WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying principles governing

  1. General Principles Governing Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)

  2. The system of parliamentary government: The possibility of balance under the principle of the separation of powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Irena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum consensus in defining the concept of a parliamentary system is closely related to the presence of the responsible government in the system governed by the principle of the separation of powers, which is the essential characteristic of parliamentarism. A constitutional and political theory classify this system as a model of parliamentary government that is elected by Parliament and responsible to Parliament, which is the essence and the common denominator of this system. Moreover, all the modalities of the system develop in line with the relations established between the legislative and the executive authorities, i.e. between the head of state, the government and the parliament. Nowadays, there is no 'pure' model of the parliamentary government, for at least two reasons. First, modern constitutions set up instruments of rationalization and transfer the focus of the constitutional power either to the government or to the head of state, but in any case 'away from' the parliament. Second, political framework of modern parliamentarism significantly contributes to the situation where the constitutional instruments aimed at preserving the balance receive a new legal and political meaning; thus, they serve some functions other than those prescribed by the constitution.

  3. Implementation of corporate governance principles in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iulia Țarțavulea (Dieaconescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to conduct a study regarding the manner in which corporate governance principles are applied in Romania, in both public and private sector. In the first part of the paper, the corporate governance principles are presented as they are defined in Romania, in comparison with the main international sources of interest in the domain (OECD corporate governance principles, UE legal framework. The corporate governance (CG principles refer to issues regarding board composition, transparency of scope, objectives and policies; they define the relations between directors and managers, shareholders and stakeholders. The research methodology is based on both fundamental research and empirical study on the implementation of corporate governance principles in companies from Romania. The main instrument of research is a corporate governance index, calculated based on a framework proposed by the author. The corporate governance principles are transposed in criteria that compose the framework for the CG index. The results of the study consist of scores for each CG principles and calculation of CG index for seven companies selected from the public and private sector in Romania. The results are analyzed and discussed in order to formulate general and particular recommendations. The main conclusion of this study is that that a legal framework in the area of corporate governance regulation is needed in Romania. I consider that the main CG principles should be enforced by developing a mandatory legal framework.

  4. 12 CFR 270.3 - Governing principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Governing principles. 270.3 Section 270.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPEN MARKET COMMITTEE OPEN MARKET OPERATIONS OF... Governing principles. As required by section 12A of the Federal Reserve Act, the time, character, and volume...

  5. Design Principles for E-Government Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Alain

    The paper introduces a holistic approach for architecting systems which must sustain the entire e-government activity of a public authority. Four principles directly impact the architecture: Legality, Responsibility, Transparency, and Symmetry leading to coherent representations of the architecture for the client, the designer and the builder. The approach enables to deploy multipartite, distributed public services, including legal delegation of roles and outsourcing of non mandatory tasks through PPP.

  6. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Safari; Soheila Mirshekary; Victoria Wise

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonst...

  7. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  8. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and decision making in adaptive environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance...

  9. Do reimbursement recommendation processes used by government drug plans in Canada adhere to good governance principles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawson NS

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nigel SB Rawson,1–3 John Adams4 1Eastlake Research Group, Oakville, ON, 2Canadian Health Policy Institute, Toronto, ON, 3Fraser Institute, Vancouver, BC, 4Canadian PKU and Allied Disorders Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: In democratic societies, good governance is the key to assuring the confidence of stakeholders and other citizens in how governments and organizations interact with and relate to them and how decisions are taken. Although defining good governance can be debatable, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP set of principles is commonly used. The reimbursement recommendation processes of the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, which carries out assessments for all public drug plans outside Quebec, are examined in the light of the UNDP governance principles and compared with the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence system in England. The adherence of CADTH's processes to the principles of accountability, transparency, participatory, equity, responsiveness and consensus is poor, especially when compared with the English system, due in part to CADTH's lack of genuine independence. CADTH's overriding responsibility is toward the governments that "own," fund and manage it, while the agency’s status as a not-for-profit corporation under federal law protects it from standard government forms of accountability. The recent integration of CADTH’s reimbursement recommendation processes with the provincial public drug plans’ collective system for price negotiation with pharmaceutical companies reinforces CADTH's role as a nonindependent partner in the pursuit of governments’ cost-containment objectives, which should not be part of its function. Canadians need a national organization for evaluating drugs for reimbursement in the public interest that fully embraces the principles of good governance – one that is publicly accountable, transparent and fair and includes all stakeholders

  10. Compliance with best practice governance principles of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The heightened interest in sport shown by politicians, legislators, sponsors and government carries with it an inherent demand to justify long-term sustainability as well as compliance with best-practice corporate governance principles. A questionnaire based on the seven pillars of good corporate governance identified in ...

  11. New governance principles for sustainable urban transport

    OpenAIRE

    Camagni, R.; Capello, R.; Nijkamp, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper positions the communications and transport in the centre of a rejuvenation policy for a sustainable urban habitat, taking for granted the success of urban govemance will depend on the professionality of local/regional policy-making govemed by sound principles from business practice in corporate organizations.

  12. Thermodynamic principles governing metabolic operation : inference, analysis, and prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niebel, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    The principles governing metabolic flux are poorly understood. Because diverse organisms show similar metabolic flux patterns, we hypothesized that fundamental thermodynamic constraints might shape cellular metabolism. We developed a constraint-based model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae that included

  13. 42 CFR 137.167 - What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What cost principles must a Self-Governance Tribe follow when participating in self-governance under Title V? 137.167 Section 137.167 Public Health PUBLIC... HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.167 What...

  14. Public Choice, Market Failure, and Government Failure in Principles Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Rosemarie; Gwartney, James

    2015-01-01

    Public choice uses the tools of economics to analyze how the political process allocates resources and impacts economic activity. In this study, the authors examine twenty-three principles texts regarding coverage of public choice, market failure, and government failure. Approximately half the texts provide coverage of public choice and recognize…

  15. Governance principles for wildlife conservation in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Daniel J.; Smith, Christian; Forstchen, Ann; Hare, Darragh; Pomeranz, Emily; Doyle-Capitman, Catherine; Schuler, Krysten; Organ, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Wildlife conservation is losing ground in the U.S. for many reasons. The net effect is declines in species and habitat. To address this trend, the wildlife conservation institution (i.e., all customs, practices, organizations and agencies, policies, and laws with respect to wildlife) must adapt to contemporary social–ecological conditions. Adaptation could be supported by clear guidelines reflecting contemporary expectations for wildlife governance. We combine elements of public trust thinking and good governance to produce a broad set of wildlife governance principles. These principles represent guidance for ecologically and socially responsible wildlife conservation. They address persistent, systemic problems and, if adopted, will bring the institution into line with modern expectations for governance of public natural resources. Implementation will require changes in values, objectives, and processes of the wildlife conservation institution. These changes may be difficult, but promise improved wildlife conservation outcomes and increased support for conservation. We introduce challenges and opportunities associated with the principles, and encourage dialogue about them among scientists, practitioners, and other leaders in U.S. wildlife conservation. The principles alone will not change the course of conservation for the better, but may be necessary for such change to occur.

  16. Recipient government control under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Johanna

    This paper seeks to contribute to ongoing debates around African countries‟ relations to their external partners. It explores the notion of recipient government control, here defined as the extent to which a recipient government is able to ensure that the outcome of negotiations with its external...... things, cited concerns for debt sustainability. The paper argues that in the early stages of negotiations with China during 2007-2008, the Congolese government exercised control in the sense that the 2008 version of the Sicomines agreement made sizeable amounts of funding available towards large...... relevance here, since it reduced its willingness to push ahead with the criticised version of the Sicomines agreement. Eventually, mid-2009, President Kabila accommodated the concerns of the traditional donors. The agreement was reduced and HIPC completion point was subsequently reached in July 2010...

  17. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and decision making in adaptive environmental governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. DeCaro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance systems adapt. We focus primarily on the interplay between key decision makers in society and legal systems. We argue that adaptive governance must overcome three cooperative dilemmas to facilitate adaptation: (1 encouraging collaborative problem solving, (2 garnering social acceptance and commitment, and (3 cultivating a culture of trust and tolerance for change and uncertainty. However, to do so governance systems must cope with biases in people's decision making that cloud their judgment and create conflict. These systems must also satisfy people's fundamental needs for self-determination, fairness, and security, ensuring that changes to environmental governance are perceived as legitimate, trustworthy, and acceptable. We discuss the implications of these principles for common governance solutions (e.g., public participation, enforcement and conclude with methodological recommendations. We outline how scholars can investigate the social cognitive principles involved in cases of adaptive governance.

  18. Humanist Principles Underlying Philosophy of Argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Boger

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This discussion reviews the thinking of some prominent philosophers of argument to extract principles common to their thinking. It shows that a growing concern with dialogical pragmatics is better appreciated as a part of applied ethics than of applied epistemology. The discussion concludes by indicating a possible consequence for philosophy of argument and invites further discussion by asking whether argumentation philosophy has an implicit, underlying moral, or even political, posture.

  19. THE APPLICABILITY OF THE PRINCIPLES THAT GOVERN THE BUDGETARY ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Bobes Florina

    2013-01-01

    When applying the financial and budgetary rules, or in other words, when applying the budgetary process (the preparation, approval, execution and completion procedure of the public budget) certain principles that consistently and accurately conduct activities that this procedure involves need to be considered. These principles are the following: the universality principle, the unity principle, annuality of the public budget, the monetary unit, publicity and budgetary specialization. Through t...

