...

  4. A Randomized Trial of Progesterone in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomarasamy, Arri; Williams, Helen; Truchanowicz, Ewa; Seed, Paul T; Small, Rachel; Quenby, Siobhan; Gupta, Pratima; Dawood, Feroza; Koot, Yvonne E M; Bender Atik, Ruth; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Brady, Rebecca; Briley, Annette L; Cavallaro, Rebecca; Cheong, Ying C; Chu, Justin J; Eapen, Abey; Ewies, Ayman; Hoek, Annemieke; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; Koks, Carolien A M; Li, Tin-Chiu; MacLean, Marjory; Mol, Ben W; Moore, Judith; Ross, Jackie A; Sharpe, Lisa; Stewart, Jane; Vaithilingam, Nirmala; Farquharson, Roy G; Kilby, Mark D; Khalaf, Yacoub; Goddijn, Mariette; Regan, Lesley; Rai, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. However, whether progesterone supplementation in the first trimester of pregnancy would increase the rate of live births among women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a

  5. Study of progesterone mechanisms in radio-induced apoptosis prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vares, G.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the modulation of radiation-induced cell death of human mammary tumoral cells by progesterone. On the one hand, we observed that progesterone protects cells against radiation-induced apoptosis and increases the proportion of surviving and proliferating damaged cells. On the other hand, a transcriptome analysis was undertaken in irradiated cells treated by progesterone, using DNA micro-arrays. This let us highlight several transcriptional dis-regulations that are likely to explain the protective effect of the hormone; in particular, we showed that progesterone regulates the expression of genes implicated in apoptosis signaling by death receptors. Knowing the crucial role of hormonal control and of apoptosis regulation in breast cancer initiation, our results may help to achieve a better understanding of the implication of progesterone in mammary carcinogenesis. (author)

  6. The mechanism of pollination drop withdrawal in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yan; Wang, Di; Jiang, Xiao X; Zhang, Min; Wang, Li

    2012-05-01

    The pollination drop (PD) is a characteristic feature of many wind-pollinated gymnosperms. Although accumulating evidence shows that the PD plays a critical role in the pollination process, the mechanism of PD withdrawal is still unclear. Here, we carefully observed the PD withdrawal process and investigated the underlying mechanism of PD withdrawal, which will aid the understanding of wind-pollination efficiency in gymnosperms. In Ginkgo biloba, PDs were secreted on the micropyle during the pollination period and persisted for about 240 h when not pollinated under laboratory conditions. The withdrawal of an isolated PD required only 1 h for evaporation, much less than a PD on the living ovule, which required 100 h. When pollinated with viable pollen, PDs withdrew rapidly within 4 h. In contrast, nonviable pollen and acetone-treated pollen did not cause PD withdrawal. Although 100% relative humidity significantly inhibited PD withdrawal, pollinated PDs still could withdraw completely within 48 h. Pollen grains of Cycas revoluta, which are similar to those of G. biloba, could induce PD withdrawal more rapidly than those of two distantly related gymnosperms (Pinus thunbergii and Abies firma) or two angiosperms (Paeonia suffruticosa and Orychophragmus violaceus). Furthermore, pollen of G. biloba and C. revoluta submerged immediately when encountering the PD, then sank to the bottom and entered the micropyle. The saccate pollen of P. thunbergii and A. firma submerged into the PD, but remained floating at the top and finally accumulated on the micropyle after PD withdrawal. In contrast, pollen of the angiosperms P. suffruticosa, Salix babylonica, and O. violaceus did not submerge, instead remaining clustered at the edge without entering the PD. We conclude that PD withdrawal is primarily determined by the dynamic balance between evaporation and ovule secretion, of which pollen is a critical stimulator. When conspecific pollen grains were submerged in the PD, ovule

  7. The mechanism of pollination drop withdrawal in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Biao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pollination drop (PD is a characteristic feature of many wind-pollinated gymnosperms. Although accumulating evidence shows that the PD plays a critical role in the pollination process, the mechanism of PD withdrawal is still unclear. Here, we carefully observed the PD withdrawal process and investigated the underlying mechanism of PD withdrawal, which will aid the understanding of wind-pollination efficiency in gymnosperms. Results In Ginkgo biloba, PDs were secreted on the micropyle during the pollination period and persisted for about 240 h when not pollinated under laboratory conditions. The withdrawal of an isolated PD required only 1 h for evaporation, much less than a PD on the living ovule, which required 100 h. When pollinated with viable pollen, PDs withdrew rapidly within 4 h. In contrast, nonviable pollen and acetone-treated pollen did not cause PD withdrawal. Although 100% relative humidity significantly inhibited PD withdrawal, pollinated PDs still could withdraw completely within 48 h. Pollen grains of Cycas revoluta, which are similar to those of G. biloba, could induce PD withdrawal more rapidly than those of two distantly related gymnosperms (Pinus thunbergii and Abies firma or two angiosperms (Paeonia suffruticosa and Orychophragmus violaceus. Furthermore, pollen of G. biloba and C. revoluta submerged immediately when encountering the PD, then sank to the bottom and entered the micropyle. The saccate pollen of P. thunbergii and A. firma submerged into the PD, but remained floating at the top and finally accumulated on the micropyle after PD withdrawal. In contrast, pollen of the angiosperms P. suffruticosa, Salix babylonica, and O. violaceus did not submerge, instead remaining clustered at the edge without entering the PD. Conclusions We conclude that PD withdrawal is primarily determined by the dynamic balance between evaporation and ovule secretion, of which pollen is a critical stimulator

  8. Internalisation of membrane progesterone receptor-α after treatment with progesterone: Potential involvement of a clathrin-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Helen; Reynolds, Alan; Stenbeck, Gudrun; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2010-01-01

    Internalisation and recycling of seven trans-membrane domain receptors is a critical regulatory event for their signalling. The mechanism(s) by which membrane progesterone receptor-α (mPRα) number is regulated on the cell surface is unclear. In this study, we investigated the cellular distribution of mPRα and mechanisms of mPRα trafficking using a cell line derived from a primary culture of human myometrial cells (M11) as an experimental model. RT-PCR and immunofluorescent analysis demonstrated expression of mPRα in M11 cells with mPRα primarily distributed on the cell surface under basal conditions. For the first time, plasma membrane localisation of mPRα was confirmed using immuno-gold transmission electron microscopy. Stimulation of M11 cells with progesterone (P4, 100 nM) resulted in internalisation of mPRα from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm (10 min) and subsequent partial translocation back to the cell surface (20 min). We investigated potential endocytotic pathways involved in trafficking of mPRα after its internalisation. Partial co-localisation of clathrin with mPRα was obvious after 10 min of P4 treatment. Of note, chlorpromazine (inhibitor of clathrin-mediated pathway) inhibited the endocytosis of mPRα, whereas treatment with nystatin (inhibitor of caveolae-mediated pathway) did not affect internalisation. Collectively, these data suggest that mPRα is expressed on the cell surface of M11 cells and undergoes endocytosis after P4 stimulation primarily via a clathrin-mediated pathway.

  9. Contraceptive applications of progesterone receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Ouzounian, Sophie; Kairis, Axelle Pintiaux; Bouchard, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    Currently developed progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs) are steroid-derived compounds with mild or potent antiprogestin activity. PRMs may exert a contraceptive activity by different mechanisms such as blockade of ovulation and endometrial desynchronization. Their potential clinical applications are manifold and are very promising in major public health areas, including emergency contraception, long term oestrogen-free contraception (administered alone, or in association with a progestin-only pill to improve bleeding patterns), endometriosis and myoma treatment. The mechanisms of their anti-ovulatory effects and of the endometrial modifications elicited during long term PRM treatment are still not fully elucidated. In future clinical applications, PRMs will be administered orally, via intrauterine systems or vaginal rings.

  10. Effects of progesterone on iNOS, COX-2, and collagen expression in the cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Stephen G; Wentz, Melissa J; Mackay, Lynette B; Schlembach, Dietmar; Maul, Holger; Fittkow, Cordula; Given, Randal; Vedernikov, Yurij; Saade, George R; Garfield, Robert E

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the control of cervical ripening and parturition under normal (normal term pregnancy) and abnormal (preterm labor and prolongation of pregnancy) conditions by (a) measuring changes in the collagen both visually and quantitatively, (b) localizing and characterizing iNOS and COX-2 under normal conditions, and (c) characterizing the changes in iNOS and COX-2 under abnormal conditions. Cervices are obtained from estrus and timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=4-10 per group). Preterm labor is induced with Onapristone (3 mg/rat; progesterone antagonist) and the prolongation of pregnancy with progesterone (2.5 mg, twice daily). Collagen changes are measured and visualized with the picrosirius polarization method. RT-PCR is used to characterize the mRNA expression (plabor, increasing the iNOS and COX-2 mRNA (p<0.05). The increase demonstrated a positive correlation (Spearman r = 0.456; p=0.03). Progesterone prolonged pregnancy, decreasing the iNOS and COX-2 mRNA (p=0.036). In conclusion, there may be an interaction between the nitric oxide and prostaglandin pathways in cervical ripening and parturition.

  11. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in human saliva during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luisi, M.; Franchi, F.; Kicovic, P.M.; Silvestri, D.; Cossu, G.; Catarsi, A.L.; Barletta, D.; Gasperi, M. (Pisa Univ. (Italy))

    1981-10-01

    A sensitive, specific and accurate radioimmunoassay of progesterone in human saliva is described, using /sup 3/H. The assay had a sensitivity of 8 pg/tube and blanks were negligible. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.2 and 9.4%, respectively. The mean recovery from 60 samples was 93.2 +- 6.3%. Results obtained from nine healthy, normally menstruating women showed that salivary progesterone rose from the 4th day before ovulation to a mean peak (+- SD) of 1.14 +- 0.17 ng/ml on the 8th day after ovulation, followed by a gradual decline. Correlation of salivary and simultaneously obtained plasma progesterone levels was good (r = 0.47; P < 0.001), although the maximum percent increase in salivary progesterone was more than 10 times greater than that of plasma progesterone. Salivary progesterone is thought to reflect the unbound fraction of plasma progesterone and this non-invasive technique can be used for serial investigations in which frequent samplings are required.

  12. Reward, addiction, withdrawal to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasi, Mariella; Dani, John A

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine is the principal addictive component that drives continued tobacco use despite users' knowledge of the harmful consequences. The initiation of addiction involves the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to the processing of rewarding sensory stimuli during the overall shaping of successful behaviors. Acting mainly through nicotinic receptors containing the α4 and β2 subunits, often in combination with the α6 subunit, nicotine increases the firing rate and the phasic bursts by midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuroadaptations arise during chronic exposure to nicotine, producing an altered brain condition that requires the continued presence of nicotine to be maintained. When nicotine is removed, a withdrawal syndrome develops. The expression of somatic withdrawal symptoms depends mainly on the α5, α2, and β4 (and likely α3) nicotinic subunits involving the epithalamic habenular complex and its targets. Thus, nicotine taps into diverse neural systems and an array of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes to influence reward, addiction, and withdrawal.

  13. Prediction of ovulation in women using a rapid progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.; Coults, J.R.T. (Glasgow Univ. (UK))

    1982-02-01

    A rapid (3-h) radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone has been developed and used successfully to predict the time of ovulation in women undergoing artificial insemination. The results obtained using progesterone levels to date the stage of the cycle were analysed retrospectively by (1) estimation of the length of the ensuing luteal phases and comparison of these with luteal phase lengths of a control group (2) comparison of the dating using progesterone levels with retrospective determination of LH values and (3) by analysis of the dating in cycles in which conception occurred.

  14. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  15. Water withdrawals in Florida, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, the total amount of water withdrawn in Florida was estimated to be 14,237 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 7,855 Mgal/d (55 percent), and freshwater accounted for 6,383 Mgal/d (45 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,167 Mgal/d (65 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,216 Mgal/d (35 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. Freshwater withdrawals were greatest in Palm Beach County (682 Mgal/d), and saline-water withdrawals were greatest in Pasco County (1,822 Mgal/d). Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (through either public supply or private domestic wells) for 17.699 million residents (93 percent of Florida’s population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.375 million residents (7 percent). The statewide public-supply gross per capita water use for 2012 was estimated at 136 gallons per day.

  16. Progesterone receptor levels independently predict survival in endometrial adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Anette Lynge

    1995-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) contents were determined by biochemical (dextran charcoal-coated (DCC) assay) and immunohistochemical (ICA) methods in biopsies from 145 primary endometrial adenocarcinomas and those with eligible receptor measurements were analyzed with respect...

  17. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw... diligence; (3) Use after marketing demonstrates that postmarketing restrictions are inadequate to ensure...

  18. Paraquat inhibits progesterone synthesis in human placental mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Ryszard; Sokołowska, Ewa; Rybakowska, Iwona; Kaletha, Krystian; Klimek, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    Human placenta mitochondria produces huge amounts of progesterone necessary for maintaining the pregnancy. Lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria inhibits progesterone synthesis and that inhibition can be reversed by superoxide dismutase and other antioxidants. Paraquat (PQ) a highly toxic herbicide generates superoxide radical inside cells and induces lipid peroxidation. Hence, it is supposed to stimulate lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria and in consequence to inhibit a placental mitochondrial steroidogenesis. Placentas were obtained from normal pregnancies. All experiments were done using isolated human placental mitochondria. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation was determined as tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone or pregnenolone to progesterone was measured using radiolabeled steroids and thin layer chromatography. PQ enhanced the iron-dependent lipid peroxidation as also PQ heightened the inhibitory action of this process on progesterone synthesis in isolated human placental mitochondria. Paradoxically, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) reversed the inhibition of progesterone synthesis only minimally although it strongly inhibited PQ stimulated iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. When iron was absent, PQ stimulated only negligible lipid peroxidation but strongly inhibited progesterone synthesis. SOD had no effect on inhibition of progesterone synthesis by PQ. PQ strongly inhibited of the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone but had not got any influence on the enzymatic activity of mitochondrial 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. PQ strongly decreased the efficiency of NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reduction as well as it promoted the rapid oxidation of the pre-reduced mitochondrial cytochrome P450. However PQ has not inhibited combined activity of adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin. We conclude that the most important reason of the inhibition of progesterone synthesis by PQ

  19. A case of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis in an adolescent female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarla, Nirupama; Zurawin, Robert K

    2006-04-01

    Progesterone-induced dermatitis is a rare disorder. It typically occurs in females due to an autoimmune phenomenon to endogenous progesterone production, but can also be caused by exogenous intake of a synthetic progestin. Here, we present a case of autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (AIPD) seen in an adolescent female. The patient is a 15-year-old Caucasian female with no significant past medical history and no prior exogenous hormone use, who presented to her primary care physician complaining of cyclic skin eruptions. She noted that her dermatologic symptoms occurred monthly, just prior to her menses. An intradermal skin test using 0.1 cc of progesterone was performed. The patient immediately developed a wheal, confirming the diagnosis of AIPD. The patient was begun on a continuous regimen of an oral contraceptive pill with 30 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.15 mg of levonorgestrel. The skin eruptions have not returned since the initiation of this therapy. Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis manifests via the occurrence of cyclic skin eruptions. Women with the disorder commonly present with dermatologic lesions in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Diagnosis of AIPD is confirmed by performing a skin allergen test using progesterone. Due to its rarity, AIPD should be considered a diagnosis of exclusion. In cases believed to be due to an endogenous production of progesterone, several methods of therapy have been attempted. The ultimate goal of therapy is the suppression of ovulation, which will prevent endogenous hormone production as progesterone is only produced in ovulatory cycles. Currently, the first-line choice of therapy is a combination oral contraceptive. If this treatment is ineffective, patients have been treated with danazol, gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs, tamoxifen, and oophorectomy with varying success.

  20. Distinct cognitive effects of estrogen and progesterone in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent-Spillson, Alison; Briceno, Emily; Pinsky, Alana; Simmen, Angela; Persad, Carol C; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R

    2015-09-01

    The effects of postmenopausal hormone treatment on cognitive outcomes are inconsistent in the literature. Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive effects are influenced by specific hormone formulations, and that progesterone is more likely to be associated with positive outcomes than synthetic progestin. There are very few studies of unopposed progesterone in postmenopausal women, and none that use functional neuroimaging, a sensitive measure of neurobiological function. In this study of 29 recently postmenopausal women, we used functional MRI and neuropsychological measures to separately assess the effects of estrogen or progesterone treatment on visual and verbal cognitive function. Women were randomized to receive 90 days of either estradiol or progesterone counterbalanced with placebo. After each treatment arm, women were given a battery of verbal and visual cognitive function and working memory tests, and underwent functional MRI including verbal processing and visual working memory tasks. We found that both estradiol and progesterone were associated with changes in activation patterns during verbal processing. Compared to placebo, women receiving estradiol treatment had greater activation in the left prefrontal cortex, a region associated with verbal processing and encoding. Progesterone was associated with changes in regional brain activation patterns during a visual memory task, with greater activation in the left prefrontal cortex and right hippocampus compared to placebo. Both treatments were associated with a statistically non-significant increase in number of words remembered following the verbal task performed during the fMRI scanning session, while only progesterone was associated with improved neuropsychological measures of verbal working memory compared to placebo. These results point to potential cognitive benefits of both estrogen and progesterone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Progesterone and Testosterone on Cocaine Self-Administration and Cocaine Discrimination by Female Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Nancy K; Knudson, Inge M; Kelly, Maureen; Fivel, Peter A; Mendelson, Jack H

    2011-01-01

    The neuroactive steroid hormone progesterone attenuates cocaine's abuse-related effects in women and in rodents under some conditions, but the effects of testosterone are unknown. We compared the acute effects of progesterone (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m.)), testosterone (0.001, 0.003, and 0.01 mg/kg, i.m.), and placebo on cocaine self-administration and cocaine discrimination dose–effect curves in female rhesus monkeys. Cocaine self-administration (0.03 mg/kg per inj.) was maintained on a fixed ratio 30 schedule of reinforcement, and monkeys had unlimited access to cocaine for 2 h each day. Cocaine doses were administered in an irregular order during each dose–effect curve determination, and the same dose order was used in each subject in all treatment conditions. Blood samples for hormone analysis were collected at the end of each test session. Banana-flavored food pellets (1 g) were also available in three 1-h daily sessions. In drug discrimination studies, the effects of pretreatment with progesterone (0.032–0.32 mg/kg, i.m.) and testosterone (0.001–0.01 mg/kg, i.m.) on the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine (0.18 mg/kg, i.m.) were examined. Progesterone and testosterone did not alter cocaine discrimination, and did not substitute for cocaine. In contrast, progesterone and testosterone each significantly decreased cocaine self-administration, and produced a downward and rightward shift in the cocaine self-administration dose–effect curve. These findings are concordant with clinical reports that progesterone administration may decrease ratings of positive subjective effects of cocaine in women, and suggest the possible value of neuroactive steroid hormones for the treatment of cocaine abuse and reduction of risk for relapse. PMID:21796112

  2. Profil Hormon Progesteron pada Anjing Kintamani Fase Anestrus Setelah Disuntik Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (THE PROGESTERONE PROFILE IN ANESTRUS KINTAMANI BITCHES AFTER INJECTED USING PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Puja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Profil Hormon Progesteron pada Anjing Kintamani Fase Anestrus Setelah Disuntik Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (THE PROGESTERONE PROFILE IN ANESTRUS KINTAMANI BITCHES AFTER INJECTED USING PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPIN

  3. Buprenorphine for managing opioid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; White, Jason M; Mbewe, Dalitso

    2017-02-21

    Managed withdrawal is a necessary step prior to drug-free treatment or as the endpoint of substitution treatment. To assess the effects of buprenorphine versus tapered doses of methadone, alpha 2 -adrenergic agonists, symptomatic medications or placebo, or different buprenorphine regimens for managing opioid withdrawal, in terms of the intensity of the withdrawal syndrome experienced, duration and completion of treatment, and adverse effects. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 11, 2016), MEDLINE (1946 to December week 1, 2016), Embase (to 22 December 2016), PsycINFO (1806 to December week 3, 2016), and the Web of Science (to 22 December 2016) and handsearched the reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials of interventions using buprenorphine to modify the signs and symptoms of withdrawal in participants who were primarily opioid dependent. Comparison interventions involved reducing doses of methadone, alpha 2 -adrenergic agonists (clonidine or lofexidine), symptomatic medications or placebo, and different buprenorphine-based regimens. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included 27 studies involving 3048 participants. The main comparators were clonidine or lofexidine (14 studies). Six studies compared buprenorphine versus methadone, and seven compared different rates of buprenorphine dose reduction. We assessed 12 studies as being at high risk of bias in at least one of seven domains of methodological quality. Six of these studies compared buprenorphine with clonidine or lofexidine and two with methadone; the other four studies compared different rates of buprenorphine dose reduction.For the comparison of buprenorphine and methadone in tapered doses, meta-analysis was not possible for the outcomes of intensity of withdrawal or adverse effects. However, information reported by the individual studies was suggestive of buprenorphine and methadone having similar capacity to

  4. The role of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Dodd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A CrowtherDiscipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Preterm birth continues to provide an enormous challenge in the delivery of perinatal health care, and is associated with considerable short and long-term health consequences for surviving infants. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by suppression of the calcium–calmodulin–myosin light chain kinase system. Additionally, progesterone has recognized anti-inflammatory properties, raising a possible link between inflammatory processes, alterations in progesterone receptor expression and the onset of preterm labor. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth have been published, with primary outcomes of perinatal death, preterm birth <34 weeks, and neurodevelopmental handicap in childhood. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, involving 2714 women and 3452 infants, with results presented according to the reason women were considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth. While there is a potential beneficial effect in the use of progesterone for some women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth, primarily in the reduction in the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks gestation, it remains unclear if the observed prolongation of pregnancy translates into improved health outcomes for the infant.Keywords: progesterone, preterm birth, systematic review, randomized trial

  5. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santin Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P<0.0001; 2.39 times, P=0.01; 1.58 times, P=0.0003; and 1.87 times, P<0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P<0.0001; 1.75 times, P=0.037; and 1.95 times, P<0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P=0.069. These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

  6. 8 CFR 246.4 - Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS RESCISSION OF ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS § 246.4 Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution. In any proceeding conducted under this part, the immigration judge shall have...

  7. 27 CFR 19.502 - Withdrawal of spirits on production or filling gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production or filling gauge. 19.502 Section 19.502 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Withdrawals General § 19.502 Withdrawal of spirits on production or filling gauge. When the production or filling gauge is made under the provisions of § 19.319(b), spirits may be withdrawn from bonded premises...

  8. 40 CFR 97.286 - Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Opt-in Units § 97.286 Withdrawal from CAIR SO2 Trading Program. Except as provided under paragraph (g) of...

  9. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Krabbe, Paul F M; De Jong, Cor A J; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  10. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  11. Progesterone inhibition of oxytocin signaling in endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecily Vauna Bishop

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR in the endometrium of ruminant species is regulated by the ovarian steroids progesterone (P and estradiol (E. Near the end of the estrous cycle, long-term exposure of endometrial epithelial cells to P results in loss of genomic P receptors (PGRs, leading to an increase in E receptors (ERs. Genomic regulation of the OXTR is mediated via suppression of ER signaling by P. Upon OT binding at the plasma membrane of endometrial cells, a signaling cascade is generated stimulating release of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha. Transport of PGF2alpha to the ovary results in release of OT by luteal cells in a positive feedback loop leading to luteal regression. This signaling cascade can be rapidly blocked by exposing endometrial cells to physiologic levels of P. This mini review will focus on the mechanisms by which P may act to block OXTR signaling and the luteolytic cascade in the ruminant endometrium, with special focus on both non-genomic signaling pathways and non-receptor actions of P at the level of the plasma membrane. While this review focuses on ruminant species, non-classical blockage of OXTR signaling may be important for fertility in women.

  12. Endometrial Receptivity Profile in Patients with Premature Progesterone Elevation on the Day of hCG Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gala, Anna; Assou, Said; Perrochia, Hélène; Dechaud, Hervé; Hugues, Jean-Noel; Hamamah, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a premature elevation of serum progesterone level, the day of hCG administration in patients under controlled ovarian stimulation during IVF procedure, on human endometrial receptivity is still debated. In the present study, we investigated the endometrial gene expression profile shifts during the prereceptive and receptive secretory stage in patients with normal and elevated serum progesterone level on the day of hCG administration in fifteen patients under stimulated cycles. Then, specific biomarkers of endometrial receptivity in these two groups of patients were tested. Endometrial biopsies were performed on oocyte retrieval day and on day 3 of embryo transfer, respectively, for each patient. Samples were analysed using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR. The endometrial gene expression shift from the prereceptive to the receptive stage was altered in patients with high serum progesterone level (>1.5 ng/mL) on hCG day, suggesting accelerated endometrial maturation during the periovulation period. This was confirmed by the functional annotation of the differentially expressed genes as it showed downregulation of cell cycle-related genes. Conversely, the profile of endometrial receptivity was comparable in both groups. Premature progesterone rise alters the endometrial gene expression shift between the prereceptive and the receptive stage but does not affect endometrial receptivity. PMID:24877150

  13. The acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome among black smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Waters, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Black smokers have greater difficulty quitting tobacco than White smokers, but the mechanisms underlying between-race differences in smoking cessation are not clear. One possibility is that Black smokers experience greater acute withdrawal than Whites. We investigated whether Black (n = 104) and White smokers (n = 99) differed in abstinence-induced changes in self-report, physiological, and cognitive performance measures. Smokers not wishing to quit completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions. Before one session, they abstained from smoking for at least 12 hr. They smoked normally before the other session. Black smokers reported smaller abstinence-induced changes on a number of subjective measures including the total score of the 10-item Questionnaire for Smoking Urges (QSU) and the total score of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS). However, on most subjective measures, and on all objective measures, there were no between-race differences in abstinence-induced change scores. Moreover, Black participants did not report lower QSU and WSWS ratings at the abstinent session, but they did experience significantly higher QSU and WSWS ratings at the nonabstinent session. Abstinence-induced changes in subjective, physiological, and cognitive measures in White smokers were similar for smokers of nonflavored and menthol-flavored cigarettes. There was no evidence that Black smokers experienced greater acute tobacco withdrawal than Whites. To the contrary, Black participants experienced smaller abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving and withdrawal on some measures. Racial differences in smoking cessation are unlikely to be explained by acute withdrawal.

  14. Social Anxiety and Adolescents' Friendships: The Role of Social Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Wu, Yelena P.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates social anxiety is associated with lower friendship quality, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This 2-month longitudinal study examined social withdrawal as a mediator of the social anxiety-friendship quality link in a sample of 214 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.1 years, SD = 0.73) that included an…

  15. [Progesterone receptor gene polymorphism and recurrent spontaneous abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, Evelyn; Daher, Silvia; Franchim, Camila Sommerauer; Fuziy, Juliana Aoki; Moron, Antônio Fernandes; Banzato, Priscilla Chamelete Andrade; Mattar, Rosiane

    2010-05-01

    To assess a possible association between polymorphism of the progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS) and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). In this case-control study, 85 women with at least three previous spontaneous abortions without an identifiable cause (RSA Group) and 157 women with at least two previous term pregnancies without pathologies and no previous miscarriage (Control Group) were selected. An amount of 10 mL of peripheral blood was collected by venipuncture and genomic DNA was extracted by the DTAB/CTAB method, followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) under specific conditions for this polymorphism and by amplification by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized with an ultraviolet light transilluminator and the gels were photographed. Differences in the PROGINS genotype and allele frequencies between groups were analyzed by the χ² test, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. The Odds Ratio (OR) was also used, with 95% confidence intervals 95%CI. PROGINS genotypic frequencies were 72.3% T1T1 and 27.7% T1T2 for the RSA group and 76.4% T1T1, 22.3% T1T2 and 1.3% T2T2 for the control group. There were no differences between groups when the genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed: respectively p=0.48 (OR: 0.8) and p=0.65 (OR: 0.9). Our results suggest that PROGINS polymorphism is not associated with RSA.

  16. Immunohistochemical Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in Epulis Fissuratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Seyedmajidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epulis Fissuratum (Epulis Fissuratum (EF or Denture Epulis or inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia is a common hyperplastic tumor-like lesion with reactive nature, related to loose and ill-fitting, full or partial removable dentures and it is more common in women than men. For this reason, hormonal influences may also play role in its creation. The effect of steroid hormones especially sex hormones (Estrogen and progesterone on oral mucosa is identified in some studies. In the present study, the distribution pattern and presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells in Epulis Fissuratum was investigated. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 samples of paraffin blocks with Epulis Fissuratum diagnosis and 30 samples of normal mucosal tissues as a control group who have had surgery as a margin beside the above lesions and had been obtained from the oral and maxillofacial pathology departement of Babol Dental School since 2003 up to 2010. Intensity of staining and immunoreactivity were evaluated using subjective index and considering the positive control group (breast carcinoma.Results: Epithelial, stromal, endothelial and inflammatory cells didn’t show reaction with monoclonal antibodies against estrogen and progesterone in none of the samples. Conclusion: It seems that the hypothesis of the existence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in epulis fissuratum and normal oral mucosa is ruled out. The possibility of direct effect of estrogen and progesterone in occurring of epulis fissuratum is rejected.

  17. [Effect of steroid biosynthesis modificators on the progesterone biotransformation by a recombinant yeasts expressing cytochrome P450c17].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkumatov, V M; Usova, E V; Frolova, N S; Barth, G; Mauersberger, S

    2006-01-01

    Using the recombinant microorganisms S. cerevisiae GRF18 YEp5117alpha, expressing cytochrome P450c17 from bovine adrenal cortex, we investigated the influence of the various modificators of steroids biosynthesis on the relationship between the 17alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone and 20alpha-reduction. Dexamethasone and metirapon had no effect on the reaction of progesterone 17alpha-hydroxylation and on the reaction of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone 20alpha-reduction. Mifepriston and danazol did not covalently modify amino acid residues of the cytochrome P450c17 or its heme group under the conditions of the biotransformation of progesterone by recombinant yeasts. Ketokonazol, mifepriston and danazol acted as low-affinity competitive inhibitors, but the 20-dihydro derivatives of progesterone were mixed type inhibitors for the cytochrome P450c17. All modifiers that we used did not influence the functional properties of the yeast analog of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. According to the influence on the catalytic parameters of the cytochrome P450c17, the modifiers used can be arranged in the following order: 20beta-dihydroprogesterone (maximum effect) > mifepriston = ketokonazol > 20alpha-dihydroprogesteron > danazol > dexamethasone, metirapon (without effect).

  18. Progesterone and levonorgestrel regulate expression of 17βHSD-enzymes in progesterone receptor positive breast cancer cell line T47D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivik, Tove; Jansson, Agneta

    2012-05-25

    The use of combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with oestrogens and progestins in postmenopausal women has been associated with an increased risk for developing breast cancer. The reasons are not fully understood, but influence of HRT on endogenous conversion of female sex hormones may be involved. The expression of 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17βHSD), which are enzymes catalysing the conversion between more or less potent oestrogens, may partly be regulated by progestins. The breast cancer cell lines T47D, MCF7 and ZR75-1 were treated with progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or levonorgestrel for 48 and 72 h at 10(-7) and 10(-9)M to investigate influence on 17βHSD1, 17βHSD2 and 17βHSD5 mRNA expression measured by real time PCR. The expression of 17βHSD1 increased in progesterone and levonorgestrel treated T47D cells (48 h 10(-7)M P=0.002; PT47D cells were co-treated with progestins and the progesterone receptor (PgR) inhibitor mifprestone. We show that both reductive (17βHSD1 and 17βHSD5) and oxidative (17βHSD2) members of the 17βHSD-family are under control of progesterone and progestins in breast cancer cell lines. This is most clear in T47D cells which have high PgR expression. 17βHSD-enzymes are important players in the regulation of sex steroids locally in breast tumours and tumoural expression of various 17βHSD-enzymes have prognostic and treatment predictive relevance. We propose a mechanism for increased breast cancer risk after HRT in which hormone replacement affects the expression of 17βHSD-enzymes, favouring the expression of reductive enzymes, which in turn could increase levels of bioactive and mitogenic estrogens in local tissue, e.g. breast tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diazepam in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Alcohol Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    treatment of patients experiencing moderate to severe alcohol withdrawal under most circumstances.

  20. The milk samples collected with filter paper for progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua; Geng Guoxia; Zhang Huaiyu

    1985-01-01

    The cow milk was collected with filter paper treated with ethanol during eastrus-day (0 day) and 22th and 24th day after mating. Then it was dried and stored in room temprature until analysis for progesterone by means of radioimmunoassay. The sensitivity is 13.62 pg/bule (n = 4), the coefficients of variation within a group and between groups are 8.8% (n = 10) and 16.65% (n = 8) respectively, and the recovery is 91.23% (n = 4). The average progesterone level for 22th and 24th day in the pregnant cows (6.28 +- 1.28 ng/ml) was much higher than that in the non-pregnant cow (2.00 +- 1.18 ng/ml), the difference being significant (P < 0.001). The judgement based on progesterone level (5 pregnant and 5 non-pregnant cows) faily agreed with the clinical diagnosis

  1. Evaluation of reproductive performance using milk progesterone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimers, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Dairy herds (472) in the northeastern United States of America were surveyed to evaluate reproductive performance. Error of oestrus detection (>> 1 ng/mL of milk progesterone) on the day of insemination was 5.1% for 4558 cows. 'Standing' and 'riding other cows' were the most accurate signs of oestrus. Of cows in or near oestrus when inseminated, 28.1% were open three weeks later, 12.9% were probably open, and 59% were probably pregnant according to milk progesterone analysis. Post-partum days to first insemination and conception rates showed positive correlation. Concentrations of progesterone in milk samples collected 21 to 24 days after service allowed prediction with 88.6% accuracy that a cow was pregnant and with 93.9% accuracy that she was not. By rectal palpation, veterinarians predicted with 92.5% accuracy that a cow was pregnant. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  2. Biotransformation of Progesterone by the Ascomycete Aspergillus niger N402.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinova, O S; Solyev, P N; Vasina, D V; Tyazhelova, T V; Fedorova, T V; Savinova, T S

    2018-01-01

    The ability of the ascomycete Aspergillus niger N402 to transform exogenous progesterone was investigated. We found that this strain has steroid-hydroxylating activity and can introduce a hydroxyl group into the progesterone molecule mainly at positions C11(α) and C21 with predominant formation of 21-hydroxyprogesterone (deoxycortone). In addition, formation of 6β,11α-dihydroxyprogesterone was also observed. Studying the effects of the growth medium composition and temperature on progesterone conversion by A. niger N402 showed that the most intense accumulation of 21-hydroxyprogesterone occurred in minimal synthetic medium at 28°C. Increasing the cultivation temperature to 37°C resulted in almost complete inhibition of the hydroxylase activity in the minimal medium. In the complete medium, a similar increase in temperature inhibited 11α-hydroxylase activity and completely suppressed 6β-hydroxylase activity, but it produced no effect on 21-hydroxylating activity.

  3. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C 21 H 30 O 2 ; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  4. Progesterone neuroprotection: The background of clinical trial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Michael; Denier, Christian; Oudinet, Jean-Paul; Adams, David; Guennoun, Rachida

    2016-06-01

    Since the first pioneering studies in the 1990s, a large number of experimental animal studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective efficacy of progesterone for brain disorders, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, this steroid has major assets: it easily crosses the blood-brain-barrier, rapidly diffuses throughout the brain and exerts multiple beneficial effects by acting on many molecular and cellular targets. Moreover, progesterone therapies are well tolerated. Notably, increased brain levels of progesterone are part of endogenous neuroprotective responses to injury. The hormone thus emerged as a particularly promising protective candidate for TBI and stroke patients. The positive outcomes of small Phase 2 trials aimed at testing the safety and potential protective efficacy of progesterone in TBI patients then provided support and guidance for two large, multicenter, randomized and placebo-controlled Phase 3 trials, with more than 2000 TBI patients enrolled. The negative outcomes of both trials, named ProTECT III and SyNAPSE, came as a big disappointment. If these trials were successful, progesterone would have become the first efficient neuroprotective drug for brain-injured patients. Thus, progesterone has joined the numerous neuroprotective candidates that have failed in clinical trials. The aim of this review is a reappraisal of the preclinical animal studies, which provided the proof of concept for the clinical trials, and we critically examine the design of the clinical studies. We made efforts to present a balanced view of the strengths and limitations of the translational studies and of some serious issues with the clinical trials. We place particular emphasis on the translational value of animal studies and the relevance of TBI biomarkers. The probability of failure of ProTECT III and SyNAPSE was very high, and we present them within the broader context of other unsuccessful trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Blood periovulatory progesterone quantification using different techniques in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Robbe, Domenico

    2018-05-01

    Blood progesterone concentration is used in several procedures related to the reproduction in the bitch, such as ovulation monitoring, estimating time of parturition, or hypo-luteoidism management. Several techniques are available to evaluate blood progesterone concentration, such as the radioimmunoassay (RIA), the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The aim of this study was to compare the blood progesterone concentration using these three methods during the periovulatory period of 23 bitches. Vaginal cytology was used to classify cytologic estrus (CE) and cytologic diestrus (CD), and blood samples were collected once during proestrus and every other day between CE and CD. The samples were retrospectively classified in the different phases of the estrus based on CD. Pregnancy rate and gestational length were also recorded. A significant increase of the circulating progesterone during the progression of the estrus was recorded, and there were significant differences in the values when using the different methods, with lesser, intermediate, and greatest values with use of the RIA, CLIA, and ELISA, respectively. There was a high correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.978) and substantial strength-of-agreement (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient = 0.966) between values obtained when using CLIA and RIA, while there was a high correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.955) but poor strength-of-agreement (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient = 0.866) with use of the ELISA and RIA. The data reported in this study provide evidence that the method used for measuring the blood progesterone concentration during the periovulatory phase of the bitch significantly affected the progesterone values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellular progesterone receptor phosphorylation in response to ligands activating protein kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K.V.; Peralta, W.D.; Greene, G.L.; Fox, C.F.

    1987-08-14

    Progesterone receptors were immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies KD68 from lysates of human breast carcinoma T47D cells labelled to steady state specific activity with /sup 32/Pi. The 120 kDa /sup 32/P-labelled progesterone receptor band was resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified by autoradiography. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed serine phosphorylation, but no threonine or tyrosine phosphorylation. Treatment of the /sup 32/Pi-labelled cells with EGF, TPA or dibutyryl cAMP had no significant quantitative effect on progesterone receptor phosphorylation, though the EGF receptor and the cAMP-dependent protein kinases have been reported to catalyze phosphorylation of purified avian progesterone receptor preparations in cell free systems. Progesterone receptor phosphorylation on serine residues was increased by 2-fold in cells treated with 10 nM progesterone; EGF had no effect on progesterone-mediated progesterone receptor phosphorylation.

  7. Antibody bond to the microcrystalline cellulose in progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krnavek, B.

    1992-01-01

    A suspension of microcrystalline cellulose with bonded globulin fraction of the polyclonal antibody against progesterone was prepared and applied to the radioimmunoanalysis of progesterone in full milk and in blood serum. The results were compared with those obtained using RETRO-test kits; the comparison gave evidence that the novel technique can fully replace the RETRO-test, the elimination of the separating medium (activated carbon, polyethylene glycol) being an asset. The obtained correlation coefficient and regression equation for a simultaneous determination of 120 samples by the two methods were r = 0.964 and y = 1.113x - 0.939, respectively

  8. Prostaglandin receptors EP and FP are regulated by estradiol and progesterone in the uterus of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blesson Chellakkan S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostaglandins are important for female reproduction. Prostaglandin-E2 acts via four different receptor subtypes, EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 whereas prostaglandin-F2alpha acts through FP. The functions of prostaglandins depend on the expression of their receptors in different uterine cell types. Our aim was to investigate the expression of EPs and FP in rat uterus and to identify the regulation by estradiol, progesterone and estrogen receptor (ER selective agonists. Methods We performed four different rat experiments involving treatments with estradiol, progesterone and ER agonists. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were employed to evaluate receptor expression. Results Our results showed that all mRNAs and proteins of EPs and FP are expressed in the rat uterus. The expression pattern and intensity of immunostaining vary between different cell types and treatments. The mRNA expression of all EPs and FP are downregulated by estradiol and the ERalpha specific agonist PPT, whereas the ERbeta specific agonist DPN downregulates only EP2 and EP4. The protein expression however, showed an increase in EP2 and EP3 after estradiol treatment. When treated with estradiol and progesterone in combination, the expressions of EP1 and EP3 are upregulated. Conclusions Regulation of EPs and FP expression by estradiol appears to be mainly modulated via ERalpha for EP1, EP3 and FP, while EP2 and EP4 also are affected by the ERbeta selective ligand. Our immunohistochemical data shows a cell specific regulation of prostaglandin receptors under the influence of ovarian steroids, where EP2 is estrogen regulated in all uterine tissues examined. EP1 and EP3 are upregulated by the combination of estradiol and progesterone. Thus, our observations indicate that estradiol and progesterone regulate the mRNA and protein expression of EPs and FP in a receptor and tissue specific way.

  9. Progesterone and the metabolic control of the lactose biosynthetic pathway during lactogenesis in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Ariyanayagam, Ari D.; Kuhn, N. J.

    1973-01-01

    1. Lactogenesis was initiated in pregnant rats by ovariectomy, thereby causing progesterone withdrawal, after which the mammary tissue was analysed for contents of enzymes and metabolites concerned with the biosynthesis of lactose. 2. Lactose synthesis increased about 126-fold with little or no accompanying change in the contents of most metabolic intermediates or in the adenine nucleotide energy charge. 3. Comparison of mass-action ratios with equilibrium constants showed that phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1), UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.9) and UDP-glucose epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2.) catalysed reactions close to equilibrium. Nucleoside diphosphokinase (EC 2.7.4.6.) activity was very high and probably equilibrates the UTP–UDP and ATP–ADP couples. Lactose synthetase and hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1) appeared to catalyse rate-limiting reactions. 4. Large increases were seen of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (5-fold), lactose synthetase A protein (3.8-fold) and α-lactalbumin (28-fold), but not of hexokinase, phosphoglucomutase, UDP-glucose epimerase, nucleoside diphosphokinase or glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) activities. 5. It appeared that the increased lactose synthesis was largely accounted for by the increased lactose synthetase A protein activity and α-lactalbumin. PMID:4362333

  10. Evidence that the Arcuate Nucleus Is an Important Site of Progesterone Negative Feedback in the Ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaskova, Ida; Nestor, Casey C.; Connors, John M.; Billings, Heather J.; Valent, Miro; Lehman, Michael N.; Hileman, Stanley M.

