WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying principles involved

  1. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    animals for research, testing, or training in different countries. In the few that have done so, the measures adopted vary widely: on the one hand, legally enforceable detailed regulations with licensing of experimenters and their premises together with an official inspectorate; on the other, entirely voluntary self-regulation by the biomedical community, with lay participation. Many variations are possible between these extremes, one intermediate situation being a legal requirement that experiments or other procedures involving the use of animals should be subject to the approval of ethical committees of specified composition.The International Guiding Principles are the product of the collaboration of a representative sample of the international biomedical community, including experts of the World Health Organization, and of consultations with responsible animal welfare groups. The International Guiding Principles have already gained a considerable measure of acceptance internationally. European Medical Research Councils (EMRC, an international association that includes all the West European medical research councils, fully endorsed the Guiding Principles in 1984. Here we bring the basic bioethical principles for using animals in biomedical research[3]: Methods such as mathematical models, computer simulation and in vitro biological systems should be used wherever appropriate,Animal experiments should be undertaken only after due consideration of their relevance for human or animal health and the advancement of biological knowledge,The animals selected for an experiment should be of an appropriate species and quality, and the minimum number required to obtain scientifically valid results,Investigators and other personnel should never fail to treat animals as sentient, and should regard their proper care and use and the avoidance or minimization of discomfort, distress, or pain as ethical imperatives,Procedures with animals that may cause more than momentary or minimal

  2. Principles Involving Marketing Policies: An Empirical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong; Randall L. Schultz

    2005-01-01

    We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these stateinents were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical...

  3. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Determining the principles of HIA from peer-reviewed papers provides an opportunity for guiding

  4. Investigating Underlying Principles to Guide Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fakhri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods This study was conducted in three stages: 1 Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2 The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3 Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion Determining the principles of HIA from

  5. General Principles Involved in the Use of Irradiated Larval Vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.A.

    1967-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiations on helminth parasites has been under investigation now for about half a century, but only in the last 15 years has extensive and intensive work been conducted. The results have shown that in numerous host-parasite systems, ionizing radiation has attenuated or partially inactivated the parasite and that infection of host animals with irradiated larvae has stimulated immunity without accompanying disease. The immunity of vaccinated animals has subsequently been challenged by infection with normal larvae and, while unvaccinated control animals have suffered severely from the resultant disease and have often died, vaccinated animals survived the challenge of immunity usually without significant signs of disease. Comparison of the worm burdens from challenge infections in vaccinated and in control animals have further confirmed the protective effect of prior vaccination with irradiated larvae. In addition to economically important helminth diseases, various host-parasite relationships in laboratory animals have been investigated and the immunogenic efficacy of X-irradiated vaccines has been further demonstrated. There are at present two irradiated vaccines in commercial use in veterinary practice and their value has been unequivocally proven. It is probable that within the next few years at least one additional irradiated vaccine will be in use in veterinary practice. Some of die concepts and principles involved in the preparation, use and possible method of action of irradiated vaccines, with particular reference to a vaccine for hookworm disease of dogs, are described. (author)

  6. Decommissioning: guiding principles and best practices for involving local stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A wide range of nuclear facilities covering the entire nuclear fuel cycle have been constructed and operated for many years worldwide. For communities where the facilities are located, concerns about safety and environmental contamination are paramount. Working together with elected officials, local community leaders and the public at large during the earliest planning stages will help alleviate concerns about facility operation and ultimate disposition, and will result in better decisions about facility design, location, construction, operation and, ultimately, decommissioning. Such comprehensive community involvement has been the exception rather than the norm. Now that older facilities are being considered for decommissioning, efforts to involve local stakeholders and alleviate their concerns face major challenges. This is particularly true where some residual radioactive contamination will remain onsite and future use of the site may need to be restricted. Plans for stakeholder involvement at the decommissioning stage should be carefully designed and provide for honest, authentic and meaningful involvement of all stakeholders affected by decommissioning decisions. A set of principles and best practices is proposed to help guide the design and implementation of effective community involvement programs. The principles and best practices are drawn from the experiences of public involvement practitioners in a variety of environmental contamination applications. Successful community involvement is the result of a carefully crafted set of coordinated activities conducted over the long term. Ideally, facility decommissioning is simply the end stage of the involvement process, or the beginning of a site stewardship process in those cases where decommissioning does not produce an uncontaminated site. In either case, decommissioning will not be a new, unexpected event, and stakeholders could be involved just as they have been over the life of the facility. In

  7. Principles for decisions involving environmental and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, B.

    1989-01-01

    Decision making with respect to safety is becoming more and more complex. The risk involved must be taken into account together with numerous other factors such as the benefits, the uncertainties and the public perception. Can the decision maker be aided by some kind of system, general rules of thumb, or broader perspective on similar decisions? This question has been addressed in a joint Nordic project relating to nuclear power. Modern techniques for risk assessment and management have been studied and parallels drawn to such areas as offshore safety and management of genotoxic chemicals in the environment. The topics include synoptic vs. incrementalistic approaches to decision making, health hazards from radiation and genotoxic chemicals, value judgments in decision making, definitions of low risks, risk comparisons, and principles for decision making when risks are involved. (author) 47 refs

  8. Provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China under different principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    By applying a multi-regional input–output model, the study compares the provincial responsibility for carbon emissions and provincial carbon multipliers in China under seven responsibility-allocating principles, including three basic principles, the production, income and consumption principles, and four shared responsibility principles, the income-weighted, consumption weighted, comprehensive, and weighted comprehensive principles. Empirical results indicate that carbon multipliers of provinces under these principles are significantly different from one another. The carbon multipliers of provinces with higher ratios of carbon intensive sectors in their outputs are also larger. At the same time, the carbon multipliers of the same sector in the provinces are significantly different from one another. Changing the principle causes significant changes in the responsibility for carbon emissions of some provinces, but only slight changes in the responsibilities of some other provinces. However, the responsibilities of provinces with large economic sizes (output) are always the largest, whereas provinces with the smallest economic sizes are always the smallest regardless of the principles. Further, this study proposes a series of regional policies for carbon mitigation according to provincial carbon multipliers and responsibility allocation features under the different principles. - Highlights: • We link regional environmental responsibility to seven benefit principles. • We analyze provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China. • We also report provincial carbon multipliers under different principles. • We compare the seven principles from the regional perspective. • Policy implications of the study are discussed.

  9. Optimizing patient and public involvement (PPI): Identifying its "essential" and "desirable" principles using a systematic review and modified Delphi methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Rebecca L; Regan de Bere, Sam

    2018-02-01

    There is international interest in the active involvement of patients and the public. However, consensus on how best to optimize its application is currently unavailable. To identify and assess the underlying principles of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health and social care services, research, education and regulation across medicine, dentistry and nursing. A four-phase methodology: (i) an extensive systematic review of published and grey literature; (ii) inductive thematic analysis of review findings; (iii) development of best practice principles; and (iv) consensus testing of identified principles using a modified Delphi methodology. Twelve systematic reviews and 88 grey literature publications were reviewed leading to the unique identification of 13 principles later assessed by 18 PPI experts. Essential consensus (>75% agreement) was obtained for nine principles reviewed. Working in equal partnership and sharing information achieved the highest consensus rates: 16/17 essential 94.1%; 1/17 desirable 5.8%. The four remaining principles that failed to reach essential consensus were categorized as desirable by expert respondents. No principles were considered irrelevant. No alternatives were suggested. Expert respondents suggest essential principles must be achieved to optimize PPI best practice. To advance PPI practice, desirable principles should also be aspired to wherever possible. This study's innovative approach advances existing knowledge by providing previously unavailable consensus about PPI best practice. Research findings hold important theoretical and practical implications for educators, regulators, researchers and practitioners looking to effectively work together. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Active-involvement principle in dental health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1985-01-01

    A basic problem in dental health education (DHE) is that the effect usually disappears shortly after the termination of a program. The purpose of the present study was to obtain long-term effect of a DHE-program by emphasizing the active involvement of the participants. The sample comprised...... an experimental and a control group, each of 68 unskilled workers, aged 18-64. Active participation was obtained by various means: Teaching was carried out in pre-existing peer groups, the participants' own goals and needs were included, the traditional dentist-patient barriers were excluded, the traditional...... of active involvement of the participants in the DHE-program....

  11. Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Martin

    2010-01-01

    There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

  12. Active-involvement principle in dental health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1985-01-01

    A basic problem in dental health education (DHE) is that the effect usually disappears shortly after the termination of a program. The purpose of the present study was to obtain long-term effect of a DHE-program by emphasizing the active involvement of the participants. The sample comprised...... dentist-patient roles were changed, and the sessions were repeated. No dental treatment was included. The control group did not participate in the DHE-programme. Plaque (PII) and gingivitis (GI) were scored before the program, immediately after, and 6 months and 31/2 yr after the last session...

  13. Design principles and developmental mechanisms underlying retinal mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Benjamin E; Keeley, Patrick W

    2015-08-01

    Most structures within the central nervous system (CNS) are composed of different types of neuron that vary in both number and morphology, but relatively little is known about the interplay between these two features, i.e. about the population dynamics of a given cell type. How such arrays of neurons are distributed within a structure, and how they differentiate their dendrites relative to each other, are issues that have recently drawn attention in the invertebrate nervous system, where the genetic and molecular underpinnings of these organizing principles are being revealed in exquisite detail. The retina is one of the few locations where these principles have been extensively studied in the vertebrate CNS, indeed, where the design principles of 'mosaic regularity' and 'uniformity of coverage' were first explicitly defined, quantified, and related to each other. Recent studies have revealed a number of genes that influence the formation of these histotypical features in the retina, including homologues of those invertebrate genes, although close inspection reveals that they do not always mediate comparable developmental processes nor elucidate fundamental design principles. The present review considers just how pervasive these features of 'mosaic regularity' and 'uniform dendritic coverage' are within the mammalian retina, discussing the means by which such features can be assessed in the mature and developing nervous system and examining the limitations associated with those assessments. We then address the extent to which these two design principles co-exist within different populations of neurons, and how they are achieved during development. Finally, we consider the neural phenotypes obtained in mutant nervous systems, to address whether a prospective gene of interest underlies those very design principles. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  14. Disposal of radioactive waste. An overview of the principles involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive waste management strategies and practices have been reviewed in many publications. By and large these documents are technical in nature and they do not normally discuss the motives that determine which course of action should be taken. The present document concentrates on these less well defined aspects and is intended to provide a review of the philosophy underlying the current technical approach to the disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal is the final step in waste management and may be simply defined as a method of dealing with wastes for which there is no intention of retrieval

  15. The epidemiologic principles underlying traffic safety study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June H; Mooney, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the epidemiological principles underlying four observational study designs commonly used to assess traffic safety: the case-control, case-crossover, culpability and quasi-induced exposure designs. We focus in particular on the specific challenges for preventing bias using each design. Whereas recruiting controls representative of the source population poses a special challenge in case-control traffic safety studies, case-crossover designs are prone to recall bias, and culpability and quasi-induced exposure studies can be undermined by difficulties assigning crash responsibility. Using causal diagrams and worked examples, we provide a simple way to teach traffic safety designs to epidemiologists and to encourage proper application of epidemiological principles among researchers designing traffic safety studies. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. Organizing principles underlying microorganism's growth-robustness trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Alessandro; Salvador, Armindo

    2014-10-01

    Growth Robustness Reciprocity (GRR) is an intriguing microbial manifestation: the impairment of microorganism's growth enhances their ability to resist acute stresses, and vice-versa. This is caused by regulatory interactions that determine higher expression of protection mechanisms in response to low growth rates. But because such regulatory mechanisms are species-specific, GRR must result from convergent evolution. Why does natural selection favor such an outcome? We used mathematical models of optimal cellular resource allocation to identify the general principles underlying GRR. Non-linear optimization allowed to predict allocation patterns of biosynthetic resources (ribosomes devoted to the synthesis of each cell component) that maximize growth. These models predict the down-regulation of stress defenses under high substrate availabilities and low stress levels. Under these conditions, stress tolerance ensues from growth-related damage dilution: the higher the substrate availability, the fastest the dilution of damaged proteins by newly synthesized proteins, the lower the accumulation of damaged components into the cell. In turn, under low substrate availability growth is too slow for effective damage dilution, and the expression of the defenses up to some optimal level then increases growth. As a consequence, slow-growing cells are pre-adapted to withstand acute stresses. Therefore, the observed negative correlation between growth and stress tolerance can be explained as a consequence of optimal resource allocation for maximal growth. We acknowledge fellowship SFRH/BPD/90065/2012 and grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 financed by FEDER through the "Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade, COMPETE" and by national funds through "FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia" (project PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657/2010). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The Principle of Least Interest: Inequality in Emotional Involvement in Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Susan; Schmeeckle, Maria; Felmlee, Diane

    2006-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal sample of dating couples (some of whom married) were analyzed to test the aspect of Waller's (1938) principle of least interest that states that unequal emotional involvement between romantic partners has implications for relationship quality and stability. Both members of the couples were asked multiple times over several…

  18. General principles underlying the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    Previous statements on the use of the term 'decommissioning' by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board, and the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety are reviewed, culminating in a particular definition for its use in this paper. Three decommissioning phases are identified and discussed, leading to eight general principles governing decommissioning including one related to financing

  19. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  20. Demand of Insurance under the Cost-of-Capital Premium Calculation Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Merz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the optimal insurance design problem. This is a risk sharing problem between an insured and an insurer. The main novelty in this paper is that we study this optimization problem under a risk-adjusted premium calculation principle for the insurance cover. This risk-adjusted premium calculation principle uses the cost-of-capital approach as it is suggested (and used by the regulator and the insurance industry.

  1. The search for underlying principles of health impact assessment: progress and prospects: Comment on "Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a relatively young field of endeavour, and hence, future progress will depend on the planning, implementation and rigorous evaluation of additional HIAs of projects, programmes and policies the world over. In the June 2014 issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management, Fakhri and colleagues investigated underlying principles of HIA through a comprehensive review of the literature and expert consultation. With an emphasis on the Islamic Republic of Iran, the authors identified multiple issues that are relevant for guiding HIA practice. At the same time, the study unravelled current shortcomings in the understanding and definition of HIA principles and best practice at national, regional, and global levels. In this commentary we scrutinise the research presented, highlight strengths and limitations, and discuss the findings in the context of other recent attempts to guide HIA.

  2. The Search for Underlying Principles of Health Impact Assessment: Progress and Prospects; Comment on “Investigating Underlying Principles to Guide Health Impact Assessment”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko S. Winkler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment (HIA is a relatively young field of endeavour, and hence, future progress will depend on the planning, implementation and rigorous evaluation of additional HIAs of projects, programmes and policies the world over. In the June 2014 issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management, Fakhri and colleagues investigated underlying principles of HIA through a comprehensive review of the literature and expert consultation. With an emphasis on the Islamic Republic of Iran, the authors identified multiple issues that are relevant for guiding HIA practice. At the same time, the study unravelled current shortcomings in the understanding and definition of HIA principles and best practice at national, regional, and global levels. In this commentary we scrutinise the research presented, highlight strengths and limitations, and discuss the findings in the context of other recent attempts to guide HIA.

  3. APPLICATION OF THE ULTIMUM REMEDIUM PRINCIPLE TO THE CHILDREN INVOLVED IN NARCOTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syachdin Syachdin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the existence of legal principles applicable to the child ultimum remedium the doers. The issues concerning the application of the principle of ultimum How remedium against children as perpetrators Crime Narcotics. Studies conducted an empirical study aims to determine the juridical form of the application of the principle of ultimum remedium in narcotic crime committed by a child. Law Number 11 Year 2012 on Juvenile Justice System and Law Number 35 Year 2009 on Narcotics have to give freedom to the judge to apply the principle of ultimum remedium. However, the application of the principle of ultimum remedium still needs to be studied more in practice. Lack of innovation sanctions given by the judge against children as a criminal narcotics makes imprisonment remains a potent drug (by judges in the system of juvenile justice, so that the principle of ultimum remedium that should be mandated by an Act of Justice System Child and the Law on Narcotics only limited without a popular mandate fulfilled.

  4. Temporal ventriloquism along the path of apparent motion: speed perception under different spatial grouping principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogulmus, Cansu; Karacaoglu, Merve; Kafaligonul, Hulusi

    2018-03-01

    The coordination of intramodal perceptual grouping and crossmodal interactions plays a critical role in constructing coherent multisensory percepts. However, the basic principles underlying such coordinating mechanisms still remain unclear. By taking advantage of an illusion called temporal ventriloquism and its influences on perceived speed, we investigated how audiovisual interactions in time are modulated by the spatial grouping principles of vision. In our experiments, we manipulated the spatial grouping principles of proximity, uniform connectedness, and similarity/common fate in apparent motion displays. Observers compared the speed of apparent motions across different sound timing conditions. Our results revealed that the effects of sound timing (i.e., temporal ventriloquism effects) on perceived speed also existed in visual displays containing more than one object and were modulated by different spatial grouping principles. In particular, uniform connectedness was found to modulate these audiovisual interactions in time. The effect of sound timing on perceived speed was smaller when horizontal connecting bars were introduced along the path of apparent motion. When the objects in each apparent motion frame were not connected or connected with vertical bars, the sound timing was more influential compared to the horizontal bar conditions. Overall, our findings here suggest that the effects of sound timing on perceived speed exist in different spatial configurations and can be modulated by certain intramodal spatial grouping principles such as uniform connectedness.

  5. TEACHING PHYSICS: An experiment to demonstrate the principles and processes involved in medical Doppler ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2000-09-01

    Doppler ultrasound is widely used in medicine for measuring blood velocity. This paper describes an experiment illustrating the principles of medical Doppler ultrasound. It is designed with A-level/undergraduate physics students in mind. Ultrasound is transmitted in air and reflected from a moving target. The return signal is processed using a series of modules, so that students can discover for themselves how each stage in the instrument works. They can also obtain a quantitative value of the speed of the target.

  6. THE UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES OF SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO‘S THOUGHT PATTERNS IN HIS ENGLISH SPEECH TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistya ningsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The underlying principles of thought patterns as shown in SBY's English Speeches Texts are made because there are different responses from the public, a part of public praise that SBY is a good president, and others claim and criticize him that  he is slow (Djalal, 2007: forward page. This title so far has not been investigated. This research was aimed at finding out:  the underlying principles of SBY’s thought patterns in his English Speech Texts related to Javanese philosophy. This research is qualitative. The data selected from SBY’s speech Texts were analyzed using semantic and pragmastylistic theory then were related to Javanese philosophy. The findings are the underlying principles of SBY’s thought patterns based on Javanese philosophy manifested in his English Speech Texts are: first is Memayu Hayuning Bawana, Ambrasta dur Hangkara means to reach safety, peace, happiness and well-being of the world and its contents, to keep the world maintained and harmony. Second, Rukun agawe santosa crah agawe bubrah  means to build the condition of harmony, and avoid conflict, because conflict can be harmful to both parties. Third, tepa selira means keep thinking not to offend others or lighten the burdens of others, tolerance. Fourth is ana rembug becik dirembug means thru negotiations can avoid conflict and achieve cooperation, safety, peace and prosperity. In sum, the world peace can be reached thru discussions without war, soft powers.

  7. The precautionary principle in fisheries management under climate change: How the international legal framework formulate it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, E.; Imanullah, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    One of the objectives of fisheries management is to reach long-term sustainable benefits of the fish stocks while reducing the risk of severe or irreversible damage to the marine ecosystem. Achieving this objective needs, the good scientific knowledge and understanding on fisheries management including scientific data and information on the fish stock, fishing catch, distribution, migration, the proportion of mature fish, the mortality rate, reproduction as well as the knowledge on the impact of fishing on dependent and associated species and other species belonging to the same ecosystem, and further the impact of climate change and climate variability on the fish stocks and marine ecosystem. Lack of this scientific knowledge may lead to high levels of uncertainty. The precautionary principle is one of the basic environmental principles needed in overcoming this problem. An essence of this principle is that, in facing the serious risk as a result of the limited scientific knowledge or the absence of complete evidence of harm, it should not prevent the precautionary measures in minimizing risks and protecting the fish stocks and ecosystem. This study aims to examine how the precautionary principle in fisheries management be formulated into the international legal framework, especially under the climate change framework.

  8. Martensitic fcc-to-hcp transformations in solid xenon under pressure: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunja; Nicol, Malcolm; Cynn, Hyunchae; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2006-01-27

    First-principles calculations reveal that the fcc-to-hcp pressure-induced transformation in solid xenon proceeds through two mechanisms between 5 and 70 GPa. The dynamics of the phase transition involves a sluggish stacking-disorder growth at lower pressures (path I) that changes to a path involving an orthorhombic distortion at higher pressures (path II). The switchover is governed by a delicate interplay of energetics (enthalpy of the system for the structural stability) and kinetics (energy barrier for the transition). The two types of martensitic transformations involved in this pressure-induced structural transformation are a twinned martensitic transition at lower pressures and a slipped martensitic transition at higher pressures.

  9. Precautionary principles: a jurisdiction-free framework for decision-making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Paolo F; Cox, Louis A; MacDonald, Thomas R

    2004-12-01

    Fundamental principles of precaution are legal maxims that ask for preventive actions, perhaps as contingent interim measures while relevant information about causality and harm remains unavailable, to minimize the societal impact of potentially severe or irreversible outcomes. Such principles do not explain how to make choices or how to identify what is protective when incomplete and inconsistent scientific evidence of causation characterizes the potential hazards. Rather, they entrust lower jurisdictions, such as agencies or authorities, to make current decisions while recognizing that future information can contradict the scientific basis that supported the initial decision. After reviewing and synthesizing national and international legal aspects of precautionary principles, this paper addresses the key question: How can society manage potentially severe, irreversible or serious environmental outcomes when variability, uncertainty, and limited causal knowledge characterize their decision-making? A decision-analytic solution is outlined that focuses on risky decisions and accounts for prior states of information and scientific beliefs that can be updated as subsequent information becomes available. As a practical and established approach to causal reasoning and decision-making under risk, inherent to precautionary decision-making, these (Bayesian) methods help decision-makers and stakeholders because they formally account for probabilistic outcomes, new information, and are consistent and replicable. Rational choice of an action from among various alternatives--defined as a choice that makes preferred consequences more likely--requires accounting for costs, benefits and the change in risks associated with each candidate action. Decisions under any form of the precautionary principle reviewed must account for the contingent nature of scientific information, creating a link to the decision-analytic principle of expected value of information (VOI), to show the

  10. Factors Involved in Sludge Granulation under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shayegan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of factors involved in sludge anaerobic granulation. Granulated sludge formation is the main parameter contributing to the success of UASB reactors. Anaerobic granulation leads to reduced reactor size, space requirement, and investment costs. Operation costs are also greatly reduced due to lack of aeration. An important parameter affecting process performance is the size of sludge granules; the factors involved in granule size will be investigated. Some of the important parameters of anaerobic sludge granulation are: existence of growth cores as inert particles or granulated sludge, process operational conditions (Sludge Loading Rate and Organic Loading Rate, Loading rate increase and …, and environment conditions (nutrients, temperature, pH, combination and ….

  11. First-principles calculations of mechanical and electronic properties of silicene under strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Qin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We perform first-principles calculations of mechanical and electronic properties of silicene under strains. The in-plane stiffness of silicene is much smaller than that of graphene. The yielding strain of silicene under uniform expansion in the ideal conditions is about 20%. The homogeneous strain can introduce a semimetal-metal transition. The semimetal state of silicene, in which the Dirac cone locates at the Fermi level, can only persist up to tensile strain of 7% with nearly invariant Fermi velocity. For larger strains, silicene changes into a conventional metal. The work function is found to change significantly under biaxial strain. Our calculations show that strain tuning is important for applications of silicene in nanoelectronics.

  12. Principles, Economic and Institutional Prerequisites for Fiscal Decentralization under Conditions of Post-Conflict Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnevsky Valentine P.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study principles, economic and institutional prerequisites for fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories. It is determined that fiscal decentralization is one of the main ways to solve problems of post-conflict areas. There justified principles, economic and institutional prerequisites of fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories with regard to the specificity of individual spheres of fiscal relations. Moreover, different spheres of fiscal relations require different approaches: the sphere of public revenues — providing economic efficiency with the formation of the tax structure contributing to the expansion of the tax base; the sphere of public spending — ensuring social justice and transparency in allocation of social cost at the local level; the sphere of subsidies — narrowing the scope of application of intergovernmental transfers with organizing the redistribution of financial resources under the principle of «center - post-conflict regions - post-conflict recipients»; the sphere of external assistance — ensuring proper coordination for cultivation of new co-operative institutions.

  13. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American

  14. General Principles and Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG – Uniformity under an Interpretation Umbrella?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lassila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and digitalization of international sales creates needs to harmonize rules of international commercial contracts. The question is whether the harmonization should be done by binding rules or using soft law tools or through digitalization. In this article I argue on favor of harmonization through international contracts law rules’ international interpretation.The international interpretation principles used in this article are found from on Art. 7(1 of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG which sets three interpretation rules: international character; promoting uniformity; and observance of good faith in international trade. These principles are not only principles of the CISG, but also principles commonly recognized in international commercial practice and also in domestic contract rules. I argue that by adopting an international interpretation umbrella – the meta-principle of international interpretation, cross-border contracts could be interpreted under the same principle no matter applicable substantial law. The meta-principle functions as an interpretation umbrella covering general principles and Articles of the CISG, general principles of international commercial contracts, Lex Mercatoria, and cross-border contract provision under national law.The outcomes points out that arbitral tribunals have interpreted general principles of the CISG and Lex Mercatoria in various ways. General principles and their application in case law is analyzed in connection with the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Tribunals found that general principles of the CISG are applicable even if the CISG is not. It follows Art.’s 7(2 logic to promote international standard to cross-border contracts where the closes connection is international commercial practice rather than any national jurisdiction.

  15. Research Experience and Agreement with Selected Ethics Principles from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement--Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Pat; Spencer, Bob

    2004-01-01

    An online survey was conducted of students, instructors, and researchers in distance education regarding principles for the ethical treatment of human research subjects. The study used an online questionnaire based on principles drawn from Canada's "Tri-Council Policy Statement, Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans" (TCPS,…

  16. First principles study of iron-bearing MgO under ultrahigh pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, K.; Hsu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding of minerals under ultrahigh pressure is essential to model interiors of super-Earths. Chemical compositions of the super-Earths are expected to be similar to those of the Earth. Computational studies on Mg-Si-O ternary systems under ultrahigh pressures, which are difficult to be achieved by diamond-anvil-cell experiments, have been intensively performed (e.g., [1] for MgO, [2,3] for SiO2, and [4,5] for MgSiO3). However, as far as we know, these studies have been restricted to pure Mg-Si-O systems. In the mantles of super-Earths, we expect that there should be impurities as in the Earth's mantle. Among candidates of impurities, iron is especially important to model interiors of super-Earths. Here, we investigate iron-bearing MgO under ultrahigh pressures by first principles. We clarify effects of iron on the phase transition of MgO and thermodynamic quantities by first principles. The role of the 3d electrons will be elucidated. [1] Z. Wu, R. M. Wentzcovitch, K. Umemoto, B. Li, K. Hirose, and J. C. Zheng, J. Geophys. Res. 113, B06204 (2008). [2] S. Q. Wu, K. Umemoto, M. Ji, C. Z. Wang, K. M. Ho, and R. M. Wentzcovitch, Phys. Rev. B 83, 184102 (2011). [3] T. Tsuchiya and J. Tsuchiya, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 108, 1252 (2011) [4] S. Q. Wu, M. Ji, C. Z. Wang, M. C. Nguye, X. Zhao, K. Umemoto, R. M. Wentzcovitch, and K. M. Ho, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 26, 035402 (2014). [5] H. Niu, A. R. Oganov, X.-C. Chen, and D. Li, Sci. Rep. 5, 18347 (2015).

  17. IFLA Principles Underlying Subject Heading Languages: strenghts and weaknesses revealed by user behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available IFLA Principles Underlying Subject Heading Languages were published in 1995 and translated into Slovene in 2002. They try to recover the theory of indexing languages from an analysis of subject heading languages that are used in libraries around the world. These guidelines are illustrated with examples from Splošni slovenski geslovnik (Slovene General Subject Headings, Sears List of Subject Headings, and Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH. Studies on the use of LCSH by users of library catalogs were reviewed to determine weaknesses of the IFLA Principles. Changes were suggested,which would make subject retrieval easier for users. The reviewed subject heading languages reflect the needs of traditional librarians and card catalogs. These often conflict with user needs, characteristics of online catalogs and modern librarians.Subject heading languages could be improved if we would take into account the vast knowledge of user behavior and capabilities of information technology. For a better subject access to library materials, we also need to understand the processes of subject analysis and subject description.

  18. FInal Report: First Principles Modeling of Mechanisms Underlying Scintillator Non-Proportionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberg, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sadigh, Babak [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhou, Fei [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This final report presents work carried out on the project “First Principles Modeling of Mechanisms Underlying Scintillator Non-Proportionality” at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 2013-2015. The scope of the work was to further the physical understanding of the microscopic mechanisms behind scintillator nonproportionality that effectively limits the achievable detector resolution. Thereby, crucial quantitative data for these processes as input to large-scale simulation codes has been provided. In particular, this project was divided into three tasks: (i) Quantum mechanical rates of non-radiative quenching, (ii) The thermodynamics of point defects and dopants, and (iii) Formation and migration of self-trapped polarons. The progress and results of each of these subtasks are detailed.

  19. Structural, Mechanical and Thermodynamic Properties under Pressure Effect of Rubidium Telluride: First Principle Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidai K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available First-principles density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of rubidium telluride in cubic anti-fluorite (anti-CaF2-type structure. The calculated ground-state properties of Rb2Te compound such as equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk moduli are investigated by generalized gradient approximation (GGA-PBE that are based on the optimization of total energy. The elastic constants, Young’s and shear modulus, Poisson ratio, have also been calculated. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the available theoretical and experimental data. The pressure dependence of elastic constant and thermodynamic quantities under high pressure are also calculated and discussed.

  20. Alzheimer's Disease as Subcellular `Cancer' --- The Scale-Invariant Principles Underlying the Mechanisms of Aging ---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, M.

    1996-01-01

    with self-organization, has been thought to underlie `creative' aspects of biological phenomena such as the origin of life, adaptive evolution of viruses, immune recognition and brain function. It therefore must be surprising to find that the same principles will also underlie `non-creative' aspects, for example, the development of cancer and the aging of complex organisms. Although self-organization has extensively been studied in nonliving things such as chemical reactions and laser physics, it is undoubtedly true that the similar sources of the order are available to living things at different levels and scales. Several paradigm shifts are, however, required to realize how the general principles of natural selection can be extensible to non-DNA molecules which do not possess the intrinsic nature of self-reproduction. One of them is, from the traditional, genetic inheritance view that DNA (or RNA) molecules are the ultimate unit of heritable variations and natural selection at any organization level, to the epigenetic (nongenetic) inheritance view that any non-DNA molecule can be the target of heritable variations and molecular selection to accumulate in certain biochemical environment. Because they are all enriched with a β-sheet content, ready to mostly interact with one another, different denatured proteins like β-amyloid, PHF and prions can individually undergo self-templating or self-aggregating processes out of gene control. Other paradigm shifts requisite for a break-through in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders will be discussed. As it is based on the scale-invariant principles, the present theory also predicts plausible mechanisms underlying quite different classes of disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), atherosclerosis, senile cataract and many other symptoms of aging. The present theory, thus, provides the consistent and comprehensive account to the origin of aging by means of natural selection and self-organization.

  1. Waves as the Symmetry Principle Underlying Cosmic, Cell, and Human Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Ji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997, the author concluded that living cells use a molecular language (cellese that is isomorphic with the human language (humanese based on his finding that the former shared 10 out of the 13 design features of the latter. In 2012, the author postulated that cellese and humanese derived from a third language called the cosmic language (or cosmese and that what was common among these three kinds of languages was waves—i.e., sound waves for humanese, concentration waves for cellese, and quantum waves for cosmese. These waves were suggested to be the symmetry principle underlying cosmese, cellese, and humanese. We can recognize at least five varieties of waves—(i electromagnetic; (ii mechanical; (iii chemical concentration; (iv gravitational; and (v probability waves, the last being non-material, in contrast to the first four, which are all material. The study of waves is called “cymatics” and the invention of CymaScope by J. S. Reid of the United Kingdom in 2002 is expected to accelerate the study of waves in general. CymaScope has been used to visualize not only human sounds (i.e., humanese but also sounds made by individual cells (cellese in conjunction with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM (unpublished observations of J. Gimzewski of UCLA and J. Reid. It can be predicted that the gravitational waves recently detected by the Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO will be visualized with CymaScope one day, thereby transforming gravitational waves into CymaGlyphs. Since cellese in part depends on RNA concentration waves (or RNA glyphs and humanese includes hieroglyphs that were decoded by Champollion in 1822, it seems reasonable to use cymaglyphs, RNA glyphs, and hieroglyphs as symbols of cosmese, cellese, and humanese, respectively, all based on the principle of waves as the medium of communication.

  2. Modeling and Compensatory Processes Underlying Involvement in Child Care among Kibbutz-Reared Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Ruth; Bassi, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined modeling and compensatory processes underlying the effects of an early paternal model on father involvement in child care. Drawing on social learning theory, it was hypothesized that father-son relationships would moderate the association between a father's involvement and his own father's involvement. A sample of 136 kibbutz…

  3. Practical application of the ALARA principle in management of the nuclear legacy: optimization under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham; Sneve, Malgorzata K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiological protection has a long and distinguished history in taking a balanced approach to optimization. Both utilitarian and individual interests and perspectives are addressed through a process of constrained optimisation, with optimisation intended to lead to the most benefit to the most people, and constraints being operative to limit the degree of inequity among the individuals exposed. At least, expressed simplistically, that is what the recommendations on protection are intended to achieve. This paper examines the difficulties in achieving that objective, based on consideration of the active role of optimisation in regulatory supervision of the historic nuclear legacy. This example is chosen because the application of the ALARA principle has important implications for some very major projects whose objective is remediation of existing legacy facilities. But it is also relevant because timely, effective and cost efficient completion of those projects has implications for confidence in the future development of nuclear power and other uses of radioactive materials. It is also an interesting example because legacy management includes mitigation of some major short and long term hazards, but those mitigating measures themselves involve operations with their own risk, cost and benefit profiles. Like any other complex activity, a legacy management project has to be broken down into logistically feasible parts. However, from a regulatory perspective, simultaneous application of ALARA to worker protection, major accident risk mitigation and long-term environmental and human health protection presents its own challenges. Major uncertainties which exacerbate the problem arise from ill-characterised source terms, estimation of the likelihood of unlikely failures in operational processes, and prospective assessment of radiological impacts over many hundreds of years and longer. The projects themselves are set to run over decades, during which time the

  4. Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna J; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pinel, Philippe; Revkin, Susannah K; Cohen, Laurent; Cohen, David

    2006-05-30

    Adaptive game software has been successful in remediation of dyslexia. Here we describe the cognitive and algorithmic principles underlying the development of similar software for dyscalculia. Our software is based on current understanding of the cerebral representation of number and the hypotheses that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in the link between number sense and symbolic number representations. "The Number Race" software trains children on an entertaining numerical comparison task, by presenting problems adapted to the performance level of the individual child. We report full mathematical specifications of the algorithm used, which relies on an internal model of the child's knowledge in a multidimensional "learning space" consisting of three difficulty dimensions: numerical distance, response deadline, and conceptual complexity (from non-symbolic numerosity processing to increasingly complex symbolic operations). The performance of the software was evaluated both by mathematical simulations and by five weeks of use by nine children with mathematical learning difficulties. The results indicate that the software adapts well to varying levels of initial knowledge and learning speeds. Feedback from children, parents and teachers was positive. A companion article describes the evolution of number sense and arithmetic scores before and after training. The software, open-source and freely available online, is designed for learning disabled children aged 5-8, and may also be useful for general instruction of normal preschool children. The learning algorithm reported is highly general, and may be applied in other domains.

  5. Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive game software has been successful in remediation of dyslexia. Here we describe the cognitive and algorithmic principles underlying the development of similar software for dyscalculia. Our software is based on current understanding of the cerebral representation of number and the hypotheses that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in the link between number sense and symbolic number representations. Methods "The Number Race" software trains children on an entertaining numerical comparison task, by presenting problems adapted to the performance level of the individual child. We report full mathematical specifications of the algorithm used, which relies on an internal model of the child's knowledge in a multidimensional "learning space" consisting of three difficulty dimensions: numerical distance, response deadline, and conceptual complexity (from non-symbolic numerosity processing to increasingly complex symbolic operations. Results The performance of the software was evaluated both by mathematical simulations and by five weeks of use by nine children with mathematical learning difficulties. The results indicate that the software adapts well to varying levels of initial knowledge and learning speeds. Feedback from children, parents and teachers was positive. A companion article 1 describes the evolution of number sense and arithmetic scores before and after training. Conclusion The software, open-source and freely available online, is designed for learning disabled children aged 5–8, and may also be useful for general instruction of normal preschool children. The learning algorithm reported is highly general, and may be applied in other domains.

  6. First-principles study of magnetism in Pd3Fe under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Biswanath; Bhandary, Sumanta; Ghosh, Subhradip; Sanyal, Biplab

    2012-07-01

    Recent experiments on Pd3Fe intermetallics [M. L. Winterrose , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.237202 102, 237202 (2009)] have revealed that the system behaves like a classical invar alloy under high pressure. The experimental pressure-volume relation suggests an anomalous volume collapse and a substantial increase in bulk modulus around the pressure where invar behavior is observed. With the help of first-principles density functional theory based calculations, we have explored various magnetic phases (ferromagnetic, fully and partially disordered local moment, spin spiral) in order to understand the effect of pressure on magnetism. Our calculations reveal that the system does not undergo a transition from a ferromagnetic to a spin-disordered state, as was thought to be the possible mechanism to explain the invar behavior of this system. We rather suggest that the anomaly in the system could possibly be due to the transition from a collinear state to noncollinear magnetic states upon the application of pressure.