  20. Best practice governance principles in the sports industry: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This overview examines the British and Australian models and codes of corporate governance since South African Company Law as well as Australian Company Law have their roots in British Company Law. From the literature seven pillars of good governance emerged and their applicability to sports governing bodies is ...

  1. An Internal Audit Perspective on Differences between European Corporate Governance Codes and OECD Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Ivan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to realize an analysis from an internal audit perspective of European Corporate Governance Codes, in regards with Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development – OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. The research methodology used a classification of countries by legal regime, trying to obtain a global view over the differences between the European corporate governance codes and the OECD Principles provisions, from internal audit’s perspective. The findings suggest that the specificities of internal audit function when studying the differences between European Corporate Governance Codes and OECD Principles lead to different treatment.

  2. An Internal Audit Perspective on Differences between European Corporate Governance Codes and OECD Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to realize an analysis from an internal audit perspective of European Corporate Governance Codes, in regards with Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development – OECD Principles of Corporate Governance. The research methodology used a classification of countries by legal regime, trying to obtain a global view over the differences between the European corporate governance codes and the OECD Principles provisions, from internal audit’s perspective. T...

  3. NCGA Statement No. 1: Government Accounting and Financial Reporting Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John R.

    1980-01-01

    The background and purpose of a publication by the National Council on Governmental Accounting (NCGA) is important to school administrators because the accounting principles are being incorporated in a publication for school systems. (Author/MLF)

  4. Basic principles governing the design of magnetic switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birx, D.L.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Schmidt, J.; Smith, M.

    1980-01-01

    The idea of using saturable reactors as the basis of high power pulse generators is not a new concept, but there have been few recent applications of this technology. Here the principle of magnetic pulse generation is briefly described and some of the basic guidelines used to design these circuits are discussed. A demonstration of the principles by a small scale pulse amplifier is presented, and finally there is an extrapolation to a large scale system

  5. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE-THE ROLE AND APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF TRANSPARENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulop Melinda Timea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current research is to clarify the concept of corporate governance as we believe it is a relatively new concept at national level. At the same time, our analysis focused on the manner in which the principle of transparency has been incorporated into the recommendations and regulations/provisions of the Bucharest Stock Exchange (Romanian: BVB and how this principle has been applied by the companies listed with the BVB. In order to accomplish the objectives of our research, we adopted a deductive approach, from general to specific, by means of which we were able to combine qualitative with quantitative studies. Therefore, our approach started from the definition found within the principles of OECD according to which corporate governance is the system by which companies are run and controlled. In Romania, the concept of corporate governance was first advanced in 1999 by the Strategic Alliance of the Business Associations (Romanian: ASAA, which drew up a Voluntary code of corporate governance in association with the Confederation of Private Entrepreneurs in Timis county and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Romania and Bucharest. Another facet of our research is the principle of transparency and the manner in which entities should put it to practice in order to ensure efficient corporate governance. To this effect, since the beginning of 2009 the entities listed with the BVB have been under obligation to report which recommendations of the new Corporate Governance Code have actually been implemented by the company in the current financial year by disclosing to BVB the Comply or Explain Statement. The findings of our research show that the concept of corporate governance has lately been a matter for intense debate due to the famous financial failures in recent years. In 2009, Transelectrica was the only company in tier I of the BVB which filled in and submitted the Comply or Explain Statement. Therefore, we believe that

  6. Provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China under different principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    By applying a multi-regional input–output model, the study compares the provincial responsibility for carbon emissions and provincial carbon multipliers in China under seven responsibility-allocating principles, including three basic principles, the production, income and consumption principles, and four shared responsibility principles, the income-weighted, consumption weighted, comprehensive, and weighted comprehensive principles. Empirical results indicate that carbon multipliers of provinces under these principles are significantly different from one another. The carbon multipliers of provinces with higher ratios of carbon intensive sectors in their outputs are also larger. At the same time, the carbon multipliers of the same sector in the provinces are significantly different from one another. Changing the principle causes significant changes in the responsibility for carbon emissions of some provinces, but only slight changes in the responsibilities of some other provinces. However, the responsibilities of provinces with large economic sizes (output) are always the largest, whereas provinces with the smallest economic sizes are always the smallest regardless of the principles. Further, this study proposes a series of regional policies for carbon mitigation according to provincial carbon multipliers and responsibility allocation features under the different principles. - Highlights: • We link regional environmental responsibility to seven benefit principles. • We analyze provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China. • We also report provincial carbon multipliers under different principles. • We compare the seven principles from the regional perspective. • Policy implications of the study are discussed.

  7. Fundamental quadratic variational principle underlying general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    The fundamental result of Lanczos is used in a new type of quadratic variational principle whose field equations are the Einstein field equations together with the Yang-Mills type equations for the Riemann curvature. Additionally, a spin-2 theory of gravity for the special case of the Einstein vacuum is discussed

  8. Compliance Principles for Decision Management Solutions at the Dutch Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Koen Smit; Dr.ir. Raymond Slot

    2016-01-01

    From the article: Abstract Since decision management is becoming an integrated part of business process management, more and more decision management implementations are realized. Therefore, organizations search for guidance to design such solutions. Principles are often applied to guide the design

  9. Optimal Policy under Restricted Government Spending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Welfare ranking of policy instruments is addressed in a two-sector Ramsey model with monopoly pricing in one sector as the only distortion. When government spending is restricted, i.e. when a government is unable or unwilling to finance the required costs for implementing the optimum policy...... effectiveness canexceed the welfare loss from introducing new distortions. Moreover, it is found that the investment subsidy is gradually phased out of the welfare maximizing policy, which may be a policy combining the two subsidies, when the level of government spending is increased.Keywords: welfare ranking......, indirect and direct policy instruments, restricted government spending JEL: E61, O21, O41...

  10. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance . It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation.

  11. Towards Principles-Based Approaches to Governance of Health-related Research using Personal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Graeme; Sethi, Nayha

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances in the quality, availability and linkage potential of health data for research make the need to develop robust and effective information governance mechanisms more pressing than ever before; they also lead us to question the utility of governance devices used hitherto such as consent and anonymisation. This article assesses and advocates a principles-based approach, contrasting this with traditional rule-based approaches, and proposes a model of principled proportionate governance. It is suggested that the approach not only serves as the basis for good governance in contemporary data linkage but also that it provides a platform to assess legal reforms such as the draft Data Protection Regulation. PMID:24416087

  12. Diclosure and transparency in public sector: an analysis of convergence of the principles of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Zorzal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies on disclosure of private institutions are common, but do not occur when it comes to public institutions, where the disclosure of management is still very limited. Purpose: The article is part of doctorate research in Information Science in progress and investigates the principles of disclosure and transparency in the light of good governance practices applied to the public sector, to reduce information asymmetry and presents part of this research. Methodology: The methodological procedures were performed literature search and content analysis to identify the principles and standards of good governance practices recommended for public administration, aiming to systematize these recommendations as instruments of governance and verify the convergence of the principles of disclosure and transparency. Results: Partial results show convergence of disclosure and transparency principles. Conclusions: Indicate that public institutions should worry about performing the practices of good governance as a way to mitigate the informational asymmetry.

  13. The world trade organisation and Human Rights: The role of principles of Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Denkers

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article attempts to determine the role of principles of good governance in the discussion regarding the World Trade Organisation (WTO and its human rights accountability. It shows that the WTO as an organisation cannot be compared to other international organisations that are more autonomous such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF or the World Bank. This does not mean, however, that the WTO has no autonomous powers at all. This contribution attempts to make clear what these activities are and how they may affect the protection of human rights. The implementation of good governance principles in international organisations can be considered a sine qua non for the realisation of human rights. Therefore, it will be examined what role the principles of good governance plays within the WTO. More specifically, the focus will be on how the good governance principles of transparency and participation can contribute to sensitising the organisation for human rights considerations.

  14. Libery, Order and Justice: An Introduction to the Constitutional Principles of American Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, James

    This publication on the constitutional principles of the U.S. Government consists of the textbook and teacher's guide. The textbook begins with a review of constitutionalism in antiquity, in early modern England, and in colonial America. Following sections outline the constitutional convention in Philadelphia, the principles of the constitution,…

  15. Local government under the defenders of the constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirčević Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the development of local government under the rule of the constitution defenders 1842-1858. The author describes the historical facts that led to the abdication of Prince Miloš and the establishment of an oligarchic government of chieftains assembled in a council (Toma Vučić Perišić, Avram Petronijević, Hadji Milutin Garašanin and his son Ilija Stojan and Aleksa Simić, as well as the process of building a modern state administration and cultural identity, an integral part of which was a narrower process of constituting local government. A distinct role in the latter process was played by the Austrian-born Serbs, the only intelligentsia in the Principality of Serbia which was still under Turkish suzerainty. Special attention is given to the analysis of two local government acts instituting centralized local authorities with an enhanced law enforcement role in the districts, counties and communes. Those are District Prefectural System and of County Prefect Office Act of 12 May 1839 and Communal System Act of 13 July the same year. Of great importance was the former law, one of the longest-lived in the history of nineteenth-century Serbian constitutionalism. It was in force in 1839-88 and 1894-1903. Every autocratic regime in Serbia was to rely on it. Its distinctive feature is that it subordinated district and county prefects to the central authority and to the minister of internal affairs. They were reduced to mere police agents deprived of any freedom of action. Thus the local officials assumed the character of rigid administrators looking down on the common people. A natural continuation of this law was the other law of communal organization which turned the lowest local units into mere executive agencies of counties. Thus local government took on the form of a mere transmission of the central government, functioning according to a principle similar to the medieval lord-vassal system: my vassal's vassal is not my