    2011-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence that dynorphin neurons mediate the negative feedback actions of progesterone to inhibit GnRH and LH pulse frequency, but the specific neurons have yet to be identified. In ewes, dynorphin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and preoptic area (POA) are likely candidates based on colocalization with progesterone receptors. These studies tested the hypothesis that progesterone negative feedback occurs in either the ARC or POA by determining whether microimplants of progesterone into either site would inhibit LH pulse frequency (study 1) and whether microimplants of the progesterone receptor antagonist, RU486, would disrupt the inhibitory effects of peripheral progesterone (study 2). Both studies were done in ovariectomized (OVX) and estradiol-treated OVX ewes. In study 1, no inhibitory effects of progesterone were observed during treatment in either area. In study 2, microimplants of RU486 into the ARC disrupted the negative-feedback actions of peripheral progesterone treatments on LH pulse frequency in both OVX and OVX+estradiol ewes. In contrast, microimplants of RU486 into the POA had no effect on the ability of systemic progesterone to inhibit LH pulse frequency. We thus conclude that the ARC is one important site of progesterone-negative feedback in the ewe. These data, which are the first evidence on the neural sites in which progesterone inhibits GnRH pulse frequency in any species, are consistent with the hypothesis that ARC dynorphin neurons mediate this action of progesterone. PMID:21693677

  11. Milk progesterone on day 5 following insemination in the dairy cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the importance of progesterone on the fertility of lactating dairy cows, the factors that affect post ovulatory progesterone concentration are still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with the post ovulatory progesterone rise following 1st insemination in lactating dairy cows.

  12. Monitoring the reproductive performance in awassi ewes using progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Jugular serum progesterone (P-4) concentrations were assessed using radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits for about 1 year in 16 local Awassi ewes aged about 1 year and weighing on average 37.4 ±4.9 (range 29.5-44.0 kg). Average pre-mating live weight of animals was different (P 0.05) between animals in average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration, maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes and in the length of the gestation period average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration was 0.62±0.44 (range 0-1.7 nmol l -1 ). Average maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes was 11.0±3.3 (range 5.8-18 nmol l -1 ). Length of gestation period varied from 149 to 155 days with an average of 152±2.3 days. Maximum P-4 concentration during gestation was different (P -1 ). The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis at around 21 days pot-mating using RIA was 100%. It was concluded that Awassi sheep in Syria have a long breeding season that could start as early as April and last through September. Therefore, ewes might be included in oestrous synchronisation programmes to give three lambs in 2 years. It was also concluded that P-4 concentration under 3.18 nmol l -1 is indicative of either anoestrous or follicular and early luteal phase of the oestrous cycle in Awassi ewes kept in Syria and that RIA could be used for P-4 determination and successful early diagnosis of pregnancy in Awassi sheep. (author)

  13. [Treatment of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome: questions of glucocorticoid withdrawal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaz, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Tóth, Miklós; Gláz, Edit; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2007-02-04

    Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome is the most common form of hypercortisolism. Glucocorticoids are widely used for the treatment of various diseases, often in high doses that may lead to the development of severe hypercortisolism. Iatrogenic hypercortisolism is unique, as the application of exogenous glucocorticoids leads to the simultaneous presence of symptoms specific for hypercortisolism and the suppression of the endogenous hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The principal question of its therapy is related to the problem of glucocorticoid withdrawal. There is considerable interindividual variability in the suppression and recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, therefore, glucocorticoid withdrawal and substitution can only be conducted in a stepwise manner with careful clinical follow-up and regular laboratory examinations regarding endogenous hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Three major complications which can be associated with glucocorticoid withdrawal are: i. reactivation of the underlying disease, ii. secondary adrenal insufficiency, iii. steroid withdrawal syndrome. Here, the authors summarize the most important aspects of this area based on their clinical experience and the available literature data.

  14. Tramadole withdrawal in a neonate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borna H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is a synthetics 4-phenyl-piperidine analogue of codeine used for treating moderate to severe pain. Tramadol is a FDA pregnancy category C medication which induces release of serotonin and inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine. Chronic use of this drug during pregnancy may lead to physical dependency and withdrawal syndrome in the neonate.Case presentation: We report the newborn of a woman admitted in the delivery ward of Mostafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2011. The mother suffered from chronic low back pain and headache and frequently took tramadol during pregnancy. The infant had a gestational age of 38.5 w, a birth weight of 2950 gr and an Apgar score of 9/10 at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. The first signs of withdrawal syndrome occurred after 24 h with nausea, vomiting, poor feeding, and tremor. Later, agitation, tremor, hyprertonicity, and repeated multifocal myoclonus, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures developed. Clinical signs of withdrawal syndrome waned under phenobarbital therapy.Conclusion: Drug withdrawal syndrome should be considered in the neonates of pregnant mothers who chronically take tramadol. Tramadol administration during pregnancy should be restricted to carefully selected cases.

  15. differences in progesterone synchronized oestrus and ovulation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a previous study of ovarian function and re- production, (van der Westhuysen, unpublished), Hereford and Africander cows were treated with a series of pro- gesterone injections to synchronize their ovarian cycles and some breed differences in response to the progesterone treatment were apparent. It has furthermore ...

  16. Multiple sclerosis: Neuroprotective alliance of estrogen-progesterone and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kipp, M.; Amor, S.; Kraut, R.; Beyer, C.

    2012-01-01

    The potential of 17β-estradiol and progesterone as neuroprotective factors is well-recognized. Persuasive data comes from in vitro and animal models reflecting a wide range of CNS disorders. These studies have endeavored to translate findings into human therapies. Nonetheless, few human studies show

  17. Rodent Models of Non-classical Progesterone Action Regulating Ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that steroid hormones act not only by binding to nuclear receptors that associate with specific response elements in the nucleus but also by binding to receptors on the cell membrane. In this newly discovered manner, steroid hormones can initiate intracellular signaling cascades which elicit rapid effects such as release of internal calcium stores and activation of kinases. We have learned much about the translocation and signaling of steroid hormone receptors from investigations into estrogen receptor α, which can be trafficked to, and signal from, the cell membrane. It is now clear that progesterone (P4 can also elicit effects that cannot be exclusively explained by transcriptional changes. Similar to E2 and its receptors, P4 can initiate signaling at the cell membrane, both through progesterone receptor and via a host of newly discovered membrane receptors (e.g., membrane progesterone receptors, progesterone receptor membrane components. This review discusses the parallels between neurotransmitter-like E2 action and the more recently investigated non-classical P4 signaling, in the context of reproductive behaviors in the rodent.

  18. Characterization of progesterone loaded biodegradable blend polymeric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vitória Leimann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The encapsulation of progesterone in poly (hydroxybutirate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV, poly (ε-caprolactone (PCL, poly (L-lactic acid (PLLA nanoparticles and PHBV/PCL and PHBV/PLLA blend nanoparticles was investigated in this research. Nanoparticles were produced by miniemulsion/solvent evaporation technique with lecithin as surfactant and were characterized regarding to z-average diameter (Dz and polydispersity (PDI, progesterone recovery yield and encapsulation efficiency. Possible interactions between progesterone and the polymer matrices were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. High recoveries (up to 102.43±1.80% for the PHBV/PLLA blend and encapsulation efficiencies (up to 99.53±0.04% for PCL were achieved and the nanoparticles presented narrow size distribution (0.12±0.03 for PLLA. PCL nanoparticles (217.5±2.12nm presented significant difference with the Dz from all the other formulations (P<0.05. The most evident interaction between progesterone and the nanoparticles polymeric matrix was found to PHBV/PCL due to the increase in the intensity of the band located in 1631 cm-1.

  19. Characterization of the Ca2+ Channels Involved in the Progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is evidence that intracellular Ca2+ concentration plays significant roles in sperm function such as motility and acrosome reaction. Many calcium channels have been identified in the plasma membrane of sperm. Progesterone (P4) stimulates Ca2+ influx and acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. The effects of ...

  20. Progesterone supplementation and the prevention of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwitz, Errol R; Caughey, Aaron B

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth is currently the most important problem in maternal-child health in the United States and possibly throughout the world. It complicates one in eight US deliveries, and accounts for over 85% of all perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although survival of preterm infants has increased steadily over the past four decades-due in large part to the use of antenatal corticosteroids, improvements in neonatal resuscitation, and the introduction of neonatal intensive care units-efforts to prevent preterm birth have been largely unsuccessful. On February 3, 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of progesterone supplementation (hydroxyprogesterone caproate) during pregnancy to reduce the risk of recurrent preterm birth in women with a history of at least one prior spontaneous preterm delivery. This is the first time that the FDA has approved a medication for the prevention of preterm birth, and represents the first approval of a drug specifically for use in pregnancy in almost 15 years. This article reviews the evidence behind the use of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth, and provides guidelines for the use of progesterone supplementation in clinical practice. A number of areas of ongoing controversy are addressed, including the optimal formulation and route of administration, the safety of progesterone supplementation in pregnancy, and its proposed mode of action.

  1. Contraception with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical experience with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) at the family planning clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital st st between 1 of January 2004 and 31 of December 2013 is presented. This was a descriptive retrospective study aimed at establishing the acceptance, safety and ...

  2. Effect of Progesterone Therapy versus Diet Modification on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progesterone therapy) compared to Group A (diet modification) (54% [154/281] and 62.98% [177/281] vs. 89.76% [614/684] and 91.08% [623/684], respectively) (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Straining during defecation and manual maneuvers ...

  3. Metabolism of progesterone by human lymphocytes: production of neuroactive steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leb, C R; Hu, F Y; Murphy, B E

    1997-12-01

    Although it has long been recognized that lymphocytes have the capacity to reduce cortisol at the C3, C5, and C20 positions, the specificity and the physiological variation of these reactions have received little attention. We have shown that such reactions also occur with progesterone. Lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood using Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The cells were incubated for 20 h with tritiated progesterone as radioactive tracer. After extractions into ethyl acetate, the residue was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography, and the radioactivities of the separated compounds were determined. Without cells, 95-97% of the tracer added was recovered in the progesterone peak, while in the presence of 4 x 10(6) lymphocytes, this was reduced to 45-90%. The metabolites obtained included at least 10 different compounds, including those corresponding in their retention times to the neuroactive 5 alpha and 5 beta dihydroprogesterones and their 3 alpha- and 3 beta- tetrahydroprogesterone derivatives. The conversion decreased with the addition of other steroids such as testosterone, cortisol, and corticosterone, suggesting that these steroids are metabolized by the same enzymes. When the cells from two pregnant patients were combined and incubated with tracer, and with and without nonradioactive progesterone, no peaks were detected by two progesterone radioimmunoassays in the absence of added nonradioactive progesterone, while in its presence three peaks corresponding to 5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnane-20-dione and 3 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnane-20-dione eluted before the P peak. Their identities were confirmed using the two different progesterone radioassays that cross-reacted with these metabolites. The highest mean conversion (44.7% +/- 3.2 SE) was found with the lymphocytes of pregnant women and with that of one lactating woman (50%). Conversions by lymphocytes of women in the follicular phase (29

  4. 42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170 Public... Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a... amendment, or any portion of a proposed State plan or plan amendment, at any time during the review process...

  5. 76 FR 14592 - Safety Management System; Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...-06A] RIN 2120-AJ15 Safety Management System; Withdrawal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... (``product/ service providers'') to develop a Safety Management System (SMS). The FAA is withdrawing the... management with a set of robust decision-making tools to use to improve safety. The FAA received 89 comments...

  6. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Et, Tayfun; Topal, Ahmet; Erol, Atilla; Tavlan, Aybars; Kılıçaslan, Alper; Uzun, Sema Tuncer

    2015-04-01

    Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Animal experiment. This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26) were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7(th) day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6) received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05). No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  7. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Et

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26 were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7th day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6 received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Results: Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05. No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Conclusion: Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  8. Safety of oral dronabinol during opioid withdrawal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jicha, Crystal J; Lofwall, Michelle R; Nuzzo, Paul A; Babalonis, Shanna; Elayi, Samy Claude; Walsh, Sharon L

    2015-12-01

    Opioid dependence remains a significant public health problem worldwide with only three FDA-approved treatments, all targeting the mu-opioid receptor. Dronabinol, a cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptor agonist, is currently under investigation as a novel opioid withdrawal treatment. This study reports on safety outcomes of dronabinol among adults in opioid withdrawal. Twelve adults physically dependent on short-acting opioids participated in this 5-week within-subject, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled inpatient study. Volunteers were maintained on oral oxycodone 30 mg qid. Double-blind placebo substitutions occurred for 21 h before each of 7 experimental sessions in order to produce opioid withdrawal. A single oral test dose was administered each session (placebo, oxycodone 30 and 60 mg, dronabinol 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg [decreased from 40 mg]). Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory outcomes and pupil diameter were assessed repeatedly. Dronabinol 40 mg produced sustained sinus tachycardia accompanied by anxiety and panic necessitating dose reduction to 30 mg. Sinus tachycardia and anxiety also occurred in one volunteer after dronabinol 20mg. Compared to placebo, dronabinol 20 and 30 mg produced significant increases in heart rate beginning 1h after drug administration that lasted approximately 2h (popioid agonist effects (e.g., miosis). Dronabinol 20mg and higher increased heart rate among healthy adults at rest who were in a state of opioid withdrawal, raising concern about its safety. These results have important implications for future dosing strategies and may limit the utility of dronabinol as a treatment for opioid withdrawal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estrogen, progesterone, and genistein differentially regulate levels of expression of α-, β-, and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and α-sodium potassium pump (Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase) in the uteri of sex steroid-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinigarzadeh, Asma; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2015-10-01

    Estrogen, progesterone, and genistein could induce changes in uterine fluid volume and Na(+) concentration. Progesterone upregulates expression of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase which contributed toward these changes. However, effects of estrogen and genistein were unknown. This study therefore investigated changes in expression of these proteins in the uterus under estrogen, progesterone, and genistein influences to further understand mechanisms underlying sex steroids and phytoestrogen effects on uterine fluid Na(+) regulation. In this study, uteri of ovariectomized female rats receiving 7-day treatment with genistein (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen (0.8 × 10(-4) mg/kg/day), or progesterone (4 mg/kg/day) were harvested, and expression levels of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC proteins and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein were determined by Western blotting (proteins) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (mRNA). Meanwhile, distribution of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase proteins in the uterus was identified by immunohistochemistry. Our findings indicated that expression of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC proteins and mRNAs and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein were enhanced under progesterone influence. Lower expressions were noted under estrogen and genistein influences compared to progesterone. Under estrogen, progesterone, and genistein influences, α- and β-ENaC were distributed at apical membrane and γ-ENaC was distributed at apical and basolateral membranes of uterine luminal epithelia. Under progesterone influence, α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was highly expressed at basolateral membrane. In conclusion, high expression of α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and α-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase under progesterone influence would contribute toward increased uterine fluid Na(+) reabsorption, whereas lesser expression of these proteins under estrogen and genistein influences would contribute toward lower reabsorption of uterine fluid Na

  10. Love withdrawal is related to heightened processing of faces with emotional expressions and incongruent emotional feedback : Evidence from ERPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffmeijer, Renske; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.

    Parental use of love withdrawal is thought to affect children's later psychological functioning because it creates a link between children's performance and relational consequences. To investigate whether love withdrawal is also associated with the underlying level of basic information processing in

  11. Progesterone stimulates adipocyte determination and differentiation 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c gene expression. potential mechanism for the lipogenic effect of progesterone in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, D; Le Liepvre, X; Ferre, P; Dugail, I

    2001-04-13

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS), a nutritionally regulated lipogenic enzyme, is transcriptionally controlled by ADD1/SREBP1c (adipocyte determination and differentiation 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c), through insulin-mediated stimulation of ADD1/SREBP1c expression. Progesterone exerts lipogenic effects on adipocytes, and FAS is highly induced in breast tumor cell lines upon progesterone treatment. We show here that progesterone up-regulates ADD1/SREBP1c expression in the MCF7 breast cancer cell line and the primary cultured preadipocyte from rat parametrial adipose tissue. In MCF7, progesterone induced ADD1/SREBP1c and Metallothionein II (a well known progesterone-regulated gene) mRNAs, with comparable potency. In preadipocytes, progesterone increased ADD1/SREBP1c mRNA dose-dependently, but not SREBP1a or SREBP2. Run-on experiments demonstrated that progesterone action on ADD1/SREBP1c was primarily at the transcriptional level. The membrane-bound and mature nuclear forms of ADD1/SREBP1 protein accumulated in preadipocytes cultured with progesterone, and FAS induction could be abolished by adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a dominant negative form of ADD1/SREBP1 in these cells. Finally, in the presence of insulin, progesterone was unable to up-regulate ADD1/SREBP1c mRNA in preadipocytes, whereas its effect was restored after 24 h of insulin deprivation. Together these results demonstrate that ADD1/SREBP1c is controlled by progesterone, which, like insulin, acts by increasing ADD1/SREBP1c gene transcription. This provides a potential mechanism for the lipogenic actions of progesterone on adipose tissue.

  12. Socially Anxious Smokers Experience Greater Negative Affect and Withdrawal during Self-Quit Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Langdon, Kirsten J.; Jeffries, Emily R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to po...

  13. The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale development: patterns and predictors of cannabis withdrawal and distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J; Norberg, Melissa M; Copeland, Jan; Fu, Shanlin; Budney, Alan J

    2011-12-01

    Rates of treatment seeking for cannabis are increasing, and relapse is common. Management of cannabis withdrawal is an important intervention point. No psychometrically sound measure for cannabis withdrawal exists, and as a result treatment developments cannot be optimally targeted. The aim is to develop and test the psychometrics of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and use it to explore predictors of cannabis withdrawal. A volunteer sample of 49 dependent cannabis users provided daily scores on the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale during a baseline week and 2 weeks of abstinence. Internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.91), test-retest stability (average intra-class correlation=0.95) and content validity analysis show that the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale has excellent psychometric properties. Nightmares and/or strange dreams was the most valid item (Wald χ²=105.6, Psleep was also an intense withdrawal symptom (Wald χ²=42.31, Pcannabis withdrawal. The Cannabis Withdrawal Scale can be used as a diagnostic instrument in clinical and research settings where regular monitoring of withdrawal symptoms is required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  15. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  16. Progesterone for Symptomatic Perimenopause Treatment - Progesterone politics, physiology and potential for perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, J C

    2011-01-01

    Perimenopause, women's normal midlife reproductive transition, is highly symptomatic for about 20% of women who are currently inaccurately counseled and inappropriately treated with oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy or hysterectomy. About 80% of perimenopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms (VMS), 25% have menorrhagia, and about 10% experience mastalgia. The majority of women describe varying intensities of sleep, -coping or mood difficulties. Women are more symptomatic because common knowledge inaccurately says that estradiol (E2) levels are dropping/deficient. Evidence shows that with disturbed brain-ovary feedbacks, E2 levels average 26% higher and soar erratically - some women describe feeling pregnant! Also, ovulation and progesterone (P4) levels become insufficient or absent. The most symptomatic women have higher E2 and lower P4 levels. Because P4 and E2 complement/counterbalance each other's tissue effects, oral micronized P4 (OMP4 300 mg at -bedtime) is a physiological therapy for treatment-seeking, symptomatic perimenopausal women. Given cyclically (cycle d 14-27, or 14 on/off) in menstruating midlife women, OMP4 decreases cyclic VMS, improves sleep and premenstrual mastalgia. Menorrhagia is treated with ibuprofen 200mg/6h plus OMP4 cycle d 4-28. For insulin resistance, metformin plus cyclic or daily OMP4 decreases insulin resistance and weight gain. Non-responsive migraines need daily OMP4 plus usual therapies. VMS and insomnia in late perimenopause respond to daily OMP4. In summary, OMP4 is a physiology-based therapy that improves sleep, treats VMS, does not increase breast proliferation or cancer risk, increases bone formation and has beneficial cardiovascular effects. A controlled trial is testing OMP4 for perimenopausal VMS - more evidence-based data are needed.

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinisch, June M.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A.

    2017-01-01

    and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case–control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; MW: 314.46) and no other hormonal......Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males...... preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual...

  18. Long-term effects of prenatal progesterone exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Cathrine; Larsen, Helle; Holmskov, Anni

    2016-01-01

    was evaluated by the parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at either 48 or 60 months after the estimated date of delivery. We used the method of generalized estimating equation to account for the correlation within twins. RESULTS: A total of 492 children had been exposed prenatally......OBJECTIVES: To perform a neurophysiological follow-up at 48 or 60 months of age in children exposed prenatally to progesterone compared with a placebo and evaluate their medical histories up to 8 years of age. METHODS: In this study, Danish participants of the PREDICT study, including 989 surviving...... children from 498 twin pregnancies, were followed-up. PREDICT was a placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial examining the effect of progesterone for prevention of preterm delivery in unselected twin pregnancies. Medical histories of the children were reviewed and neurophysiological development...

  19. Nonenzymatic electrochemical sensor based on imidazole-functionalized graphene oxide for progesterone detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaerd, Ava; Blaskievicz, Sirlon F; Zarbin, Aldo J G; Orth, Elisa S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H

    2018-04-21

    The modification of electrode surfaces has been the target of study for many researchers in order to improve the analytical performance of electrochemical sensors. Herein, the use of an imidazole-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-IMZ) as an artificial enzymatic active site for voltammetric determination of progesterone (P4) is described for the first time. The morphology and electrochemical performance of electrode modified with GO-IMZ were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the proposed sensor showed a synergistic effect of the GO sheets and the imidazole groups anchored on its backbone, which promoted a significant enhancement on electrochemical reduction of P4. Figures of merits such as linear dynamic response for P4 concentration ranging from 0.22 to 14.0 μmol L -1 , limit of detection of 68 nmol L -1 and limit of quantification and 210 nmol L -1 were found. In addition, presented a higher sensitivity, 426 nA L µmol -1 , when compared to the unmodified electrode. Overall, the proposed device showed to be a promising platform for a simple, rapid, and direct analysis of progesterone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Something old, something new: a successful case of meprobamate withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alexander Owen; Nicholson, Timothy R; Hill, Robert; Bearn, Jennifer

    2016-02-29

    Meprobamate, a benzodiazepine-like drug, was commonly prescribed for anxiety in the 1960s and 1970s, but fell out of favour, at least in part, due to the risk of dependence, for which there is little published evidence to guide clinical management. We discuss a 70-year-old man with a 45-year history of meprobamate dependency and multiple failed previous withdrawal attempts who was successfully withdrawn from meprobamate using diazepam during a 2-week inpatient stay on a specialist Addictions ward. An appropriate diazepam dose was established using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment scale for benzodiazepines (CIWA-B). This dose was then slowly reduced over 12 days. Multidisciplinary input, especially psychological therapy tackling his underlying anxiety disorder during his admission, was thought to be particularly helpful. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnant cows, correctly classifying 98,0% of all cases (98,9% of pregnant cows and 97,1% of non-pregnant cows), when the discriminating level for progesterone was set at 5 ng/ml milk. At the same level of progeste- rone this function correctly classified 94,4% of all cases belonging to a different sample of dairy cows. This.

  2. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K. (GSKPA)

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  3. Progesterone and the Latency Period: Threatened Preterm Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Borna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm labor is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality and results in increased obstetric and pediatric care costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of vaginal progesterone for maintenance therapy following treatment of threatened preterm labor for preventing preterm birth.Methods: The study included 70 singleton pregnant women with preterm labor with intact membranes. Patients were randomized to receive either maintenance vaginal progesterone therapy (n=37 administered (400 mg daily or no treatment (controls, n=33 after discontinuation of acute intravenous tocolysis.Results: The two groups were similar with at respect to maternal age, race, parity, gestational age at admission, bishop score, and preterm delivery risk factors .Compared to the control group, the mean ±SD time gained from initiation of maintenance therapy to delivery (36/1117/9 versus 24/5227/2 (meanSD days, p=0.037 and the gestational age at delivery (36.071.56 vs. 34.51.3 weeks, p=0.041 were higher in the vaginal progesterone maintenance therapy group. No significant differences were found with recurrent preterm labor 13 (35.1% versus 19 (57.6%, p=0.092. Respiratory distress syndrome 4 (10.8% versus 12 (36.4% p=0.021, Low birth weight10 (27% versus, 17 (51.5% p=0.04, birth weight (3101.54±587.9gr versus r 2609.39±662.9gr, p=0.002 were significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: The gestational age and time gained from initiation of maintenance therapy to delivery were longer in women receiving vaginal maintenance tocolysis with progesterone and improve perinatal outcomes. However, maintenance therapy did not decrease the recurrence of preterm labor episodes.

  4. Progesterone transfer among cohabitating female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greville, Lucas J; Pollock, Tyler; Salter, Joseph C; Faure, Paul A; deCatanzaro, Denys

    2017-06-01

    Experiments using female mice and bats have demonstrated that tritium-labeled 17β-estradiol ( 3 H-E 2 ) can be absorbed via cutaneous and intranasal routes and distributed to reproductive and neural tissues. Radioactivity has also been measured in tissues of untreated females after 48h cohabitation with 3 H-E 2 injected males. The present study was designed to quantify steroid transfer among female bats. Radioactive quantification via liquid scintillation counting revealed absorption of tritium-labeled progesterone ( 3 H-P 4 ) in adult females 1h after cutaneous and intranasal application (10μCi). Subsequently, pairs of mature females were each housed for 48h with a single mature female that had been administered 3 H-P 4 (50μCi) via intraperitoneal injection. Radioactivity was observed in all collected tissues of all non-injected females at levels significantly greater than the control group. Following the same paradigm, radioactivity was not observed in the tissues of untreated female bats that were housed with stimulus females treated with 3 H-E 2 (50μCi). Enzyme immunoassays revealed measurable levels of unconjugated progesterone and estradiol in the urine of female bats, suggesting urine as a vector for steroid transfer. Given that bats of this species live in predominantly female roosts in very close contact, progesterone transfer among individuals is likely to occur in natural roosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antagonist-precipitated opioid withdrawal in rats: evidence for dissociations between physical and motivational signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, G A; Sellers, E M

    1994-05-01

    In rats made opioid dependent by the implantation of a single morphine 75 mg base pellet, an attempt was made to determine whether any correlational existed between physical and motivational withdrawal signs by adjusting the dose of naloxone used to precipitate withdrawal. The models used to study motivational signs were taste (one- and two-bottle) conditioning and operant responding for food under an FR15 schedule of reinforcement. Naloxone at doses of 0.01 mg/kg and above produced both a conditioned taste aversion (two-bottle test only) and reduced food responding in morphine pellet, but not placebo pellet, implanted animals. No physical withdrawal signs, e.g., wet dog shakes, diarrhoea, were noted until naloxone doses of 0.05 mg/kg and above were used. It is concluded that the difference in naloxone doses required to elicit physical and motivational withdrawal components provides further support for their dissociation.

  6. Predictive value of serum progesterone level on β-hCG check day in women with previous repeated miscarriages after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jin; Shin, Jung Ho; Hur, Jun Yong; Kim, Hoon; Ku, Seung-Yup; Suh, Chang Suk

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of the progesterone level at the beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) check day for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in women with previous unexplained repeated miscarriages. One hundred and forty-eight women, with visible gestational sac after IVF, were recruited in this observational study. All subjects had unexplained recurrent miscarriages in more than two previous IVF cycles. The progesterone level at the β-hCG check day (i.e. 14 days after oocyte retrieval) was assessed. The area under the curve (AUC) of the progesterone level was evaluated to predict the ongoing pregnancy or miscarriage outcomes. The overall ongoing pregnancy rate was 60.8% (90/148). The cut-off value with β-hCG levels higher than 126.5 mIU/mL and with progesterone levels higher than 25.2 ng/mL could be the predictive factors for ongoing pregnancy maintenance (AUC = 0.788 and 0.826; sensitivity = 0.788 and 0.723; specificity = 0.689 and 0.833; P hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and 13.0% (10/77) in those with > 25.2 ng/mL. In the comparison of the ROC curves between both values, a similar significance was found. The subjects with β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL showed higher ongoing pregnancy rates [98.0% (49/50) vs. 41.8% (41/98)] than those with β-hCG ≤ 126.5 mIU/mL or progesterone ≤ 25.2 ng/mL. The progesterone level at 14 days after oocyte retrieval can be a good predictive marker for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in women with repeated IVF failure with miscarriage, together with the β-hCG level. The combined cut-off value of progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL and β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL may suggest a good prognosis.

  7. Progesterone inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H van der Horst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Every year approximately 74,000 women die of endometrial cancer, mainly due to recurrent or metastatic disease. The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs as well as progesterone receptor (PR positivity has been correlated with improved prognosis. This study describes two mechanisms by which progesterone inhibits metastatic spread of endometrial cancer: by stimulating T-cell infiltration and by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paraffin sections from patients with (n = 9 or without (n = 9 progressive endometrial cancer (recurrent or metastatic disease were assessed for the presence of CD4+ (helper, CD8+ (cytotoxic and Foxp3+ (regulatory T-lymphocytes and PR expression. Progressive disease was observed to be associated with significant loss of TILs and loss of PR expression. Frozen tumor samples, used for genome-wide expression analysis, showed significant regulation of pathways involved in immunesurveillance, EMT and metastasis. For a number of genes, such as CXCL14, DKK1, DKK4, PEG10 and WIF1, quantitive RT-PCR was performed to verify up- or downregulation in progressive disease. To corroborate the role of progesterone in regulating invasion, Ishikawa (IK endometrial cancer cell lines stably transfected with PRA (IKPRA, PRB (IKPRB and PRA+PRB (IKPRAB were cultured in presence/absence of progesterone (MPA and used for genome-wide expression analysis, Boyden- and wound healing migration assays, and IHC for known EMT markers. IKPRB and IKPRAB cell lines showed MPA induced inhibition of migration and loss of the mesenchymal marker vimentin at the invasive front of the wound healing assay. Furthermore, pathway analysis of significantly MPA regulated genes showed significant down regulation of important pathways involved in EMT, immunesuppression and metastasis: such as IL6-, TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. CONCLUSION: Intact progesterone signaling in non

  8. 19 CFR 144.38 - Withdrawal for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for consumption. 144.38 Section 144.38... Withdrawal for consumption. (a) Form. Withdrawals for consumption of merchandise in bonded warehouses shall... considered a withdrawal for consumption pursuant to § 181.53 of this chapter. (c) Information to be shown on...

  9. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the time...

  10. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time within...

  11. The cytoplasmic 60 kDa progesterone receptor isoform predominates in the human amniochorion and placenta at term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Stephen C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism that initiates human parturition has been proposed to be 'functional progesterone withdrawal' whereby the 116 kDa B-isoform of the progesterone receptor (PR-B switches in favour of the 94 kDa A-isoform (PR-A in reproductive tissues. Recently, other PR isoforms, PR-S, PR-C and PR-M generated from the same gene have been identified and partially characterised. Methods and Results Using immunohistochemical, western blotting and RT-PCR techniques, evidence is provided that indicates the major PR isoform present in human term fetal membranes (amnion and chorion and syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta is neither of the classical nuclear PR-B or PR-A isoforms but is the N-terminally truncated 60 kDa PR-C isoform. Evidence is also provided that this 60 kDa isoform resides in the cytoplasm of the expressing cell types. Data are also presented to show that PR-B, PR-A and PR-S isoforms are essentially absent from the amnion and chorion, whereas PR isoforms A, B, C and S are all present in the decidua, with PR-A being the major isoform. The syncytiotrophoblast of the placenta contains the cytoplasmic 60 kDa isoform, but not isoforms PR-A, PR-B or PR-S. Conclusion The major PR isoform in the amnion, chorion and placenta is a 60 kDa protein that could be PR-C, suggesting that the cytoplasmic isoform has a specific role in extra-embryonic tissues and may be involved in the regulation of human parturition.

  12. Neural effects of positive and negative incentives during marijuana withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Filbey

    Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.

  13. Production of progesterone antibodies and their use in studying reproductive functions in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seren, E.; Bacci, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of antisera raised in six rabbits by immunization with progesterone-3-0-carboxymethyloxime-BSA are described. The performance of a progesterone RIA involving the use of the best antiserum is described. This progesterone RIA, carried out in sheep and goat plasma samples collected throughout the different stages of the reproductive life cycle turned out to be a reliable method to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Enhancing of progesterone transformation by cochliobolus spicifer fungus using different environmental conditions and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, L.A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Five isolates belonging to five species of the genus Cochliobolus were tested for their ability to transform progesterone. Two species namely C. australiensis and C. tuberculates failed to transform progesterone, C. pallescens produced 11B-hydroxy and 6 (3, 11a-dihydroxy progesterone, while the isolate of C. lunatus produced 11B-hydroxy and 17a-hydroxy progesterone. The isolate of C. spicifer produced four mono hydroxylated products (11a-, 11B- -17a dihydroxy progesterone and dihydro-xylated product 11 a, 17a-dihydroxy progesterone) with the addition of two trihydroxy products namely 11 a, 17a,21-trihydroxy progesterone (epicortisol) and 11/3, 17a, 21-trihydroxy progesterone (cortisol). The transformation pattern of progesterone by C. spicifer was markedly affected by the composition of culture medium, pH value of culture medium and gamma irradiation of the tested isolate. The different transformation products were resolved chromatographically. The identity of each product was established through the determination of m.p, optical rotation and ultraviolet as well as infrared absorption spectra. A comparison of the Rf -values of each product with that of the corresponding reference, using different solvent systems as well as their colours with two spray reagents, was used as a further proof for the identity of the isolated products

  15. The multifaceted nature of access to compounded progesterone: a cross-sectional study from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spark, M Joy; Willis, Jon; Byrne, Graeme; Iacono, Teresa

    2014-02-01

    To explore the influences on accessibility of compounded progesterone therapy for Australian women. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified sample of Australian women who use progesterone only products using the 'Perspectives on Progesterone' questionnaire. Principle components analysis (PCA) to determine components of access to progesterone treatment and multi-way analysis of variance to compare groups. Women using compounded progesterone were likely to have made at least one lifestyle adaptation (73%), and to have tried and stopped using at least one complementary and alternative medicine therapy (63%) or conventional hormone therapy (41%). PCA revealed six components of access to progesterone treatment: affordable, values natural treatments and is concerned about other treatments, conventionally available, perceived knowledge, values information gathered from a variety of sources, and rural & disadvantaged. The multifaceted nature of progesterone use illustrates that there are multiple aspects to use of non-conventional medicines. Women looking for non-conventional treatment are neither stupid nor uninformed, their understandings, based on experience and research, need to be addressed by health professionals while assessing their condition prior to discussing the risks and benefits of non-conventional medicines. Access to compounded progesterone is multifaceted, and many of the women who use it have tried other treatments first. Despite the clinical ambivalence towards progesterone as an alternative for women who may have tried and rejected other treatments, including conventional hormone therapy, the women described in this paper are using it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An electrochemical immunosensor for detecting progesterone in milk from dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ling; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Xu, Chuang; Zhang, Hongyou

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an electrochemical immunosensor for milk progesterone produced by dairy cows was developed. Using the immunosensor, milk progesterone levels in healthy estrus dairy cows was found to range from 1 to 6 ng/mL 20 days after estrus. There were high levels of progesterone in the milk from cows with prolonged luteal phase and luteal cysts, which ranged from 15 to 28 and 19 to 29 ng/mL, respectively. Cows with inactive ovaries also showed low milk progesterone levels of 1-8 ng/mL, but...

  17. Sample preparation for measuring cow's progesterone in radioimmunoassay technique application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuning Duria; Budi Santoso; Nuniek Lelananingtiyas; Wiranto Budi Santoso

    2010-01-01

    Sample preparation for measuring cow's progesterone in radioimmunoassay technique application has been done. Preparation includes the preparation of samples of cow's milk samples that has been carried out artificial insemination on day 0, 11 and 21. Then the standard making of progesterone in the form of fresh milk or skim milk (non fat) that has been removed its progesterone and through a series of chemical processes. The last is the preparation work on samples using the RIA kit I 125 . With this milk samples preparation, samples can be counted using RIA counter so that concentration of progesterone hormone can be determined accurately. (author)

  18. The Role of Progesterone and a Novel Progesterone Receptor, Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1, in the Inflammatory Response of Fetal Membranes to Ureaplasma parvum Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Feng

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma parvum (U. parvum is gaining recognition as an important pathogen for chorioamnionitis and preterm premature rupture of membranes. We aimed to investigate the roles of progesterone (P4 and a novel progesterone receptor, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, in the response of fetal membranes to U. parvum. Fetal membrane cells (amnion, chorion and decidua were isolated and confirmed to be free of Mycoplasmataceae. Cells were treated with U. parvum (5x106 CFU, and adherence was quantified by qPCR. Amnion and chorion cells were transfected with scrambled siRNA or validated PGRMC1 siRNA for 72h. Cells were then treated with U. parvum for 4h with or without pretreatment with P4 (10-7 M or ethanol for 1h. Interleukin-8 (IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 mRNA expression were quantified by qRT-PCR. Culture medium was harvested and analyzed for IL-8 and prostaglandin (PGE2 secretion by ELISA and MMP9 activity by zymography. U. parvum had a mean adherence of 15.0±0.6%, 16.9± 3.7% and 4.7±0.3% in cultured amnion, chorion and decidua cells, respectively. Exposure to U. parvum elicited significant inflammatory responses including induction of IL-8, COX-2, PGE2 and MMP9. A possible role of PGRMC1 was identified in the inhibition of U. parvum-stimulated COX-2 and MMP9 mRNA expression in chorion cells and MMP9 activity in amnion cells. On the other hand, it might enhance the U. parvum-stimulated IL-8 protein secretion in amnion cells. P4, mediated through PGRMC1, significantly inhibited U. Parvum-induced MMP9 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA expression in chorion cells. P4 appeared to attenuate U. parvum induced IL-8 mRNA expression in chorion cells, but this P4 effect might not mediated through PGRMC1. In summary, U. parvum preferentially adheres to and induces inflammatory responses in chorion and amnion cells. P4 and PGRMC1 appear to differentially modulate the inflammatory responses induced by U. parvum among

  19. USA Withdrawal from Paris Agreement – What Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Chestnoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In June 2017, President Trump announced the USA’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord, which had been ratified for less than a year, thanks in large part to the USA. That drastic shift followed the change in residency at the White House. Withdrawing from the Paris Accord presents an interesting topic for analysis. There’s the practical side of the withdrawal procedure as set out in Article 28 of the agreement, not to mention the consequences of US non-participation in addressing international climate issues. There are other international forums (Such as G8 and G20, which also have an interest in climate related topics. The Article analyses the U.S. position in negotiations and its commitments assumed the moment the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC came into effect until now: the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, financial aid and reporting. It also provides general analysis of national legal obligations under the Paris Accord, ratification of that agreement in general and in particularly another that took place in the USA, it focuses on the specifics of withdrawal. The specified three-year period from the Agreement becoming active, after which any party may withdraw from it (2019, is a noteworthy detail. It is well-known that the Paris Agreement provides a framework that does not impose individual national commitments or a commitment to a compliance system. In essence, and from a legal point of view, it is nonbinding. This was what allowed the USA to accept the terms of the accord relatively quickly and to use the simplified procedure, which by-passed Congress. In the opinion of the authors, President Trump’s resolution to withdraw should, possibly, be considered as a simple continuation of his election discourse and the fulfilment of a campaign promise. Additionally, President Trump’s declared intent to review the Paris Accord has legal grounds on which to launch further international negotiations

  20. Determination of withdrawal resistance of staple joints constructed with various members of upholstered furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid Kazemi Najafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of joints members type (oriented strand lumber, plywood and poplar wood (Populusdeltoides, penetration deeps of staple (12 and 17mm and adhesives (with and without adhesive on face and edge withdrawal resistance of joints fabricated with staple. Experimental specimens under withdrawal load test of face and edge consisted of two principal structural members, main member and a secondary member which were joined together by one staple. The results showed that joint member, penetration deeps and adhesive significantly influence on the withdrawal resistance. Staple withdrawal resistance in the face was higher than that in the edge. Staple holding resistance increased with the increase of penetration deep and the withdrawal resistance of joints fabricated by adhesive was higher than those without adhesive. The joints made by oriented strand lumber exhibited better performance than other two members and joints made with poplar wood had higher resistance than plywood joints. The highest face (2326N and edge (1265N withdrawal resistances were obtained from joints prepared from oriented strand lumber with adhesive and17mm penetration deeps.

  1. U.S. withdrawal from the Paris Agreement: Reasons, impacts, and China's response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bin Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying qualitative and quantitative methods, this article explains the driving forces behind U.S. President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, assesses the impacts of this withdrawal on the compliance prospects of the agreement, and proposes how China should respond. The withdrawal undercuts the foundation of global climate governance and upsets the process of climate cooperation, and the impacts are manifold. The withdrawal undermines the universality of the Paris Agreement and impairs states' confidence in climate cooperation; it aggravates the leadership deficit in addressing global climate issues and sets a bad precedent for international climate cooperation. The withdrawal reduces other countries' emission space and raises their emission costs, and refusal to contribute to climate aid makes it more difficult for developing countries to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Cutting climate research funding will compromise the quality of future IPCC reports and ultimately undermine the scientific authority of future climate negotiations. China faces mounting pressure from the international community to assume global climate leadership after the U.S. withdraws, and this article proposes that China should reach the high ends of its domestic climate targets under the current Nationally Determined Contributions; internationally, China should facilitate the rebuilding of shared climate leadership, replacing the G2 with C5. Meanwhile, China needs to keep the U.S. engaged in climate cooperation.

  2. Control rod excess withdrawal prevention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Yoshihito.

    1992-01-01

    Excess withdrawal of a control rod of a BWR type reactor is prevented. That is, the device comprises (1) a speed detector for detecting the driving speed of a control rod, (2) a judging circuit for outputting an abnormal signal if the driving speed is greater than a predetermined level and (3) a direction control valve compulsory closing circuit for controlling the driving direction of inserting and withdrawing a control rod based on an abnormal signal. With such a constitution, when the with drawing speed of a control rod is greater than a predetermined level, it is detected by the speed detector and the judging circuit. Then, all of the direction control valve are closed by way of the direction control valve compulsory closing circuit. As a result, the operation of the control rod is stopped compulsorily and the withdrawing speed of the control rod can be lowered to a speed corresponding to that upon gravitational withdrawal. Accordingly, excess withdrawal can be prevented. (I.S)

  3. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  4. The T47D cell line is an ideal experimental model to elucidate the progesterone-specific effects of a luminal A subtype of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sungryul; Kim, Taemook; Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Kang, Keunsoo

    2017-05-06

    Cell lines are often used as in vitro tools to mimic certain types of in vivo system; several cell lines, including MCF-7 and T47D, have been widely used in breast cancer studies without investigating the cell lines' characteristics. In this study, we compared the genome-wide binding profiles of ERα, PR, and P300, and the gene expression changes between MCF-7 and T47D cell lines that represent the luminal A subtype of breast cancer. Surprisingly, several thousand genes were differentially expressed under estrogenic condition. In addition, ERα, PR, and P300 binding to regulatory elements showed distinct genomic landscapes between MCF-7 and T47D cell lines in the same hormonal states. In particular, the T47D cell line was markedly susceptible to progesterone, whereas the MCF-7 cell line did not respond to progesterone in the presence of estrogen. Consistently, changes in the expression level of the PR-target gene, STAT5A, were only observed in the T47D cell line, not the MCF-7 cell line, when treated with progesterone. Overall, the results highlight the importance of selecting appropriate cell lines for breast cancer studies and suggest that T47D cell lines can be an ideal experimental model to elucidate the progesterone-specific effects of a luminal A subtype of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C

    2017-09-06

    Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol decreases somatic and motivational manifestations of nicotine withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balerio, Graciela N; Aso, Ester; Berrendero, Fernando; Murtra, Patricia; Maldonado, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    The possible interactions between Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) and nicotine remain unclear in spite of the current association of cannabis and tobacco in humans. The aim of the present study was to explore the interactions between these two drugs of abuse by evaluating the consequences of Delta9-THC administration on the somatic manifestations and the aversive motivational state associated with nicotine withdrawal in mice. Acute Delta9-THC administration significantly decreased the incidence of several nicotine withdrawal signs precipitated by mecamylamine or naloxone, such as wet-dog-shakes, paw tremor and scratches. In both experimental conditions, the global withdrawal score was also significantly attenuated by acute Delta9-THC administration. This effect of Delta9-THC was not due to possible adaptive changes induced by chronic nicotine on CB1 cannabinoid receptors, as the density and functional activity of these receptors were not modified by chronic nicotine administration in the different brain structures investigated. We also evaluated the consequences of Delta9-THC administration on c-Fos expression in several brain structures after chronic nicotine administration and withdrawal. c-Fos was decreased in the caudate putamen and the dentate gyrus after mecamylamine precipitated nicotine withdrawal. However, acute Delta9-THC administration did not modify c-Fos expression under these experimental conditions. Finally, Delta9-THC also reversed conditioned place aversion associated to naloxone precipitated nicotine withdrawal. Taken together, these results indicate that Delta9-THC administration attenuated somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal and this effect was not associated with compensatory changes on CB1 cannabinoid receptors during chronic nicotine administration. In addition, Delta9-THC also ameliorated the aversive motivational consequences of nicotine withdrawal.