  7. First-principles calculation of transport property in nano-devices under an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingzhe; Zhang Jin; Han Rushan

    2008-01-01

    The mesoscopic quantum interference phenomenon (QIP) can be observed and behaves as the oscillation of conductance in nano-devices when the external magnetic field changes. Excluding the factor of impurities or defects, specific QIP is determined by the sample geometry. We have improved a first-principles method based on the matrix Green's function and the density functional theory to simulate the transport behaviour of such systems under a magnetic field. We have studied two kinds of QIP: universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) and Aharonov–Bohm effect (A–B effect). We find that the amplitude of UCF is much smaller than the previous theoretical prediction. We have discussed the origin of difference and concluded that due to the failure of ergodic hypothesis, the ensemble statistics is not applicable, and the conductance fluctuation is determined by the flux-dependent density of states (DOSs). We have also studied the relation between the UCF and the structure of sample. For a specific structure, an atomic circle, the A–B effect is observed and the origin of the oscillation is also discussed

  8. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  9. First-principles study of ternary Li-Al-Te compounds under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youchun; Tian, Fubo; Li, Da; Duan, Defang; Xie, Hui; Liu, Bingbing; Zhou, Qiang; Cui, Tian

    2018-02-01

    The ternary Li-Al-Te compounds were investigated by the first-principle evolutionary calculation based on density function theory. Apart from the known structure, I-42d LiAlTe2 and P3m1 LiAlTe2, several new structures were discovered, P-3m1 LiAlTe2, Pnma LiAlTe2, C2/c Li9AlTe2, Immm Li9AlTe2 and P4/mmm Li6AlTe. We determined that the I-42d LiAlTe2 firstly changed to P-3m1 phase at 6 GPa, and then into the Pnma structure at 65 GPa, Pnma phase was stable up at least to 120 GPa. I-42d LiAlTe2 was a pseudo-direct band gap semiconductor, but P-3m1 LiAlT2 was an indirect band gap semiconductor. This may be caused by the pressure effect. Subsequently, it was metallized under pressure. Pnma LiAlTe2 was also metallic at the pressure we studied. C2/c Li9AlTe2 was stable above 4 GPa, then turned into Immm phase at 60 GPa. C2/c Li9AlTe2 was an indirect band gap semiconductor. The results show that P4/mmm Li6AlTe was stable and metallized in the pressure range of 0.7-120 GPa. The calculations of DOS and PDOS indicate that the arrangement of electrons near Fermi energy can be affected by the increase of Li. The calculated ELF results and Bader charge analysis indicate that there was no covalent bond between Al and Te atoms for high-pressure Pnma LiAlTe2, Li9AlTe2 and Li6AlTe. For Li9AlTe2 and Li6AlTe, different from LiAlTe2, Al atoms not connect with Te atoms, but link with Li atoms. The results were further proved by Mulliken population analysis. And the weak covalent bonds between Li and Al atoms stem from the hybridization of Li s and Al p presented in PDOS diagrams. We further deduced that the pressure effect and the increase of Li content may result in the disappearance of Al-Te bonds for Li-Al-Te compound under extreme pressure.

  10. [Principles and methods of mental health resource assessment in military personnel under conditions of demographic crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, A A; Syrkin, L D

    2011-03-01

    The article is devoted to developing the principles and methods of resource assessment of mental health military contingent in terms of demographic decline and reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. From the standpoint of the concept of the mutual influence of the value-semantic components and the level of psychological adaptation resources demonstrates the possibility of evaluating resource capabilities of the psyche of military contingent.

  11. Vibroacoustic response of panels under diffuse acoustic field excitation from sensitivity functions and reciprocity principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Christophe; Maxit, Laurent; Robin, Olivier; Berry, Alain

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims at developing an experimental method to characterize the vibroacoustic response of a panel to a diffuse acoustic field (DAF) excitation with a different laboratory setup than those used in standards (i.e., coupled rooms). The proposed methodology is based on a theoretical model of the DAF and on the measurement of the panel's sensitivity functions, which characterize its vibroacoustic response to wall plane waves. These functions can be estimated experimentally using variations of the reciprocity principle, which are described in the present paper. These principles can either be applied for characterizing the structural response by exciting the panel with a normal force at the point of interest or for characterizing the acoustic response (radiated pressure, acoustic intensity) by exciting the panel with a monopole and a dipole source. For both applications, the validity of the proposed approach is numerically and experimentally verified on a test case composed of a baffled simply supported plate. An implementation for estimating the sound transmission loss of the plate is finally proposed. The results are discussed and compared with measurements performed in a coupled anechoic-reverberant room facility following standards.

  12. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teaching/learning principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

  14. The tunneling radiation of a black hole with a f( R) global monopole under generalized uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingshen; Cheng, Hongbo

    2018-03-01

    The Parikh-Kraus-Wilczeck tunneling radiation of black hole involving a f( R) global monopole is considered based on the generalized uncertainty principle. The influences from global monopole, f( R) gravity and the corrections to the uncertainty appear in the expression of black hole entropy difference. It is found that the global monopole and the revision of general relativity both hinder the black hole from emitting the photons. The two parts as corrections to the uncertainty make the entropy difference of this kind of black hole larger or smaller respectively.

  15. Optimisation of structural shielding of accelerator control room for compliance with ALARA principle under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Masood; Singh, Brijesh

    1999-01-01

    The case of a 20 MV x-ray accelerator has been considered in this paper for optimisation. An internationally recommended value of α = US$ 1000 per person-sievert has been assumed. Cost of concrete has been assumed as US$ 82.7/m 3 . It is seen that, extra shielding is needed to satisfy the ALARA principle. Further, the amount of requisite shielding increases with the degree of occupancy and, also, if the local construction materials or the labour are cheaper than considered in this paper. Accordingly 1.5 to 4.75 HVLs may be needed as extra shielding in different situations. Therefore, a site specific and installation specific optimisation of shielding is necessary

  16. The first-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Zr2Al under compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiaoli; Wei Dongqing; Chen Xiangrong; Zhang Qingming; Gong Zizheng

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The calculated elastic constants C ij as a function of pressure P. Display Omitted Research highlights: → It is found that the five independent elastic constants increase monotonically with pressure. C 11 and C 33 vary rapidly as pressure increases, C 13 and C 12 becomes moderate. However, C 44 increases comparatively slowly with pressure. Figure shows excellent satisfaction of the calculated elastic constants of Zr 2 Al to these equations and hence in our calculation, the Zr 2 Al is mechanically stable at pressure up to 100 GPa. - Abstract: The first-principles calculations were applied to investigate the structural, elastic constants of Zr 2 Al alloy with increasing pressure. These properties are based on the plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for exchange and correlation. The result of the heat of formation of Zr 2 Al crystal investigated is in excellent consistent with results from other study. The anisotropy, the shear modulus, and Young's modulus for the ideal polycrystalline Zr 2 Al are also studied. It is found that (higher) pressure can significantly improve the ductility of Zr 2 Al. Moreover, the elastic constants of Zr 2 Al increase monotonically and the anisotropies decrease with the increasing pressure. Finally, it is observed that Zr d electrons are mainly contributed to the density of states at the Fermi level.

  17. First Principles Prediction of Structure, Structure Selectivity, and Thermodynamic Stability under Realistic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceder, Gerbrand [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials and Engineering

    2018-01-28

    Novel materials are often the enabler for new energy technologies. In ab-initio computational materials science, method are developed to predict the behavior of materials starting from the laws of physics, so that properties can be predicted before compounds have to be synthesized and tested. As such, a virtual materials laboratory can be constructed, saving time and money. The objectives of this program were to develop first-principles theory to predict the structure and thermodynamic stability of materials. Since its inception the program focused on the development of the cluster expansion to deal with the increased complexity of complex oxides. This research led to the incorporation of vibrational degrees of freedom in ab-initio thermodynamics, developed methods for multi-component cluster expansions, included the explicit configurational degrees of freedom of localized electrons, developed the formalism for stability in aqueous environments, and culminated in the first ever approach to produce exact ground state predictions of the cluster expansion. Many of these methods have been disseminated to the larger theory community through the Materials Project, pymatgen software, or individual codes. We summarize three of the main accomplishments.

  18. Polymethylmethacrylate and radioisotopes in vertebral augmentation: an explanation of underlying principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ariel E; Rosenstein, Barry S; Medich, David C; Martel, Christopher B; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported a novel concept for combining radioactive isotope technology with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement used for vertebral augmentation and have advocated that pain physicians become aware of this new concept when treating malignant compression fractures. The use of vertebral augmentation for malignant compression fractures is steadily increasing, and the goal of this novel approach would be to stabilize the fractured vertebral body while also controlling proliferation of the tumor cells in the vertebral body that caused the vertebral fracture. This approach would therefore provide mechanical stabilization of the fractured vertebral body at the same time as direct targeting of the cancer cells causing the fracture. For our analysis, we investigated six specific radioisotopes with regard to physical and biologic properties as they would interact with PMMA and local bone metastatic disease, taking into consideration anatomical, biological and physical characteristics. The radioisotopes investigated include beta emitting (plus and minus) sources, as well as low energy and mid-energy photon sources and are: P-32, Ho-166, Y-90, I-125, F-18, and Tc-99m. We review the advantages and disadvantages of each radioisotope. In addition, this paper serves to provide pain physicians with a basic background of the biologic principles (Biologically Effective Dose) and statistical modeling (Monte Carlo method) used in that analysis. We also review the potential complications when using radioactive sources in a clinical setting. Understanding the methodologies employed in determining isotope selection empowers the practitioner by fostering understanding of this presently theoretical treatment option. We believe that embedding radioisotopes in PMMA is merely a first step in the road of local treatment for symptomatic local lesions in the setting of systemic disease.

  19. Comparative assessment of Japan's long-term carbon budget under different effort-sharing principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, Takeshi; Asuka, Jusen; Fekete, Hanna; Tamura, Kentaro; Höhne, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses Japan's carbon budgets up to 2100 in the global efforts to achieve the 2 °C target under different effort-sharing approaches based on long-term GHG mitigation scenarios published in 13 studies. The article also presents exemplary emission trajectories for Japan to stay

  20. The structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of LiAlB{sub 4} under pressure from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayran, Ceren; Aydin, Sezgin [Department of Physics, Sciences Faculty, Gazi University, 06500, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    The structural, elastic, mechanical, and electronic properties of lithium aluminum tetraboride (LiAlB{sub 4}) under hydrostatic pressure have been investigated by using first-principles density functional theory calculations. The effects of pressure on the lattice parameters, volume, and bond lengths are studied. It is indicated from the calculated elastic constants that LiAlB{sub 4} compound is mechanically stable on 0-40 GPa pressure range. And, by means of these elastic constants set, some mechanical properties such as bulk, shear and Young's moduli, and then Poisson's ratio are determined as a function of pressure. Also, the ductile or brittle nature of LiAlB{sub 4} is examined. Additionally, using the first-principles data obtained from the geometry optimizations, the hardness of LiAlB{sub 4} is calculated, and its nature is investigated under pressure. Furthermore, in order to reveal the effects of pressure on the electronic and binding behavior of the compound, band structures, total and partial density of states, charge densities, Mulliken atomic charges, and bond overlap populations are searched as a function of pressure. To check the stability of the compound, phonon dispersion curves are calculated. And, the results are compared with the other convenient borides. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Thermo-Physical Properties of Ammonium Azide under High Pressure from First-Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landerville, Aaron; Steele, Brad; Oleynik, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Polynitrogen compounds offer tremendous promise for use as insensitive high-explosives or propellants. While the existence of such compounds have been observed in Diamond Anvil Cells (DAC) under high pressure, recovery to ambient pressure and temperature has proven problematic. A current thrust towards the recovery, and ultimate manufacture, of materials rich in polymeric nitrogen has brought renewed attention to various nitrogen-rich compounds, particularly crystalline azides, as possible precursors. We investigate the thermo-physical properties and Raman spectra of one azide candidate - ammonium azide - under hydrostatic compression using density functional theory with an empirical van der Waals correction. Additionally, we perform structural minima searches to discern possible polymorphs that may help to elucidate dynamical processes leading to the production of a material rich in polymeric nitrogen, as well as its recovery from DAC.

  2. Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor is centrally involved in learning under moderate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Morgan; Chen, Alon; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2013-08-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neuropeptide is found to have a pivotal role in the regulation of the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressful challenges. Here, we studied the involvement of the hypothalamic CRF in learning under stressful conditions. We have used a site-specific viral approach to knockdown (KD) CRF expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). The two-way shuttle avoidance (TWSA) task was chosen to assess learning and memory under stressful conditions. Control animals learned to shuttle from one side to the other to avoid electrical foot shock by responding to a tone. Novel object and social recognition tasks were used to assess memory under less stressful conditions. KD of PVN-CRF expression decreased the number of avoidance responses in a TWSA session under moderate (0.8 mA), but not strong (1.5 mA), stimulus intensity compared to control rats. On the other hand, KD of PVN-CRF had no effect on memory performance in the less stressful novel object or social recognition tasks. Interestingly, basal or stress-induced corticosterone levels in CRF KD rats were not significantly different from controls. Taken together, the data suggest that the observed impairment was not a result of alteration in HPA axis activity, but rather due to reduced PVN-CRF activity on other brain areas. We propose that hypothalamic CRF is centrally involved in learning under moderate stressful challenge. Under 'basal' (less stressful) conditions or when the intensity of the stress is more demanding, central CRF ceases to be the determinant factor, as was indicated by performances in the TWSA with higher stimulus intensity or in the less stressful tasks of object and social recognition.

  3. A First-Principles Comparison of CsI and Xe Under Shock Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, M. R.; Jeanloz, R.; Militzer, B.

    2016-12-01

    Cesium iodide and xenon, isoelectronic (same number of electrons per atom) moderately high-Z compounds, are known to exhibit similar behaviors at high pressure, notably in their cold-compression equations of state[1, 2] and band gap closure pressures[3-6]. With such drastically different chemical bonding properties under ambient conditions, this salt and noble gas serve as a quintessential analog pair for high pressure science. In addition to practical benefit of understanding analogs for experimental extrapolations, investigating these materials under extreme conditions helps build a fundamental understanding of the relationship between thermodynamics and condensed matter. To better investigate those high pressure states which are at high temperature, as well as to allow for comparison to shock experiments, we have used density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to calculate high temperature/density pressures, internal energies, and band gaps along the Hugoniots (shock equations of state) of CsI and Xe up to 10,000 K. Since CsI is a solid at ambient conditions, we used its ambient density as its starting density for the Hugoniot calculation. For the starting density of Xe, we chose both its zero-pressure zero-temperature value and a value equal to the molar density of CsI, to construct two separate Hugoniots.

  4. High-temperature superconducting phase of HBr under pressure predicted by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qinyan; Lu, Pengchao; Xia, Kang; Sun, Jian; Xing, Dingyu

    2017-08-01

    The high pressure phases of HBr are explored with an ab initio crystal structure search. By taking into account the contribution of zero-point energy (ZPE), we find that the P 4 /n m m phase of HBr is thermodynamically stable in the pressure range from 150 to 200 GPa. The superconducting critical temperature (Tc) of P 4 /n m m HBr is evaluated to be around 73 K at 170 GPa, which is the highest record so far among binary halogen hydrides. Its Tc can be further raised to around 95K under 170 GPa if half of the bromine atoms in the P 4 /n m m HBr are substituted by the lighter chlorine atoms. Our study shows that, in addition to lower mass, higher coordination number, shorter bonds, and more highly symmetric environment for the hydrogen atoms are important factors to enhance the superconductivity in hydrides.

  5. Towards nearly zero-energy buildings. Definition of common principles under the EPBD. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S.; Boermans, T. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pagliano, L.; Zangheri, P.; Armani, R. [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Voss, K.; Musall, E. [University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Europe aims at bringing about drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions in the residential and service sectors of about 90% compared to 1990 by 2050. Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings are a major element of European climate policy. Already by 2021, every new building in Europe has to meet this standard. During 2012, a consortium led by Ecofys undertook a study for the European Commission to provide more guidance to Member States and the Commission with regards to the implementation of the requirements for nearly zero-energy buildings under the EPBD. The study features benchmarks for nearly zero-energy buildings for different European climates, an analytical framework for evaluating Member States national plans for increasing the number of nearly zero energy buildings, a reporting template for these plans and an analysis of the convergence between cost optimal levels and nearly zero-energy buildings.

  6. Involvement of cathepsin B in mitochondrial apoptosis by p-phenylenediamine under ambient UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Shruti; Amar, Saroj Kumar [Photobiology Division, CSIR – Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-IITR Campus, Lucknow (India); Dubey, Divya; Pal, Manish Kumar [Photobiology Division, CSIR – Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Jyoti [Photobiology Division, CSIR – Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-IITR Campus, Lucknow (India); Verma, Ankit; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan [Photobiology Division, CSIR – Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Ratan Singh, E-mail: ratanray.2011@rediffmail.com [Photobiology Division, CSIR – Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Photodegradation and formation of photoproduct. • Involvement of ROS in PPD phototoxicity. • Role of ROS in DNA damage, CPD and micronuclei formation. • PPD induced lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B. • Cleavage of Bid and activation of mitochondrial apoptosis. - Abstract: Paraphenylenediamine (PPD), a derivative of paranitroaniline has been most commonly used as an ingredient of oxidative hair dye and permanent tattoos. We have studied the phototoxic potential of PPD under ambient ultraviolet radiation. PPD is photodegraded and form a novel photoproduct under UV A exposure. PPD shows a concentration dependent decrease in cell viability of human Keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) through MTT and NRU test. Significant intracellular ROS generation was measured by DCFDA assay. It caused an oxidative DNA damage via single stranded DNA breaks, micronuclei and CPD formation. Both lysosome and mitochondria is main target for PPD induced apoptosis which was proved through lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B by immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot analysis. Cathepsin B process BID to active tBID which induces the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. Mitochondrial depolarization was reported through transmission electron microscopy. The cathepsin inhibitor reduced the release of cytochrome C in PPD treated cells. Thus study suggests that PPD leads to apoptosis via the involvement of lysosome and mitochondria both under ambient UV radiation. Therefore, photosensitizing nature of hair dye ingredients should be tested before coming to market as a cosmetic product for the safety of human beings.

  7. Involvement of cathepsin B in mitochondrial apoptosis by p-phenylenediamine under ambient UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Shruti; Amar, Saroj Kumar; Dubey, Divya; Pal, Manish Kumar; Singh, Jyoti; Verma, Ankit; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photodegradation and formation of photoproduct. • Involvement of ROS in PPD phototoxicity. • Role of ROS in DNA damage, CPD and micronuclei formation. • PPD induced lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B. • Cleavage of Bid and activation of mitochondrial apoptosis. - Abstract: Paraphenylenediamine (PPD), a derivative of paranitroaniline has been most commonly used as an ingredient of oxidative hair dye and permanent tattoos. We have studied the phototoxic potential of PPD under ambient ultraviolet radiation. PPD is photodegraded and form a novel photoproduct under UV A exposure. PPD shows a concentration dependent decrease in cell viability of human Keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) through MTT and NRU test. Significant intracellular ROS generation was measured by DCFDA assay. It caused an oxidative DNA damage via single stranded DNA breaks, micronuclei and CPD formation. Both lysosome and mitochondria is main target for PPD induced apoptosis which was proved through lysosomal destabilization and release of cathepsin B by immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot analysis. Cathepsin B process BID to active tBID which induces the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. Mitochondrial depolarization was reported through transmission electron microscopy. The cathepsin inhibitor reduced the release of cytochrome C in PPD treated cells. Thus study suggests that PPD leads to apoptosis via the involvement of lysosome and mitochondria both under ambient UV radiation. Therefore, photosensitizing nature of hair dye ingredients should be tested before coming to market as a cosmetic product for the safety of human beings.

  8. Organic food consumption in Taiwan: Motives, involvement, and purchase intention under the moderating role of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Lu, Chi-Heng

    2016-10-01

    Despite the progressive development of the organic food sector in Taiwan, little is known about how consumers' consumption motives will influence organic food decision through various degrees of involvement and whether or not consumers with various degrees of uncertainty will vary in their intention to buy organic foods. The current study aims to examine the effect of consumption motives on behavioral intention related to organic food consumption under the mediating role of involvement as well as the moderating role of uncertainty. Research data were collected from organic food consumers in Taiwan via a questionnaire survey, eventually obtaining 457 valid questionnaires for analysis. This study tested the overall model fit and hypotheses through structural equation modeling method (SEM). The results show that consumer involvement significantly mediates the effects of health consciousness and ecological motives on organic food purchase intention, but not applied to food safety concern. Moreover, the moderating effect of uncertainty is statistical significance, indicating that the relationship between involvement and purchase intention becomes weaker in the condition of consumers with higher degree of uncertainty. Several implications and suggestions are also discussed for organic food providers and marketers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. In vitro thermal profile suitability assessment of acids and bases for thermochemical ablation: underlying principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Laura A; Anwer, Bilal; Brady, Ryan P; Smith, Benjamin C; Edelman, Theresa L; Misselt, Andrew J; Cressman, Erik N K

    2010-03-01

    To measure and compare temperature changes in a recently developed gel phantom for thermochemical ablation as a function of reagent strength and concentration with several acids and bases. Aliquots (0.5-1 mL) of hydrochloric acid or acetic acid and sodium hydroxide or aqueous ammonia were injected for 5 seconds into a hydrophobic gel phantom. Stepwise increments in concentration were used to survey the temperature changes caused by these reactions. Injections were performed in triplicate, measured with a thermocouple probe, and plotted as functions of concentration and time. Maximum temperatures were reached almost immediately in all cases, reaching 75 degrees C-110 degrees C at the higher concentrations. The highest temperatures were seen with hydrochloric acid and either base. More concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide tended to mix incompletely, such that experiments at 9 M and higher were difficult to perform consistently. Higher concentrations for any reagent resulted in higher temperatures. Stronger acid and base combinations resulted in higher temperatures versus weak acid and base combinations at the same concentration. Maximum temperatures obtained are in a range known to cause tissue coagulation, and all combinations tested therefore appeared suitable for further investigation in thermochemical ablation. Because of the loss of the reaction chamber shape at higher concentrations of stronger agents, the phantom does not allow complete characterization under these circumstances. Adequate mixing of reagents to maximize heating potential and avoid systemic exposure to unreacted acid and base must be addressed if the method is to be safely employed in tissues. In addition, understanding factors that control lesion shape in a more realistic tissue model will be critical. Copyright 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Obstacle Version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle: Application to the Pricing of American Options Under Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, Bruno; Vu, Thanh Nam

    2010-01-01

    We provide an obstacle version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle of Soner and Touzi (J. Eur. Math. Soc. 4:201-236, 2002) for stochastic target problems. This opens the doors to a wide range of applications, particularly in risk control in finance and insurance, in which a controlled stochastic process has to be maintained in a given set on a time interval [0,T]. As an example of application, we show how it can be used to provide a viscosity characterization of the super-hedging cost of American options under portfolio constraints, without appealing to the standard dual formulation from mathematical finance. In particular, we allow for a degenerate volatility, a case which does not seem to have been studied so far in this context.

  11. 78 FR 35769 - Retrospective Review Under E.O. 13563: Regulated Transactions Involving Documented Vessels and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... growth, job creation, and competitiveness. The President's plan recognizes that these principles should... the private sector, of $141.3 million or more (as adjusted for inflation) in any one year, and if so...

  12. J/ψ+χcJ production at the B factories under the principle of maximum conformality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Zheng, Xu-Chang; Shen, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Qiong-Lian

    2013-01-01

    Under the conventional scale setting, the renormalization scale uncertainty usually constitutes a systematic error for a fixed-order perturbative QCD estimation. The recently suggested principle of maximum conformality (PMC) provides a principle to eliminate such scale ambiguity in a step-by-step way. Using the PMC, all non-conformal terms in perturbative expansion series are summed into the running coupling, and one obtains a unique, scale-fixed, scheme-independent prediction at any finite order. In the paper, we make a detailed PMC analysis for both the polarized and the unpolarized cross sections for the double charmonium production process, e + +e − →J/ψ(ψ ′ )+χ cJ with (J=0,1,2). The running behavior for the coupling constant, governed by the PMC scales, are determined exactly for the specific processes. We compare our predictions with the measurements at the B factories, BaBar and Belle, and the theoretical estimations obtained in the literature. Because the non-conformal terms are different for various polarized and unpolarized cross sections, the PMC scales of these cross sections are different in principle. It is found that all the PMC scales are almost independent of the initial choice of renormalization scale. Thus, the large renormalization scale uncertainty usually adopted in the literature up to ∼40% at the NLO level, obtained from the conventional scale setting, for both the polarized and the unpolarized cross sections are greatly suppressed. It is found that the charmonium production is dominated by J=0 channel. After PMC scale setting, we obtain σ(J/ψ+χ c0 )=12.25 −3.13 +3.70 fb and σ(ψ ′ +χ c0 )=5.23 −1.32 +1.56 fb, where the squared average errors are caused by bound state parameters as m c , |R J/ψ (0)| and |R χ cJ ′ (0)|, which are non-perturbative error sources in different to the QCD scale setting problem. In comparison to the experimental data, a more accurate theoretical estimation shall be helpful for a precise

  13. Developing "Personality" Taxonomies: Metatheoretical and Methodological Rationales Underlying Selection Approaches, Methods of Data Generation and Reduction Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Taxonomic "personality" models are widely used in research and applied fields. This article applies the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) to scrutinise the three methodological steps that are required for developing comprehensive "personality" taxonomies: 1) the approaches used to select the phenomena and events to be studied, 2) the methods used to generate data about the selected phenomena and events and 3) the reduction principles used to extract the "most important" individual-specific variations for constructing "personality" taxonomies. Analyses of some currently popular taxonomies reveal frequent mismatches between the researchers' explicit and implicit metatheories about "personality" and the abilities of previous methodologies to capture the particular kinds of phenomena toward which they are targeted. Serious deficiencies that preclude scientific quantifications are identified in standardised questionnaires, psychology's established standard method of investigation. These mismatches and deficiencies derive from the lack of an explicit formulation and critical reflection on the philosophical and metatheoretical assumptions being made by scientists and from the established practice of radically matching the methodological tools to researchers' preconceived ideas and to pre-existing statistical theories rather than to the particular phenomena and individuals under study. These findings raise serious doubts about the ability of previous taxonomies to appropriately and comprehensively reflect the phenomena towards which they are targeted and the structures of individual-specificity occurring in them. The article elaborates and illustrates with empirical examples methodological principles that allow researchers to appropriately meet the metatheoretical requirements and that are suitable for comprehensively exploring individuals' "personality".

  14. Induction of alternative respiratory pathway involves nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide and ethylene under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huahua; Huang, Junjun; Bi, Yurong

    2010-12-01

    Alternative respiratory pathway (AP) plays an important role in plant thermogenesis, fruit ripening and responses to environmental stresses. AP may participate in the adaptation to salt stress since salt stress increased the activity of the AP. Recently, new evidence revealed that ethylene and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are involved in the salt-induced increase of the AP, which plays an important role in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis callus, and ethylene may be acting downstream of H(2)O(2). Recent observations also indicated both ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) act as signaling molecules in responses to salt stress, and ethylene may be a part of the downstream signal molecular in NO action. In this addendum, a hypothetical model for NO function in regulation of H(2)O(2)- and ethylene-mediated induction of AP under salt stress is presented.

  15. Aspects of Information Architecture involved in process mapping in Military Organizations under the semiotic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Amaral Cartaxo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The description of the processes to represent the activities in an organization has important call semiotic, It is the flowcharts of uses, management reports and the various forms of representation of the strategies used. The subsequent interpretation of the organization's employees involved in learning tasks and the symbols used to translate the meanings of management practices is essential role for the organization. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify evidence of conceptual and empirical, on aspects of information architecture involved in the mapping process carried out in military organizations under the semiotic perspective. Methodology: The research is characterized as qualitative, case study and the data collection technique was the semi-structured interview, applied to management advisors. Results: The main results indicate that management practices described with the use of pictorial symbols and different layouts have greater impact to explain the relevance of management practices and indicators. Conclusion: With regard to the semiotic appeal, it was found that the impact of a management report is significant due to the use of signs and layout that stimulate further reading by simplifying complex concepts in tables, diagrams summarizing lengthy descriptions.

  16. Can biophysics tell us something about the weak equivalence principle vis a vis the thought experiment of Einstein involving human subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaheld, Fred H

    2009-08-01

    Over a period of several decades it has been noticed that most astronauts, either orbiting the earth or on trips to the moon, have observed phosphenes or light flashes (LF) including streaks, spots and clouds of light when their eyes are closed or they are in a darkened cabin. Scientists suspect that two separate components of cosmic rays cause these flashes due to direct interaction with the retina. This phenomenon is not noticed on the ground because of cosmic ray interaction with the atmosphere. The argument is advanced that this effect may provide us with a new method of exploring the weak equivalence principle from the standpoint of Einstein's original thought experiment involving human subjects. This can be done, utilizing the retina only, as an animate quantum mechanical measuring device or, in conjunction with the Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts (ALTEA) facility.

  17. Mach's Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    popularize science. The underlying idea in Mach's principle is that the origin of inertia or mass of a particle is a dynamical quantity determined by the environ- ... Knowing the latitude of the location of the pendulum it is possible to calculate the Earth's spin period. The two methods give the same answer. At first sight this does ...

  18. Elastic properties and electronic structure of WS{sub 2} under pressure from first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Civil Aviation Flight Univ. of China, Guanghan (China). Dept. of Physics; Zeng, Zhao-Yi [Chongqing Normal Univ., Chongqing (China). College of Physics and Electronic Engineering; Liang, Ting; Tang, Mei; Cheng, Yan [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics

    2017-07-01

    The influence of pressure on the elastic and mechanical properties of the hexagonal transition-metal dichalcogenide WS{sub 2} is investigated using the first-principles calculations. With the increase in pressure, the lattice parameters and the volume of WS{sub 2} decrease, which is exactly in agreement with the available experimental data and other calculated results. The elastic constants C{sub ij}, bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio σ of WS{sub 2} also increase with pressure. At last, for the first time, the band gaps of energy, the partial density of states, and the total density of states under three different pressures are obtained and analysed. It is found that the band gap of WS{sub 2} decreases from 0.843 to 0 eV when the external pressure varies from 0 to 20 GPa, which implies that WS{sub 2} may transform from semiconductors to semimetal phase at a pressure about 20 GPa.

  19. Coral bleaching under thermal stress: putative involvement of host/symbiont recognition mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambutte Sylvie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral bleaching can be defined as the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or their photosynthetic pigments from their cnidarian host. This major disturbance of reef ecosystems is principally induced by increases in water temperature. Since the beginning of the 1980s and the onset of global climate change, this phenomenon has been occurring at increasing rates and scales, and with increasing severity. Several studies have been undertaken in the last few years to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of coral bleaching but the jigsaw puzzle is far from being complete, especially concerning the early events leading to symbiosis breakdown. The aim of the present study was to find molecular actors involved early in the mechanism leading to symbiosis collapse. Results In our experimental procedure, one set of Pocillopora damicornis nubbins was subjected to a gradual increase of water temperature from 28°C to 32°C over 15 days. A second control set kept at constant temperature (28°C. The differentially expressed mRNA between the stressed states (sampled just before the onset of bleaching and the non stressed states (control were isolated by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Transcription rates of the most interesting genes (considering their putative function were quantified by Q-RT-PCR, which revealed a significant decrease in transcription of two candidates six days before bleaching. RACE-PCR experiments showed that one of them (PdC-Lectin contained a C-Type-Lectin domain specific for mannose. Immunolocalisation demonstrated that this host gene mediates molecular interactions between the host and the symbionts suggesting a putative role in zooxanthellae acquisition and/or sequestration. The second gene corresponds to a gene putatively involved in calcification processes (Pdcyst-rich. Its down-regulation could reflect a trade-off mechanism leading to the arrest of the mineralization process under stress

  20. Transcriptome responses involved in artemisinin production in Artemisia annua L. under UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei Song; Zheng, Li Ping; Tian, Hao; Li, Wan Yi; Wang, Jian Wen

    2014-11-01

    Artemisinin, an endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone, is an effective antimalarial drug isolated from Artemisia annua L. In this study, a low dose (1.44 kJm(-2)d(-1)) of UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) for short-term (1h per day for 10 days) was applied to A. annua seedlings to stimulate artemisinin production. UV-B treatment not only induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), enhanced peroxidase activity and endogenous content of abscisic acid (ABA), but stimulated the biosynthesis of artemisinin in the seedlings. Here, transcriptomic changes during UV-B radiation in A. annua were detected using an Agilent GeneChip with 43,692 probe sets. In total, 358 transcripts were identified as differentially expressed under UV-B stress, of which 172 transcripts increased and 186 transcripts decreased in abundance. In terms of biological processes, gene ontology (GO) terms including primary carbohydrate and nitrogen compound metabolic processes were enriched in UV-B-repressed genes. The up-regulated genes were enriched in response to stress, ROS generation, hormone (ethylene, ABA) stimulus and cell cycle control. The expression of key enzymes such as amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) and cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase/hydroxylase (CYP71AV1), and related WRKY transcription factors was up-regulated significantly for artemisinin biosynthesis. This profile of global gene expression patterns during UV-B stress will be valuable for further identification of the enzymes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. First-principles calculation of thermodynamic stability of acids and bases under pH environment: A microscopic pH theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Kwiseon; Zhang, S. B.

    2012-04-01

    Despite being one of the most important thermodynamic variables, pH has yet to be incorporated into first-principles thermodynamics to calculate stability of acidic and basic solutes in aqueous solutions. By treating the solutes as defects in homogeneous liquids, we formulate a first-principles approach to calculate their formation energies under proton chemical potential, or pH, based on explicit molecular dynamics. The method draws analogy to first-principle calculations of defect formation energies under electron chemical potential, or Fermi energy, in semiconductors. From this, we propose a simple pictorial representation of the general theory of acid-base chemistry. By performing first-principles molecular dynamics of liquid water models with solutes, we apply the formulation to calculate formation energies of various neutral and charged solutes such as H+, OH-, NH3, NH4+, HCOOH, and HCOO- in water. The deduced auto-dissociation constant of water and the difference in the pKa values of NH3 and HCOOH show good agreement with known experimental values. Our first-principles approach can be further extended and applied to other bio- and electro-chemical molecules such as amino acids and redox reaction couples that could exist in aqueous environments to understand their thermodynamic stability.

  2. 8 CFR 1208.31 - Reasonable fear of persecution or torture determinations involving aliens ordered removed under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The immigration judge shall consider only the alien's application for withholding of removal under... deferred. (ii) Appeal of the immigration judge's decision whether removal must be withheld or deferred lies... determinations involving aliens ordered removed under section 238(b) of the Act and aliens whose removal is...

  3. Viewing Generativity and Social Capital as Underlying Factors of Parent Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sharon; Patel, Nimisha

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement in education is a multifaceted support that has many well-documented benefits for students of all ages. Parent involvement is also a common expression of generativity as defined in Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. The activities parents engage in during their children's educational pursuits, as well as their…

  4. 29 CFR 1904.9 - Recording criteria for cases involving medical removal under OSHA standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under OSHA standards. 1904.9 Section 1904.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... removal under OSHA standards. (a) Basic requirement. If an employee is medically removed under the medical surveillance requirements of an OSHA standard, you must record the case on the OSHA 300 Log. (b) Implementation...

  5. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  6. TGF-β2 is involved in the preservation of the chondrocyte phenotype under hypoxic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, R.; Timur, U. T.; Edip, S.; Haak, E.; Wruck, C.; Weinans, H.; Jahr, H.

    2015-01-01

    Culturing chondrocytes under oxygen tension closely resembling their in vivo environment has been shown to have positive effects on matrix synthesis. In redifferentiation of expanded chondrocytes, hypoxia increased collagen type II expression. However, the mechanism by which hypoxia enhances

  7. Principles underlying the epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring and other fishes throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Garver, Kyle A.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Although viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) typically occurs at low prevalence and intensity in natural populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and other marine fishes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, epizootics of the resulting disease (VHS) periodically occur, often in association with observed fish kills. Here we identify a list of principles, based on a combination of field studies, controlled laboratory experiments, and previously unpublished observations, that govern the epizootiology of VHS in Pacific herring. A thorough understanding of these principles provides the basis for identifying risk factors that predispose certain marine fish populations to VHS epizootics, including the lack of population resistance, presence of chronic viral carriers in a population, copious viral shedding by infected individuals, cool water temperatures, limited water circulation patterns, and gregarious host behavioral patterns. Further, these principles are used to define the epizootiological stages of the disease in Pacific herring, including the susceptible (where susceptible individuals predominate a school or subpopulation), enzootic (where infection prevalence and intensity are often below the limits of reasonable laboratory detection), disease amplification (where infection prevalence and intensity increase rapidly), outbreak (often accompanied by host mortalities with high virus loads and active shedding), recovery (in which the mortality rate and virus load decline owing to an active host immune response), and refractory stages (characterized by little or no susceptibility and where viral clearance occurs in most VHS survivors). In addition to providing a foundation for quantitatively assessing the potential risks of future VHS epizootics in Pacific herring, these principles provide insights into the epizootiology of VHS in other fish communities where susceptible species exist.

  8. Associative and sensorimotor learning for parenting involves mirror neurons under the influence of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S Shaun; Macdonald, Adam; Swain, James E

    2014-04-01

    Mirror neuron-based associative learning may be understood according to associative learning theories, in addition to sensorimotor learning theories. This is important for a comprehensive understanding of the role of mirror neurons and related hormone modulators, such as oxytocin, in complex social interactions such as among parent-infant dyads and in examples of mirror neuron function that involve abnormal motor systems such as depression.

  9. Associative and sensorimotor learning for parenting involves mirror neurons under the influence of oxytocin

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, S. Shaun; MacDonald, Adam; Swain, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neuron–based associative learning may be understood according to associative learning theories, in addition to sensorimotor learning theories. This is important for a comprehensive understanding of the role of mirror neurons and related hormone modulators, such as oxytocin, in complex social interactions such as among parent–infant dyads and in examples of mirror neuron function that involve abnormal motor systems such as depression.