  16. Principles governing medical first aid to workers exposed to internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.; Nenot, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The growing use of radionuclides, whether at hospital, laboratory or nuclear facility level, increases the risk of internal contamination. Not only that, some particularly dangerous elements are being handled more and more frequently. Hence the importance of therapeutic concepts based on the general principles governing action to be taken in cases of internal contamination. These principles should be applicable without the nature of the contaminant having to be taken into account, and irrespective of whether it is transferable and of the route of entry, i.e. healthy skin, wound or bronchial tree. The basic principle is the concept of urgency: ''blind'' treatment should be applied merely on the supposition of internal contamination. It is desirable, moreover, that the first aid should be given at the site of the accident. Hence, the product used should be non-toxic under normal conditions of use and should be simple to apply, as, for example, the administration of an aerosol. It is not until later that the doctor should undertake treatment in the proper sense of the term, the emergency treatment having afforded him sufficient time to carry out the preliminary examination required to gain an exact idea of the internal contamination. (author)

  17. What principles should govern the use of managed entry agreements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Marianne; Frønsdal, Katrine; Facey, Karen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To ensure rapid access to new potentially beneficial health technologies, obtain best value for money, and ensure affordability, healthcare payers are adopting a range of innovative reimbursement approaches that may be called Managed Entry Agreements (MEAs). METHODS: The Health...... Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Policy Forum sought to identify why MEAs might be used, issues associated with implementation and develop principles for their use. A 2-day deliberative workshop discussed key papers, members' experiences, and collectively addressed four policy questions...... that resulted in this study. RESULTS: MEAs are used to give access to new technologies where traditional reimbursement is deemed inappropriate. Three different forms of MEAs have been identified: management of budget impact, management of uncertainty relating to clinical and/or cost...

  18. General principles underlying the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    Previous statements on the use of the term 'decommissioning' by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board, and the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety are reviewed, culminating in a particular definition for its use in this paper. Three decommissioning phases are identified and discussed, leading to eight general principles governing decommissioning including one related to financing

  19. What principles should govern the use of managed entry agreements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemp, Marianne; Frønsdal, Katrine B; Facey, Karen

    2011-01-01

    To ensure rapid access to new potentially beneficial health technologies, obtain best value for money, and ensure affordability, healthcare payers are adopting a range of innovative reimbursement approaches that may be called Managed Entry Agreements (MEAs). The Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Policy Forum sought to identify why MEAs might be used, issues associated with implementation and develop principles for their use. A 2-day deliberative workshop discussed key papers, members' experiences, and collectively addressed four policy questions that resulted in this study. MEAs are used to give access to new technologies where traditional reimbursement is deemed inappropriate. Three different forms of MEAs have been identified: management of budget impact, management of uncertainty relating to clinical and/or cost-effectiveness, and management of utilization to optimize performance. The rationale for using these approaches and their advantages and disadvantages differ. However, all forms of MEA should take the form of a formal written agreement among stakeholders, clearly identifying the rationale for the agreement, aspects to be assessed, methods of data collection and review, and the criteria for ending the agreement. MEAs should only be used when HTA identifies issues or concerns about key outcomes and/or costs and/or organizational/budget impacts that are material to a reimbursement decision. They provide patient access and can be useful to manage technology diffusion and optimize use. However, they are administratively complex and may be difficult to negotiate and their effectiveness has yet to be evaluated.

  20. Board Governance: Transformational Approaches Under Healthcare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastocki, Deborah K

    2015-01-01

    Previous successes of healthcare organizations and effective governance practices in the pre-reform environment are not predictive of future success. Healthcare has been through numerous phases of growth and development using tried-and-true strategies. The challenge is that our toolbox does not contain what is needed to build the future healthcare delivery systems required in the post-reform world. Healthcare has had a parochial focus at the local level, with some broadening of horizons at the state and national levels. But healthcare delivery is now a global issue that requires a totally different perspective, and many countries are confronting similar issues. US healthcare reform initiatives have far-reaching implications. Compounding the reform dynamics are the simultaneously occurring, gamechanging accelerants such as enabling information technologies and mobile health, new providers of healthcare, increased consumer demands, and limited healthcare dollars, to name a few. Operating in this turbulent environment requires transformational board, executive, and physician leadership because traditional ways of planning for incremental change and attempting to time those adjustments can prove disastrous. Creating the legacy healthcare system for tomorrow requires governing boards and executive leadership to act today as they would in the desired future system. Boards need to create a culture that fosters.innovation with a tolerance for risk and some failure. To provide effective governance, boards must essentially develop new skills, expertise, and ways of thinking. The rapid rate of change requires board members to possess certain capabilities, including the ability to deal with ambiguity and uncertainty while demonstrating flexibility and adaptability, all with a driving commitment to metrics and results. This requires development plans for both individual members and the overall board. In short, the board needs to function differently, particularly regarding the

  1. Clinical Governance in Primary Care; Principles, Prerequisites and Barriers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Sadeq Tabrizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary care organizations are the entities through which clinical governance is developed at local level. To implement clinical governance in primary care, awareness about principles, prerequisites and barriers of this quality improvement paradigm is necessary. The aim of this study is to pool evidence about implementing clinical governance in primary care organizations. Data sources: The literature search was conducted in July 2012. PubMed, Web of Science, Emerald, Springerlink, and MD Consult were searched using the following MESH keywords; “clinical governance” and “primary care” Study selection: The search was limited to English language journals with no time limitation. Articles that were either quantitative or qualitative on concepts of implementing clinical governance in primary care were eligible for this study. Data extraction: From selected articles, data on principles, prerequisites and barriers of clinical governance in primary health care were extracted and classified in the extraction tables. Results: We classified our findings about principles of clinical governance in primary care in four groups; general principles, principles related to staff, patient and communication. Prerequisites were categorized in eight clusters; same as the seven dimensions of National Health System (NHS models of clinical governance. Barriers were sorted out in five categories as structure and organizing, cultural, resource, theoretical and logistical. Conclusion: Primary care organizations must provide budget holding, incentivized programs, data feedback, peer review, education, human relations, health information technology (HIT support, and resources. Key elements include; enrolled populations, an interdisciplinary team approach, HIT interoperability and access between all providers as well as patients, devolution of hospital based services into the community, inter-sectorial integration, blended payments, and a balance of

  2. Island development: Local governance under globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Min Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues surrounding island development have generated a growing volume of research. What does it mean to develop? How can island communities maintain control over development processes to the benefit of the local economy, rather than seeing economic flows enter and exit the island with little or a primarily negative impact? And how important is local knowledge for edifying local governance and enhancing potentials for innovation in island development? Island histories have repeatedly been forwarded as exemplars and ‘lessons’ for global learning on (unsustainability. To consider these issues, we have selected a number of papers from among the presentations given at the International Geographical Union’s Commission on Islands Conference, Island Development: Local Economy, Culture, Innovation and Sustainability, which took place in the Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan, 1–5 October 2013. These papers serve as examples of how the processes of globalization have penetrated the borders and changed the political and economic structures of islands. They also explore how island-based innovations in science, technology, culture, and formal or informal governance might contribute to sustainable island development.

  3. Operational circular No. 9 – Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassment

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 9 entitled "Principles and Procedures Governing Complaints of Harassment", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 21 March 2011, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp Operational Circular No. 9 is applicable to any person working at or on behalf of CERN. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 32 entitled "Principles and Procedures Governing Complaints of Harassment” of February 2000. Department Head Office

  4. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Determining the principles of HIA from peer-reviewed papers provides an opportunity for guiding

  5. Investigating Underlying Principles to Guide Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fakhri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods This study was conducted in three stages: 1 Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2 The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3 Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion Determining the principles of HIA from

  6. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of health research: Turning principles into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Josephine; Lock, Mark; Turner, Nicole; Dennison, Ray; Coleman, Clare; Kelly, Brian; Wiggers, John

    2015-08-01

    Gaps exist in researchers' understanding of the 'practice' of community governance in relation to research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. We examine Aboriginal community governance of two rural NSW research projects by applying principles-based criteria from two independent sources. One research project possessed a strong Aboriginal community governance structure and evaluated a 2-year healthy lifestyle program for children; the other was a 5-year cohort study examining factors influencing the mental health and well-being of participants. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia's 'Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research' and 'Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations' described by experts in the field. Adopt community-based participatory research constructs. Develop clear governance structures and procedures at the beginning of the study and allow sufficient time for their establishment. Capacity-building must be a key component of the research. Ensure sufficient resources to enable community engagement, conduct of research governance procedures, capacity-building and results dissemination. The implementation of governance structures and procedures ensures research addresses the priorities of the participating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, minimises risks and improves outcomes for the communities. Principles-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of research is very achievable. Next steps include developing a comprehensive evidence base for appropriate governance structures and procedures, and consolidating a suite of practical guides for structuring clear governance in health research. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. Hospital reforms in France under a Socialist government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pouvourville, G

    1986-01-01

    French health care faced the dual crises of rising costs and excess physicians. No government, whether left or right, could avoid focusing reform on the extensive public hospital system. Many differences introduced by the Socialists after 1981 were rhetorical and relational--matters of "democratization" of governance and "control" of physicians. Paradoxically, the two major structural reforms, "departmentalization" and "global budgeting," were extensions of actions begun under preceding governments. Neither has come to fruition yet.