  7. The reproductive performance in female Damascus goats using progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Al-Masri, M. R.

    1998-12-01

    An experiment was conducted on Damascus goats' female kids and does to study the reproductive performance by identifying some reproductive parameters such as age and weight at puberty, start of the breeding season, duration of pregnancy and other related parameters. The above objectives were met by means of the measurement of progesterone levels in blood sera using radioimmunoassay. The results could be summarized as follows: 1- Average weight of female kids at age of 7-8 months was 30.2 kg, at puberty was 35.6 ky and at mating was 41.6 kg. 2- There were individual differences in the age at puberty ranging from 266 to 653 days. 3- At age of 7-8 months, progesterone level was 0 n mol/1 in 8, and 0.1 and 0.2 n mol/1 in the 2 remaining female kids. This level increased to an average of 6.81 n mol/1 at puberty. 4- Average duration of pregnancy was 149.0 days, overall kids' birth weight was 3.73 kg, for singles was 4.43 kg, whereas for twins was 3.21 kg, for the kids produced by the female kids. Average kids' birth weight produced by the does was: overall 4.63 kg, singles 4.02 kg and for twins was. 4.18 kg. 5- Average progesterone e level on day 21 post-mating was 23.02 n mol/1. Therefore, the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. 6- The breeding season for the experimental does started in September. (author)

  8. Totally implantable port management: impact of positive pressure during needle withdrawal on catheter tip occlusion (an experimental study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapalu, Jordane; Losser, Marie-Reine; Albert, Odile; Levert, Albert; Villiers, Stéphane; Faure, Pierre; Douard, Marie-Cécile

    2010-01-01

    Totally implanted ports (TIP) have become a standard part of patient care, providing long-term central venous access for treatment administration and other procedures. Despite overall the safety and effectiveness of TIP, complications still occur. Negative pressure created during needle withdrawal induces blood reflux and subsequent catheter occlusion. Application of positive pressure during needle withdrawal is thought to largely prevent such reflux, but supporting data are limited. To quantify the role of positive pressure, using a test model designed to simulate physiological conditions. Reflux associated with needle withdrawal with and without applied positive pressure was tested using various TIP models from different manufacturers mounted on a specially designed test bench. In addition to the presence or absence of positive pressure during needle withdrawal, study variables comprised of needle type (safety and standard), needle gauge and port septum diameter. Application of positive pressure during needle withdrawal reduced the incidence of reflux during needle withdrawal by nearly 80% (22% vs. 99%, ppressure. In the absence of positive pressure, mean reflux increased with septum diameter and needle gauge to a statistically significant extent. None of these variables significantly affected reflux in the context of needle withdrawal under positive pressure. The results of this study support the use of positive pressure during needle withdrawal to prevent blood reflux potentially leading to catheter tip occlusion.

  9. Modelling Withdrawal and Persistence for Initial Teacher Training: Revising Tinto's Longitudinal Model of Departure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical model to explain trainee withdrawal and persistence within higher education (HE) based initial teacher training (ITT). Within ITT, attrition and persistence are under-researched and under-theorised, thus providing the rationale for this study. Within HE more broadly, a number of models have been proposed, most…

  10. 27 CFR 19.531 - Authorized withdrawals without payment of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tax. Spirits may be withdrawn from bonded premises, without payment of tax for: (a) Export, as... scientific research for experimental or research use as authorized under 26 U.S.C. 5312(a); (h) Research, development or testing, as authorized under 26 U.S.C. 5214(a)(10). The withdrawal of spirits as provided in...

  11. 77 FR 53906 - Notice of Proposed Withdrawal and Opportunity for Public Meeting; California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... from mining while various studies and analyses are made to support a final decision on the withdrawal... acres of public lands from location and entry under the United States mining laws for a period of 20..., the lands will be segregated from location and entry under the United States mining laws, but not from...

  12. Mechanisms of Withdrawal-Associated Increases in Heroin Self-Administration: Pharmacologic Modulation of Heroin vs. Food Choice in Heroin-Dependent Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Negus, S. Stevens; Rice, Kenner C.

    2008-01-01

    Opioid withdrawal can produce a constellation of physiological and behavioral signs, including an increase in opioid self-administration. Different mechanisms mediate different withdrawal signs, and the present study used pharmacologic tools to assess mechanisms underlying withdrawal-associated increases in opioid reinforcement. Five rhesus monkeys were rendered heroin dependent via daily 21-hr heroin self-administration sessions. One hr after each heroin self-administration session, monkeys ...

  13. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakumari K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample and luteal (3 samples phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r. The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml. A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01 and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05 concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001 was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration (16.97 ng/ml in PCOS women treated with metformin. The results suggest that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance may be responsible for low progesterone levels during the luteal phase in PCOS. The luteal progesterone level may be enhanced in PCOS by decreasing insulin secretion with metformin.

  14. Progesterone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone interact and promote goat preantral follicles survival and development in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel B. Lima-Verde

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of progesterone and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH on survival and growth of caprine preantral follicles. Pieces of ovarian tissue were cultured for 1 or 7 days in minimum essential medium (MEM alone or containing progesterone (1, 2.5, 5, 10 or 20ng/mL, FSH (50ng/mL or the interaction between progesterone and FSH. Fresh (non-cultured control and cultured ovarian tissues were processed for histological and ultrastructural studies. After 7 days the addition of FSH to all progesterone concentrations maintained the percentage of normal follicles similar to fresh control. At day 7 of culture, a higher percentage of developing follicles was observed only in 2.5ng/ml of progesterone associated with FSH or 10ng/ml of progesterone alone when compared with control. From day 1 to day 7 of culture, a significant increase in the percentage of developing follicles was observed in MEM and 2.5ng/ml of progesterone + FSH. In addition, after 7 days, in all treatments, there was a significant increase in follicular diameter when compared with control, except for MEM alone and in 5ng/ml of progesterone + FSH or 10ng/ml of progesterone alone. Ultrastructural studies confirmed follicular integrity after 7 days of culture in 2.5ng/ml of progesterone with FSH. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the interaction between progesterone and FSH maintains ultrastructural integrity, stimulates primordial follicles activation and further growth of cultured caprine preantral follicles.

  15. Vaginal micronized progesterone and risk of preterm delivery in high-risk twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, K; Rode, L; Nicolaides, K H

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Progesterone treatment reduces the risk of preterm delivery in high-risk singleton pregnancies. Our aim was to evaluate the preventive effect of vaginal progesterone in high-risk twins. METHODS: This was a subanalysis of a Danish-Austrian, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized...

  16. Progesterone-specific stimulation of triglyceride biosynthesis in a breast cancer cell line (T-47D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Chatterton, R.T. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the lactogenic response of human mammary cancer cell lines to hormones in vitro. Progesterone was found to stimulate the incorporation of 14C from [14C]acetate into triglycerides (TG) and to promote accumulation of TG with a fatty acid composition similar to that of human milk fat in T-47D cells. Lipid droplets were observed in larger numbers without concomitant accumulation of casein granules in cells incubated with progesterone, but secretion of lipid into the medium did not occur. An effect of progesterone on TG accumulation was detectable after 12 hr and was maximal at 72 hr. Increasing doses of progesterone (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) caused a progressive increase in TG accumulation. The presence of cortisol and/or prolactin did not alter TG formation nor the dose response of the cells to progesterone. The growth rate of T-47D cells was not altered by the presence of progesterone in the medium. Neither of the human mammary cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and HBL-100, nor the human fibroblast cell lines, 28 and 857, responded to progesterone. The data indicate that, while the normally lactogenic hormones do not stimulate milk product biosynthesis in the cell lines tested, progesterone specifically stimulated synthesis and accumulation of TG in the T-47D cells

  17. Systematic review of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Andersson, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A Cochrane review in 2006 concluded that further knowledge is required before recommendation can be made with regard to progesterone in the prevention of preterm birth. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the preventive effect of progesterone on preterm birth in singleton pregnancies. ...

  18. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...

  19. FAILURE OF PROGESTERONE TO PRODUCE HIGH BLOOD-PRESSURE IN RABBITS AND RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.; Veldhuyzen, B.; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    1972-01-01

    Contrary to earlier claims, daily Summary administration of 50 mg. progesterone over ten days did not increase the blood-pressure of 6 rabbits. Daily injection of 10 mg. progesterone had no influence on the blood-pressure of rats. The weight-gain of female rats was significantly increased by this

  20. Development of a competitive lateral flow immunoassay for progesterone : influence of coating conjugates and buffer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A.; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    2008-01-01

    Several aspects of the development of competitive lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are described. The quantitation of progesterone is taken as an example. The LFIA format consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane spotted with various progesterone conjugates as the test line. A mixture of primary

  1. Development of a competitive lateral flow immunoassay for progesterone: influence of coating conjugates and buffer components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Korf, J.; Amerongen, van A.

    2008-01-01

    Several aspects of the development of competitive lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are described. The quantitation of progesterone is taken as an example. The LFIA format consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane spotted with various progesterone conjugates as the test line. A mixture of primary

  2. Stress-induced increases in progesterone and cortisol in naturally cycling women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ycaza Herrera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies with animals of both sexes show that the adrenal glands release progesterone in addition to cortisol in response to stress. However, little is known about the progesterone response to stress in naturally cycling women. We investigated the effect of stress on estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol levels in women during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. We found that physical stress (the cold pressor test had no effect on estradiol levels, but increased progesterone and cortisol. We also found positive correlations between baseline progesterone and cortisol levels, as well as between the change in progesterone and cortisol before and after water exposure in both the stress and control sessions. Mediation analyses revealed during the stress session, the change in progesterone from baseline to 42-min post-stress onset was mediated by the magnitude of change in cortisol levels across the same time span. Overall, these findings reveal that progesterone released in response to stress as observed in animals and men extends to women during the low ovarian output follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and that the mechanism of release may be similar to the mechanism of cortisol release.

  3. Abnormal pathways in endometriosis in relation to progesterone resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lode, Lise; Sveen, Magnhild Often; Rudnicki, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disorder, and recent studies suggest that progesterone resistance may contribute to the development and pathophysiology of the disorder. Based on this, identification of genetic and molecular perturbations in the endometrium of women with endom......Introduction: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disorder, and recent studies suggest that progesterone resistance may contribute to the development and pathophysiology of the disorder. Based on this, identification of genetic and molecular perturbations in the endometrium of women...... with endometriosis is an important step towards understanding the pathogenesis of the disease, and the development of novel treatment and diagnostic strategies. Methods: A systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase was performed, and 118 articles were identified for further screening. Two reviewers performed...... article screening independently using Covidence, and 16 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of these studies. Results: This review presents data from eutopic endometrial biopsies from women with and without endometriosis. Several biomarkers...

  4. Reproductive Disorder Studies Using Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Progesterone Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuasikal, Boky Jeanne; Totti Tjiptosumirat; Ratnawati Kukuh

    2004-01-01

    Five dairy cattle, cattle A: 6 th parity; cattle B: 7 th parity; cattle C: 2 nd parity; cattle D and F: 3 rd parity, were used in this study. According to Health Extension and Artificial Insemination Technicians anamneses and according to farmers who own the animals, these cattle were showing reproductive failure, and RIA technique was used to study the symptoms. For this purpose, milk progesterone sample were collected twice a week for five weeks to follow the biological reproductive status of every animal. Result from the analysis were plotted for each individual animal and shows that cattle A and B were acyclic, which indicated that no reproductive activity post partum have occurred in both animals; cattle C in the status of prolonged oestrus cycle post partum; and cattle D and F were in the status of recovery of oestrus cycle post partum. With the availability of historical record of the cattle and confirmation of biological status by Health Technicians, the reproductive disorder, which leads to the failure of AI in dairy cattle, can be monitored by RIA Progesterone technique. (author)

  5. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  6. Progesterone treatment shows greater protection in brain vs. retina in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion: Progesterone receptor levels may play an important role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rachael S; Sayeed, Iqbal; Oumarbaeva, Yuliya; Morrison, Katherine C; Choi, Paul H; Pardue, Machelle T; Stein, Donald G

    2016-11-22

    To determine whether inflammation increases in retina as it does in brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and whether the neurosteroid progesterone, shown to have protective effects in both retina and brain after MCAO, reduces inflammation in retina as well as brain. MCAO rats treated systemically with progesterone or vehicle were compared with shams. Protein levels of cytosolic NF-κB, nuclear NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, CD11b, progesterone receptor A and B, and pregnane X receptor were assessed in retinas and brains at 24 and 48 h using western blots. Following MCAO, significant increases were observed in the following inflammatory markers: pNF-κB and CD11b at 24 h in both brain and retina, nuclear NF-κB at 24 h in brain and 48 h in retina, and TNF-α at 24 h in brain.Progesterone treatment in MCAO animals significantly attenuated levels of the following markers in brain: pNF-κB, nuclear NF-κB, IL-6, TNF-α, and CD11b, with significantly increased levels of cytosolic NF-κB. Retinas from progesterone-treated animals showed significantly reduced levels of nuclear NF-κB and IL-6 and increased levels of cytosolic NF-κB, with a trend for reduction in other markers. Post-MCAO, progesterone receptors A and B were upregulated in brain and downregulated in retina. Inflammatory markers increased in both brain and retina after MCAO, with greater increases observed in brain. Progesterone treatment reduced inflammation, with more dramatic reductions observed in brain than retina. This differential effect may be due to differences in the response of progesterone receptors in brain and retina after injury.

  7. Effects of dexamethasone on progesterone and estrogen profiles and uterine progesterone receptor localization during pregnancy in Sahel goat in Semi-Arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahi, Dauda; Ojo, Nicholas Adetayo; Mshelia, Gideon Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of dexamethasone in veterinary and human medicine, it is reported to cause some severe pregnancy related side effects like abortion in some animals. The mechanism of the response is not clear but seems to be related to interspecies and/or breed difference in response which may involve alterations in the concentrations of some reproductive hormones. Twenty Sahel goats comprising 18 does and 2 bucks were used for this study. Pregnancies were achieved by natural mating after synchronization. Repeated dexamethasone injections were given at 0.25 mg/kg body weight. Blood samples were collected biweekly for hormonal assay. Uterine biopsies were harvested at days 28 and day 78 of gestation through caesarean section for immunohistochemical analysis using 3 pregnant does randomly selected from each group at each instant. Data were expressed as Means ± Standard Deviations and analyzed using statistical soft ware package, GraphPad Instant, version 3.0 (2003) and progesterone receptor (PR) were scored semi-quantitatively. Dexamethasone treatments had no significant ( p  > 0.05) effect on progesterone and estrogen concentrations in pregnant Sahel goats but up regulated PR from 2+ to 3+ in second trimester. As dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta is an established fact, the lack of effect on progesterone level in this study may be due to the fact that unlike other species whose progesterone production during pregnancy is placenta - dependent, in goats is corpus luteum - dependent. Consequently dexamethasone adverse effect on placenta reported in literatures did not influence progesterone levels during pregnancy in Sahel goat. The up regulation of progesterone receptor (PR) in Sahel goat gravid uterus is a beneficial effects and that dexamethasone can safely be used in corpus luteum - dependent progesterone secreting pregnant animal species like Sahel goat and camel. Therefore source of progesterone secretions during pregnancy should be

  8. Effects of hormone therapy with estrogen and/or progesterone on sleep pattern in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachul, Helena; Bittencourt, Lia R A; Andersen, Monica L; Haidar, Mauro A; Baracat, Edmund C; Tufik, Sergio

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the effects of estrogen and progesterone on sleep in postmenopausal women. The 33 participants were randomly assigned to an estrogen or placebo group after undergoing clinical and hormonal assessments and a polysomnogram, and they underwent the same tests again after 12 weeks. Then, while still taking estrogen or placebo, they all received progesterone for another 12 weeks and underwent a final polysomnogram. Estrogen plus progesterone was more effective than estrogen alone in decreasing the prevalence of periodic limb movement (PLM) (8.1% vs 2.8%), hot flashes (14.2% vs 0%), and bruxism (11.1% vs 0%) at night, or somnolence and attention difficulty during the day. The prevalences of breathing irregularities, arousal from sleep, anxiety, and memory impairment were decreased in both groups following progesterone treatment. While not significantly affecting sleep quality, hormone therapy decreased the prevalence of arousal in both groups and that of PLM in the group treated with estrogen plus progesterone.

  9. Milk progesterone to monitor reproductive performance in Holstein Fries ian cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubbadeh, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to monitor reproductive of lactating Holstein Fries ian cows by measuring milk progesterone levels. Sequential post-partum milk samples were collected weekly throughout 20 weeks after pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations were determined by solid phase RIA. Lactating cows required an average of 5.2 weeks to resume luteal activity; 48% of the cows conceived after first insemination and had significantly high progesterone concentrations during the first 5 weeks after insemination than cows which returned to heat 5-8 weeks after insemination> Results also revealed that adequate level of progesterone, which varied between 4.2 and 9.1 nmol/l, is required to maintain early pregnancy and progesterone level remains high in pregnant cows. (Author) 17 refs., 3 Tabs

  10. Medroxyprogesterone acetate or long-acting progesterone in the biostimulation of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C.O. Magalhães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of prepubertal ewe lambs to exogenous administration of either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP or long-acting progesterone (LAP together with biostimulation. Two Pool Dorset adult males and 75 mixed-breed prepubertal ewe lambs (average of 179 days-old and 30.0kg were used. The females were randomly assigned to three different groups. In the first group the females were submitted to the insertion of intravaginal sponges containing MAP (60 mg for 12 days and were then biostimulated for eight weeks. In the second group the females were submitted to a single injection of LAP (225 mg and then to biostimulation for eight weeks. In the last group, the females were only submitted to biostimulation for eight weeks. Animals were considered cyclic when plasma progesterone (P4 concentration exceeded 1.0 ng/mL in at least one of two consecutive blood samples taken within a 7-day interval in three distinct experimental moments. After treatments 93.3% of the females disregarding their group started their cyclicity and most of them (92.0%, continued to be cyclic after 63 days of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation under both male and female effect. We conclude that prepubertal ewe lambs when submitted to protocols of either MAP or LAP followed by biostimulation result in puberty at the 7 month of age. It can be deducted that some ewe lambs submitted to the administration of either MAP or LAP together with biostimulation promoted a multiplier effect upon the other young females that were then stimulated to start cyclicity.

  11. MicroRNA-200a locally attenuates progesterone signaling in the cervix, preventing embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Hirofumi; Saito-Fujita, Tomoko; Hirota, Yasushi; Egashira, Mahiro; Matsumoto, Leona; Matsuo, Mitsunori; Hiraoka, Takehiro; Koga, Kaori; Yamauchi, Naoko; Fukayama, Masashi; Bartos, Amanda; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2014-07-01

    Although cervical pregnancy and placenta previa, in which the embryo and placenta embed in or adjacent to the cervix, are life-threatening complications that result in massive bleeding and poor pregnancy outcomes in women, the incidence of these aberrant conditions is uncommon. We hypothesized that a local molecular mechanism is normally in place to prevent embryo implantation in the cervix. The ovarian hormones progesterone (P(4)) and estrogen differentially direct differentiation and proliferation of endometrial cells, which confers the receptive state for implantation: P(4) dominance causes differentiation of the luminal epithelium but increases stromal cell proliferation in preparation of the uterus for implantation. In search for the cause of cervical nonresponsiveness to implantation, we found that the statuses of cell proliferation and differentiation between the uterus and cervix during early pregnancy are remarkably disparate under identical endocrine milieu in both mice and humans. We also found that cervical levels of progesterone receptor (PR) protein are low compared with uterine levels during this period, and the low PR protein levels are attributed to elevated levels of microRNA(miR)-200a in the cervix. These changes were associated with up-regulation of the P(4)-metabolizing enzyme 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (200α-HSD) and down-regulation of its transcriptional repressor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 in the cervix. The results provide evidence that elevated levels of miR-200a lead to down-regulation of P(4)-PR signaling and up-regulation of (200α-HSD) in the cervix, rendering it nonresponsive to implantation. These findings may point toward not only the physiological but also the pathological basis of the cervical milieu in embryo implantation.

  12. Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in Tunisian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimane, Naceur; Haffar, M.A.; Chetoui, C.; Bahri, M.

    2005-01-01

    Use of progesterone, measurement to monitor artificial insemination, reproductive functions and pregnancy in tunisian and pregnancy in tunisian cattle Results saved during field application in four Tunisian farms from 924 dairy cows. A total of 2830 milk samples were collected from these cows at 3 fixed intervals to evaluate the level of Progesterone: at Artificial Insemination (AI) time (1034), 12th day (948) and at 22nd to 24th days after AI (848). Progesterone concentrations in samples done at AI moment (n=1034) revealed that 10.1% of cows was inseminated at improper moment (progesterone level higher or equal to 1nmol/l). In the second category (samples collected 12 days after AI, n=948), allowed distinguishing between two different situations: (1)- Cycling cows: progesterone concentration was higher or equal to 3nmol/l (69.4%). (2)- Non cycling cows: progesterone level was strictly lower than 3nmol/l (30.6%). The aim of progesterone assay of samples collected in the third category (22 to 24 days after AI) is to establish the Early Non Pregnancy Diagnosis (ENPD). Recorded data allow distinguishing: (1)- Non pregnant females: progesterone concentration is strictly less than 2nmol/l. The confirmation of this situation was carried out by rectal palpation. The gathered information indicated that ENPD accuracy is equal to 96.6%. (2)- Pregnant females: progesterone level is to be higher than or equal to 3.5nmol/l. The ENPD accuracy is 73.3% after confirmation using rectal palpation. (3)- Doubtful females: progesterone concentration is to be between (2 and 3.5nmol/l). Fertility and fecundity criteria were determined by using AIDA software, the analysis considered some variation factors such as cow parity, body score condition, number of services, inseminator, and milk production

  13. withdrawal of South African essential medicines EDITORIALS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-04-21

    Apr 21, 2006 ... mortality, as well as greater strain on already challenged health systems. Health authorities regulate pharmaceutical products coming onto the market through strict policing of safety, efficacy and quality. However, there is no control over the impact of subsequent withdrawal of the product by the Department.

  14. Withholding and withdrawing treatment: practical applications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Withholding and withdrawing treatment: practical applications of ethical principles in end-of-life care. L Gwyther. Abstract. No Abstract South African Journal of Bioethics and Law Vol. 1 (1) 2008: pp. 24-26. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  16. Progesterone or progestogen-releasing intrauterine systems for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethaby, Anne; Hussain, Munawar; Rishworth, Josephine R; Rees, Margaret C

    2015-04-30

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an important cause of ill health in women and it accounts for 12% of all gynaecology referrals in the UK. Heavy menstrual bleeding is clinically defined as greater than or equal to 80 mL of blood loss per menstrual cycle. However, women may complain of excessive bleeding when their blood loss is less than 80 mL. Hysterectomy is often used to treat women with this complaint but medical therapy may be a successful alternative.The intrauterine device was originally developed as a contraceptive but the addition of progestogens to these devices resulted in a large reduction in menstrual blood loss. Case studies of two types of progesterone or progestogen-releasing systems, Progestasert and Mirena, reported reductions of up to 90% and improvements in dysmenorrhoea (pain or cramps during menstruation). Insertion, however, may be regarded as invasive by some women, which affects its acceptability as a treatment. Frequent intermenstrual bleeding and spotting is also likely during the first few months after commencing treatment. To determine the effectiveness, acceptability and safety of progesterone or progestogen-releasing intrauterine devices in achieving a reduction in heavy menstrual bleeding. All randomised controlled trials of progesterone or progestogen-releasing intrauterine devices for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding were obtained by electronic searches of The Cochrane Library, the specialised register of MDSG, MEDLINE (1966 to January 2015), EMBASE (1980 to January 2015), CINAHL (inception to December 2014) and PsycINFO (inception to January 2015). Additional searches were undertaken for grey literature and for unpublished trials in trial registers. Companies producing progestogen-releasing intrauterine devices and experts in the field were contacted for information on published and unpublished trials. Randomised controlled trials in women of reproductive age treated with progesterone or progestogen

  17. Evaluation of Ashwagandha in alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of Ashwagandha (ASW in attenuation of alcohol withdrawal in ethanol withdrawal mice model. Methods: Alcohol dependence was induced in mice by the oral, once-daily administration of 10% v/v ethanol (2 g/kg for one week. Once the animals were withdrawn from alcohol, the efficacy of ASW (200mg/kg and 500mg/kg in comparison with diazepam (1 mg/kg in the attenuation of withdrawal was studied using, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ kindling test for seizure threshold, forced swim test (FST for depression and locomotor activity (LCA in open field test (OFT. 6 hours after the last ethanol administration, seizure threshold was measured in all the groups by administering the convulsant drug, PTZ with a subconvulsive dose of 30 mg/kg i.p. In FST, mice were forced to swim and the total duration of immobility (seconds was measured during the last 4 min of a single 6-min test session. In OFT, number of crossings of the lines marked on the floor was recorded for a period of 5 min. Results: Compared to ethanol group, ASW (500 mg/Kg has suppressed the PTZ kindling seizures in ethanol withdrawal animals [0% convulsion], FST has shown decreased immobility time and OFT has exhibited increase in the number of line crossing activity by mice which may be the consequence of anxiolytic activity of ASW similar to that of diazepam. Conclusions: The present study provides satisfactory evidence to use ASW as a safe and reliable alternative to diazepam in alcohol withdrawal conditions.

  18. A psychometric validation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....

  19. Improving Nursing Knowledge of Alcohol Withdrawal: Second Generation Education Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nurses were more confident in caring for patients with alcohol withdrawal.

  20. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive service...

  1. 75 FR 70044 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.39

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0354] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide 1.39 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal of a Regulatory Guide: Regulatory Guide 1.39, ``Housekeeping... U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is withdrawing Regulatory Guide 1.39, ``Housekeeping...

  2. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors and Their Relationship with Work Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemli, Özge

    2015-01-01

    Problem Situation: People experience ups and downs in their job satisfaction and motivation levels at different points of their work lives for various reasons. One of the outputs of low job satisfaction and motivation is defined as "withdrawal behaviors" in the literature. Withdrawal behaviors are any employee behavior of withdrawal from…

  3. 21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing...

  4. 21 CFR 571.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future filing...

  5. Progesterone release from magnetic alginate/chitosan microcapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Melina Vasconcelos; Castro, Mayara de Freitas e; Sanchez Rodriguez, Ruben J., E-mail: sanchez@uenf.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Rojas-Ayala, Chachi; Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa Maria [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisa Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeir, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were prepared using the hydrothermal method (160°C) in a closed system and characterized with the aid of the techniques of X-ray Diffraction patterns (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase showed high crystallinity and medium crystallite size of 19nm with superparamagnetic properties, reversible behavior and saturation magnetization of 43 emu g{sup -1}. The nanoparticles coated with alginate / chitosan were characterized morphologically by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope. The microcapsules have a regular spherical shape with the main contribution of the size distribution in the range of 34-53μm. The progesterone released was 14% higher when external magnetic field was applied. (author)

  6. Progesterone release from magnetic alginate/chitosan microcapsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Melina Vasconcelos; Castro, Mayara de Freitas e; Sanchez Rodriguez, Ruben J.; Rojas-Ayala, Chachi; Baggio-Saitovitch, Elisa Maria

    2015-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 ) were prepared using the hydrothermal method (160°C) in a closed system and characterized with the aid of the techniques of X-ray Diffraction patterns (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The Fe 3 O 4 phase showed high crystallinity and medium crystallite size of 19nm with superparamagnetic properties, reversible behavior and saturation magnetization of 43 emu g -1 . The nanoparticles coated with alginate / chitosan were characterized morphologically by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope. The microcapsules have a regular spherical shape with the main contribution of the size distribution in the range of 34-53μm. The progesterone released was 14% higher when external magnetic field was applied. (author)

  7. Inverse Relationship between Progesterone Receptor and Myc in Endometrial Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Kavlashvili

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic malignancy, is a hormonally-regulated disease. Response to progestin therapy positively correlates with hormone receptor expression, in particular progesterone receptor (PR. However, many advanced tumors lose PR expression. We recently reported that the efficacy of progestin therapy can be significantly enhanced by combining progestin with epigenetic modulators, which we term "molecularly enhanced progestin therapy." What remained unclear was the mechanism of action and if estrogen receptor α (ERα, the principle inducer of PR, is necessary to restore functional expression of PR via molecularly enhanced progestin therapy. Therefore, we modeled advanced endometrial tumors that have lost both ERα and PR expression by generating ERα-null endometrial cancer cell lines. CRISPR-Cas9 technology was used to delete ERα at the genomic level. Our data demonstrate that treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi was sufficient to restore functional PR expression, even in cells devoid of ERα. Our studies also revealed that HDACi treatment results in marked downregulation of the oncogene Myc. We established that PR is a negative transcriptional regulator of Myc in endometrial cancer in the presence or absence of ERα, which is in contrast to studies in breast cancer cells. First, estrogen stimulation augmented PR expression and decreased Myc in endometrial cancer cell lines. Second, progesterone increased PR activity yet blunted Myc mRNA and protein expression. Finally, overexpression of PR by adenoviral transduction in ERα-null endometrial cancer cells significantly decreased expression of Myc and Myc-regulated genes. Analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA database of endometrial tumors identified an inverse correlation between PR and Myc mRNA levels, with a corresponding inverse correlation between PR and Myc downstream transcriptional targets SRD5A1, CDK2 and CCNB1. Together, these data

  8. [Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 3-development and clinical feasibility testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Naho; Ohno, Yukiko; Miyata, Chihiro; Kondo, Haruomi; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

      Although progesterone vaginal suppositories (hospital-formulated) are used for the treatment of infertility, their half-life is so short that multiple doses are required. In this study, we aimed to develop sustained-release vaginal suppositories suitable for clinical use which maintain an effective blood concentration by once-a-day treatment, and prepared 7 types of suppository containing the sustained-release progesterone tablets to characterize their sustained-release performance. We selected one candidate suppository among them, taking recovery rate, reproducibility, and hardness, as well as the sustained-release performance into consideration. The shell of the selected suppository is composed of VOSCO S-55 and progesterone for rapid release. The molded progesterone tablets for sustained release were embedded inside. The distribution of the weight and content of the suppository was limited, and the release rate of progesterone was significantly slower than that of a conventional progesterone suppository prepared in our hospital. The single-dose administration of the selected suppository to five healthy volunteers led to significant extension of the blood concentration. We also confirmed the rise of the basic value by multiple administration. The simulation comparison suggested that the blood progesterone concentration is controlled by once-a-day administration of the selected suppository better than twice-a-day administration of the conventional suppository. In conclusion, the sustained-release vaginal suppository prepared in this study was considered to be useful for clinical treatment.

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE LEVEL OF PROGESTERONE IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED RESPIRATORY SARCOIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Валентиновна Листопадова

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disease of unknown causes development. Aim: study of the level of progesterone blood of patients with sarcoidosis, depending on their gender. Materials and methods: a defined level of progesterone blood serum in 71 patients with newly diagnosed with sarcoidosis aged 20 to 65 years. Results: comparing indices of progesterone 31st men with respiratory sarcoidosis and the control group was discovered a higher level of progesterone among patients. Depending on the indications to the treatment with glucocorticoids were also found statistically significant differences. The analysis of progesterone blood in patients with sarcoidosis in the reproductive age is statistically significant difference between the level of progesterone in women, which the recommended therapy with glucocorticosteroids, and who is not. The first group he significantly lower than in the second group, as well as reduced as compared with a control group of healthy women. When studying the level of progesterone in the patients in the period of menopause, which is not recommended by hormone therapy, indicators are statistically significantly higher in comparison with the control group, consisting of healthy postmenopausal women age (p<0.05. Conclusion: the necessity of detailed studying of the state of sexual hormones to treat sarcoidosis and the background of the different regimens.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-4

  10. Intestinal tumorigenesis is not affected by progesterone signaling in rodent models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarom Heijmans

    Full Text Available Clinical data suggest that progestins have chemopreventive properties in the development of colorectal cancer. We set out to examine a potential protective effect of progestins and progesterone signaling on colon cancer development. In normal and neoplastic intestinal tissue, we found that the progesterone receptor (PR is not expressed. Expression was confined to sporadic mesenchymal cells. To analyze the influence of systemic progesterone receptor signaling, we crossed mice that lacked the progesterone receptor (PRKO to the Apc(Min/+ mouse, a model for spontaneous intestinal polyposis. PRKO-Apc(Min/+ mice exhibited no change in polyp number, size or localization compared to Apc(Min/+. To examine effects of progestins on the intestinal epithelium that are independent of the PR, we treated mice with MPA. We found no effects of either progesterone or MPA on gross intestinal morphology or epithelial proliferation. Also, in rats treated with MPA, injection with the carcinogen azoxymethane did not result in a difference in the number or size of aberrant crypt foci, a surrogate end-point for adenoma development. We conclude that expression of the progesterone receptor is limited to cells in the intestinal mesenchyme. We did not observe any effect of progesterone receptor signaling or of progestin treatment in rodent models of intestinal tumorigenesis.

  11. Private Domestic-Well Characteristics and the Distribution of Domestic Withdrawals among Aquifers in the Virginia Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jason P.; McFarland, Randolph E.; Banks, R. Brent

    2008-01-01

    the area in addition to determination of the geographic distribution of the withdrawals. Because of a lack of comprehensive data on private-well construction and distribution, a sample of private domestic-well records was used to estimate well characteristics and approximate the proportion of wells and withdrawals associated with each aquifer. Construction data on 2,846 private domestic wells were collected from 29 counties and independent cities (localities) having appreciable self-supplied populations and representing private domestic withdrawals of about 31 million gallons per day. Within each locality, geographically stratified random sampling of well records by tax plat characterized details of well construction for the population of domestic wells. Because neither specific location data nor aquifer elevations were available for individual wells, the primary aquifer in which each well is completed was estimated by cross-referencing the screen elevation estimated from the well record with a generalized configuration of hydrogeologic units underlying the locality in which the well is located. For each locality, summarizing the results of this process allowed the determination of the proportion of wells and withdrawals associated with each aquifer. Additional evaluation of spatial data was used to apply the domestic withdrawal rates developed for each aquifer in each locality to a detailed ground-water study of the portion of the Virginia Coastal Plain east of the Chesapeake Bay, which is known as the Eastern Shore Peninsula. Because domestic withdrawal estimates are based on the self-supplied population, the geographic distribution of withdrawals within each of the Eastern Shore counties was estimated by using population data from the 2000 U.S. Census at the resolution of census block groups and further refining the distribution based on road density. The allocation of withdrawals among aquifers was then determined by cross-referencing the spatial distribut

  12. Inhalation of progesterone inhibits chronic airway inflammation of mice exposed to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xia; Bao, Wuping; Zhang, Pengyu; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhang, Yingying; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Chronic ozone exposure leads to a model of mice with lung inflammation, emphysema and oxidative stress. Progesterone plays an important role in attenuating the neuroinflammation. We assume that progesterone will reduce the chronic airway inflammation exposed to ozone and evaluate whether combination of progesterone with glucocorticoids results in synergistic effects. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to ozone (2.5ppm, 3h) 12 times over 6 weeks, and were administered with progesterone (0.03 or 0.3mg/L; inhaled) alone or combined with budesonide (BUD) (0.2g/L) after each exposure until the tenth week. Mice were studied 24h after final exposure, cells and inflammatory mediators were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs used for evaluation of glucocorticoids receptors (GR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Exposure to ozone resulted in a marked lung neutrophilia. Moreover, in ozone-exposed group, the levels of oxidative stress-related interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, activated NF-κB and p38MAPK, airway inflammatory cells infiltration density, mean linear intercept (Lm) were greatly increased, FEV 25 and glucocorticoids receptors (GR) were markedly decreased. Comparable to BUD, progesterone treatment dose-dependently led to a significant reduction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, activated NF-κB and p38MAPK, and an increase of FEV 25 and GR. Progesterone combined with BUD resulted in dramatic changes, compared to monotherapy of BUD or progesterone. Therefore, these results demonstrate that chronic ozone exposure has profound airway inflammatory effects counteracted by progesterone and progesterone acts synergistically with glucocorticoids in attenuating the airway inflammation dose-dependently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Progesterone attenuates airway remodeling and glucocorticoid resistance in a murine model of exposing to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Bao, Wuping; Fei, Xia; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Min

    2018-03-01

    Airway remodeling is a vital component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite the broad anti-inflammation effects of glucocorticoids, they exhibit relatively little therapeutic benefit in COPD, indicating the accelerating demands of new agents for COPD. We aim to explore the effect of progesterone on airway remodeling in a murine modeling of exposing to ozone and to further examine the potential effect of progesterone on glucocorticoid insensitivity. C57/BL6 mice were exposed to ozone for 12 times over 6 weeks, and were administered with progesterone alone or combined with budesonide (BUD) after each exposure until the 10th week. The peribronchial collagen deposition was measured. The protein levels of MMP8 and MMP9 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs were assessed. Western blot analysis was used to detect the levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). The expression of VEGF and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the lung were determined by Immunohistochemical analyses. We observe that progesterone attenuates the peribronchial collagen deposition, as well as the expression of MMP8, MMP9, HIF-1α, VEGF, α-SMA, and GSK-3β in BALF or lung tissues. Progesterone or BUD monotherapy has no effect on HDAC2 production. Progesterone combines with BUD induce dramatically enhanced effects. Thus, these results demonstrate novel roles of progesterone for the pathogenesis and airway remodeling in COPD. Progesterone plus BUD administration exerts more significant inhibition on airway remodeling with dose-independent. Additionally, progesterone may, to some extent, improve the glucocorticoid insensitivity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Transcriptional response of the murine mammary gland to acute progesterone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Valdivia, Rodrigo; Mukherjee, Atish; Creighton, Chad J; Buser, Adam C; DeMayo, Francesco J; Edwards, Dean P; Lydon, John P

    2008-12-01

    Our mechanistic understanding of progesterone's involvement in murine mammary morphogenesis and tumorigenesis is dependent on defining effector pathways responsible for transducing the progesterone signal into a morphogenetic response. Toward this goal, microarray methods were applied to the murine mammary gland to identify novel downstream gene targets of progesterone. Consistent with a tissue undergoing epithelial expansion, mining of the progesterone-responsive transcriptome revealed the up-regulation of functional gene classes involved in epithelial proliferation and survival. Reassuringly, signaling pathways previously reported to be responsive to progesterone were also identified. Mining this informational resource for rapidly induced genes, we identified "inhibitor of differentiation 4" (Id4) as a new molecular target acutely induced by progesterone exposure. Mammary Id4 is transiently induced during early pregnancy and colocalizes with progesterone receptor (PR) expression, suggesting that Id4 mediates the early events of PR-dependent mammary morphogenesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay detecting direct recruitment of ligand occupied PR to the Id4 promoter supports this proposal. Given that Id4 is a member of the Id family of transcriptional regulators that have been linked to the maintenance of proliferative status and tumorigenesis, the establishment of a mechanistic link between PR signaling and Id4 promises to furnish a wider conceptual framework with which to advance our understanding of normal and abnormal mammary epithelial responses to progestins. In sum, the progesterone-responsive transcriptome described herein not only reinforces the importance of progesterone in mammary epithelial expansion but also represents an invaluable information resource with which to identify novel signaling paradigms for mammary PR action.

  15. The Biology of Progesterone Receptor in the Normal Mammary gland and in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obr, Alison; Edwards, Dean P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews work on progesterone and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the mouse mammary gland that has been used extensively as an experimental model. Studies have led to the concept that progesterone controls proliferation and morphogenesis of the luminal epithelium in a tightly orchestrated manner at distinct stages of development by paracrine signaling pathways, including receptor of activated nuclear factor κ ligand (RANKL) as a major paracrine factor. Progesterone also drives expansion of stem cells by paracrine signals to generate progenitors required for alveologenesis. During mid-to-late pregnancy, progesterone has another role to suppress secretory activation until parturition mediated in part by crosstalk between PR and prolactin/Stat5 signaling to inhibit induction of milk protein gene expression, and by inhibiting tight junction closure. In models of hormone-dependent mouse mammary tumors, the progesterone/PR signaling axis enhances pre-neoplastic progression by a switch from a paracrine to an autocrine mode of proliferation and dysregulation of the RANKL signaling pathway. Limited experiments with normal human breast show that progesterone/PR signaling also stimulates epithelial cell proliferation by a paracrine mechanism; however, the signaling pathways and whether RANKL is a major mediator remains unknown. Work with human breast cancer cell lines, patient tumor samples and clinical studies indicates that progesterone is a risk factor for breast cancer and that alteration in progesterone/PR signaling pathways contributes to early stage human breast cancer progression. However, loss of PR expression in primary tumors is associated with a less differentiated more invasive phenotype and worse prognosis, suggesting that PR may limit later stages of tumor progression. PMID:22193050

  16. Sleep-disordered breathing decreases after opioid withdrawal: results of a prospective controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Andreas; Aichinger-Hinterhofer, Marie; Maier, Christoph; Vollert, Jan; Walther, Jörg Werner

    2015-11-01

    An increased cardiovascular event rate in elderly patients under opioid medications was recently reported. One reason for this increase could be the occurrence of nocturnal apnea and hypoxia, as a consequence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Using a controlled study, we prospectively analyzed SDB using polysomnography in a total of 18 patients before and after opioid withdrawal (opioid withdrawal group [OG]) and 14 patients before and after comprehensive pain management (without any strong-acting opioids) who served as the control group (CG). To analyze the differences, unpaired/paired t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests/Wilcoxon rank tests were used. At baseline, the OG presented more nocturnal apneas/hypopneas than the CG with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 41.4 ± 27.8 vs 21.8 ± 15.9 (P = 0.018). After treatment, the AHI decreased significantly only in the withdrawal group (OG: 16.7 ± 8.9; CG: 20.1 ± 12.9) (P opioid withdrawal and in none of the patients after withdrawal (P opioid intake; these findings may explain the opioid-associated cardiovascular morbidity. Thus, SDB may be a risk at lower opioid doses than hitherto described, and particular caution should be exercised in patients with comorbidities that might make them vulnerable to the consequences of SDB.