  10. Evolutionary Connectionism: Algorithmic Principles Underlying the Evolution of Biological Organisation in Evo-Devo, Evo-Eco and Evolutionary Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Richard A; Mills, Rob; Buckley, C L; Kouvaris, Kostas; Jackson, Adam; Powers, Simon T; Cox, Chris; Tudge, Simon; Davies, Adam; Kounios, Loizos; Power, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of variation, selection and inheritance, on which evolution by natural selection depends, are not fixed over evolutionary time. Current evolutionary biology is increasingly focussed on understanding how the evolution of developmental organisations modifies the distribution of phenotypic variation, the evolution of ecological relationships modifies the selective environment, and the evolution of reproductive relationships modifies the heritability of the evolutionary unit. The major transitions in evolution, in particular, involve radical changes in developmental, ecological and reproductive organisations that instantiate variation, selection and inheritance at a higher level of biological organisation. However, current evolutionary theory is poorly equipped to describe how these organisations change over evolutionary time and especially how that results in adaptive complexes at successive scales of organisation (the key problem is that evolution is self-referential, i.e. the products of evolution change the parameters of the evolutionary process). Here we first reinterpret the central open questions in these domains from a perspective that emphasises the common underlying themes. We then synthesise the findings from a developing body of work that is building a new theoretical approach to these questions by converting well-understood theory and results from models of cognitive learning. Specifically, connectionist models of memory and learning demonstrate how simple incremental mechanisms, adjusting the relationships between individually-simple components, can produce organisations that exhibit complex system-level behaviours and improve the adaptive capabilities of the system. We use the term "evolutionary connectionism" to recognise that, by functionally equivalent processes, natural selection acting on the relationships within and between evolutionary entities can result in organisations that produce complex system-level behaviours in evolutionary

  11. Finding candidate genes under positive selection in Non-model species: examples of genes involved in host specialization in pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, G; Lengelle, J; Marthey, S; Chiapello, H; Rodolphe, F; Gendrault, A; Yockteng, R; Vercken, E; Devier, B; Fontaine, M C; Wincker, P; Dossat, C; Cruaud, C; Couloux, A; Giraud, T

    2010-01-01

    Numerous genes in diverse organisms have been shown to be under positive selection, especially genes involved in reproduction, adaptation to contrasting environments, hybrid inviability, and host-pathogen interactions. Looking for genes under positive selection in pathogens has been a priority in efforts to investigate coevolution dynamics and to develop vaccines or drugs. To elucidate the functions involved in host specialization, here we aimed at identifying candidate sequences that could have evolved under positive selection among closely related pathogens specialized on different hosts. For this goal, we sequenced c. 17,000-32,000 ESTs from each of four Microbotryum species, which are fungal pathogens responsible for anther smut disease on host plants in the Caryophyllaceae. Forty-two of the 372 predicted orthologous genes showed significant signal of positive selection, which represents a good number of candidate genes for further investigation. Sequencing 16 of these genes in 9 additional Microbotryum species confirmed that they have indeed been rapidly evolving in the pathogen species specialized on different hosts. The genes showing significant signals of positive selection were putatively involved in nutrient uptake from the host, secondary metabolite synthesis and secretion, respiration under stressful conditions and stress response, hyphal growth and differentiation, and regulation of expression by other genes. Many of these genes had transmembrane domains and may therefore also be involved in pathogen recognition by the host. Our approach thus revealed fruitful and should be feasible for many non-model organisms for which candidate genes for diversifying selection are needed.

  12. Under-Represented College Students and Extracurricular Involvement: The Effects of Various Student Organizations on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christina N.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies indicate that students who are involved in extracurricular activities during college are more academically successful than are those who are not; however, most studies do not distinguish between different types of activities nor do they adequately consider the unique experiences of under-represented college students. Drawing on…

  13. Liability for Sexual Harassment Involving Students under Federal Civil Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Discusses school district liability for sexual harassment under two provisions of federal law that are typically invoked as alternative bases for liability for sexual harassment: Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and Section 1983 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. (78 footnotes) (MLF)

  14. 77 FR 54584 - Final Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ..., researchers in gene and cell therapy, and microbiologists. In addition, a day-long public discussion of the... changes. Human gene transfer also raises scientific, medical, social, and ethical considerations that... replicate does not raise significant biosafety concerns that warrant oversight under the NIH Guidelines...

  15. Ethylene and nitric oxide are involved in maintaining ion homeostasis in Arabidopsis callus under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huahua; Liang, Xiaolei; Wan, Qi; Wang, Xiaomin; Bi, Yurong

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, the role of ethylene in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated protection by modulating ion homeostasis in Arabidopsis callus under salt stress was investigated. Results showed that the ethylene-insensitive mutant etr1-3 was more sensitive to salt stress than the wild type (WT). Under 100 mM NaCl, etr1-3 callus displayed a greater electrolyte leakage and Na(+)/K(+) ratio but a lower plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase activity compared to WT callus. Application of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, an ethylene precursor) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) alleviated NaCl-induced injury by maintaining a lower Na(+)/K(+) ratio and an increased PM H(+)-ATPase activity in WT callus but not in etr1-3 callus. The SNP actions in NaCl stress were attenuated by a specific NO scavenger or an ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor in WT callus. Under 100 mM NaCl, the NO accumulation and ethylene emission appeared at early time, and NO production greatly stimulated ethylene emission in WT callus. In addition, ethylene induced the expression of PM H(+)-ATPase genes under salt stress. The recovery experiment showed that NaCl-induced injury was reversible, as signaled by the similar recovery of Na(+)/K(+) ratio and PM H(+)-ATPase activity in WT callus. Taken together, the results indicate that ethylene and NO cooperate in stimulating PM H(+)-ATPase activity to modulate ion homeostasis for salt tolerance, and ethylene may be a part of the downstream signal molecular in NO action.

  16. The dual role of autophagy under hypoxia-involvement of interaction between autophagy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Tan, Jin; Miao, Yuyang; Lei, Ping; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Hypoxia is one of severe cellular stress and it is well known to be associated with a worse outcome since a lack of oxygen accelerates the induction of apoptosis. Autophagy, an important and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis, is closely related to the apoptosis caused by hypoxia. Generally autophagy blocks the induction of apoptosis and inhibits the activation of apoptosis-associated caspase which could reduce cellular injury. However, in special cases, autophagy or autophagy-relevant proteins may help to induce apoptosis, which could aggravate cell damage under hypoxia condition. In addition, the activation of apoptosis-related proteins-caspase can also degrade autophagy-related proteins, such as Atg3, Atg4, Beclin1 protein, inhibiting autophagy. Although the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis has been known for rather complex for more than a decade, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not been clearly understood. This short review discusses and summarizes the dual role of autophagy and the interaction and molecular regulatory mechanisms between autophagy and apoptosis under hypoxia.

  17. First-principles study on the phase transitions, crystal stabilities and thermodynamic properties of TiN under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinjun; Liu, Changdong; Guo, Yongliang; Sun, Deyan; Ke, Xuezhi

    2018-03-01

    The structural and thermodynamic properties of titanium nitride (TiN) have been investigated by merging first-principles calculations and particle-swarm algorithm. The three phases are identified for TiN, including the B1, the P63 / mmc, and the B2 phases. A new phase of anti-TiP structure with the space group P63 / mmc has been predicted. The calculated phase transition from the B1 to the P63 / mmc occurs at 270 GPa. The vibrational, elastic, and thermodynamic properties for the three phases have been calculated and discussed.

  18. Globalization and Equitable Use of Natural Resources in the Contemporary World: A Diagnosis Under the Bias of The Principle of Intergenerational Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Mendes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Article  conduct  an  assessment  of  globalization  has  unleashed  the  commodification/depredation of natural resources in local/global scale to meet the interests of the market and the performance of the principle of intergenerational equity to try to curb this phenomenon. The research makes use of the deductive method, and uses dialectical contributions in order to implement a more accurate analysis of the phenomenon. At first, time will address under as globalization changes in consumption patterns of individuals in local/global level. Finally, it will take shape-the role of the principle of intergenerational equity by the legal system to try to curb ecological degradation.

  19. miR-126 Is Involved in Vascular Remodeling under Laminar Shear Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mondadori dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and changes in gene expression of vascular endothelium are mainly due to shear stress and inflammation. Cell phenotype modulation has been clearly demonstrated to be controlled by small noncoding micro-RNAs (miRNAs. This study focused on the effect of laminar shear stress (LSS on human endothelial cells (HUVECs, with an emphasis on the role of miRNA-126 (miR-126. Exposure of HUVECs in vitro to LSS modified the shape of HUVECs and concomitantly regulated the expression of miR-126, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, and syndecan-4 (SDC-4. A significant upregulation of miR-126 during long-term exposure to flow was shown. Interestingly, LSS enhanced SDC-4 expression on the HUVEC membranes. Overexpression of miR-126 in HUVECs decreased the levels of targets stromal cell-derived factor-1 SDF-1/CXCL12 and VCAM-1 but increased the expression of RGS16, CXCR4, and SDC-4. No significant difference in terms of cell proliferation and apoptosis was observed between scramble, anti-miR-126, and pre-miR-126 transfected HUVECs. In Apo-E KO/CKD mice aortas expressing a high level of miR-126, SDC-4 was concomitantly increased. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-126 (i is overexpressed by long-term LSS, (ii has a role in up- and downregulation of genes involved in atherosclerosis, and (iii affects SDC-4 expression.

  20. Involvement of the flagellar assembly pathway in Vibrio alginolyticus adhesion under environmental stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion is an important virulence factor of Vibrio alginolyticus. This factor may be affected by environment conditions; however, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In our previous research, adhesion tender models were obtained by culturing V. alginolyticus under stresses such as Cu2+, Pb2+, Hg2+, and low pH. With high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, we found that all of these stress treatments significantly affected the flagellar assembly pathway, which may play an important role in V. alginolyticus adhesion. Therefore, we hypothesized that the environmental stresses of the flagellar assembly pathway may be one way in which environment conditions affect adhesion. To verify our hypothesis, a bioinformatics analysis, QPCR, RNAi, in vitro adhesion assay and motility assay were performed. Our results indicated that 1 the flagellar assembly pathway was sensitive to environmental stresses, 2 the flagellar assembly pathway played an important role in V. alginolyticus adhesion, and 3 motility is not the only way in which the flagellar assembly pathway affects adhesion.

  1. Evolution of the bonding mechanism of ZnO under isotropic compression: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, G.C.; Sun, L.Z.; Wang, J.B.; Zhong, X.L.; Zhou, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure and the bonding mechanism of ZnO under isotropic pressure have been studied by using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density-functional theory (DFT) based on LDA+U exchange correlation (EXC) potential. We used the theory of Atoms in Molecules (AIM) method to analyze the change of the charge transfer and the bonding strength under isotropic pressure. The results of the theoretical analysis show that charge transfer between Zn and O atomic basins nearly linearly increases with the increasing pressure. Charge density along the Zn-O bond increases under the high pressure. The bonding strength and the ionicity of Zn-O bond also increase with the increasing pressure. The linear evolution process of the bonding mechanism under isotropic pressure was shown clearly in the present paper

  2. microRNAs involved in auxin signalling modulate male sterility under high-temperature stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuanhao; Ma, Yizan; Liu, Nian; Xu, Jiao; Hu, Qin; Li, Yaoyao; Wu, Yuanlong; Xie, Sai; Zhu, Longfu; Min, Ling; Zhang, Xianlong

    2017-09-01

    Male sterility caused by long-term high-temperature (HT) stress occurs widely in crops. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs, play an important role in the plant response to various abiotic stresses. To dissect the working principle of miRNAs in male sterility under HT stress in cotton, a total of 112 known miRNAs, 270 novel miRNAs and 347 target genes were identified from anthers of HT-insensitive (84021) and HT-sensitive (H05) cotton cultivars under normal-temperature and HT conditions through small RNA and degradome sequencing. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 5'-RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments were used to validate the sequencing data. The results show that miR156 was suppressed by HT stress in both 84021 and H05; miR160 was suppressed in 84021 but induced in H05. Correspondingly, SPLs (target genes of miR156) were induced both in 84021 and H05; ARF10 and ARF17 (target genes of miR160) were induced in 84021 but suppressed in H05. Overexpressing miR160 increased cotton sensitivity to HT stress seen as anther indehiscence, associated with the suppression of ARF10 and ARF17 expression, thereby activating the auxin response that leads to anther indehiscence. Supporting this role for auxin, exogenous Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) leads to a stronger male sterility phenotype both in 84021 and H05 under HT stress. Cotton plants overexpressing miR157 suppressed the auxin signal, and also showed enhanced sensitivity to HT stress, with microspore abortion and anther indehiscence. Thus, we propose that the auxin signal, mediated by miRNAs, is essential for cotton anther fertility under HT stress. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  4. QSAR prediction of estrogen activity for a large set of diverse chemicals under the guidance of OECD principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanxiang; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2006-11-01

    A large number of environmental chemicals, known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, are suspected of disrupting endocrine functions by mimicking or antagonizing natural hormones, and such chemicals may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. They are thought to act through a variety of mechanisms, mainly estrogen-receptor-mediated mechanisms of toxicity. However, it is practically impossible to perform thorough toxicological tests on all potential xenoestrogens, and thus, the quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) provides a promising method for the estimation of a compound's estrogenic activity. Here, QSAR models of the estrogen receptor binding affinity of a large data set of heterogeneous chemicals have been built using theoretical molecular descriptors, giving full consideration to the new OECD principles in regulation for QSAR acceptability, during model construction and assessment. An unambiguous multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithm was used to build the models, and model predictive ability was validated by both internal and external validation. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validation paths indicate that the proposed QSAR model is robust and satisfactory, and can provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of the estrogen activity of organic compounds.

  5. First-principles predictions of structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. P.; Fang, Q. H.; Li, J.; Liu, B.

    2018-04-01

    Structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb alloy under high pressure have been investigated based on the density functional theory (DFT). The dependences of dimensionless volume ratio, elastic constants, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, ductile/brittle, anisotropy and Poisson's ratio on applied pressure are all calculated successfully. The results reveal that βTiNb alloy is mechanically stable under pressure below 23.45 GPa, and the pressure-induced phase transformation could occur beyond this critical value. Meanwhile, the applied pressure can effectively promote the mechanical properties of βTiNb alloy, including the resistances to volume change, elastic deformation and shear deformation, as well as the material ductility and metallicity. Furthermore, the calculated electronic structures testify that βTiNb alloy performs the metallicity and the higher pressure reduces the structural stability of unit cell.

  6. Study of blood flow inside the stenosis vessel under the effect of solenoid magnetic field using ferrohydrodynamics principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badfar, Homayoun; Motlagh, Saber Yekani; Sharifi, Abbas

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, biomagnetic blood flow in the stenosis vessel under the effect of the solenoid magnetic field is studied using the ferrohydrodynamics (FHD) model. The parabolic profile is considered at an inlet of the axisymmetric stenosis vessel. Blood is modeled as electrically non-conducting, Newtonian and homogeneous fluid. Finite volume and the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) algorithm are utilized to discretize governing equations. The investigation is studied at different magnetic numbers ( MnF=164, 328, 1640 and 3280) and the number of the coil loops (three, five and nine loops). Results indicate an increase in heat transfer, wall shear stress and energy loss (pressure drop) with an increment in the magnetic number (ratio of Kelvin force to dynamic pressure force), arising from the FHD, and the number of solenoid loops. Furthermore, the flow pattern is affected by the magnetic field, and the temperature of blood can be decreased up to 1.48 {}°C under the effect of the solenoid magnetic field with nine loops and reference magnetic field ( B0) of 2 tesla.

  7. The Registration of Special Notarial Bonds under the Security by Means of Movable Property Act and the Publicity Principle: Lessons from Developments in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people do not own immovable property to offer as security but do have movable property which can be offered as security for the repayment of a debt. In today's world, where the costs of a motor car can exceed that of a house, the increasing value of movable things makes them popular and appropriate security objects. Under the common law pledge, delivery of the movable property from the pledgor (the debtor to the pledgee (the creditor has to take place in order for the pledgee to acquire a real security right in the property. Delivery of the property is aimed at ensuring compliance with the publicity principle. The principle of publicity entails that the existence of a real security must be known to the public. With the aim of promoting commerce, certain countries have taken the initiative in reforming their laws on pledge to allow the debtor to retain possession of the movable property that serves as security. Furthermore, technology has advanced to a level where national registration systems which can be accessed easily and at minimal cost can be established. The South African legislature enacted the Security by Means of Movable Property Act 57 of 1993 which makes provision for a pledge without possession. This Act deemed a duly registered notarial bond over specified movable property to have been delivered as if delivery had in fact taken place, thereby substituting the common law delivery requirement with registration in the Deeds Office. On 30 May 2013 the Belgian House of Representatives adopted a Belgian Pledge Act which allows for a non-possessory pledge on movable property subject to registration in a newly created public register called the Electronic Pledge Register. This article therefore examines the efficacy of the registration system of special notarial bonds in South African law and whether this form of registration complies with the publicity principle looking at the developments of a computerised registration system taking

  8. First principles and Debye model study of the thermodynamic, electronic and optical properties of MgO under high-temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yurun; Li, Huayang; Wang, Hongjuan; He, Kaihua; Wang, Qingbo

    2018-02-01

    First principles and quasi-harmonic Debye model have been used to study the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties of MgO up to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) condition (137 GPa and 3700 K). Thermodynamic properties calculation includes thermal expansion coefficient and capacity, which have been studied up to the CMB pressure (137 GPa) and temperature (3700 K) by the Debye model with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local-density approximation (LDA). First principles with hybrid functional method (PBE0) has been used to calculate the electronic and optical properties under pressure up to 137 GPa and 0 K. Our results show the Debye model with LDA and first principles with PBE0 can provide accurate thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties. Calculated enthalpies show that MgO keep NaCl (B1) structure up to 137 GPa. And MgO is a direct bandgap insulator with a 7.23 eV calculated bandgap. The bandgap increased with increasing pressure, which will induce a blue shift of optical properties. We also calculated the density of states (DOS) and discussed the relation between DOS and band, optical properties. Equations were used to fit the relations between pressure and bandgaps, absorption coefficient (α(ω)) of MgO. The equations can be used to evaluate pressure after careful calibration. Our calculations can not only be used to identify some geological processes, but also offer a reference to the applications of MgO in the future.

  9. A common founder mutation of CERKL underlies autosomal recessive retinal degeneration with early macular involvement among Yemenite Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auslender, Noa; Sharon, Dror; Abbasi, Anan H; Garzozi, Hanna J; Banin, Eyal; Ben-Yosef, Tamar

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the genetic basis and clinical manifestations of a characteristic form of retinal degeneration in the Yemenite Jewish population. Haplotype analysis for all known genes and loci underlying autosomal recessive nonsyndromic retinal degeneration was performed in a Yemenite Jewish family segregating autosomal recessive severe retinal degeneration. The causative mutation was detected by direct sequencing of the underlying gene, and its prevalence in additional affected and unaffected Yemenite Jews was determined. Patients who were homozygous for this mutation underwent ophthalmic evaluation, including funduscopy, electroretinography, electro-oculography, perimetry, and color vision testing. In the studied Yemenite Jewish family, we found evidence for linkage to the CERKL gene. Direct sequencing revealed a novel homozygous splice-site mutation, c.238+1G>A. An in vitro splicing assay demonstrated that this mutation leads to incorrect splicing. c.238+1G>A was found to cause retinal degeneration in six additional Yemenite Jewish families. The carrier frequency of this mutation in the Yemenite Jewish population is 4.4%. All c.238+1G>A homozygotes manifest widespread progressive impairment of rod and cone function with early macular involvement. c.238+1G>A is the second reported mutation of CERKL and is a prevalent founder mutation that underlies approximately 33% of autosomal recessive retinal degeneration cases in the Yemenite Jewish population. It is associated with a characteristic retinal degeneration phenotype with early macular involvement, concomitant progression of rod and cone impairment, and characteristic fundus findings. The identification of this mutation and phenotype will facilitate molecular diagnosis, carrier screening, and genetic counseling in the Yemenite Jewish population.

  10. Phase transition, elastic and electronic properties of topological insulator Sb2Te3 under pressure: First principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Lu; Huai-Yong, Zhang; Yan, Cheng; Xiang-Rong, Chen; Guang-Fu, Ji

    2016-02-01

    The phase transition, elastic and electronic properties of three phases (phase I, II, and III) of Sb2Te3 are investigated by using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with the PBESOL exchange-correlation functional in the framework of density-functional theory. Some basic physical parameters, such as lattice constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, acoustic velocity, and Debye temperature Θ are calculated. The obtained lattice parameters under various pressures are consistent with experimental data. Phase transition pressures are 9.4 GPa (I → II) and 14.1 GPa (II → III), which are in agreement with the experimental results. According to calculated elastic constants, we also discuss the ductile or brittle characters and elastic anisotropies of three phases. Phases I and III are brittle, while phase II is ductile. Of the three phases, phase II has the most serious degree of elastic anisotropy and phase III has the slightest one. Finally, we investigate the partial densities of states (PDOSs) of three phases and find that the three phases possess some covalent features. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204192 and 11174214) and Jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the China Academy of Engineering Physics (NSAF) (Grant No. U1430117).

  11. First-Row Transition Metal Based Catalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction under Alkaline Conditions: Basic Principles and Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Zhou, Min; Zhou, Yuxue; Zeng, Xianghua

    2017-12-01

    Owing to its abundance, high gravimetric energy density, and environmental friendliness, hydrogen is a promising renewable energy to replace fossil fuels. One of the most prominent routes toward hydrogen acquisition is water splitting, which is currently bottlenecked by the sluggish kinetics of oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Numerous of electrocatalysts have been developed in the past decades to accelerate the OER process. Up to now, the first-row transition metal based compounds are in pole position under alkaline conditions, which have become subjects of extensive studies. Recently, significant advances in providing compelling catalytic performance as well as exploring their catalytic mechanisms have been achieved in this area. In this review, we summarized the fundamentals and recent progresses in first-row transition metal based OER catalysts, with special emphasis on the pathways of promoting catalytic performance by concrete strategies. New insight into material design, particularly the role of experimental approaches in the electrocatalytic performance and reaction mechanisms of OER are expected to be provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Forest fine-root production and nitrogen use under elevated CO2: Contrasting responses explained by a common principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Oscar [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis; McMurtrie, Ross E [ORNL; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Crous, Kristine [University of Michigan; Finzi, Adrien C [Boston University; Tissue, David Thomas [ORNL; Ellsworth, David [ORNL; Oren, Ram [ORNL; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Despite the importance of nitrogen (N) limitation of forest carbon (C) sequestration at rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, the mechanisms responsible are not well understood. To elucidate the interactive effects of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and soil N availability on forest productivity and C allocation, we hypothesized that 1) trees maximize fitness by allocating N and C to maximize their net growth, and 2) that N uptake is controlled by root exploration for N. We tested this model using data collected in FACE sites dominated by evergreen (Pinus taeda; Duke Forest) and deciduous (Liquidambar styraciflua; Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL) trees. The model explained 80-95% of variation in productivity and N-uptake data among eCO2, N fertilization and control treatments over six years. The model explains why fine-root production increased, and why N uptake increased despite reduced soil N availability under eCO2 at ORNL and Duke. In agreement with observations at other sites, soil N availability reduced below a critical level diminishes all eCO2 responses. At Duke, a negative feedback between reduced soil N availability and N uptake counteracted progressive reduction in soil N availability at eCO2. At ORNL, decreasing soil N availability was perpetuated as it generated no reduction in N uptake, due to strongly increased production of fast turnover fine-roots. This implies that species with fast root turnover could be more prone to progressive N limitation of carbon sequestration in woody biomass than species with slow root turnover, such as evergreens.

  13. Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg

    2002-01-01

    Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming investigates the mathematical structures and principles underlying the design of efficient algorithms for optimization problems. Recent advances in algorithmic theory have shown that the traditionally separate areas of discrete optimization, linear

  14. Foreword to 'Multiscale structural biology: biophysical principles and mechanisms underlying the action of bio-nanomachines', a special issue in Honour of Fumio Arisaka's 70th birthday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Damien; Takagi, Junichi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2018-03-02

    This issue of Biophysical Reviews, titled 'Multiscale structural biology: biophysical principles and mechanisms underlying the action of bio-nanomachines', is a collection of articles dedicated in honour of Professor Fumio Arisaka's 70th birthday. Initially, working in the fields of haemocyanin and actin filament assembly, Fumio went on to publish important work on the elucidation of structural and functional aspects of T4 phage biology. As his career has transitioned levels of complexity from proteins (hemocyanin) to large protein complexes (actin) to even more massive bio-nanomachinery (phage), it is fitting that the subject of this special issue is similarly reflective of his multiscale approach to structural biology. This festschrift contains articles spanning biophysical structure and function from the bio-molecular through to the bio-nanomachine level.

  15. The impact of the document international work group in death, dying and bereavement: assumptions and principles underlying standards for terminal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Mary L S

    This article reflects on the development and impact of the International Workgroup on Death, Dying and Bereavement's (IWG) pivotal document on The Assumptions and Principles Underlying Standards for Terminal Care. It was at the Ars Moriendi meetings in Columbia, Maryland that the author first met Bob and Bunny Kastenbaum. The meeting led to the development of IWG and the first task of this group was the development of the "Standards" document. The initial document reflected the pioneering work already being done by Kastenbaum and others on the committee and then was formative in the development of other documents such as the National Hospice Association Standards. Participants in the original workgroup were asked for their reflections on the significance of the document and the literature was surveyed to assess the impact of the "Standards" document on the field.

  16. Adenosine A2Areceptor involves in neuroinflammation-mediated cognitive decline through activating microglia under acute hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Zhi; He, Wen-Juan; Zhu, Zhi-Ru; E, Guo-Ji; Xu, Gang; Chen, De-Wei; Gao, Yu-Qi

    2018-03-06

    Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) at high altitudes leads to a wide range of cognitive impairments which can handicap human normal activities and performances. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) of the brain are pivotal to synaptic plasticity and cognition. Besides, insult-induced up-regulation of A 2A R regulates neuroinflammation and therefore induces brain damages in various neuropathological processes. The present study was designed to determine whether A 2A R-mediate neuroinflammation involves in cognitive impairments under acute HH. A 2A R knock-out and wild-type male mice were exposed to a simulated altitude of 8000 m for 7 consecutive days in a hypobaric chamber and simultaneously received behavioral tests including Morris water maze test and open filed test. A 2A R expression, the activation of microglia and the production of TNF-α were evaluated in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively. Behavioral tests showed that acute HH exposure caused the dysfunction of spatial memory and mood, while genetic inactivation of A 2A R attenuated the impairment of spatial memory but not that of mood. Double-labeled immunofluorescence showed that A 2A Rs were mainly expressed on microglia and up-regulated in the hippocampus of acute HH model mice. Acute HH also induced the accumulation of microglia and increased production of TNF-α in the hippocampus, which could be markedly inhibited by A 2A R inactivation. These findings indicate that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation triggered by A 2A R activation involves in acute HH-induced spatial memory impairment and that A 2A R could be a new target for the pharmacotherapy of cognitive dysfunction at high altitudes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Teyssier, Caroline; Trontin, Jean-François; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, Martine; Morabito, Domenico; Boizot, Nathalie; Le Metté, Claire; Belal-Bessai, Leila; Reymond, Isabelle; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Corbineau, Françoise; Vágner, Martin; Label, Philippe; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-09-01

    Maritime pine somatic embryos (SEs) require a reduction in water availability (high gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium) to reach the cotyledonary stage. This key switch, reported specifically for pine species, is not yet well understood. To facilitate the use of somatic embryogenesis for mass propagation of conifers, we need a better understanding of embryo development. Comparison of both transcriptome (Illumina RNA sequencing) and proteome [two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) identification] of immature SEs, cultured on either high (9G) or low (4G) gellan gum concentration, was performed, together with analysis of water content, fresh and dry mass, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA; gas chromatography-MS), soluble sugars (high-pressure liquid chromatography), starch and confocal laser microscope observations. This multiscale, integrated analysis was used to unravel early molecular and physiological events involved in SE development. Under unfavorable conditions (4G), the glycolytic pathway was enhanced, possibly in relation to cell proliferation that may be antagonistic to SE development. Under favorable conditions (9G), SEs adapted to culture constraint by activating specific protective pathways, and ABA-mediated molecular and physiological responses promoting embryo development. Our results suggest that on 9G, germin-like protein and ubiquitin-protein ligase could be used as predictive markers of SE development, whereas protein phosphatase 2C could be a biomarker for culture adaptive responses. This is the first characterization of early molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pine SEs following an increase in gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium, and it is also the first report on somatic embryogenesis in conifers combining transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Nitric oxide is involved in light-specific responses of tomato during germination under normal and osmotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterková, Jana; Luhová, Lenka; Hofman, Jakub; Turecková, Veronika; Novák, Ondrej; Petrivalsky, Marek; Fellner, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the signalling and regulation of plant growth and development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The photoperiod-sensitive mutant 7B-1 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) showing abscisic acid (ABA) overproduction and blue light (BL)-specific tolerance to osmotic stress represents a valuable model to study the interaction between light, hormones and stress signalling. The role of NO as a regulator of seed germination and ABA-dependent responses to osmotic stress was explored in wild-type and 7B-1 tomato under white light (WL) and BL. Germination data were obtained from the incubation of seeds on germinating media of different composition. Histochemical analysis of NO production in germinating seeds was performed by fluorescence microscopy using a cell-permeable NO probe, and endogenous ABA was analysed by mass spectrometry. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione stimulated seed germination, whereas the NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) had an inhibitory effect. Under WL in both genotypes, PTIO strongly suppressed germination stimulated by fluridone, an ABA inhibitor. The stimulatory effect of the NO donor was also observed under osmotic stress for 7B-1 seeds under WL and BL. Seed germination inhibited by osmotic stress was restored by fluridone under WL, but less so under BL, in both genotypes. This effect of fluridone was further modulated by the NO donor and NO scavenger, but only to a minor extent. Fluorescence microscopy using the cell-permeable NO probe DAF-FM DA (4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate) revealed a higher level of NO in stressed 7B-1 compared with wild-type seeds. As well as defective BL signalling, the differential NO-dependent responses of the 7B-1 mutant are probably associated with its high endogenous ABA concentration and related impact on hormonal cross-talk in germinating seeds. These data confirm that light-controlled seed germination and

  19. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical

  20. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  1. First-principles investigation of the structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of Al2Cu phase under various pressure and temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinzhong; Zhao, Yuhong; Hou, Hua; Han, Peide

    2017-12-01

    The crystal structure, phase stability, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the Al2Cu (θ), Al2Cu (θ‧) and Al2Cu (Ω) phases are studied by the first-principles method. The predicted lattice constants are consistent with the available literature data. θ, θ‧ and Ω phases are thermodynamically stable, and do not undergo any phase transition under pressure. The values of B for Ω are larger than that for θ and θ‧ phases, while the values of G for θ are smaller than that for Ω and θ‧ phases. The studies also reveal that pressure can improve the elastic anisotropy of the θ, θ‧ and Ω phases. The Debye temperature, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for the phases are determined by the quasi-harmonic Debye model. Under identical conditions, the values of ΘD from high to low is in the following order: θ‧>Ω>θ. The heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for θ, θ‧ and Ω phases decrease with pressure when the temperature is kept constant. In contrast, thermal expansion coefficient α is more sensitive to any changes in pressure than any temperature change in the temperature range, 300-800 K.

  2. Lattice stabilities, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of Al3Tm and Al3Lu intermetallics under high pressure from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu-Dong, Zhang; Wei, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    The effects of high pressure on lattice stability, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of L12 structure Al3Tm and Al3Lu are studied by first-principles calculations within the VASP code. The phonon dispersion curves and density of phonon states are calculated by using the PHONONPY code. Our results agree well with the available experimental and theoretical values. The vibrational properties indicate that Al3Tm and Al3Lu keep their dynamical stabilities in L12 structure up to 100 GPa. The elastic properties and Debye temperatures for Al3Tm and Al3Lu increase with the increase of pressure. The mechanical anisotropic properties are discussed by using anisotropic indices AG, AU, AZ, and the three-dimensional (3D) curved surface of Young’s modulus. The calculated results show that Al3Tm and Al3Lu are both isotropic at 0 GPa and anisotropic under high pressure. In the present work, the sound velocities in different directions for Al3Tm and Al3Lu are also predicted under high pressure. We also calculate the thermodynamic properties and provide the relationships between thermal parameters and temperature/pressure. These results can provide theoretical support for further experimental work and industrial applications. Project supported by the Scientific Technology Plan of the Educational Department of Liaoning Province and Liaoning Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. LT2014004) and the Program for the Young Teacher Cultivation Fund of Shenyang University of Technology, China (Grant No. 005612).

  3. First Principles Study on Structure Stability and Mechanical Properties of YNi2B2C and LuNi2B2C under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pressure effects on the lattice parameters and elastic constants of the tetragonal RNi 2 B 2 C (R=Y, Lu are investigated by means of the first principles. The predicted lattice constants and elastic constants of YNi 2 B 2 C and LuNi 2 B 2 C at 0 GPa agree well with the available data. By the elastic stability criteria under isotropic pressure, it is predicted that YNi 2 B 2 C and LuNi 2 B 2 C with tetragonal structure are not mechanically stable above 93 GPa and 50 GPa, respectively. Pugh’s modulus ratio, Poisson’s ratio, Vickers hardness, elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature of YNi 2 B 2 C in the pressure range of 0–100 GPa and LuNi 2 B 2 C in the pressure range of 0-60 GPa are further investigated. It is shown that the ductility and Debye temperature of tetragonal RNi 2 B 2 C (R=Y, Lu increase with increasing pressure, and LuNi 2 B 2 C is more ductile and lower Debye temperature than YNi 2 B 2 C under different pressures.

  4. First principles calculations of structural, elastic, electronic properties of Ir{sub 3}Zr with L1{sub 2} structure under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Na; Wang, Xueye, E-mail: wxueye@xtu.edu.cn; Wan, Yali

    2015-07-15

    The effects of pressure on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of Ir{sub 3}Zr are investigated by means of the first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation and local density approximation methods. The calculated lattice parameters and elastic modulus of Ir{sub 3}Zr at zero pressure are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical results. The values of elastic constants (C{sub 11}, C{sub 12}, C{sub 44}), bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), Young modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (υ), anisotropy index (A) and Debye temperature (T{sub D}) present the linearly increasing dependences on the external pressure. Additionally, the B/G values exhibit an upward trend with increasing pressure, which means that higher pressure can improve its ductility. Ir{sub 3}Zr exhibits a brittle characteristic at zero pressure. When the pressure reaches 10 GPa, the Cauchy pressure and B/G value show ductile feature. In addition, the pressure-dependence behavior of density of states, Mulliken charge and bond length are analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The elastic and electronic properties of Ir{sub 3}Zr under pressure are investigated. • The elastic constants, elastic moduli increase with the pressure increasing. • When the pressure reaches 10 GPa, Ir{sub 3}Zr changes from brittle to ductile. • Ir{sub 3}Zr remains as a stable structure and no structural transition under pressure.

  5. Mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity induced by glyphosate-based herbicide in immature rat hippocampus: Involvement of glutamate excitotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, Daiane; Oliveira Cavalli, Liz Vera Lúcia de; Heinz Rieg, Carla Elise; Domingues, Juliana Tonietto; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Tasca, Carla Inês; Mena Barreto Silva, Fátima Regina; Zamoner, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Roundup ® induces Ca 2+ influx through L-VDCC and NMDA receptor activation. • The mechanisms underlying Roundup ® neurotoxicity involve glutamatergic excitotoxicity. • Kinase pathways participate in Roundup ® -induced neural toxicity. • Roundup ® alters glutamate uptake, release and metabolism in hippocampal cells. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrate that glyphosate exposure is associated with oxidative damage and neurotoxicity. Therefore, the mechanism of glyphosate-induced neurotoxic effects needs to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Roundup ® (a glyphosate-based herbicide) leads to neurotoxicity in hippocampus of immature rats following acute (30 min) and chronic (pregnancy and lactation) pesticide exposure. Maternal exposure to pesticide was undertaken by treating dams orally with 1% Roundup ® (0.38% glyphosate) during pregnancy and lactation (till 15-day-old). Hippocampal slices from 15 day old rats were acutely exposed to Roundup ® (0.00005–0.1%) during 30 min and experiments were carried out to determine whether glyphosate affects 45 Ca 2+ influx and cell viability. Moreover, we investigated the pesticide effects on oxidative stress parameters, 14 C-α-methyl-amino-isobutyric acid ( 14 C-MeAIB) accumulation, as well as glutamate uptake, release and metabolism. Results showed that acute exposure to Roundup ® (30 min) increases 45 Ca 2+ influx by activating NMDA receptors and voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels, leading to oxidative stress and neural cell death. The mechanisms underlying Roundup ® -induced neurotoxicity also involve the activation of CaMKII and ERK. Moreover, acute exposure to Roundup ® increased 3 H-glutamate released into the synaptic cleft, decreased GSH content and increased the lipoperoxidation, characterizing excitotoxicity and oxidative damage. We also observed that both acute and chronic exposure to Roundup ® decreased 3 H-glutamate uptake and

  6. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  7. Arabidopsis seed-specific vacuolar aquaporins are involved in maintaining seed longevity under the control of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhilei; Sun, Weining

    2015-08-01

    The tonoplast intrinsic proteins TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 are specifically expressed during seed maturation and localized to the seed protein storage vacuole membrane. However, the function and physiological roles of TIP3s are still largely unknown. The seed performance of TIP3 knockdown mutants was analysed using the controlled deterioration test. The tip3;1/tip3;2 double mutant was affected in seed longevity and accumulated high levels of hydrogen peroxide compared with the wild type, suggesting that TIP3s function in seed longevity. The transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) is known to be involved in seed desiccation tolerance and seed longevity. TIP3 transcript and protein levels were significantly reduced in abi3-6 mutant seeds. TIP3;1 and TIP3;2 promoters could be activated by ABI3 in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA) in Arabidopsis protoplasts. TIP3 proteins were detected in the protoplasts transiently expressing ABI3 and in ABI3-overexpressing seedlings when treated with ABA. Furthermore, ABI3 directly binds to the RY motif of the TIP3 promoters. Therefore, seed-specific TIP3s may help maintain seed longevity under the expressional control of ABI3 during seed maturation and are members of the ABI3-mediated seed longevity pathway together with small heat shock proteins and late embryo abundant proteins. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. New class of photocatalytic materials and a novel principle for efficient water splitting under infrared and visible light: MgB2 as unexpected example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, V G; Grigorenko, A N

    2015-11-30

    Water splitting is unanimously recognized as environment friendly, potentially low cost and renewable energy solution based on the future hydrogen economy. Especially appealing is photocatalytic water splitting whereby a suitably chosen catalyst dramatically improves efficiency of the hydrogen production driven by direct sunlight and allows it to happen even at zero driving potential. Here, we suggest a new class of stable photocatalysts and the corresponding principle for catalytic water splitting in which infrared and visible light play the main role in producing the photocurrent and hydrogen. The new class of catalysts - ionic or covalent binary metals with layered graphite-like structures - effectively absorb visible and infrared light facilitating the reaction of water splitting, suppress the inverse reaction of ion recombination by separating ions due to internal electric fields existing near alternating layers, provide the sites for ion trapping of both polarities, and finally deliver the electrons and holes required to generate hydrogen and oxygen gases. As an example, we demonstrate conversion efficiency of ~27% at bias voltage Vbias = 0.5V for magnesium diboride working as a catalyst for photoinduced water splitting. We discuss its advantages over some existing materials and propose the underlying mechanism of photocatalytic water splitting by binary layered metals.