  8. Reviewing the justification and adequacy of existing legal principles governing nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnam, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Following a review of the legal principles governing nuclear third party liability which are applied in most countries, this paper discusses certain reforms to this regime which have already been applied or are being studied in certain countries - namely the fixing of an unlimited amount of liability for nuclear damage. (NEA) [fr

  9. Less Government is Good Government? Deregulation as an Undermining Principle of Financial Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Engartner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Since liberalization became the dominant global narrative the stock response to market shortcomings has been to “slim down” the state and deregulate. In most countries the slogan of “less government is good government” has become a constitutive feature of economic policy since the 1980s. Markets lie at the heart of every successful economy, and despite not necessarily working well on their own, the economic policy of deregulation has been one of the most persistent currents in the global economy. Based as it is on classical liberalism and – at least in its origins and leanings – neoclassical theory, deregulation aims to minimize the influence of the state. But in the context of the current financial and economic meltdown – the worst economic dislocation since the Great Crash of 1929-32 – “downsizing” the state causes growing turmoil. Global networking has made financial markets much more volatile and therefore much more susceptible to crisis.

  10. Constitutional Principles and E-Government: An Opinion about Possible Effects of Federalism and the Separation of Powers on E-Government Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Examines how Constitutional principles, specifically the doctrines of Federalism and the separation of powers, relate to e-government policies and practices. Suggests that the move toward e-government, with emphasis on the simplification of access to government information and services, must be considered with regard to Federalism and separation…

  11. Gauge theories under incorporation of a generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Martin

    2010-01-01

    There is considered an extension of gauge theories according to the assumption of a generalized uncertainty principle which implies a minimal length scale. A modification of the usual uncertainty principle implies an extended shape of matter field equations like the Dirac equation. If there is postulated invariance of such a generalized field equation under local gauge transformations, the usual covariant derivative containing the gauge potential has to be replaced by a generalized covariant derivative. This leads to a generalized interaction between the matter field and the gauge field as well as to an additional self-interaction of the gauge field. Since the existence of a minimal length scale seems to be a necessary assumption of any consistent quantum theory of gravity, the gauge principle is a constitutive ingredient of the standard model, and even gravity can be described as gauge theory of local translations or Lorentz transformations, the presented extension of gauge theories appears as a very important consideration.

  12. Coexistence of contrasting principles in corporate governance: Two tales of Japanese firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeyoung Yoo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The underlying logic that shapes the coexistence of contrasting mechanisms in a firm’s governance system remains unclear. We examine the logic that promotes a hybrid form of corporate governance in functional terms. The empirical analysis of Japanese firms shows that a firm’s reliance on capital markets for resource acquisition facilitates its adoption of shareholder-oriented mechanisms, such as committee systems. In contrast, corporate performance is still influenced by some of Japanese society’s characteristic governance mechanisms, such as bank ownership. This finding illustrates that contrasting governance mechanisms coexist in a given system owing to their respective or interacting contributions to corporate performance.

  13. Governance of nanotechnology and nanomaterials: principles, regulation, and renegotiating the social contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, George A

    2009-01-01

    Good governance for nanotechnology and nanomaterials is predicated on principles of general good governance. This paper discusses on what lessons we can learn from the oversight of past emerging technologies in formulating these principles. Nanotechnology provides us a valuable opportunity to apply these lessons and a duty to avoid repeating past mistakes. To do that will require mandatory regulation, grounded in precaution, that takes into account the uniqueness of nanomaterials. Moreover, this policy dialogue is not taking place in a vacuum. In applying the lessons of the past, nanotechnology provides a window to renegotiate our public's social contract on chemicals, health, the environment, and risks. Emerging technologies illuminate structural weaknesses, providing a crucial chance to ameliorate lingering regulatory inadequacies and provide much needed updates of existing laws.

  14. Guiding principles for the improved governance of port and shipping impacts in the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, A; Bos, M; Brodie, J; Coles, R; Dale, A; Gilbert, R; Hamann, M; Marsh, H; Neil, K; Pressey, R L; Rasheed, M A; Sheaves, M; Smith, A

    2013-10-15

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region of Queensland, Australia, encompasses a complex and diverse array of tropical marine ecosystems of global significance. The region is also a World Heritage Area and largely within one of the world's best managed marine protected areas. However, a recent World Heritage Committee report drew attention to serious governance problems associated with the management of ports and shipping. We review the impacts of ports and shipping on biodiversity in the GBR, and propose a series of guiding principles to improve the current governance arrangements. Implementing these principles will increase the capacity of decision makers to minimize the impacts of ports and shipping on biodiversity, and will provide certainty and clarity to port operators and developers. A 'business as usual' approach could lead to the GBR's inclusion on the List of World Heritage in Danger in 2014. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategic plans for designing information systems under local government

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Nair, R.

    1998-01-01

    In decentralized administration local bodies are concerned with various administrative, educational and development issues. So in local government the planning for use of technology have started to recognize the value of information. This study attempts to evolve technical guidelines for building up an information system under local government that has to provide networking services by connecting various offices and institutions like Block Panchayat Office, Village Panchayat Office, District...

  16. Incorporating sustainable development principles in the governance of Dutch domestic tourism. The relevance of boundary judgments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressers, H.; Dinica, V.

    2008-08-14

    This research is an exploratory investigation into factors responsible for the inadequate incorporation of sustainable development principles into governance of Dutch domestic tourism. The research methodology of the study from which this paper originates consists of: literature and document analysis; 27 in-depth interviews with political (parliament members), public (ministries, provincial authorities, IPO, VNG), commercial, knowledge and NGO actors; and a survey of perceptions, governance preferences and values by means of a questionnaire returned by 44 respondents in all the above actor-categories. This paper is mainly based on that survey, but against the background of the findings of the other parts of the study. These findings were that governance innovations for sustainability have been so far limited and symbolic. There is a mismatch between the UNEP-WTO recommendations and how the Dutch tourism governance looks like. The approach to decentralization chosen in the country and the thematic rather than sectoral organization of policies makes it difficult to implement many UNEP-WTO recommendations on governance structure features. A policy gap emerged under decentralization, as three-quarters of municipalities do not have tourism policies, allowing for uncontrolled unsustainable developments. There is no problem owner for sustainable tourism. The general public and many organizations have a very low problem perception. Ministries explicitly point to each other and sub-national authorities. Likewise the association of sub-national authorities points to the ministries. Most commercial tourism actors are not interested in sustainability beyond the economic and (client/worker) security dimensions. While sustainability is 'hot' and tourism is 'booming', sustainable tourism is clearly 'low politics'. In the absence of public debate, changing such situation is dependent on the opinions of people inside stakeholder organizations. The

  17. Design principles and developmental mechanisms underlying retinal mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Benjamin E; Keeley, Patrick W

    2015-08-01

    Most structures within the central nervous system (CNS) are composed of different types of neuron that vary in both number and morphology, but relatively little is known about the interplay between these two features, i.e. about the population dynamics of a given cell type. How such arrays of neurons are distributed within a structure, and how they differentiate their dendrites relative to each other, are issues that have recently drawn attention in the invertebrate nervous system, where the genetic and molecular underpinnings of these organizing principles are being revealed in exquisite detail. The retina is one of the few locations where these principles have been extensively studied in the vertebrate CNS, indeed, where the design principles of 'mosaic regularity' and 'uniformity of coverage' were first explicitly defined, quantified, and related to each other. Recent studies have revealed a number of genes that influence the formation of these histotypical features in the retina, including homologues of those invertebrate genes, although close inspection reveals that they do not always mediate comparable developmental processes nor elucidate fundamental design principles. The present review considers just how pervasive these features of 'mosaic regularity' and 'uniform dendritic coverage' are within the mammalian retina, discussing the means by which such features can be assessed in the mature and developing nervous system and examining the limitations associated with those assessments. We then address the extent to which these two design principles co-exist within different populations of neurons, and how they are achieved during development. Finally, we consider the neural phenotypes obtained in mutant nervous systems, to address whether a prospective gene of interest underlies those very design principles. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. Principles governing heart failure therapy re-examined relative to standard evidence-based medicine-driven guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lip-Bun; Chinnappa, Shanmugakumar; Tan, David K H; Hall, Alistair S

    2011-09-01

    Although all aspects of clinical work nowadays are modified by the pervading influence of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and multiplicative guidelines, not many clinicians realize that the underlying premise of EBM-driven guidelines is a particular strain of consequentialist ideology. Subservience to this ideology has transformed modern medical practice, but there is a real risk of distorting good medical practice, of belittling clinical judgement, of disempowering clinicians, and subjecting patients to skewed medical reality and treatment options. With so many heart failure (HF) guidelines issued by various august bodies, it is therefore timely to reappraise principles governing modern HF therapy with a fresh examination of the hierarchy of medical imperatives, the role of alternatives to consequentialism including deontological principles in HF therapy. In addition, other ideology worth re-examining, aside from EBM, are the principle of appropriate definition of HF underlying therapeutic goals and the principle of prioritizing objectives of HF therapy. Even within standard EBM, there are many questions to reconsider: about what types of evidence are admissible, different interpretations of available evidence, emphasizing patient-centered outcome measures instead of randomized controlled trials quantifiable therapeutic outcomes, how to prescribe drugs for prognostic versus symptomatic benefits, and how to deliver HF therapy based on pathophysiological features through mechanistic considerations and not just confined to randomized controlled trials or meta-analytical statistical imperatives. Through re-examination of these fundamental principles of HF therapy, it is hoped that clinicians will be empowered to manage HF patients more holistically and better deliver HF therapies in the best interest of each individual patient.