  17. Caffeine withdrawal, sleepiness, and driving performance: what does the research really tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherley, Susan V

    2011-05-01

    As a psychostimulant, caffeine is thought to reduce road accidents by keeping drivers alert and wakeful. Studies have found that caffeine can improve performance on vigilance tasks and in driving simulators under normal sleeping conditions and after sleep restriction or deprivation. However, there is increasing evidence that these beneficial effects of caffeine are due to withdrawal reversal. Studies comparing the effects of caffeine versus placebo on driving performance have tested habitual caffeine consumers deprived of caffeine from the evening before the test day. The conclusion from this review is, therefore, that improvements in driving performance and alertness after caffeine are likely to represent withdrawal reversal rather than a net beneficial effect of caffeine. Further research using designs that control for caffeine withdrawal are necessary and, accordingly, advice given to the public on use of caffeine as an antidote to tiredness and impaired performance should be reviewed.

  18. 76 FR 80410 - Pendency of Request for Approval of Special Withdrawal Liability Rules; the Cultural Institutions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...This notice advises interested persons that the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (``PBGC'') has received a request from The Cultural Institutions Pension Plan for approval of a plan amendment providing for special withdrawal liability rules. Under Sec. 4203(f) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and PBGC's regulation on Extension of Special Withdrawal Liability Rules, a multiemployer pension plan may, with PBGC approval, be amended to provide for special withdrawal liability rules similar to those that apply to the construction and entertainment industries. Such approval is granted only if PBGC determines that the rules apply to an industry with characteristics that make use of the special rules appropriate and that the rules will not pose a significant risk to PBGC. Before granting an approval, PBGC's regulations require PBGC to give interested persons an opportunity to comment on the request. The purpose of this notice is to advise interested persons of the request and to solicit their views on it.

  19. Comparing withdrawal and not withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment among patients who died from stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvig E

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eirik Helvig,1 Lars Thomassen,2 Ulrike Waje-Andreassen,2 Halvor Naess3 1Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Jonas Liesgt, Bergen, 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, 3Centre for Age-related Medicine, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, NorwayBackground: In severe stroke, a decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatment is sometimes made in cooperation with the family. The aim of this study was to study the time from withdrawing life-sustaining treatment to death in patients with severe ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.Methods: In total, 2,506 patients with stroke admitted to Haukeland University Hospital between 2006 and 2011 were prospectively registered in the Bergen NORSTROKE database. Risk factors, stroke severity, etiology, and blood analyses were registered. Retrospectively, the patients' records were examined to determine the number of days from withdrawing all life-sustaining treatment to death in patients who died from severe stroke during the hospital stay.Results: Life-sustaining treatment was withheld in 50 patients with severe stroke. Median time to death after withdrawing life-sustaining treatment was 4 days, and a quarter lived at least 1 week (range =1–11 days. Cox regression analyses showed that short time from withdrawing life-sustaining treatment to death was associated with high age (Hazard ratio [HR] =1.05, P=0.07, male sex (HR =2.9, P=0.01, high C-reactive protein on admission (HR =1.01, P=0.001, and hemorrhagic stroke (versus ischemic stroke, HR =1.5, P=0.03.Conclusion: One week after withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, a quarter of our patients with severe stroke remained alive. Short time to death was associated with high age, male sex, hemorrhagic stroke, and high C-reactive protein on admittance. Keywords: stroke, withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, prognosis

  20. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2011-01-01

    of HCG administration and the probability of clinical pregnancy in women undergoing ovarian stimulation with GnRH agonists and gonadotrophins for assisted reproduction treatment.Instead, late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration appears to be governed by the number of preovulatory follicles and LH...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...

  1. EDC IMPACT: Chemical UV filters can affect human sperm function in a progesterone-like manner

    OpenAIRE

    Rehfeld, A; Egeberg, D L; Almstrup, K; Petersen, J H; Dissing, S; Skakkebæk, N E

    2017-01-01

    Human sperm cell function must be precisely regulated to achieve natural fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca2+ influx into human sperm cells via the CatSper Ca2+-channel and thereby controls sperm function. Multiple chemical UV filters have been shown to induce a Ca2+ influx through CatSper, thus mimicking the effect of progesterone on Ca2+ signaling. We hypothesized that these UV filters could also mimic the effect of progesterone on spe...

  2. Impacts of impervious cover, water withdrawals, and climate change on river flows in the conterminous US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Caldwell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rivers are essential to aquatic ecosystem and societal sustainability, but are increasingly impacted by water withdrawals, land-use change, and climate change. The relative and cumulative effects of these stressors on continental river flows are relatively unknown. In this study, we used an integrated water balance and flow routing model to evaluate the impacts of impervious cover and water withdrawal on river flow across the conterminous US at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC watershed scale. We then estimated the impacts of projected change in withdrawals, impervious cover, and climate under the B1 "Low" and A2 "High" emission scenarios on river flows by 2060. Our results suggest that compared to no impervious cover, 2010 levels of impervious cover increased river flows by 9.9% on average with larger impacts in and downstream of major metropolitan areas. In contrast, compared to no water withdrawals, 2005 withdrawals decreased river flows by 1.4% on average with larger impacts in heavily irrigated arid regions of Western US. By 2060, impacts of climate change were predicted to overwhelm the potential gain in river flow due to future changes in impervious cover and add to the potential reduction in river flows from withdrawals, decreasing mean annual river flows from 2010 levels by 16% on average. However, increases in impervious cover by 2060 may offset the impact of climate change during the growing season in some watersheds. Large water withdrawals will aggravate the predicted impact of climate change on river flows, particularly in the Western US. Predicted ecohydrological impacts of land cover, water withdrawal, and climate change will likely include alteration of the terrestrial water balance, stream channel habitat, riparian and aquatic community structure in snow-dominated basins, and fish and mussel extirpations in heavily impacted watersheds. These changes may also require new infrastructure to support increasing anthropogenic

  3. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Østergaard, Søren; Emanuelson, U

    2010-01-01

    The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, Sim......Herd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling...... no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted...

  4. Membrane progesterone receptor beta (mPRβ/Paqr8) promotes progesterone-dependent neurite outgrowth in PC12 neuronal cells via non-G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasubuchi, Mayu; Watanabe, Keita; Hirano, Kanako; Inoue, Daisuke; Li, Xuan; Terasawa, Kazuya; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Ikuo

    2017-07-12

    Recently, sex steroid membrane receptors garnered world-wide attention because they may be related to sex hormone-mediated unknown rapid non-genomic action that cannot be currently explained by their genomic action via nuclear receptors. Progesterone affects cell proliferation and survival via non-genomic effects. In this process, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRα, mPRβ, mPRγ, mPRδ, and mPRε) were identified as putative G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for progesterone. However, the structure, intracellular signaling, and physiological functions of these progesterone receptors are still unclear. Here, we identify a molecular mechanism by which progesterone promotes neurite outgrowth through mPRβ (Paqr8) activation. Mouse mPRβ mRNA was specifically expressed in the central nervous system. It has an incomplete GPCR topology, presenting 6 transmembrane domains and did not exhibit typical GPCR signaling. Progesterone-dependent neurite outgrowth was exhibited by the promotion of ERK phosphorylation via mPRβ, but not via other progesterone receptors such as progesterone membrane receptor 1 (PGRMC-1) and nuclear progesterone receptor in nerve growth factor-induced neuronal PC12 cells. These findings provide new insights of regarding the non-genomic action of progesterone in the central nervous system.

  5. Dose dependent effect of progesterone on hypoxic ventilatory response in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hichri, Oubeidallah; Laurin, Jean-C; Julien, Cécile A; Joseph, Vincent; Bairam, Aida

    2012-01-01

    The effect of progesterone as a respiratory stimulant in newborn subjects is less known than that in adults. This study investigated the dose-response curve (0, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg, ip) of progesterone on ventilation in non-anesthetized newborn rats at 4- and 12-days old using plethysmography. Progesterone had no effects in the regulation of normoxic ventilation. However, it enhanced the response to moderate hypoxia (FiO(2) 12%, 20 min) in 4- but not in 12-days old pups. This response was similar between the dose of 4 and 8 mg/kg. These observations suggested that progesterone enhances in age- and dose-dependent manner the hypoxic ventilatory response in newborn rats.

  6. Control of the Mammary Cell Cycle Clock by Estrogen and Progesterone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinberg, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Both the growth and the development of the mammary gland are controlled by the female hormones estrogen, prolactin and progesterone, and by interactions between the epithelial and stromal compartments of the breast...

  7. Differential Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone on Genetic and Environmental Risk for Emotional Eating in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L.; O’Connor, Shannon M.; Hildebrandt, Britny A.; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Boker, Steven; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Recent data show shifts in genetic and environmental influences on emotional eating across the menstrual cycle, with significant shared environmental influences during pre-ovulation, and primarily genetic effects during post-ovulation. Factors driving differential effects are unknown, although increased estradiol during pre-ovulation and increased progesterone during post-ovulation are thought to play a role. We indirectly investigated this possibility by examining whether overall levels of estradiol and progesterone differentially impact genetic and environmental risk for emotional eating in adult female twins (N = 571) drawn from the MSU Twin Registry. Emotional eating, estradiol levels, and progesterone levels were assessed daily and then averaged to create aggregate measures for analysis. As predicted, shared environmental influences were significantly greater in twins with high estradiol levels, whereas additive genetic effects increased substantially across low versus high progesterone groups. Results highlight significant and differential effects of ovarian hormones on etiologic risk for emotional eating in adulthood. PMID:27747142

  8. KADAR PROGESTERON AKIBAT PEMBERIAN PMSG DAN GN-RH PADA SAPI PERAH YANG MENGALAMI ANESTRUS POSTPARTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjok Gde Oka Pemayun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the level of progesterone associated with injectionofGn-RH and PMSG in the postpartum anoestrus dairy cattle. The total of twenty onepostpartum anoestrus dairy cattle used for this study. They were divided into three groupsi.e. (I treated with single dose injection of 500 ug Gn-RH /im/head (Gn-RH 1x, (IItreated with twice injection of 250 ug Gn-RH/im/head (at 24 hours interval (Gn-RH 2x,and (III treated with single dose injection of 1000 IU PMSG/im/head. The result showedthat the concentration of progesterone was no significantly different (P > 0.05 amongPMSG and Gn-RH. However the concentration of progesterone significantly (P < 0.05increased at 4 days on PMSG and Gn-RH treatmen. In coclusion, PMSG and Gn-RH havethe same respone to elevated of the progesterone.

  9. Immunolocalization of progesterone receptors in binucleate trophoblast cells of the buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The binucleate trophoblast cells (CTBs of the water buffalo placenta (Bubalus bubalis were studied with emphasis on the presence of progesterone receptor. Placentomal tissues from 27 buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy were processed and embedded in paraplast (Paraplast Embedding Media – Paraplast Plus to locate the progesterone receptors using the immunohistochemistry technique. The immunohistochemical reaction for progesterone receptor through monoclonal antibody PgR Ab2 showed staining of CTBs, caruncular epithelial and estromal cells and blood vessel estromal pericitos present in the placentome throughout the entire gestational period analyzed. These results indicate the production of progesterone with autocrine and paracrine action in the placentome growth, differentiation and functional regulation.

  10. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk; Radioinmunoensayo para progesterona en leche bovina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Miriam [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologia Nucleares, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: mirian@fctn.isctn.edu.cu; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro [Centro de Isotopos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2002-07-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  11. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in endometrial carcinoma: comparison of immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1993-01-01

    In 159 endometrial carcinomas, estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) were determined biochemically by dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) assay and immunohistochemically (ICA) on frozen sections. ICA receptor content was estimated by a total histologic score (HSCORE), including all tissue...

  12. Progesterone receptor content in endometrial carcinoma correlates with serum levels of free estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1993-01-01

    cytosol by dextran charcoal-coated assay and immunohistochemically on frozen sections. Serum sex hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays. MAIN FINDINGS. Tumor biochemical progesterone receptor content correlated positively (p

  13. Artificial cryopreserved embryo transfer cycle success depends on blastocyst developmental rate and progesterone timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozgur, Kemal; Bulut, Hasan; Berkkanoglu, Murat

    2018-01-01

    This retrospective cohort analysis compared the developmental competence of cryopreserved day-4 and 5 blastocysts, and investigated the effect of progesterone administration duration on the success of artificial frozen embryo transfers. Between October 2015 and March 2016, 868 intracytoplasmic sp...

  14. Cloning and initial characterization of nuclear and membrane progesterone receptors in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both native progestagens and synthetic progestins have important effects on reproduction that are mediated through progesterone receptors (PRs). They regulate gamete maturation and can serve as precursors for other steroid hormones in vertebrates and act as reproductive pheromone...

  15. Progesterone reduces brain mitochondrial dysfunction after transient focal ischemia in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaignard, Pauline; Fréchou, Magalie; Schumacher, Michael; Thérond, Patrice; Mattern, Claudia; Slama, Abdelhamid; Guennoun, Rachida

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of intranasal administration of progesterone on the early brain mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction and oxidative damage after transient middle cerebral occlusion in male and female mice. We showed that progesterone (8 mg/kg at 1 h post-middle cerebral occlusion) restored the mitochondrial reduced glutathione pool and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-linked respiration in both sexes. Progesterone also reversed the decrease of the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked respiration, which was only observed in females. Our findings point to a sex difference in stroke effects on the brain respiratory chain and suggest that the actions of progesterone on mitochondrial function may participate in its neuroprotective properties. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Progesterone receptor isoform A may regulate the effects of neoadjuvant aglepristone in canine mammary carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guil-Luna, Silvia; Stenvang, Jan; Brünner, Nils

    2014-01-01

    , A and B, transcribed from a single gene. Experimental studies in human breast cancer suggest that the differential expression of progesterone receptor isoforms has implications for hormone therapy responsiveness. This study examined the effects of the antiprogestin aglepristone on cell proliferation and m......RNA expression of progesterone receptor isoforms A and B in mammary carcinomas in dogs treated with 20 mg/Kg of aglepristone (n¿=¿22) or vehicle (n¿=¿5) twice before surgery.ResultsFormalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples taken before and after treatment were used to analyse total progesterone receptor......-receptor positive and isoform-A positive tumours in aglepristone-treated dogs.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that the antiproliferative effects of aglepristone in canine mammary carcinomas are mediated by progesterone receptor isoform A....

  17. Expression of Oestrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67,p53 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of Oestrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67,p53 and bcl-2 proteins, cathepsin D, urokinase plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator-receptors in carcinomas of the female breast in an African population.

  18. Preovulatory progesterone concentration associates significantly to follicle number and LH concentration but not to pregnancy rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yding Andersen, Claus; Bungum, Leif; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a large prospective randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effect of recombinant LH (rLH)co-administration for ovarian stimulation, the present study assessed whether progesterone concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration was associated...... with or without rLH administration from day 6 of stimulation. There was no significant association between the late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration and the clinical pregnancy rate. However, progesterone concentration was strongly associated with the number of follicles and retrieved oocytes. Late...... of HCG administration and the probability of clinical pregnancy in women undergoing ovarian stimulation with GnRH agonists and gonadotrophins for assisted reproduction treatment.Instead, late-follicular-phase progesterone concentration appears to be governed by the number of preovulatory follicles and LH...

  19. Induction of post-menstrual regeneration by ovarian steroid withdrawal in the functionalis of xenografted human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudyzer, Pauline; Lemoine, Pascale; Po, Chrystelle; Jordan, Bénédicte F; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Courtoy, Pierre J; Henriet, Patrick; Marbaix, Etienne

    2015-05-01

    Does the endometrial functionalis have the potential to undergo self-renewal after menstruation and how is this process controlled by ovarian steroids? Endometrial xenografts subjected to withdrawal of estradiol and progesterone shrink but also show signs of proliferation and tissue repair; new estradiol supply prevents atrophy but is not sufficient to increase graft volume. Menstruation, i.e. cyclic proteolysis of the extracellular matrix of endometrial functionalis, is induced by a fall in estrogen and progesterone concentration and is followed by tissue regeneration. However, there is debate about whether regenerating cells must originate from the basalis or from stem cells and whether new estrogen supply is required for the early repair concomitant with menstruation. Fragments from human endometrial functionalis (from 24 hysterectomy specimens) were xenografted in ovariectomized SCID mice and submitted to a 4-day estradiol and progesterone withdrawal (to mimic menstruation) followed by re-exposure to estradiol (to mimic the proliferative phase). We measured signs of proliferation and changes in graft volume. Endometrium was collected from spontaneously cycling women. Cell proliferation was examined by immunolabeling Ki-67, cyclin D1 and phosphorylated-histone H3. Xenograft volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Xenograft histomorphometry was performed to determine how the different tissue compartments contributed to volume change. Hormone withdrawal induced a rapid decrease in graft volume mainly attributable to stroma condensation and breakdown, concomitant with an increase of proliferation markers. Reinsertion of estradiol pellets after induced menstruation blocked volume decrease and stimulated epithelial and stromal growth, but, surprisingly, did not induce graft enlargement. Reinsertion of both estradiol and progesterone pellets blocked apoptosis. Mechanisms of endometrial remodeling are different in women and mice and the contribution of

  20. Evaluation of Progesterone Utilization and Birth Outcomes in a State Medicaid Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydery, Tasmina; Price, Mylissa K; Greenwood, Bonnie C; Takeshita, Mito; Kunte, Parag S; Mauro, Rose P; Lenz, Kimberly; Jeffrey, Paul L

    2017-10-01

    Progesterone (hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection and vaginal progesterone) has been shown to reduce preterm birth (PTB) rates by a third among pregnant women at high risk. The purpose of this analysis is to report birth outcomes and medication adherence among Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) members receiving progesterone, evaluate the association between member characteristics and birth outcomes and medication adherence, and compare cost of care with a prior preterm pregnancy. This retrospective cohort study used medical claims, pharmacy claims, and prior authorization (PA) request data for MassHealth members who had a PA submitted for progesterone between January 1, 2011, and March 31, 2015. Members were excluded due to breaks in coverage, progesterone was not indicated for prevention of PTB, and if current gestational week or date of delivery was unavailable. A total of 418 members were screened for inclusion of whom 190 met criteria and 169 filled progesterone. Mean age was 29.2 years (SD = 5.23), and clinical comorbidities were identified in 90.5% of members. Consistent with clinical trials on progesterone effectiveness, 62.1% of members had a term delivery (37 wks of gestation). Among members with prior gestational age at delivery available, the average difference in gestational age between pregnancies was 8.25 weeks (SD = 6.11). In addition, 66.3% of members were adherent to progesterone based on proportion of days covered (PDC) of 0.8 or higher. The overall mean PDC was 0.79 (SD = 0.26). Despite similar birth outcomes in clinical trials and national trends, medication adherence is low in this state Medicaid program. Therefore, members may benefit from adherence support. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  1. Characterization of progesterone profiles in fall-calving Norwegian Red cows

    OpenAIRE

    Garmo, Randi T.; Martin, A.D.; Thuen, E.; Havrevoll, Ø.; Steinshamn, H.; Prestløkken, E.; Randby, Å.; Eknæs, M.; Waldmann, A.; Reksen, O.

    2009-01-01

    Progesterone profiles in Norwegian Red cows were categorized, and associations between the occurrence of irregularities in the profiles and the commencement of luteal activity were investigated. The cows were managed in 3 feeding trials from 1994 to 2001 and from 2005 to 2008 at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. The cows were followed from calving, and the milk samples collected represented 502 lactations from 302 cows. Milk samples for progesterone analysis were taken 3 times weekly...

  2. Serum concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol during the ovarian cycle of Syrian Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2005-01-01

    It was possible, for the first time, to characterise hormonally and precisely the oestrous cycle of the Syrian Awassi ewes, and to determine normal progesterone and oestradiol concentrations during the different phases of oestrous cycle. It is concluded that progesterone and oestradiol concentrations showed a cyclic pattern during the oestrous cycle, in addition, a negative and significant correlation between the concentrations of the two hormones was found. (author)

  3. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Application on monoclonal antibodies for progesterone measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    The duties of the mission were to provide instructions on the maintenance of hybridoma cell lines and their culture and the harvesting of monoclonal antibodies; to assist the counterparts in Thailand to develop work plans for the use of monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassay measurements of progesterone; and to assess the need for and feasibility of establishing a laboratory for producing monoclonal antibodies directed against progesterone. The report contains a summary of the activities performed in fulfillment of these duties

  4. 17 Beta-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone in the normal menstrual cycle of Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, O A; Osinusi, B O; Nduka, E U; Osotimehin, B O; Ladipo, O A

    1984-04-01

    Circulating blood levels of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone are reported in 17 normally menstruating Nigerian women. The pattern of secretion and the range of levels of estradiol and progesterone are similar to those reported in other ethnic groups. Testosterone levels were, in general, higher than corresponding values in Caucasian or Asian women, but were of the same order of magnitude as previously reported in Zambian African women.

  5. Serum Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Women with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer; Eklund, Elizabeth E; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Palomaki, Glenn E; Butterfield, Kristen; Curran, Patrizia; Bourjeily, Ghada

    2017-03-01

    Pregnancy is a risk factor for sleep disordered breathing, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Progesterone, one of the key hormones in pregnancy, a known respiratory drive stimulant, increases ventilation and may protect against OSA. We aimed to examine the relationship between circulating progesterone and OSA, after accounting for body weight and gestational age. A case control study was conducted of pregnant women with OSA and those at low risk for the disorder. Cases were identified by ICD-9 code and review of medical record. Controls were identified if they scored zero (never) for snoring, apnea, and gasping on the multivariable apnea prediction index questionnaire immediately following delivery. Subjects with available stored first and/or second trimester residual serum samples were then included in this study and serum analyzed for progesterone. Raw progesterone levels were adjusted for the effects of gestational age and maternal weight. Twenty-seven cases and 64 controls with available serum were identified. Women with OSA had greater maternal weight and higher rates of related comorbidities, compared to controls. Progesterone levels correlated positively with gestational age and negatively with greater weight. Progesterone levels, adjusted for gestational age and maternal weight and expressed as multiples of median (MoM), were significantly lower in OSA cases compared to controls in both the first trimester (MoM = 0.71, confidence interval [95% CI] 0.60-0.83) relative to the MoM in controls of 1.00. In the second trimester levels were also lower in OSA cases (MoM = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73-0.96) compared to the MoM of 1.00 in controls. Progesterone levels, after accounting for weight and gestational age, were lower in women with OSA than controls. Progesterone may play a protective role against OSA.

  6. 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) decreases progesterone synthesis through cAMP-PKA pathway and P450scc downregulation in mouse Leydig tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiumei; Tang, Rong; Chen, Xiaojiao; Xu, Bo; Qin, Yufeng; Wu, Wei; Hu, Yanhui; Xu, Bin; Song, Ling; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as flame retardants in textiles, plastics and electronics and represent a group of persistent environmental contaminants. They have been found to accumulate in human and marine mammals. Previous studies have shown that PBDEs have endocrine-disrupting properties and reproductive toxicity. However, the mechanisms under the reproductive disruptions are still not well understood. In this study, we explored the effects of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on progesterone biosynthesis and possible mechanisms in mouse Leydig tumor cells (mLTC-1). Our results showed that BDE-47 could reduce progesterone production and decrease the intracellular cAMP level induced by hCG or forskolin. These suggested that BDE-47 decreasing progesterone production in mLTC-1 cells may be associated with the decline of intracellular cAMP level. Moreover, our data also indicated that the site G protein in cAMP-PKA pathway may be involved in this process. Furthermore, the addition of cAMP analog, 8-Br-cAMP, could not reverse the decrease of progesterone biosynthesis, indicating that a post-cAMP site (or sites) might be involved into the BDE-47-decreased progesterone production. In addition, we found BDE-47 reduced the activity of P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), which was companied with the decline of P450scc mRNA and protein level in mLTC-1 cells. Put all together, these results suggested that progesterone synthesis decrease induced by BDE-47 may be associated with attenuation of cAMP generation and reduction of P450scc activity.

  7. BMP4 and BMP7 Suppress StAR and Progesterone Production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Klausen, Christian; Zhu, Hua; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-11-01

    Adequate production of progesterone by the corpus luteum is critical to the successful establishment of pregnancy. In animal models, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and BMP7 have been shown to suppress either basal or gonadotropin-induced progesterone production, depending on the species examined. However, the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on progesterone production in human granulosa cells are unknown. In the present study, we used immortalized (SVOG) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells to investigate the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production and to examine the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of primary and immortalized human granulosa cells with recombinant BMP4 or BMP7 decreased StAR expression and progesterone accumulation. In SVOG cells, the suppressive effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression were blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)2/3/6 (dorsomorphin) or ALK2/3 (DMH1) but not ALK4/5/7 (SB-431542). Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of ALK3, but not ALK2 or ALK6, reversed the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Likewise, BMP4- and BMP7-induced phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8 was reversed by treatment with DMH1 or small interfering RNA targeting ALK3. Knockdown of SMAD4, the essential common SMAD for BMP/TGF-β signaling, abolished the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Our results suggest that BMP4 and BMP7 down-regulate StAR and progesterone production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 signaling in human granulosa-lutein cells.

  8. Elevated plasma corticosterone decreases yolk testosterone and progesterone in chickens: linking maternal stress and hormone-mediated maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Henriksen

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress reproduction by downregulating gonadal hormones. Using the chicken as a model species, we therefore tested whether elevated levels of plasma corticosterone in female birds influence the production of gonadal steroids by the ovarian follicles and thus the amount of reproductive hormones in the egg yolk. Adult laying hens of two different strains (ISA brown and white Leghorn were implanted subcutaneously with corticosterone pellets that elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations over a period of nine days. Steroid hormones were subsequently quantified in plasma and yolk. Corticosterone-implanted hens of both strains had lower plasma progesterone and testosterone levels and their yolks contained less progesterone and testosterone. The treatment also reduced egg and yolk mass. Plasma estrogen concentrations decreased in white Leghorns only whereas in both strains yolk estrogens were unaffected. Our results demonstrate for the first time that maternal plasma corticosterone levels influence reproductive hormone concentrations in the yolk. Maternal corticosterone could therefore mediate environmentally induced changes in yolk gonadal hormone concentrations. In addition, stressful situations experienced by the bird mother might affect the offspring via reduced amounts of reproductive hormones present in the egg as well as available nutrients for the embryo.

  9. Metabolism of progesterone-4-14C in organ cultures of fetal adrenal glands in the human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.

    1979-01-01

    1. In 72 hours of incubation in two subsequent cultures, progesterone-4- 14 C was converted into different corticosteroids and androgenes by using explants of the adrenal glands in organ cultures, which were taken from a male fetus with a crown-to-rump length of 8.5 cm. In the most cases the water-dilutable metabolites are steroidsulfates. 2. The following individual progesterone metabolites were found: 17α-hydroxyprogesterone-4- 14 C, 16α-hydroxyprogesterone-4- 14 C, corticosterone-4- 14 C, cortisole-4- 14 C, cortisone-4- 14 C, androstendione-4- 14 C, and 11β-hydroxyandrostendione-4- 14 C. 3. These steroides let appear possible the presence and efficacy of the following enzyme systems: 17α-hydroxylase, 16α-hydroxylase, 21-hydroxylase, 11β-hydroxylase, 11β-hydroxysteroide-dehydrogenase, and Csub(17-20) desmolase. 4. Calculations of our dates by the analogue computer, which are present by now, apparently seem to render possible the kinetic of the corticosteroide biosynthesis in the tissue of fetal adrenal glands by organ cultures, because under the present conditions incubations can be carried out for considerably longer periods than by cell fractions, cell homogenates, and organ sections. (orig.) [de

  10. Regulation of gene expression by PRA-910, a novel progesterone receptor modulator, in T47D cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeffrey D; Zhang, Zhiming; Winneker, Richard C; Lyttle, C Richard

    2003-11-01

    Progestins play an important role in women's health and are used in oral contraception, hormone therapy, and treatment of reproductive disorders. The effects of progestins upon gene expression in breast epithelium are poorly understood. In an attempt to characterize the molecular mechanism of progestin action, we used a gene expression profiling approach to examine the action of a novel progestin in the T47D cell model, a human breast cancer cell line. PRA-910 is a novel, nonsteroidal progesterone receptor modulator (PRM) with species-specific activities identified in a screen for selective PRMs. To understand the mechanism of action for PRA-910 in T47D cells, we compared its gene regulation to progesterone (P4) and RU486 through Affymetrix U95A GeneChip analysis and TaqMan RT-PCR. PRA-910, P4, and RU486 regulated 50, 108, and 16 genes by threefold or greater versus vehicle, respectively, with 18 genes having similar regulation for P4 and PRA-910. These data confirm and extend previous findings for T47D cells. We also obtained time course, concentration-response, cyclohexamide sensitivity, and PR-specificity data for two progestin-regulated genes, ATP1A1 and CLDN8. Our data demonstrate that PRA-910 has a unique gene regulation profile distinct from both P4 and RU486. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism for these differences is ongoing.

  11. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed.

  12. Exogenous progesterone treatment during pregnancy for increasing milk production and growth of kids of Etawa grade goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ketut Sutama

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally, progesterone in ruminant is mainly produced by corpus luteum and it is reponsible for maintaining pregnancy, and affecting udder development and milk production. Exogenous progesterone treatment is expected to give similar positive effect on milk production as the endogenous progesterone does. Fourty mature Etawa grade (PE does were synchronized for oestrus using Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR followed by natural mating. Does then were treated with CIDR intravaginally, as a source of exogenous progesterone, at day 15-75 after mating (Group A, day 75-135 after mating (Group B, and without exogenous progesterone treatment (Control. Blood samples were taken before and after exogenous progesterone treatment for determination of progesterone concentrations. Soon after birth, kids were separated from their respective dams and they were milk fed through milk bottle. Feed consumption and milk production were measured daily, while bodyweight was measured forthnightly. Results showed that response of does following exogenous progesterone treatment was not expressed by an increase in progesterone concentration in the blood plasm. However, treatment group showed kid with birthweight of 10-13% higher compared to Control Group. In relation to milk yield, birthweight and pre-weaning growth of kids, the positive responses of exogenous progesterone treatment were not significant, though there was a substantial decrease (71.2% in pre-weaning kid’s mortality.

  13. The head extractions, brain and pituitary uptake and metabolism of progesterone and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone in anesthetized, female rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W A; Billiar, R B; Rahman, S S; Little, B

    1976-07-23

    Three days after ovariectomy adult female rabbits were injected intramuscularly with either 2 mug estradiol/kg b.w., 0.5 mg progesterone/kg b.w., 2 mug estradiol plus 0.5 mg progesterone/kg b.w., or oil vehicle daily for 5 days. On the sixth day the animals were anesthetized and given a continuous infusion of [14C]progesterone and [3H]5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5alpha-DHP) for 4 h via the femoral vein. Head extractions, calculated from the difference in blood concentrations of radioactive steriods between the femoral artery and jugular vein, were in the range of 60-75% for both progesterone and 5alpha-DHP and were unaffected by the hormone treatments. Nine brain areas and the pituitary were analyzed for [14C]progesterone, [3H]5alpha-DHP and [14C]-5alpha-DHP. Generally, the brain and pituitary retention and distribution of [14C]progesterone and [3H]5alpha-DHP and the brain and pituitary metabolism of [14C]progesterone were unaffected by hormone treatments. In the cerebellum, progesterone treatment increased [14C]progesterone retention as compared to oil treatment. All tissues contained 2-7 times more [14C]progesterone than arterial blood concentrations. [3H]5alpha-DHP tissue: arterial blood concentrations ratios were much lower ranging from 0.9 to 1.78. [14C]progesterone and [3H]5alpha-DHP showed similar brain distribution with highest concentrations in the pons, pons reticulum and midbrain reticulum. All tissues converted progesterone to 5alpha-DHP, but only the cerebellum contained more [14C]5alpha-DHP than [14C]progesterone.

  14. Inhibitory effect of progesterone on cervical tissue formation in a three-dimensional culture system with human cervical fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Michael; Tadesse-Telila, Serkalem; Norwitz, Errol R; Socrate, Simona; Kaplan, David L

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone supplementation is recommended to prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix, but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesize that progesterone acts by altering the composition of the cervical extracellular matrix (ECM). We tested this hypothesis using human cervical fibroblasts in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultures. For 2D culture, cells were seeded in 6-well plates and cultured with media supplemented with estradiol (10(-8) M), progesterone (10(-7) or 10(-6) M), and vehicle. For 3D culture, the cells were cultured on a porous silk protein scaffold system. Progesterone and estrogen receptors were documented by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In both 2D and 3D cultures, decreased collagen synthesis was seen with increased progesterone concentration. Three-dimensional cultures could be maintained significantly longer than 2D cultures, and the morphology of 3D cultures appeared similar to native cervical tissue. Thus, further studies were performed in 3D culture. To determine the effect of progesterone concentration, the 3D scaffolds were cultured with estradiol (10(-8) M) and five conditions: vehicle; 10(-9), 10(-8), or 10(-7) M progesterone; or 10(-7) M progesterone plus 10(-6) M mifepristone. The highest progesterone concentration correlated with the least amount of collagen synthesis. Collagen synthesis progressively increased as progesterone concentration decreased. This effect was partially antagonized by mifepristone, suggesting the mechanism is mediated by the progesterone receptor. This hormonally responsive 3D culture system supports the hypothesis that progesterone has a direct effect on remodeling cervical ECM during pregnancy. The 3D culture system could be useful for studying the mechanism of progesterone effects on the cervix.

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Progesterone on Cervical Tissue Formation in a Three-Dimensional Culture System with Human Cervical Fibroblasts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Michael; Tadesse-Telila, Serkalem; Norwitz, Errol R.; Socrate, Simona; Kaplan, David L.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Progesterone supplementation is recommended to prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix, but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesize that progesterone acts by altering the composition of the cervical extracellular matrix (ECM). We tested this hypothesis using human cervical fibroblasts in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultures. For 2D culture, cells were seeded in 6-well plates and cultured with media supplemented with estradiol (10−8 M), progesterone (10−7 or 10−6 M), and vehicle. For 3D culture, the cells were cultured on a porous silk protein scaffold system. Progesterone and estrogen receptors were documented by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. In both 2D and 3D cultures, decreased collagen synthesis was seen with increased progesterone concentration. Three-dimensional cultures could be maintained significantly longer than 2D cultures, and the morphology of 3D cultures appeared similar to native cervical tissue. Thus, further studies were performed in 3D culture. To determine the effect of progesterone concentration, the 3D scaffolds were cultured with estradiol (10−8 M) and five conditions: vehicle; 10−9, 10−8, or 10−7 M progesterone; or 10−7 M progesterone plus 10−6 M mifepristone. The highest progesterone concentration correlated with the least amount of collagen synthesis. Collagen synthesis progressively increased as progesterone concentration decreased. This effect was partially antagonized by mifepristone, suggesting the mechanism is mediated by the progesterone receptor. This hormonally responsive 3D culture system supports the hypothesis that progesterone has a direct effect on remodeling cervical ECM during pregnancy. The 3D culture system could be useful for studying the mechanism of progesterone effects on the cervix. PMID:24285720

  16. Detection of pregnancy in Zraibi goats does using Doppler radiation and serum progesterone profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.A.M.; Fekry, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Forty-four Zraibi does used at the age of 3-4 years. Does kept in closed barn with Zraibi intact males (bucks) for the period of 2 months. At the end of 2- months period, pregnancy was detected using hand-held portable Doppler. Live body weight, heart girth, abdominal girth and pelvic girth were recorded. At the same time, blood samples were withdrawn and plasma was separated and then stored at -20 degree C until assayed for progesterone concentrations. Progesterone concentrations were detected. Data were statistically analyzed and all of the specificity, sensitivity, predictive value positive and the predictive value negative of both Doppler and progesterone concentrations were calculated. The data revealed that body weights and heart girth of non-pregnant and pregnant in offspring of different gender does were not significantly different, while serum progesterone levels along with abdominal girth and pelvic girth in non-pregnant and pregnant offspring of different gender does were significantly (P<0.01) different. It has been found that Doppler score is significantly (P<0.01) dependant on serum progesterone level in over-all does. Pregnancy detection using Doppler in Zraibi does has specificity of 100%, sensitivity of 92.5%, predictive value positive = 57.1% and predictive value negative = 100%, while pregnancy detection using serum progesterone profile in Zraibi does has specificity of 100%, sensitivity of 100%, predictive value positive = 100% and predictive value negative = 100%.

  17. Milk progesterone profiles and the effect of the buck during the anoestrous period in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi; Chen Faju; Song Xuehua; Wang Kairong; Liu Xiangmo; Xu Gongyi

    1991-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles in Chengdu Mah (CM), Saanen (S) and crossbred (CM x S, F1) goats were determined using radioimmunoassay throughout the period from kidding to the beginning of the next breeding season. Different patterns of progesterone profiles were recorded in these does. When milk progesterone concentrations were elevated above 6 ng/mL for at least 6 days they were regarded as signs of ovarian activity. The frequencies of such rises during anoestrus were 4.0, 1.8 and 2.5 per animal in CM, S and F1 goats respectively. The frequencies of progesterone rise were higher than that of behavioural oestrus in the does. After exposing the does to the buck three times during the anoestrus period, no significant 'male effect' was observed on the milk progesterone level or behavioural oestrus during the first six months after kidding. The male effect on behavioural oestrus became apparent only in the seventh month after kidding, while milk progesterone levels did not change markedly compared with those of the control does. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  18. Luteal Phase Support in assisted reproductive technology treatment: focus on Endometrin(R) (progesterone) vaginal insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, Jerome H

    2009-08-01

    Supplementation of progesterone in the luteal phase and continuance of progesterone therapy during the first trimester has been found in several studies to have benefits in promoting fertility, preventing miscarriages and even preventing pre-term labor. Though it can be administered orally, intramuscularly or even sublingually, a very effective route with fewer side effects can be achieved by an intravaginal route. The first vaginal preparations were not made commercially but were compounded by pharmacies. This had the disadvantage of lack of control by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ensuring efficacy of the preparations. Furthermore there was a lack of precise dosing leading to batch to batch variation. The first commercially approved vaginal progesterone preparation in the United States was a vaginal gel which has proven very effective. The main side effect was accumulation of a buildup of the vaginal gel sometimes leading to irritation. Natural micronized progesterone for vaginal administration with the brand name of Utrogestan A((R)) had been approved even before the gel in certain European countries. Endometrin((R)) vaginal tablets are the newest natural progesterone approved by the FDA. Comparisons to the vaginal gel and to intramuscular progesterone have shown similar efficacy especially in studies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte egg retrieval and embryo transfer. Larger studies are needed to compare side effects.

  19. Expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in vestibular schwannomas and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Rakesh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective was to determine the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in vestibular schwannomas as well as to determine predictive factors for estrogen and progesterone receptor positivity. Materials and methods The study included 100 cases of vestibular schwannomas operated from January 2006 to June 2009. The clinical details were noted from the medical case files. Formaldehyde-fixed parafiin-embedded archival vestibular schwannomas specimens were used for the immunohistochemical assessment of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Results Neither estrogen nor progesterone receptors could be detected in any of our cases by means of well known immunohistochemical method using well documented monoclonal antibodies. In the control specimens, a strongly positive reaction could be seen. Conclusion No estrogen and progesterone receptor could be found in any of our 100 cases of vestibular schwannomas. Hence our study does not support a causative role of estrogen and progesterone in the growth of vestibular schwannoma as well as hormonal manipulation in the treatment of this tumor.

  20. Naturally occurring progesterone in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.): a major steroid precursor of environmental androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John D; Jenkins, Ronald L; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Howell, W Mike; Moore, Ray

    2008-06-01

    Progesterone, androstenedione, and androstadienedione were previously identified in the water and sediment of the Fenholloway River (Taylor County, FL, USA), a river that contains populations of masculinized female mosquitofish downstream of a paper mill, at levels higher than those in the nearby Spring Creek. Plant sterols, such as beta-sitosterol in mill effluent derived from pine tree pulp, were suggested to be metabolized by bacteria to progesterone and androgens to account for the masculinization phenomenon. The current study made use of standard solid-phase methanol extraction procedures, high-performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and a cell-based, androgen-receptor transcription assay to determine naturally occurring progesterone levels in mature pine trees. Progesterone concentrations in the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were 49.34 +/- 4.1 nmol/g dry mature wood (15.5 +/- 1.29 microg/g), 12.26 +/- 1.78 nmol/g pine needles (3.85 +/- 0.56 microg/g), and 3.81 +/- 0.36 nmol/g pine bark (1.19 +/- 0.11 mug/g). The results suggest that naturally occurring progesterone from pine wood pulp contributes to increased progesterone levels downstream of paper mill effluent discharges and may serve as the natural steroid precursor for environmental androgen production that causes masculinization of female mosquitofish.

  1. Cellular Mechanics of Primary Human Cervical Fibroblasts: Influence of Progesterone and a Pro-inflammatory Cytokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vasudha; Barnhouse, Victoria; Ackerman, William E; Summerfield, Taryn L; Powell, Heather M; Leight, Jennifer L; Kniss, Douglas A; Ghadiali, Samir N

    2018-01-01

    The leading cause of neonatal mortality, pre-term birth, is often caused by pre-mature ripening/opening of the uterine cervix. Although cervical fibroblasts play an important role in modulating the cervix's extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanical properties, it is not known how hormones, i.e., progesterone, and pro-inflammatory insults alter fibroblast mechanics, fibroblast-ECM interactions and the resulting changes in tissue mechanics. Here we investigate how progesterone and a pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, alter the biomechanical properties of human cervical fibroblasts and the fibroblast-ECM interactions that govern tissue-scale mechanics. Primary human fibroblasts were isolated from non-pregnant cervix and treated with estrogen/progesterone, IL-1β or both. The resulting changes in ECM gene expression, matrix remodeling, traction force generation, cell-ECM adhesion and tissue contractility were monitored. Results indicate that IL-1β induces a significant reduction in traction force and ECM adhesion independent of pre-treatment with progesterone. These cell level effects altered tissue-scale mechanics where IL-1β inhibited the contraction of a collagen gel over 6 days. Interestingly, progesterone treatment alone did not modulate traction forces or gel contraction but did result in a dramatic increase in cell-ECM adhesion. Therefore, the protective effect of progesterone may be due to altered adhesion dynamics as opposed to altered ECM remodeling.