  9. First-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of cubic InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} ternary alloys under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattabi, I. [Ibn Khaldoun Univ. de Tiaret (Algeria). Lab. Synthese et Catalyse; Abdiche, A.; Riane, R. [Sidi-bel-Abbes Univ. (Algeria). Applied Materials Lab.; Moussa, R. [Sidi-bel-Abbes Univ. (Algeria). Physic Dept.; Hadji, K. [Ibn Khaldoun Univ. de Tiaret (Algeria). Science and Technology Dept.; Soyalp, F. [Yuezuencue Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Varshney, Dinesh [Devi Ahilya Univ., Indore (India). Materials Science Lab.; Syrotyuk, S.V. [National Univ. ' Lviv Polytechnic' , Lviv (Ukraine). Semiconductor Electronics Dept.; Khenata, R. [Mascara Univ. (Algeria). Lab. de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M)

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present results of the first-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the InN, InP binary compounds and their related ternary alloy InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} in the zinc-blend (ZB) phase within a nonrelativistic full potential linearised augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method using Wien2k code based on the density functional theory (DFT). Different approximations of exchange-correlation energy were used for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Whereas the lattice constant decreases with increasing nitride composition x. Our results present a good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. The electronic band structures calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) approach present a direct band gap semiconductor character for InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} compounds at different x values. The electronic properties were also calculated under hydrostatic pressure for (P=0.00, 5.00, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 GPa) where it is found that the InP compound change from direct to indirect band gap at the pressure P≥7.80 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure effect on the dielectric function and the refractive index was carried out. Results obtained in our calculations present a good agreement with available theoretical reports and experimental data.

  10. First-Principle Study of the Structural, Electronic, and Optical Properties of Cubic InNxP1-x Ternary Alloys under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattabi, I.; Abdiche, A.; Moussa, R.; Riane, R.; Hadji, K.; Soyalp, F.; Varshney, Dinesh; Syrotyuk, S. V.; Khenata, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we present results of the first-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the InN, InP binary compounds and their related ternary alloy InNxP1-x in the zinc-blend (ZB) phase within a nonrelativistic full potential linearised augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method using Wien2k code based on the density functional theory (DFT). Different approximations of exchange-correlation energy were used for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Whereas the lattice constant decreases with increasing nitride composition x. Our results present a good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. The electronic band structures calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) approach present a direct band gap semiconductor character for InNxP1-x compounds at different x values. The electronic properties were also calculated under hydrostatic pressure for (P=0.00, 5.00, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 GPa) where it is found that the InP compound change from direct to indirect band gap at the pressure P≥7.80 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure effect on the dielectric function and the refractive index was carried out. Results obtained in our calculations present a good agreement with available theoretical reports and experimental data.

  11. ERK1/2 pathway is involved in renal gluconeogenesis inhibition under conditions of lowered NADPH oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarska, Katarzyna; Jarzyna, Robert; Dzik, Jolanta M; Jagielski, Adam K; Grabowski, Michal; Nowosielska, Agata; Focht, Dorota; Sierakowski, Bartosz

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis occurring under conditions of lowered activity of NADPH oxidase (Nox), the enzyme considered to be one of the main sources of reactive oxygen species in kidneys. The in vitro experiments were performed on primary cultures of rat renal proximal tubules, with the use of apocynin, a selective Nox inhibitor, and TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), a potent superoxide radical scavenger. In the in vivo experiments, Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a well established model of diabetes type 2, were treated with apocynin solution in drinking water. The main in vitro findings are the following: (1) both apocynin and TEMPOL attenuate the rate of gluconeogenesis, inhibiting the step catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a key enzyme of the process; (2) in the presence of the above-noted compounds the expression of PEPCK and the phosphorylation of transcription factor CREB and ERK1/2 kinases are lowered; (3) both U0126 (MEK inhibitor) and 3-(2-aminoethyl)-5-((4-ethoxyphenyl)methylene)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (ERK inhibitor) diminish the rate of glucose synthesis via mechanisms similar to those of apocynin and TEMPOL. The observed apocynin in vivo effects include: (1) slight attenuation of hyperglycemia; (2) inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis; (3) a decrease in renal PEPCK activity and content. In view of the results summarized above, it can be concluded that: (1) the lowered activity of the ERK1/2 pathway is of importance for the inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis found under conditions of lowered superoxide radical production by Nox; (2) the mechanism of this phenomenon includes decreased PEPCK expression, resulting from diminished activity of transcription factor CREB; (3) apocynin-evoked inhibition of renal gluconeogenesis contributes to the hypoglycemic action of this compound observed in diabetic animals. Thus, the study has

  12. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Mehić, Bakir

    2011-01-01

    A major requirement both of national and international ethical codes for human experimentation, and of national legislation in many cases, is that new substances or devices should not be used for the first time on human beings unless previous tests on animals have provided a reasonable presumption of their safety. That is so called: Good Clinical Praxis (GCP). There are two international ethical codes intended principally for the guidance of countries or institutions that have not yet formula...

  13. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  14. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  15. Mach's Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that allows one to write down the laws of motion and arrive at the concept of inertia is somehow intimately re- lated to the background of distant parts of the universe. This argument is known as `Mach's principle' and we will analyse its implications further. When expressed in the framework of the absolute space,. Newton's ...

  16. Safety Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grinenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.

  17. Can one do good medical ethics without principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The criteria for determining what it is to do good medical ethics are the quality of ethical analysis and ethical justifications for decisions and actions. Justifications for decisions and actions rely on ethical principles, be they the 'famous four' or subsidiary ethical principles relevant to specific contexts. Examples from clinical ethics, research ethics and public health ethics reveal that even when not stated explicitly, principles are involved in ethical justifications. Principles may come into conflict, however, and the resolution of an ethical dilemma requires providing good reasons for preferring one principle over another. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of ideal Fermi gases in a harmonic potential in an n-dimensional space under the generalized uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heling; Ren, Jinxiu; Wang, Wenwei; Yang, Bin; Shen, Hongjun

    2018-02-01

    Using the semi-classical (Thomas-Fermi) approximation, the thermodynamic properties of ideal Fermi gases in a harmonic potential in an n-dimensional space are studied under the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The mean particle number, internal energy, heat capacity and other thermodynamic variables of the Fermi system are calculated analytically. Then, analytical expressions of the mean particle number, internal energy, heat capacity, chemical potential, Fermi energy, ground state energy and amendments of the GUP are obtained at low temperatures. The influence of both the GUP and the harmonic potential on the thermodynamic properties of a copper-electron gas and other systems with higher electron densities are studied numerically at low temperatures. We find: (1) When the GUP is considered, the influence of the harmonic potential is very much larger, and the amendments produced by the GUP increase by eight to nine orders of magnitude compared to when no external potential is applied to the electron gas. (2) The larger the particle density, or the smaller the particle masses, the bigger the influence of the GUP. (3) The effect of the GUP increases with the increase in the spatial dimensions. (4) The amendments of the chemical potential, Fermi energy and ground state energy increase with an increase in temperature, while the heat capacity decreases. T F0 is the Fermi temperature of the ideal Fermi system in a harmonic potential. When the temperature is lower than a certain value (0.22 times T F0 for the copper-electron gas, and this value decreases with increasing electron density), the amendment to the internal energy is positive, however, the amendment decreases with increasing temperature. When the temperature increases to the value, the amendment is zero, and when the temperature is higher than the value, the amendment to the internal energy is negative and the absolute value of the amendment increases with increasing temperature. (5) When electron

  19. 8 CFR 208.31 - Reasonable fear of persecution or torture determinations involving aliens ordered removed under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Immigration Judge, for full consideration of the request for withholding of removal only. Such.... Appeal of the immigration judge's decision shall lie to the Board of Immigration Appeals. (f) Removal of...) The immigration judge shall consider only the alien's application for withholding of removal under...

  20. Zymography Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.

  1. Electric Car Users’ Time of Charging Problem under Peak Load Pricing When Delay in Charging Time Involves Uncertain Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie

    ). Peak load pricing (PLP) is an attempt to shift demand, or consumption of the good, to accommodate supply. While peak load problem and PLP are well documented in the literature, this paper, to the authors’ knowledge, is the first to analyze the EV users time of charg- ing decision problem under PLP...... such as electricity, transport (con- gestion), water and telecommunication. Linear and non-linear peak load pricing alternatives have been suggested to curb this problem, particularly when demand is cyclical (Mohsenian-Rad and Leon-Garcia, 2010; Tan and Varaiya, 1993; Chao et al., 1986; Finsinger; Roberts, 1979...... the battery becomes flat (which usually occurs when EV users return back to home from work at which energy consumption is also at its peak, and thus worsen the peak load problem) under uniform pricing of electricity even when they do not have planned trips. 2) Unless either the duration of time at which...

  2. Evolutionary principles and their practical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology. PMID:25567966

  3. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  4. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wesseling, Pieter

    2001-01-01

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state-of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and ho...

  5. Electric Car Users’ Time of Charging Problem under Peak Load Pricing When Delay in Charging Time Involves Uncertain Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie

    such as electricity, transport (con- gestion), water and telecommunication. Linear and non-linear peak load pricing alternatives have been suggested to curb this problem, particularly when demand is cyclical (Mohsenian-Rad and Leon-Garcia, 2010; Tan and Varaiya, 1993; Chao et al., 1986; Finsinger; Roberts, 1979......). Peak load pricing (PLP) is an attempt to shift demand, or consumption of the good, to accommodate supply. While peak load problem and PLP are well documented in the literature, this paper, to the authors’ knowledge, is the first to analyze the EV users time of charg- ing decision problem under PLP...

  6. Bone marrow involvement in Gaucher disease at MRI: what long-term evolution can we expect under enzyme replacement therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedida, Benjamin; Touraine, Sebastien; Laredo, Jean-Denis [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Paris (France); Stirnemann, Jerome [Universite Paris-Diderot Hopital Bichat, AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Data Processing, INSERM UMR 738, Paris (France); Geneva University Hospital, Division of General Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Belmatoug, Nadia [Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Referral Center for Lysosomal Diseases (RCLD), Clichy (France); Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Department of Internal Medicine, Clichy (France); Petrover, David [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Paris (France); Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Referral Center for Lysosomal Diseases (RCLD), Clichy (France)

    2015-10-15

    To study the long-term evolution of the bone marrow burden (BMB) score at MRI in patients with Gaucher disease (GD) under enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Forty patients treated for GD were retrospectively studied in a referral centre. BMB scores were assessed on spine and femur MR examinations performed between January 2003 and June 2014. The long-term evolution of the BMB scores was analyzed using a linear mixed model. A total of 121 MRI examinations were performed during the study period with a mean follow-up of 7.1 years ± 5.6, an average rate of 3.1 MR examinations ± 1.7 per patient and an interval of 2.3 years ± 1.1 between examinations. Patients had received ERT during 12 years on average ± 6.7. The trend of BMB scores with time decreased significantly by 15 % (P = 0.008) during the total study period and 39 % (P = 0.01) during the first 5 years of treatment. No changes in BMB scores were observed after five years of treatment. In Gaucher patients, the trend of MRI BMB scores with time decreased significantly under ERT the first 5 years of treatment before a long-term stabilization. (orig.)

  7. Gamescape Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    developed by Buckingham. It supplements and extends this framework by offering a more detailed account of how visual principles and elements in games can be analysed. In developing this visual grammar we draw theoretically on existing approaches within: the arts, history, film study, semiotics, multimodal...... analysis, and game studies. We illustrate the theoretical and analytical framework by analysing samples of screenshots and video clips collected from the online game “World of Warcraft” (WoW) where we have conducted our online research. The research data is supplemented by ethnographic data (observation......This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framework...

  8. Expression profiling of Crambe abyssinica under arsenate stress identifies genes and gene networks involved in arsenic metabolism and detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Suganthi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic contamination is widespread throughout the world and this toxic metalloid is known to cause cancers of organs such as liver, kidney, skin, and lung in human. In spite of a recent surge in arsenic related studies, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of arsenic uptake, detoxification, and sequestration in plants. Crambe abyssinica, commonly known as 'abyssinian mustard', is a non-food, high biomass oil seed crop that is naturally tolerant to heavy metals. Moreover, it accumulates significantly higher levels of arsenic as compared to other species of the Brassicaceae family. Thus, C. abyssinica has great potential to be utilized as an ideal inedible crop for phytoremediation of heavy metals and metalloids. However, the mechanism of arsenic metabolism in higher plants, including C. abyssinica, remains elusive. Results To identify the differentially expressed transcripts and the pathways involved in arsenic metabolism and detoxification, C. abyssinica plants were subjected to arsenate stress and a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization (SSH approach was employed. A total of 105 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced which were found to represent 38 genes. Those genes encode proteins functioning as antioxidants, metal transporters, reductases, enzymes involved in the protein degradation pathway, and several novel uncharacterized proteins. The transcripts corresponding to the subtracted cDNAs showed strong upregulation by arsenate stress as confirmed by the semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusions Our study revealed novel insights into the plant defense mechanisms and the regulation of genes and gene networks in response to arsenate toxicity. The differential expression of transcripts encoding glutathione-S-transferases, antioxidants, sulfur metabolism, heat-shock proteins, metal transporters, and enzymes in the ubiquitination pathway of protein degradation as well as several unknown

  9. Regulation of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation by GSK-3β involves epigenetic modifications under high glucose conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chanchal; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a critical risk factor for development and progression of breast cancer. We have recently reported that high glucose induces phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 as well as de-phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser 9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Here, we elucidate the mechanism underlying hyperglycemia-induced proliferation in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We provide evidence that hyperglycemia led to increased DNA methylation and DNMT1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. High glucose condition led to significant increase in the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and decrease in the expression of PTPN 12, p21 and PTEN. It also induced hypermethylation of DNA at the promoter region of PTPN 12, whereas hypomethylation at Vimentin and Snail. Silencing of GSK-3β by siRNA prevented histone H3 phosphorylation and reduced DNMT1 expression. We show that chromatin obtained after immunoprecipitation with phospho-histone H3 was hypermethylated under high glucose condition, which indicates a cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone H3 phosphorylation. ChIP-qPCR analysis revealed up-regulation of DNMT1 and metastatic genes viz. Vimentin, Snail and MMP-7 by phospho-histone H3, which were down-regulated upon GSK-3β silencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that interplay between GSK-3β activation, histone H3 phosphorylation and DNA methylation directs proliferation of breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • High glucose induces phosphorylation of histone H3 and dephosphorylation of GSK-3β. • Moreover, hyperglycemia also leads to increased DNA methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells. • Inhibition of GSK-3β prevented histone H3 phosphorylation and reduced DNMT1 levels. • Interplay exists between GSK-3β, histone H3 phosphorylation and DNA methylation

  10. Regulation of MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation by GSK-3β involves epigenetic modifications under high glucose conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Chanchal; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan, E-mail: tikoo.k@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Hyperglycemia is a critical risk factor for development and progression of breast cancer. We have recently reported that high glucose induces phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser 10 as well as de-phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser 9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Here, we elucidate the mechanism underlying hyperglycemia-induced proliferation in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We provide evidence that hyperglycemia led to increased DNA methylation and DNMT1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. High glucose condition led to significant increase in the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and decrease in the expression of PTPN 12, p21 and PTEN. It also induced hypermethylation of DNA at the promoter region of PTPN 12, whereas hypomethylation at Vimentin and Snail. Silencing of GSK-3β by siRNA prevented histone H3 phosphorylation and reduced DNMT1 expression. We show that chromatin obtained after immunoprecipitation with phospho-histone H3 was hypermethylated under high glucose condition, which indicates a cross-talk between DNA methylation and histone H3 phosphorylation. ChIP-qPCR analysis revealed up-regulation of DNMT1 and metastatic genes viz. Vimentin, Snail and MMP-7 by phospho-histone H3, which were down-regulated upon GSK-3β silencing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which shows that interplay between GSK-3β activation, histone H3 phosphorylation and DNA methylation directs proliferation of breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • High glucose induces phosphorylation of histone H3 and dephosphorylation of GSK-3β. • Moreover, hyperglycemia also leads to increased DNA methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells. • Inhibition of GSK-3β prevented histone H3 phosphorylation and reduced DNMT1 levels. • Interplay exists between GSK-3β, histone H3 phosphorylation and DNA methylation.

  11. Ethylene promotes germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity by decreasing reactive oxygen species: evidence for the involvement of nitric oxide simulated by sodium nitroprusside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingchao; Yang, Lei; Paul, Matthew; Zu, Yuangang; Tang, Zhonghua

    2013-12-01

    Both ethylene and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in modulating seed germination in adverse environments. However, the mechanisms by which they interact and affect germination have not been explained. In this study, the relationship between ethylene and NO during germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity was analysed. Application of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC, a precursor of ethylene biosynthesis) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor) largely overcame the inhibition of germination induced by salinity. The effects of ACC and SNP were decreased by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), a specific NO scavenger, or by aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, indicating that ethylene and NO interact during germination under salinity. Further, we demonstrated that ACC increased NO production and that SNP greatly induced the expression of the ACS2 gene involved in ethylene synthesis in Arabidopsis seeds germinating under salinity stress, suggesting that each substance influences the production of the other. Application of exogenous ACC increased germination under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) while SNP had a much smaller effect on wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0) and no effect on the ethylene insensitive mutant (ein3-1) seeds, respectively. This shows that NO increased germination under salinity indirectly through H2O2 acting via the ethylene pathway. The endogenous concentration of H2O2 was increased by salinity in germinating seeds but was decreased by exogenous ACC, which stimulated germination ultimately. To explain all these results and the regulation of germination of Arabidopsis seed under salinity we propose a model involving ethylene, NO and H2O2 interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased de novo riboflavin synthesis and hydrolysis of FMN are involved in riboflavin secretion from Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Higa, Ataru; Khandakar, Jebunnahar; Mori, Yuko; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under Fe deficiency was examined to determine where riboflavin is produced and whether production occurs via an enhancement of riboflavin biosynthesis or a stimulation of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) hydrolysis. Confocal fluorescent microscopy showed that riboflavin was mainly localized in the epidermis and cortex of the root tip and, at the cellular level, in the apoplast. The expressions of three genes involved in the de novo biosynthesis ...

  13. Le Chatelier's Principle, Temperature Effects, and Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Arthur

    1985-01-01

    One of the most useful methods of understanding chemical equilibria is provided by Le Chatelier's principle. The relationships between this principle, temperature, and entropy are discussed. Tables with thermodynamic data for some net reactions commonly used to illustrate the principle and for reactions involving gases are included. (JN)

  14. Gesture & Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2017-01-01

    The development of architecture is governed by an increasing gap between the experienced quality of architectural space, manifest as a sense of interiority on behalf of the user, and the means applied in its realization. Between means and ends, one could say, which calls for a continuous...... and critical development of architectural method. By method, I mean a systematic series of steps taken to acquire knowledge about an architectural problem. As the building industry and the actual construction of architecture is becoming ever more complex moving from craft over industrialization through...... to integration of digital technologies, the mentioned gap is becoming present in the processes and models of collaborations between the multiple parties involved in the realization of architecture, as well as in the work itself. This, as an increase of construction layers, installations and equipment tending...

  15. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been......This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...

  16. Reducing repeat pregnancies in adolescence: applying realist principles as part of a mixed-methods systematic review to explore what works, for whom, how and under what circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Joanna M; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Aslam, Rabeea'h; Hendry, Maggie; Pasterfield, Diana; Whitaker, Rhiannon

    2016-09-20

    Previous research has demonstrated emotional, psychological and educational harm to young mothers following unintended conceptions. The UK has one of the highest rates of pregnancies in adolescence in Western Europe with a high proportion of these being repeat pregnancies, making it a topic of interest for public health policy makers, and health and social care practitioners. As part of a wider mixed-methods systematic review, realist principles were applied to synthesise evidence about interventions aiming to reduce repeat pregnancies in adolescence. A multi-streamed, mixed-methods systematic review was conducted searching 11 major electronic databases and 9 additional databases from 1995 onwards, using key terms such as pregnancy, teen or adolescent. The principles of realist synthesis were applied to all included literature to uncover theories about what works, for whom, how and in what context. Initial theory areas were developed through evidence scoping, group discussion by the authors and stakeholder engagement to uncover context + mechanism = outcome (CMO) configurations and related narratives. The searches identified 8,664 documents initially, and 403 in repeat searches, filtering to 81 included studies, including qualitative studies, randomised controlled trials, quantitative studies and grey literature. Three CMO configurations were developed. The individual experiences of young mothers' triggered self-efficacy, notions of perceived risks, susceptibility and benefits of pregnancy, resulting in the adolescent taking control of their fertility and sexual encounters. The choice between motherhood and other goals triggered notions of motivations, resulting in the adolescent managing their expectations of motherhood and controlling their fertility and sexual encounters. Barriers and facilitators to accessing services triggered notions of connectedness and self-determination; resulting in interventions that are tailored so they are relevant to young

  17. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In all exemption determinations, the agency must observe the following principles: (a) Each employee is presumed to...

  18. 24 CFR 3282.402 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 3282.402... and Remedial Actions § 3282.402 General principles. (a) Nothing in this subpart or in these... manufactured home manufacturers to provide remedial actions under this subpart is limited by the principle that...

  19. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  20. Structural phases arising from reconstructive and isostructural transitions in high-melting-point oxides under hydrostatic pressure: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hao; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Mao, Ai-Jie; Yang, Yurong; Xu, Changsong; Sayedaghaee, S. Omid; Bellaiche, L.

    2018-01-01

    High-melting-point oxides of chemical formula A B O3 with A =Ca , Sr, Ba and B =Zr , Hf are investigated as a function of hydrostatic pressure up to 200 GPa by combining first-principles calculations with a particle swarm optimization method. Ca- and Sr-based systems: (1) first undergo a reconstructive phase transition from a perovskite state to a novel structure that belongs to the post-post-perovskite family and (2) then experience an isostructural transition to a second, also new post-post-perovskite state at higher pressures, via the sudden formation of a specific out-of-plane B -O bond. In contrast, the studied Ba compounds evolve from a perovskite phase to a third novel post-post-perovskite structure via another reconstructive phase transition. The original characteristics of these three different post-post-perovskite states are emphasized. Unusual electronic properties, including significant piezochromic effects and an insulator-metal transition, are also reported and explained.

  1. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  2. Aquaporin-mediated increase in root hydraulic conductance is involved in silicon-induced improved root water uptake under osmotic stress in Sorghum bicolor L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yin, Lina; Deng, Xiping; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Zhang, Suiqi

    2014-09-01

    The fact that silicon application alleviates water deficit stress has been widely reported, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here the effects of silicon on water uptake and transport of sorghum seedlings (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing under polyethylene glycol-simulated osmotic stress in hydroponic culture and water deficit stress in sand culture were investigated. Osmotic stress dramatically decreased dry weight, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and leaf water content, but silicon application reduced these stress-induced decreases. Although silicon application had no effect on stem water transport capacity, whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kplant) and root hydraulic conductance (Lp) were higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in those without silicon treatment under osmotic stress. Furthermore, the extent of changes in transpiration rate was similar to the changes in Kplant and Lp. The contribution of aquaporin to Lp was characterized using the aquaporin inhibitor mercury. Under osmotic stress, the exogenous application of HgCl2 decreased the transpiration rates of seedlings with and without silicon to the same level; after recovery induced by dithiothreitol (DTT), however, the transpiration rate was higher in silicon-treated seedlings than in untreated seedlings. In addition, transcription levels of several root aquaporin genes were increased by silicon application under osmotic stress. These results indicate that the silicon-induced up-regulation of aquaporin, which was thought to increase Lp, was involved in improving root water uptake under osmotic stress. This study also suggests that silicon plays a modulating role in improving plant resistance to osmotic stress in addition to its role as a mere physical barrier. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  4. Nitric oxide is involved in integration of UV-B absorbing compounds among parts of clonal plants under a heterogeneous UV-B environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Qian; Yue, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Ming

    2014-11-26

    In nature, ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is highly heterogeneous, both spatially and temporally. Plants exposed to UV-B radiation produce UV-B absorbing compounds that function as a protective filter. For clonal plants under heterogeneous UV-B radiation conditions, integration among ramets can allow irradiated ramets to benefit un-irradiated ramets by causing them to increase their UV-B absorbing compounds content. In this study, we evaluated integration between pairs of clonal ramets of Glechoma longituba under heterogeneous or homogeneous UV-B conditions. We determined the levels of UV-B absorbing compounds, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and measured the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in connected ramet pairs under homogeneous or heterogeneous UV-B conditions. Under heterogeneous UV-B conditions, the UV-B absorbing compounds content increased in leaves of irradiated and un-irradiated ramets, but not in the connecting stolons. The NO content increased in irradiated and un-irradiated leaves and stolons, but the H 2 O 2 content did not. Application of NO synthesis inhibitors and an NO blocker to irradiated ramets blocked the increase in UV-B absorbing compounds and PAL activity in un-irradiated ramets. These results suggested that NO is involved in the integration process for UV-B absorbing compounds among ramets. Our findings suggested that a UV-B-induced increase in NO transmits a signal to un-irradiated ramets via the stolon, leading to an increase in PAL activity and UV-B absorbing compounds content. The internal translocation of signal enables members of clonal networks to function as a whole unit and to mount an efficient defensive response to localized UV-B radiation. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Involvement of the histamine H4 receptor in clozapine-induced hematopoietic toxicity: Vulnerability under granulocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Aya; Mouri, Akihiro; Nagai, Tomoko; Yoshimi, Akira; Ukigai, Mako; Tsubai, Tomomi; Hida, Hirotake; Ozaki, Norio; Noda, Yukihiro

    2016-09-01

    Clozapine is an effective antipsychotic for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but can cause fatal hematopoietic toxicity as agranulocytosis. To elucidate the mechanism of hematopoietic toxicity induced by clozapine, we developed an in vitro assay system using HL-60 cells, and investigated the effect on hematopoiesis. HL-60 cells were differentiated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) into three states according to the following hematopoietic process: undifferentiated HL-60 cells, those undergoing granulocytic ATRA-differentiation, and ATRA-differentiated granulocytic cells. Hematopoietic toxicity was evaluated by analyzing cell survival, cell proliferation, granulocytic differentiation, apoptosis, and necrosis. In undifferentiated HL-60 cells and ATRA-differentiated granulocytic cells, both clozapine (50 and 100μM) and doxorubicin (0.2µM) decreased the cell survival rate, but olanzapine (1-100µM) did not. Under granulocytic differentiation for 5days, clozapine, even at a concentration of 25μM, decreased survival without affecting granulocytic differentiation, increased caspase activity, and caused apoptosis rather than necrosis. Histamine H4 receptor mRNA was expressed in HL-60 cells, whereas the expression decreased under granulocytic ATRA-differentiation little by little. Both thioperamide, a histamine H4 receptor antagonist, and DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor, exerted protection against clozapine-induced survival rate reduction, but not of live cell counts. 4-Methylhistamine, a histamine H4 receptor agonist, decreased the survival rate and live cell counts, as did clozapine. HL-60 cells under granulocytic differentiation are vulnerable under in vitro assay conditions to hematopoietic toxicity induced by clozapine. Histamine H4 receptor is involved in the development of clozapine-induced hematopoietic toxicity through apoptosis, and may be a potential target for preventing its occurrence through granulocytic differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  6. The guiding principles of the IRPA on the involvement of interested parties (Stake holders) in the management of radiation protection; Los principios orientativos de la IRPA sobre la implicacion de las partes interesadas (Stakeholders) en la gestion de la proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, L.; Carboneras, P.; Gallego, E.; Garcia, A.; Rodriguez, M.

    2011-07-01

    There is general consensus that the effective and well structured involvement of interested parties (stake holders) improves the quality of decision making and can achieve more effective and sustainable decisions that generate greater confidence among people and groups affected. The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) could not remain indifferent to this issue and has prepared a document of guiding principles for consideration, recommends to its members.

  7. Progress in classical and quantum variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C G; Karl, G; Novikov, V A

    2004-01-01

    We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler-Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are also derived for both the generalized Maupertuis and the Hamilton principles. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle is the classical limit of Schroedinger's variational principle of wave mechanics and is also very useful to solve practical problems in both classical and semiclassical mechanics, in complete analogy with the quantum Rayleigh-Ritz method. Classical, semiclassical and quantum variational calculations are carried out for a number of systems, and the results are compared. Pedagogical as well as research problems are used as examples, which include nonconservative as well as relativistic systems. '... the most beautiful and important discovery of Mechanics.' Lagrange to Maupertuis (November 1756)

  8. Designing Aquatic Exercise Programs--Three Guiding Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sue W.; Landis, Larry M.

    1989-01-01

    Three guiding principles provide the planner of aquatic exercise programs with a model that helps to ensure an effective program: principles of resource availability and allocation; the principle of fit, which involves matching instructor leadership style with program objectives; and the principle of attitude and perception modification. (IAH)

  9. Learning Bounds of ERM Principle for Sequences of Time-Dependent Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchen Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many generalization results in learning theory are established under the assumption that samples are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.. However, numerous learning tasks in practical applications involve the time-dependent data. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework to analyze the generalization performance of the empirical risk minimization (ERM principle for sequences of time-dependent samples (TDS. In particular, we first present the generalization bound of ERM principle for TDS. By introducing some auxiliary quantities, we also give a further analysis of the generalization properties and the asymptotical behaviors of ERM principle for TDS.

  10. Hooke's Law: Applications of a Recurring Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; Palani, Gurunanthan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Students generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenomena that share few underlying principles. However, if students recognized that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena, they may gain a more unified understanding of physiological systems. To address this concern, we…

  11. Climate Twins - a tool to explore future climate impacts by assessing real world conditions: Exploration principles, underlying data, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Wolfgang; Peters-Anders, Jan; Züger, Johann

    2010-05-01

    To achieve public awareness and thorough understanding about expected climate changes and their future implications, ways have to be found to communicate model outputs to the public in a scientifically sound and easily understandable way. The newly developed Climate Twins tool tries to fulfil these requirements via an intuitively usable web application, which compares spatial patterns of current climate with future climate patterns, derived from regional climate model results. To get a picture of the implications of future climate in an area of interest, users may click on a certain location within an interactive map with underlying future climate information. A second map depicts the matching Climate Twin areas according to current climate conditions. In this way scientific output can be communicated to the public which allows for experiencing climate change through comparison with well-known real world conditions. To identify climatic coincidence seems to be a simple exercise, but the accuracy and applicability of the similarity identification depends very much on the selection of climate indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges. Too many indicators representing various climate characteristics and too narrow uncertainty ranges will judge little or no area as regions with similar climate, while too little indicators and too wide uncertainty ranges will address too large regions as those with similar climate which may not be correct. Similarity cannot be just explored by comparing mean values or by calculating correlation coefficients. As climate change triggers an alteration of various indicators, like maxima, minima, variation magnitude, frequency of extreme events etc., the identification of appropriate similarity conditions is a crucial question to be solved. For Climate Twins identification, it is necessary to find a right balance of indicators, similarity conditions and uncertainty ranges, unless the results will be too vague conducting a

  12. First principle study on the electronic properties and Schottky contact of graphene adsorbed on MoS2 monolayer under applied out-plane strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuc, Huynh V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.; Hoi, Bui D.; Phuong, Le T. T.; Nguyen, Chuong V.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, electronic properties and Schottky contact of graphene adsorbed on the MoS2 monolayer under applied out-plane strain are studied using density functional theory calculations. Our calculations show that weak van derpp Waals interactions between graphene and monolayer MoS2 are dominated at the interlayer distance of 3.34 Å and the binding energy per C atom of - 25.1 meV. A narrow band gap of 3.6 meV has opened in G/MoS2 heterointerface, and it can be modulated by the out-plane strain. Furthermore, the Schottky barrier and Schottky contact types in the G/MoS2 heterointerface can be controlled by the out-plane strain. At the equilibrium state (d = 3.34 Å), the intrinsic electronic structure of G/MoS2 heterointerface is well preserved and forms an n-type Schottky barrier of 0.49 eV. When the interlayer distance decreases, the transition from n-type to p-type Schottky contact occurs at d = 2.74 Å. Our studies promote the application of ultrathin G/MoS2 heterointerface in the next-generation nanoelectronic and photonic devices such as van-der-Waals-based field effect transistors.

  13. Band gap modulation of mono and bi-layer hexagonal ZnS under transverse electric field and bi-axial strain: A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, D. P.; Kaur, Sumandeep; Srivastava, Sunita

    2018-02-01

    Density functional theory has been employed to study the electronic and mechanical properties of the monolayer and bilayer ZnS. AB stacked ZnS bilayer is found to be energetically more favorable over the AA stacked ZnS bilayer. The electronic bandgap decreases on moving from monolayer to bilayer. Application of positive transverse electric field in AA/AB stacked bilayers leads to a semiconductor to metal transition at 1.10 V/Å. Reversed polarity of electric field, on the other hand, leads to an asymmetric behavior of the bandgap for AB stacking while the behavior of the bandgap in AA stacking is polarity independent. The strong dependency of bandgap on polarity of electric field in AB stacked ZnS bilayer is due to the balancing of external field with the induced internal field which arises due the electronegativity and heterogeneity in the arrangements of atoms. The electronic structure varies with the variation of applied biaxial strain (compression/tensile). We report an increase in band gap in both single and double layers under compression up to -8.0%, which can be attributed to greater superposition of atomic orbitals (Zn-d and S-p hybridization). We expect that our results may stimulate more theoretical and experimental work on hexagonal multi-layers of ZnS employing external field (temperature, pressure, field etc.) for future applications of our present work.

  14. BNNTs under the influence of external electric field as potential new drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood, E-mail: d.farmanzad@umz.ac.ir; Ghazanfary, Samereh

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solvation energies show that the BNNTs/amino acids complex stabilizes in presence of solvent. • The adsorption process is sensitive to the external electric field. • The electric field is a suitable method for adsorption and storage of amino acids on BNNTs. - Abstract: The interaction of Glu (Glutamic acid), Lys (Lysine), Gly (Glycine) and Ser (Serine) amino acids with different polarities and (9, 0) zigzag single-wall boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with various lengths in the presence and absence of external electric field (EF) in gas and solvent phases, are studied using density functional theory. It is found that interaction of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids with BNNTs in both phases is energetically favorable. From solvation energy calculations, it can be seen that the BNNTs/amino acid complex dissolution in water is spontaneous. The adsorption energies and quantum molecular descriptors changed in the presence of external EF. Therefore, the study of BNNTs/amino acid complex under influence of external electric field is very important in proposing or designing new drug delivery systems in the presence of external EF. Results indicate that Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids can be adsorbed considerably on the BNNTs in the existence of external electric field. Our results showed that the BNNTs can act as a suitable drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids within biological systems and strength of adsorption and rate of drug release can be controlled by the external EF.

  15. BNNTs under the influence of external electric field as potential new drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood; Ghazanfary, Samereh

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solvation energies show that the BNNTs/amino acids complex stabilizes in presence of solvent. • The adsorption process is sensitive to the external electric field. • The electric field is a suitable method for adsorption and storage of amino acids on BNNTs. - Abstract: The interaction of Glu (Glutamic acid), Lys (Lysine), Gly (Glycine) and Ser (Serine) amino acids with different polarities and (9, 0) zigzag single-wall boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with various lengths in the presence and absence of external electric field (EF) in gas and solvent phases, are studied using density functional theory. It is found that interaction of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids with BNNTs in both phases is energetically favorable. From solvation energy calculations, it can be seen that the BNNTs/amino acid complex dissolution in water is spontaneous. The adsorption energies and quantum molecular descriptors changed in the presence of external EF. Therefore, the study of BNNTs/amino acid complex under influence of external electric field is very important in proposing or designing new drug delivery systems in the presence of external EF. Results indicate that Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids can be adsorbed considerably on the BNNTs in the existence of external electric field. Our results showed that the BNNTs can act as a suitable drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids within biological systems and strength of adsorption and rate of drug release can be controlled by the external EF

  16. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, P.

    2001-01-01

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state- of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and how to overcome it by means of slope-limited schemes is discussed. An introduction is given to efficient iterative solution methods, using Krylov subspace and multigrid acceleration. Many pointers are given to recent literature, to help the reader to quickly reach the current research frontier. (orig.)

  17. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model Involving Frequency and Threat Degree under Line-of-Business Services for Infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Hu, Hanwen; Yang, Huijun; Au, Man Ho; Li, Shuqin; Xiong, Naixue; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2017-03-21

    The prospect of Line-of-Business Services (LoBSs) for infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is exciting. Access control remains a top challenge in this scenario as the service provider's server contains a lot of valuable resources. LoBSs' users are very diverse as they may come from a wide range of locations with vastly different characteristics. Cost of joining could be low and in many cases, intruders are eligible users conducting malicious actions. As a result, user access should be adjusted dynamically. Assessing LoBSs' risk dynamically based on both frequency and threat degree of malicious operations is therefore necessary. In this paper, we proposed a Quantitative Risk Assessment Model (QRAM) involving frequency and threat degree based on value at risk. To quantify the threat degree as an elementary intrusion effort, we amend the influence coefficient of risk indexes in the network security situation assessment model. To quantify threat frequency as intrusion trace effort, we make use of multiple behavior information fusion. Under the influence of intrusion trace, we adapt the historical simulation method of value at risk to dynamically access LoBSs' risk. Simulation based on existing data is used to select appropriate parameters for QRAM. Our simulation results show that the duration influence on elementary intrusion effort is reasonable when the normalized parameter is 1000. Likewise, the time window of intrusion trace and the weight between objective risk and subjective risk can be set to 10 s and 0.5, respectively. While our focus is to develop QRAM for assessing the risk of LoBSs for infrastructure of ESNs dynamically involving frequency and threat degree, we believe it is also appropriate for other scenarios in cloud computing.

  18. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  19. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...