  19. Operational circular No.10 – Principles and procedures governing investigation of fraud

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 10 entitled “Principles and procedures governing investigation of Fraud”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 4 December 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department.   This circular is applicable to all persons working at or on behalf of CERN. The purpose of this new operational circular is to specify the definition of fraud and to lay down the Organization’s fraud investigation process pursuant to the CERN Anti-fraud Policy and in accordance with the principles of due process. Department Head Office HR Department

  20. Myanmar’s Foreign Policy under the USDP Government: Continuities and Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maung Aung Myoe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar’s foreign policy under the USDP government is historically consistent in terms of fundamental principles of being independent, active, and non-aligned, as promulgated in the Constitution. However, the USDP government has pronounced a new foreign policy objective of reintegrating Myanmar into the international community. This objective is not in conflict with the existing ones nor does it seek to replace them, but rather endeavours to supplement them to make Myanmar’s foreign relations more active, dynamic, and international. This is by no means a major change in foreign policy orientation. It is merely an adjustment within the context of the fundamental principles of Myanmar’s foreign policy to cultivate friendly and balanced relations with all major powers active in the Indo-Pacific region. The change is mostly in terms of how the foreign policy is implemented and diplomacy is conducted. Since it came to power in 2011, the USDP government has pursued a foreign policy strategy that delicately balances the strategic interests of major powers in the country, that primarily maintains friendly relations with countries both near and far, and that applies multilateralism with an emphasis on regional cooperation or regional institutions. The foreign policy adjustment under the USDP government is leadership-driven, and it appears that the president is a prime mover and the Tatmadaw is a lead institution.

  1. CSR as value attunement within governance processes : stakeholder dialogue, corporate principles and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Frank Jan

    2016-01-01

    I argue that a governance perspective on corporate social responsibility (CSR) makes it possible to explain why the concept will always be under-defined, is normative and thus political by nature, and is and should be difficult to measure. The perspective also makes it possible to understand the

  2. Sovereignty, Stability and Solidarity: Conflicting and Converging Principles and the Shaping of Economic Governance in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Ton|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269465995; van Rossem, Jan Willem|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32439649X

    2014-01-01

    The central aim of this paper is to identify the content of the principles of stability, national sovereignty and solidarity and to analyse how these principles interact with regard to EU economic governance. The first prong of this paper research is largely conceptual in nature and looks at the

  3. Water, Resilience and the Law: From General Concepts and Governance Design Principles to Actionable Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Clarvis, M.; Allan, A.; Hannah, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has significant ramifications for water law and governance, yet, there is strong evidence that legal regulations have often failed to protect environments or promote sustainable development. Scholars have increasingly suggested that the preservation and restoration paradigms of legislation and regulation are no longer adequate for climate change related challenges in complex and cross-scale social-ecological systems. This is namely due to past assumptions of stationarity, uniformitarianism and the perception of ecosystem change as predictable and reversible. This paper reviews the literature on law and resilience and then presents and discusses a set of practical examples of legal mechanisms from the water resources management sector, identified according to a set of guiding principles from the literature on adaptive capacity, adaptive governance as well as adaptive and integrated water resources management. It then assesses the aptness of these different measures according to scientific evidence of increased uncertainty and changing ecological baselines. A review of the best practice examples demonstrates that there are a number of best practice examples attempting to integrate adaptive elements of flexibility, iterativity, connectivity and subsidiarity into a variety of legislative mechanisms, suggesting that there is not as significant a tension between resilience and the law as many scholars have suggested. However, while many of the mechanisms may indeed be suitable for addressing challenges relating to current levels of change and uncertainty, analysis across a broader range of uncertainty highlights challenges relating to more irreversible changes associated with greater levels of warming. Furthermore the paper identifies a set of pre-requisites that are fundamental to the successful implementation of such mechanisms, namely monitoring and data sharing, financial and technical capacity, particularly in nations that are most at risk with the

  4. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  5. Organizing principles underlying microorganism's growth-robustness trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolli, Alessandro; Salvador, Armindo

    2014-10-01

    Growth Robustness Reciprocity (GRR) is an intriguing microbial manifestation: the impairment of microorganism's growth enhances their ability to resist acute stresses, and vice-versa. This is caused by regulatory interactions that determine higher expression of protection mechanisms in response to low growth rates. But because such regulatory mechanisms are species-specific, GRR must result from convergent evolution. Why does natural selection favor such an outcome? We used mathematical models of optimal cellular resource allocation to identify the general principles underlying GRR. Non-linear optimization allowed to predict allocation patterns of biosynthetic resources (ribosomes devoted to the synthesis of each cell component) that maximize growth. These models predict the down-regulation of stress defenses under high substrate availabilities and low stress levels. Under these conditions, stress tolerance ensues from growth-related damage dilution: the higher the substrate availability, the fastest the dilution of damaged proteins by newly synthesized proteins, the lower the accumulation of damaged components into the cell. In turn, under low substrate availability growth is too slow for effective damage dilution, and the expression of the defenses up to some optimal level then increases growth. As a consequence, slow-growing cells are pre-adapted to withstand acute stresses. Therefore, the observed negative correlation between growth and stress tolerance can be explained as a consequence of optimal resource allocation for maximal growth. We acknowledge fellowship SFRH/BPD/90065/2012 and grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 financed by FEDER through the "Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade, COMPETE" and by national funds through "FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia" (project PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657/2010). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Ecosystem-based management in the Wadden Sea: Principles for the governance of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Diana; van Buuren, Arwin; Edelenbos, Jurian

    2013-09-01

    The governance of the Wadden Sea has to contend with a complex interplay of social and ecological systems. Social systems tend to be characterized by pluralism of - often conflicting - norms and values, and ecological systems are characterized by high complexity and natural and human-induced variability, leading to unpredictable and nonlinear behavior. This highly volatile situation challenges traditional forms of management as well as traditional ways of organizing knowledge for decision-making processes. Ecosystem-based management approaches have been developed to find more effective, holistic, and evidence-based strategies to deal with the challenges of complex socio-ecological systems. They also require another way of dealing with (scientific) knowledge, the way it is produced and applied. In this paper, from the perspective of ecosystem-based management, we define the specific principles that apply to the way knowledge is mobilized and applied within decision-making processes. We illuminate these principles by examining three empirical cases of ecosystem-based management within, or related to, the Wadden Sea area. Finally, we reflect upon our findings and elaborate on the extent to which our theoretical framework is capable of describing and assessing the interaction between knowledge and decision making within ecosystem-based management approaches.

  7. The Quality of Explanations for Deviation from Principles of Corporate Governance. An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Koładkiewicz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize studies aiming to define matters related to the quality of explanations found in corporate governance statements published by listed companies. Another important aspect of the conducted analysis is the identification of various dimensions of explanation quality. Methodology: The character of the conducted research is that of an overview of literature devoted to the subject. Apart from scientific articles, it covers European Union regulations, regulations characteristic of countries selected for the analysis (member states of the European Union, and applied solutions aimed at guaranteeing the desired quality of explanations for deviation included in corporate governance statements that are in the centre of attention. Findings: The conducted analysis organizes the current knowledge concerning actions aimed at improving the quality of explanations for deviation from principles of corporate governance. Without a doubt, the primary pillar consists of the level of information and its quality, as found in explanations for shareholders. It is this quality that determines if the shareholder understands the processes occurring in the realm of corporate governance in the company. Research limitations: The conducted analysis should be treated as an introduction to related research issues. It should be stressed that research into explanations provided by companies is still in the process of development, and the number of publications devoted to this topic is still modest. Practical implications: The study fits in the research into the phenomena of the “comply or explain” mechanism as applied in practice, which according of many researchers, continues to be poorly investigated. In terms of the directions for further research, there are promising topics including e.g. identification of factors that may translate into the quality of such statements (e.g. ownership structure, identity of shareholders, the

  8. Governing environmental conflicts in China: Under what conditions do local government compromise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Li (Yanwei); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop); S. Verweij (Stefan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn recent years, governing environmental conflicts concerning the planning, construction, and operation of urban facilities has increasingly become a challenge for Chinese local governments. Chinese governments seek adequate responses to deal with these conflicts, for instance by

  9. Governing environmental conflicts in China : Under what conditions do local governments compromise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yanwei; Koppenjan, Joop; Verweij, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, governing environmental conflicts concerning the planning, construction, and operation of urban facilities has increasingly become a challenge for Chinese local governments. Chinese governments seek adequate responses to deal with these conflicts, for instance by ignoring criticism

  10. Principles underlying rational design of live attenuated influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yo Han