  2. Regulation of uterine progesterone receptors by the nonsteroidal anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, Y.; Armstrong, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have recently reported that the anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide causes delayed implantation and exhibits antideciduogenic activity in the rat. The present experiments were conducted to examine whether hydroxyflutamide binds to the uterine progesterone receptors and/or alters the progesterone binding sites in the uterus. Cytosol and nuclear fractions from decidualized rat uterus were incubated with [3H]-R5020 without or with increasing concentrations of radioinert R5020, RU486, dihydrotestosterone, or hydroxyflutamide. From the log-dose inhibition curves, the relative binding affinity of both hydroxyflutamide and dihydrotestosterone was less than 0.1% and 2%, compared with R5020 (100%) for displacing [3H]-R5020 bound to uterine cytosol and nuclear fractions, respectively. Injection of estradiol-17 beta (1 microgram/rat) to ovariectomized prepubertal rats induced a 1.85-fold increase in uterine weight by 24 h. Hydroxyflutamide at 2.5 or 5.0 mg did not significantly alter the estrogen-induced increase in uterine weight. Compared to vehicle alone, estrogen induced an approximately 5-fold increase in uterine cytosolic progesterone binding sites. Hydroxyflutamide at both 2.5- and 5.0-mg doses significantly attenuated the estrogen-induced elevation in uterine progesterone binding sites. These studies demonstrate that hydroxyflutamide does not bind with high affinity to progesterone receptors, but suppresses the estrogen-induced elevation in progesterone receptor levels in the uterus

  3. Metabolic level recognition of progesterone in dairy Holstein cows using probabilistic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila N. Turino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of exogenous progesterone is widely used in hormonal protocols for estrous (resynchronization of dairy cattle without regarding pharmacological issues for dose calculation. This happens because it is difficult to estimate the metabolic level of progesterone for each individual cow before administration. In the present contribution, progesterone pharmacokinetics has been determined in lactating Holstein cows with different milk production yields. A Bayesian approach has been implemented to build two probabilistic progesterone pharmacokinetic models for high and low yield dairy cows. Such models are based on a one-compartment Hill structure. Posterior probabilistic models have been structurally set up and parametric probability density functions have been empirically estimated. Moreover, a global sensitivity analysis has been done to know sensitivity profile of each model. Finally, posterior probabilistic models have adequately recognized cow’s progesterone metabolic level in a validation set when Kullback-Leibler based indices were used. These results suggest that milk yield may be a good index for estimating pharmacokinetic level of progesterone.

  4. Progesterone prevents nerve injury-induced allodynia and spinal NMDA receptor upregulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, María Florencia; Labombarda, Florencia; Roig, Paulina; Villar, Marcelo José; De Nicola, Alejandro Federico; González, Susana Laura

    2011-08-01

    Peripheral nerve injury-evoked neuropathic pain still remains a therapeutic challenge. Recent studies support the notion that progesterone, a neuroactive steroid, may offer a promising perspective in pain modulation. Evaluate the effect of progesterone administration on the development of neuropathic pain-associated allodynia and on the spinal expression of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor subunit 1 (NR1), its phosphorylated form (pNR1), and the gamma isoform of protein kinase C (PKCγ), all key players in the process of central sensitization, in animals subjected to a sciatic nerve constriction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a sciatic nerve single ligature constriction and treated with daily subcutaneous injections of progesterone (16 mg/kg) or vehicle. The development of hindpaw mechanical and thermal allodynia was assessed using the von Frey and Choi tests, respectively. Twenty two days after injury, the number of neuronal profiles exhibiting NR1, pNR1, or PKCγ immunoreactivity was determined in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Injured animals receiving progesterone did not develop mechanical allodynia and showed a significantly lower number of painful responses to cold stimulation. In correlation with the observed attenuation of pain behaviors, progesterone administration significantly reduced the number of NR1, pNR1, and PKCγ immunoreactive neuronal profiles. Our results show that progesterone prevents allodynia in a rat model of sciatic nerve constriction and reinforce its role as a potential treatment for neuropathic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. THE CONSUMER’S RIGHT OF WITHDRAWAL FROM CONTRACTS CONCLUDED BY ELECTRONIC MEANS IN ROMANIAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA GIURANIUC (TUDORACHE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the legislation, doctrinal opinions and relevant case law regarding the consumer's right of withdrawal from contracts concluded by electronic means (e-contracts.The objectives pursued by the author are:- establishing the juridical nature of consumer's right of withdrawal from e-contracts;- identification of problems that could arise from law’s interpretation,- issuing of the de lege ferenda proposals.Governmental Ordinance no. 130/2000 introduces a new exception to the principle of irrevocability of contracts in Romanian law: the consumer's right of withdrawal from distance contracts. The same Ordinance sets the scope and conditions for the applicability of this right.Consumer's right of withdrawal from e-contracts, as a type of distance contracts, can be exercised without the need to give any specific reason and without penalties, within 10 working days from the date of receiving the goods or from the another moment depending on the specifics set out in GO no. 130/2000. If consumer cancels the distance contract on the basis that he does not like the goods, the withdrawal from the contract is valid, even if the withdrawal solely depended on the will of the consumer, this sets out a legal exception from the provisions of art. 1010 of Civil Code which stipulate the nullity of the obligations undertook by the liable person under the condition “if I want”.Sales of goods by electronic means, as a particular case of a distance contracts, is, therefore, a new form of selling, governed by its own specific legal regime.

  6. Trajectories of abstinence-induced Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms: A prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kaptsis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD is positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The IGD criteria refer to withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, or sadness, that follow cessation of Internet gaming (APA, 2013. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the nature of Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms, if they occur, under gaming abstinence conditions. This study employed a repeated-measures protocol to examine the cognitive-affective reactions of participants undertaking an 84-h Internet gaming abstinence period. The sample included individuals who met the IGD criteria as well as those who regularly played Internet games but did not meet the IGD criteria. Outcome variables included affect (positive and negative, psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress, and Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms (craving/urge, thoughts about gaming, inability to resist gaming. A total of 24 participants (Mage = 24.6 years, SD = 5.8 were recruited from online gaming communities, and completed a series of online surveys before, during, and after abstaining from Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO games. Both the IGD group and the non-IGD group experienced an abstinence-induced decline in withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect, and psychological distress. The IGD group experienced its largest decline in withdrawal symptomatology within the first 24 h of abstinence. These preliminary data suggest that gaming withdrawal symptoms may follow, at least initially, negative linear and quadratic trends. Further prospective work in larger samples involving longer periods of abstinence is required to verify and expand upon these observations.

  7. [Withdrawal syndrome in a critically ill child after sedation with midazolam and fentanyl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Itaru; Tomiyama, Hiroshi; Tokumine, Joho; Sugahara, Kazuhiro

    2004-07-01

    A 7-year-old girl suffered from withdrawal syndrome with systemic convulsion after sedation with midazolam and fentanyl. She had a history of severe accidental alkaline esophagitis, and under went polysurgeries. This time, she was scheduled to receive reconstruction of the esophagus with small intestine in order to resolve esophageal stenosis. Operation and anesthesia lasted for 14 hours, and 17 hours, respectively. In the postoperative period, she was under heavy sedation with midazolam and fentanyl in order to keep neck position immobile. Her sedation persisted for 14 postoperative days, and the total doses of midazolam and fentanyl were more than 100 mg x kg(-1), and 6.4 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Thereafter, her sedation was tapered and discontinued within about 24 hours. After 12 hours, she suddenly developed systemic convulsion with loss of consciousness. There was no evidence of obvious organic central nervous system abnormality. We suspected withdrawal syndrome, and gradual decrease of midazolam and fentanyl prevented her from going into withdrawal syndrome. We have to pay attention to withdrawal syndrome when heavy and long sedation with midazolam and fentanyl was employed and the drugs were then tapered and discontinued.

  8. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, M; Biegner, T; Teriete, P; Hoefert, S; Krimmel, M; Munz, A; Reinert, S

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC.

  9. Subfertility linked to combined luteal insufficiency and uterine progesterone resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Toshihiro; Graham, Amanda R; Rempel, Lea A; Ho-Chen, Jennifer K; Alam, S M Khorshed; Bu, Pengli; Rumi, M A Karim; Soares, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Early pregnancy loss is common and can be caused by a range of factors. The Brown Norway (BN) rat exhibits reproductive dysfunction characterized by small litter size and pregnancy failure and represents a model for investigating early pregnancy loss. In this study, we investigated the establishment of pregnancy in the BN rat and gained insight into mechanisms causing its subfertility. Early stages of BN uteroplacental organization are unique. The BN primordial placenta is restricted in its development and correlates with limited BN uterine decidual development. BN uterine decidua was shown to be both structurally and functionally distinct and correlated with decreased circulating progesterone (P4) levels. Ovarian anomalies were also apparent in BN rats and included decreased ovulation rates and decreased transcript levels for some steroidogenic enzymes. Attempts to rescue the BN uterine decidual phenotype with steroid hormone therapy were ineffective. BN uteri were shown to exhibit reduced responsiveness to P4 but not to 17beta-estradiol. P4 resistance was associated with decreased transcript levels for the P4 receptor (Pgr), a P4 receptor chaperone (Fkbp4), and P4 receptor coactivators (Ncoa1 and Ncoa2). In summary, the BN rat exhibits luteal insufficiency and uterine P4 resistance, which profoundly affects its ability to reproduce.

  10. Progesterone and ovulation across stages of the transition to menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathleen A; Ferrell, Rebecca; Brindle, Eleanor; Trumble, Benjamin; Shofer, Jane; Holman, Darryl J; Weinstein, Maxine

    2009-01-01

    Detailed characterization of progesterone and ovulation across the menopausal transition provides insight into conception risk and mechanisms of reproductive aging. Participants (n = 108, aged 25-58 y) collected daily urine specimens for 6-month intervals in each of 5 consecutive years. Specimens were assayed for pregnanediol glucuronide (PDG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estrone glucuronide (E1G). Reproductive stage was determined using cycle length variance. A hierarchical algorithm was used to identify ovulation. Linear mixed-effects models estimated (1) the frequency and day of ovulation by age and stage; (2) differences in FSH, LH, and E1G levels between ovulatory (O) and anovulatory (AO) cycles; and (3) total PDG levels and PDG levels in O cycles by age and stage. The probability of AO cycles increased across the perimenopause (P 60%), but one quarter of cycles longer than 60 days were O. Average day of ovulation was later in the late perimenopause (mean [SD] cycle day, 27 [25] d) compared with the premenopause. FSH and LH levels were higher and E1G levels were lower in AO than O cycles (P < 0.0001 for each). Total PDG decreased in the late perimenopause, but 95th percentile PDG in O cycles declined steadily across the transition. Exposure to the risk of conception in women experiencing cycles long enough to classify them as late perimenopausal is far from negligible. Reproductive stage is more informative than age about PDG levels and the likelihood of anovulation.

  11. Validation of kinetic modeling of progesterone release from polymeric membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Irma Romero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling in drug release systems is fundamental in development and optimization of these systems, since it allows to predict drug release rates and to elucidate the physical transport mechanisms involved. In this paper we validate a novel mathematical model that describes progesterone (Prg controlled release from poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB membranes. A statistical analysis was conducted to compare the fitting of our model with six different models and the Akaike information criterion (AIC was used to find the equation with best-fit. A simple relation between mass and drug released rate was found, which allows predicting the effect of Prg loads on the release behavior. Our proposed model was the one with minimum AIC value, and therefore it was the one that statistically fitted better the experimental data obtained for all the Prg loads tested. Furthermore, the initial release rate was calculated and therefore, the interface mass transfer coefficient estimated and the equilibrium distribution constant of Prg between the PHB and the release medium was also determined. The results lead us to conclude that our proposed model is the one which best fits the experimental data and can be successfully used to describe Prg drug release in PHB membranes.

  12. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O' Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  13. New Drugs of Abuse and Withdrawal Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrabi, Sara; Greene, Spencer; Moukaddam, Nidal; Moukkadam, Nidal; Li, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    New drugs of abuse continue to emerge, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and hallucinogens. It is important to recognize their individual psychopharmacologic properties, symptoms of intoxication, and symptoms of withdrawal. Providers must be vigilant of acute medical or psychiatric complications that may arise from use of these substances. Treatment of the patient also includes recognition of any substance use disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although pharmacologic treatments for substance use disorder (of the drugs included in this article) are limited, there are a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities that may be of some benefit. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Why withdrawal from the European Union is undemocratic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents; Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2017-01-01

    The Lisbon Treaty from 2009 introduced the possibility for individual member states to withdraw from the European Union (EU) on the basis of a unilateral decision. In June 2016 the UK decided to leave the EU invoking article 50 of the treaty. But is withdrawal democratically legitimate? In fact...... argue that it is the effect of withdrawal on the status of citizens as free and equal that is decisive and that explains why unilateral withdrawal of subunits from larger units is democratically illegitimate. Moreover, on the ‘all affected status principle’ that we develop, even multilaterally agreed...... withdrawal is undemocratic because the latter diminishes the future ability of citizens to make decisions together regarding issues that affect their status as free and equal. On this basis, we conclude that it is undemocratic for a member state such as the UK to withdraw from the European Union....

  15. Effects of ovarian hormones and oral contraceptive pills on cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L Teixeira

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ovarian hormones and the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP on cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise. Thirty physically active women aged 19-32 years were divided into two groups: OCP users (n = 17 and non-OCP users (n = 13. Participants were studied randomly at three different phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular (day 3.6 ± 1.2; range 1-5, ovulatory (day 14.3 ± 0.8; range 13-16 and midluteal (day 21.3 ± 0.8; range 20-24, according to endogenous (in non-OCP users or exogenous (in OCP users estradiol and progesterone variations. The cardiac vagal withdrawal was represented by the cardiac vagal index (CVI, which was obtained by the 4-s exercise test. Additionally, resting heart rate, systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were obtained. The CVI was not significantly different between the three phases of the menstrual cycle in either the non-OCP users (early follicular: 1.58 ± 0.1; ovulatory: 1.56 ± 0.1; midluteal: 1.58 ± 0.1, P > 0.05 or OCP users (early follicular: 1.47 ± 0.1; ovulatory: 1.49 ± 0.1; midluteal: 1.47 ± 0.1, P > 0.05 (mean ± SEM. Resting cardiovascular responses were not affected by hormonal phase or OCP use, except that the SBP was higher in the OCP users than non-OCP users in all phases of the cycle (P < 0.05. In summary, our results demonstrate that cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise was not impacted by the menstrual cycle or OCP use in physically active women.

  16. Smartphone Restriction and its Effect on Subjective Withdrawal Related Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Aarestad, Sarah Helene; Eide, Tine Almenning

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone overuse is associated with a number of negative consequences for the individual and the environment. In the right end of the distribution of smartphone usage, concepts such as smartphone addiction seem warranted. An area that so far lacks research concerns the effect of smartphone restriction generally and specifically on subjective withdrawal related scores across different degrees of smartphone usage. The present study examined withdrawal related scores on the Smartphone Withdraw...

  17. 50 CFR 259.33 - Constructive deposits and withdrawals; ratification of withdrawals (as qualified) made without...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... more timely fashion. (c) Constructive deposits (after Interim CCF Agreement effectiveness date). The... timely fashion. (2) All parties shall be counseled that it is manifestly in their best interest to... withdrawal adversely affects the Interim CCF Agreement's general status in any wise deemed by the Secretary...

  18. Progesterone profiles around the time of insemination do not show clear differences between of pregnant and not pregnant dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorzecka, Justyna; Codrea, Marius Cosmin; Friggens, Nicolas C

    2011-01-01

    differences between the groups. However, the analysis correctly classified 75% of true pregnant cows. Conversely, only 60% of not pregnant animals were classified as such by the discriminate analysis. Individual analysis of progesterone profile features in pregnant and not pregnant groups of estrous cycles......In this study, features of progesterone profiles were examined in relation to the outcome of insemination. Three groups of estrous cycles were analyzed: resulting in pregnancy, not resulting in pregnancy and resulting in lost pregnancy. The aim of the study was to identify a complex of progesterone...... profile features associated with successful insemination. The features used were (1) from the estrous cycle preceding the artificial insemination: estrus progesterone concentration, post-estrus maximum rate of increase in progesterone, luteal phase peak, pre-estrus maximum rate of decline in progesterone...

  19. Clinical utility of progesterone receptor modulators and their effect on the endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Irving M

    2009-08-01

    In view of the spate of recent publications related to mifepristone and some second generation progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs), this appears to be an opportune time to view the clinical status of these compounds. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials have been conducted with mifepristone, CDB-4124 (Proellex), CDB-2914 (VA 2914, Ulipristal) and asoprisnil (J867). All these PRMs are effective in the treatment of uterine fibroids where they are associated with a reduction in pain, bleeding and improvement in quality of life and decrease in fibroid size. CDB-4124 is also efficacious in endometriosis. Long-term treatment with PRMs may be associated with endometrial thickening on ultrasound and there have been reports of endometrial hyperplasia. Several reassuring recent publications have done much to explain the mechanism underlying these endometrial changes. The most common histological finding is cystic glandular dilatation often associated with both admixed estrogen (mitotic) and progestin (secretory) epithelial effects. This histology has not been previously encountered in clinical practice and should not be confused with endometrial hyperplasia. The endometrial thickness is related to this cystic glandular dilatation. At this stage of development, PRMs cannot be administered for longer than 3 or 4 months. Even over this time, there is improvement of symptoms associated with fibroids and endometriosis. Clinicians and pathologists need to be aware that the endometrial thickening and histological appearance do not represent endometrial hyperplasia.

  20. The chromatin Remodeler CHD8 is required for activation of progesterone receptor-dependent enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ceballos-Chávez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While the importance of gene enhancers in transcriptional regulation is well established, the mechanisms and the protein factors that determine enhancers activity have only recently begun to be unravelled. Recent studies have shown that progesterone receptor (PR binds regions that display typical features of gene enhancers. Here, we show by ChIP-seq experiments that the chromatin remodeler CHD8 mostly binds promoters under proliferation conditions. However, upon progestin stimulation, CHD8 re-localizes to PR enhancers also enriched in p300 and H3K4me1. Consistently, CHD8 depletion severely impairs progestin-dependent gene regulation. CHD8 binding is PR-dependent but independent of the pioneering factor FOXA1. The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex is required for PR-dependent gene activation. Interestingly, we show that CHD8 interacts with the SWI/SNF complex and that depletion of BRG1 and BRM, the ATPases of SWI/SNF complex, impairs CHD8 recruitment. We also show that CHD8 is not required for H3K27 acetylation, but contributes to increase accessibility of the enhancer to DNaseI. Furthermore, CHD8 was required for RNAPII recruiting to the enhancers and for transcription of enhancer-derived RNAs (eRNAs. Taken together our data demonstrate that CHD8 is involved in late stages of PR enhancers activation.

  1. [The progesterone receptor gene polymorphism as factor of risk for the preterm delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; da Cunha, Danielle Renzoni; Policastro, Adriana; Traina, Évelyn; Gomes, Mariano Tamura; Cordioli, Eduardo

    2011-06-01

    to investigate the association between gene polymorphism of the progesterone receptor (PROGINS) and the risk of premature birth. In this case-control study, 57 women with previous premature delivery (Case Group) and 57 patients with delivery at term in the current pregnancy and no history of preterm delivery (Control Group) were selected. A 10 mL amount of peripheral blood was collected by venipuncture and genomic DNA was extracted followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) under specific conditions for this polymorphism and 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized with an ultraviolet light transilluminator. Genotype and allele PROGINS frequencies were compared between the two groups by the χ2 test, with the level of significance set at value p < 0.05. The Odds Ratio (OR) was also used, with 95% confidence intervals. PROGINS genotypic frequencies were 75.4% T1/T1, 22.8% T1/T2 and 1.8% T2/T2 in the Group with Preterm Delivery and 80.7% T1/T1, 19.3% T1/T2 and 0% T2/T2 in the term Delivery Group. There were no differences between groups when genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed: p = 0.4 (OR = 0.7) and p = 0.4 (OR = 0.7). the present study suggests that the presence of PROGINS polymorphism in our population does not constitute a risk factor for premature birth.

  2. Predictors of withdrawal: possible precursors of avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggum, Natalie D; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Valiente, Carlos; Edwards, Alison; Kupfer, Anne S; Reiser, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Relations of avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) with shyness and inhibition suggest that a precursor of AvPD is withdrawal. Using a sample of 4.5- to 7-year-olds studied four times, 2 years apart, four and three classes of children differing in trajectories of mother- and teacher-reported withdrawal, respectively, were identified. Mothers and teachers generally did not agree on children's trajectories but the pattern of findings in the two contexts did not differ markedly. The mother-identified high and declining withdrawal class, in comparison with less withdrawn classes, and the teacher-identified high and declining class compared with low withdrawal classes, were associated with relatively high levels of anger and low levels of attentional control and resiliency. The mother-identified moderate and increasing withdrawal class was distinguished from less problematic withdrawal classes by higher anger, lower resiliency, and sometimes, lower attentional control. The teacher-identified low and increasing withdrawal class was distinguished from less problematic withdrawal classes by lower resiliency and lower attentional control. Findings are discussed in terms of the developmental precursors to social withdrawal and avoidant behavior.

  3. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The aim of this review was to examine the state of current knowledge of gaming withdrawal symptomatology, given the importance of withdrawal in positioning the disorder as a behavioral addiction. A total of 34 studies, including 10 qualitative studies, 17 research reports on psychometric instruments, and 7 treatment studies, were evaluated. The results indicated that the available evidence on Internet gaming withdrawal is very underdeveloped. Internet gaming withdrawal is most consistently referred to as 'irritability' and 'restlessness' following cessation of the activity. There exists a concerning paucity of qualitative studies that provide detailed clinical descriptions of symptoms arising from cessation of internet gaming. This has arguably compromised efforts to quantify withdrawal symptoms in empirical studies of gaming populations. Treatment studies have not reported on the natural course of withdrawal and/or withdrawal symptom trajectory following intervention. It is concluded that many more qualitative clinical studies are needed, and should be prioritised, to develop our understanding of gaming withdrawal. This should improve clinical descriptions of problematic internet gaming and in turn improve the quantification of IGD withdrawal and thus treatments for harmful internet gaming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 4133 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice Regarding the Review of a Petition To Withdraw...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice Regarding the Review of a Petition To Withdraw the Eligibility of Certain Sleeping Bags Under the GSP... treatment under the GSP program. This notice sets forth the schedule for submitting comments and review of...

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beilei Lei

    Full Text Available Female sex is associated with improved outcome in experimental brain injury models, such as traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage. This implies female gonadal steroids may be neuroprotective. A mechanism for this may involve modulation of post-injury neuroinflammation. As the resident immunomodulatory cells in central nervous system, microglia are activated during acute brain injury and produce inflammatory mediators which contribute to secondary injury including proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, mediated by inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, respectively. We hypothesized that female gonadal steroids reduce microglia mediated neuroinflammation. In this study, the progesterone's effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 expression were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia. Further, investigation included nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. LPS (30 ng/ml upregulated TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 protein expression in BV-2 cells. Progesterone pretreatment attenuated LPS-stimulated TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent fashion. Progesterone suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation by decreasing inhibitory κBα and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Progesterone decreased LPS-mediated phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular regulated kinase MAPKs. These progesterone effects were inhibited by its antagonist mifepristone. In conclusion, progesterone exhibits pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia by down-regulating proinflammatory mediators corresponding to suppression of NF-κB and MAPK activation. This suggests progesterone may be used as a potential neurotherapeutic to treat inflammatory components of acute brain injury.

  6. LH, progesterone and oestrogens in blood of cows after GnRH- or HCG-application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberpichler, D.

    1991-03-01

    The synthetic GnRH analog Buserelin (20 μg) was given i.m. to pregnant cows 10, 6, 2 and 1 week before term (group A - D; n=8/group). Two days later HCG (2.400 IU) was injected in all animals. Additionally 8 cows which were pregnant between 28 - 32 weeks served as controls. In other 4 cows oesterone (10 mg i.m. daily) was given for a period of 6 days. Blood samples were calculated at -60, -30, 30, 60, 90, 120, 240 and 360 minutes after GnRH- or HCG-injections from the jugular vein. The concentrations of LH, progesterone, unconjugated and conjugated oestrogens were measured by radioimmunoassay. In the control group maximal LH-values occured 120 to 240 min after GnRH-injection (20.3 ± 4.7 ng/ml). Progesterone values increased to 8.4 ± 1.2 ng/ml at the same time. At later stages of pregnancy the LH-maxima decreased (group A - D: 11.1 ± 5.6; 9.0 ± 7.7; 4.6 ± 1.9 and 2.8 ± 0.6 ng/ml). Progesterone maxima showed a decrease from 8.2 ± 1.2 (controls) to 4.4 ± 1.8 ng/ml (group B). Progesterone values were not different between groups A and B whereas significant differences were found in LH and progesterone values compared to the control group. HCG-injections had similar effects as GnRH on progesterone concentrations, whereas LH-values were not altered. Oestrogen concentrations increased with ongoing pregnancy and showed no alterations by GnRH/HCG-application. The GnRH/HCG-injections did not prolong pregnancy. The injection of oestrone did not decrease the progesterone concentration after GnRH or HCG application, respectively. (author)

  7. Progesterone increases csk homologous kinase in HMC-1560 human mast cells and reduces cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belot, Marie-Pierre; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa; Gaudin, Françoise; Emilie, Dominique; Machelon, Véronique

    2007-12-01

    Mast cells proliferate in vivo in areas of active fibrosis, during parasite infestations, in response to repeated immediate hypersensitivity reactions and in patients with mastocytosis. We investigated how progesterone reduces the proliferation of HMC-1(560) mast cells that proliferate spontaneously in culture. Cells were incubated with 1 microM to 1 nM progesterone for 24-48 h. Progesterone (1 microM) reduced the spontaneous proliferation of HMC-1(560) mast cells to half that of cells cultured without hormone. [(3)H] thymidine incorporation was only 50% of control; there were fewer cells in G2/M and more cells in G0/G1. The amounts of phospho-Raf-1 (Tyr 340-341) and phospho-p42/p44 MAPK proteins were also reduced. In contrast progesterone had no effect on MAP kinase-phosphatase-1. The Raf/MAPK pathway, which depends on Src kinase activity, is implicated in the control of cell proliferation. HMC-1(560) cells incubated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 proliferated more slowly than controls and had less phospho-Raf-1 (Tyr 340-341) and phospho-p42/p44 MAPK. The Csk homologous kinase (CHK), an endogenous inhibitor of Src protein tyrosine kinases, was also enhanced in progesterone-treated cells. In contrast, progesterone had no effect on the growth of cells transfected with siRNA CHK. We conclude that progesterone increases the amount of csk homologous kinase, which in turn reduces HMC-1(560) mast cell proliferation. This effect parallels decreases in the phosphorylated forms of Raf-1 and p42/44 MAPK, as their production depends on Src kinase activity. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. A Role of Endogenous Progesterone in Stroke Cerebroprotection Revealed by the Neural-Specific Deletion of Its Intracellular Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Fréchou, Magalie; Liere, Philippe; Zhang, Shaodong; Pianos, Antoine; Fernandez, Neïké; Denier, Christian; Mattern, Claudia; Schumacher, Michael; Guennoun, Rachida

    2017-11-08

    Treatment with progesterone protects the male and female brain against damage after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). However, in both sexes, the brain contains significant amounts of endogenous progesterone. It is not known whether endogenously produced progesterone enhances the resistance of the brain to ischemic insult. Here, we used steroid profiling by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for exploring adaptive and sex-specific changes in brain levels of progesterone and its metabolites after MCAO. We show that, in the male mouse brain, progesterone is mainly metabolized via 5α-reduction leading to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), also a progesterone receptor (PR) agonist ligand in neural cells, then to 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP). In the female mouse brain, levels of 5α-DHP and 3α,5α-THP are lower and levels of 20α-DHP are higher than in males. After MCAO, levels of progesterone and 5α-DHP are upregulated rapidly to pregnancy-like levels in the male but not in the female brain. To assess whether endogenous progesterone and 5α-DHP contribute to the resistance of neural cells to ischemic damage, we inactivated PR selectively in the CNS. Deletion of PR in the brain reduced its resistance to MCAO, resulting in increased infarct volumes and neurological deficits in both sexes. Importantly, endogenous PR ligands continue to protect the brain of aging mice. These results uncover the unexpected importance of endogenous progesterone and its metabolites in cerebroprotection. They also reveal that the female reproductive hormone progesterone is an endogenous cerebroprotective neurosteroid in both sexes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The brain responds to injury with protective signaling and has a remarkable capacity to protect itself. We show here that, in response to ischemic stroke, levels of progesterone and its neuroactive metabolite 5α-dihydroprogesterone are upregulated rapidly in the male mouse brain but not in the

  9. Disruption of the principal, progesterone-activated sperm Ca2+ channel in a CatSper2-deficient infertile patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F.; Syritsyna, Olga; Fellous, Marc; Serres, Catherine; Mannowetz, Nadja; Kirichok, Yuriy; Lishko, Polina V.

    2013-01-01

    The female steroid hormone progesterone regulates ovulation and supports pregnancy, but also controls human sperm function within the female reproductive tract. Progesterone causes elevation of sperm intracellular Ca2+ leading to sperm hyperactivation, acrosome reaction, and perhaps chemotaxis toward the egg. Although it has been suggested that progesterone-dependent Ca2+ influx into human spermatozoa is primarily mediated by cationic channel of sperm (CatSper), the principal flagellar Ca2+ channel of sperm, conclusive loss-of-function genetic evidence for activation of CatSper by progesterone has yet to be provided. Moreover, it is not clear whether the responsiveness of CatSper to progesterone is an innate property of human spermatozoa or is acquired as the result of exposure to the seminal plasma. Here, by recording ionic currents from spermatozoa of an infertile CatSper-deficient patient, we demonstrate that CatSper is indeed the principal Ca2+ channel of human spermatozoa, and that it is strongly potentiated by progesterone. In addition, by recording CatSper currents from human epididymal and testicular spermatozoa, we show that CatSper sensitivity to progesterone arises early in sperm development and increases gradually to a peak when spermatozoa are ejaculated. These results unambiguously establish an important role of CatSper channel in human sperm nongenomic progesterone signaling and demonstrate that the molecular mechanism responsible for activation of CatSper by progesterone arises early in sperm development concurrently with the CatSper channel itself. PMID:23530196

  10. Progesterone receptor isoforms, agonists and antagonists differentially reprogram estrogen signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E; Zarnke, Allison L; Laine, Muriel; Al Abosy, Rose; Chang, Ya-Fang; Dembo, Anna G; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Vadhi, Raga; Qiu, Xintao; Rao, Prakash; Santhamma, Bindu; Nair, Hareesh B; Nickisch, Klaus J; Long, Henry W; Becker, Lev; Brown, Myles; Greene, Geoffrey L

    2018-01-12

    Major roadblocks to developing effective progesterone receptor (PR)-targeted therapies in breast cancer include the lack of highly-specific PR modulators, a poor understanding of the pro- or anti-tumorigenic networks for PR isoforms and ligands, and an incomplete understanding of the cross talk between PR and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Through genomic analyses of xenografts treated with various clinically-relevant ER and PR-targeting drugs, we describe how the activation or inhibition of PR differentially reprograms estrogen signaling, resulting in the segregation of transcriptomes into separate PR agonist and antagonist-mediated groups. These findings address an ongoing controversy regarding the clinical utility of PR agonists and antagonists, alone or in combination with tamoxifen, for breast cancer management. Additionally, the two PR isoforms PRA and PRB, bind distinct but overlapping genomic sites and interact with different sets of co-regulators to differentially modulate estrogen signaling to be either pro- or anti-tumorigenic. Of the two isoforms, PRA inhibited gene expression and ER chromatin binding significantly more than PRB. Differential gene expression was observed in PRA and PRB-rich patient tumors and PRA-rich gene signatures had poorer survival outcomes. In support of antiprogestin responsiveness of PRA-rich tumors, gene signatures associated with PR antagonists, but not PR agonists, predicted better survival outcomes. The better patient survival associated with PR antagonists versus PR agonists treatments was further reflected in the higher in vivo anti-tumor activity of therapies that combine tamoxifen with PR antagonists and modulators. This study suggests that distinguishing common effects observed due to concomitant interaction of another receptor with its ligand (agonist or antagonist), from unique isoform and ligand-specific effects will inform the development of biomarkers for patient selection and translation of PR

  11. Progesterone receptor isoforms, agonists and antagonists differentially reprogram estrogen signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E.; Zarnke, Allison L.; Laine, Muriel; Al Abosy, Rose; Chang, Ya-Fang; Dembo, Anna G.; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Vadhi, Raga; Qiu, Xintao; Rao, Prakash; Santhamma, Bindu; Nair, Hareesh B.; Nickisch, Klaus J.; Long, Henry W.; Becker, Lev; Brown, Myles; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2018-01-01

    Major roadblocks to developing effective progesterone receptor (PR)-targeted therapies in breast cancer include the lack of highly-specific PR modulators, a poor understanding of the pro- or anti-tumorigenic networks for PR isoforms and ligands, and an incomplete understanding of the cross talk between PR and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Through genomic analyses of xenografts treated with various clinically-relevant ER and PR-targeting drugs, we describe how the activation or inhibition of PR differentially reprograms estrogen signaling, resulting in the segregation of transcriptomes into separate PR agonist and antagonist-mediated groups. These findings address an ongoing controversy regarding the clinical utility of PR agonists and antagonists, alone or in combination with tamoxifen, for breast cancer management. Additionally, the two PR isoforms PRA and PRB, bind distinct but overlapping genomic sites and interact with different sets of co-regulators to differentially modulate estrogen signaling to be either pro- or anti-tumorigenic. Of the two isoforms, PRA inhibited gene expression and ER chromatin binding significantly more than PRB. Differential gene expression was observed in PRA and PRB-rich patient tumors and PRA-rich gene signatures had poorer survival outcomes. In support of antiprogestin responsiveness of PRA-rich tumors, gene signatures associated with PR antagonists, but not PR agonists, predicted better survival outcomes. The better patient survival associated with PR antagonists versus PR agonists treatments was further reflected in the higher in vivo anti-tumor activity of therapies that combine tamoxifen with PR antagonists and modulators. This study suggests that distinguishing common effects observed due to concomitant interaction of another receptor with its ligand (agonist or antagonist), from unique isoform and ligand-specific effects will inform the development of biomarkers for patient selection and translation of PR

  12. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  13. Catch It Before It Kills: Progesterone, Obesity, and the Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Matthew J.; Thiel, Kristina w.; Yang, Shujie; Leslie, Kimberly K.

    2014-01-01

    The lifetime risk for developing endometrial cancer, the fourth most common malignancy in women, is approximately 3%. Endometrial cancer is a hormone-driven cancer, with approximately 80% of endometrial cancers arising attributable to either an excess of estrogen or a lack of progesterone. In the normal endometrium, the proliferative effects of estrogen are normally countered by progesterone, but the absence of progesterone allows estrogen to induce oncogenesis, an effect that is amplified in situations of excess estrogen. One of the major emerging causes of the estrogen/progesterone imbalance is obesity. Obesity is associated with several hormonal derangements as well as dysregulation of insulin/insulin-like growth factor activity, which collectively contribute to hyperplasia and carcinogenesis in the endometrium. In this article, we provide an in-depth description of how obesity mechanistically promotes this hormone and growth factor imbalance. Given that endometrial cancer is clearly associated with obesity, we put forth the hypothesis that a large portion of these cancers might be prevented by treatment with progesterone. PMID:23021376

  14. [Study of immunomodulatory activity of progesterone in an experimental model of Jurkat cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone plays important the role in the regulation of the immune system during pregnancy. We investigated the influence of progesterone on the activity of T-lymphocytes in a model system of Jurkat cells. Jurkat cells were stimulated with 50 μg/ml of phytohemaglutinin A (PHA) at 370C for 5 minutes. Then, PHA was removed by centrifugation, the cells were washed and cultured for 24 hours alone or with progesterone (added to the incubation medium of Jurkat cells at a concentration of 0.07 and 0.7 μl). The effect of progesterone on the level of apoptosis and expression of cytokines in jointly incubated intact and PHA-stimulated Jurkat cells. It was revealed that progesteron did not affect the intensity of apoptosis and cytokine expression in intact, but dose-dependently promotes intensification of apoptosis (to 88%) and inhibits the cytotoxic activity of jointly incubated intact and PHA-stimulated Jurkat cells (ratio of IL-2/IL-10 decreased from 2.56 to 1.53).

  15. Changes of progesterone levels in the milk of dairy cows in post-partum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongpeng

    1985-01-01

    Progesterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in the last milk of seven dairy cows in 5-75 days post-partum. The progesterone levels were from 0.1 to 1.5 ng/ml and averaged 0.4 +- 0.2 ng/ml for the last milk of the seven cows. A range of 0.3 to 0.7 ng/ml for average progesterone levels of the seven cows can be estimated. Two ovarian cycle activities in post-partum of cow No.43 were observed and a ovulation on 15-20 days post-partum was revealed. The peak value after 20 days post-partum was 3.0 ng/ml. The progesterone level after peak value was declined, and reached to about 0.2 ng/ml on 35 days post-partum. The changes of ovarian activities were exhibited again in 35-55 days post-partum. The progesterone levels of cow No.43 were lower in luteal phase oestrous cycles post-partum than that from the other cows in normal luteal phase oestrous cycles

  16. Progesterone treatment shows benefit in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available Controlled cortical impact (CCI models in adult and aged Sprague-Dawley (SD rats have been used extensively to study medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC injury and the effects of post-injury progesterone treatment, but the hormone's effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI in juvenile animals have not been determined. In the present proof-of-concept study we investigated whether progesterone had neuroprotective effects in a pediatric model of moderate to severe bilateral brain injury.Twenty-eight-day old (PND 28 male Sprague Dawley rats received sham (n = 24 or CCI (n = 47 injury and were given progesterone (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg per 100 g body weight or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID 1-7, subjected to behavioral testing from PID 9-27, and analyzed for lesion size at PID 28.The 8 and 16 mg/kg doses of progesterone were observed to be most beneficial in reducing the effect of CCI on lesion size and behavior in PND 28 male SD rats.Our findings suggest that a midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex will reliably produce a moderate TBI comparable to what is seen in the adult male rat and that progesterone can ameliorate the injury-induced deficits.

  17. Effects of estradiol and progesterone on the variability of the micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, Ans; Vandersickel, Veerle; Thierens, Hubert; Ridder, Leo De; Vral, Anne

    2005-01-01

    To investigate chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes the micronucleus (MN) assay has been used for many years. The results of these studies suggest the use of the MN assay as a biomarker for cancer predisposition. However, the MN assay has still some limitations associated with the reproducibility and sensitivity. Especially a high intra-individual variability has been observed. An explanation for this high intra-individual variability is not yet available. In literature it is suggested that the high variability among females is attributable to hormonal status. In this study we investigated if the high intra-individual variability in micronucleus formation in lymphocytes of females after in vitro exposure to ionising radiation is caused by variations in hormone levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PROG). For this, the MN assay was performed on blood samples of 18 healthy women during 7 consecutive weeks while the estradiol and progesterone levels were determined at the same time. The MN assay was also examined in cultures of isolated blood lymphocytes with estradiol or progesterone levels added in vitro. The results demonstrated that estradiol and progesterone levels have no influence on the variations in radiation-induced MN yields observed in blood samples of healthy women. These conclusions were confirmed by the 'in vitro' experiments as no correlation between the MN yields and the concentrations of hormones (estradiol or progesterone) added in vitro to isolated lymphocytes cultures was observed

  18. A blueprint for the prevention of preterm birth: vaginal progesterone in women with a short cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Miranda, Jezid; Hassan, Sonia; Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is the most important challenge to modern obstetrics. A major obstacle has been that preterm birth is treated (implicitly or explicitly) as a single condition. Two-thirds of preterm births occur after the spontaneous onset of labor, and the remaining one-third after “indicated” preterm birth; however, the causes of spontaneous preterm labor and “indicated” preterm birth are different. Spontaneous preterm birth is a syndrome caused by multiple etiologies, one of which is a decline in progesterone action, which induces cervical ripening. A sonographic short cervix (identified in the midtrimester) is a powerful predictor of spontaneous preterm delivery. Randomized clinical trials and individual patient meta-analyses have shown that vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of preterm delivery at cervix, and therefore, the compound of choice is natural progesterone (not the synthetic progestin). Routine assessment of the risk of preterm birth with cervical ultrasound coupled with vaginal progesterone for women with a short cervix is cost-effective, and implementation of such a policy is urgently needed. Vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage in reducing the rate of preterm delivery in women with a singleton gestation, history of preterm birth, and a short cervix (<25mm). PMID:23314512

  19. Neuroprotective effect of progesterone on acute phase changes induced by partial global cerebral ischaemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Raman; Medhi, Bikash; Pathak, Ashis; Dhawan, Veena; Chakrabarti, Amitava

    2008-06-01

    The possible neuroprotective effect of progesterone, a steroid hormone, on acute phase changes in a mouse model of cerebral ischaemia induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) was studied. A total of 72 male mice were included in the study. The BCAO model was used to induce partial global cerebral ischaemia. Morphological assessment included measurement of infarct size and brain oedema. Post-ischaemic seizure susceptibility was assessed using a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole (30 mgkg(-1) i.p.). Biochemical estimations included tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels and enzyme parameters such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and protein estimation. BCAO induced a significant infarct size and oedema in the saline-treated control group, along with an increase in oxidative stress, indicated by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Progesterone (15 mgkg(-1) i.p.) administration showed a neuro-protective effect by significantly reducing the cerebral infarct size as compared with the control group. Post-ischaemic seizure susceptibility was also reduced as the number of positive responders decreased. Brain oedema subsided, but not significantly. Progesterone significantly reduced TNF-alpha levels compared with the ischaemia group. Progesterone improved levels of all the antioxidants, indicating activity against oxidative stress induced by BCAO. The results demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of progesterone against ischaemic insult, suggesting a role for the steroid as a neuroprotective agent.

  20. 21 CFR 870.1800 - Withdrawal-infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal-infusion pump. 870.1800 Section 870.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... pump. (a) Identification. A withdrawal-infusion pump is a device designed to inject accurately drugs...

  1. 27 CFR 30.45 - Withdrawal gauge for packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal gauge for... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Procedures Determination of Quantity by Weight § 30.45 Withdrawal gauge for packages. When wooden packages are to be individually gauged for...

  2. 48 CFR 752.7024 - Withdrawal of students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Withdrawal of students. For use in contracts for participant training with an educational institution... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of students. 752.7024 Section 752.7024 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT...

  3. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for withdrawal is § 240.14(a)(3), the notice shall provide that the alien has thirty (30) days within which to provide evidence of good cause for failure to register. If the alien fails to respond within... Status. (a) Authority of director. The director may withdraw the status of an alien granted Temporary...

  4. 77 FR 43967 - Account Ownership and Control Report; Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... 15, 16, 17, et al. Account Ownership and Control Report; Withdrawal; Ownership and Control Reports... RIN 3038-AC63 Account Ownership and Control Report; Withdrawal AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading... published for public comment a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that proposed to collect certain account...