  20. APLICACIÓN DE LOS PRINCIPIOS DE RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL EN LAS EMPRESAS DE PARTICIPACIÓN DE MENOS DE DIEZ EMPLEADOS/APLICATION OF SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY'S PRINCIPLES IN BUSINESSES INVOLVING LESS THAN TEN EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia BENITO HERNÁNDEZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se tiende a relacionar el concepto de responsabilidad social con las grandes empresas y multinacionales, pero los principios de responsabilidad social pueden y deben integrarse en cualquier tipo de organización, incluida la microempresa. Este tipo de empresa presenta algunos atributos que la distingue de la gran empresa y de los que se derivan algunos inconvenientes a la hora de adoptar principios y políticas de responsabilidad social. Sin embargo, presenta también algunas ventajas respecto a la gran empresa, sobre las que puede apoyarse para construir políticas de responsabilidad social que influyan positivamente en su desempeño y en la gestión de sus relaciones con los diferentes agentes económicos con los que se relaciona. Este artículo identifica esos puntos fuertes y débiles y propone un marco y unas orientaciones para abordar la responsabilidad social en el seno de las empresas con menos de 10 trabajadores/We tend to associate the concept of social responsibility with large companies and multinationals, but the principles of social responsibility can and must be integrated into any organization, including micro-enterprises. This kind of company has some attributes that distinguishes them from big companies and derive some disadvantages when adopting principles and social responsibilities’ policies. However, they also present some advantages over large companies, which can be relied on in order to build social responsibility's policies that influence positively on their performance and in managing its relations with the various operators with which it relates. This article identifies those strengths and weaknesses and proposes a framework and guidelines to address social responsibility within companies with less than 10 workers

  1. O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase activity in Phragmites and Typha plants under cadmium and NaCl stress conditions and the involvement of ABA in the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuc, Erika; Lips, S Herman; Erdei, László

    2005-08-01

    The roles of O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OASTL, EC 4.2.99.8) and abscisic (ABA) acid in stress responses to NaCl and cadmium treatments were investigated in Typha latifolia L. and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel plants. OASTL activity increased under stress (25-300 microM Cd, 100mM NaCl, 1 microM ABA) in both Typha and Phragmites mainly in roots, contributing substantially to satisfy the higher demand of cysteine for adaptation and protection. The earliest significant responses in intact roots were recorded after 12-24 h of Cd treatments, but different levels of stimulation were also observed after 3 and 7 days of exposure. The OASTL activity responses of Phragmites to salinity (100mM NaCl) were higher than those of Typha. Cysteine synthesis in Typha is much higher than in Phragmites, which supports the efficiency of the thiol-metabolism-based protection shown in Typha. Exogenous ABA increased OASTL activity in both species. Cd treatments led to increased ABA levels in roots. Phragmites showed higher ABA levels compared to Typha. The increase of ABA content indicates the involvement of this phytohormone in early stress responses, while the stimulation of OASTL following the ABA application suggests that ABA has a role in an OASTL activation pathway.

  2. IL-13 may be involved in the development of CAD via different mechanisms under different conditions in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Ling-Feng; Nie, Shao-Fang; Chen, Qian-Wen; Liao, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Song; Dong, Jiang-Tao; Xie, Tian; Wang, Fan; Tang, Ting-Ting; Xia, Ni; Xu, Cheng-Qi; Zhou, Ying-Chao; Zeng, Zhi-Peng; Jiao, Jiao; Wang, Peng-Yun; Wang, Qing K; Tu, Xin; Cheng, Xiang

    2018-04-18

    Interleukin-13 (IL-13) has important functions in atherosclerosis, but its role in coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. Here, we studied the genetic role of IL-13 in CAD in a Chinese Han population using tag SNPs covering the whole IL13 gene (i.e., rs1881457, rs2069744 and rs20541) and a two-stage cohort containing 1863 CAD cases and 1841 controls. Traditional risk factors for CAD, such as age, BMI, and other factors, were used as covariates in logistic regression analysis. In the total population, we found that two haplotypes of IL13 (ATG and ATA, ordered rs1881457 C -rs2069744 T -rs20541 A ) significantly contributed to the risk of CAD with adjusted p values less than 0.05 (p adj  = 0.019 and p adj  = 0.042, respectively). In subgroup population analyses, the variant rs1881457 C was found to significantly contribute to a nearly two fold increase in the risk of CAD in men (p adj  = 0.023, OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.09-3.33). The variant rs1881457 C also significantly contributed to a nearly twofold risk of late-onset CAD (p adj  = 0.024, OR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.09-3.42). In conclusion, IL13 might be involved in CAD via different mechanisms under different conditions in the Chinese Han population.

  3. Saccharomyces genome database: underlying principles and organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight, Selina S; Balakrishnan, Rama; Christie, Karen R; Costanzo, Maria C; Dolinski, Kara; Engel, Stacia R; Feierbach, Becket; Fisk, Dianna G; Hirschman, Jodi; Hong, Eurie L; Issel-Tarver, Laurie; Nash, Robert S; Sethuraman, Anand; Starr, Barry; Theesfeld, Chandra L; Andrada, Rey; Binkley, Gail; Dong, Qing; Lane, Christopher; Schroeder, Mark; Weng, Shuai; Botstein, David; Cherry, J Michael

    2004-03-01

    A scientific database can be a powerful tool for biologists in an era where large-scale genomic analysis, combined with smaller-scale scientific results, provides new insights into the roles of genes and their products in the cell. However, the collection and assimilation of data is, in itself, not enough to make a database useful. The data must be incorporated into the database and presented to the user in an intuitive and biologically significant manner. Most importantly, this presentation must be driven by the user's point of view; that is, from a biological perspective. The success of a scientific database can therefore be measured by the response of its users - statistically, by usage numbers and, in a less quantifiable way, by its relationship with the community it serves and its ability to serve as a model for similar projects. Since its inception ten years ago, the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) has seen a dramatic increase in its usage, has developed and maintained a positive working relationship with the yeast research community, and has served as a template for at least one other database. The success of SGD, as measured by these criteria, is due in large part to philosophies that have guided its mission and organisation since it was established in 1993. This paper aims to detail these philosophies and how they shape the organisation and presentation of the database.

  4. Integrating Principles Underlying Ancestral Spirits Belief in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , associated with ancestral spirits and its use as powerful therapeutic agent for influencing behavior or lifestyle changes. Explanatory models of attachment to ancestral spirits by living descendants are first discussed, followed by a discussion ...

  5. Principles of forensic dentistry: 1. Identification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, D K

    1990-10-01

    From time to time the general dental practitioner may become involved in forensic cases, when he or she will need to be aware of the general principles involved and the increasing variety of modern techniques available. This two-part article reviews those principles and techniques. In Part 1 procedures used in identifying bodies are discussed. Part 2 will concentrate on non-accidental injury to children and analysis of bite marks, and discuss archaeological investigations.

  6. The quantum gauge principle

    CERN Document Server

    Graudenz, Dirk

    1996-01-01

    We consider the evolution of quantum fields on a classical background space-time, formulated in the language of differential geometry. Time evolution along the worldlines of observers is described by parallel transport operators in an infinite-dimensional vector bundle over the space-time manifold. The time evolution equation and the dynamical equations for the matter fields are invariant under an arbitrary local change of frames along the restriction of the bundle to the worldline of an observer, thus implementing a ``quantum gauge principle''. We derive dynamical equations for the connection and a complex scalar quantum field based on a gauge field action. In the limit of vanishing curvature of the vector bundle, we recover the standard equation of motion of a scalar field in a curved background space-time.

  7. Using Gambling to Teach Insurance Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Pingle

    2010-01-01

    A basic understanding of insurance principles is useful for making personal finance decisions and for considering public policy issues. Yet, insurance concepts tend to be less intuitive, more difficult for students to grasp, than other concepts. This paper shows how fundamental insurance principles can be taught by relating them to the principles underlying gambling, the game of roulette in particular. This approach has been used successfully with college freshmen taking macroeconomics at the...

  8. Three principles of competitive nonlinear pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Frank H. Page; Paulo Klinger Monteiro

    2002-01-01

    We make three contributions to the theory of contracting under asymmetric information. First , we establish a competitive analog to the revelation principle which we call the implementation principle. This principle provides a complete characterization of all incentive compatible, indirect contracting mechanisms in terms of contract catalogs (or menus), and allows us to conclude that in competitive contracting situations, firms in choosing their contracting strategies can restrict attention, ...

  9. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  10. Fiber optics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser, our fascination with the photon has led to one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of technology. New advances in fiber optic devices, components, and materials make it more important than ever to stay current. Comprising chapters drawn from the author's highly anticipated book Photonics: Principles and Practices, Fiber Optics: Principles and Practices offers a detailed and focused treatment for anyone in need of authoritative information on this critical area underlying photonics.Using a consistent approach, the author leads you step-by-step throug

  11. Principles and applications of tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Desmond F

    1975-01-01

    Principles and Applications of Tribology provides a mechanical engineering perspective of the fundamental understanding and applications of tribology. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 16 chapters that cover the principles of friction and different types of lubrication. Chapter 1 deals with the immense scope of tribology and the range of applications in the existing technology, and Chapter 2 is devoted entirely to the evaluation and measurement of surface texture. Chapters 3 to 5 present the fundamental concepts underlying the friction of metals, elastomers, and other material

  12. Assessing photocatalytic power of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} for solar fuel production: A first-principles study involving quasi-particle theory and dispersive forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio-Guillén, J. M., E-mail: mario.osorio@udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Espinosa-García, W. F. [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Facultad de Ingenierías, Universidad de San Buenaventura Seccional Medellín, Carrera 56C No 51-110, Medellín (Colombia); Moyses Araujo, C., E-mail: moyses.araujo@physics.uu.se [Materials Theory Division, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, S75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-09-07

    First-principles quasi-particle theory has been employed to assess catalytic power of graphitic carbon nitride, g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, for solar fuel production. A comparative study between g-h-triazine and g-h-heptazine has been carried out taking also into account van der Waals dispersive forces. The band edge potentials have been calculated using a recently developed approach where quasi-particle effects are taken into account through the GW approximation. First, it was found that the description of ground state properties such as cohesive and surface formation energies requires the proper treatment of dispersive interaction. Furthermore, through the analysis of calculated band-edge potentials, it is shown that g-h-triazine has high reductive power reaching the potential to reduce CO{sub 2} to formic acid, coplanar g-h-heptazine displays the highest thermodynamics force toward H{sub 2}O/O{sub 2} oxidation reaction, and corrugated g-h-heptazine exhibits a good capacity for both reactions. This rigorous theoretical study shows a route to further improve the catalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}.

  13. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomberg, Rene von

    2006-01-01

    Precautionary measures are provisional measures by nature, and need to be regularly reviewed when scientific information either calls for relaxation or strengthening of those measures. Within the EU context, these provisional measures do not have a prefixed 'expiry' date: one can only lift precautionary measures if scientific knowledge has progressed to a point that one would be able to translate (former) uncertainties in terms of risk and adverse effects in terms of defined, consensual levels of harm/damage. Precautionary frameworks facilitate in particular deliberation at the science/policy/society interfaces to which risk management is fully connected. Applying the precautionary principle is to be seen as a normative risk management exercise which builds upon scientific risk assessments. An ongoing scientific and normative deliberation at the science/policy interface involves a shift in science centred debates on the probability of risks towards a science informed debate on uncertainties and plausible adverse effects: this means that decisions should not only be based on available data but on a broad scientific knowledge base including a variety of scientific disciplines. The invocation, implementation and application of the precautionary principle follows a progressive line of different levels of deliberations (which obviously can be interconnected to each other but are distinguished here for analytical purposes). I have listed these levels of deliberation in a table. The table provides a model for guiding all the relevant normative levels of deliberation which are all needed in order to eventually make the legitimate conclusions on the acceptability of products or processes. The table provides a progressive line of those levels of deliberations from the initial invocation of the precautionary principle at the political level down to level of risk management decisions but at the same time show their inter relatedness. Although the table may suggest a particular

  14. The normative basis of the Precautionary Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomberg, Rene von [European Commission, Directorate General for Research, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    Precautionary measures are provisional measures by nature, and need to be regularly reviewed when scientific information either calls for relaxation or strengthening of those measures. Within the EU context, these provisional measures do not have a prefixed 'expiry' date: one can only lift precautionary measures if scientific knowledge has progressed to a point that one would be able to translate (former) uncertainties in terms of risk and adverse effects in terms of defined, consensual levels of harm/damage. Precautionary frameworks facilitate in particular deliberation at the science/policy/society interfaces to which risk management is fully connected. Applying the precautionary principle is to be seen as a normative risk management exercise which builds upon scientific risk assessments. An ongoing scientific and normative deliberation at the science/policy interface involves a shift in science centred debates on the probability of risks towards a science informed debate on uncertainties and plausible adverse effects: this means that decisions should not only be based on available data but on a broad scientific knowledge base including a variety of scientific disciplines. The invocation, implementation and application of the precautionary principle follows a progressive line of different levels of deliberations (which obviously can be interconnected to each other but are distinguished here for analytical purposes). I have listed these levels of deliberation in a table. The table provides a model for guiding all the relevant normative levels of deliberation which are all needed in order to eventually make the legitimate conclusions on the acceptability of products or processes. The table provides a progressive line of those levels of deliberations from the initial invocation of the precautionary principle at the political level down to level of risk management decisions but at the same time show their inter relatedness. Although the table may suggest a

  15. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  16. Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses to Identify Pathways Involved in Nanoparticle Generation in the Ubiquitous Marine Bacterium Alteromonas macleodii Under Elevated Copper Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, K. D.; Dale, J.; Little, B.; Cockrell, A.; Biffinger, J.

    2016-02-01

    Alteromonas macleodii is a ubiquitous marine bacterium that clusters by molecular analyses into two ecotypes: surface and deep-water. Our group isolated a marine bacterium from copper coupons that generates nanoparticles (NPs) at elevated copper concentrations. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified it as an A. macleodii strain. In phylogenetic analyses based on the gyrB gene, it clustered with other surface isolates; however, it formed a unique cluster separate from that of other surface isolates based on rpoB gene sequences. Copper is commonly employed as an antifouling agent on the hulls of ships, and so copper tolerance and NP generation is under investigation in this strain. The overall goals of this study were: (1) to determine if copper tolerance is the result of changes at the genetic or transcriptional level and (2) to identify the genes involved in NP formation. Sub-cultures were established from the initial isolate in which copper concentrations were increased in .25 mM increments through multiple generations. These sub-cultures were assayed for NP formation in seawater medium supplemented with 3-4 mM copper. Scanning electron microscopy revealed large aggregates of NPs on the exterior surface of all sub-cultures. Additionally, a portion of the cells in all sub-cultures displayed an elongated morphology in comparison to the wild-type. No NPs were observed in wild-type controls grown without the addition of increased copper. Metagenomic sequencing of natural populations of A. macleodii revealed extreme divergence in several large genomic regions whose content includes genes coding for exopolysaccharide production and metal resistance. High-throughput sequencing is being used to determine whether copper tolerance and NP generation is the result of genetic or transcriptional changes. These results will be extended to natural communities to gain insights into the role of bacterial NPs during conditions of elevated metal concentrations in coastal systems.

  17. Transcriptome analysis and discovery of genes involved in immune pathways in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) under high stocking density stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Bao, Peibo; Tang, Baojun

    2017-09-01

    The large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, is an economically important maricultured species in southeast China. Owing to the importance of stocking densities in commercial fish production, it is crucial to establish the physiological responses and molecular mechanisms that govern adaptation to crowding in order to optimize welfare and health. In the present study, an extensive immunity-related analysis was performed at the transcriptome level in L. crocea in response to crowding stress. Over 145 million high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into a final set of 40,123 unigenes. Gene Ontology and genome analyses revealed that molecular function, biological process, intracellular, ion binding, and cell process were the most highly enriched pathways among genes that were differentially expressed under stress. Among all of the pathways involved, 16 pathways were related to the immune system, among which the complement and coagulation cascades pathway was the most enriched for differentially expressed immunity-related genes, followed by the chemokine signaling pathway, toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and leukocyte transendothelial migration pathway. The consistently high expression of immune-related genes in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway (from 24 to 96 h after being subjected to stress) suggested its importance in both response to stress and resistance against bacterial invasion at an early stage. These results also demonstrated that crowding can significantly induce immunological responses in fish. However, long-term exposure to stress eventually impairs the defense capability in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Principles of Virus Structural Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

  19. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time...

  20. 38 CFR 70.30 - Payment principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment principles. 70.30 Section 70.30 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VHA BENEFICIARY TRAVEL UNDER 38 U.S.C. 111 § 70.30 Payment principles. (a) Subject to the other provisions of this...

  1. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  2. 31 CFR 29.331 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.331 Section 29.331 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.331 General principle. To determine whether service is creditable for the...

  3. 31 CFR 29.321 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.321 Section 29.321 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER....321 General principle. Any service performed after June 30, 1997, may never be credited toward Federal...

  4. 31 CFR 29.341 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.341 Section 29.341 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER... Benefit Payments § 29.341 General principle. Except for disability retirements after June 30, 1997, and...

  5. Dimensional cosmological principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle

  6. Phase Transition in Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under Static Compression: An Application of the First-Principles Method Specialized for CHNO Solid Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Sheng-Li; Yu, Yi; Long, Yao; Zhao, Han-Yue; Peng, Li-Juan; Chen, Jun

    2016-11-10

    The first-principles method is challenged by accurate prediction of van der Waals interactions, which are ubiquitous in nature and crucial for determining the structure of molecules and condensed matter. We have contributed to this by constructing a set of pseudopotentials and pseudoatomic orbital basis specialized for molecular systems consisting of C/H/N/O elements. The reliability of the present method is verified from the interaction energies of 45 kinds of complexes (comparing with CCSD(T)) and the crystalline structures of 23 kinds of typical explosive solids (comparing with experiments). Using this method, we have studied the phase transition of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) under static compression up to 50 GPa. Kinetically, intramolecular deformation has priority in the competition with intermolecular packing deformation by ∼87%. A possible γ → β phase transition is found at around 2.10 GPa, and the migration of H 2 O has an effect of kinetically pushing this process. We make it clear that no β → δ/ε → δ phase transition occurs at 27 GPa, which has long been a hot debate in experiments. In addition, the P-V relation, bulk modulus, and acoustic velocity are also predicted for α-, δ-, and γ-HMX, which are experimentally unavailable.

  7. The four variational principles of mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.G.; Karl, G.; Novikov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    We argue that there are four basic forms of the variational principles of mechanics: Hamilton close-quote s least action principle (HP), the generalized Maupertuis principle (MP), and their two reciprocal principles, RHP and RMP. This set is invariant under reciprocity and Legendre transformations. One of these forms (HP) is in the literature: only special cases of the other three are known. The generalized MP has a weaker constraint compared to the traditional formulation, only the mean energy bar E is kept fixed between virtual paths. This reformulation of MP alleviates several weaknesses of the old version. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle (RMP) is the classical limit of Schroedinger close-quote s variational principle of quantum mechanics, and this connection emphasizes the importance of the reciprocity transformation for variational principles. Two unconstrained formulations (UHP and UMP) of these four principles are also proposed, with completely specified Lagrange multipliers Percival close-quote s variational principle for invariant tori and variational principles for scattering orbits are derived from the RMP. The RMP is very convenient for approximate variational solutions to problems in mechanics using Ritz type methods Examples are provided. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  8. Risk measurement with equivalent utility principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denuit, M.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.; Kaas, R.; Laeven, R.

    2006-01-01

    Risk measures have been studied for several decades in the actuarial literature, where they appeared under the guise of premium calculation principles. Risk measures and properties that risk measures should satisfy have recently received considerable attention in the financial mathematics

  9. On the Einstein equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle, the cornerstone of our present day understanding of gravity, is used to explore a deeper connection between the deflection of starlight by a spinning object and the Lense-Thirring dragging of inertial frames. It is also noted that experiment has not established that the gravitomagnetic coupling to currents of particle rest-mass energy, to currents of electromagnetic energy, and to currents of all other types of energy are identical as predicted by the Einstein equivalence principle. The detailed analysis of how atomic physics experiments originated by Hughes and by Drever can constrain such possible violations of the Einstein equivalence principle is given. Atomic clocks are also important tools used to test local Lorentz invariance and hence one important aspect of Einstein equivalence principle. The sensitivity of atomic clocks to preferred-frame effects is studied here for the first time, and the behavior of the hydrogen-maser clocks of the Gravity Probe A experiment is analyzed to illustrate use of the techniques involved

  10. Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 Involved in the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis through Regulating Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Xin Yu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The data support the hypothesis that TGF-β1 is involved in the pathogenesis of EMs through regulating VEGF expression. An additive effect of TGF-β1 and hypoxia is taking place at the transcriptional level.

  11. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  12. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  13. Principles of ecotoxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, C. H

    2012-01-01

    "Now in its fourth edition, this exceptionally accessible text provides students with a multidisciplinary perspective and a grounding in the fundamental principles required for research in toxicology today...

  14. Assessment principles and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, Karl C

    2014-01-01

    The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Competence can only be determined by appropriately assessing resident performance. There are accepted guiding principles that should be applied to competence assessment methods. These principles are enumerated herein and ophthalmology-specific assessment tools that are available are described.

  15. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  16. Principles of Critical Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, E. Louis

    1986-01-01

    Proposes four principles of critical dialog designed to suggest a consistent pattern of preparation for criticism. The principles concern the characteristics of the intended audience, establishing the goals of art criticism, making a commitment to a context of relevant dialogue, and clarifying one's concept of art in qualifying an object for…

  17. The anthropic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    The anthropic principle (the conjecture that certain features of the world are determined by the existence of Man) is discussed with the listing of the objections, and is stated that nearly all the constants of nature may be determined by the anthropic principle which does not give exact values for the constants but only their orders of magnitude. (J.T.)

  18. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  19. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  20. Evolutionary principles and their practical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendry, A. P.; Kinnison, M. T.; Heino, M.

    2011-01-01

    are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design......Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles...

  1. Mach's holographic principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik

    2009-01-01

    Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.

  2. Mechanisms underlying developmental changes in the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors in cultured cerebellar granule cells: homologous desensitization and interactive effects involving N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, E.; Dell'Albani, P.; Condorelli, D. F.; Nicoletti, F.; Hack, N.; Balázs, R.

    1993-01-01

    Glutamate receptors coupled to polyphosphoinositide (PPI) hydrolysis (metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR), are highly efficient during the early stages of postnatal life and are thought to be involved in developmental plasticity. The dramatic decrease with age in mGluR activity suggests the

  3. Salvianolic Acid B inhibits platelet adhesion under conditions of flow by a mechanism involving the collagen receptor alpha 2 beta 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Ya Ping; Zhao, Xiao Min; Pan, Shao Dong; Guo, De An; Wei, Ran; Han, Ji Ju; Kainoh, Mie; Xia, Zuo Li; de Groot, Philip G.; Lisman, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (SAB) is a component of Danshen, a herb widely used in Chinese medicine, and was previously shown to exert a number of biological activities including inhibition of platelet function, but the exact mechanisms involved are unclear. SAB dose-dependently inhibited platelet deposition

  4. Principles of animal extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.

  5. The grapevine VviPrx31 peroxidase as a candidate gene involved in anthocyanin degradation in ripening berries under high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Nooshin; Pastore, Chiara; Cellini, Antonio; Allegro, Gianluca; Valentini, Gabriele; Zenoni, Sara; Cavallini, Erika; D'Incà, Erica; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Filippetti, Ilaria

    2016-05-01

    Anthocyanin levels decline in some red grape berry varieties ripened under high-temperature conditions, but the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. Here we studied the effects of two different temperature regimes, representing actual Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.) viticulture regions, on the accumulation of mRNAs and enzymes controlling berry skin anthocyanins. Potted uniform plants of Sangiovese were kept from veraison to harvest, in two plastic greenhouses with different temperature conditions. The low temperature (LT) conditions featured average and maximum daily air temperatures of 20 and 29 °C, respectively, whereas the corresponding high temperature (HT) conditions were 22 and 36 °C, respectively. The anthocyanin concentration at harvest was much lower in HT berries than LT berries although their profile was similar under both conditions. Under HT conditions, the biosynthesis of anthocyanins was suppressed at both the transcriptional and enzymatic levels, but peroxidase activity was higher. This suggests that the low anthocyanin content of HT berries reflects the combined impact of reduced biosynthesis and increased degradation, particularly the direct role of peroxidases in anthocyanin catabolism. Overexpression of VviPrx31 decreased anthocyanin contents in Petunia hybrida petals under heat stress condition. These data suggest that high temperature can stimulate peroxidase activity thus anthocyanin degradation in ripening grape berries.

  6. DNA supercoiling in Escherichia coli is under tight and subtle homeostatic control, involving gene-expression and metabolic regulation of both topoisomerase I and DNA gyrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoep, J.L.; van der Weijden, C.C.; Andersen, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    DNA of prokaryotes is in a nonequilibrium. structural state, characterized as 'active' DNA supercoiling. Alterations in this state affect many life processes and a homeostatic control of DNA supercoiling has been suggested [Menzel, R. & Gellert. M. (1983) Cell 34, 105-113]. We here report on a ne...... of the nonequilibrium DNA structure in wild-type Escherichia coli is almost complete and subtle (i.e. involving at least three regulatory mechanisms)....

  7. 48 CFR 252.231-7000 - Supplemental cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... principles. 252.231-7000 Section 252.231-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.231-7000 Supplemental cost principles. As prescribed in 231.100-70, use the following clause: Supplemental Cost Principles (DEC 1991) When the allowability of costs under...

  8. Nonlinear optics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chunfei

    2017-01-01

    This book reflects the latest advances in nonlinear optics. Besides the simple, strict mathematical deduction, it also discusses the experimental verification and possible future applications, such as the all-optical switches. It consistently uses the practical unit system throughout. It employs simple physical images, such as "light waves" and "photons" to systematically explain the main principles of nonlinear optical effects. It uses the first-order nonlinear wave equation in frequency domain under the condition of “slowly varying amplitude approximation" and the classical model of the interaction between the light and electric dipole. At the same time, it also uses the rate equations based on the energy-level transition of particle systems excited by photons and the energy and momentum conservation principles to explain the nonlinear optical phenomenon. The book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduate students in the field of the optics, optoelectronics, fiber communication, information tech...

  9. Nanofabrication principles, capabilities and limits

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This second edition of Nanofabrication is one of the most comprehensive introductions on nanofabrication technologies and processes. A practical guide and reference, this book introduces readers to all of the developed technologies that are capable of making structures below 100nm. The principle of each technology is introduced and illustrated with minimum mathematics involved. Also analyzed are the capabilities of each technology in making sub-100nm structures, and the limits of preventing a technology from going further down the dimensional scale. This book provides readers with a toolkit that will help with any of their nanofabrication challenges.

  10. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  11. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  12. [Bioethics of principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  13. Hamilton's principle for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, J L

    2007-01-01

    I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle

  14. Limitations of Boltzmann's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    The usual form of Boltzmann's principle assures that maximum entropy, or entropy reduction, occurs with maximum probability, implying a unimodal distribution. Boltzmann's principle cannot be applied to nonunimodal distributions, like the arcsine law, because the entropy may be concave only over a limited portion of the interval. The method of subordination shows that the arcsine distribution corresponds to a process with a single degree of freedom, thereby confirming the invalidation of Boltzmann's principle. The fractalization of time leads to a new distribution in which arcsine and Cauchy distributions can coexist simultaneously for nonintegral degrees of freedom between √2 and 2

  15. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  16. Risk Society, Bioethics and the Precautionary Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pereira dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of medicine has causing great shiver in society, given the progress made in the context of biomedicine and genetic events that provided before thoughtless as the assisted reproduction techniques, therapeutic cloning, surgery for transmutation of sex, as well as focused clinical procedures prolonging life. These events do not occur without causing ethical dilemmas that require a reflection on the limits and degrees of acceptability in the methods and practices used by health professionals, biologists, scientists, pharmacists and others involved in the manipulation of genetic material and trials with humans. From this perspective, this paper, from the analytical assessment of the Bioethics paradigms, promotes the correlation between human dignity, scientific progress and rights of future generations under inflows arising from advances in science and technology in a society of risk and the ambivalence. The analysis of the issues is promoted with the use of dialectical-descriptive methodology, based on the literature about the above issues, involving books, articles, dissertations and theses published in the last ten years. The theoretical framework sits in the design of risks and ambivalences, outlined by Ulrich Beck, Franz Josef Brüseke, Anthony Giddens, Zygmunt Bauman. The study aims to understand the necessary effect bioethics of the precautionary principle as a guiding ethical beacon of scientific and technical progress and the necessary reconciliation between trials and legitimacy of choices for the maintenance and evolution of the human species.

  17. A cyclic symmetry principle in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA

    1994-01-01

    Many areas of modern physics are illuminated by the application of a symmetry principle, requiring the invariance of the relevant laws of physics under a group of transformations. This paper examines the implications and some of the applications of the principle of cyclic symmetry, especially in the areas of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, including quantized field theory. This principle requires invariance under the transformations of a finite group, which may be a Sylow π-group, a group of Lie type, or a symmetric group. The utility of the principle of cyclic invariance is demonstrated in finding solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation that include and generalize known solutions. It is shown that the Sylow π-groups have other uses, in providing a basis for a type of generalized quantum statistics, and in parametrising a new generalization of Lie groups, with associated algebras that include quantized algebras. 31 refs

  18. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  19. Design Principles for Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benzel, Terry V; Irvine, Cynthia E; Levin, Timothy E; Bhaskara, Ganesha; Nguyen, Thuy D; Clark, Paul C

    2005-01-01

    As a prelude to the clean-slate design for the SecureCore project, the fundamental security principles from more than four decades of research and development in information security technology were reviewed...

  20. Principles of applied statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A

    2011-01-01

    .... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...

  1. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  2. Vaccinology: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, John

    2012-01-01

    ... principles to implementation. This is an authoritative textbook that details a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing on not only basic science, but the many stages required to commercialize...

  3. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  4. Remark on Heisenberg's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation [fr

  5. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  6. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  7. The drought-tolerant Solanum pennellii regulates leaf water loss and induces genes involved in amino acid and ethylene/jasmonate metabolism under dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Isabel; Albaladejo, Irene; Meco, Victoriano; Morales, Belén; Sevilla, Angel; Bolarin, Maria C; Flores, Francisco B

    2018-02-12

    Breeding for drought-tolerant crops is a pressing issue due to the increasing frequency and duration of droughts caused by climate change. Although important sources of variation for drought tolerance exist in wild relatives, the mechanisms and the key genes controlling tolerance in tomato are little known. The aim of this study is to determine the drought response of the tomato wild relative Solanum pennellii (Sp) compared with the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum (Sl). The paper investigates the physiological and molecular responses in leaves of Sp and Sl plants without stress and moderate drought stress. Significant physiological differences between species were found, with Sp leaves showing greater ability to avoid water loss and oxidative damage. Leaf transcriptomic analysis carried out when leaves did not as yet show visual dehydration symptoms revealed important constitutive expression differences between Sp and Sl species. Genes linked to different physiological and metabolic processes were induced by drought in Sp, especially those involved in N assimilation, GOGAT/GS cycle and GABA-shunt. Up-regulation in Sp of genes linked to JA/ET biosynthesis and signaling pathways was also observed. In sum, genes involved in the amino acid metabolism together with genes linked to ET/JA seem to be key actors in the drought tolerance of the wild tomato species.

  8. [The differential expression of the genes of the key enzymes involved in phenolic compound metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different nitrogen supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jun; Wang, Hai-Bin; Fang, Chang-Xun; Qiu, Long; Wu, Wen-Xiang; He, Hai-Bin; Lin, Wen-Xiong

    2007-10-01

    Differential expression of the key genes controlling phenolic metabolism in allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice accessions was investigated under two nitrogen supply levels (lower and normal) using fluorescence quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) (Figs.2, 3). The results indicated that 9 key enzyme genes concerned were mediated by lower nitrogen level (Table 2). All of the nine genes (Table 1, Fig.4), were up-regulated by 1.9-5.4 times of the relative gene expression amounts in allelopathic rice accession, 'PI312777' under the lower nitrogen condition compared with their controls, of which PAL gene showed the highest relative gene expression amount with 5.4 times of the relative gene expressions compared with the control, while in non-allelopathic rice Lemont, seven genes were down-regulated by 29%-72% under lower nitrogen supplies compared with their controls and only two genes, i.e., phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamoyl-CoA genes were up-regulated, which however were a decrease of 22% and 74% over those in allelopathic rice accession (Table 2). These findings strongly suggest that the increase of allelopathic potential induced by 1/4 nutrient stress was responsible for enhanced phenolic compound synthesis metabolism.

  9. Principles of star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Bodenheimer, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Understanding star formation is one of the key fields in present-day astrophysics. This book treats a wide variety of the physical processes involved, as well as the main observational discoveries, with key points being discussed in detail. The current star formation in our galaxy is emphasized, because the most detailed observations are available for this case. The book presents a comparison of the various scenarios for star formation, discusses the basic physics underlying each one, and follows in detail the history of a star from its initial state in the interstellar gas to its becoming a condensed object in equilibrium. Both theoretical and observational evidence to support the validity of the general evolutionary path are presented, and methods for comparing the two are emphasized. The author is a recognized expert in calculations of the evolution of protostars, the structure and evolution of disks, and stellar evolution in general. This book will be of value to graduate students in astronomy and astroph...

  10. First principles of Hamiltonian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Foster, Kevin; Úbeda, Francisco

    2014-05-19

    We introduce the field of Hamiltonian medicine, which centres on the roles of genetic relatedness in human health and disease. Hamiltonian medicine represents the application of basic social-evolution theory, for interactions involving kinship, to core issues in medicine such as pathogens, cancer, optimal growth and mental illness. It encompasses three domains, which involve conflict and cooperation between: (i) microbes or cancer cells, within humans, (ii) genes expressed in humans, (iii) human individuals. A set of six core principles, based on these domains and their interfaces, serves to conceptually organize the field, and contextualize illustrative examples. The primary usefulness of Hamiltonian medicine is that, like Darwinian medicine more generally, it provides novel insights into what data will be productive to collect, to address important clinical and public health problems. Our synthesis of this nascent field is intended predominantly for evolutionary and behavioural biologists who aspire to address questions directly relevant to human health and disease.

  11. Multifunctional exopolysaccharides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PF23 involved in plant growth stimulation, biocontrol and stress amelioration in sunflower under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Sakshi; Arora, Naveen Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Isolate PF23 selected from among 110 fluorescent pseudomonads, identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, displayed salinity tolerance and exopolysaccharides (EPS) production up to 2,000 mM NaCl concentration. EPS-defective mutant PF23(EPS-) of the isolate showed 86 % reduction in EPS production in comparison with wild strain. Defect in EPS production brought loss in salt tolerance capability. Purified EPS obtained from PF23 displayed multiple roles. At low concentration EPS functioned as biocontrol agent, at high concentration EPS behaved as osmoprotective or stress ameliorating metabolite and when introduced in saline soil, served as a plant growth promotor along with seed biopriming agent. Both in planta and in vivo studies were performed taking sunflower as a test crop and it was observed that PF23 showed plant growth promotion and significant biocontrol potential against dreadful phytopathogen Macrophomina phaseolina (under saline conditions). The mutant PF23(EPS-) was ineffective under saline conditions both in growth enhancement as well as in disease suppression. The study reports a potent strain, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PF23, capable of enhancing production of sunflower crop in semiarid regions and minimizing the incidence of charcoal rot disease in sunflower.

  12. MRF Family Genes Are Involved in Translation Control, Especially under Energy-Deficient Conditions, and Their Expression and Functions Are Modulated by the TOR Signaling Pathway[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Du-Hwa; Park, Seung Jun; Ahn, Chang Sook

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic control of protein translation in response to the environment is essential for the survival of plant cells. Target of rapamycin (TOR) coordinates protein synthesis with cellular energy/nutrient availability through transcriptional modulation and phosphorylation of the translation machinery. However, mechanisms of TOR-mediated translation control are poorly understood in plants. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana MRF (MA3 DOMAIN-CONTAINING TRANSLATION REGULATORY FACTOR) family genes encode translation regulatory factors under TOR control, and their functions are particularly important in energy-deficient conditions. Four MRF family genes (MRF1-MRF4) are transcriptionally induced by dark and starvation (DS). Silencing of multiple MRFs increases susceptibility to DS and treatment with a TOR inhibitor, while MRF1 overexpression decreases susceptibility. MRF proteins interact with eIF4A and cofractionate with ribosomes. MRF silencing decreases translation activity, while MRF1 overexpression increases it, accompanied by altered ribosome patterns, particularly in DS. Furthermore, MRF deficiency in DS causes altered distribution of mRNAs in sucrose gradient fractions and accelerates rRNA degradation. MRF1 is phosphorylated in vivo and phosphorylated by S6 kinases in vitro. MRF expression and MRF1 ribosome association and phosphorylation are modulated by cellular energy status and TOR activity. We discuss possible mechanisms of the function of MRF family proteins under normal and energy-deficient conditions and their functional link with the TOR pathway. PMID:29084871

  13. MRF Family Genes Are Involved in Translation Control, Especially under Energy-Deficient Conditions, and Their Expression and Functions Are Modulated by the TOR Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Du-Hwa; Park, Seung Jun; Ahn, Chang Sook; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2017-11-01

    Dynamic control of protein translation in response to the environment is essential for the survival of plant cells. Target of rapamycin (TOR) coordinates protein synthesis with cellular energy/nutrient availability through transcriptional modulation and phosphorylation of the translation machinery. However, mechanisms of TOR-mediated translation control are poorly understood in plants. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana MRF (MA3 DOMAIN-CONTAINING TRANSLATION REGULATORY FACTOR) family genes encode translation regulatory factors under TOR control, and their functions are particularly important in energy-deficient conditions. Four MRF family genes ( MRF1 - MRF4 ) are transcriptionally induced by dark and starvation (DS). Silencing of multiple MRFs increases susceptibility to DS and treatment with a TOR inhibitor, while MRF1 overexpression decreases susceptibility. MRF proteins interact with eIF4A and cofractionate with ribosomes. MRF silencing decreases translation activity, while MRF1 overexpression increases it, accompanied by altered ribosome patterns, particularly in DS. Furthermore, MRF deficiency in DS causes altered distribution of mRNAs in sucrose gradient fractions and accelerates rRNA degradation. MRF1 is phosphorylated in vivo and phosphorylated by S6 kinases in vitro. MRF expression and MRF1 ribosome association and phosphorylation are modulated by cellular energy status and TOR activity. We discuss possible mechanisms of the function of MRF family proteins under normal and energy-deficient conditions and their functional link with the TOR pathway. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  14. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway Are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Lu, Junyang; Gao, Min; Shi, Kai; Kong, Qiusheng; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon. PMID:27777580

  15. Redox Signaling and CBF-Responsive Pathway are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Improved Photosynthesis and Growth under Chilling Stress in Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA plays an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. This study investigated the potential role of SA in alleviating the adverse effects of chilling stress on photosynthesis and growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. Chilling stress induced the simultaneous accumulation of free and conjugated SA in watermelon plants, and the chilling-induced SA production was attributed to the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathway. Applying SA at moderate concentrations induced chilling tolerance, whereas inhibition of SA biosynthesis by L-ɑ-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP increased the photooxidation of PS II under chilling stress in watermelon, resulting in reduced photosynthesis and growth. Chilling induced a transient increase in the ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and reduced ascorbate to dehydroascorbate. Then, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, SA-induced chilling tolerance was associated with cellular glutathione and ascorbate homeostasis, which served as redox signals to regulate antioxidant metabolism under chilling stress. AOPP treatment stimulated the chilling-induced expression of cold-responsive genes, particularly via C-repeat binding factors CBF3 and CBF4. These results confirm the synergistic role of SA signaling and the CBF-dependent responsive pathway during chilling stress in watermelon.