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent innovative advances in molecular virology and the developments of vaccines, influenza virus remains a serious burden for human health. Vaccination has been considered a primary countermeasure for prevention of influenza infection. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are particularly attracting attention as an effective strategy due to several advantages over inactivated vaccines. Cold-adaptation, as a classical means for attenuating viral virulence, has been successfully used for generating safe and effective donor strains of LAIVs against seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Recently, the advent of reverse genetics technique expedited a variety of rational strategies to broaden the pool of LAIVs. Considering the breadth of antigenic diversity of influenza virus, the pool of LAIVs is likely to equip us with better options for controlling influenza pandemics. With a brief reflection on classical attenuating strategies used at the initial stage of development of LAIVs, especially on the principles underlying the development of cold-adapted LAIVs, we further discuss and outline other attenuation strategies especially with respect to the rationales for attenuation, and their practicality for mass production. Finally, we propose important considerations for a rational vaccine design, which will provide us with practical guidelines for improving the safety and effectiveness of LAIVs. PMID:23596576

  11. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  12. The underlying principles of relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the main statements of relativistic theory of gravitation, constructed in result of critical analysis of the general theory of relativity. The principle of geometrization is formulated

  13. Multiscale Characterization of Bacterial Swarming Illuminates Principles Governing Directed Surface Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Ben; Hoeger, Kentaro; Ursell, Tristan

    In many systems, individual characteristics interact, leading to the spontaneous emergence of order and complexity. In biological settings like microbes, such collective behaviors can imbue a variety of benefits to constituent individuals, including increased spatial range, improved access to nutrients, and enhanced resistance to antibiotic threats. To untangle the biophysical underpinnings of collective motility, we use passive tracers and a curated genetic library of Bacillus subtilis, including motile, non-motile, biofilm-deficient, and non-chemotactic mutants. We characterize and connect individual behavior on the microscopic scale to macroscopic colony morphology and motility of dendritic swarming. We analyze the persistence and dynamics of coordinated movement on length scales up to 4 orders of magnitude larger than that of individual cells, revealing rapid and directed responses of microbial groups to external stimuli, such as avoidance dynamics across chemical gradients. Our observations uncover the biophysical interplay between individual motility, surface wetness, phenotypic diversity, and external physical forces that robustly precipitate coordinated group behavior in microbes, and suggest general principles that govern the transition from individual to group behavior.

  14. Practical application of corporate governance principles in a developing country: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjiru Gachie; Desmond Wesley Govender

    2017-01-01

    The importance of examining corporate governance in organisations cannot be overemphasised. Corporate governance failure which has resulted from weak corporate governance systems has highlighted the need for research aimed at contributing to the improvement and reform of corporate governance at business, national and international level. A review of corporate governance mechanisms and their practical application in two retail companies in South Africa was undertaken. The research question tha...

  15. Public Expectations in Local Governance: Unit Committees under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Keywords: Governance, Decentralisation, Public Services Delivery, Unit ..... company after 24 hours, as indicated on the electricity company's forms. ...... Decentralisation and Poverty: Conceptual Framework and Application.

  16. Surface Tension of Multi-phase Flow with Multiple Junctions Governed by the Variational Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki; Nakano, Kota; Shinjo, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie et al. (J Comput Phys 113:134–147, 1994) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase (N-phase, N ≥ 2) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation for motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

  17. Rules and mechanisms governing octahedral tilts in perovskites under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, H. J.; Guennou, Mael; Íñiguez, Jorge; Kreisel, Jens; Bellaiche, L.

    2017-08-01

    The rotation of octahedra (octahedral tilting) is common in A B O3 perovskites and relevant to many physical phenomena, ranging from electronic and magnetic properties, metal-insulator transitions to improper ferroelectricity. Hydrostatic pressure is an efficient way to tune and control octahedral tiltings. However, the pressure behavior of such tiltings can dramatically differ from one material to another, with the origins of such differences remaining controversial. In this paper, we discover several new mechanisms and formulate a set of simple rules that allow us to understand how pressure affects oxygen octahedral tiltings via the use and analysis of first-principles results for a variety of compounds. Besides the known A -O interactions, we reveal that the interactions between specific B ions and oxygen ions contribute to the tilting instability. We explain the previously reported trend that the derivative of the oxygen octahedral tilting with respect to pressure (dR /dP ) usually decreases with both the tolerance factor and the ionization state of the A ion by illustrating the key role of A -O interactions and their change under pressure. Furthermore, three new mechanisms/rules are discovered, namely that (i) the octahedral rotations in A B O3 perovskites with empty low-lying d states on the B site are greatly enhanced by pressure, in order to lower the electronic kinetic energy; (ii) dR /dP is enhanced when the system possesses weak tilt instabilities, and (iii) for the most common phase exhibited by perovskites—the orthorhombic Pbnm state—the in-phase and antiphase octahedral rotations are not automatically both suppressed or both enhanced by the application of pressure because of a trilinear coupling between these two rotation types and an antipolar mode involving the A ions. We further predict that the polarization associated with the so-called hybrid improper ferroelectricity could be manipulated by hydrostatic pressure by indirectly controlling the

  18. Irregular Techniques for Controlling Under-Governed Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coburn, Matthew D

    2007-01-01

    The United States government has identified undergoverned areas in weakened or failed states as one of the threats faced by the United States and its allies because these spaces can provide safe havens for terrorists...

  19. Universal principles governing multiple random searchers on complex networks: The logarithmic growth pattern and the harmonic law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tongfeng; Zhang, Jie; Small, Michael; Harandizadeh, Bahareh; Hui, Pan

    2018-03-01

    We propose a unified framework to evaluate and quantify the search time of multiple random searchers traversing independently and concurrently on complex networks. We find that the intriguing behaviors of multiple random searchers are governed by two basic principles—the logarithmic growth pattern and the harmonic law. Specifically, the logarithmic growth pattern characterizes how the search time increases with the number of targets, while the harmonic law explores how the search time of multiple random searchers varies relative to that needed by individual searchers. Numerical and theoretical results demonstrate these two universal principles established across a broad range of random search processes, including generic random walks, maximal entropy random walks, intermittent strategies, and persistent random walks. Our results reveal two fundamental principles governing the search time of multiple random searchers, which are expected to facilitate investigation of diverse dynamical processes like synchronization and spreading.

  20. Practical application of corporate governance principles in a developing country: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiru Gachie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of examining corporate governance in organisations cannot be overemphasised. Corporate governance failure which has resulted from weak corporate governance systems has highlighted the need for research aimed at contributing to the improvement and reform of corporate governance at business, national and international level. A review of corporate governance mechanisms and their practical application in two retail companies in South Africa was undertaken. The research question that informed the study was: What is the nature of corporate governance mechanisms in the South African retail sector? The research design entailed analysis of secondary data, namely Annual Reports and other pertinent documents, and document analysis was used to show what is accessible to the ordinary share/stake-holder and what is not. Data analysis was conducted both qualitatively and quantitatively. With regard to corporate governance mechanisms, the results and discussion show that the two companies have not yet complied with the King II and III codes. Recommended strategies to strengthen corporate governance mechanisms in the South African retail sector should include a commitment to risk disclosure and revamping of the corporate governance structure of the ‘whole’ system.

  1. 41 CFR 102-85.25 - What is the basic principle governing OAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.25 What is the basic principle...

  2. Transparency Under Scrutiny: Information Disclosure in Global Environmental Governance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Although transparency is a key concept of our times, it remains a relatively understudied phenomenon in global environmental politics. The link between transparency and accountable, legitimate and effective governance is assumed, yet the nature and workings of this link require further scrutiny.

  3. 41 CFR 102-118.535 - Are there principles governing my agency's TSP debt collection procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by writing: Superintendent of Documents Government Printing Office Washington, DC 20402 http://www... General Accounting Office (GAO) or the Department of Justice are found in 4 CFR parts 101 through 105 and...

  4. Sustaining Rural Afghanistan under Limited Central Government Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Groninger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Land and water access insecurity, land grabbing, and unstable common property status of critical local resources continue to drive conflicts, rural landlessness and environmental problems throughout many areas of Afghanistan where formal government is weak or entirely absent.  In contrast to traditional development strategies that favor infrastructure enhancement and backed by enforced national policies, we offer Afghan-specific strategies based on resource conservation and increased capacity of local resource management institutions that can function when and where central government cannot be relied upon to assume or maintain a supportive role. Resource conservation and building local capacity are key components of existing and proposed future efforts to increase stability. However, support for these efforts, whether government or community-based, has been limited in portions of rural Afghanistan , apparently due to low stakeholder confidence in retaining access to improved land, water and other critical resources when international forces withdraw. Powerful individuals and groups, operating outside local community structures, are increasingly impacting land use practices. We suggest a thorough assessment of the present and likely future social environment, including awareness of likely conflicts resulting from agricultural or natural resource improvements, before any tangible actions are taken.