  5. 17 CFR 41.47 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of margin. 41.47... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.47 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer... deposited as margin for positions in an account may be withdrawn, provided that the equity in the account...

  6. 17 CFR 242.405 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of margin. 242.405...) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Customer Margin Requirements for Security Futures § 242.405 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer. Except as otherwise...

  7. Family features in primary social withdrawal among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Mami; Suzuki, Kunifumi; Hara, Koichi; Watanabe, Hisashi; Takahashi, Toshihiko

    2003-12-01

    The problem of 'social withdrawal' among young adults is the focus of considerable attention in Japan today. Among the various manifestations of social withdrawal, a 'primary social withdrawal' group has been identified that cannot be diagnosed by the established classification of mental disorders. In an earlier report it was suggested that the onset mechanism for primary social withdrawal is not merely a problem of the withdrawn person themselves, but also includes problems of family relationships. The aim of the present study was to identify the characteristics and problems in family relationships associated with primary social withdrawal. For that purpose a survey was conducted using David H. Olson's Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale as well as a questionnaire that the present authors devised on family interactions and the personal situation of the withdrawn person. The results pointed to the following four characteristics of primary social withdrawal families: (i). there are definite rules within the family; (ii). the families share values and an unfounded pride; (iii). there is a lack of emotional exchange in the family, and it is difficult for members to sympathize with each other's negative feelings; and (iv). although concerned about each other, there is little verbal exchange. From these family characteristics, the onset mechanism for withdrawal is triggered by insignificant matters such as minor setbacks in the developmental issues of youth. Then, given the person's personality traits and aforementioned characteristics in family relationships, the person becomes mired in social withdrawal.

  8. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... type. (d) OPM also considers a disability retirement application to be withdrawn when the agency... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of...

  9. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome: current management strategies for the surgery patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P R; Mosby, E L; Ferguson, B L

    1997-12-01

    As advances in the therapeutic management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome occur, oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of the current treatment philosophies and modalities. This article provides a comprehensive review of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and presents some of the current management strategies that can be used for these patients, whether it be in the office or in the hospital.

  10. 40 CFR 180.8 - Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prejudice. 180.8 Section 180.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.8 Withdrawal of petitions without prejudice. In some cases the Administrator will notify the... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal may be without prejudice to a future filing...

  11. 17 CFR 3.33 - Withdrawal from registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or floor trader may request that its registration be withdrawn in accordance with the requirements of... withdrawal from registration as a floor broker or floor trader must be made on Form 8-W, completed and filed... more than thirty days after the filing of the request for withdrawal from registration. (c) Where a...

  12. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel alcohol...

  13. 45 CFR 1321.35 - Withdrawal of area agency designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of area agency designation. 1321.35 Section 1321.35 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.35 Withdrawal...

  14. Mental health consequences of exercise withdrawal: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ali A; Koehmstedt, Christine; Kop, Willem J

    2017-11-01

    A sedentary lifestyle has been associated with mental health disorders. Many medical conditions result in the cessation of exercise, which may increase the risk of developing mental health problems. The purpose of this article is to systematically review the literature examining the effects of exercise withdrawal on mental health. Literature was searched using PubMed, PsycINFO, and SPORTdiscus for studies that experimentally manipulated the withdrawal of exercise and included mental health as outcome measure. A total of 19 studies met inclusion criteria (total N=689 with 385 individuals participating in an exercise withdrawal condition). Exercise withdrawal consistently resulted in increases in depressive symptoms and anxiety. Other mental health outcomes were investigated infrequently. Severe mental health issues requiring clinical intervention after experimentally controlled exercise withdrawal was rare. Heterogeneity in methods and outcomes was observed, especially in terms of the duration of exercise withdrawal (range 1 to 42days, median=7days), with stronger effects if exercise withdrawal exceeded 2weeks. Experimentally controlled exercise withdrawal has adverse consequences for mental health. These observations in healthy individuals may help to understand the onset of mental health problems in response to acute and chronic medical conditions associated with reduced physical activity. Future research is needed to investigate potential mechanisms explaining the adverse mental health consequences of cessation of exercise that will provide new targets for clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Potassium Channel Modulators on Morphine Withdrawal in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Seth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of potassium channel openers and blockers on morphine withdrawal syndrome. Mice were rendered dependent on morphine by subcutaneous injection of morphine; four hours later, withdrawal was induced by using an opioid antagonist, naloxone. Mice were observed for 30 minutes for the withdrawal signs ie, the characteristic jumping, hyperactivity, urination and diarrhea. ATP-dependent potassium (K + ATP channel modulators were injected intraperitoneally (i.p. 30 minutes before the naloxone. It was found that a K + ATP channel opener, minoxidil (12.5–50 mg/kg i.p., suppressed the morphine withdrawal significantly. On the other hand, the K + ATP channel blocker glibenclamide (12.5–50 mg/kg i.p. caused a significant facilitation of the withdrawal. Glibenclamide was also found to abolish the minoxidil's inhibitory effect on morphine withdrawal. The study concludes that K + ATP channels play an important role in the genesis of morphine withdrawal and K + ATP channel openers could be useful in the management of opioid withdrawal. As morphine opens K + ATP channels in neurons, the channel openers possibly act by mimicking the effects of morphine on neuronal K + currents.

  16. 48 CFR 6302.28 - Withdrawal of exhibits (Rule 28).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of exhibits (Rule 28). 6302.28 Section 6302.28 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.28 Withdrawal of exhibits (Rule 28). After a decision...

  17. The effect of unilateral progesterone infusion into the ovarian artery during the middle luteal phase on progesterone secretion in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowska, Barbara; Stefańczyk-Krzymowska, Stanisława

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine, in an experiment performed on conscious gilts, whether an increased amount of progesterone (P4) supplied to the porcine corpus luteum (CL), maintained within a physiological systemic concentration would influence its own secretion. On day 9 of the estrous cycle the jugular veins as well as both ovarian arteries and both ovarian veins were cannulated. In the experimental gilts (n=5), P4 was infused into the right ovarian arteries on days 10, 11 and 12 of the estrous cycle at a rate adequate for physiological retrograde transfer found during the middle luteal phase. The left ovarian arteries of these gilts were infused with saline. Both ovarian arteries of the control gilts (n=5) were infused with saline. The P4 infusion rate was 0.62 microg/min (10 day), 2 x 0.62 microg/min ( 11 day) and 3 x 0.62 microg/min (12 day) and physiological levels of the steroid were maintained. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and both ovarian veins in the experimental and control animals on days 10, 11 and 12 of the estrous cycle during two periods on each day: before and after P4 or saline infusion. The mean plasma P4 level in the ovarian vein ipsilateral to the P4-infused ovary was significantly (pgilts and in the ovarian vein of the control gilts. This was also true for day 12 of the estrous cycle (p0.05) among the particular days of the experiment. In contrast, mean P4 levels in the contralateral ovarian vein of the experimental gilts as well as in the ovarian vein of the control gilts tended to decrease (pfeedback between P4 being retrograde transferred into the ovary and P4 ovarian secretion.

  18. Clinical Manifestations of the Opiate Withdrawal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faniya Shigakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, substance abuse is one of the most serious problems facing our society. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical manifestations of the opiate withdrawal syndrome (OWS. The study included 112 patients (57 women and 55 men aged from 18 to 64 years with opium addiction according to the DSM-IV. To study the clinical manifestation of OWS, the special 25-score scale with four sections to assess severity of sleep disorders, pain syndrome, autonomic disorders, and affective symptoms was used. Given the diversity of the OWS symptoms, attention was focused on three clinical variants, affective, algic and mixed. The OWS affective variant was registered more frequently in women, while the mixed type of OWS was more typical of men.

  19. Withdrawal of cerivastatin from the world market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Bertram

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cerivastatin was recently withdrawn from the market because of 52 deaths attributed to drug-related rhabdomyolysis that lead to kidney failure. The risk was found to be higher among patients who received the full dose (0.8 mg/day and those who received gemfibrozil concomitantly. Rhabdomyolysis was 10 times more common with cerivastatin than the other five approved statins. We address three important questions raised by this withdrawal. Should we continue to approve drugs on surrogate efficacy? Are all statins interchangeable? Do the benefits outweigh the risks of statins? We conclude that decisions regarding the use of drugs should be based on direct evidence from long-term clinical outcome trials.

  20. The role of estrogen and progesterone receptors in response rate to megestrol acetate: conservative treatment of stage Ia endometrial adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarandi F

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Surgery is the most effective treatment of well-differentiated endometrial cancer. But using systemic progestins, have been evaluated to treat the young patients with well-differentiated endometrial cancer who wish to preserve their fertility. The aim of this study was the evaluation of megestrol acetate on endometrial adenocarcino-ma with regard to the receptors."n "nMethods: This was a quasi-experimental study. In 16 infertile patients with stage Ia well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma. The treatment initiated with 160mg/d of megestrol acetate and continued with 320mg/d for non-responsive cases. All of the patients followed with FD&C and hysteroscopy. The responsive patients were referred to IVF group and they were followed for three years."n "nResults: Of nine patient in the first step of the study, 4 (25% became pregnant. Eight patients underwent Total Abdominal Hysterectomy (TAH, and one was retreated conservatively. Of seven patient of second step of the study, five are under treatment at the time of closing the paper (three cases candidate for IVF and two are under 320 mg/d megestrol acetate, one patient is a candidate for hysterectomy, and one exited of study because of male infertility. All of the patients were progesterone receptor positive, and only one was estrogen receptor negative."n "nConclusion: Conservative treatment of early stage well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with progestins may be used in highly selected young patients who have not completed their family. Close long- term follow up in this special group of patients is necessary. The evaluation of estrogen and progesterone receptors assay may be useful in predicting response to the treatment.

  1. Opiate Withdrawal Complicated by Tetany and Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfanali R. Kugasia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status.

  2. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  3. Neurobiology of opioid withdrawal: Role of the endothelin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gulati, Anil

    2016-08-15

    Morphine and oxycodone are potent opioid analgesics most commonly used for the management of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain. Their clinical utility is limited by undesired side effects like analgesic tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal. We have previously demonstrated that endothelin-A (ETA) receptor antagonists potentiate opioid analgesia and eliminate analgesic tolerance. Mechanistically, G proteins and regulatory proteins such as β-arrestins have shown to play an important role in mediating opioid tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal. Recently, the involvement of central ET mechanisms in opioid withdrawal was investigated. ETA receptor antagonist was shown to block majority of the signs and symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal. This review focuses on ET as one of the potential novel strategies to manage the challenge of opioid withdrawal. An overview of additional players in this process (G proteins and β-arrestin2), and the possible therapeutic implications of these findings are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nicotine Withdrawal Induces Neural Deficits in Reward Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Evans, David E; Addicott, Merideth A; Potts, Geoffrey F; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2017-06-01

    Nicotine withdrawal reduces neurobiological responses to nonsmoking rewards. Insight into these reward deficits could inform the development of targeted interventions. This study examined the effect of withdrawal on neural and behavioral responses during a reward prediction task. Smokers (N = 48) attended two laboratory sessions following overnight abstinence. Withdrawal was manipulated by having participants smoke three regular nicotine (0.6 mg yield; satiation) or very low nicotine (0.05 mg yield; withdrawal) cigarettes. Electrophysiological recordings of neural activity were obtained while participants completed a reward prediction task that involved viewing four combinations of predictive and reward-determining stimuli: (1) Unexpected Reward; (2) Predicted Reward; (3) Predicted Punishment; (4) Unexpected Punishment. The task evokes a medial frontal negativity that mimics the phasic pattern of dopaminergic firing in ventral tegmental regions associated with reward prediction errors. Nicotine withdrawal decreased the amplitude of the medial frontal negativity equally across all trial types (p nicotine dependence (p Nicotine withdrawal had equivocal impact across trial types, suggesting reward processing deficits are unlikely to stem from changes in phasic dopaminergic activity during prediction errors. Effects on tonic activity may be more pronounced. Pharmacological interventions directly targeting the dopamine system and behavioral interventions designed to increase reward motivation and responsiveness (eg, behavioral activation) may aid in mitigating withdrawal symptoms and potentially improving smoking cessation outcomes. Findings from this study indicate nicotine withdrawal impacts reward processing signals that are observable in smokers' neural activity. This may play a role in the subjective aversive experience of nicotine withdrawal and potentially contribute to smoking relapse. Interventions that address abnormal responding to both pleasant and

  5. Comparison of 2 protocols to increase circulating progesterone concentration before timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows with or without elevated body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Guida, T G; Lopes, F R; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-10-01

    Two treatments designed to increase circulating progesterone concentration (P4) during preovulatory follicle development were compared. One treatment used 2 intravaginal P4 implants (controlled internal drug-releasing inserts; CIDR) and the other used a GnRH treatment at beginning of the protocol. Lactating Holstein cows that had been diagnosed as nonpregnant were randomly assigned to receive timed artificial insemination (TAI) following 1 of 2 treatments (n = 1,638 breedings): (1) GnRH: CIDR+ 2 mg of estradiol (E2) benzoate + 100 µg of GnRH on d -11, PGF 2α on d -4, CIDR withdrawal + 1.0 mg of E2-cypionate + PGF 2α ) on d -2, and TAI on d 0; or (2) 2CIDR: 2 CIDR + 2 mg of E2-benzoate on d -11, 1 CIDR withdrawn + PGF 2α on d -4, second CIDR withdrawn + 1.0 mg of E2-cypionate + PGF 2α on d -2, and TAI on d 0. Milk yield was measured daily between d 0 and d 7. Rectal temperature was measured using a digital thermometer at d 0 and 7, and elevated body temperature was defined as an average rectal temperature ≥39.1°C. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 32 and 60 after TAI. We detected no effect of treatments on pregnancy per AI or pregnancy loss regardless of elevated body temperature, body condition score, parity, milk yield, or presence or absence of a corpus luteum (CL) on d -11 or d -4. Pregnancy per AI at 60 d was reduced [elevated body temperature = 22.8% (162/709), no elevated body temperature 34.1% (279/817)] and pregnancy loss tended to increase [elevated body temperature = 20.2% (41/203), no elevated body temperature 14.4% (47/326)] in cows with elevated body temperature. Various physiological measurements associated with greater fertility were also reduced in cows with elevated body temperature, such as percentage of cows with a CL at PGF 2α (decreased 7.9%), ovulatory follicle diameter (decreased 0.51 mm), expression of estrus (decreased 5.1%), and ovulation near TAI (decreased 2.8%) compared with cows without elevated body temperature. A

  6. Developmental Effects of Acute, Chronic, and Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Fear Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, George S.; Wilkinson, Derek S.; Turner, Jill R.; Blendy, Julie A.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-adolescence and adolescence are developmental periods associated with increased vulnerability for tobacco addiction, and exposure to tobacco during these periods may lead to long-lasting changes in behavioral and neuronal plasticity. The present study examined the short- and long-term effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on fear conditioning in pre-adolescent, adolescent, and adult mice, and potential underlying substrates that may mediate the developmental effects of nicotine, such as changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding, CREB expression, and nicotine metabolism. Age-related differences existed in sensitivity to the effects of acute nicotine, chronic nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on contextual fear conditioning (no changes in cued fear conditioning were seen); younger mice were more sensitive to the acute effects and less sensitive to the effects of nicotine withdrawal 24 hours post treatment cessation. Developmental differences in nAChR binding were associated with the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual learning. Developmental differences in nicotine metabolism and CREB expression were also observed, but were not related to the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual learning 24 hours post treatment. Chronic nicotine exposure during pre-adolescence or adolescence, however, produced long-lasting impairments in contextual learning that were observed during adulthood, whereas adult chronic nicotine exposure did not. These developmental effects could be related to changes in CREB. Overall, there is a developmental shift in the effects of nicotine on hippocampus-dependent learning and developmental exposure to nicotine results in adult cognitive deficits; these changes in cognition may play an important role in the development and maintenance of nicotine addiction. PMID:22521799

  7. Developmental Effects of Acute, Chronic, and Withdrawal from Chronic Nicotine on Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Wilkinson, Derek S.; Turner, Jill R.; Blendy, Julie A.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-adolescence and adolescence are developmental periods associated with increased vulnerability for tobacco addiction, and exposure to tobacco during these periods may lead to long-lasting changes in behavioral and neuronal plasticity. The present study examined the short- and long-term effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on fear conditioning in pre-adolescent, adolescent, and adult mice, and potential underlying substrates that may mediate the developmental effects of nicotine, suc...

  8. Validation of a pediatric bedside tool to predict time to death after withdrawal of life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashima; Anderson, Ingrid M; Speicher, David G; Speicher, Richard H; Shein, Steven L; Rotta, Alexandre T

    2016-02-08

    To evaluate the accuracy of a tool developed to predict timing of death following withdrawal of life support in children. Pertinent variables for all pediatric deaths (age ≤ 21 years) from 1/2009 to 6/2014 in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) were extracted through a detailed review of the medical records. As originally described, a recently developed tool that predicts timing of death in children following withdrawal of life support (dallas predictor tool [DPT]) was used to calculate individual scores for each patient. Individual scores were calculated for prediction of death within 30 min (DPT30) and within 60 min (DPT60). For various resulting DPT30 and DPT60 scores, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated. There were 8829 PICU admissions resulting in 132 (1.5%) deaths. Death followed withdrawal of life support in 70 patients (53%). After excluding subjects with insufficient data to calculate DPT scores, 62 subjects were analyzed. Average age of patients was 5.3 years (SD: 6.9), median time to death after withdrawal of life support was 25 min (range; 7 min to 16 h 54 min). Respiratory failure, shock and sepsis were the most common diagnoses. Thirty-seven patients (59.6%) died within 30 min of withdrawal of life support and 52 (83.8%) died within 60 min. DPT30 scores ranged from -17 to 16. A DPT30 score ≥ -3 was most predictive of death within that time period, with sensitivity = 0.76, specificity = 0.52, AUC = 0.69 and an overall classification accuracy = 66.1%. DPT60 scores ranged from -21 to 28. A DPT60 score ≥ -9 was most predictive of death within that time period, with sensitivity = 0.75, specificity = 0.80, AUC = 0.85 and an overall classification accuracy = 75.8%. In this external cohort, the DPT is clinically relevant in predicting time from withdrawal of life support to death. In our patients, the DPT is more useful in predicting death within 60 min of withdrawal of life support

  9. [Comparison of Two Symptom-Triggered Treatments for Alcohol Withdrawal: HAES vs. SAB-P].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzbach, R; Ihlow, C; Takla, T; Kemper, U; Naber, D

    2016-02-01

    For alcohol withdrawal during hospitalization, often a medication as means for withdrawal needs to be chosen. Modern, score-controlled processes that can be used by the nursing staff after instruction by physicians are frequently not used and even unknown in hospitals. One reason for this is that some of the scores require checking several criteria and are therefore more time-consuming and complicated than use of a fixed-dosage strategy. The SAB-P and HAES are short with only 6 items that can be checked by the nursing staff. Safety of the Hamburg Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (Hamburger Alkoholentzugs-Skala (HAES)) was analyzed retrospectively and prospectively with regard to score-controlled alcohol-withdrawal treatment after rating by the nurse staff (Scoregesteuerte Alkoholentzugsbehandlung nach Rating durch das Pflegepersonal (SAB-P)). Incidence of complications in patients treated with SAB-P and HAES was nearly similar with 1% start of delirium and 3% seizures (SAB-P) and 0.5 to 1.5% start of delirium and 0 to 0.5% seizures in the HAES group. With both scales it was possible to start medical treatment while still under falling alcohol levels (0.93 and 0.91%, respectively). Medication dosage was initially higher using the HAES, so that the time needed to monitor withdrawal symptoms could be reduced (3.8 vs. 3.1 days). Using a score-controlled strategy for alcohol withdrawal leads to a lower complication rate than found in literature. The structured procedure was helpful for the nursing staff as well as for the physicians. SAB-P as well as HAES made withdrawal for the patients more comfortable and led to fewer complaints. Because of rapid reaction and faster symptom reduction of HAES, there was less time necessary for monitoring. Simple handling, clomethiazol, oxazepam or diazepam as applicable medication and clear documentation are the advantages of HAES. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Microarray Analysis on Gene Regulation by Estrogen, Progesterone and Tamoxifen in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chun-E; Zhu, Xueqiong; Li, Jinping; Lyle, Christian; Dowdy, Sean; Podratz, Karl C.; Byck, David; Chen, Hai-Bin; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial stromal cells represent a major cellular component of human uterine endometrium that is subject to tight hormonal regulation. Through cell-cell contacts and/or paracrine mechanisms, stromal cells play a significant role in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells. We isolated stromal cells from normal human endometrium and investigated the morphological and transcriptional changes induced by estrogen, progesterone and tamoxifen. We demonstrated that stromal cells express appreciable levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors and undergo different morphological changes upon hormonal stimulation. Microarray analysis indicated that both estrogen and progesterone induced dramatic alterations in a variety of genes associated with cell structure, transcription, cell cycle, and signaling. However, divergent patterns of changes, and in some genes opposite effects, were observed for the two hormones. A large number of genes are identified as novel targets for hormonal regulation. These hormone-responsive genes may be involved in normal uterine function and the development of endometrial malignancies. PMID:25782154

  11. Detection of oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in breast tumors by semiquantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, T; Zickl, M; Dobianer, K; Hruza, C; Czerwenka, K; Spona, J

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of oestrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PgR) by dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) or immunohistochemical methods have become standard practices in the management of breast cancer. A "multiplex" polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system was developed for quantitative estimation of ER and PgR mRNA in breast tumour specimens. A statistically significant correlation could be found between the mRNA of the oestrogen and the progesterone receptor (p < or = 0.0001). Protein data defined in classes, compared with mRNA data showed a significant correlation for the oestrogen receptor (p < or = 0.0001) as well as for the progesterone receptor (p < or = 0.046). Messenger RNA could be determined by the present PCR system in tumours assayed as negative by DCC method. Therefore, this sensitive PCR procedure, which requires small amounts of material may be very useful as a diagnostic test to determine the choice of therapy.

  12. Progesterone after Estradiol Modulates Shuttle-Cage Escape by Facilitating Volition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl J. Mayeaux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In animal models of depression, depression is defined as performance on a learning task. That task is typically escaping a mild electric shock in a shuttle cage by moving from one side of the cage to the other. Ovarian hormones influence learning in other kinds of tasks, and these hormones are associated with depressive symptoms in humans. The role of these hormones in shuttle-cage escape learning, however, is less clear. This study manipulated estradiol and progesterone in ovariectomized female rats to examine their performance in shuttle-cage escape learning without intentionally inducing a depressive-like state. Progesterone, not estradiol, within four hours of testing affected latencies to escape. The improvement produced by progesterone was in the decision to act, not in the speed of learning or speed of escaping. This parallels depression in humans in that depressed people are slower in volition, in their decisions to take action.

  13. Expression of Progesterone and Androgen Receptors in the Breast of Premenopausal Women, Considering Menstrual Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlén, Mia; Zhang, Hua; Löfgren, Lars; Masironi, Britt; VON Schoultz, Eva; VON Schoultz, B O; Sahlin, Lena

    2018-03-01

    Progesterone and androgens are important for normal development and tumorigenesis of the breast. Breast tissue samples from 49 premenopausal women were obtained. The progesterone receptors (PRA, PRB, PGRMC1 and PGRMC2) and the androgen receptor (AR) were determined in malignant and benign breast tumors and control tissues. The PRB and AR mRNA levels were highest in tumors. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA levels were higher in malignant tumors compared to their paired normal tissues. PRA protein showed most immunostaining in benign tumors. PRB immunostaining varied according to menstrual phase. AR immunostaining was highest in the glands of malignant tumors. Progesterone and androgen receptors are differently regulated in tumors compared to normal breast tissues. A malignant breast tumor could appear PR-negative if collected in the luteal phase, but positive in the follicular phase. This finding may have clinical implications. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V

    2016-01-01

    For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the Gn......RHa trigger to induce ovulation showed that exogenous progesterone administration without hCG supplementation was insufficient to obtain satisfactory pregnancy rates. This has prompted development of alternative strategies for LPS. Augmenting the local endogenous production of progesterone by the multiple...... advances and disadvantages. Based on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of hCG, the mathematical modelling of the concentration profiles of hCG during the luteal phase has been evaluated in connection with several different approaches for hCG administration as LPS. It is suggested that the currently...

  15. Revisiting progesterone receptor (PR) actions in breast cancer: Insights into PR repressive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Cecilia J; Cenciarini, Mauro E; Elizalde, Patricia V

    2018-05-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) is a master regulator in female reproductive tissues that controls developmental processes and proliferation and differentiation during the reproductive cycle and pregnancy. PR also plays a role in progression of endocrine-dependent breast cancer. As a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors, the main action of PR is to regulate networks of target gene expression in response to binding its cognate steroid hormone, progesterone. Liganded-PR transcriptional activation has been thoroughly studied and associated mechanisms have been described while progesterone-mediated repression has remained less explored. The present work summarizes recent advances in the understanding of how PR-mediated repression is accomplished in breast cancer cells and highlights the significance of fully understanding the determinants of context-dependent PR action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporary undernutrition during early gestation, corpora lutea morphometrics, ovarian progesterone secretion and embryo survival in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk, P; Bouwman, E G; Chen, T Y; Koopmanschap, R E; Soede, N M

    2017-07-01

    The present study reports effects of severe undernutrition on luteal function and pregnancy in pigs. Gilts were inseminated and either fasted on Day 10 and 11 after conception (n=11) or fully fed throughout (n=10). Fasting did not affect LH or progesterone pulsatile secretion pattern on Day 11 in samples taken from blood vessels draining an ovary. Ultrasonographic measurements of the size of the corpora lutea did not show any effect of fasting either. However, fasted gilts had 10 to 30% lower systemic progesterone from Day 12 through Day 15 after conception (Pgilts farrowed, but fasted gilts had fewer born piglets than fully fed gilts (8.8±0.8 vs 10.9±0.5 respectively; P<0.05). In conclusion, fasting during embryo elongation can compromise embryonic survival by affecting ovarian function in the days after fasting, without having an immediate effect on LH secretion and progesterone output by the ovaries.

  17. Estrogen and progesterone stimulate Schwann cell proliferation in a sex- and age-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Kanje, M

    1999-01-01

    The effects of estrogen and progesterone on Schwann cell proliferation were studied in cultured segments of the rat sciatic nerve from adult male, female, and newborn rats, by measurement of [3H thymidine incorporation or bromo-deoxy-uridine- (BrdU)-labelling and immunocytochemistry. Estrogen (100...... for estrogen and progesterone and that these receptors may be involved in the control of Schwann cell proliferation. It also shows that the response of Schwann cells to sex hormones varies with sex and perhaps also with age....... in Schwann cells from male rats at high concentrations. The proliferative effects of estrogen and progesterone were blocked when the segments were cultured in the presence of inhibitors of their respective receptors, ICI 128 780 and zk 112994. The data suggest that Schwann cells possess distinct receptors...

  18. Microarray Analysis on Gene Regulation by Estrogen, Progesterone and Tamoxifen in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-E Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial stromal cells represent a major cellular component of human uterine endometrium that is subject to tight hormonal regulation. Through cell-cell contacts and/or paracrine mechanisms, stromal cells play a significant role in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells. We isolated stromal cells from normal human endometrium and investigated the morphological and transcriptional changes induced by estrogen, progesterone and tamoxifen. We demonstrated that stromal cells express appreciable levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors and undergo different morphological changes upon hormonal stimulation. Microarray analysis indicated that both estrogen and progesterone induced dramatic alterations in a variety of genes associated with cell structure, transcription, cell cycle, and signaling. However, divergent patterns of changes, and in some genes opposite effects, were observed for the two hormones. A large number of genes are identified as novel targets for hormonal regulation. These hormone-responsive genes may be involved in normal uterine function and the development of endometrial malignancies.

  19. [Progesterone and estradiol levels in blood plasma of calves following superovulation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F; Rommel, P; Riedel, B; Drossel, M

    1980-01-01

    Studies into quantitative behaviours of oestradiol and progesterone in the blood plasma of six heads of prepuberal cattle, following superovulation treatment, using pregnant-mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) have shown the oestradiol concentrations to double, as early as two days after PMSG, and to go up to ten times their original values, after another four days had elapsed. Progesterone values increased, as early as along with induced oestrus, and, consequently, suggested scatter of the ovulation process. The maximum progesterone levels reached something in the vicinity of 100 ng/ml, following superovulation, and, consequently, were far in excess of anything recordable from spontaneously ovulating cyclic cattle. Hormone analyses were continued over six weeks from induced oestrus and superovulation, with evidence being produced to the effect that no permanent cyclic activity had been introduced. All calves rather returned to their prepuberal condition.

  20. Nicotinic Mechanisms Modulate Ethanol Withdrawal and Modify Time Course and Symptoms Severity of Simultaneous Withdrawal from Alcohol and Nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Erika; Quijano-Cardé, Natalia; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both. Our results indicate that simultaneous withdrawal from alcohol and nicotine produces physical symptoms that are more severe and last longer than those experienced during withdrawal from one of the two drugs alone. In animals experiencing withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, acute nicotine exposure was sufficient to prevent abstinence symptoms. Similarly, symptoms were prevented when alcohol was injected acutely in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, the outcomes of intracranial microinfusions of mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic receptor antagonist, highlight a major role for the nicotinic receptors expressed in medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus during withdrawal. Overall, the data support the notion that modulating the nicotinic cholinergic system might help to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol.

  1. Withdrawing to a Virtual World: Associations between Subtypes of Withdrawal, Media Use, and Maladjustment in Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Larry J.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Howard, Emily; Clifford, Brandon N.

    2016-01-01

    An approach-avoidance model of social withdrawal (Asendorpf, 1990) identifies 3 types of social withdrawal including shyness, unsociability, and avoidance. Each appears to be uniquely associated with varying indicators of maladjustment in emerging adulthood (Nelson, 2013) but little, if any, work has been done to see how they might be linked to…

  2. Mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype, estradiol, progesterone and emotional information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstra, Danielle A; de Kloet, E Ronald; Quataert, Ina; Jansen, Myrthe; Van der Does, Willem

    2017-02-01

    Carriers of MR-haplotype 1 and 3 (GA/CG; rs5522 and rs2070951) are more sensitive to the influence of oral contraceptives (OC) and menstrual cycle phase on emotional information processing than MR-haplotype 2 (CA) carriers. We investigated whether this effect is associated with estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4) levels. Healthy MR-genotyped premenopausal women were tested twice in a counterbalanced design. Naturally cycling (NC) women were tested in the early-follicular and mid-luteal phase and OC-users during OC-intake and in the pill-free week. At both sessions E2 and P4 were assessed in saliva. Tests included implicit and explicit positive and negative affect, attentional blink accuracy, emotional memory, emotion recognition, and risky decision-making (gambling). MR-haplotype 2 homozygotes had higher implicit happiness scores than MR-haplotype 2 heterozygotes (p=0.031) and MR-haplotype 1/3 carriers (pinformation processing and P4 or E2 differed between sessions, as well as the moderating effects of the MR genotype. In the first session the MR-genotype moderated the influence of P4 on implicit anxiety (sr=-0.30; p=0.005): higher P4 was associated with reduction in implicit anxiety, but only in MR-haplotype 2 homozygotes (sr=-0.61; p=0.012). In the second session the MR-genotype moderated the influence of E2 on the recognition of facial expressions of happiness (sr=-0.21; p=0.035): only in MR-haplotype 1/3 higher E2 was correlated with happiness recognition (sr=0.29; p=0.005). In the second session higher E2 and P4 were negatively correlated with accuracy in lag2 trials of the attentional blink task (pinformation processing. This moderating effect may depend on the novelty of the situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74±24.331, 365.9±16.55, and 367.5±21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325±0.243, 0.341±0.022, and 0.357  ±  0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6  ±  26.75, 315.6  ±  13.08, and 332.08  ±  24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P=.001. This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47% of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46% without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0% fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P=.017. ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P<.05. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele and fertile (P<.05. Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with

  4. Concentrations of estrogen and progesterone in breast milk and their relationship with the mother's diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengqing; Xiao, Hailong; Li, Kelei; Jiang, Jiajing; Wu, Kejian; Li, Duo

    2017-09-20

    The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and progesterone in breast milk over different lactation periods, and to assess their relationship with the mother's diet. Ninety-six breast milk samples as well as 24-hour dietary records from 32 lactating mothers were collected on day 1 (colostrum), day 14 (transitional milk) and day 42 (mature milk) after delivery in Hangzhou, China. The concentrations of E2, E3 and progesterone differed significantly through different periods of lactation (p milk and mature milk was 1.60 ± 0.96 μg L -1 , 0.83 ± 0.36 μg L -1 and 1.26 ± 0.48 μg L -1 , respectively. The concentrations of E3 were 2.09 ± 1.66 μg L -1 , 2.23 ± 1.74 μg L -1 and 4.64 ± 2.15 μg L -1 , respectively. The concentrations of progesterone were 6.10 ± 8.30 μg L -1 , 4.25 ± 4.76 μg L -1 and 1.70 ± 2.42 μg L -1 , respectively. The concentration of progesterone in breast milk was significantly negatively correlated with the intake of protein (p = 0.015), fat (p = 0.008), vegetables (p = 0.012), and meat and eggs (p = 0.036), while the concentration of E3 was significantly positively correlated with the intake of soy products (p = 0.025). This information indicates that the concentrations of E2, E3 and progesterone in breast milk varied over the lactating period. Dietary intake will to some extent affect the contents of E3 and progesterone in breast milk.

  5. Selectivity in progesterone and androgen receptor binding of progestagens used in oral contraceptives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterboer, H.J.; Vonk-Noordegraaf, C.A.; Turpijn, E.W.

    1988-09-01

    The relative binding affinities (RBAs) of four progestational compounds (norethisterone, levonorgestrel, 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene) for the human progesterone and androgen receptors were measured in MCF-7 cytosol and intact MCF-7 cells. For the binding to the progesterone receptor, both Org 2058 and Org 3236 (or 3-keto-desogestrel) were used as labelled ligands. The following ranking (low to high) for the RBA of the nuclear (intact cells) progesterone receptor irrespective of the ligand used is found: norethisterone much less than levonorgestrel less than 3-keto-destogestrel less than gestodene. The difference between the various progestagens is significant with the exception of that between 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene, when Org 2058 is used as ligand. For the cytosolic progesterone receptor, the same order is found with the exception that similar RBAs are found for gestodene and 3-keto-desogestrel. The four progestagens clearly differ with respect to binding to the androgen receptor using dihydrotestosterone as labelled ligand in intact cells; the ranking (low to high) is: norethisterone less than 3 keto-desogestrel less than levonorgestrel and gestodene. The difference between 3-keto-desogestrel and levonorgestrel or gestodene is significant. The selectivity indices (ratio of the mean RBA for the progesterone receptor to that of androgen receptor) in intact cells are significantly higher for 3-keto-desogestrel and gestodene than for levonorgestrel and norethisterone. From these results we conclude that the introduction of the 18-methyl in norethisterone (levonorgestel) increases both the binding to the progesterone and androgen receptors.

  6. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, M.F. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Couto-Pereira, N.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Bioquímica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nin, M.S. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Porto Alegre, Centro Metodista do Sul, Curso de Farmácia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Curso de Farmácia, Centro Metodista do Sul, Instituto Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gomez, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Departamento de Farmacologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barros, H.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Neurociência Comportamental, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  7. Nanostructured progesterone immunosensor using a tyrosinase-colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon biosensor as amperometric transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carralero, Veronica [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: yseo@quim.ucm.es; Pingarron, Jose M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-16

    A novel progesterone immunosensor using a colloidal gold-graphite-Teflon-tyrosinase composite biosensor as amperometric transducer is reported. A sequential competitive configuration between the analyte and progesterone labelled with alkaline phosphatase (AP) was used. Phenyl phosphate was employed as the AP-substrate and the enzyme reaction product, phenol, was oxidized by tyrosinase to o-quinone, which is subsequently reduced at -0.1 V at the biocomposite electrode. Variables such as the concentration of phenyl phosphate, the amount of antibody attached to the electrode surface, immersion time in a 2% BSA solution, working pH and incubation times in progesterone and AP conjugate were optimized. A linear calibration graph for progesterone was obtained between 0 and 40 ng mL{sup -1} with a slope value of -82.3 nA ng{sup -1} mL, and a detection limit of 0.43 ng mL{sup -1}. The time needed to reach the steady-state current from the addition of phenyl phosphate was 30-40 s. These analytical characteristics improve substantially those reported for other progesterone immunosensors. A lifetime of 14 days with no need to apply any regeneration procedure was also achieved. The usefulness of the immunosensor was evaluated by determining progesterone in milk samples spiked with the analyte at 5.0 and 1.5 ng mL{sup -1} concentration levels. Following a very simple procedure, involving only sample dilution, mean recoveries (n = 7) of 98 {+-} 3% and 99 {+-} 3%, respectively, were obtained.

  8. Milk and hair progesterone contents during the oestrous cycle and gestation in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dazhi; Zeng Xianyin; Liu Xianyi; Chen Faju; Song Xuehua

    1991-01-01

    Milk and hair progesterone contents were determined during the oestrous cycle and gestation in Saanen, F1 crosses (Saanen x Chengdu Mah) and F2 (Saanen x (Saanen x Chengdu Mah)) goats using the radioimmunoassay kits provided by the IAEA. Hair samples were collected from the back of the goats every day from day 1 (after oestrus) to day 28 and every 5 days from day 30 to parturition. Foremilk samples were also collected daily from day 1 to day 20. The results showed that there were significant differences in milk progesterone concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant goats during days 19 to 22 after oestrus. Progesterone in goat hair could be detected using the RIA kits. Hair progesterone content was correlated with the milk progesterone profile during the first 20 days of pregnancy in non-pregnant goats; a similar correlation was observed during the oestrous cycle. When milk samples were collected on day 22 post-oestrus and 3.9 ng/mL was taken as the discriminatory level, the accuracy of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis was 82.4% and 100% respectively. When hair samples were collected on day 22 and 3.7 ng/50 mg hair was taken as the discriminatory level, the accuracy of pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnosis was 77.8% and 100% respectively. During gestation, hair progesterone contents increased gradually from day 30 to day 120 and decreased rapidly from day -8 before parturition to parturition. 6 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Production of antiserum and development of radioimmunoassay for progesterone measurement in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O.M; Abbas, S.H.

    2004-03-01

    The anti progesterone antibody was obtained by injection of local sudanese sheep (bevies arias) intramuscularly and subcutaneously using 11-a-hydroxy progesterone conjugated with bovine serum albumin and emulsified in friend's adjuvant. The blood samples collected one week after the 3 rd injection was tested for anti-progesterone antibodies. Different dilutions of antisera in Pbs containing 0.0.1 % BSA and 0.1 % Na N 3 (Ph 7.4) were made. Using these dilutions, polystyrene balls of 6.4 mm diameter were coated with a coating volume of 500 μ1/bead.The antibody dilution of 1/200000 was selected and used for assembling a kit to measure progesterone level in serum. Optimization of the assay condition resulted in the following recipes: Fifty μ1 of standard or Qc (Low, normal and high) from Bio Rad for 2 hours. The reaction medium aspirated, washed twice and read for 100 seconds in gamma counter. Assay validation tests including Linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability were done. In regards to linearity, the measured concentrations of progesterone in serum samples were plotted against the expected values. The correlation coefficient was 0.997 and a linear regression equation was Y=1.1019+0.9895 X. The mean recovery was 96.86% of the sample replicates ranged from 0.2% to 6%. between assay reproducibility was assessed fro the results obtained from 3 samples which were used for quality control in different assays. The results obtained were in the reference range and were close to each other. Comparison between local and American Dpc reagents for progesterone determination in serum showed high correlation high correlation where r 0.9492.(Author)

  10. EDC IMPACT: Chemical UV filters can affect human sperm function in a progesterone-like manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, A; Egeberg, D L; Almstrup, K; Petersen, J H; Dissing, S; Skakkebæk, N E

    2018-01-01

    Human sperm cell function must be precisely regulated to achieve natural fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca 2+ influx into human sperm cells via the CatSper Ca 2+ -channel and thereby controls sperm function. Multiple chemical UV filters have been shown to induce a Ca 2+ influx through CatSper, thus mimicking the effect of progesterone on Ca 2+ signaling. We hypothesized that these UV filters could also mimic the effect of progesterone on sperm function. We examined 29 UV filters allowed in sunscreens in the US and/or EU for their ability to affect acrosome reaction, penetration, hyperactivation and viability in human sperm cells. We found that, similar to progesterone, the UV filters 4-MBC, 3-BC, Meradimate, Octisalate, BCSA, HMS and OD-PABA induced acrosome reaction and 3-BC increased sperm penetration into a viscous medium. The capacity of the UV filters to induce acrosome reaction and increase sperm penetration was positively associated with the ability of the UV filters to induce a Ca 2+ influx. None of the UV filters induced significant changes in the proportion of hyperactivated cells. In conclusion, chemical UV filters that mimic the effect of progesterone on Ca 2+ signaling in human sperm cells can similarly mimic the effect of progesterone on acrosome reaction and sperm penetration. Human exposure to these chemical UV filters may impair fertility by interfering with sperm function, e.g. through induction of premature acrosome reaction. Further studies are needed to confirm the results in vivo . © 2018 The authors.

  11. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL, estradiol (0.05 mg/mL, progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse.