  16. Evidence for the involvement of hydraulic root or shoot adjustments as mechanisms underlying water deficit tolerance in two Sorghum bicolor genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutka, Moira R; Manzur, Milena E; Vitali, Victoria A; Micheletto, Sandra; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-03-15

    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is an ancient drought-tolerant crop with potential to sustain high yields even in those environments where water is limiting. Understanding the performance of this species in early phenological stages could be a useful tool for future yield improvement programs. The aim of this work was to study the response of Sorghum seedlings under water deficit conditions in two genotypes (RedLandB2 and IS9530) that are currently employed in Argentina. Morphological and physiological traits were studied to present an integrated analysis of the shoot and root responses. Although both genotypes initially developed a conserved and indistinguishable response in terms of drought tolerance parameters (growth rate, biomass reallocation, etc.), water regulation displayed different underlying strategies. To avoid water loss, both genotypes adjusted their plant hydraulic resistance at different levels: RedLandB2 regulated shoot resistance through stomata (isohydric strategy), while IS9530 controlled root resistance (anisohydric strategy). Moreover, only in IS9530 was root hydraulic conductance restricted in the presence of HgCl2, in agreement with water movement through cell-to-cell pathways and aquaporins activity. The different responses between genotypes suggest a distinct strategy at the seedling stage and add new information that should be considered when evaluating Sorghum phenotypic plasticity in changing environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Principles of modern digital design

    CERN Document Server

    Lala, Parag K

    2007-01-01

    A major objective of this book is to fill the gap between traditional logic design principles and logic design/optimization techniques used in practice. Over the last two decades several techniques for computer-aided design and optimization of logic circuits have been developed. However, underlying theories of these techniques are inadequately covered or not covered at all in undergraduate text books. This book covers not only the ""classical"" material found in current text books but also selected materials that modern logic designers need to be familiar with.

  18. Optimal replenishment and credit policy in supply chain inventory model under two levels of trade credit with time- and credit-sensitive demand involving default risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Puspita; Mahata, Gour Chandra; Kumar De, Sujit

    2018-03-01

    Traditional supply chain inventory modes with trade credit usually only assumed that the up-stream suppliers offered the down-stream retailers a fixed credit period. However, in practice the retailers will also provide a credit period to customers to promote the market competition. In this paper, we formulate an optimal supply chain inventory model under two levels of trade credit policy with default risk consideration. Here, the demand is assumed to be credit-sensitive and increasing function of time. The major objective is to determine the retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time such that the total profit per unit time is maximized. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution to the presented model are examined, and an easy method is also shown to find the optimal inventory policies of the considered problem. Finally, numerical examples and sensitive analysis are presented to illustrate the developed model and to provide some managerial insights.

  19. Assessing cognitive-related disability in schizophrenia: Reliability, validity and underlying factors of the evaluation of cognitive processes involved in disability in schizophrenia scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerieux, Christine; Bulot, Virginie; Hardy-Baylé, Marie-Christine; Roux, Paul

    2017-04-11

    We have developed a new scale that assesses disability caused by cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, in order to evaluate the functional impact of schizophrenia and help the prescription of rehabilitation interventions. The aim of the study was to assess its psychometrical properties. Mental healthcare professionals and relatives of individuals with schizophrenia developed and rated the evaluation of cognitive processes involved in disability in schizophrenia scale, which included 13 items. Its construct validity was assessed through a factorial analysis; its concurrent validity was evaluated based on ecological outcomes, its convergent validity was tested against the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS II), and its reliability was estimated based on internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Overall, 215 patients were included. Our findings supported a two-factor structure which accounted for 46% of the variance. The internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were good. The convergent validity showed a strong correlation with the WHODAS II. The concurrent validity showed strong relationships with work status, independent living, level and adequacy of institutional care. The good psychometric properties of the scale suggest a role for this tool in assessing schizophrenia-related disability and evaluating the need for cognitive remediation. Implication for Rehabilitation Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder leading to a severe psychiatric handicap. The scale showed good psychometric properties in individuals with schizophrenia and severe psychiatric disability. The scale is easy and quick to administer (about 15 min). The scale may help to identify targets for rehabilitation interventions in individuals with schizophrenia.

  20. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  2. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  3. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises......Although it has been widely recognized that the growth of women-owned businesses is central to wealth creation, innovation and economic development; limited attention has been devoted to understanding small business growth from a female perspective.This research seeks to develop an understanding....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  4. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  5. 26 CFR 1.671-2 - Applicable principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable principles. 1.671-2 Section 1.671-2...) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-2 Applicable principles. (a) Under... included in a portion of the trust are set forth in § 1.671-3. (b) Since the principle underlying subpart E...

  6. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety requires a continuing quest for excellence. All individuals concerned should constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level. The quest, however, is most likely to be fruitful if it is based on an understanding of the underlying objectives and principles of nuclear safety, and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. This report is an attempt to provide a logical framework for such an understanding. The proposed objectives and principles of nuclear safety are interconnected and must be taken as a whole; they do not constitute a menu from which selection can be made. The report takes account of current issues and developments. It includes the concept of safety objectives and the use of probabilistic safety assessment. Reliability targets for safety systems are discussed. The concept of a 'safety culture' is crucial. Attention has been paid to the need for planning for accident management. The report contains objectives and principles. The objectives state what is to be achieved; the principles state how to achieve it. In each case, the basic principle is stated as briefly as possible. The accompanying discussion comments on the reasons for the principle and its importance, as well as exceptions, the extent of coverage and any necessary clarification. The discussion is as important as the principle it augments. 4 figs

  7. The precautionary principle and regulation of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Søren

    This dissertation presents a combined approach to the study of discourse and technology. The approach is applied on two different cases involving the precautionary principle and chemicals; namely an in-depth analysis of a short-lived prohibition against a specific class of pesticides based...

  8. Histopathology of fish: I. Techniques and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1955-01-01

    The techniques of histopathology have been used for many years in the study of human and animal diseases. Until very recent times, however, histology has been applied to fish studies only very infrequently. This brief discussion is intended to acquaint the reader with the techniques and principles involved and to explain how histological studies may help to overcome fish diseases and nutritional problems.

  9. Intergenerational equity and dynamic duality principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Uzawa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of intergenerational equity concerning intertemporal paths of consumption and capital accumulation is introduced and the analysis of the dynamic processes of capital accumulation and changes in environmental quality that are intergenerationally equitable is developed. The analysis is based upon the dynamic duality principles, as originally developed by Koopmans and Uzawa, and later extended to the case involving environmental quality.

  10. Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV

    2016-01-01

    To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…

  11. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  12. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  13. Principles of quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcuse, Dietrich

    1980-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  14. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  15. Involvement of PKA-dependent upregulation of nNOS-CGRP in adrenomedullin-initiated mechanistic pathway underlying CFA-induced response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Ruan, Liqin; Hong, Yanguo; Chabot, Jean-Guy; Quirion, Rémi

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that intrathecal administration of the adrenomedullin (AM) receptor antagonist AM(22-52) produces a long-lasting anti-hyperalgesia effect. This study examined the hypothesis that AM recruits other pronociceptive mediators in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation. Injection of CFA in the hindpaw of rat produced an increase in the expression of nNOS in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and the spinal dorsal horn. An intrathecal administration of AM(22-52), but not the CGRP antagonist BIBN4096BS, abolished the CFA-induced increase of nNOS. Moreover, AM-induced increase of CGRP was inhibited by the nNOS inhibitors L-NAME and 7-nitroindazole in cultured ganglion explants. Addition of AM to ganglion cultures induced an increase in nNOS protein, which was attenuated by the PKA inhibitor H-89. Treatment with AM also concentration-dependently increased cAMP content and pPKA protein level, but not its non-phosphorylated form, in cultured ganglia. In addition, nNOS was shown to be co-localized with the AM receptor components calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein 2- and 3 in DRG neurons. The present study suggests that the enhanced activity of nitric oxide (NO) mediates the biological action of AM at the spinal level and that AM recruits NO-CGRP via cAMP/PKA signaling in a mechanistic pathway underlying CFA-induced hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance systems adapt. We focus primarily on the interplay between key decision makers in society and legal systems. We argue that adaptive governance must overcome three cooperative dilemmas to facilitate adaptation: (1) encouraging collaborative problem solving, (2) garnering social acceptance and commitment, and (3) cultivating a culture of trust and tolerance for change and uncertainty. However, to do so governance systems must cope with biases in people’s decision making that cloud their judgment and create conflict. These systems must also satisfy people’s fundamental needs for self-determination, fairness, and security, ensuring that changes to environmental governance are perceived as legitimate, trustworthy, and acceptable. We discuss the implications of these principles for common governance solutions (e.g., public participation, enforcement) and conclude with methodological recommendations. We outline how scholars can investigate the social cognitive principles involved in cases of adaptive governance. Social-ecological stressors place significant pressure on major societal systems, triggering adaptive reforms in human governance and environmental law. Though potentially benefici

  17. Strategic principles workshops: Discussion drafts and workshop notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste-Management in the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of this nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. Although embodied in the Federal repository program that began with studies in the late 1950s, this mission was explicitly established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and reaffirmed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. To fulfill our mission, we are developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposal deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for monitored retrievable storage, and a system for transporting the waste. This discussion draft was developed to help involve parties affected by or interested in the waste-management program in the formulation of the basic principles on which the program will be based. It reviews existing objectives, policies, and strategic principles under which the system is currently being developed. Then discussed are issues of strategic importance for which additional strategic principles may be needed. For these issues in particular, views from affected and interested parties is solicited, but comments regarding alternative approaches to the issues presented as well as suggestions for additional issues will also be welcome. Finally, background information on the waste-management program pertinent to the issues discussion is presented.

  18. Strategic principles workshops: Discussion drafts and workshop notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste-Management in the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of this nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. Although embodied in the Federal repository program that began with studies in the late 1950s, this mission was explicitly established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and reaffirmed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. To fulfill our mission, we are developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposal deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for monitored retrievable storage, and a system for transporting the waste. This discussion draft was developed to help involve parties affected by or interested in the waste-management program in the formulation of the basic principles on which the program will be based. It reviews existing objectives, policies, and strategic principles under which the system is currently being developed. Then discussed are issues of strategic importance for which additional strategic principles may be needed. For these issues in particular, views from affected and interested parties is solicited, but comments regarding alternative approaches to the issues presented as well as suggestions for additional issues will also be welcome. Finally, background information on the waste-management program pertinent to the issues discussion is presented

  19. Pediatric disaster response in developed countries: ten guiding principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Mark A; Arneson, Wendy L

    2007-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents and large-scale disasters involving children are likely to overwhelm a regional disaster response system. Children have unique vulnerabilities that require special considerations when developing pediatric response systems. Although medical and trauma strategies exist for the evaluation and treatment of children on a daily basis, the application of these strategies under conditions of resource-constrained triage and treatment have rarely been evaluated. A recent report, however, by the Institute of Medicine did conclude that on a day-to-day basis the U.S. healthcare system does not adequately provide emergency medical services for children. The variability, scale, and uncertainty of disasters call for a set of guiding principles rather than rigid protocols when developing pediatric response plans. The authors propose the following guiding principles in addressing the well-recognized, unique vulnerabilities of children: (1) terrorism prevention and preparedness, (2) all-hazards preparedness, (3) postdisaster disease and injury prevention, (4) nutrition and hydration, (5) equipment and supplies, (6) pharmacology, (7) mental health, (8) identification and reunification of displaced children, (9) day care and school, and (10) perinatology. It is hoped that the 10 guiding principles discussed in this article will serve as a basic framework for developing pediatric response plans and teams in developed countries.

  20. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  1. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  2. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  3. Pattern recognition principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, J. T.; Gonzalez, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The present work gives an account of basic principles and available techniques for the analysis and design of pattern processing and recognition systems. Areas covered include decision functions, pattern classification by distance functions, pattern classification by likelihood functions, the perceptron and the potential function approaches to trainable pattern classifiers, statistical approach to trainable classifiers, pattern preprocessing and feature selection, and syntactic pattern recognition.

  4. The Handicap Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The Handicap Principle is an idea proposed by the husband and wife scientist team of Amotz and Avishag Zahavi from. Israel in the 1970's. It is among the most innovative ideas of the 20th century in the field of behavioural biology and attempts to explain several long-standing puzzles that have baffled naturalists since the ...

  5. Schrodinger's Uncertainty Principle?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    correlation between x and p. The virtue of Schrodinger's version (5) is that it accounts for this correlation. In spe- cial cases like the free particle and the harmonic oscillator, the 'Schrodinger uncertainty product' even remains constant with time, whereas Heisenberg's does not. The glory of giving the uncertainty principle to ...

  6. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  7. Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaars, Marvin A.

    A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)…

  8. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  9. Principles of Proper Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Validation in chemometrics is presented using the exemplar context of multivariate calibration/prediction. A phenomenological analysis of common validation practices in data analysis and chemometrics leads to formulation of a set of generic Principles of Proper Validation (PPV), which is based...

  10. Schrodinger's Uncertainty Principle?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Schrödinger's Uncertainty Principle? - Lilies can be Painted. Rajaram Nityananda. General Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 24-26. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Euthanasia: Buddhist principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M

    1996-04-01

    Religions provide various forms of motivation for moral action. This chapter takes Buddhism as an example from within the Indian "family' of religions and seeks to identify the doctrinal and cultural principles on which ethical decisions are taken. Although beginning from very different religious premises, it is argued that the conclusions to which Buddhism tends are broadly similar to those found within mainstream Christianity.

  12. Principles of brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Throughout much of the 20th century, the major models of brain development were strongly deterministic. It was thought that brain development proceeds via a prescribed blueprint that is somehow innately specified in the organism. Contemporary models present a distinctly different view of both inheritance and brain development. First, we do not inherit blueprints or plans, we inherit genes and the cellular machinery for expressing them. Genes carry essential information for creating proteins, but do not determine biological processes or developmental outcomes; the first cells contain the elements necessary for creating proteins based on the information coded in the nucleotide sequences of genes. Second, brain development is dynamic: the biological state of the brain at any moment is the product of developmental processes that involve an intricate interplay among genes and an ever-expanding range of environmental factors-from local cellular events to influences from the outside world. In science, models matter. They reflect underlying assumptions about how things can happen, and thus influence the kinds of questions we ask, the kinds of experiments we propose, the therapies we develop, and the educational curricula we construct. The dynamic model of brain development accounts for powerful neurobehavioral effects that can simply not be accommodated by deterministic models. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1402. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1402 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Extremum principles for irreversible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillert, M.; Agren, J.

    2006-01-01

    Hamilton's extremum principle is a powerful mathematical tool in classical mechanics. Onsager's extremum principle may play a similar role in irreversible thermodynamics and may also become a valuable tool. His principle may formally be regarded as a principle of maximum rate of entropy production but does not have a clear physical interpretation. Prigogine's principle of minimum rate of entropy production has a physical interpretation when it applies, but is not strictly valid except for a very special case

  14. The hologram principles and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    Written by Martin Richardson (an acclaimed leader and pioneer in the field) and John Wiltshire, The Hologram: Principles and Techniques is an important book that explores the various types of hologram in their multiple forms and explains how to create and apply the technology. The authors offer an insightful overview of the currently available recording materials, chemical formulas, and laser technology that includes the history of phase imaging and laser science. Accessible and comprehensive, the text contains a step-by-step guide to the production of holograms. In addition, The Hologram outlines the most common problems encountered in producing satisfactory images in the laboratory, as well as dealing with the wide range of optical and chemical techniques used in commercial holography. The Hologram is a well-designed instructive tool, involving three distinct disciplines: physics, chemistry, and graphic arts. This vital resource offers a guide to the development and understanding of the recording of mater...

  15. Mobility management principle, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shanzhi; Hu, Bo; Ai, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This is the first book devoted to mobility management, covering the important principles, technologies and applications of mobility management based on years of academic research and industry experiences. The content is organized according to the reference models proposed by the authors, and emphasizes on technical principles rather than protocol details; a systematic and comprehensive introduction is presented yet without losing focuses; the existing technologies in cellular system, mobile Internet and IMS/SIP are also extensively compared. This book can be an indispensable reference for mobile communication engineers, computer network engineers, researchers and anyone else involved in academic, industrial and standardization activities on mobility management.

  16. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  17. [Ethical principles in electronvulsivotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa, S; De Carvalho, W

    2016-12-01

    ECT or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a therapeutic technique invented in 1935 but which was really developed after World War II and then spreading widely until the mid 1960s. The source of this technique, and some forms of stigma including films, have participated widely to make it suspect from a moral point of view. The ethical principles that support the establishment of a treatment by ECT are those relating to any action in psychiatry and are based on the one hand on the founding principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance, and justice, and on the other hand on the information on the technical and consent to this type of care. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Principles of Stellar Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Glindemann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...

  19. Principles of mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...

  20. Principles of harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deitmar, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  1. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  2. Principles of magnetodynamic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babincová, M; Leszczynska, D; Sourivong, P; Babinec, P; Leszczynski, J

    2004-01-01

    Basic principles of a novel method of cancer treatment are explained. Method is based on the thermal activation of an inactive prodrug encapsulated in magnetoliposomes via Neél and Brown effects of inductive heating of subdomain superparamagnetic particles to sufficiently high temperatures. This principle may be combined with targeted drug delivery (using constant magnetic field) and controlled release (using high-frequency magnetic field) of an activated drug entrapped in magnetoliposomes. Using this method drug may be applied very selectively in the particular site of organism and this procedure may be repeated several times using e.g. stealth magnetoliposomes which are circulating in a blood-stream for several days. Moreover the magnetoliposomes concentrated by external constant magnetic field in tumor vasculature may lead to embolic lesions and necrosis of a tumor body and further the heat produced for thermal activation of a drug enhances the effect of chemotherapy by local hyperthermic treatment of neoplastic cells.

  3. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  4. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  5. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  6. Age at drinking onset, alcohol dependence, and their relation to drug use and dependence, driving under the influence of drugs, and motor-vehicle crash involvement because of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingson, Ralph W; Heeren, Timothy; Edwards, Erika M

    2008-03-01

    We explored among people who ever consumed alcohol whether early age at drinking onset and alcohol dependence predicted drug use and dependence. We also examined among drinkers who have used drugs whether they also predict driving under the influence of drugs and motor-vehicle crash involvement because of drugs. A U.S. national sample of 42,867 persons age 18 and older was surveyed in 1991-1992 (response rate = 90%). Logistic regression examined these potential associations among 27,616 respondents who ever drank alcohol, controlling for numerous demographic and personal characteristics. Among "ever" drinkers, 22% used drugs, 10% had driven under the influence of drugs, and nearly 1% was in a motor-vehicle crash because of drug use, the equivalent of 1 million people. The younger the age of respondents when they first began drinking and whether they ever experienced alcohol dependence were independently associated with greater odds of ever using drugs and experiencing drug dependence. Among persons who consumed alcohol and drugs, having ever experienced drug dependence was the strongest predictor of driving under the influence of drugs and motor-vehicle crash involvement because of drug use. After controlling for drug dependence and age at first drug use, having experienced alcohol dependence was also independently associated with both outcomes. Efforts to prevent drug-related crashes should include drug use prevention and treatment, as well as prevention of early alcohol use and treatment of alcohol dependence.

  7. Reflections on the juridicial roots of the principle of optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Boehler, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    The disciplines of jurisprudence tend in general towards a rationalisation and stabilisation of social or economic practice and are oriented towards concepts or practices which belong to the field of the determinate. When it comes to the principle of optimising radiological protection, however, the classical juridical technique of administrative law does not exactly answer the problems of implementing this. From the obligations of performance traditionally imposed by the government, a transition to obligation of behaviour by those involved seems to be called for, and this is what makes the optimisation principle difficult to qualify juridically. Instead of a law of command, exemption and control the government must essentially put its trust in the operators of nuclear installations by issuing a standard which sets an objective rather than a standard with the force of a regulation as in the past. Does the future of the juridical sciences in fact lie in the development of an administrative law of the indeterminate which would oblige the government to recognise that, even in the field of the determinate, it is not always government which knows best? While our classical administrative law is a law of command and control, the administrative law of the indeterminate will be that of the law of common effort, framed in collective acts and based on trust, consultation, and obligations of behaviour, all under the control of a judge who intervenes when there is a manifest contradiction between the acts and the promised behaviour. In French law optimisation has remained a general principle unaccompanied by specific provisions for its implementation. The object of our paper is to examine on what juridical foundations it would be possible to apply this principle at practical level without betraying its spirit. (author)

  8. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  9. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one......, primarily based on descriptions of the protocols in the notation of CSP (Communicating Sequential Processes)....

  10. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  11. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  12. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  13. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2018-04-01

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  14. Uncertainty Principles for the Cherednik Transform

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We shall investigate two uncertainty principles for the Cherednik transform on the Euclidean space a a ; Miyachi's theorem and Beurling's theorem. We give an analogue of Miyachi's theorem for the Cherednik transform and under the assumption that a a has a hypergroup structure, an analogue of Beurling's theorem for the ...

  15. Urban environmental education: Principles in action | Clacherty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the value of environmental education in a natural environment is acknowledged, a case is made for urban environmental education. Principles underlying a programme derived largely from the British Urban Studies movement, in particular, the Art and the Built Environment project (Adams and Ward 1982), are ...

  16. Ambiguous involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Karen Ida

    2016-01-01

    This edited collection shows that good parenthood is neither fixed nor stable. The contributors show how parenthood is equally done by men, women and children, in and through practices involving different normative guidelines. The book explores how normative layers of parenthood are constituted...... by notions such as good childhood, family ideals, national public health and educational strategies. The authors illustrate how different versions of parenthood coexist and how complex sets of actions are demanded to fulfil today’s expectations of parenthood in Western societies. This interdisciplinary book...

  17. Design principles for elementary gene circuits: Elements, methods, and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savageau, Michael A.

    2001-03-01

    The control of gene expression involves complex circuits that exhibit enormous variation in design. For years the most convenient explanation for these variations was historical accident. According to this view, evolution is a haphazard process in which many different designs are generated by chance; there are many ways to accomplish the same thing, and so no further meaning can be attached to such different but equivalent designs. In recent years a more satisfying explanation based on design principles has been found for at least certain aspects of gene circuitry. By design principle we mean a rule that characterizes some biological feature exhibited by a class of systems such that discovery of the rule allows one not only to understand known instances but also to predict new instances within the class. The central importance of gene regulation in modern molecular biology provides strong motivation to search for more of these underlying design principles. The search is in its infancy and there are undoubtedly many design principles that remain to be discovered. The focus of this three-part review will be the class of elementary gene circuits in bacteria. The first part reviews several elements of design that enter into the characterization of elementary gene circuits in prokaryotic organisms. Each of these elements exhibits a variety of realizations whose meaning is generally unclear. The second part reviews mathematical methods used to represent, analyze, and compare alternative designs. Emphasis is placed on particular methods that have been used successfully to identify design principles for elementary gene circuits. The third part reviews four design principles that make specific predictions regarding (1) two alternative modes of gene control, (2) three patterns of coupling gene expression in elementary circuits, (3) two types of switches in inducible gene circuits, and (4) the realizability of alternative gene circuits and their response to phased

  18. Two Principles of good elderly care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene; Eskelinen, Leena; Boll Hansen, Eigil

    ) which is a possibility for the elderly to choose a private provider. Stressing the self-determination of the elderly and the help provided as service is potentially at odds with one of the existing principles of elderly care, namely the professional principle of help-to-self help. It aims at activating...... the elderly person to manage as much as possible themselves and is based upon a socio-pedagogical culture, where the professional is teaching elderly people about the proper behavior. It’s based upon a formal knowledge of aging and upon different techniques to motivate and involve the elderly....... These are clearly different logics. However, no research has so far studied how these concepts are translated from a national to the municipal level to groups of home helpers and to individual home helpers. And how are these principles played out in different contexts of private firms and public providers...

  19. Some principles of regeneration in mammalian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bruce M

    2005-11-01

    This article presents some general principles underlying regenerative phenomena in vertebrates, starting with the epimorphic regeneration of the amphibian limb and continuing with tissue and organ regeneration in mammals. Epimorphic regeneration following limb amputation involves wound healing, followed shortly by a phase of dedifferentiation that leads to the formation of a regeneration blastema. Up to the point of blastema formation, dedifferentiation is guided by unique regenerative pathways, but the overall developmental controls underlying limb formation from the blastema generally recapitulate those of embryonic limb development. Damaged mammalian tissues do not form a blastema. At the cellular level, differentiation follows a pattern close to that seen in the embryo, but at the level of the tissue and organ, regeneration is strongly influenced by conditions inherent in the local environment. In some mammalian systems, such as the liver, parenchymal cells contribute progeny to the regenerate. In others, e.g., skeletal muscle and bone, tissue-specific progenitor cells constitute the main source of regenerating cells. The substrate on which regeneration occurs plays a very important role in determining the course of regeneration. Epimorphic regeneration usually produces an exact replica of the structure that was lost, but in mammalian tissue regeneration the form of the regenerate is largely determined by the mechanical environment acting on the regenerating tissue, and it is normally an imperfect replica of the original. In organ hypertophy, such as that occurring after hepatic resection, the remaining liver mass enlarges, but there is no attempt to restore the original form. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  1. Maximum Principle for General Controlled Systems Driven by Fractional Brownian Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yuecai; Hu Yaozhong; Song Jian

    2013-01-01

    We obtain a maximum principle for stochastic control problem of general controlled stochastic differential systems driven by fractional Brownian motions (of Hurst parameter H>1/2). This maximum principle specifies a system of equations that the optimal control must satisfy (necessary condition for the optimal control). This system of equations consists of a backward stochastic differential equation driven by both fractional Brownian motions and the corresponding underlying standard Brownian motions. In addition to this backward equation, the maximum principle also involves the Malliavin derivatives. Our approach is to use conditioning and Malliavin calculus. To arrive at our maximum principle we need to develop some new results of stochastic analysis of the controlled systems driven by fractional Brownian motions via fractional calculus. Our approach of conditioning and Malliavin calculus is also applied to classical system driven by standard Brownian motions while the controller has only partial information. As a straightforward consequence, the classical maximum principle is also deduced in this more natural and simpler way.

  2. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  3. Principles of visual attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, Claus; Habekost, Thomas

    The nature of attention is one of the oldest and most central problems in psychology. A huge amount of research has been produced on this subject in the last half century, especially on attention in the visual modality, but a general explanation has remained elusive. Many still view attention res....... The book explains the TVA model and shows how it accounts for attentional effects observed across all the research areas described. Principles of Visual Attention offers a uniquely integrated view on a central topic in cognitive neuroscience....

  4. Principles of Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Kadane, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    An intuitive and mathematical introduction to subjective probability and Bayesian statistics. An accessible, comprehensive guide to the theory of Bayesian statistics, Principles of Uncertainty presents the subjective Bayesian approach, which has played a pivotal role in game theory, economics, and the recent boom in Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Both rigorous and friendly, the book contains: Introductory chapters examining each new concept or assumption Just-in-time mathematics -- the presentation of ideas just before they are applied Summary and exercises at the end of each chapter Discus

  5. Principles of smile design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswaran, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    An organized and systematic approach is required to evaluate, diagnose and resolve esthetic problems predictably. It is of prime importance that the final result is not dependent only on the looks alone. Our ultimate goal as clinicians is to achieve pleasing composition in the smile by creating an arrangement of various esthetic elements. This article reviews the various principles that govern the art of smile designing. The literature search was done using PubMed search and Medline. This article will provide a basic knowledge to the reader to bring out a functional stable smile. PMID:21217950

  6. Principles of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    George, David V

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c

  7. Principles of chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    House, James E

    2007-01-01

    James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela

  8. Principles of meteoritics

    CERN Document Server

    Krinov, E L

    1960-01-01

    Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of

  9. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  10. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  11. Principles of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Myron

    2002-01-01

    Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.

  12. How moral disagreement may ground principled moral compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Klemens

    2017-01-01

    In an influential paper, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability there are p......In an influential paper, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability...... there are properly speaking no principled reasons to compromise. My aim in the paper is to show how principled moral compromise in the context of moral disagreements over policy options is possible. I argue that when we disagree, principled reasons favoring compromises or compromising can assume a more significant...

  13. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  14. Fermat and the Minimum Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...

  15. A life under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Microvessels live 'a life under pressure' in several ways. In a literal sense, vessels of the microcirculation are exposed to high levels of stress caused primarily by the intravascular pressure head. In a figurative sense, the individual vessel and the microvascular network as a whole must...... continuously strive to meet the changing demands of the surrounding tissue. The 'principle of optimal operation' as formulated by Y. C. Fung states that living tissues adapts structurally through remodelling and growth until a level of tensile and compressive stresses is reached at which tissue performance...... stress component has a huge impact on the state of the vascular wall. It is involved as a unifying factor on vastly different timescales in processes as diverse as acute regulation of vessel diameter, structural vessel remodelling and growth or atrophy of the vascular wall. The aim of this Mini...

  16. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.

  17. Principle or constructive relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Mathias

    Appealing to Albert Einstein's distinction between principle and constructive theories, Harvey Brown has argued for an interpretation of the theory of relativity as a dynamic and constructive theory. Brown's view has been challenged by Michel Janssen and in this paper I investigate their dispute. I argue that their disagreement appears larger than it actually is due to the two frameworks used by Brown and Janssen to express their respective views: Brown's appeal to Einstein's principle-constructive distinction and Janssen's framing of the disagreement as one over the question whether relativity provides a kinematic or a dynamic constraint. I appeal to a distinction between types of theories drawn by H. A. Lorentz two decades before Einstein's distinction to argue that Einstein's distinction represents a false dichotomy. I argue further that the disagreement concerning the kinematics-dynamics distinction is a disagreement about labels but not about substance. There remains a genuine disagreement over the explanatory role of spacetime geometry and here I agree with Brown arguing that Janssen sees a pressing need for an explanation of Lorentz invariance where no further explanation is needed.

  18. Principles of Mechanical Excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lislerud, A.

    1997-12-01

    Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.)

  19. Parallels and Differences in the Attitudes towards Single-Firm Conduct: What are the Reasons? The History, Interpretation and Underlying Principles of Sec. 2 Sherman Act and Art. 82 EC

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWEITZER, Heike

    2007-01-01

    In the US and in the EU, the antitrust rules on single-firm conduct are currently under review. Antitrust authorities on both sides of the Atlantic are reconsidering the tests to be applied in order to distinguish between lawful competition on the merits and exclusionary conduct. In the transatlantic comparison that accompanies the review, it has been observed that in the US, the tests for identifying anti-competitive single-firm conduct under Sec. 2 Sherman Act are frequently ...

  20. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  1. THE PRINCIPLE OF THE PRESUMPTION OF INNOCENCE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SimenehKA

    This is a constitutional principle under Ethiopian law and requires the public prosecutor to prove each element .... application of the principle of utility in the administration of the criminal justice aims at maximizing the correct results5 by ..... Texts, Cases and Problems 4th Ed.,. (New York: Aspen Law and Business), at 767.

  2. The principle of equality of arms in international criminal proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorova, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    This book studies the interpretation and application of the principle of equality of arms in proceedings before several international criminal courts. The coming of age of these institutions merits an evaluation of the application of one of the fundamental principles underlying a criminal procedure.

  3. Can Evolutionary Principles Explain Patterns of Family Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2013-01-01

    The article's aim is to evaluate the application of the evolutionary principles of kin selection, reproductive value, and resource holding power to the understanding of family violence. The principles are described in relation to specific predictions and the mechanisms underlying these. Predictions are evaluated for physical violence perpetrated…

  4. Sustainable development and the nature of environmental legal principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Verschuuren

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, “things” lawyers call “principles” of environmental law will be discussed from a theoretical perspective. Three fundamental questions are answered: 1. Where does the high moral value that is usually attributed principles come from? 2. What is the exact difference between a principle and a legal rule, and between a principle and a policy? 3. What is the relationship between a principle and more concrete legal rules and policies? It is argued that principles of environmental law receive their high moral value from the ideal of sustainable development. An ideal is a value that is explicit, implicit or latent in the law, or the public and moral culture of a society or group that usually cannot be fully realised, and that partly transcends contingent, historical formulations, and implementations in terms of rules and principles. Principles form a necessary link between directly applicable and enforceable environmental legal rules and the underlying ideal. They are a necessary medium for ideals to find their way into concrete rules and can be used to bridge the gap between the morality of duty and the morality of aspiration. Because of their basis in (written or unwritten law and their possible direct and intense influence on legal rules concerning activities that may harm the environment, they must be placed within the morality of duty: a bridgehead within the morality of duty reaching out for the morality of aspiration. From the general function of principles of forming a beachhead in the morality of duty, nine more concrete functions can be derived. These functions principles, both of a substantive and of a procedural nature, have, make it possible to distinguish them from legal rules. It must be acknowledged, however, that there is no very strict separation between principles on one side and rules on the other: environmental norms can be placed on a sliding scale with rules on one side and principles on the other side

  5. A survey of variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article survey of variational principles has been given. Variational principles play a significant role in mathematical theory with emphasis on the physical aspects. There are two principals used i.e. to represent the equation of the system in a succinct way and to enable a particular computation in the system to be carried out with greater accuracy. The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basic finite element methods on variational principles. (A.B.)

  6. Mach's principle and rotating universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero

  7. Principles to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitford, Michelle; Phi, Giang; Dredge, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Governments are increasingly involved in public–private partnerships to attract, support, and/or stage events. This involvement often leads to governments becoming embroiled in highly politicized battles that focus on issues including community benefit, mitigation of impacts, transparency in deci...... in research and practice will provide governments with a new management tool, which will enhance democratic decision making and facilitate competitive advantage in a globalized marketplace....

  8. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-07

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  9. Prioritizing Zakat Core Principles Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aam Slamet Rusydiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prioriting Zakat Core Principles CriteriaZakat Institution (OPZ is the intermediary organizations based on social. The entire of operating expense is taken from the zakat and infaq funds collected. The Zakat Core Principles are a starting point for the frameworks and standards of zakat-based governance best practices. The Zakat Core Principles is mainly aimed to improve the quality of the zakat systems by identifying such weaknesses in the existing of supervision and regulation. This study try to prioritize the Principles of ZCP and also the essential criteria from each level using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP.There are five core principles of charity principle, consisting of: regulation, supervision, collection and disbursement management, risk management, and audit and transparency. From these principles, the main priority is regulation following with audit and transparency.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v7i2.5275

  10. Principle of space existence and De Sitter metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, V.K.

    1990-01-01

    The selection principle for the solutions of the Einstein equations suggested in a series of papers implies the existence of space (g ik ≠ 0) only in the presence of matter (T ik ≠0). This selection principle (principle of space existence, in the Markov terminology) implies, in the general case, the absence of the cosmological solution with the De Sitter metric. On the other hand, the De Sitter metric is necessary for describing both inflation and deflation periods of the Universe. It is shown that the De Sitter metric is also allowed by the selection principle under discussion if the metric experiences the evolution into the Friedmann metric

  11. Principles of Bioenergetics

    CERN Document Server

    Skulachev, Vladimir P; Kasparinsky, Felix O

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Bioenergetics summarizes one of the quickly growing branches of modern biochemistry. Bioenergetics concerns energy transductions occurring in living systems and this book pays special attention to molecular mechanisms of these processes. The main subject of the book is the "energy coupling membrane" which refers to inner membranes of intracellular organelles, for example, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cellular cytoplasmic membranes where respiratory and photosynthetic energy transducers, as well as ion-transporting ATP-synthases (ATPases) are also part of this membrane. Significant attention is paid to the alternative function of mitochondria as generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate programmed death of cells (apoptosis and necrosis) and organisms (phenoptosis). The latter process is considered as a key mechanism of aging which may be suppressed by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.

  12. Principles of Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Svelto, Orazio

    2010-01-01

    This new Fifth Edition of Principles of Lasers incorporates corrections to the previous edition. The text’s essential mission remains the same: to provide a wide-ranging yet unified description of laser behavior, physics, technology, and current applications. Dr. Svelto emphasizes the physical rather than the mathematical aspects of lasers, and presents the subject in the simplest terms compatible with a correct physical understanding. Praise for earlier editions: "Professor Svelto is himself a longtime laser pioneer and his text shows the breadth of his broad acquaintance with all aspects of the field … Anyone mastering the contents of this book will be well prepared to understand advanced treatises and research papers in laser science and technology." (Arthur L. Schawlow, 1981 Nobel Laureate in Physics) "Already well established as a self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers … Professor Svelto’s book, in this lucid translation by David Hanna, can be strongly recommended for...

  13. Principles of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, A K

    2014-01-01

    Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...

  14. [Principles of PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthien-Baumann, B

    2018-04-19

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions. A profound knowledge of the principles of PET including the correct indications, patient preparation, and possible artifacts is mandatory for the correct interpretation of PET results.

  15. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  16. Principles & practice of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Eric; Dourmashkin, Peter A; Pedigo, Daryl; Bieniek, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Putting physics first Based on his storied research and teaching, Eric Mazur's Principles & Practice of Physics builds an understanding of physics that is both thorough and accessible. Unique organization and pedagogy allow you to develop a true conceptual understanding of physics alongside the quantitative skills needed in the course. *New learning architecture: The book is structured to help you learn physics in an organized way that encourages comprehension and reduces distraction.*Physics on a contemporary foundation: Traditional texts delay the introduction of ideas that we now see as unifying and foundational. This text builds physics on those unifying foundations, helping you to develop an understanding that is stronger, deeper, and fundamentally simpler.*Research-based instruction: This text uses a range of research-based instructional techniques to teach physics in the most effective manner possible. The result is a groundbreaking book that puts physics first, thereby making it more accessible to...