  5. Some Physical Principles Governing Spatial and Temporal Organization in Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Zulfikar

    Spatial and temporal organization in living organisms are crucial for a variety of biological functions and arise from the interplay of large number of interacting molecules. One of the central questions in systems biology is to understand how such an intricate organization emerges from the molecular biochemistry of the cell. In this dissertation we explore two projects. The first project relates to pattern formation in a cell membrane as an example of spatial organization, and the second project relates to the evolution of oscillatory networks as a simple example of temporal organization. For the first project, we introduce a model for pattern formation in a two-component lipid bilayer and study the interplay between membrane composition and membrane geometry, demonstrating the existence of a rich phase diagram. Pattern formation is governed by the interplay between phase separation driven by lipid-lipid interactions and tendency of lipid domains with high intrinsic curvature to deform the membrane away from its preferred position. Depending on membrane parameters, we find the formation of compact lipid micro-clusters or of striped domains. We calculate the stripe width analytically and find good agreement with stripe widths obtained from the simulations. For the second project, we introduce a minimal model for the evolution of functional protein-interaction networks using a sequence-based mutational algorithm and apply it to study the following problems. Using the model, we study robustness and designabilty of a 2-component network that generate oscillations. We completely enumerate the sequence space and the phenotypic space, and discuss the relationship between designabilty, robustness and evolvability. We further apply the model to studies of neutral drift in networks that yield oscillatory dynamics, e.g. starting with a relatively simple network and allowing it to evolve by adding nodes and connections while requiring that oscillatory dynamics be preserved

  6. Influence of the Good-Practice Principles and Codes in the Corporate Governance upon the Quality of the Financial-Accounting Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Niculae

    2017-01-01

    This hereby works tries to identify the principles regarding the corporate governance and analyze the way in which such corporate governance templates influence the qualitative characteristics of the financial information. The execution of the governance means the obligation to implement the processes and structures corresponding to the management and the administration of the business and company’s operations, to provide their good operation. The final scope of the good corporate governance ...

  7. Equality of the sexes in Sweden under a new government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrea, J M

    1979-07-01

    Although the Social Democratic Party lost its long control of Parliament, Sweden is a country with a strong egalitarian philosophy which transcends party politics, and it is felt that the loss of the election had virtually no affect on policy toward women or other aspects of social policy. A review of the Swedish political situation, including political parties; election issues; aftermath of the election; and labor force participation precedes consideration of developments in the economic status of women, 1976-1978. Factors considered include Labour Market Board equality measures; parenthood insurance; work hours; the Committee on Equality Between Men and Women; proposed legislation on equality; private agreements between employers and trade unions on family policy; and womens' participation. It is concluded that the new government has merely continued the equality programs of the previous government, with the only meaningful contribution of the new Equality Committee to draft legislation prohibiting discrimination. The law on equality is a vital issue for the Liberal Party and they will have to persuade the Social Democrats that its enactment will provide the basis of an egalitarian society.

  8. The organizational structure and governing principles of the Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrow, Susan; Campion, Daniel M; Herrinton, Lisa J; Nair, Vinit P; Robb, Melissa A; Wilson, Marcus; Platt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's Mini-Sentinel pilot program is developing an organizational structure as well as principles and policies to govern its operations. These will inform the structure and function of the eventual Sentinel System. Mini-Sentinel is a collaboration that includes 25 participating institutions. We describe the program's current organizational structure and its major principles and policies. The organization includes a coordinating center with program leadership provided by a principal investigator; a planning board and subcommittees; an operations center; and data, methods, and protocol cores. Ad hoc workgroups are created as needed. A privacy panel advises about protection of individual health information. Principles and policies are intended to ensure that Mini-Sentinel conforms to the principles of fair information practices, protects the privacy of individual health information, maintains the security and integrity of data, assures the confidentiality of proprietary information, provides accurate and timely communications, prevents or manages conflicts of interest, and preserves respect for intellectual property rights. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Community Water Governance on Mount Kenya: An Assessment Based on Ostrom’s Design Principles of Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jampel Dell’Angelo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenyan river basin governance underwent a pioneering reform in the Water Act of 2002, which established new community water-management institutions. This article focuses on community water projects in the Likii Water Resource Users Association in the Upper Ewaso Ng’iro River basin on Mount Kenya, and the extent to which their features are consistent with Ostrom’s design principles of natural resource management. Although the projects have developed solid institutional structures, pressures such as hydroclimatic change, population growth, and water inequality challenge their ability to manage their water resources. Institutional homogeneity across the different water projects and congruence with the design principles is not necessarily a positive factor. Strong differences in household water flows within and among the projects point to the disconnection between apparently successful institutions and their objectives, such as fair and equitable water allocation.

  10. Vertical governance change and product differentiation under decreasing component costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kok, de A.G.

    In deciding on whether and when to outsource component production, firms should consider the trade-off between total production costs and the ability to horizontally differentiate products. We study the outsourcing decision in a duopoly under decreasing but uncertain market rates for components,

  11. Vertical governance change and product differentiation under decreasing component costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kok, A.G. de

    2015-01-01

    In deciding on whether and when to outsource component production, firms should consider the trade-off between total production costs and the ability to horizontally differentiate products. We study the outsourcing decision in a duopoly under decreasing but uncertain market rates for components,

  12. Demand of Insurance under the Cost-of-Capital Premium Calculation Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Merz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the optimal insurance design problem. This is a risk sharing problem between an insured and an insurer. The main novelty in this paper is that we study this optimization problem under a risk-adjusted premium calculation principle for the insurance cover. This risk-adjusted premium calculation principle uses the cost-of-capital approach as it is suggested (and used by the regulator and the insurance industry.

  13. PHILOSOPHICAL VALIDITY, THEORETICAL, NORMATIVE AND EMPIRICAL PARADIGM OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE (AUPB AS A REVIEW OF PRESIDENTIAL IMPEACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Nadir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical validity showed of the Principles of Good Governance (AUPB as A review to Presidential impeachment, is a principle of AUPB that contains ethical normative values used as the foundation of good governance, clean and respectable, moreover to complement the shortcomings and ambiguities in law. Technically, the application of AUPB by the judges of the Constitutional Court (MK-RI can be approached through induction and deduction legal reasoning. The method of implementing AUPB by the judges of the Constitutional Court (MK-RI is accomplished by deductive at first, meaning that the special rules is focused more to the certain field of law, then these are deducted based on its basic rules and deducted again into the rules of substantive, and deducted again into the rules of cases. After that, it starts to applicate the rules of case based on the concrete case by the judge, because of the nature of the judges of the Constitutional Court (MK-RI is kholifah fil'ardi as the representative of God on earth to uphold the law and justice. While theoretically AUPB is valid, the judge ius curia Novit as a verdict maker to perform legal discovery (rechtsvinding. Empirically AUPB is valid, it can be seen from the cases of impeachment against the President of the United States William Jefferson Clinton, on suspicion of "abominably act" (misdemeanors. Additionally, AUPB empirically has been tested through jurisprudence since Amtenarenwet 1929 officially applied on March 1, 1933. Centrale Raad van Beroep, in his verdict on June 22, 1933, and the jurisprudence verdict of Hoge Raad on November 13, 1936, and the jurisprudence verdict of Hoge Raad 1919. While the normative validity is based on the leading legal doctrine, that AUPB is positioned as the unwritten laws that must be obeyed by the government, and AUPB considered as a part of positive law. Moreover, in Indonesia AUPB incarnates in various legislations even though his name is remained as principal.

  14. THE PRINCIPLES OF TRANSPARENCY AND INCLUSIVENESS AS PILLARS OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE: THE BRICS APPROACH TO THE UNITED NATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transparency of governance is not only a necessary and sufficient condition for bringing about accountability, but also the basis for the possibility of democracy in the global sphere. Although there is no automatic progress from transparency to democratic global governance, this principle helps to create more democratic, open and fair societies. Recently, the importance of inclusiveness, transparency and procedural safeguards has emerged as a critical theme. The practical implementation of fair global governance mechanisms, procedures, and institutions will always depend on the level of participation, contestation, or solidarity among the different stakeholders represented at the local, national or international level. Recent years have clearly shown a trend towards increasing transparency and inclusiveness in international organizations’ activities and operations, in contrast to opaqueness or lack of transparency which was a very common practice in diplomacy during past centuries. The inclusion of transparency and inclusiveness elements in the decision-making rules of an international organization are fundamental for these norms to be considered not only ‘more legal,’ but also to have a higher level of legitimacy. The General Assembly decided in its Resolution 60/251 of 2006 that the methods of work of the Human Rights Council should be transparent, fair and impartial and should enable genuine dialogue. Finally, the role played by the BRICS countries at the Security Council and the Human Rights Council is critical in regards to its working methods.

  15. Basic principles and guidelines governing services of the police for the protection of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, R.; Kern, R.

    1989-01-01

    Services of the police can be ordered for physical protection of nuclear installations of any kind and of nuclear materials transports in cases where there is danger that those first responsible cannot cope with the situation. The contribution discusses physical protection measures as a licensing requirement, the duties of the police forces within the given scope, the measures that can and may be taken by the police, the establishment of special commissions, as well as the particular provisions for nuclear materials transports. The provisions governing police services for physical protection have led to an efficient and well furnished system in terms of organisation, personnel, and materials, which guarantees protection to a great extent. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. The Search for Underlying Principles of Health Impact Assessment: Progress and Prospects; Comment on “Investigating Underlying Principles to Guide Health Impact Assessment”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko S. Winkler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment (HIA is a relatively young field of endeavour, and hence, future progress will depend on the planning, implementation and rigorous evaluation of additional HIAs of projects, programmes and policies the world over. In the June 2014 issue of the International Journal of Health Policy and Management, Fakhri and colleagues investigated underlying principles of HIA through a comprehensive review of the literature and expert consultation. With an emphasis on the Islamic Republic of Iran, the authors identified multiple issues that are relevant for guiding HIA practice. At the same time, the study unravelled current shortcomings in the understanding and definition of HIA principles and best practice at national, regional, and global levels. In this commentary we scrutinise the research presented, highlight strengths and limitations, and discuss the findings in the context of other recent attempts to guide HIA.