  12. Behavioral effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine sensitization in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.F.; Couto-Pereira, N.S.; Freese, L.; Costa, P.A.; Caletti, G.; Bisognin, K.M.; Nin, M.S.; Gomez, R.; Barros, H.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine sensitization is a marker for some facets of addiction, is greater in female rats, and may be influenced by their sex hormones. We compared the modulatory effects of endogenous or exogenous estradiol and progesterone on cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in 106 female rats. Ovariectomized female rats received progesterone (0.5 mg/mL), estradiol (0.05 mg/mL), progesterone plus estradiol, or the oil vehicle. Sham-operated control females received oil. Control and acute subgroups received injections of saline, while the repeated group received cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip) for 8 days. After 10 days, the acute and repeated groups received a challenge dose of cocaine, after which locomotion and stereotypy were monitored. The estrous cycle phase was evaluated and blood was collected to verify hormone levels. Repeated cocaine treatment induced overall behavioral sensitization in female rats, with increased locomotion and stereotypies. In detailed analysis, ovariectomized rats showed no locomotor sensitization; however, the sensitization of stereotypies was maintained. Only females with endogenous estradiol and progesterone demonstrated increased locomotor activity after cocaine challenge. Estradiol replacement enhanced stereotyped behaviors after repeated cocaine administration. Cocaine sensitization of stereotyped behaviors in female rats was reduced after progesterone replacement, either alone or concomitant with estradiol. The behavioral responses (locomotion and stereotypy) to cocaine were affected differently, depending on whether the female hormones were of an endogenous or exogenous origin. Therefore, hormonal cycling appears to be an important factor in the sensitization of females. Although estradiol increases the risk of cocaine sensitization, progesterone warrants further study as a pharmacological treatment in the prevention of psychostimulant abuse

  13. Abnormal regulation for progesterone production in placenta with prenatal cocaine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L; Yan, J; Qu, S C; Feng, Y Q; Jiang, X L

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine abuse in pregnant women is currently a significant public hygiene problem and is tightly associated with elevated risk for preterm delivery. Placental steroidogenesis especially progesterone production was essential for success and maintenance of pregnancy in humans and rodents. In the present study, we determined the impact of prenatal cocaine exposure on pathways of placental progesterone synthesis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated cocaine twice daily (15 mg/kg/day) during the third trimester, and the maternal and fetal plasma progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations were detected. We also examined both the protein and mRNA expression of some key enzymes and regulators for progesterone production in placenta. Results showed that, after maternal cocaine use during pregnancy, progesterone and pregnenolone concentrations in both maternal and fetal rats were significantly decreased. Although prenatal cocaine exposure had no effects on placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3βHSD1) expression, protein and mRNA expression of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc/CYP11a) in placenta was significantly inhibited. Moreover, protein and mRNA expressions of MLN64 that regulating cholesterol transport and activating protein 2γ (AP2γ/Tfap2c) that controlling P450scc/CYP11a gene expression in placenta were both decreased following maternal cocaine use in pregnancy. Collectively, this study suggested that prenatal cocaine exposure could insult the placental progesterone production in rats possibly associated with the high risk for preterm delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. EDC IMPACT: Chemical UV filters can affect human sperm function in a progesterone-like manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rehfeld

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human sperm cell function must be precisely regulated to achieve natural fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca2+ influx into human sperm cells via the CatSper Ca2+-channel and thereby controls sperm function. Multiple chemical UV filters have been shown to induce a Ca2+ influx through CatSper, thus mimicking the effect of progesterone on Ca2+ signaling. We hypothesized that these UV filters could also mimic the effect of progesterone on sperm function. We examined 29 UV filters allowed in sunscreens in the US and/or EU for their ability to affect acrosome reaction, penetration, hyperactivation and viability in human sperm cells. We found that, similar to progesterone, the UV filters 4-MBC, 3-BC, Meradimate, Octisalate, BCSA, HMS and OD-PABA induced acrosome reaction and 3-BC increased sperm penetration into a viscous medium. The capacity of the UV filters to induce acrosome reaction and increase sperm penetration was positively associated with the ability of the UV filters to induce a Ca2+ influx. None of the UV filters induced significant changes in the proportion of hyperactivated cells. In conclusion, chemical UV filters that mimic the effect of progesterone on Ca2+ signaling in human sperm cells can similarly mimic the effect of progesterone on acrosome reaction and sperm penetration. Human exposure to these chemical UV filters may impair fertility by interfering with sperm function, e.g. through induction of premature acrosome reaction. Further studies are needed to confirm the results in vivo.

  15. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  16. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin gestations (PREDICT): a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of vaginal micronized progesterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, L; Klein, K; Nicolaides, K H

    2011-01-01

    Studies on high-risk singleton gestations have shown a preventive effect of progesterone treatment on preterm delivery. This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effect of vaginal micronized progesterone in a large population of twin gestations....

  17. The accuracy of single serum progesterone measurement in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, B. W.; Lijmer, J. G.; Ankum, W. M.; van der Veen, F.; Bossuyt, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    Serum progesterone measurement has been advocated as a diagnostic tool in the non-invasive diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. To assess the accuracy of a single serum progesterone measurement in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy, a meta-analysis was performed incorporating 26 studies evaluating the

  18. Estrogen and progesterone receptor assay using I-125 estradiol and H-3 promegestone as ligands: Results in female mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaubitt, D.; Hienz, H.A.; Bettges, G.; Carmanns, B.; Lichtenberg, T.; Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus, Krefeld

    1984-01-01

    The determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the cytosol of carcinoma of the female breast has predictive value as to the success treatment of the patient. An improved estrogen and progesterone receptor assay using 1-125 labelled estradiol and a H-3 tagged synthetic gestagen (H-3 promegestone) as ligands proved to be highly praticable, especially time-saving. (orig.)

  19. Follicular Development Dynamics and Plasma Progesterone Profile during the Estrous Cycle of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PP Putro

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of five local Friesian cows, 4 to 5 years, healthy, reproductively sound, were used in the study to understand the development dynamics of dominant follicles and plasma progesterone profile during estrous cycle.   Transrectal ultrasonographic examination using real time, B-mode, with 7.5 MHz transducer was performed daily for one full cycle to follow the development of dominant follicle and corpus luteum dynamics.   Blood plasma was collected daily to determine progesterone levels using EIA technique.   Follicular development dynamics and plasma progesterone levels were analyzed statistically using analyses of variance, while correlation between plasma progesterone levels and corpus luteum size were tested using correlation analyses.   The length of estrous cycle in local Friesian cow was 21.00 + 1.00 days.   Follicular dynamics during estrous cycle indicated only had two waves of dominant follicular development.   The first wave of dominant follicle was firstly identified on day 3, reached maximum diameter (11.17 + 0.90 mm on day 11 and identifiable until day 15.   The second dominant follicle appeared on day 11, reached maximum size on day 21 (13.17 + 0.69 mm and underwent ovulation on the next day.   The increased diameter of dominant follicle from days 17 to 21 was linear with growth rate of 1.20 + 0.18 mm/day.   Ovulatory dominant follicle had larger size than non-ovulatory ones (P<0.05.   Corpus luteum was ultrasonically detectable from days 5 to 19 of the estrous cycle.   The maximum size of corpus luteum (11.83 + 0.75 mm attained on day 11, and then regressed substantially till day 19.  Plasma progesterone level started to rise during the luteal phase, reached the peak level on day 12 (4.64 + 0.23 ng/ml and then decreased steadily till the lowest level (0.42 + 0.05 ng/ml at the time of estrus.  The plasma progesterone profile and the corpus luteum development were concomitant each other during estrous

  20. Study on prevention effect of Zishen Yutai pill combined with progesterone for threatened abortion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yan, Wei; Ge, Pu-Feng; Li, Yan; Ye, Qian

    2016-06-01

    To observe preventive and therapeutic effects and the mechanism of actions on Zishen Yutai pill combined with progesterone on threatened abortion in rats. After pregnancy, 50 SPF female SD rats were selected and divided into control group, model group, progesterone group, Zishen Yutai pill group, and progesterone plus Zishen Yutai pill group (combination group), with 10 rats in each group. The rats of control group and abortion model group were lavaged with 2 mL/kg normal saline on pregnancy day 1 for continuous 10 days. Rats in Zishen Yutai pill group were given 1.575 g/kg/d of Zishen Yutai pill for intragastric administration for continuous 10 days. Rats in progesterone group were given intramuscular injection treatment of 0.1 mL/d progestin, continuous for 10 days. Rats in combination group were given injection therapy of aqueous solution of Zishen Yutai pill for continuous 10 days, and other treatments were the same as previous two groups. Abortion model were established then and live births, numbers of abortion and average rate of abortion were compared between the five groups. Peripheral blood was collected to detect the estradiol (E2) and progestational hormone (P), and obtain ratio of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-2, INF-γ, IL-4, IL-10). Significant more live births of rats were found in the control group compared with other four groups (P pill group and joint group (P pill group. The serum E2 level of P of rats in the control group, progesterone group, Zishen Yutai pill group and joint group were significant higher than that of abortion model group (P pill group and joint group were not significant different (P > 0.05) but these levels in the control group and Zishen Yutai pill group were significant lower than that of progesterone group and joint group (P pill group and joint group were balanced deviating to Th2, and joint group' deviation was better than progesterone group and Zishen Yutai pill group (P pill combined with progesterone has a

  1. Characterization of progesterone profiles in fall-calving Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmo, R T; Martin, A D; Thuen, E; Havrevoll, Ø; Steinshamn, H; Prestløkken, E; Randby, A; Eknaes, M; Waldmann, A; Reksen, O

    2009-10-01

    Progesterone profiles in Norwegian Red cows were categorized, and associations between the occurrence of irregularities in the profiles and the commencement of luteal activity were investigated. The cows were managed in 3 feeding trials from 1994 to 2001 and from 2005 to 2008 at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. The cows were followed from calving, and the milk samples collected represented 502 lactations from 302 cows. Milk samples for progesterone analysis were taken 3 times weekly from 1994 throughout 1998 and from 2005 to 2008 and 2 times weekly from 1999 to 2001. Commencement of luteal activity was defined as the first day of 2 consecutive measurements of progesterone concentration >or=3 ng/mL not earlier than 10 d after calving. Delayed ovulation type I was defined as consistently low progesterone concentration, or=50 d postpartum. Delayed ovulation type II was defined as prolonged interluteal interval with milk progesterone measurements or=12 d between 2 luteal phases. Persistent corpus luteum (PCL) type I was defined as delayed luteolysis with milk progesterone >or=3 ng/mL for >or=19 d during the first estrous cycle postpartum. Persistent corpus luteum type II was defined as delayed luteolysis with milk progesterone >or=3 ng/mL for >or=19 d during subsequent estrous cycles before first artificial insemination. Delayed ovulation type I was present in 14.7%, delayed ovulation type II in 2.8%, PCL type I in 6.7%, and PCL type II in 3.3% of the profiles. Commencement of luteal activity was related to milk yield, parity, PCL type I, and the summated occurrence of PCL type I and II. The least squares means for the interval to commencement of luteal activity were 24.2 d when PCL type I and II were present and 29.5 d when PCL type I and II were absent. The likelihood of pregnancy to first service was not affected in cows with a history of PCL when artificial insemination was carried out at progesterone concentrations inseminated during a luteal phase. The

  2. Radioimmunological study of the effect of hormonal contraceptives upon the progesterone level of saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, M.; Toth, I.; Faredin, I.

    1980-01-01

    In a longitudinal study including 4 women, the concentration of progesterone in mixed saliva samples was determined radioimmunologically on the same day of the menstrual cyle in the luteal phase prior to intake and 2, 4 and 6 months, respectively, following administration of hormonal contraceptives. The progesterone values in the saliva decreased after administration of hormonal contraceptives but increased again after four months, without, however, reaching the initial value after six months. A similar tendency was shown in a sample of gingival tissue. (author)

  3. Progesterone reduces erectile dysfunction in sleep-deprived spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Tufik Sergio

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD associated with cocaine has been shown to enhance genital reflexes (penile erection-PE and ejaculation-EJ in Wistar rats. Since hypertension predisposes males to erectile dysfunction, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PSD on genital reflexes in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR compared to the Wistar strain. We also extended our study to examine how PSD affect steroid hormone concentrations involved in genital events in both experimental models. Methods The first experiment investigated the effects of PSD on genital reflexes of Wistar and SHR rats challenged by saline and cocaine (n = 10/group. To further examine the impact of the PSD on concentrations of sexual hormones, we performed a hormonal analysis of testosterone and progesterone in the Wistar and in SHR strains. Since after PSD progesterone concentrations decreased in the SHR compared to the Wistar PSD group we extended our study by investigating whether progesterone (25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg or testosterone (0.5 mg/kg or 1.0 mg/kg administration during PSD would have a facilitator effect on the occurrence of genital reflexes in this hypertensive strain. Results A 4-day period of PSD induced PE in 50% of the Wistar rats against 10% for the SHR. These genital reflexes was potentiated by cocaine in Wistar rats whereas this scenario did not promote significant enhancement in PE and EJ in hypertensive rats, and the percentage of SHR displaying genital reflexes still figured significantly lower than that of the Wistar strain. As for hormone concentrations, both sleep-deprived Wistar and SHR showed lower testosterone concentrations than their respective controls. Sleep deprivation promoted an increase in concentrations of progesterone in Wistar rats, whereas no significant alterations were found after PSD in the SHR strain, which did not present enhancement in erectile responses. In order to explore the role

  4. Efficacy of Tramadol Extended-Release for Opioid Withdrawal: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly E; Tompkins, D Andrew; Bigelow, George E; Strain, Eric C

    2017-09-01

    Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant public health problem. Supervised withdrawal (ie, detoxification) from opioids using clonidine or buprenorphine hydrochloride is a widely used treatment. To evaluate whether tramadol hydrochloride extended-release (ER), an approved analgesic with opioid and nonopioid mechanisms of action and low abuse potential, is effective for use in supervised withdrawal settings. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a residential research setting with 103 participants with OUD. Participants' treatment was stabilized with morphine, 30 mg, administered subcutaneously 4 times daily. A 7-day taper using clonidine (n = 36), tramadol ER (n = 36), or buprenorphine (n = 31) was then instituted, and patients were crossed-over to double-blind placebo during a post-taper period. The study was conducted from October 25, 2010, to June 23, 2015. Retention, withdrawal symptom management, concomitant medication utilization, and naltrexone induction. Results were analyzed over time and using area under the curve for the intention-to-treat and completer groups. Of the 103 participants, 88 (85.4%) were men and 43 (41.7%) were white; mean (SD) age was 28.9 (10.4) years. Buprenorphine participants (28 [90.3%]) were significantly more likely to be retained at the end of the taper compared with clonidine participants (22 [61.1%]); tramadol ER retention was intermediate and did not differ significantly from that of the other groups (26 [72.2%]; χ2 = 8.5, P = .01). Time-course analyses of withdrawal revealed significant effects of phase (taper, post taper) for the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) score (taper mean, 5.19 [SE, .26]; post-taper mean, 3.97 [SE, .23]; F2,170 = 3.6, P = .03) and Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) score (taper mean,8.81 [SE, .40]; post-taper mean, 4.14 [SE, .30]; F2,170 = 15.7, P withdrawal severity between the taper and post-taper periods for clonidine (taper mean, 13.1; post

  5. Scenarios of bioenergy development impacts on regional groundwater withdrawals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Mitchell, Rob B.; Guan, Qingfeng; McCoy, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation increases agricultural productivity, but it also stresses water resources (Huffaker and Hamilton 2007). Drought and the potential for drier conditions resulting from climate change could strain water supplies in landscapes where human populations rely on finite groundwater resources for drinking, agriculture, energy, and industry (IPCC 2007). For instance, in the North American Great Plains, rowcrops are utilized for livestock feed, food, and bioenergy production (Cassman and Liska 2007), and a large portion is irrigated with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system (McGuire 2011). Under projected future climatic conditions, greater crop water use requirements and diminished groundwater recharge rates could make rowcrop irrigation less feasible in some areas (Rosenberg et al. 1999; Sophocleous 2005). The Rainwater Basin region of south central Nebraska, United States, is an intensively farmed and irrigated Great Plains landscape dominated by corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) production (Bishop and Vrtiska 2008). Ten starch-based ethanol plants currently service the region, producing ethanol from corn grain (figure 1). In this study, we explore the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a drought-tolerant alternative bioenergy feedstock, to impact regional annual groundwater withdrawals for irrigation under warmer and drier future conditions. Although our research context is specific to the Rainwater Basin and surrounding North American Great Plains, we believe the broader research question is internationally pertinent and hope that this study simulates similar research in other areas.

  6. Serotonergic anti-depressants and ethanol withdrawal syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbay, I Tayfun

    2008-01-01

    To review laboratory findings on the effects of anti-depressant agents that interact with the serotonergic system on signs of ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats. Adult Wistar rats received a modified liquid diet to produce ethanol dependence. Signs of ethanol withdrawal, locomotor hyperactivity, stereotyped behaviour, tremor, wet dog shakes, agitation, and audiogenic seizures, were evaluated for the first 6 h of ethanol withdrawal. The effects of the anti-depressants fluoxetine, venlafaxine, escitalopram, tianeptine, and extract of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) (HPE) were examined. Some beneficial effects of fluoxetine, tianeptine, HPE, escitalopram and venlafaxine on ethanol withdrawal signs were observed, ranked as follows: fluoxetine = tianeptine > HPE > escitalopram > venlafaxine. Tianeptine and fluoxetine seem to be potent pharmacologically active agents on ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats. Thus, these anti-depressants may be useful in treatment of ethanol withdrawal syndrome in patients with alcoholism. In addition to serotonergic effects, interactions with nitrergic, glutamatergic, and adenosinergic systems may also provide a significant contribution to the beneficial effects of these drugs on ethanol withdrawal syndrome.

  7. Effect of Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome on Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Allahtavakoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sOpioid abuse is still remained a major mental health problem, a criminal legal issue and may cause ischemic brain changes including stroke and brain edema. In the present study, we investigated whether spontaneously withdrawal syndrome might affect stroke outcomes.Materials and MethodsAddiction was induced by progressive incremental doses of morphine over 7 days. Behavioral signs of withdrawal were observed 24, 48 and 72 hr after morphine deprivation and total withdrawal score was determined. Cerebral ischemia was induced 18-22 hr after the last morphine injection by placing a natural clot into the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Neurological deficits were evaluated at 2, 24 and 48 hr after ischemia induction, and infarct size and brain edema were determined at 48 hr after stroke.ResultsMorphine withdrawal animals showed a significant increase in total withdrawal score and decrease of weight gain during the 72 hr after the last morphine injection. Compared to the addicted and control animals, infarct volume and brain edema were significantly increased in the morphine deprived animals (P< 0.05 at 48 hr after cerebral ischemia. Also, neurological deficits were higher in the morphine-withdrawn rats at 48 hr after stroke (P< 0.05. ConclusionOur data indicates that spontaneous withdrawal syndrome may worsen stroke outcomes. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate mechanisms of opiate withdrawal syndrome on stroke.

  8. Opioid withdrawal signs and symptoms in children: frequency and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Deborah; Grap, Mary Jo; Younger, Janet B; Ameringer, Suzanne; Elswick, R K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to, in a pediatric population, describe the frequency of opioid withdrawal signs and symptoms and to identify factors associated with these opioid withdrawal signs and symptoms. Opioids are used routinely in the pediatric intensive care population for analgesia, sedation, blunting of physiologic responses to stress, and safety. In children, physical dependence may occur in as little as 2-3 days of continuous opioid therapy. Once the child no longer needs the opioid, the medications are reduced over time. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted. The sample of 26 was drawn from all patients, ages 2 weeks to 21 years admitted to the Children's Hospital of Richmond pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and who have received continuous infusion or scheduled opioids for at least 5 days. Data collected included: opioid withdrawal score (WAT-1), opioid taper rate (total dose of opioid per day in morphine equivalents per kilogram [MEK]), pretaper peak MEK, pretaper cumulative MEK, number of days of opioid exposure prior to taper, and age. Out of 26 enrolled participants, only 9 (45%) had opioid withdrawal on any given day. In addition, there was limited variability in WAT-1 scores. The most common symptoms notes were diarrhea, vomit, sweat, and fever. For optimal opioid withdrawal assessments, clinicians should use a validated instrument such as the WAT-1 to measure for signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Further research is indicated to examine risk factors for opioid withdrawal in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic nicotine administration improves attention while nicotine withdrawal induces performance deficits in the 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Semenova, Svetlana; Stolerman, Ian P.; Markou, Athina

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine appears to enhance attention, while nicotine withdrawal leads to attentional deficits in humans that are ameliorated with nicotine administration. However, there has been much debate as to whether nicotine improves performance under baseline conditions, or only ameliorates attentional deficits. Thus, we studied the effects of acute and chronic nicotine administration and nicotine withdrawal on attentional performance in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in Wistar and S...

  10. Phasic D1 and tonic D2 dopamine receptor signaling double dissociate the motivational effects of acute nicotine and chronic nicotine withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Taryn E.; George, Olivier; Tan, Huibing; George, Susan R.; Le Foll, Bernard; Laviolette, Steven R.; van der Kooy, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient of tobacco smoke, induces negative motivational symptoms during withdrawal that contribute to relapse in dependent individuals. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying how the brain signals nicotine withdrawal remain poorly understood. Using electrophysiological, genetic, pharmacological, and behavioral methods, we demonstrate that tonic but not phasic activity is reduced during nicotine withdrawal in ventral tegmental area dopamine (DA) neurons, and that this pattern of signaling acts through DA D2 and adenosine A2A, but not DA D1, receptors. Selective blockade of phasic DA activity prevents the expression of conditioned place aversions to a single injection of nicotine in nondependent mice, but not to withdrawal from chronic nicotine in dependent mice, suggesting a shift from phasic to tonic dopaminergic mediation of the conditioned motivational response in nicotine dependent and withdrawn animals. Either increasing or decreasing activity at D2 or A2A receptors prevents the aversive motivational response to withdrawal from chronic nicotine, but not to acute nicotine. Modification of D1 receptor activity prevents the aversive response to acute nicotine, but not to nicotine withdrawal. This double dissociation demonstrates that the specific pattern of tonic DA activity at D2 receptors is a key mechanism in signaling the motivational effects experienced during nicotine withdrawal, and may represent a unique target for therapeutic treatments for nicotine addiction. PMID:22308372

  11. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of ultrasonography in pregnancy rate prediction in Sahelian goats after progesterone impregnated sponge synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Kouamo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of ultrasonography in pregnancy rate (PR prediction in Sahelian goats after progesterone impregnated sponge synchronization within the framework of caprine artificial insemination (AI program in Fatick (Senegal. Materials and Methods: Of 193 candidate goats in AI program, 167 were selected (day 50 in six villages. Estrus was synchronized by progesterone impregnated sponges installed for 11 days. Two days before the time of sponge removal (day 4, each goat was treated with 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin and 50 μg of dcloprostenol. All goats were inseminated (day 0 with alpine goat semen from France at 45±3 h after sponge removal (day 2. Real-time B-mode ultrasonography was performed at day 50, day 13, day 0, day 40 and day 60 post-AI. Results: Selection rate, estrus response rate, AI rate, PR at days 40 and days 60 were 86.53%; 71.85%; 83.34%; 51% and 68% (p<0.05 respectively. Value of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, accuracy, total conformity, conformity of correct positive, conformity of correct negative and discordance of pregnancy diagnosis by trans-abdominal ultrasonography (TU were 98.03%; 63.26%; 73.52%; 3.12%; 81%; 81%; 50%; 31% and 19%, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that the TU can be performed in goats under traditional condition and emphasized the importance of re-examination of goats with negative or doubtful TU diagnoses performed at day 40 post-AI.

  12. Immunologic analysis of human breast cancer progesterone receptors. 1. Immunonaffinity purification of transformed receptors and production of monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, P.A.; Suba, E.J.; Lawler-Heavner, J.; Elashry-Stowers, D.; Wei, L.L.; Toft, D.O.; Sullivan, W.P.; Horwitz, K.B.; Edwards, D.P.

    1987-09-22

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb), designated PR-6, produced against chick oviduct progesterone receptors cross-reacts with the M/sub r/ 120,000 human B receptors. An immunomatrix prepared with PR-6 was used to purify progesterone receptors (PR) from T47D human breast cancer cells. Single-step immunoaffinity chromatography results in enrichment of B receptors (identified by immunoblot with PR-6 and by photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 3/H)promegestone) to a specific activity of 1915 pmol/mg of protein (or 23% purity) and with 27% yield. Purity and yields as judged by gel electrophoresis and densitometric scanning of the B protein were approximately 1.7-fold higher due to partial loss in hormone binding activity at the elution step. B receptors purified under these conditions are transformed and biologically active. They were maintained as undergraded 120-kDa doublets and retained both hormone and DNA binding activities. These purified B receptors were used as immunogen for production of four monoclonal antibodies against human PR. Three of the MAbs, designated as B-30 (IgG/sub 1/), B-64 (IgG/sub 1/), and B-11 (IgM), are specific for B receptors. The fourth MAb, A/B-52 (IgG/sub 1/), reacts with both A and B receptors. The IgG MAbs are monospecific for human PR since they recognize and absorb native receptor-hormone complexes, displace the sedimentation of 4S receptors on salt containing sucrose gradients, and, by immunoblot assay of crude T47D cytosol, react only with receptor polypeptides. Although mice were injected with B receptors only, production of A/B-52 which recognized both A and B receptors provides evidence that these two proteins share regions of structural homology.

  13. Estimated Withdrawals from Stream-Valley Aquifers and Refined Estimated Withdrawals from Selected Aquifers in the United States, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, B. Pierre; Maupin, Molly A.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Information Program compiles estimates of fresh ground-water withdrawals in the United States on a 5-year interval. In the year-2000 compilation, withdrawals were reported from principal aquifers and aquifer systems including two general aquifers - Alluvial and Other aquifers. Withdrawals from a widespread aquifer group - stream-valley aquifers - were not specifically identified in the year-2000 compilation, but they are important sources of ground water. Stream-valley aquifers are alluvial aquifers located in the valley of major streams and rivers. Stream-valley aquifers are long but narrow aquifers that are in direct hydraulic connection with associated streams and limited in extent compared to most principal aquifers. Based in large part on information published in U.S. Geological Survey reports, preliminary analysis of withdrawal data and hydrogeologic and surface-water information indicated areas in the United States where possible stream-valley aquifers were located. Further assessment focused on 24 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Withdrawals reported from Alluvial aquifers in 16 states and withdrawals reported from Other aquifers in 6 states and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico were investigated. Two additional States - Arkansas and New Jersey - were investigated because withdrawals reported from other principal aquifers in these two States may be from stream-valley aquifers. Withdrawals from stream-valley aquifers were identified in 20 States and were about 1,560 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), a rate comparable to withdrawals from the 10 most productive principal aquifers in the United States. Of the 1,560 Mgal/d of withdrawals attributed to stream-valley aquifers, 1,240 Mgal/d were disaggregated from Alluvial aquifers, 150 Mgal/d from glacial sand and gravel aquifers, 116 Mgal/d from Other aquifers, 28.1 Mgal/d from Pennsylvanian aquifers, and 24.9 Mgal/d from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial

  14. The cannabis withdrawal syndrome: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnet U

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Udo Bonnet,1,2 Ulrich W Preuss3,4 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Castrop-Rauxel, Academic Teaching Hospital of the University of Duisburg-Essen, Castrop-Rauxel, 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, LVR-Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, 3Vitos-Klinik Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie Herborn, Herborn, 4Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale, Germany Abstract: The cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS is a criterion of cannabis use disorders (CUDs (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition and cannabis dependence (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10. Several lines of evidence from animal and human studies indicate that cessation from long-term and regular cannabis use precipitates a specific withdrawal syndrome with mainly mood and behavioral symptoms of light to moderate intensity, which can usually be treated in an outpatient setting. Regular cannabis intake is related to a desensitization and downregulation of human brain cannabinoid 1 (CB1 receptors. This starts to reverse within the first 2 days of abstinence and the receptors return to normal functioning within 4 weeks of abstinence, which could constitute a neurobiological time frame for the duration of CWS, not taking into account cellular and synaptic long-term neuroplasticity elicited by long-term cannabis use before cessation, for example, being possibly responsible for cannabis craving. The CWS severity is dependent on the amount of cannabis used pre-cessation, gender, and heritable and several environmental factors. Therefore, naturalistic severity of CWS highly varies. Women reported a stronger CWS than men including physical symptoms, such as nausea and stomach pain. Comorbidity with mental or somatic disorders, severe CUD, and low social functioning may require an inpatient treatment (preferably qualified detox and

  15. The cannabis withdrawal syndrome: current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Udo; Preuss, Ulrich W

    2017-01-01

    The cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS) is a criterion of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition) and cannabis dependence (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10). Several lines of evidence from animal and human studies indicate that cessation from long-term and regular cannabis use precipitates a specific withdrawal syndrome with mainly mood and behavioral symptoms of light to moderate intensity, which can usually be treated in an outpatient setting. Regular cannabis intake is related to a desensitization and downregulation of human brain cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors. This starts to reverse within the first 2 days of abstinence and the receptors return to normal functioning within 4 weeks of abstinence, which could constitute a neurobiological time frame for the duration of CWS, not taking into account cellular and synaptic long-term neuroplasticity elicited by long-term cannabis use before cessation, for example, being possibly responsible for cannabis craving. The CWS severity is dependent on the amount of cannabis used pre-cessation, gender, and heritable and several environmental factors. Therefore, naturalistic severity of CWS highly varies. Women reported a stronger CWS than men including physical symptoms, such as nausea and stomach pain. Comorbidity with mental or somatic disorders, severe CUD, and low social functioning may require an inpatient treatment (preferably qualified detox) and post-acute rehabilitation. There are promising results with gabapentin and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol analogs in the treatment of CWS. Mirtazapine can be beneficial to treat CWS insomnia. According to small studies, venlafaxine can worsen the CWS, whereas other antidepressants, atomoxetine, lithium, buspirone, and divalproex had no relevant effect. Certainly, further research is required with respect to the impact of the CWS treatment setting on long-term CUD prognosis and with respect to

  16. The cannabis withdrawal syndrome: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Udo; Preuss, Ulrich W

    2017-01-01

    The cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS) is a criterion of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition ) and cannabis dependence (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10). Several lines of evidence from animal and human studies indicate that cessation from long-term and regular cannabis use precipitates a specific withdrawal syndrome with mainly mood and behavioral symptoms of light to moderate intensity, which can usually be treated in an outpatient setting. Regular cannabis intake is related to a desensitization and downregulation of human brain cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors. This starts to reverse within the first 2 days of abstinence and the receptors return to normal functioning within 4 weeks of abstinence, which could constitute a neurobiological time frame for the duration of CWS, not taking into account cellular and synaptic long-term neuroplasticity elicited by long-term cannabis use before cessation, for example, being possibly responsible for cannabis craving. The CWS severity is dependent on the amount of cannabis used pre-cessation, gender, and heritable and several environmental factors. Therefore, naturalistic severity of CWS highly varies. Women reported a stronger CWS than men including physical symptoms, such as nausea and stomach pain. Comorbidity with mental or somatic disorders, severe CUD, and low social functioning may require an inpatient treatment (preferably qualified detox) and post-acute rehabilitation. There are promising results with gabapentin and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol analogs in the treatment of CWS. Mirtazapine can be beneficial to treat CWS insomnia. According to small studies, venlafaxine can worsen the CWS, whereas other antidepressants, atomoxetine, lithium, buspirone, and divalproex had no relevant effect. Certainly, further research is required with respect to the impact of the CWS treatment setting on long-term CUD prognosis and with respect to

  17. Loss of Progesterone Receptor-Mediated Actions Induce Preterm Cellular and Structural Remodeling of the Cervix and Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellon, Steven M.; Dobyns, Abigail E.; Beck, Hailey L.; Kurtzman, James T.; Garfield, Robert E.; Kirby, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    A decline in serum progesterone or antagonism of progesterone receptor function results in preterm labor and birth. Whether characteristics of premature remodeling of the cervix after antiprogestins or ovariectomy are similar to that at term was the focus of the present study. Groups of pregnant rats were treated with vehicle, a progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone or mifepristone), or ovariectomized on day 17 postbreeding. As expected, controls given vehicle delivered at term while rats delivered preterm after progesterone receptor antagonist treatment or ovariectomy. Similar to the cervix before term, the preterm cervix of progesterone receptor antagonist-treated rats was characterized by reduced cell nuclei density, decreased collagen content and structure, as well as a greater presence of macrophages per unit area. Thus, loss of nuclear progesterone receptor-mediated actions promoted structural remodeling of the cervix, increased census of resident macrophages, and preterm birth much like that found in the cervix at term. In contrast to the progesterone receptor antagonist-induced advance in characteristics associated with remodeling, ovariectomy-induced loss of systemic progesterone did not affect hypertrophy, extracellular collagen, or macrophage numbers in the cervix. Thus, the structure and macrophage census in the cervix appear sufficient for premature ripening and birth to occur well before term. With progesterone receptors predominantly localized on cells other than macrophages, the findings suggest that interactions between cells may facilitate the loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions as part of a final common mechanism that remodels the cervix in certain etiologies of preterm and with parturition at term. PMID:24339918

  18. Estrogen regulates progesterone production by human placental trophoblast cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    We have suggested that estrogen regulates placental low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and thus progesterone (P 4 ) production during primate pregnancy based on results obtained in antiestrogen-treated baboons. The objectives of the present study, were to determine whether estrogen is also important to regulation of P 4 formation by the human placenta, and whether effects of estrogen were mediated by availability of cholesterol substrate via the LDL, de novo, or deesterification pathways. Term human placenta were dispersed in 0.125% trypsin, cytotrophoblasts were purified via a 70-5% Percoll gradient, incubated 72 h in DMEM with 10% FBS to stimulate formation of syncytia, then incubated an additional 48 h with estradiol (E2). In Experiment 1, 1 μg/ml E 2 and 500 μg/MI LDL-protein, stimulated P 4 (P 2 increased LDL uptake. Scatchard analysis indicated that trophoblast uptake of [ 125 I]LDL (ng/mg cell protein) was 50% greater (P 2 (mean ± SE, 638 +/- 23; n = 6) than DMEM in the presence of antiestrogen MER-25. Moreover, uptake and degradation of LDL, and cellular content of free and esterified cholesterol, increased in a dose-dependent manner with 0.1 to 1000 ng/ml E 2 . These results suggest that estrogen regulates placental cell uptake of LDL and thus availability of cholesterol for P 4 biosynthesis during human pregnancy. In Experiment 2, E 2 Stimulated P 4 formation (ng/mg cell protein/48 h) from a control level of 194 ± 25 to 357 ± 62, in the absence of LDL. Under these conditions, cholesterol for P 4 biosynthesis must have been derived from de novo synthesis and/or deesterification of cholesteryl ester stores

  19. Selective progesterone receptor modulators for fertility preservation in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2017-09-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs, AKA leiomyoma) are the most important benign neoplastic threat to women's health, with costs up to hundreds of billions of health care dollars worldwide. Uterine fibroids caused morbidities exert a tremendous health toll, impacting the quality of life of women of all ethnicities, especially women of color. Clinical presentations include heavy vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, bulk symptoms, subfertility, and obstetric complications. Current management strategies heavily lean toward surgical procedures; nonetheless, the choice of treatment is generally subject to patient's age and her desire to preserve future fertility. Women with UF who desire to maintain future fertility potential face a dilemma because of the limited treatment choices that are currently available to help them achieve that goal. Recently, ulipristal acetate the first of the promising family of oral selective progesterone receptor modulators has been approved for UF treatment in Europe, Canada, and several other countries and is under review for possible approval in the USA. In this review article, we discuss recent advances in the management options against UF with a bend toward oral effective long-term treatment alternatives who are particularly suited for those seeking to preserve their future fertility potential. We also explore the transformative concept of primary and secondary UF prevention using these new anti-UF agents. We envision a remarkable shift in the management of UF in future years from surgical/invasive treatment to orally administrated options; clearly, this potential shift will require additional intense clinical research. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction.

  20. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  1. Progesterone-induced secretion of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (cluster differentiation antigen-26) by the uterine endometrium of the ewe and cow that costimulates lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W J; Hansen, P J

    1995-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) is a serine proteinase widely distributed in mammalian tissues, including lymphocytes, where it is identical to the T-cell activation antigen, cluster differentiation antigen-26. In the present study, DPPIV enzymatic activity was found in uterine secretions of unilaterally pregnant ewes in increasing amounts as gestation progressed. Progesterone increased DPPIV in uterine secretions from ovariectomized ewes and cows. DPPIV was enriched from ovine uterine secretions by a combination of cation exchange, gel filtration, lectin, and Gly-Pro-NH2 affinity chromatographies. The mol wt was 107 kilodaltons, as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, and 140 kilodaltons by gel filtration. The pI was estimated to be 6.8. Enzymatic activity had a pH optimum of 8.3 and a Km of 0.32 mM. The sequence of the 34 N-terminal amino acids was 77-87% homologous to an internal region of human cluster differentiation antigen-26 and rat liver DPPIV. Thus, uterine DPPIV appears to be missing the signal sequence that allows integration into the cytoplasmic membrane. DPPIV was localized immunohistochemically to lumenal and glandular endometrial epithelial cells and, in some pregnant ewes, discrete endometrial stromal cells. Highly enriched sheep uterine DPPIV costimulated proliferation of mitogen-treated sheep lymphocytes. Stimulation occurred in the presence of the uterine milk proteins, a pair of progesterone-induced endometrial secretory proteins with well characterized lymphocyte inhibitory activity. However, uterine milk proteins did not inhibit the costimulatory effect of DPPIV on phytohemagglutinin-L stimulated-lymphocyte proliferation. In conclusion, the uterine endometrium synthesizes a biologically active form of DPPIV under the influence of progesterone that is capable of enhancing mitogen-stimulated T-lymphocyte proliferation.

  2. The Treatment of Clozapine-Withdrawal Delirium with Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Modak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine, a commonly used atypical antipsychotic, can precipitate a severe withdrawal syndrome. In this report, we describe a case of delirium with catatonic features emerging after the immediate cessation of clozapine subsequent to concerns of developing neuroleptic malignant syndrome. After multiple treatments were found to be inefficacious, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT was initiated, resulting in significant improvement. A literature search revealed six previous cases of clozapine-withdrawal syndromes of varied symptomatology treated with ECT. To our knowledge, the present case represents the first reported clozapine-withdrawal delirium treated successfully with ECT.

  3. Ketogenic Diet suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane

    2018-01-01

    , we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diets were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were...... maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. RESULTS: Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms 'rigidity' and 'irritability'. CONCLUSION: Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic...... diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Evaluating Distal and Proximal Explanations for Withdrawal: A Rejoinder to Varnum and Kwon's "The Ecology of Withdrawal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norasakkunkit, Vinai; Uchida, Yukiko; Takemura, Kosuke

    2017-01-01

    In their 2016 commentary on our theorizing about how youth withdrawal from economic and social participation in Japanese society (i.e., NEET and Hikikomori phenomena) stems from generational inequality of economic opportunities, Varnum and Kwon correctly point out that our explanation for withdrawal is yet untested. They then offered an alternative, evolutionary psychological explanation for withdrawal in which they claim that in resource-rich ecologies like Japan, the option to withdraw from participating in society is a possible life strategy, a strategy that would be much more costly in resource-poor ecologies. While we agree with this premise, we argue that this distal explanatory framework, at least in its current form, has limits in reconciling some of the more recent cross-cultural observations, as well as well-established sociological claims about the causes of withdrawal. Thus we argue that much work remains in refining and expanding the explanatory power of more distal explanations on the issue of withdrawal. Until then, the more proximal and culture-specific explanations are probably the useful and meaningful explanations for the withdrawal phenomenon.

  5. Hyponatremia after Thyroid Hormone Withdrawal in a Patient with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jin Jo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is an electrolyte abnormality commonly found in clinical practice. It is important to diagnose the underlying etiology of the hyponatremia and correct it appropriately because severe hyponatremia can cause serious complications and substantially increase the risk of mortality. Although hypothyroidism is known to be a cause of hyponatremia, it is rare that hyponatremia occurs in relation to hypothyroidism induced by thyroid hormone withdrawal in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We report a case of a 76-year-old woman with papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting with severe hyponatremia related to hypothyroidism induced by thyroid hormone withdrawal for radio-active iodine whole-body scanning, who was treated by thyroid hormone replacement and hydration. Considering that the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer is rapidly increasing, physicians should be aware that, although uncommon, hyponatremia can occur in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy or diagnostic testing.

  6. 76 FR 79697 - Withdrawal of Notices of Opportunity for a Hearing; Penicillin and Tetracycline Used in Animal Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... proceedings (for example, take into account which withdrawal(s) would likely have the most significant impact... would need to prioritize any withdrawal proceedings (for example, take into account which withdrawal(s.... (Ref. 5) 3. FDA Would Need To Prioritize Any Withdrawal Proceedings (for Example, Take Into Account...

  7. Estimating genetic parameters for fertility in dairy cows from in-line milk progesterone profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenghe, A.M.M.; Bouwman, A.C.; Berglund, B.; Strandberg, E.; Blom, J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define endocrine fertility traits from in-line milk progesterone (P4) records and to estimate genetic parameters for these traits. Correlations of classical fertility (calving interval and calving to first service) and milk production traits with endocrine fertility

  8. Plasma prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations around parturition in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.; Willemse, A.H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Bevers, M.

    Plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples taken from 2–15 days before until 1–4 days after spontaneous parturition in four sows and in one sow around prostaglandin F2α-induced parturition. Between Days −15 and −2 (Day 0 =

  9. The Interactive Effects of Estrogen and Progesterone on Changes in Emotional Eating Across the Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L.; Keel, Pamela K.; Racine, Sarah E.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Neale, Michael; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Boker, Steven; Hu, Jean Yueqin

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that within-person changes in estrogen and progesterone predict changes in binge eating across the menstrual cycle. However, samples have been extremely small (maximum N = 9), and analyses have not examined the interactive effects of hormones that are critical for changes in food intake in animals. The aims of the current study were to examine ovarian hormone interactions in the prediction of within-subject changes in emotional eating in the largest sample of women to date (N = 196). Participants provided daily ratings of emotional eating and saliva samples for hormone measurement for 45 consecutive days. Results confirmed that changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in emotional eating across the menstrual cycle, with a significant estradiol x progesterone interaction. Emotional eating scores were highest during the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone peaks and estradiol demonstrates a secondary peak. Findings extend previous work by highlighting significant interactions between estrogen and progesterone that explain mid-luteal increases in emotional eating. Future work should explore mechanisms (e.g., gene-hormone interactions) that contribute to both within- and between-subject differences in emotional eating. PMID:22889242

  10. Effects of selenium-rich yeast supplementation on the plasma progesterone levels of postpartum dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachiro Kamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The effects of the pre- and postpartum supplementation of cows with Se on their plasma P4 concentrations after calving were investigated. Methods Thirty-four Holstein cows were used to investigate the effects of dietary selenium supplementation on the postpartum recovery of the luteal function in cows. Selenium-rich yeast (containing 300 ppm selenium was mixed with total mixed ration fed to 17 pregnant cows from 30 days before they were due to calve (10 g yeast daily to 100 days after calving (20 g yeast daily. The control cows (n = 17 were fed the same amount of ordinary yeast. The cows’ plasma progesterone concentrations were determined every two days using an enzyme immunoassay after calving. Results Feed intake (total digestive nutrient, crude protein, milk production, body weight and the biochemical properties of blood plasma did not differ between the two groups; however, the plasma selenium concentrations of the supplemented animals were significantly greater than those of the controls at and after calving. The postpartum plasma progesterone concentrations of the selenium-yeast-supplemented group increased earlier than those of the control group. Moreover, during the estrus cycle after the 3rd ovulation or ovulation with estrus between 60 to 80 days after calving, the selenium-supplemented cows exhibited greater progesterone concentrations than the control cows. Conclusion Selenium supplementation promotes the postpartum progesterone production of cows.

  11. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark. A ...