  17. Kepler and Mach's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Julian

    The definitive ideas that led to the creation of general relativity crystallized in Einstein's thinking during 1912 while he was in Prague. At the centenary meeting held there to mark the breakthrough, I was asked to talk about earlier great work of relevance to dynamics done at Prague, above all by Kepler and Mach. The main topics covered in this chapter are: some little known but basic facts about the planetary motions; the conceptual framework and most important discoveries of Ptolemy and Copernicus; the complete change of concepts that Kepler introduced and their role in his discoveries; the significance of them in Newton's work; Mach's realization that Kepler's conceptual revolution needed further development to free Newton's conceptual world of the last vestiges of the purely geometrical Ptolemaic world view; and the precise formulation of Mach's principle required to place GR correctly in the line of conceptual and technical evolution that began with the ancient Greek astronomers.

  18. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  19. Principles of rockbolting design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie C. Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the principles of underground rockbolting design. The items discussed include underground loading conditions, natural pressure zone around an underground opening, design methodologies, selection of rockbolt types, determination of bolt length and spacing, factor of safety, and compatibility between support elements. Different types of rockbolting used in engineering practise are also presented. The traditional principle of selecting strong rockbolts is valid only in conditions of low in situ stresses in the rock mass. Energy-absorbing rockbolts are preferred in the case of high in situ stresses. A natural pressure arch is formed in the rock at a certain distance behind the tunnel wall. Rockbolts should be long enough to reach the natural pressure arch when the failure zone is small. The bolt length should be at least 1 m beyond the failure zone. In the case of a vast failure zone, tightly spaced short rockbolts are installed to establish an artificial pressure arch within the failure zone and long cables are anchored on the natural pressure arch. In this case, the rockbolts are usually less than 3 m long in mine drifts, but can be up to 7 m in large-scale rock caverns. Bolt spacing is more important than bolt length in the case of establishing an artificial pressure arch. In addition to the factor of safety, the maximum allowable displacement in the tunnel and the ultimate displacement capacity of rockbolts must be also taken into account in the design. Finally, rockbolts should be compatible with other support elements in the same support system in terms of displacement and energy absorption capacities.

  20. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  1. Four principles of bio-musicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-03-19

    As a species-typical trait of Homo sapiens, musicality represents a cognitively complex and biologically grounded capacity worthy of intensive empirical investigation. Four principles are suggested here as prerequisites for a successful future discipline of bio-musicology. These involve adopting: (i) a multicomponent approach which recognizes that musicality is built upon a suite of interconnected capacities, of which none is primary; (ii) a pluralistic Tinbergian perspective that addresses and places equal weight on questions of mechanism, ontogeny, phylogeny and function; (iii) a comparative approach, which seeks and investigates animal homologues or analogues of specific components of musicality, wherever they can be found; and (iv) an ecologically motivated perspective, which recognizes the need to study widespread musical behaviours across a range of human cultures (and not focus solely on Western art music or skilled musicians). Given their pervasiveness, dance and music created for dancing should be considered central subcomponents of music, as should folk tunes, work songs, lullabies and children's songs. Although the precise breakdown of capacities required by the multicomponent approach remains open to debate, and different breakdowns may be appropriate to different purposes, I highlight four core components of human musicality--song, drumming, social synchronization and dance--as widespread and pervasive human abilities spanning across cultures, ages and levels of expertise. Each of these has interesting parallels in the animal kingdom (often analogies but in some cases apparent homologies also). Finally, I suggest that the search for universal capacities underlying human musicality, neglected for many years, should be renewed. The broad framework presented here illustrates the potential for a future discipline of bio-musicology as a rich field for interdisciplinary and comparative research.

  2. Principles of sensorimotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Diedrichsen, Jörn; Flanagan, J Randall

    2011-10-27

    The exploits of Martina Navratilova and Roger Federer represent the pinnacle of motor learning. However, when considering the range and complexity of the processes that are involved in motor learning, even the mere mortals among us exhibit abilities that are impressive. We exercise these abilities when taking up new activities - whether it is snowboarding or ballroom dancing - but also engage in substantial motor learning on a daily basis as we adapt to changes in our environment, manipulate new objects and refine existing skills. Here we review recent research in human motor learning with an emphasis on the computational mechanisms that are involved.

  3. Principles of adult learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2009-01-01

    Learning involves adding to the knowledge and skills of a student, and can be divided into a 'process' and an 'end product' or 'outcome'. In formal teaching, the focus is on pre-defined end products and it is hoped that the improvements in knowledge and skills are relatively permanent. However, t...

  4. Physical principles of filamentous protein self-assembly kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, Thomas C T; Liu, Lucie X; Meisl, Georg; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2017-01-01

    The polymerization of proteins and peptides into filamentous supramolecular structures is an elementary form of self-organization of key importance to the functioning biological systems, as in the case of actin biofilaments that compose the cellular cytoskeleton. Aberrant filamentous protein self-assembly, however, is associated with undesired effects and severe clinical disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, which, at the molecular level, are associated with the formation of certain forms of filamentous protein aggregates known as amyloids. Moreover, due to their unique physicochemical properties, protein filaments are finding extensive applications as biomaterials for nanotechnology. With all these different factors at play, the field of filamentous protein self-assembly has experienced tremendous activity in recent years. A key question in this area has been to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms through which filamentous aggregates emerge from dispersed proteins with the goal of uncovering the underlying physical principles. With the latest developments in the mathematical modeling of protein aggregation kinetics as well as the improvement of the available experimental techniques it is now possible to tackle many of these complex systems and carry out detailed analyses of the underlying microscopic steps involved in protein filament formation. In this paper, we review some classical and modern kinetic theories of protein filament formation, highlighting their use as a general strategy for quantifying the molecular-level mechanisms and transition states involved in these processes. (topical review)

  5. Proposal to consistently apply the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) to names of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria), including those validly published under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)/International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN), and proposal to change Principle 2 of the ICNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinevich, Alexander V

    2015-03-01

    This taxonomic note was motivated by the recent proposal [Oren & Garrity (2014) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64, 309-310] to exclude the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) from the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), which entails unilateral coverage of these prokaryotes by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN). On the basis of key viewpoints, approaches and rules in the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of prokaryotes it is reciprocally proposed to apply the ICNP to names of cyanobacteria including those validly published under the ICBN/ICN. For this purpose, a change to Principle 2 of the ICNP is proposed to enable validation of cyanobacterial names published under the ICBN/ICN rules. © 2015 IUMS.

  6. Archimedes' principle in general coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is applied in Schwarzschild coordinates and in rotating coordinates. Using Schwarzschild coordinates for the case of a spherical mass suspended within a perfect fluid leads to the familiar expression of Archimedes' principle. Using rotating coordinates produces an expression for a centrifugal buoyancy force that agrees with accepted theory. It is then argued that Archimedes' principle ought to be applicable to non-gravitational phenomena, as well. Conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is then applied to electromagnetic phenomena. It is shown that a charged body submerged in a charged medium experiences a buoyancy force in accordance with an electromagnetic analogue of Archimedes' principle.

  7. Archimedes' principle in general coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-05-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is applied in Schwarzschild coordinates and in rotating coordinates. Using Schwarzschild coordinates for the case of a spherical mass suspended within a perfect fluid leads to the familiar expression of Archimedes' principle. Using rotating coordinates produces an expression for a centrifugal buoyancy force that agrees with accepted theory. It is then argued that Archimedes' principle ought to be applicable to non-gravitational phenomena, as well. Conservation of the energy-momentum tensor is then applied to electromagnetic phenomena. It is shown that a charged body submerged in a charged medium experiences a buoyancy force in accordance with an electromagnetic analogue of Archimedes' principle.

  8. Principles of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Larsen, Jordan A.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, often with different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated with all relevant information informing system decisions. Robert K. Merton studied the sociological principles of the sciences and the sociological principles he developed apply to systems engineering. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, common terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that should be employed by the systems engineer. In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, insider-outsider behavior, unintended consequences, and the self-fulfilling prophecy. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information. This also helps identify key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss this theoretical basis for the application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  9. Accelerating RCRA corrective action: The principles of the DOE approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmell, T.A.; Green, D.R.; Ranek, N.L.; Coalgate, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in the remediation of environmental contamination at many of its facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). RCRA's corrective action provisions were established by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). In response to the HSWA mandate, EPA established a program for the conduct of RCRA corrective action that was similar to that established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). In addition, EPA developed and implemented its ''stabilization'' initiative as a means of quickly addressing immediate risks posed by releases until long term solutions can be applied. To improve the efficiency of environmental restoration at its facilities, DOE is developing guidance and training programs on accelerated environmental restoration under RCRA. A RCRA guidance document, entitled ''Accelerating RCRA Corrective Action at DOE Facilities,'' is currently being developed by DOE's Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance. The new guidance document will outline a decision-making process for determining if acceleration is appropriate for individual facilities, for identifying, evaluating, and selecting options for program acceleration, and for implementing selected acceleration options. The document will also discuss management and planning strategies that provide a firm foundation for accelerating RCRA corrective action. These strategies include a number of very basic principles that have proven effective at DOE and other federal facilities, as well as some new approaches. The purpose of this paper is to introduce DOE's new guidance document, discuss the general approach presented in the guidance for accelerating RCRA corrective action, and to emphasize some of the more important principles of effective management and planning

  10. Pedagogical Principles in Online Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    of the seven pedagogical principles that govern the teaching at our university. We also present a case study that illustrates how both opportunities and challenges were met in two “first-mover” fully online courses during Fall 2014. The experiences from this case study are discussed in terms of to what extent...... they met the pedagogical principles and observations unrelated to the pedagogical principle are shared....

  11. Principle extremum of full action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon I. Khmelnik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new variational principle extremum of full action is proposed, which extends the Lagrange formalism on dissipative systems. It is shown that this principle is applicable in electrical engineering, electrodynamics, mechanics and hydrodynamics, taking into account the friction forces. The proposed variational principle may be considered as a new formalism used as an universal method of physical equations derivation, and also as a method for solving these equations.

  12. The iceberg principles

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer-Devlin, Marni

    2013-01-01

    The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...

  13. Principles of Bioremediation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, E. L.

    2001-12-01

    Although microorganisms have successfully and spontaneously maintained the biosphere since its inception, industrialized societies now produce undesirable chemical compounds at rates that outpace naturally occurring microbial detoxification processes. This presentation provides an overview of both the complexities of contaminated sites and methodological limitations in environmental microbiology that impede the documentation of biodegradation processes in the field. An essential step toward attaining reliable bioremediation technologies is the development of criteria which prove that microorganisms in contaminated field sites are truly active in metabolizing contaminants of interest. These criteria, which rely upon genetic, biochemical, physiological, and ecological principles and apply to both in situ and ex situ bioremediation strategies include: (i) internal conservative tracers; (ii) added conservative tracers; (iii) added radioactive tracers; (iv) added isotopic tracers; (v) stable isotopic fractionation patterns; (vi) detection of intermediary metabolites; (vii) replicated field plots; (viii) microbial metabolic adaptation; (ix) molecular biological indicators; (x) gradients of coreactants and/or products; (xi) in situ rates of respiration; (xii) mass balances of contaminants, coreactants, and products; and (xiii) computer modeling that incorporates transport and reactive stoichiometries of electron donors and acceptors. The ideal goal is achieving a quantitative understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, and physiology of complex real-world systems.

  14. Neutron diffraction principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, Jose R.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron as research element contributes at present to the understanding and development of almost all aspects related to basic and applied science, even with the relative inaccessibility of neutron sources and the fact that the most intense sources still provide relatively weak neutron beams. The initial discovery of these potentialities and the first works that allowed to convert the neutronic techniques into the actual powerful experimental tool, have been recognized by the adjudication of the Nobel Prize in Physics 1994 to Professors B. Brockhouse and C. Shull. Unfortunately, these tools have not been exploited neither in our country, nor in the Latin American area, with the exception of very limited applications in Materials Science. Although the theoretical principles of neutron scattering techniques have been treated in texts and review works, the aim of this work is to present a compact set of expressions, oriented to sustain and explain the basic forms or the most frequent use for the interpretation of experimental results. The formulation, mostly based on the initial chapters of the Ph.D. Thesis of G.J. Cuello (Instituto Balseiro, 1996), only considers nuclear scattering of neutrons for extension reasons, but it must be taken into account that the experiments designed for the study of the magnetic properties of materials currently play a rol of importance equal to those

  15. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  16. [The principles of homeopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelvik, M; Mørenskog, E

    1997-06-30

    Homeopathy is a gentle but effective form of treatment which stimulates the natural ability of the organism to heal itself. The word homoeopathy comes from the greek words "homoios" which means similar, and "pathos" which means disease. This reflects the main principle of homoeopathy, the law of similars, which predicts that a disease can be cured by a medicine, which in healthy people is able to produce a condition that resembles the disease. The law of similars is probably a basic law of nature. Therefore it is not surprising that examples can also be found in orthodox medicine, where the mode of functioning for some medicines probably can be ascribed the law of similars. Homoeopathic medicines are likely to work through the body's own curative powers in a way that is best explained by comparison with vaccination. Both the homoeopathic medicine and the vaccine constitute a mild stimulous that causes mobilisation of the body's defence mechanisms and thus increased ability to oppose a pathogenic influence. The homoeopathic medicine does not work at molecular level, but probably through non-materialistic qualities (possibly electromagnetic in nature) in the organism, which are so sensitive that even a mild stimulus is enough to cause a reaction. This means that homoeopathic preparations can still have an effect even when diluted beyond avogadro's number.

  17. Quantum principles and particles

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Walter

    2012-01-01

    QUANTUM PRINCIPLESPerspective and PrinciplesPrelude to Quantum MechanicsStern-Gerlach Experiment Idealized Stern-Gerlach ResultsClassical Model AttemptsWave Functions for Two Physical-Outcome CaseProcess Diagrams, Operators, and Completeness Further Properties of Operators/ModulationOperator ReformulationOperator RotationBra-Ket Notation/Basis StatesTransition AmplitudesThree-Magnet Setup Example-CoherenceHermitian ConjugationUnitary OperatorsA Very Special OperatorMatrix RepresentationsMatrix Wave Function RecoveryExpectation ValuesWrap Up ProblemsFree Particles in One DimensionPhotoelectric EffectCompton EffectUncertainty Relation for PhotonsStability of Ground StatesBohr ModelFourier Transform and Uncertainty RelationsSchrödinger EquationSchrödinger Equation ExampleDirac Delta FunctionsWave Functions and ProbabilityProbability CurrentTime Separable SolutionsCompleteness for Particle StatesParticle Operator PropertiesOperator RulesTime Evolution and Expectation ValuesWrap-UpProblemsSome One-Dimensional So...

  18. Cross-hierarchy systems principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goentoro, Lea

    2017-02-01

    One driving motivation of systems biology is the search for general principles that govern the design of biological systems. But questions often arise as to what kind of general principles biology could have. Concepts from engineering such as robustness and modularity are indeed becoming a regular way of describing biological systems. Another source of potential general principles is the emerging similarities found in processes across biological hierarchies. In this piece, I describe several emerging cross-hierarchy similarities. Identification of more cross-hierarchy principles, and understanding the implications these convergence have on the construction of biological systems, I believe, present exciting challenges for systems biology in the decades to come.

  19. Fundamental principles of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugajski, S.

    1980-01-01

    After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)

  20. Aircraft Infrared Principles, Signatures, Threats, and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    by Under authority of R. SMILEY , Head P. A. SOHL Avionics Department RDML, U.S. Navy 26 September 2012 Commander Released for publication by S...Aircraft Infrared Principles, Signatures, Threats, and Countermeasures (U) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Engine “hot parts,” which usually consist of the aft turbine face , engine center body, and interior nozzle sidewalls. 2. Engine exhaust plumes

  1. Stochastic principles governing alternative splicing of RNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfei Hu; Eli Boritz; William Wylie; Daniel C Douek

    2017-01-01

    Author summary Alternative RNA splicing within eukaryotic cells enables each gene to generate multiple different mature transcripts which further encode proteins with distinct or even opposing functions. The relative frequencies of the transcript isoforms generated by a particular gene are essential to the maintenance of normal cellular physiology; however, the underlying mechanisms and principles that govern these frequencies are unknown. We analyzed the frequency distribution of all transcr...

  2. Conversation principles and second language utterances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaburise, Phyllis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversation principles, such as those of Grice (1957, 1968, 1975, Austin (1962, Searle (1962, 1969 are formulated to enable interlocutors to interact meaningfully, in a linguistic project. Non-observance and flouting of these principles occur regularly in the verbal behaviours of users of a language, indeed, sophisticated users of a language, sometimes deliberately go against these norms, as stylistic devices in their output. When such non-conformities occur, hearers and readers resort to implicatures, maxims, inferences and their general world knowledge to interpret an utterance. Although the decision to observe some, and not all of the principles during a linguistic encounter, may seem to be taken casually, it is the contention of this paper that such decisions are made deliberately, particularly, by users of a second language. This paper attempts to identify the selection processes involved in the creation of some utterances produced by Ghanaian and Tshivenda second language users of English, using Grice’s verbal interaction maxims. The discussion will focus on the tension between semantic and pragmatic meaning, the factors involved in the creation of linguistic meaning and the role that interaction requirements such as Grice’s conversational maxims and the concept of a New Englishes approach to language play in the creation of some second language utterances.

  3. Basic Economic Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.

  4. The Principle of Social Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo L. dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies a general class of economic processes capable of generating the first-moment constraints implicit in the observed cross-sectional distributions of a number of economic variables: processes of social scaling. Across a variety of settings, the outcomes of economic competition reflect the normalization of individual values of certain economic quantities by average or social measures of themselves. The resulting socioreferential processes establish systematic interdependences among individual values of important economic variables, which under certain conditions take the form of emergent first-moment constraints on their distributions. The paper postulates a principle describing this systemic regulation of socially scaled variables and illustrates its empirical purchase by showing how capital- and labor-market competition can give rise to patterns of social scaling that help account for the observed distributions of Tobin’s q and wage income. The paper’s discussion embodies a distinctive approach to understanding and investigating empirically the relationship between individual agency and structural determinations in complex economic systems and motivates the development of observational foundations for aggregative, macrolevel economic analysis.

  5. Design principles for precision mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Soemers, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The successful design of mechanisms for products, tools and equipment relies on excellent concepts and properly designed details. Both are covered in this book. Many of the examples presented have been realised in practice and properly evaluated, giving the reader/designer a high level of confidence. Every example comes with the considerations underlying the application and the limitations of the particular idea. This book is based on the work started in the 1960s by W. van der Hoek at Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, and subsequently continued by M.P. Koster, culminating in the Dutch-language book “Constructieprincipes” [Design principles for accurate movement and positioning]. The core of their design approach has been preserved, while theory and examples were updated and the English language was adopted to reach a broad audience within the Netherlands as well as abroad. Herman (H.M.J.R.) Soemers is associated with the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. He also works as a technolog...

  6. Artificial vision: principles and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhooley, Michael J; Acheson, James

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this article is to give an overview of the strategies and technologies currently under development to return vision to blind patients and will answer the question: What options exist for artificial vision in patients blind from retinal disease; how close are these to clinical practice? Retinal approaches will be the focus of this review as they are most advanced in terms not only of development, but entry into the imagination of the general public; they are technologies patients ask about, but may be less familiar to practicing neurologists.The prerequisites for retinal survivor cell stimulation are discussed, followed by consideration of the state of the art of four promising methods making use of this principle: electronic prostheses, stem cells, gene therapy and the developing field of ophthalmic optogenetics. Human applications of artificial vision by survivor cell stimulation are certainly with us in the research clinic and very close to commercialization and general use. This, together with their place in the public consciousness, makes the overview provided by this review particularly helpful to practicing neurologists.

  7. The Principle-Based Method of Practical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielthenner, Georg

    2017-09-01

    This paper is about the methodology of doing practical ethics. There is a variety of methods employed in ethics. One of them is the principle-based approach, which has an established place in ethical reasoning. In everyday life, we often judge the rightness and wrongness of actions by their conformity to principles, and the appeal to principles plays a significant role in practical ethics, too. In this paper, I try to provide a better understanding of the nature of principle-based reasoning. To accomplish this, I show in the first section that these principles can be applied to cases in a meaningful and sufficiently precise way. The second section discusses the question how relevant applying principles is to the resolution of ethical issues. This depends on their nature. I argue that the principles under consideration in this paper should be interpreted as presumptive principles and I conclude that although they cannot be expected to bear the weight of definitely resolving ethical problems, these principles can nevertheless play a considerable role in ethical research.

  8. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  9. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  10. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  11. [Ethical principles in psychiatric action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüther, Eckart

    2014-07-01

    There is no specific psychiatric ethic. The ethical principles for practical actions in psychiatry have to be adapted on the basis of the generally accepted ethical principles, which are based on psychobiologically developed ethic of love: honesty, discretion, empathy, patience, distance, consistency, accountability, tolerance, economic neutrality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The Principle of Least Action

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    masterful survey of the Principles of Least Action in mechanics and evaluates the contributions of the pioneers from Maupertuis through Lagrange to Hamilton in a critical fashion. For interested students and teachers the following references are valuable: Cornelius Lanczos, The Variational Principles of Mechanics, ...

  13. Multimedia Principle in Teaching Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…

  14. Ideario Educativo (Principles of Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) which discusses an overall educational policy for Mexico based on Constitutional principles and those of humanism. The basic principles that should guide Mexican education as seen by the National Technical Council for Education are the following: (1) love of country; (2)…

  15. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Stamps

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies.

  16. Quantum principles in field interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of quantum principle is intruduced as a principle whosee formulation is based on specific quantum ideas and notions. We consider three such principles, viz. those of quantizability, local gauge symmetry, and supersymmetry, and their role in the development of the quantum field theory (QFT). Concerning the first of these, we analyze the formal aspects and physical contents of the renormalization procedure in QFT and its relation to ultraviolet divergences and the renorm group. The quantizability principle is formulated as an existence condition of a self-consistent quantum version with a given mechanism of the field interaction. It is shown that the consecutive (from a historial point of view) use of these quantum principles puts still larger limitations on possible forms of field interactions

  17. A possible human counterpart of the principle of increasing entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K.N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the principle of increasing entropy holds for isolated natural systems that contain non-adaptive molecules. Here we present, for the first time, an experimental evidence for a possible human counterpart of the principle in an isolated social system that involves adaptive humans. Our work shows that the human counterpart is valid even though interactions among humans in social systems are distinctly different from those among molecules in natural systems. Thus, it becomes possible to understand social systems from this natural principle, at least to some extent.

  18. Nursing application of Bobath principles in stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarella, P M; Lewis, N

    1987-04-01

    The nursing approach in the care of stroke patients has a direct impact on functional outcome. Nursing application of Bobath principles in stroke care offers a nursing focus on involvement of the affected side; facilitation of normal tone, posture, and movement; and development of more normal function. A research study evaluating the functional gains of stroke patients demonstrated a significant level of functional improvement in those treated with Bobath principles over stroke patients treated with the traditional nursing approach. Practical methods for applying Bobath principles in patient care activities are described. These therapeutic methods provide nurses with the means to maximize stroke patients' potential and further influence their functional recovery.

  19. Principles of headaches evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rosa Rolim de Andrade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT However common tension-type headache is in epidemiologic population-based studies, migraine is the most common diagnosis in patients seeking treatment for headache in primary care. The appropriate evaluation of headache should be as follows: 1 To rule out the most serious underlying pathologies and to look for other secondary causes of headache, 2 To determine the type of primary headache using the patient's history as a primary diagnostic tool. Symptoms can always overlap, particularly between migraine and tension-type headache and between migraine and some secondary causes of headache (such as neurologic or systemic disease. A brief headache screen based only on anamnesis and physical examination data which direct to an underlying pathology is useful to primary care physicians in particular. An imaging study is not necessary in the vast majority of patients presenting with headache. Nevertheless, imaging (usually CT scan is warranted in the patients outlined above.

  20. Principles of source control in the management of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John C; Al Naqbi, Abdullah

    2011-03-01

    This brief overview of the role of source control in sepsis emphasizes the underlying principles rather than the empiric evidence from well-performed clinical studies. The reasons for this are several. First there is a paucity of high-level published evidence, with few rigorous large clinical series, and even fewer clinical trials. Second, the decision-making process in the individual patient is complex, and often not amenable to study using the design of a randomized controlled trial, for decisions involve consideration not only of the underlying disease but of the stability of the patient, the presence of comorbidities, and the prior surgical history, all factors that can heavily influence the decision to choose one therapeutic option rather than another. The scope of the topic is large, and the space limited. Interested readers are referred to more detailed discussions such as that found in the background to the recommendations on source control in the guidelines of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign.(1) Source control is a core treatment modality in the management of the patient with severe sepsis or septic shock. Its optimal use assumes a comprehensive knowledge of biologic principles, the complexities of the septic response, and the range of surgical and nonsurgical options, and a combination of therapeutic aggressiveness and judicious caution in the clinician charged with making the decision. As every intensivist learns, appropriate source-control intervention can rapidly alter the course of sepsis to a more favorable direction, and suboptimal decision-making can change a difficult clinical challenge into a nightmare. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Principles of adult learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2009-01-01

    specific factors related to the student, the content of the course and the learning situation itself can influence the learning of new knowledge and skills. Furthermore, it examines how particular methods of learning can enable the knowledge and skills thus gained to be more easily applied in other......Learning involves adding to the knowledge and skills of a student, and can be divided into a 'process' and an 'end product' or 'outcome'. In formal teaching, the focus is on pre-defined end products and it is hoped that the improvements in knowledge and skills are relatively permanent. However......, this is not always the case, which is why it becomes important to examine the concept of 'transfer' more closely. 'Transfer' describes how well the knowledge and skills learned in one context can be applied by the student in another context. Several factors influence transfer. This paper describes the ways in which...

  2. Advances in Cryogenic Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, R. F.

    During the past 50 years, the use of digital computers has significantly influenced the design and analysis of cryogenic systems. At the time when the first Cryogenic Engineering Conference was held, thermodynamic data were presented in graphical or tabular form (the "steam table" format), whereas thermodynamic data for cryogenic system design is computer generated today. The thermal analysis of cryogenic systems in the 1950s involved analytical solutions, graphical solutions, and relatively simple finite-difference approaches. These approaches have been supplanted by finite-element numerical programs which readily solve complicated thermal problems that could not be solved easily using the methods of the 1950s. In distillation column design, the use of the McCabe-Thiele graphical method for determination of the number of theoretical plates has been replaced by numerical methods that allow consideration of several different components in the feed and product streams.

  3. [The precautionary principle: advantages and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    2001-04-01

    The extension of the precautionary principle to the field of healthcare is the social response to two demands of the population: improved health safety and the inclusion of an informed public in the decision-making process. The necessary balance between cost (treatment-induced risk) and benefit (therapeutic effect) underlies all healthcare decisions. An underestimation or an overestimation of cost, i.e. risk, is equally harmful in public healthcare. A vaccination should be prescribed when its beneficial effect outweighs its inevitable risk. Mandatory vaccination, such as in the case of the Hepatitis B virus, is a health policy requiring some courage because those who benefit will never be aware of its positive effect while those who are victims of the risk could resort to litigation. Defense against such accusations requires an accurate assessment of risk and benefit, which underlines the importance of expertise. Even within the framework of the precautionary principle, it is impossible to act without knowledge, or at least a plausible estimation, of expected effects. Recent affairs (blood contamination, transmissible spongiform encephalitis by growth hormone, and new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease) illustrate that in such cases the precautionary principle would have had limited impact and it is only when enough knowledge was available that effective action could be taken. Likewise, in current debates concerning the possible risks of electromagnetic fields, cellular phones and radon, research efforts must be given priority. The general public understands intuitively the concept of cost and benefit. For example, the possible health risks of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy were not ignored, but the public has judged that their advantages justify the risk. Estimating risk and benefit and finding a balance between risk and preventive measures could help avoid the main drawbacks of the precautionary principle, i.e. inaction and refusal of

  4. Principles of precision medicine in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Jason D; Rost, Natalia S; Leung, Thomas W; Montaner, Joan; Muir, Keith W; Brown, Scott; Arenillas, Juan F; Feldmann, Edward; Liebeskind, David S

    2017-01-01

    The era of precision medicine has arrived and conveys tremendous potential, particularly for stroke neurology. The diagnosis of stroke, its underlying aetiology, theranostic strategies, recurrence risk and path to recovery are populated by a series of highly individualised questions. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of a clinical diagnosis of stroke makes a simple genetic risk assessment only partially informative on an individual basis. The guiding principles of precision medicine in stroke underscore the need to identify, value, organise and analyse the multitude of variables obtained from each individual to generate a precise approach to optimise cerebrovascular health. Existing data may be leveraged with novel technologies, informatics and practical clinical paradigms to apply these principles in stroke and realise the promise of precision medicine. Importantly, precision medicine in stroke will only be realised once efforts to collect, value and synthesise the wealth of data collected in clinical trials and routine care starts. Stroke theranostics, the ultimate vision of synchronising tailored therapeutic strategies based on specific diagnostic data, demand cerebrovascular expertise on big data approaches to clinically relevant paradigms. This review considers such challenges and delineates the principles on a roadmap for rational application of precision medicine to stroke and cerebrovascular health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Principles of data integration

    CERN Document Server

    Doan, AnHai; Ives, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    How do you approach answering queries when your data is stored in multiple databases that were designed independently by different people? This is first comprehensive book on data integration and is written by three of the most respected experts in the field. This book provides an extensive introduction to the theory and concepts underlying today's data integration techniques, with detailed, instruction for their application using concrete examples throughout to explain the concepts. Data integration is the problem of answering queries that span multiple data sources (e.g., databases, web

  6. Introductory remote sensing principles and concepts principles and concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Remote Sensing Principles and Concepts provides a comprehensive student introduction to both the theory and application of remote sensing. This textbook* introduces the field of remote sensing and traces its historical development and evolution* presents detailed explanations of core remote sensing principles and concepts providing the theory required for a clear understanding of remotely sensed images.* describes important remote sensing platforms - including Landsat, SPOT and NOAA * examines and illustrates many of the applications of remotely sensed images in various fields.

  7. Scattered Radiation Emission Imaging: Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging processes built on the Compton scattering effect have been under continuing investigation since it was first suggested in the 50s. However, despite many innovative contributions, there are still formidable theoretical and technical challenges to overcome. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art principles of the so-called scattered radiation emission imaging. Basically, it consists of using the cleverly collected scattered radiation from a radiating object to reconstruct its inner structure. Image formation is based on the mathematical concept of compounded conical projection. It entails a Radon transform defined on circular cone surfaces in order to express the scattered radiation flux density on a detecting pixel. We discuss in particular invertible cases of such conical Radon transforms which form a mathematical basis for image reconstruction methods. Numerical simulations performed in two and three space dimensions speak in favor of the viability of this imaging principle and its potential applications in various fields.

  8. Principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawden, D F

    2005-01-01

    A thorough exploration of the universal principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, this volume explains the applications of these essential rules to a multitude of situations arising in physics and engineering. It develops their use in a variety of circumstances-including those involving gases, crystals, and magnets-in order to illustrate general methods of analysis and to provide readers with all the necessary background to continue in greater depth with specific topics.Author D. F. Lawden has considerable experience in teaching this subject to university students of varied abili

  9. Thermoelectricity an introduction to the principles

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, D K C

    2006-01-01

    This introductory treatment provides an understanding of the fundamental concepts and principles involved in the study of thermoelectricity in solids and of conduction in general. Aimed at graduate-level students and those interested in basic theory, it will be especially valuable to experimental physicists working in fields connected with electron transport and to theoreticians seeking a survey of thermoelectricity and related questions.Chronicling the early history of thermoelectricity from its discovery to modern times, this text features a considerable amount of experimental data and discu

  10. Principles of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Principles of Laser Spectroscopy and Quantum Optics is an essential textbook for graduate students studying the interaction of optical fields with atoms. It also serves as an ideal reference text for researchers working in the fields of laser spectroscopy and quantum optics. The book provides a rigorous introduction to the prototypical problems of radiation fields interacting with two- and three-level atomic systems. It examines the interaction of radiation with both atomic vapors and condensed matter systems, the density matrix and the Bloch vector, and applications involving linear absorptio

  11. The Application of the lura Novit Curia Principle in International Commercial Arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Blackaby

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite its recognition in different jurisdictions, the application of the iura novit curia principle in international commercial arbitration has been subject to debate. From the most liberal point of view, the principle is entirely applicable to international commercial arbitration in the same way that it would be applied by a judge when rendering a decision under his national law. However, from the most conservative standpoint, any manifestation of this principle allowing arbitrators to take the initiative in raising new legal issues during the proceedings must be completely rejected. Taking as a premise that, generally speaking, members of an international arbitral tribunal are not familiar with the law applicable to the disputes that are brought to them and that they have no experience or practical knowledge regarding such law, the application of the iura novit curia principle in its purest form would not be adequate in the context of international commercial arbitration given its contractual nature and the interests involved. On the other hand, an outright rejection of this principle in international commercial arbitration would tie the hands of arbitrators and create the risk of awards being rendered that either ignore or contradict rules or principles that form part of the applicable law, which could lead to challenges to their validity or later enforcement. For this reason, in order for iura novit curia to be applied in the context of international commercial arbitration, an intermediate approach should be adopted. This involves a significant adaptation of the principle, so that some of its manifestations could be accepted in exceptional circumstances as a tool that arbitrators could use in order to fully comply with duties that are inherent to their decision-making function, including the duty not to exceed the jurisdiction conferred upon them by the parties, the duty to render awards that are valid, enforceable and in

  12. Several Mediological Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Crăciun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several new perspectives on the contemporary civilization provided by means of a new discipline entitled “Mediology”. This new science that the French professor Regis Debray proposes presents the characteristics of the contemporary society in relation to models of some previous stages. This article proposes a critical perspective on the model proposed by Regis Debray as compared to other sources envisaging the analysis of the evolution of the cultural models in time, such as, for instance, the perspective proposed by Giambattista Vico on the evolution of the linguistic and cultural codes. The aim of the article is that of providing an integrated perspective, allowing a better understanding of the changes underlying the informational society.

  13. Principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamourtzounis, J.N.

    1969-01-01

    In the rapidly developing areas of occupational and public health devoted to the protection of people from both immediate and delayed harmful (and sometimes Irreversible) effects of radiation exposure, industrial hygienists, radiological physicists and radiologists must now assume the additional responsibility of protection against radiation. Everyone during his life will have had one or more X-rays taken for diagnostic purposes. The doses received, depending upon the site, are not harmful to the individual, from the genetic aspect, however, the increasing use of X-ray examinations does present a danger,since almost the whole population is involved. Rapid progress in the development of nuclear energy and the practical extension of its use in medicine, agriculture and industry are steadily increasing the potential danger of large groups of the population being exposed to radiation, and radiation hazards are becoming an important aspect of industrial and public hygiene. WHO is concerned with the overall evaluation of population exposure from peaceful uses of atomic energy and through medical practice, the evaluation of radiation risks,and the control of medical radiation exposure. WHO stimulates and provides technical assistance for the development of appropriate programs of radiation protection with respect to the agricultural, industrial and medical applications of radioisotopes. X-rays and radium. (author)

  14. Hybrid principle with applications to synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanneh, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of hybrid principles is presented together with the transformation rule for converting odd-parity approximations into even-parity approximations. This rule leads to a method which provides rigorous upper and lower bounds for the disadvantage factor for a reactor lattice cell. With these bounds very precise benchmarks have been constructed for representative lattices. It is found that a combination of even and odd-parity solutions for the neutron flux is much more efficient than solutions based on either the even-parity or odd-parity. This is the basis of one synthesis scheme. In another synthesis method, a hybrid principle with trial functions for both the even- and odd- parity angular flux is used in conjunction with a classical principle with an odd-parity trial function. The synthesis process is efficient because the largest set of equations to be solved, i.e. the frame work, involves as few as one unknown per node of the finite element mesh. The effectiveness of the synthesis method is demonstrated for a thick shield problem. (author)

  15. Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

  16. Principle of natural and artificial radioactive series equivalency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyeva, A.N.; Starkov, O.V.

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper one approach used under development of radioactive waste management conception is under consideration. This approach is based on the principle of natural and artificial radioactive series radiotoxic equivalency. The radioactivity of natural and artificial radioactive series has been calculated for 10 9 - years period. The toxicity evaluation for natural and artificial series has also been made. The correlation between natural radioactive series and their predecessors - actinides produced in thermal and fast reactors - has been considered. It has been shown that systematized reactor series data had great scientific significance and the principle of differential calculation of radiotoxicity was necessary to realize long-lived radioactive waste and uranium and thorium ore radiotoxicity equivalency conception. The calculations show that the execution of equivalency principle is possible for uranium series (4n+2, 4n+1). It is a problem for thorium. series. This principle is impracticable for neptunium series. (author)

  17. Fractional variational principles with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Abdeljawad, Thabet Maaraba; Jarad, Fahd

    2008-01-01

    The fractional variational principles within Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives in the presence of delay are analyzed. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained and one example is analyzed in detail

  18. Guiding Principles for Data Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The principles in the document are intended to help guide the identification of data needs, promote and optimize full use of existing knowledge, provide consistency in the data request process across all scientific disciplines for pesticide review.

  19. Quantum mechanics principles and formalism

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on main principles of quantum mechanics and their immediate consequences, this graduate student-oriented volume develops the subject as a fundamental discipline, opening with review of origins of Schrödinger's equations and vector spaces.

  20. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR PLANETARY INTERIORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass–radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass–radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  1. The Curtin–Hammett Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 2. The Curtin–Hammett Principle: A Qualitative Understanding. Suchandra Chakraborty Chandan Saha ... Keywords. Organic chemistry, qualitative physical interpretation, history, philos ophy, applic ations in chemistry, kinetic quenching.

  2. Principles and practice of psychopharmacotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janicak, Philip G; Marder, Stephen R; Pavuluri, Mani N

    2011-01-01

    "Fully updated for its Fifth Edition, Principles and Practice of Psychopharmacotherapy summarizes the latest data on hundreds of drug and device-based therapies and offers practical, evidence-based...