  12. Genetic analysis of atypical progesterone profiles in Holstein-Friesian cows from experimental research herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyman, S.; Johansson, K.; Koning, de C.J.A.M.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Wall, E.; Berglund, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic variation in normal and atypical progesterone profiles and investigate if this information could be useful in an improved genetic evaluation for fertility for dairy cows. The phenotypes derived from normal profiles included cycle length traits,

  13. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  14. Prostaglandin F2 alpha and progesterone profiles in post-partum cows with short luteal phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekana, M

    1997-01-01

    Sequential blood samples were collected at 3 h interval from 3 Swedish dairy cows starting from the day of first post-partum ovulation for 10 consecutive days to describe short luteal phases. All plasma samples were analysed for the concentrations of the main PGF2 alpha metabolite, 15-ketodihydro-PGF2 alpha, whereas levels of progesterone were monitored from all morning samples. The day of ovulation was judged when the largest follicle, being monitored by a real-time B mode ultrasound scanner, could not be detected at the next examination. A sustained rise above 0.5 nmol/l of progesterone level was taken as a clear-cut value between non-luteal and luteal phases. Luteal phases of less than 8 days were registered as a short luteal phase during which the cows showed a total of 8 to 11 significantly elevated levels of the prostaglandin metabolite. The number of the significant increases of the metabolite was calculated using a skewness method. Analysis of these significant increases showed the first 1 to 4 episodes without altering the concentrations of progesterone. This would suggest that the developing corpus luteum is refractory in the beginning and thus, to induce luteolysis several PGF 2 alpha releases are required. The magnitude of progesterone concentrations during the short luteal phase is lower than the following phases.

  15. Endogenous progesterone and its cellular binding sites in wheat exposed to drought stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeczko, A.; Oklešťková, Jana; Siwek, A.; Dziurka, M.; Pociecha, E.; Kocurek, M.; Novák, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 2013 (2013), s. 384-394 ISSN 0960-0760 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Plants * Wheat * Progesterone Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.049, year: 2013

  16. Genetics of Fertility Indicators Based on Behaviour and Progesterone in Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, P; Chagunda, M; O'Connell, J

    2009-01-01

    Genetic selection for female is diffecult because current records based on AI information are biased from farmer's decisions and have low heritablity (h2 = 0.03). Automated on-farm progesterone based heat detection methods are becoming commercially available, as has eqipment based on behaviour...

  17. Intestinal tumorigenesis is not affected by progesterone signaling in rodent models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, Jarom; Muncan, Vanesa; Jacobs, Rutger J.; de Jonge-Muller, Eveline S. M.; Graven, Laura; Biemond, Izak; Ederveen, Antwan G.; Groothuis, Patrick G.; Mosselman, Sietse; Hardwick, James C.; Hommes, Daniel W.; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical data suggest that progestins have chemopreventive properties in the development of colorectal cancer. We set out to examine a potential protective effect of progestins and progesterone signaling on colon cancer development. In normal and neoplastic intestinal tissue, we found that the

  18. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  19. Progesterone profiles and post-partum fertility in dairy cattle in southern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, J.E.; Gatica, R.; Tapia, P.

    1990-01-01

    Milk samples were taken at weekly intervals from 77 dairy cows on days 23, 30, 37, 43 and 50 post-partum (pp) in order to monitor ovarian activity through progesterone concentration measurement. Skim milk samples were assayed for progesterone by radioimmunoassay using kits provided through the FAO and IAEA. Oestrus, clinical examinations, treatments, artificial insemination and pregnancy diagnosis were recorded. The profiles of progesterone concentration and oestrus occurrence combined with behavioural and clinical data indicated that the study cows were in the following reproductive states: I - normal, 38%; II - 'silent' oestrus, 12%; III - prolonged luteal activity, 13%; IV - irregular cyclic activity, 23%; and V - anoestrus, 13%. After artificial insemination, 89% (25/28) of normal, 77% (7/9) of silent oestrus, 50% (5/10) of prolonged luteal activity, 82% (14/17) of irregular cyclic activity and 80% (8/10) of anoestrous cows eventually became pregnant either with or without hormone treatment. With the exception of the anoestrous group, these results seem to support the idea that once a week sampling for progesterone over a seven week period pp is sufficient to monitor the ovarian activity and predict the fertility of a dairy herd. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Reinstatement of serum pregnanolone isomers and progesterone during alcohol detoxification therapy in premenopausal women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hill, M.; Popov, P.; Havlíková, H.; Kancheva, L.; Vrbíková, J.; Meloun, M.; Kancheva, R.; Cibula, D.; Pouzar, Vladimír; Černý, Ivan; Stárka, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2005), s. 1010-1017 ISSN 0145-6008 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : pregnanolone * progesterone * detoxification therapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.636, year: 2005

  1. Progesterone and dexamethasone differentially regulate the IGF-system in glial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesik, Daniel; De Keyser, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    IGF-1 is an important factor for myelin synthesis and hence possesses therapeutic potential in treating demyelinating disease such as multiple sclerosis. However, IGF-1 poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sex steroid progesterone and the

  2. Temporary undernutrition during early gestation, corpora lutea morphometrics, ovarian progesterone secretion and embryo survival in gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Bouwman, E.G.; Chen, T.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Soede, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports effects of severe undernutrition on luteal function and pregnancy in pigs. Gilts were inseminated and either fasted on Day 10 and 11 after conception (n = 11) or fully fed throughout (n = 10). Fasting did not affect LH or progesterone pulsatile secretion pattern on Day 11

  3. TREATMENT OF ACUTE EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS IN THE LEWIS RAT WITH THE SEX-HORMONE PROGESTERONE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TROOSTER, WJ; TEELKEN, AW; LIJNEMA, TH; MEYER, E; MINDERHOUD, JM; NIEUWENHUIS, P

    1994-01-01

    In the present study we examined the effect of treatment with progesterone on experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for the human neurological disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Acute EAE was induced in female Lewis rats by immunization with guinea pig spinal cord. From 4 days

  4. Influence of the reuse of progesterone implants in a fixed-time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of reusing progesterone intravaginal implants using a fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocol on the conception rates of 593 primiparous and multiparous lactating cows during two different seasons. The cows were divided into two categories: multiparous and primiparous.

  5. Combining Cattle Activity and Progesterone Measurements Using Hidden Semi-Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Jared Michael; Tøgersen, Frede Aakmann; Friggens, Nic

    2011-01-01

    Hourly pedometer counts and irregularly measured concentration of the hormone progesterone were available for a large number of dairy cattle. A hidden semi-Markov was applied to this bivariate time-series data for the purposes of monitoring the reproductive status of cattle. In particular...

  6. Mid-luteal progesterone concentrations are associated with live birth rates during ovulation induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce Saez, Jane; Balen, A; Platteau, P

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated whether mid-luteal serum progesterone concentrations are associated with live birth rates in women with WHO group II anovulatory infertility undergoing ovulation induction. Data were from women (n=335) stimulated with gonadotrophins using a low-dose step...

  7. Studies on steroid hormones : V - periparturient progesterone concentration in the serum of zebu cows and buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.; Agarwal, V.K.; Ahmad, A.

    1980-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the pattern of changes in progesterone concentration in zebu cows and buffaloes from India around the time of parturition. Blood samples from nine Haryana cows and nine Murrah buffaloes were collected through jugular vein puncture on different days before calving intervals. Serum samples were analysed for progesterone concentration by technique of RIA. It was found that the mean progesterone concentration during the last months of pregnancy was 2.0384 and 1.480 ng/ml serum in cows and buffaloes, respectively. The level was maintained till 48 hr prior to parturition and showed an abrupt fall to a basal level of 0.3 to 0.4 ng/ml serum within 24 hr after parturition in both these species. This basal level was maintained upto two weeks after delivery. The results of this study suggest that a sudden precipitous fall in serum progesterone concentration at the terminal stages of pregnancy may indicate impending premature delivery. (auth.)

  8. Gender specific effect of progesterone on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Vipin V; Balaraman, R

    2007-06-27

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of progesterone and its gender based variation on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into vehicle treated reperfusion injury group male (I/R-M), female (I/R-F), ovariectomised (I/R-OVR) and progesterone treatment (I/R-M+PG, I/R-F+PG, I/R-OVR+PG) groups, respectively. I/R injury was produced by occluding the left descending coronary artery (LCA) for 1 h and followed by re-opening for 1 h. Progesterone (2 mg kg(-1) i.p.) was administered 30 min after induction of ischemia. Hemodynamic parameters (+/-dp/dt, MAP), heart rate, ST-segment elevation and occurrence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) were measured during the I/R period. The myocardial infarct area, oxidative stress markers, activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and creatine kinase (CK) were determined after the experiment along with the assessment of the effect on apoptotic activity by using DNA fragmentation analysis. Histological observations were carried out on heart tissue. Treatment with progesterone significantly (Pinjury induced damage is based on gender of the animal. The protective effect could be mediated by attenuation of inflammation and its possible interaction with endogenous estrogen.

  9. Low glucose availability stimulates progesterone production by mouse ovaries in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Pepper, Aimee; Bentley, George E

    2017-12-15

    Steroid production by the ovary is primarily stimulated by gonadotropins but can also be affected by biological cues that provide information about energy status and environmental stress. To further understand which metabolic cues the ovary can respond to, we exposed gonadotropin-stimulated mouse ovaries in vitro to glucose metabolism inhibitors and measured steroid accumulation in media. Gonadotropin-stimulated ovaries exposed to 2-deoxy-d-glucose increased progesterone production and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA levels. However, oocytes and granulosa cells in antral follicles do not independently mediate this response because targeted treatment of these cell types with a different inhibitor of glucose metabolism (bromopyruvic acid) did not affect progesterone production. Elevated progesterone production is consistent with the homeostatic role of progesterone in glucose regulation in mammals. It also may regulate follicle growth and/or atresia within the ovary. These results suggest that ovaries can regulate glucose homeostasis in addition to their primary role in reproductive activity. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. The relationship between fat and progesterone, estradiol, and chorionic gonadotropin levels in Quebec cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, A R; Buckett, W; Son, W Y; Lefebvre, J; Mahfoudh, A M; Dahan, M H

    2017-11-01

    The majority of milk in industrialized countries is obtained from pregnant cows, which contains increased levels of estrogen and progesterone compared to non-pregnant cows. The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of hormones present in milk with different fat content because previous studies on humans have shown potential effects of increased milk consumption on serum and urine hormone levels as well as on sperm parameters. However, it is unclear whether consumption of milk at the currently recommended levels would lead to systemic effects. Samples of cow's milk of varying fat concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3.25, 10, and 35%) were analyzed via competitive ELISA assays. Progesterone concentrations were significantly correlated to increasing fat content of milk (r = 0.8251, p = 0.04). Research on conditions in which additional progesterone may have an effect on human health should consider inclusion of limitation of milk intake and its effects. Further studies are needed to determine the concentration of progesterone in milk of different fat content in other regions and countries and to quantify the potential pathophysiologic role.

  11. 76 FR 57907 - Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food; Progesterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... levels for progesterone using the daily consumption values in the current guidance document, ``Guideline... CFR 556.540 to reflect the revised daily consumption values as applied to edible tissues of cattle... incremental increase limits for cattle tissues based on the revised daily consumption values are applicable to...

  12. Development of a competitive lateral flow immunoassay for progesterone: influence of coating conjugates and buffer components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    2008-11-01

    Several aspects of the development of competitive lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are described. The quantitation of progesterone is taken as an example. The LFIA format consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane spotted with various progesterone conjugates as the test line. A mixture of primary antibody and secondary antibody adsorbed to colloidal carbon was used for signal generation. A digital scanner and dedicated software were used to quantitate the response. A reappraisal of the checkerboard titration, often used in the optimisation of immunoassays, is discussed. Surprisingly, the highest sensitivity of the LFIA format (IC(50) of 0.6 microg L(-1) progesterone in buffer) was achieved by using a high coating concentration of the analyte-protein conjugate and a high dilution of the antibody solution. Immediate addition of all reagents in LFIA was superior to premixing the components and allowing prereaction. Of several blocking agents tested bovine serum albumin was superior in performance, whereas the combination of ovalbumin and progesterone substantially influenced test results.

  13. Stability in time of iodinated tracers for Testosterone, Progesterone and cortisol radiommunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisembaum Alas, A.T.; Machado Curbelo, A.J.; Diaz Castro, D.; Chape Puertas, A.; Santander Lopez, A.M.; Cabrera Oliva, V.

    1996-01-01

    Stability in time of three iodihistamine derivates for steroid hormone radioimmunoassays (RIAs): Testosterone-3, Carboximetilxomine-histamine- 125I , Progesterone-11 Hemisuccinate-histamine- 125I and Cortisol-21 Hemisuccinate histamine- 125I produced in the National Institute of Endocrinology, Havana, Cuba was tested. Iodinated tracers were prepared according to Nars and Hunters's method, modifying in the purifying

  14. Diagnostic Efficacy of a Single Progesterone Determination to Assess Full-Term Pregnancy in the Bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, A; Charles, C; Starvaggi Cucuzza, A; Pregel, P

    2015-12-01

    In clinical settings, when the reproductive history of a near-term bitch is limited to mating dates, the possibility to accurately assess whether pregnancy is at term could be very useful in order to be able to plan a correct management of parturition or to safely perform an elective Caesarean section. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of a single progesterone determination, measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), in predicting the occurrence of parturition on the following day. At least one blood sample was collected from 51 pre-partum bitches during the 3 days before parturition and on day of parturition. The efficacy of progesterone as a marker of the end of pregnancy was tested using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Youden's index was calculated to select the optimal cut-off value (with 95% confidence interval), aiming at maximizing the correct identification of negative events, so not to risk to diagnose as full term a bitch which is not. Progesterone concentration lower than 3.4 ng/ml correctly identified the bitches whelping the following day; however, because of the obliged prudential approach, sensitivity was low (46.88%), and 17 of 32 full-term bitches were missed. Due to a very large individual variation, a single progesterone determination has low diagnostic efficacy, although it can represent a useful first screening. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Reproductive responses and progesterone levels of postpartum oestrus synchronization in goats with different body reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana V. Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty adult goats were classified at parturition into two body condition score (BCS groups: BCI (n=16 with a score of 2.7 and BCII (n=14 with a score of 2.0. On the fiftieth day postpartum, oestrus was synchronized by CIDR for 5 days. Upon CIDR removal (Day 0, they received 1 mL of PGF2α IM and mated for 72 hours. Kids were kept with does and weaned at 40 days of age. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 21 days after CIDR removal for progesterone assay. The BCI group showed a greater weight loss compared to the BCII group, and BCS before synchronization was 1.9±0.08 and 1.6±0.07 for the BCI and BCII groups, respectively (Pvs 36%; Pvs 1.25; Pvs 0.25; P<0.05. Progesterone concentration was higher in pregnant does in BCI. A positive relationship was found between progesterone level at CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.57; P<0.01, also between progesterone level at 21 days after CIDR removal and BCS at parturition (0.47; P<0.05, or BCS before synchronization (0.51; P<0.05. We conclude that oestrus response to postpartum CIDR synchronization appeared to be slightly dependent on BCS. However, goats with low BCS at oestrus synchronization exhibited a reduction in pregnancy rate.

  16. Adolescent but not adult ethanol binge drinking modulates cocaine withdrawal symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Aguilar, Maria A; Giménez-Gómez, Pablo; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) binge drinking is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers that induces long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations in adulthood. An early history of EtOH abuse during adolescence is highly correlated with cocaine addiction in adulthood. Abstinence of cocaine abuse can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety, psychosis, depression, and cognitive impairments. This study assessed the consequences of adolescent exposure to EtOH on the behavioral alterations promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adulthood. We pretreated juvenile (34-47 days old) or adult (68-81 days old) mice with EtOH (1.25 g/kg) following a binge-drinking pattern. Then, after a three-week period without drug delivery, they were subjected to a chronic cocaine treatment in adulthood and tested under cocaine withdrawal by the ensuing paradigms: open field, elevated plus maze, prepulse inhibition, tail suspension test, and object recognition. Another set of mice were treated with the same EtOH binge-drinking procedure during adolescence and were tested immediately afterwards under the same behavioral paradigms. Adolescent EtOH pretreatment undermined the anxiogenic effects observed after cocaine abstinence, reduced prepulse inhibition, and increased immobility scores in the tail suspension test following cocaine withdrawal. Moreover, the memory deficits evoked by these substances when given separately were enhanced in cocaine-withdrawn mice exposed to EtOH during adolescence. EtOH binge drinking during adolescence also induced anxiety, depressive symptoms, and memory impairments when measured immediately afterwards. In contrast, neither EtOH nor cocaine alone or in combination altered any of these behaviors when given in adulthood. EtOH binge drinking induces short- and long-term behavioral alterations and modulates cocaine withdrawal symptoms when given in adolescent mice.

  17. How do salt withdrawal minibasins form? Insights from forward modelling, and implications for hydrocarbon migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Frank J.

    2014-09-01

    Existing models for the initiation of salt withdrawal minibasins focus on the role of triggers that exist within the minibasin, either stratigraphic (e.g. differential deposition) or tectonic (extension, translation or contraction). Existing studies tend to focus on complex settings, such as continental margins, which contain many different potential triggering mechanisms. It can be difficult in these settings to identify which process is responsible for minibasin initiation, or the influence of individual factors on their subsequent development. Salt withdrawal minibasins also exist in simpler settings, without any obvious intrinsic trigger; the region of the North German Basin used by Trusheim (1960) in the classic definition of salt withdrawal geometries was of this nature. There is no overall basal or surface slope, no major lateral movement, and there is no depositional heterogeneity. Previously recognized trigger processes for minibasin initiation do not apply in this benign setting, suggesting that other, potentially more fundamental, influences may be at work. A simple forward-modelling approach shows how, in the absence of any other mechanism, a new minibasin can develop as the consequence of salt movement driven by its neighbour, and families of withdrawal minibasins can propagate across a region from a single seed point. This new mechanism may explain how some minibasins appear to initiate before the sediment density has exceeded that of the underlying salt. The forward modelling also indicates that some minibasins begin to invert to form turtle anticlines before the underlying salt has been evacuated, so that the timing of turtle formation may not be diagnostic of weld formation. This mechanism may also give rise to salt-cored turtles that have a lens of salt trapped beneath their cores. These new findings have implications for hydrocarbon migration and trapping.

  18. Adolescent but not adult ethanol binge drinking modulates cocaine withdrawal symptoms in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ledesma

    Full Text Available Ethanol (EtOH binge drinking is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers that induces long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations in adulthood. An early history of EtOH abuse during adolescence is highly correlated with cocaine addiction in adulthood. Abstinence of cocaine abuse can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety, psychosis, depression, and cognitive impairments. This study assessed the consequences of adolescent exposure to EtOH on the behavioral alterations promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adulthood.We pretreated juvenile (34-47 days old or adult (68-81 days old mice with EtOH (1.25 g/kg following a binge-drinking pattern. Then, after a three-week period without drug delivery, they were subjected to a chronic cocaine treatment in adulthood and tested under cocaine withdrawal by the ensuing paradigms: open field, elevated plus maze, prepulse inhibition, tail suspension test, and object recognition. Another set of mice were treated with the same EtOH binge-drinking procedure during adolescence and were tested immediately afterwards under the same behavioral paradigms.Adolescent EtOH pretreatment undermined the anxiogenic effects observed after cocaine abstinence, reduced prepulse inhibition, and increased immobility scores in the tail suspension test following cocaine withdrawal. Moreover, the memory deficits evoked by these substances when given separately were enhanced in cocaine-withdrawn mice exposed to EtOH during adolescence. EtOH binge drinking during adolescence also induced anxiety, depressive symptoms, and memory impairments when measured immediately afterwards. In contrast, neither EtOH nor cocaine alone or in combination altered any of these behaviors when given in adulthood.EtOH binge drinking induces short- and long-term behavioral alterations and modulates cocaine withdrawal symptoms when given in adolescent mice.

  19. Relationship between Length of Estrous Cycle and all of Progesterone Level and Milk Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekry, A.E.; Farghaly, H.A.M.; Osman, K.T.; Regulaty, H.A.; Eboul-Ela, H.B.

    2010-01-01

    Ten non-pregnant and ten pregnant buffaloes were used in the present study and were milked twice daily (7 a.m. and 3 p.m.) whereas milk samples (15 ml) were collected at the morning every 4 days throughout the period from May 2007 to July 2007. At the same time blood samples (10 ml) were collected from every buffalo by puncture of the jugural vein into evacuated tubes. Blood and milk samples were placed immediately on ice and arrived at the laboratory immediately after collection. Blood and milk tubes were centrifuged at 1500 for 15 min in a centrifuge for serum and fat less milk separation. Serum and milk samples were frozen at -25 degree C and later analyzed for progesterone by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Progesterone concentrations in the first 2 samples were used to determine whether buffaloes were cycling or not. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≥1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples were considered cycling, and those with both serum samples containing 1.0 ng/ml were considered as anovulatory /anestrous. Regression of the corpus luteum was considered if serum progesterone was 1.0 ng/ml. Buffaloes with serum progesterone ≤1.0 ng/ml in at least one of the two samples considered pregnant. The data were statistically analyzed The data revealed that pregnant buffaloes had higher (P< 0.01) mean values of serum P4 and milk P4 than non-pregnant buffaloes. At the same time, milk P4 profile was higher (P< 0.01) than serum P4 and the ratio between milk P4 and serum P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant buffaloes. However, milk P4 was 2.4 2nd International Conference on Radiation Sciences and Applications, 28/3 - 1/4/2010 34 times higher than that of serum P4 in pregnant buffaloes ; while milk P4 was 2.9 times higher than that of serum P4 in nonpregnant buffaloes. Total daily milk yield had higher (P< 0.01) mean values than both morning and after milk yield. Morning milk yield had higher (P< 0.01) mean values than after milk yield. Step-wise regression

  20. Progesterone Profiles During the Estrous Cycle and Pregnancy of Grazing Bali Cows Supplemented with Concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HLL Belli

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of concentrate during estrous cycle and pregnancy on pattern of progesterone were studied. Seventeen calf-rearing cows were devided randomly into two groups, group A (N=9 were grazed on natural pasture as basal diet, whereas goup B (n=8 received additional 2.4 kg concentrate consists of 1.2 kg corn meal, 0.6 kg rice bran and 0.6 coconut cake. Animals from each group were closely observed for estrous characteristics i.e. estrus detection two times a day by two experienced technisians. Blood sample taken 3-times per week from jugular vein were used for assessing plasma progesterone concentrations using RIA procedure. Plasma progesterone concentrations were not influenced by concentrate supplementation neither during successive estrous cycles nor during pregnancy. The concentrations began to rise on day 4 of the cycle (1.9 ng/mL and 1.8 ng/mL and increased to concentrations as high as 5.4 ng/mL and 5.1 ng/mL for supplemented and non-supplemented cows during the luteal phase (day 12 before returning to basal levels i.e. 0.1 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL, before ovulation. Following conception, plasma progesterone increased from 0,16 ng/mL and 0.21 ng/mL at estrus to 3.6 ng/mL and 2.73 ng/mL at week-1 and then rose to 5.09 and 4.57 ng/mL at week-2 for NS and S groups, respectively. Aftewards, progesterone continued to rise to 5,46 ng/mL and 5.17 ng/mL on week-3, and then reached 6.25 and 5.3 ng/mL for non-supplemented and supplemented cow, respectively. During 10 weeks pre-calving period, progesterone levels declined gradualli achieving levels 2.83 ng/mL and 2.87 ng/mL in the non-supplemented and supplemented groups, respectively, declined markedly 1 to 2 days prior to parturition and remained at these levels before reaching the basal level after parturition. (Animal Production 11(2: 79-87 (2009 Key Words: Bali cows, progesterone, estrous cycle, pregnancy

  1. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, <\\/= 5 mg\\/day, > 5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  2. Estimated withdrawals from principal aquifers in the United States, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.; Barber, Nancy L.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh ground-water withdrawals from 66 principal aquifers in the United States were estimated for irrigation, public-supply, and self-supplied industrial water uses for the year 2000. Total ground-water withdrawals were 76,500 million gallons per day, or 85,800 thousand acre-feet per year for these three uses. Irrigation used the largest amount of ground water, 56,900 million gallons per day, followed by public supply with 16,000 million gallons per day, and self-supplied industrial with 3,570 million gallons per day. These three water uses represented 92 percent of the fresh groundwater withdrawals for all uses in the United States, the remaining 8 percent included self-supplied domestic, aquaculture, livestock, mining, and thermoelectric power uses. Aquifer withdrawals were categorized by five lithologic groups: unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers, carbonate-rock aquifers, igneous and metamorphic-rock aquifers, sandstone aquifers, and sandstone and carbonate-rock aquifers. Withdrawals from aquifers that were not included in one of the 66 principal aquifers were reported in an “Other” aquifers group. The largest withdrawals in the United States were from unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sand and gravel aquifers, which accounted for 80 percent of total withdrawals from all aquifers. Carbonate-rock aquifers provided 8 percent of the withdrawals, and igneous and metamorphic-rock aquifers, 6 percent. Withdrawals from sandstone aquifers, from sandstone and carbonate-rock aquifers, and from the “Other” aquifers category each constituted about 2 percent of the total withdrawals reported.Fifty-five percent of the total withdrawals for irrigation, public-supply, and self-supplied industrial water uses were provided by the High Plains aquifer, California Central Valley aquifer system, the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, and the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers. These aquifers provided most of the withdrawals for irrigation

  3. A Case Report of Kratom Addiction and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbis-Reig, David

    2016-02-01

    Kratom, a relatively unknown herb among physicians in the western world, is advertised on the Internet as an alternative to opioid analgesics, as a potential treatment for oploid withdrawal and as a "legal high" with minimal addiction potential. This report describes a case of kratom addiction in a 37-year-old woman with a severe oploid-like withdrawal syndrome that was managed successfully with symptom-triggered clonidine therapy and scheduled hydroxyzine. A review of other case reports of kratom toxicity, the herb's addiction potential, and the kratom withdrawal syndrome is discussed. Physicians in the United States should be aware of the growing availability and abuse of kratom and the herb's potential adverse health effects, with particular attention to kratom's toxicity, addictive potential, and associated withdrawal syndrome.

  4. 5 CFR 1650.32 - Financial hardship withdrawals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., unexpected, or unusual event, such as an earthquake, hurricane, tornado, flood, storm, fire, or theft. (4... participant must certify that he or he has a financial hardship as described on the hardship withdrawal form...

  5. State National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Program Withdrawal Petitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Search for pending and resolved NPDES withdrawal petitions by state, region, date, or keyword. "Pending" means EPA has received the petition and is working with the...

  6. Sedative-hypnotic drug withdrawal syndrome: recognition and treatment [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Olmedo, Ruben E; Kim, Jeremy

    2017-03-22

    Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents. Managing withdrawal symptoms requires a patient-specific approach that takes into account the physiologic pathways of the particular drugs used as well as the patient's age and comorbidities. Adjunctive therapies include alpha agonists, beta blockers, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics. Newer pharmacological therapies offer promise in managing withdrawal symptoms. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice].

  7. 76 FR 84 - Notice of Environmental Impact Statement; Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act... that significant impacts to the environment would be highly unlikely, and therefore an Environmental... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Notice of Environmental Impact Statement; Withdrawal...

  8. Prolonged social withdrawal disorder: a hikikomori case in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, Santiago; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; de León-Martínez, Victoria; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2014-09-01

    The Japanese term hikikomori means literally 'to be confined'. Social withdrawal can be present in severe psychiatric disorders; however, in Japan, hikikomori is a defined nosologic entity. There have been only a few reported cases in occidental culture. We present a case report of a Spanish man with prolonged social withdrawal lasting for 4 years. This is a case of prolonged social withdrawal not bound to culture, as well as the second case of hikikomori reported in Spain. We propose prolonged social withdrawal disorder as a disorder not linked to culture, in contrast to hikikomori. Further documentation of this disorder is still needed to encompass all cases reported in Japan and around the world. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Induction of synaptic long-term potentiation after opioid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drdla, Ruth; Gassner, Matthias; Gingl, Ewald; Sandkühler, Jürgen

    2009-07-10

    mu-Opioid receptor (MOR) agonists represent the gold standard for the treatment of severe pain but may paradoxically also enhance pain sensitivity, that is, lead to opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). We show that abrupt withdrawal from MOR agonists induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at the first synapse in pain pathways. Induction of opioid withdrawal LTP requires postsynaptic activation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors and a rise of postsynaptic calcium concentrations. In contrast, the acute depression by opioids is induced presynaptically at these synapses. Withdrawal LTP can be prevented by tapered withdrawal and shares pharmacology and signal transduction pathways with OIH. These findings provide a previously unrecognized target to selectively combat pro-nociceptive effects of opioids without compromising opioid analgesia.

  10. Circulating progesterone concentrations in nonlactating Holstein cows during reuse of intravaginal progesterone implants sanitized by autoclave or chemical disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, L F; Monteiro, P L J; Oliveira, L H; Guardieiro, M M; Drum, J N; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations in nonlactating, multiparous Holstein cows (n = 24) treated with 2 types of intravaginal implants containing either 1.0 or 1.9 g of P4 either at the first use or during reuse of the implants after sanitizing the implant by autoclave or chemical disinfection. In a completely randomized design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement and 2 replicates, every cow underwent 2 of 6 treatments. Two sources of P4 [controlled internal drug release (1.9 g of P4) from Zoetis (São Paulo, Brazil), and Sincrogest (1.0 g of P4) from Ourofino (Cravinhos, Brazil)] and 3 types of processing, new (N), reused after autoclave (RA), and reused after chemical disinfection (RC), were used. After inducing luteolysis to avoid endogenous circulating P4, the cows were randomized in 1 of 6 treatments (1.9 g of N, 1.9 g of RA, 1.9 g of RC, 1.0 g of N, 1.0 g of RA, and 1.0 g RC). Cows were treated with the implants for 8 d and during this period blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 h. Statistical analyses were performed using Proc-Mixed and the mean ± standard error of the mean P4 concentrations were calculated using the Proc-Means procedures of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). No interaction between treatments was observed. Comparing types of implant, average P4 concentrations during treatments were greater for 1.9 g than 1.0 g (1.46 vs. 1.14 ± 0.04 ng/mL). When types of processing were compared, average P4 concentrations did not differ between autoclaved and new inserts (1.46 vs. 1.37 ± 0.05 ng/mL; respectively), but both were greater than chemically disinfected implants (1.09 ± 0.04 ng/mL). Within 1.9-g P4 inserts, P4 concentrations from autoclaved implants were greater than new, which were greater than chemically disinfected (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 1.49 ± 0.07 vs. 1.21 ± 0.05 ng/mL; respectively). For 1.0-g P4 implants, P4 concentrations from autoclaved did not differ

  11. Nicotine administration and withdrawal affect survival in systemic inflammation models

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Alexandre A.; Oliveira, Daniela L.; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Petersen, Scott R.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.

    2008-01-01

    How different regimens of nicotine administration and withdrawal affect systemic inflammation is largely unknown. We studied the effects of chronic and acute nicotine administration and of nicotine withdrawal on the outcome of aseptic and septic systemic inflammation. Male C57BL/6 mice were implanted with subcutaneous osmotic pumps (to deliver nicotine) and intrabrain telemetry probes (to measure temperature). Aseptic inflammation was induced by lipopolysaccharide (40 mg/kg ip); sepsis was in...

  12. Intranasal oxytocin blocks alcohol withdrawal in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Cort A; Smedley, Kelly L; Leserman, Jane; Jarskog, Lars Fredrik; Rau, Shane W; Kampov-Polevoi, Alexei; Casey, Robin L; Fender, Trace; Garbutt, James C

    2013-03-01

    The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OT), has been reported to block tolerance formation to alcohol and decrease withdrawal symptoms in alcohol-dependent rodents. Numerous recent studies in human subjects indicate that OT administered by the intranasal route penetrates into and exerts effects within the brain. In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, intranasal OT (24 IU/dose, N = 7) or placebo (N = 4) was given twice daily for 3 days in alcohol-dependent subjects admitted to a research unit for medical detoxification using Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol (CIWA) score-driven PRN administration of lorazepam. Subjects rated themselves on the Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Checklist (AWSC) each time CIWA scores were obtained. Subjects also completed the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale, an Alcohol Craving Visual Analog Scale (ACVAS) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) on inpatient days 2 and 3. All subjects had drunk heavily each day for at least 2 weeks prior to study and had previously experienced withdrawal upon stopping/decreasing alcohol consumption. OT was superior to placebo in reducing alcohol withdrawal as evidenced by: less total lorazepam required to complete detoxification (3.4 mg [4.7, SD] vs. 16.5 [4.4], p = 0.0015), lower mean CIWA scores on admission day 1 (4.3 [2.3] vs. 11.8 [0.4], p block alcohol withdrawal in human subjects. Our results are consistent with previous findings in rodents that OT inhibits neuroadaptation to and withdrawal from alcohol. OT could have advantages over benzodiazepines in managing alcohol withdrawal because it may reverse rather than maintain sedative-hypnotic tolerance. It will be important to test whether OT treatment is effective in reducing drinking in alcohol-dependent outpatients. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Consequences of a withdrawal from the use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.J.; Bundschuh, V.; Duering, K.; Martinsen, D.; Riemer, H.; Walbeck, M.

    1986-01-01

    First the consequences of an immediate withdrawal are considered, i.e. a replacement of electricity generation capacity can not be built up in time. Then assumptions and results for a withdrawal in stages are presented. This means, that a replacement of nuclear generation capacity is possible. The applied energy model allows statements about the future structure of energy supply, the mass balances, the costs, and the SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 emissions from increased coal combustion. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Quantification of fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelini M.O.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to the utilization of laboratory animal blood and its by-products are particularly attractive, especially regarding hamsters due to their small size and difficulties in obtaining serial blood samples. Steroid hormone metabolite quantification in feces, widely used in studies of free-ranging or intractable animals, is a non-invasive, non-stressor, economical, and animal saving technique which allows longitudinal studies by permitting frequent sampling of the same individual. The present study was undertaken to determine the suitability of this method for laboratory animals. Estradiol and progesterone metabolites were quantified by radioimmunoassay in feces of intact, sexually mature female Syrian hamsters during the estrous cycle (control and in feces of superovulated females. Metabolites were extracted by fecal dilution in ethanol and quantified by solid phase radioimmunoassay. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations were 9.703 and 180.74 ng/g feces in the control group, respectively. Peaks of estrogen (22.44 ± 4.54 ng/g feces and progesterone (655.95 ± 129.93 ng/g feces mean fecal concentrations respectively occurred 12 h before and immediately after ovulation, which is easily detected in this species by observation of a characteristic vaginal postovulatory discharge. Median estrogen and progesterone concentrations (28.159 and 586.57 ng/g feces, respectively were significantly higher in superovulated animal feces (P < 0.0001. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to monitor ovarian activity in Syrian hamsters non-invasively by measuring fecal estradiol and progesterone metabolites. This technique appears to be a quite encouraging method for the development of new endocrinologic studies on laboratory animals.

  15. Biomechanical properties of osteoporotic rat femurs after different hormonal treatments: genistein, estradiol, and estradiol/progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azboy İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of genistein, estradiol, estradiol/progesterone combination on the bone mineral density and biomechanical properties of ovariectomized rats’ bone. Methods: 50 female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Bilaterally ovaeriectomy were performed in all groups except the sham-operated group. Groups were a sham-operated group and a control group (water was given, estradiol treated group (17-β estradiol 0.015 mg/kg per day, genistein treated group (genistein 10 mg/kg per day, and an estradiol/progesterone combination group (17-β estradiol 0.015 mg/kg plus drosperinone 0.028 mg/kg per day. The water or hormones were implemented in relevant groups for eight weeks by orogasthric catheter. The bone mineral density and biomechanical properties of the femur were analyzed. Results: Genistein, estradiol, and estradiol/progesterone groups increased bone mineral density significantly compared to the control group. In diaphysis and metaphysis bending test, all groups had higher peak load values than the control group. There were statistically significant differences between the estrogen/progesterone group and control group in diaphysis bending with regard to peak load. There were statistically significant differences between the estradiol and control groups in metaphysis bending with regard to peak load. In axial rotation test, all groups had higher peak torque values than the control groups. Conclusions: Genistein, estradiol and estrogen/progesterone combination improved the biomechanical properties of the ovariectomized rat bone. Genistein which has less side effects may be considered as an alternative in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. Progesterone metabolism by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrone, B.L.; Karavolas, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Metabolites of [ 3 H]progesterone were quantitated from incubations of hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of rats during different stages of pregnancy. The hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and a section of uterus from five rats on Days 1, 8, 15, and 21 of pregnancy were incubated individually with [3H]progesterone and analyzed for metabolite formation by reverse isotopic dilution analysis. The radioactive metabolites present were 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-DHP), 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one, and 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol. The major metabolite formed by the hypothalamus and pituitary was 5 alpha-DHP. In the pituitary samples, formation of 5 alpha-DHP was decreased on Days 15 and 21 of pregnancy compared to Day 1, and formation of 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one was decreased on Day 21 compared to Day 1. In the uterine samples, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one was the major metabolite formed at all stages of pregnancy. The formation of all metabolic products of progesterone by the uterus was increased on Day 21 compared to Days 1, 8, and 15 of pregnancy. No changes in the formation of progesterone metabolites were observed in the hypothalamic samples during pregnancy. It is concluded that there are different profiles in the in vitro metabolism of [3H]progesterone by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during the course of pregnancy

  17. Estradiol implants in the arcuate nucleus induce lactogenesis in virgin rats. Role of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carón, R W; Deis, R P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the centrally administered estradiol, and the effects of the consequent hypersecretion of prolactin (PRL) and progesterone, on lactogenesis as evaluated by mammary accumulation of casein and lactose. Bilateral cannulae containing 17beta-estradiol or cholesterol were implanted in the arcuate nucleus of virgin rats on the day of estrus (Day 0). In the first experiment different groups of rats were killed on Days 6, 9, 15, 17, or 19. Trunk blood was collected and abdominal mammary glands were taken. In the second experiment, estradiol-implanted rats received the progesterone antagonist mifepristone or vehicle at 14.00 h on Day 8 or 16 post-implant, and were killed 28 or 48 h later. Serum PRL and progesterone and mammary casein were measured by RIA and lactose was determined by an enzymatic assay. Estradiol-implanted rats showed a significant increase in both milk components at all time points after implant compared to controls. On Day 9 after estradiol implant, mifepristone had no effect on mammary content of casein or lactose. By contrast, on Day 16, mifepristone markedly increased both casein and lactose contents without modifying serum PRL and progesterone concentrations. In conclusion, 17beta-estradiol implants in the arcuate nucleus of virgin rats results in hyperprolactinaemia and stimulates mammary accumulation of casein and lactose in the absence of feto-placental units. Despite the prolonged luteal activation, the sustained high levels of circulating progesterone become inhibitory to lactogenesis after a relatively long period after implant.

  18. COUP-TFII mediates progesterone regulation of uterine implantation by controlling ER activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Kurihara

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone and estrogen are critical regulators of uterine receptivity. To facilitate uterine remodeling for embryo attachment, estrogen activity in the uterine epithelia is attenuated by progesterone; however, the molecular mechanism by which this occurs is poorly defined. COUP-TFII (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II; also known as NR2F2, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is highly expressed in the uterine stroma and its expression is regulated by the progesterone-Indian hedgehog-Patched signaling axis that emanates from the epithelium. To further assess COUP-TFII uterine function, a conditional COUP-TFII knockout mouse was generated. This mutant mouse is infertile due to implantation failure, in which both embryo attachment and uterine decidualization are impaired. Using this animal model, we have identified a novel genetic pathway in which BMP2 lies downstream of COUP-TFII. Epithelial progesterone-induced Indian hedgehog regulates stromal COUP-TFII, which in turn controls BMP2 to allow decidualization to manifest in vivo. Interestingly, enhanced epithelial estrogen activity, which impedes maturation of the receptive uterus, was clearly observed in the absence of stromal-derived COUP-TFII. This finding is consistent with the notion that progesterone exerts its control of implantation through uterine epithelial-stromal cross-talk and reveals that stromal-derived COUP-TFII is an essential mediator of this complex cross-communication pathway. This finding also provides a new signaling paradigm for steroid hormone regulation in female reproductive biology, with attendant implications for furthering our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie dysregulation of hormonal signaling in such human reproductive disorders as endometriosis and endometrial cancer.

  19. Chemical UV Filters Mimic the Effect of Progesterone on Ca2+Signaling in Human Sperm Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, A; Dissing, S; Skakkebæk, N E

    2016-11-01

    Progesterone released by cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca 2+ influx into human sperm cells via the cationic channel of sperm (CatSper) Ca 2+ channel and controls multiple Ca 2+ -dependent responses essential for fertilization. We hypothesized that chemical UV filters may mimic the physiological action of progesterone on CatSper, thus affecting Ca 2+ signaling in human sperm cells. We examined 29 UV filters allowed in sunscreens in the United States and/or the European Union for their ability to induce Ca 2+ signals in human sperm by applying measurements of the intracellular free Ca 2+ concentration. We found that 13 UV filters induced a significant Ca 2+ signal at 10 μM. Nine UV filters induced Ca 2+ signals primarily by activating the CatSper channel. The UV filters 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC) and benzylidene camphor sulfonic acid competitively inhibited progesterone-induced Ca 2+ signals. Dose-response relations for the UV filters showed that the Ca 2+ signal-inducing effects began in the nanomolar-micromolar range. Single-cell Ca 2+ measurements showed a Ca 2+ signal-inducing effect of the most potent UV filter, 3-BC, at 10 nM. Finally, we demonstrated that the 13 UV filters acted additively in low-dose mixtures to induce Ca 2+ signals. In conclusion, 13 of 29 examined UV filters (44%) induced Ca 2+ signals in human sperm. Nine UV filters primarily activated CatSper and thereby mimicked the effect of progesterone. The UV filters 3-BC and benzylidene camphor sulfonic acid competitively inhibited progesterone-induced Ca 2+ signals. In vivo exposure studies are needed to investigate whether UV filter exposure affects human fertility.

  20. Thyroxin and progesterone concentrations in pregnant, nonpregnant bitches, and bitches during abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuróczy, Julianna; Müller, Linda; Kollár, Eszter; Balogh, Lajos

    2016-04-01

    Serum progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured weekly until 61 to 62 days after ovulation in 24 pregnant bitches and in the control group of nine nonpregnant bitches in the luteal phase. Fourteen of the 24 dogs had a normal pregnancy and parturition. Ten of the 24 dogs showed mucinous or colored vaginal discharge, decreased appetite, or lethargy. These initial signs of abortion or fetal resorption were noted during the fourth week of pregnancy, and the process occurred over the next 2 weeks. Progesterone and thyroxin concentrations were measured by quantitative ELISAs validated to dog serum. The serum progesterone concentrations of the group going through abortions differed significantly from the third week until the end of the eighth week. The mean serum thyroxin concentrations of healthy pregnant and nonpregnant groups significantly exceeded the reference range (20-45 nmol/L). The serum thyroxin concentrations in the abortion group were between 16.15 ± 3.17 and 40.78 ± 8.97 nmol/L. The values in this group were significantly different from the other two groups at the third week of the luteal phase. Clinical signs of abortion or fetus resorption manifested in midpregnancy. The clinical signs of abortion coincided in each case with a low serum progesterone concentration (<10 ng/mL). This phenomenon indicated, in contrast with other studies, that the decrease of serum progesterone below 10 ng/mL at the fourth week of pregnancy may signal impending abortion. In the second half of pregnancy, the thyroid gland was not able to respond adequately to the elevated requirement in thyroid hormone, although in other periods of the ovarian cycle, there were no clinical signs of hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.