  3. Chinese Principles of Operational Deception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Jr, Michael

    2006-01-01

    .... An analysis of Chinese employment of operational deception in each modern day Chinese conflict since the Chinese Civil War determines that China's principles of operation match those of the United States...

  4. The Laughter as Hope Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Domingues da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to establish a parallel between the concept of laughter and the Hope Principle of Ernst Bloch, differentiating their relationship between the pursuit of individual happiness, said to be ideological, deceptive and precarious, and the pursuit of collective happiness, altruistic, that despite utopian it is also true and real, just for being selfless and real because, as a collective expression, indicating concretely and politically, is a real possibility.Keywords: Laughter, Hope Principle, Ernest Bloch, altruism.

  5. Teaching the Principles of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    N. Gregory Mankiw

    1998-01-01

    In this brief essay, I describe my approach to the principles course. I emphasize three themes. First, in teaching microeconomics, the tools of welfare economics should play a larger role than they have in the past. Second, in teaching macroeconomics, classical ideas should play a larger role than they have in the past. Third, in teaching all parts of the course, we instructors should be sure to stress the important principles and be careful not to overwhelm students with an excess of details.

  6. The principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of radiation protection is to avoid or to reduce the risks linked to ionizing radiation. In order to reduce these risks, the radiation protection uses three great principles: justification, optimization and limitation of radiation doses. to apply these principles, the radiation protection has regulatory and technical means adapted to three different categories of people: public, patients and workers. The nuclear safety authority elaborates the regulation, and carries out monitoring of the reliable application of radiation protection system. (N.C.)

  7. Equivalence principle and gravitational redshift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensee, Michael A; Chu, Steven; Peters, Achim; Müller, Holger

    2011-04-15

    We investigate leading order deviations from general relativity that violate the Einstein equivalence principle in the gravitational standard model extension. We show that redshift experiments based on matter waves and clock comparisons are equivalent to one another. Consideration of torsion balance tests, along with matter-wave, microwave, optical, and Mössbauer clock tests, yields comprehensive limits on spin-independent Einstein equivalence principle-violating standard model extension terms at the 10(-6) level.

  8. The 2009 Earth Science Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K. M.; Conklin, M. H.; Kappel, E. S.; Ladue, N.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Tuddenham, P.

    2009-12-01

    In 2009, the NSF-funded Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) completed and published a document representing a community consensus about what all Americans should understand about Earth sciences. These Earth Science Literacy Principles, presented as a printed brochure and on the Internet at www.earthscienceliteracy.org, were created through the work of nearly 1000 geoscientists and geoeducators who helped identify nine “big ideas” and seventy-five “supporting concepts” fundamental to terrestrial geosciences. The content scope involved the geosphere and land-based hydrosphere as addressed by the NSF-EAR program, including the fields of geobiology and low-temperature geochemistry, geomorphology and land-use dynamics, geophysics, hydrologic sciences, petrology and geochemistry, sedimentary geology and paleobiology, and tectonics. The ESLI Principles were designed to complement similar documents from the ocean, atmosphere, and climate research communities, with the long-term goal of combining these separate literacy documents into a single Earth System Science literacy framework. The aim of these principles is to educate the public, shape the future of geoscience education, and help guide the development of government policy related to Earth science. For example, K-12 textbooks are currently being written and museum exhibits constructed with these Principles in hand. NPR-funded educational videos are in the process of being made in alignment with the ESLP Principles. US House and Senate representatives on science and education committees have been made aware that the major geoscience organizations have endorsed such a document generated and supported by the community. Given the importance of Earth science in so many societally relevant topics such as climate change, energy and mineral resources, water availability, natural hazards, agriculture, and human impacts on the biosphere, efforts should be taken to ensure that this document is in a position to

  9. 48 CFR 49.113 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost principles. 49.113... TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.113 Cost principles. The cost principles and procedures in the applicable subpart of part 31 shall, subject to the general principles in 49.201, (a) be used in asserting...

  10. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, M.P.; Share, F.S.; Goodman, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation oncology now represents the integration of knowledge obtained over an 80-year period from the physics and biology laboratories and the medical clinic. Such integration is recent; until the supervoltage era following World War II, the chief developments in these three areas for the most part were realized independently. The physics and engineering laboratories have now developed a dependable family of sources of ionizing radiations that can be precisely directed at tumor volumes at various depths within the body. The biology laboratory has provided the basic scientific support underlying the intensive clinical experience and currently is suggesting ways of using ionizing radiations more effectively, such as modified fractionation schedules relating to cell cycle kinetics and the use of drugs and chemicals as modifiers of radiation response and normal tissue reaction. The radiation therapy clinic has provided the patient stratum on which the acute and chronic effects of irradiation have been assessed, and the patterns of treatment success and failure identified. The radiation therapist has shared with the surgeon and medical oncologist the responsibility for clarifying the natural history of a large number of human neoplasms, and through such clarifications, has developed more effective treatment strategies. Several examples of this include the improved results in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, seminoma, and epithelial neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract

  11. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  12. 物權「自治」主義的美麗新世界?― 民法第757條之立法論與解釋論 Is Freedom of Property Form Principle Efficient?― Interpretations of Articles 757 of the Taiwan Civil Code and the Underlying Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張永健 Yun-Chine Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 近來,不少學者批評物權法定主義,提倡以物權自治主義代之。2009年民法第757條修正,改採物權法定加習慣主義。文以Merrill和Smith提出之物權類型最適數目理論為基礎,輔以Hansmann和Kraakman及本文之批評修正,評判上述各種制度安排何者為優。 本文主張物權法定主義,理論上雖不當然創設最適數目之物權類型(台灣經驗即為一例,但若立法者不怠惰,仍有可能達成該目標。物權自治主義製造外部成本,,理論上必然會創造過多之物權類型,並無效率。法院解釋物權法定加習慣主義時,除應注意修法理由所揭示之社會成本外,亦應考量邊際社會利益。此外,動產因難以適當地公示,不應輕易使習慣得創設新動產物權。法院承認習慣所創設之不動產物權,應以該習慣存在於全國大多數地區為要件。 Recently, many Taiwanese and Chinese scholars criticized the numerus clausus principle, and proposed freedom of property form principle instead. In 2009, the Taiwan legislature amended Article 757 of the Civil Code, loosening the numerus clausus principle, and allowing customs to create new property forms. Based on the optimal standardization theory first proposed by Merrill & Smith, with the revision by Hansmann & Kraakman and this article, I evaluate which institutional arrangement to create property forms is the most desirable. This article argues that although the numerus clausus principle (under which the legislature monopolizes the creation of property forms does not guarantee creation of optimal number of property forms, it is not impossible for the number of statue-created property forms to approximate the optimal number. The freedom of property form principle, by contrast, will produce an over-optimal number of property forms, because of the external costs of creating new property forms by private transactors. When interpreting

  13. Principles of cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, David E

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the use of very low temperatures to preserve structurally intact living cells and tissues. Unprotected freezing is normally lethal and this chapter seeks to analyze some of the mechanisms involved and to show how cooling can be used to produce stable conditions that preserve life. The biological effects of cooling are dominated by the freezing of water, which results in the concentration of the solutes that are dissolved in the remaining liquid phase. Rival theories of freezing injury have envisaged either that ice crystals pierce or tease apart the cells, destroying them by direct mechanical action, or that damage is from secondary effects via changes in the composition of the liquid phase. Cryoprotectants, simply by increasing the total concentration of all solutes in the system, reduce the amount of ice formed at any given temperature; but to be biologically acceptable they must be able to penetrate into the cells and have low toxicity. Many compounds have such properties, including glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanediol, and propanediol. In fact, both damaging mechanisms are important, their relative contributions depending on cell type, cooling rate, and warming rate. A consensus has developed that intracellular freezing is dangerous, whereas extracellular ice is harmless. If the water permeability of the cell membrane is known it is possible to predict the effect of cooling rate on cell survival and the optimum rate will be a trade-off between the risk of intracellular freezing and effects of the concentrated solutes. However, extracellular ice is not always innocuous: densely packed cells are more likely to be damaged by mechanical stresses within the channels where they are sequestered and with complex multicellular systems it is imperative not only to secure cell survival but also to avoid damage to the extracellular structure. Ice can be avoided by vitrification-the production of a glassy state that is defined by the viscosity

  14. Principles Underlying the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) and Its Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) is designed to be objective (so it can be administered by a lay native speaker of the language) and equivalent across languages (to allow for a comparison between the languages of a given patient as well as across patients from different institutions). It has been used not only with aphasia but also with any…

  15. 47 CFR 36.2 - Fundamental principles underlying procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... trunk transmission equipment. Within the exchange classification there are four board types of plant, i.e., operator systems, switching plant, truck equipment and subscriber plant. Subscriber plant... PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 General § 36.2...

  16. Principles underlying rational design of live attenuated influenza vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Yo Han; Seong, Baik-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent innovative advances in molecular virology and the developments of vaccines, influenza virus remains a serious burden for human health. Vaccination has been considered a primary countermeasure for prevention of influenza infection. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are particularly attracting attention as an effective strategy due to several advantages over inactivated vaccines. Cold-adaptation, as a classical means for attenuating viral virulence, has been successfully...

  17. Market principles toward the land plots assessment

    OpenAIRE

    A. Koshel

    2015-01-01

    Market principles toward the agricultural land plots assessment and the features are analyzed. The detailed study of economic valuation principles of agricultural land is conducted. Application of the principles of such evaluation in the process of mass valuation is suggested

  18. Emotion-focused principles for working with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwar, Serine H; Links, Paul S; Greenberg, Leslie; Bergmans, Yvonne

    2008-03-01

    This paper discusses the function of emotion, its importance in the treatment of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and the integration of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) principles in the psychotherapeutic management of patients with BPD. EFT principles involve emotional assessment; a strong therapeutic alliance as a necessary context for treatment; the therapeutic relationship as a bond that regulates affect through empathy, emotional validation, and interpersonal soothing; emotion-regulation; psychoeducation about emotional processes; the therapist as an emotional coach; and transforming emotion schemes as primary mechanisms of change. The authors discuss how EFT principles can be viewed as primary intervention strategies in the treatment of patients with BPD and how they can be incorporated into various psychotherapy approaches. Based on our experience, the integration of EFT principles into the therapy of patients with BPD shows promise as it has been helpful in targeting BPD symptoms, and is feasible and acceptable to patients.

  19. Electron-phonon interactions from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, Feliciano

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the theory of electron-phonon interactions in solids from the point of view of ab initio calculations. While the electron-phonon interaction has been studied for almost a century, predictive nonempirical calculations have become feasible only during the past two decades. Today it is possible to calculate from first principles many materials properties related to the electron-phonon interaction, including the critical temperature of conventional superconductors, the carrier mobility in semiconductors, the temperature dependence of optical spectra in direct and indirect-gap semiconductors, the relaxation rates of photoexcited carriers, the electron mass renormalization in angle-resolved photoelectron spectra, and the nonadiabatic corrections to phonon dispersion relations. In this article a review of the theoretical and computational framework underlying modern electron-phonon calculations from first principles as well as landmark investigations of the electron-phonon interaction in real materials is given. The first part of the article summarizes the elementary theory of electron-phonon interactions and their calculations based on density-functional theory. The second part discusses a general field-theoretic formulation of the electron-phonon problem and establishes the connection with practical first-principles calculations. The third part reviews a number of recent investigations of electron-phonon interactions in the areas of vibrational spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, transport, and superconductivity.

  20. Towards Principled Responsible Research and Innovation:\\ud Employing the Difference Principle in Funding Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Doris; Ladikas, Miltos

    2015-01-01

    Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) has emerged as a science policy framework that attempts to import broad social values into technological innovation processes whilst supporting institutional decision-making under conditions of uncertainty and ambiguity. When looking at RRI from a ‘principled’ perspective, we consider responsibility and justice to be important cornerstones of the framework. The main aim of this article is to suggest a method of realising these principles through the a...

  1. Superstatistical distributions from a maximum entropy principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Straeten, Erik; Beck, Christian

    2008-11-01

    We deal with a generalized statistical description of nonequilibrium complex systems based on least biased distributions given some prior information. A maximum entropy principle is introduced that allows for the determination of the distribution of the fluctuating intensive parameter beta of a superstatistical system, given certain constraints on the complex system under consideration. We apply the theory to three examples: the superstatistical quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator, the superstatistical classical ideal gas, and velocity time series as measured in a turbulent Taylor-Couette flow.

  2. Principles of Economic Ibn Taymiyyah (Moral Analysis)

    OpenAIRE

    Duriana, Duriana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic principles of Ibn Taymiyyah with moral analysis. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the position of morality in economic principles of Ibn Taymiyyah. There are two issues to be answered in this paper are: how is the economic principles of Ibn Taymiyyah, and how is the moral position in the economic principles of Ibn Taymiyyah. This research was found: principles of Ibn Taymiyyah's economy include: the principle of balance, fairness, sharia, cooperation, c...

  3. Creating Learning at Conferences Through Participant Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    in Denmark to introduce a variety of simple learning techniques related to the design principles at thirty real conferences of some 100-200 participants each. We present twelve of these techniques and the data evaluating them and conclude that by spending a fraction of the time at a conference on involving...

  4. Test of the Equivalence Principle in an Einstein Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irwin I.

    2002-05-01

    The scientific goal of the experiment is to test the equality of gravitational and inertial mass (i.e., to test the Principle of Equivalence) by measuring the independence of the rate of fall of bodies from the composition of the falling body. The measurement is accomplished by measuring the relative displacement (or equivalently acceleration) of two falling bodies of different materials which are the proof masses of a differential accelerometer. The goal of the experiment is to measure the Eotvos ratio delta-g/g (differential acceleration/common acceleration) with an accuracy goal of a few parts in 1015. The estimated accuracy is about two orders of magnitude better than the present state of the art. The experiment is a null experiment in which a result different from zero will indicate a violation of the Equivalence Principle. The main goal of the study to be carried out under this grant is the flight definition of the experiment and bread boarding of critical components of the experiment that will enable us to be ready for the following phases of the project. The project involves an international cooperation in which the responsibility of the US side is the flight definition of the experimental facility while the responsibility of the non-US partners is the flight definition and laboratory prototyping of the differential acceleration detector. In summary, the experiment to be designed is for taking differential acceleration measurements with a high-sensitivity detector (the sensor) during free fall conditions lasting up to 30 s in a disturbance-free acceleration environment. The experiment strategy consists in letting the sensor free fall inside a few meters long (in the vertical direction) evacuated capsule that is falling simultaneously in the rarefied atmosphere after release from a helium balloon flying at a stratospheric altitude.

  5. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, A.; Huniche, L.

    2015-01-01

    , and on what grounds, involvement of relatives is perceived in Danish psychiatry. Paradoxically, the current understanding of involvement of relatives fails to take into consideration the perspectives of the relatives per se and families that were being studied. By analyzing involvement from a discourse...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  6. Principles of neural information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Seelen, Werner v

    2016-01-01

    In this fundamental book the authors devise a framework that describes the working of the brain as a whole. It presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of Neural Information Processing as well as recent and authoritative research. The books´ guiding principles are the main purpose of neural activity, namely, to organize behavior to ensure survival, as well as the understanding of the evolutionary genesis of the brain. Among the developed principles and strategies belong self-organization of neural systems, flexibility, the active interpretation of the world by means of construction and prediction as well as their embedding into the world, all of which form the framework of the presented description. Since, in brains, their partial self-organization, the lifelong adaptation and their use of various methods of processing incoming information are all interconnected, the authors have chosen not only neurobiology and evolution theory as a basis for the elaboration of such a framework, but also syst...

  7. The principle of least action

    CERN Document Server

    Rojo, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The principle of least action originates in the idea that, if nature has a purpose, it should follow a minimum or critical path. This simple principle, and its variants and generalizations, applies to optics, mechanics, electromagnetism, relativity, and quantum mechanics, and provides an essential guide to understanding the beauty of physics. This unique text provides an accessible introduction to the action principle across these various fields of physics, and examines its history and fundamental role in science. It includes - with varying levels of mathematical sophistication - explanations from historical sources, discussion of classic papers, and original worked examples. The result is a story that is understandable to those with a modest mathematical background, as well as to researchers and students in physics and the history of physics.

  8. The 4th Thermodynamic Principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-01-01

    It should be emphasized that the 4th Principle above formulated is a thermodynamic principle and, at the same time, is mechanical-quantum and relativist, as it should inevitably be and its absence has been one of main the theoretical limitations of the physical theory until today.We show that the theoretical discovery of Dimensional Primitive Octet of Matter, the 4th Thermodynamic Principle, the Quantum Hexet of Matter, the Global Hexagonal Subsystem of Fundamental Constants of Energy and the Measurement or Connected Global Scale or Universal Existential Interval of the Matter is that it is possible to be arrived at a global formulation of the four 'forces' or fundamental interactions of nature. The Einstein's golden dream is possible

  9. On the uncertainty principle. V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, O.

    1976-01-01

    The treatment of ideal experiments connected with the uncertainty principle is continued. The author analyzes successively measurements of momentum and position, and discusses the common reason why the results in all cases differ from the conventional ones. A similar difference exists for the measurement of field strengths. The interpretation given by Weizsaecker, who tried to interpret Bohr's complementarity principle by introducing a multi-valued logic is analyzed. The treatment of the uncertainty principle ΔE Δt is deferred to a later paper as is the interpretation of the method of variation of constants. Every ideal experiment discussed shows various lower limits for the value of the uncertainty product which limits depend on the experimental arrangement and are always (considerably) larger than h. (Auth.)

  10. THE PRINCIPLE OF CONFIDENTIALITY IN ARBITRATION. APPLICATION AND LIMITATIONS OF THE PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazil Oglindă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, arbitration has grown to be the preferred means of dispute resolution by commercial entities. One of the benefits that build the attraction for this system of dispute resolution was the principle of confidentiality. One issue that needs to be analyzed is about the reasons why confidentiality is so important in business. Confidentiality is a principle largely embraced in arbitration, but, as we will see, the principle is not an absolute one. There are a set of questions that needs to be answer to, like: Who is bound by the duty of confidentiality? Does this refer only to the parties or does it expands to other actors involved in the arbitral proceedings? What happens with the obligation of confidentiality when issues are brought before a court, taking in account the principle of open justice? We will see that in some countries are procedural laws allowing the courts to order an arbitration claim to be heard in public or in private. Another important aspect that has arisen in the last period is regarding the public policy and the protection of public interest as a limitation to confidentiality of arbitration. This is a sensitive matter especially when one of the parties is a state or a state entity. This study aims to explore the principle of confidentiality in arbitration by focusing on its domain and on its limits, both from the comparative approach and from the Romanian approach. Knowing all this aspects, we will realize the importance of having professional counseling when drafting an arbitration clause and how this can be the missing puzzle piece of your business.

  11. Quality related principles of the South African beef classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the principles related to different grading and classification systems of the world with specific focus on beef quality related outcomes. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful as guidelines to those involved in the ...

  12. Synchronizing leadership style with integral transformational yoga principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandram, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    In Chap. 16, Sharda Nandram presents with the principles of Transformational Yoga, a leadership style which she applies to a case study involving a multinational company, Wipro. The idea behind this model is that there are behaviors needed at the physical, vital, mental, and psychic levels in order

  13. Making Marketing Principles Tangible: Online Auctions as Living Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles M.; Suter, Tracy A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an effective course supplement for Principles of Marketing classes. An experiential project involving online auctions is offered to instructors seeking to create a more participatory student environment and an interactive teaching style. A number of learning points are illustrated that allow instructors to use an auction…

  14. The Contact Principle and Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

    2010-01-01

    In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…

  15. General principles of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a textbook for a course in quantum mechanics. Starting from the complementarity and the uncertainty principle Schroedingers equation is introduced together with the operator calculus. Then stationary states are treated as eigenvalue problems. Furthermore matrix mechanics are briefly discussed. Thereafter the theory of measurements is considered. Then as approximation methods perturbation theory and the WKB approximation are introduced. Then identical particles, spin, and the exclusion principle are discussed. There after the semiclassical theory of radiation and the relativistic one-particle problem are discussed. Finally an introduction is given into quantum electrodynamics. (HSI)

  16. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    As nonlinear optics further develops as a field of research in electromagnetic wave propagation, its state-of-the-art technologies will continue to strongly impact real-world applications in a variety of fields useful to the practicing scientist and engineer. From basic principles to examples...... of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...

  17. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  18. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae

    2005-01-01

    ""This book is well organized and comprehensive . . . an eloquent and enduring statement of significant hydrodynamic principles."" - AIChE JournalMicrohydrodynamics concerns the flow and related phenomena pertinent to the motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. This text focuses on determining the motion of a particle or particles through a viscous fluid in bounded and unbounded flow. Its central theme is the mobility relation between particle motion and forces.Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications functions as a manual that explains methods for solving partic

  19. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  20. Attainment of radiation equivalency principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru

  1. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae; Brenner, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications presents analytical and numerical methods for describing motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. The text first covers the fundamental principles of low-Reynolds-number flow, including the governing equations and fundamental theorems; the dynamics of a single particle in a flow field; and hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. Next, the book deals with the advances in the mathematical and computational aspects of viscous particulate flows that point to innovations for large-scale simulations on parallel co

  2. Patient involvement in clinical research: why, when, and how

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacristán JA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available José A Sacristán,1 Alfonso Aguarón,2 Cristina Avendaño-Solá,3 Pilar Garrido,4 Juan Carrión,5 Alipio Gutiérrez,6 Robert Kroes,7 Angeles Flores11Medical Department, Lilly Spain, 2Myeloma Patients Europe, 3Research Ethics Committee, University Hospital Puerta de Hierro, 4Oncology Department, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 5FEDER (Spanish Federation for Rare Diseases, 6National Association of Health Journalists, Madrid, Spain; 7Clinical Open Innovation, Lilly Europe, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: The development of a patient-centered approach to medicine is gradually allowing more patients to be involved in their own medical decisions. However, this change is not happening at the same rate in clinical research, where research generally continues to be carried out on patients, but not with patients. This work describes the why, when, and how of more active patient participation in the research process. Specific measures are proposed to improve patient involvement in 1 setting priorities, 2 study leadership and design, 3 improved access to clinical trials, 4 preparation and oversight of the information provided to participants, 5 post-study evaluation of the patient experience, and 6 the dissemination and application of results. In order to achieve these aims, the relative emphases on the ethical principles underlying research need to be changed. The current model based on the principle of beneficence must be left behind, and one that upholds the ethical principles of autonomy and non maleficence should be embraced. There is a need to improve the level of information that patients and society as a whole have on research objectives and processes; the goal is to promote the gradual emergence of the expert patient.Keywords: patients, research, clinical trials, bioethics, engagement

  3. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and decision making in adaptive environmental governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. DeCaro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance systems adapt. We focus primarily on the interplay between key decision makers in society and legal systems. We argue that adaptive governance must overcome three cooperative dilemmas to facilitate adaptation: (1 encouraging collaborative problem solving, (2 garnering social acceptance and commitment, and (3 cultivating a culture of trust and tolerance for change and uncertainty. However, to do so governance systems must cope with biases in people's decision making that cloud their judgment and create conflict. These systems must also satisfy people's fundamental needs for self-determination, fairness, and security, ensuring that changes to environmental governance are perceived as legitimate, trustworthy, and acceptable. We discuss the implications of these principles for common governance solutions (e.g., public participation, enforcement and conclude with methodological recommendations. We outline how scholars can investigate the social cognitive principles involved in cases of adaptive governance.

  4. Architectural design of heterogeneous metallic nanocrystals--principles and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Qingbo; Yao, Qiaofeng; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Heterogeneous metal nanocrystals (HMNCs) are a natural extension of simple metal nanocrystals (NCs), but as a research topic, they have been much less explored until recently. HMNCs are formed by integrating metal NCs of different compositions into a common entity, similar to the way atoms are bonded to form molecules. HMNCs can be built to exhibit an unprecedented architectural diversity and complexity by programming the arrangement of the NC building blocks ("unit NCs"). The architectural engineering of HMNCs involves the design and fabrication of the architecture-determining elements (ADEs), i.e., unit NCs with precise control of shape and size, and their relative positions in the design. Similar to molecular engineering, where structural diversity is used to create more property variations for application explorations, the architectural engineering of HMNCs can similarly increase the utility of metal NCs by offering a suite of properties to support multifunctionality in applications. The architectural engineering of HMNCs calls for processes and operations that can execute the design. Some enabling technologies already exist in the form of classical micro- and macroscale fabrication techniques, such as masking and etching. These processes, when used singly or in combination, are fully capable of fabricating nanoscopic objects. What is needed is a detailed understanding of the engineering control of ADEs and the translation of these principles into actual processes. For simplicity of execution, these processes should be integrated into a common reaction system and yet retain independence of control. The key to architectural diversity is therefore the independent controllability of each ADE in the design blueprint. The right chemical tools must be applied under the right circumstances in order to achieve the desired outcome. In this Account, after a short illustration of the infinite possibility of combining different ADEs to create HMNC design

  5. HSE's safety assessment principles for criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simister, D N; Finnerty, M D; Warburton, S J; Thomas, E A; Macphail, M R

    2008-01-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published its revised Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Facilities (SAPs) in December 2006. The SAPs are primarily intended for use by HSE's inspectors when judging the adequacy of safety cases for nuclear facilities. The revised SAPs relate to all aspects of safety in nuclear facilities including the technical discipline of criticality safety. The purpose of this paper is to set out for the benefit of a wider audience some of the thinking behind the final published words and to provide an insight into the development of UK regulatory guidance. The paper notes that it is HSE's intention that the Safety Assessment Principles should be viewed as a reflection of good practice in the context of interpreting primary legislation such as the requirements under site licence conditions for arrangements for producing an adequate safety case and for producing a suitable and sufficient risk assessment under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (SI1999/3232 www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/uksi_19993232_en.pdf). (memorandum)

  6. Optimisation: how to develop stake holder involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Precautionary Principle is an internationally recognised approach for dealing with risk situations characterised by uncertainties and potential irreversible damages. Since the late fifties, ICRP has adopted this prudent attitude because of the lack of scientific evidence concerning the existence of a threshold at low doses for stochastic effects. The 'linear, no-threshold' model and the 'optimisation of protection' principle have been developed as a pragmatic response for the management of the risk. The progress in epidemiology and radiobiology over the last decades have affirmed the initial assumption and the optimisation remains the appropriate response for the application of the precautionary principle in the context of radiological protection. The basic objective of optimisation is, for any source within the system of radiological protection, to maintain the level of exposure as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account social and economical factors. Methods tools and procedures have been developed over the last two decades to put into practice the optimisation principle with a central role given to the cost-benefit analysis as a means to determine the optimised level of protection. However, with the advancement in the implementation of the principle more emphasis was progressively given to good practice, as well as on the importance of controlling individual levels of exposure through the optimisation process. In the context of the revision of its present recommendations, the Commission is reenforcing the emphasis on protection of the individual with the adoption of an equity-based system that recognizes individual rights and a basic level of health protection. Another advancement is the role that is now recognised to 'stakeholders involvement' in the optimisation process as a mean to improve the quality of the decision aiding process for identifying and selecting protection actions considered as being accepted by all those involved. The paper

  7. Towards a mulitphase equation of state of Carbon from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Alfredo; Benedict, Lorin; Schwegler, Eric

    2007-03-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics and electronic structure calculation had become one of the most useful tools to investigate properties of materials. Unfortunately these atomistic detailed results are rarely reused in calculations at a higher level of description, such as fluid dynamics and finite elements calculations. In this talk we present a concrete example showing the way that first principles results can be expressed in a way that is useful for hydrodynamics calculations, in particular we show how to build a analytic equation of state for Carbon that involves solid (diamond and BC8) and liquid phases. Applications of this newly obtained equation of state will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy at the University of California/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract no. W-7405-Eng-48.

  8. Fermat and the Minimum Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to another (as in the law of reflection, which goes back to Hero), or tries to complete the motion in the shortest possible time (as in the law of refraction, which Fermat established). Engineers believe that Archimedes, who lived during the 200's. Be (nineteen centuries before Fermat), derived the principle of the lever using an ...

  9. Local Taxation: Principles and Scope

    OpenAIRE

    Spahn, Paul Bernd

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses principles of local taxation such as accountability, benefit-tax link, non-distortion, regional equity, long-term efficiency, reliability and stability of tax bases, tax sharing as implicit insurance, and administrative simplicity. Not all of the criteria for local taxation are consistent with each other and could be realized at the same time.

  10. Socialist Principles of Appropriative Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. van der Weerden (Victor)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDuring the last quarter of the twentieth century, many analytical Marxists contributed to the revival of the debate concerning the relationship between Marxism and morality. One such attempt made by Ziyad Husami (1978) was to derive a ‘socialist principle of justice’ from Marx’s

  11. Derivation of Schwinger variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmytkowski, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present systematic derivations of bilinear and fractional Schwinger variational principles for matrix elements of a generalized transition operator in the context of quantum mechanical potential scattering. The employed method is based on a generalization of the method of Lagrange multipliers

  12. Structuring Principles for the Designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    1998-01-01

    This paper suggests a list of structuring principles that support the designer in making alternative concepts for product architectures. Different architectures may support different points of diversification in the product life-cycle. The aim is to balance reuse of resources and reduction...

  13. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 4. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) - Basic Principles. Bhaskar G Maiya. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 4 April 2000 pp 6-18. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/04/0006-0018 ...

  14. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  15. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  16. ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES: EVOLUTION, CONTENT, CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana LAZARI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accounting principles are rules that help producers of financial information to recognize, evaluate, classify and present information. At the same time, they are very general rules, which can be implemented in several ways, generating more accounting treatments. Although the foreign literature presents numerous classifications of the principles in terms of the given research, we will continue to deal with the terms that have the value of accounting principles, their evolution in the Republic of Moldova, but also the influence on keeping the accounting and financial reporting. In the research, we used the method of comparison, analysis, deduction, but also the historical method. The results of the research on accounting principles will contribute to the development of their applicability both for those studying and researching the field of accounting, as well as for those who apply in practice the keeping of accounting in all stages of work: elaboration of accounting policies, recognition, evaluation and accounting for economic transactions and preparing the financial statements of the entity.

  17. Principles and practice of sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, A.C.; James, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a text of sonographic technique, emphasizing clinical and diagnostic procedures. Ultrasound images and explanatory line drawings are placed side-by-side to facilitate interpretation. This book covers instrumentation and scanning principles, obstetric, gynecologic, abdominal, renal and urologic, pediatric, plus superficial structure sonography

  18. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz P. Da̧browski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  19. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  20. The Curtin–Hammett Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    organic chemistry. (right) Chandan Saha is. Assistant Professor at the. Department of Clinical and. Experimental Pharmacology,. School of Tropical Medicine,. Kolkata. ... rium of a substance, and reactivity of the conformations guides the product ratio. ..... Curtin–Hammett principle, it was this study which ultimately led.

  1. Semiconductor photocatalysis principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kisch, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on the basic principles of semiconductor photocatalysis, this book also gives a brief introduction to photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, and homogeneous photocatalysis. In addition, the author - one of the leading authorities in the field - presents important environmental and practical aspects. A valuable, one-stop source for all chemists, material scientists, and physicists working in this area, as well as novice researchers entering semiconductor photocatalysis.

  2. Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)

  3. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...

  4. Pauli Principle and Pion Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethe, H. A.

    1972-10-01

    It is pointed out that if the Pauli principle is taken into account in the discussion of pion scattering by complex nuclei (as it ought, of course, to be) some rather implausible consequences of some earlier treatments of this problem can be avoided. (auth)

  5. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erp, J.B. van

    1997-01-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)

  6. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  7. Uncertainty Principles and Fourier Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Uncertainty Principles and Fourier Analysis. Alladi Sitaram. General Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 20-23. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/02/0020-0023 ...

  8. Principles of modern radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Michel H

    1988-01-01

    Introduction to random functions ; signal and noise : the ideal receiver ; performance of radar systems equipped with ideal receivers ; analysis of the operating principles of some types of radar ; behavior of real targets, fluctuation of targets ; angle measurement using radar ; data processing of radar information, radar coverage ; applications to electronic scanning antennas to radar ; introduction to Hilbert spaces.

  9. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  10. 7 CFR 3015.111 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles. 3015.111 Section 3015.111... § 3015.111 Cost principles. (a) The cost principles prescribed by subpart T of this part require prior... approvals required by the cost principles are in § 3015.196. Procedures for prior approvals required by this...

  11. 32 CFR 776.19 - Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principles. 776.19 Section 776.19 National... Professional Conduct § 776.19 Principles. The Rules of this subpart are based on the following principles... exists, this subpart should be interpreted consistent with these general principles. (a) Covered...

  12. 32 CFR 203.6 - Cost principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost principles. 203.6 Section 203.6 National... Cost principles. (a) Non-profit contractors must comply with the cost principles in OMB Circular A-122...) For-profit contractors and subcontractors must comply with the cost principles in the FAR (48 CFR part...

  13. Landauer's principle and the conservation of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffertshofer, A.; Plastino, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Erasure of information requires the dissipation of a minimal amount of energy as being formulated in Landauer's principle. This profound concept in information processing has recently been derived by use of basic dynamical principles of statistical mechanics. We present an alternative derivation of Landauer's principle based on dynamical principles and certain properties of the Shannon-Gibbs-Boltzmann entropy, in particular (sub-)additivity

  14. Ten guiding principles for youth mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Frank; Hebel, Lisa; Badcock, Paul; Parker, Alexandra G

    2017-04-12

    Guiding principles are arguably central to the development of any health service. The aim of this article is to report on the outcomes of a youth mental health (YMH) community of practice (CoP), which identified a range of guiding principles that provide a clear point of comparison for the only other set of principles for YMH service delivery proposed to date. A YMH CoP was established in 2010 as part of the Victorian State Government approach to improving YMH care. An initial literature search was undertaken to locate articles on YMH service delivery. A number of common themes were identified, which the YMH community of practice (YMHCoP) members then elaborated upon by drawing from their collective experience of the YMH sector. The resultant themes were then refined through subsequent group discussions to derive a definitive set of guiding principles. These principles were then augmented by a second literature search conducted in July 2015. Fifteen key themes were derived from the initial literature search and YMH CoP discussions. These were refined by the YMH CoP to produce 10 guiding principles for YMH service development. These are discussed through reference to the relevant literature, using the only other article on principles of YMH service delivery as a notable point of comparison. The 10 principles identified may be useful for quality improvement and are likely to have international relevance. We suggest the timely pursuit of an international consensus on guiding principles for service delivery under the auspices of a peak body for YMH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Ethical principles of the American Psychological Association: an argument for philosophical and practical ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David Cruise

    1999-01-01

    Unlike the American Psychological Association (APA), the Canadian Psychological Association has adopted a code of ethics in which principles are organized in order of importance. The validity of this hierarchical organization has received some empirical and theoretical support. We conducted a theoretical analysis that revealed conceptual justification for a ranking of the 6 principles in the APA code. Such a ranking could assist psychologists in making more informed and consistent moral choices when confronted with ethical dilemmas that involve conflicts among principles.

  16. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview...

  17. First-principles theory of flexoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, David

    2013-03-01

    Flexoelectricity is the linear response of polarization to a strain gradient. Because strain gradients break inversion symmetry, flexoelectricity occurs in all insulating crystals. The flexoelectric effect is negligible on conventional length scales, but it can become very strong at the nanoscale where large strain gradients can significantly affect the functional properties of dielectric thin films and superlattices. Previous theories have tended to focus either on the lattice or the electronic (i.e., frozen-ion) contribution, and have involved some approximations or limitations. Here we develop a general first-principles theory of the flexoelectric tensor, formulated in such a way that the tensor elements can be computed directly in the context of density-functional calculations. Special attention will be paid to several subtleties, including surface contributions, pseudopotential dependence, the calculation of transverse components, fixed E vs. fixed D boundary conditions, and a degree of non-uniqueness that is present for some strain gradients. We introduce several practical supercell-based methods for calculating the flexoelectric coefficients from first principles, and demonstrate them by computing the coefficients for a variety of insulating materials.(Work done in collaboration with Jiawang Hong. Supported by ONR N00014-12-1-1035.)

  18. Embodied Language Learning and Cognitive Bootstrapping: Methods and Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lyon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Co-development of action, conceptualization and social interaction mutually scaffold and support each other within a virtuous feedback cycle in the development of human language in children. Within this framework, the purpose of this article is to bring together diverse but complementary accounts of research methods that jointly contribute to our understanding of cognitive development and in particular, language acquisition in robots. Thus, we include research pertaining to developmental robotics, cognitive science, psychology, linguistics and neuroscience, as well as practical computer science and engineering. The different studies are not at this stage all connected into a cohesive whole; rather, they are presented to illuminate the need for multiple different approaches that complement each other in the pursuit of understanding cognitive development in robots. Extensive experiments involving the humanoid robot iCub are reported, while human learning relevant to developmental robotics has also contributed useful results. Disparate approaches are brought together via common underlying design principles. Without claiming to model human language acquisition directly, we are nonetheless inspired by analogous development in humans and consequently, our investigations include the parallel co-development of action, conceptualization and social interaction. Though these different approaches need to ultimately be integrated into a coherent, unified body of knowledge, progress is currently also being made by pursuing individual methods.

  19. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students’ acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students’ personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students’ potential for intellectual and personal growth. PMID:23162369

  20. Fair Information Principles of Brazilian Companies online privacy policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Zeni Marchiori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to present the Fair Information Principles in the privacy policies of the websites of major Brazilian companies (according to the 2014 Forbes Magazine list. The check and analysis were supported by a checklist compiled from documents issued by the Federal Trade Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development. The study selected fourteen companies from a universe of twenty-five, considering the immediacy criterion of access to the privacy policy on their websites. The security (safeguards principle is the most widespread foundation at the privacy policies of the companies selected (existing in eight of the fourteen analyzed policies; and the principle of responsibility receives less adhesion due to the fact that it is not covered in any of the examined online privacy policies. The Sabesp Company presents the most complete privacy policy, considering the compliance with the Fair Information Principles when compared to the others perused, while WEG does not present any of the principles identified in the documental survey. As for e-commerce, the number of companies that assume some of the Principles is further reduced. For the selected universe the adherence to the Fair information Principles is still incipient, althought its use is not mandatory. An open discussion of the proposed Brazilian law about personal data protection should play an important role in creating further guidance on the subject. Additional studies in this subject should involve the perception of users, as well as a cutout of companies which target e-commerce, considering that an effective alignment with these principles and other guidelines are required in order to protect the user’s privacy and personal data in the web environment.