  17. Ethnographic research with adolescent students: situated fieldwork ethics and ethical principles governing human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Annette

    2009-12-01

    This paper explores ethical dilemmas in situated fieldwork ethics concerning ethnographic studies of adolescent students. While consequentialist and deontological ethics form the basis of the ethical stances shared by ethnographers and research ethics committees, the interpretation of those principles may diverge in school-based ethnography with adolescent students because of the particular role of the adult ethnographer vis-à-vis developmentally immature adolescents not held legally responsible for many of their actions. School ethnographers attempt to build trust with adolescent participants in order to learn about their hidden cultural worlds, which may involve activities that are very harmful to the youths involved. They face many difficult and sometimes unexpected choices, including whether to intervene and how to represent events and adolescents in published findings. Scenarios with examples drawn from research conducted in public high schools are used to illustrate and explicate dilemmas in formal research and latent insider/outsider roles and relations involving harmful adolescent behaviors, advocacy, and psychological trauma. Also examined are analytical procedures used to construct interpretations leading to representations of research participants in the resulting publication.

  18. General principles governing sampling and measurement techniques for monitoring radioactive effluents from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1978-01-01

    An explanation is given of the need to monitor the release of radioactive gases and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities, with particular emphasis on the ICRP recommendations and on the interest in this problem shown by the larger international organizations. This is followed by a description of the classes of radionuclides that are normally monitored in this way. The characteristics of monitoring 'in line' and 'by sample taking' are described; the disadvantages of in line monitoring and the problem of sample representativity are discussed. There follows an account of the general principles for measuring gaseous and liquid effluents that are applied in the techniques normally employed at nuclear facilities. Standards relating to the specifications for monitoring instruments are at present being devised by the International Electrotechnical Commission, and there are still major differences in national practices, at least as far as measurement thresholds are concerned. In conclusion, it is shown that harmonization of practices and standardization of equipment would probably help to make international relations in the field more productive. (author)

  19. How Russia and other BRICS Countries as well as Indonesia Implement the G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lanshina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the implementation of the G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance by Russia in comparison to other BRICS countries and Indonesia. Originally, this document was adopted by OECD in 1999. The last (third version of the document was developed in 2014–2015, with an active involvement of G20 countries, and was adopted at the G20 Summit in Antalya (Turkey in November 2015. Dramatic changes are absent in the new document, however, it contains several new recommendations, which became necessary after the global economic crisis of 2008–2009. The article is focused on the actions of six countries that were chosen for the analysis, as well as on the real changes in these countries. The author takes into account OECD recommendations on the assessment of implementation of G20/OECD principles. According to these recommendations, researchers should not pay too much attention to the quantitative analysis, since many important issues are unobservable for them. Considering this, the author accentuates qualitative research methods and comparative analysis. The results of the study show that Brazil, Indonesia and Russia were most active in implementation, while South Africa and China lacked any actions, and India achieved only partial implementation. Despite the large number of facts documenting formal implementation of corporate governance principles in Russia during the last years, Russia definitely lacks real improvements. This is true for information disclosure (including data on the management remuneration, gender diversity on corporate boards, the share of independent directors, etc. Moreover, Russian companies are characterized by high concentration of capital, and the role of boards is often reduced to formalities. According to the results of the research, similar limitations are found in the systems of corporate governance of other countries covered by this study. Taking into account the limited accessibility of information on

  20. Guidelines for medical and health information sites on the internet: principles governing AMA web sites. American Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, M A; Flanagin, A; Chi-Lum, B; White, J; Andrews, K; Kennett, R L; DeAngelis, C D; Musacchio, R A

    Access to medical information via the Internet has the potential to speed the transformation of the patient-physician relationship from that of physician authority ministering advice and treatment to that of shared decision making between patient and physician. However, barriers impeding this transformation include wide variations in quality of content on the Web, potential for commercial interests to influence online content, and uncertain preservation of personal privacy. To address these issues, the American Medical Association (AMA) has developed principles to guide development and posting of Web site content, govern acquisition and posting of online advertising and sponsorship, ensure site visitors' and patients' rights to privacy and confidentiality, and provide effective and secure means of e-commerce. While these guidelines were developed for the AMA Web sites and visitors to these sites, they also may be useful to other providers and users of medical information on the Web. These principles have been developed with the understanding that they will require frequent revision to keep pace with evolving technology and practices on the Internet. The AMA encourages review and feedback from readers, Web site visitors, policymakers, and all others interested in providing reliable quality information via the Web.

  1. Evolutionary Game Model Study of Construction Green Supply Chain Management under the Government Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuanzhi; Deng, Xiaoyi

    2017-11-01

    The paper first has defined the concepts of green supply chain management and evolution game theory, and pointed out the characteristics of green supply chain management in construction. The main participants and key links of the construction green supply chain management are determined by constructing the organization framework. This paper established the evolutionary game model between construction enterprises and recycling enterprises for the green supply chain closed-loop structure. The waste recycling evolutionary stability equilibrium solution is obtained to explore the principle and effective scope of government policy intervention. This paper put forward the relevant countermeasures to the green supply chain management in construction recycling stage from the government point of view. The conclusion has reference value and guidance to the final product construction enterprises, recycling enterprises and the government during green supply chain.

  2. The rights of shareholders – basic principle of corporate governance by means of case-specific jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Doru BÎGIOI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Respecting shareholders’ rights represents one of the fundamental principles of corporate governance, underpinning the establishment of economic entities, as a form of association of individuals and / or legal entities in order to carry out profit-oriented activities. However, there are situations in which the management, the other shareholders, or even the authorities, do not respect certain shareholders’ rights, leading to a number of negative effects, such as the closing of companies. Based on these considerations, in this paper, we set as research objective to analyze the circumstances, which may affect shareholders’ rights. To meet the research objectives, we analyzed the case-specific jurisprudence published by the courts of law till 31st of December 2015. The results of the study show that the shareholders’ rights, which are not respected, include: the property right, the right to receive dividends, the right to participate and vote in the general assemblies of shareholders, the right to be elected in the governing bodies, and not the least, the most important one in accounting terms, the right to be informed.

  3. Atomic force microscopy: Unraveling the fundamental principles governing secretion and membrane fusion in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Bhanu P.

    2009-01-01

    The story of cell secretion and membrane fusion is as old as life itself. Without these fundamental cellular processes known to occur in yeast to humans, life would cease to exist. In the last 15 years, primarily using the atomic force microscope, a detailed understanding of the molecular process and of the molecular machinery and mechanism of secretion and membrane fusion in cells has come to light. This has led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the underlying mechanism of cell secretion. The journey leading to the discovery of a new cellular structure the 'porosome',-the universal secretory machinery in cells, and the contributions of the AFM in our understanding of the general molecular machinery and mechanism of cell secretion and membrane fusion, is briefly discussed in this article.

  4. 40 CFR 22.37 - Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. 22.37 Section 22.37 Protection of Environment... Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (a) Scope. This... sections 3005(d) and (e), 3008, 9003 and 9006 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(d) and (e...

  5. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Chinese Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-15

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  6. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [es

  7. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  8. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules.

  9. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [fr

  10. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [ru

  11. Temporal ventriloquism along the path of apparent motion: speed perception under different spatial grouping principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogulmus, Cansu; Karacaoglu, Merve; Kafaligonul, Hulusi

    2018-03-01

    The coordination of intramodal perceptual grouping and crossmodal interactions plays a critical role in constructing coherent multisensory percepts. However, the basic principles underlying such coordinating mechanisms still remain unclear. By taking advantage of an illusion called temporal ventriloquism and its influences on perceived speed, we investigated how audiovisual interactions in time are modulated by the spatial grouping principles of vision. In our experiments, we manipulated the spatial grouping principles of proximity, uniform connectedness, and similarity/common fate in apparent motion displays. Observers compared the speed of apparent motions across different sound timing conditions. Our results revealed that the effects of sound timing (i.e., temporal ventriloquism effects) on perceived speed also existed in visual displays containing more than one object and were modulated by different spatial grouping principles. In particular, uniform connectedness was found to modulate these audiovisual interactions in time. The effect of sound timing on perceived speed was smaller when horizontal connecting bars were introduced along the path of apparent motion. When the objects in each apparent motion frame were not connected or connected with vertical bars, the sound timing was more influential compared to the horizontal bar conditions. Overall, our findings here suggest that the effects of sound timing on perceived speed exist in different spatial configurations and can be modulated by certain intramodal spatial grouping principles such as uniform connectedness.

  12. 为什么"污染者付费原则"在农村难以执行?——南平养猪污染第三方治理中养猪户付费行为研究%Why polluter-pays principle is difficult to implement in rural areas? — A case study of pig-farmer paying behavior under the third party governance of pig-farming pollution in Nanping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑黄山; 陈淑凤; 孙小霞; 苏时鹏

    2017-01-01

    affected the survival rate of livestock and poultry, but also endangered the health quality of residents in the surrounding areas. The professional third party governance of wastes is one of the fast developing trends of pollution governance, in which polluter paying pollution fees in time is not only a re-quirement of "polluter-pays principle", but also the key to the continuous operation of the third party governance system. However, in reality, many farmers fail to pay pollution fees in time. To ensure sustainable development of the third party gov-ernance and re-vitalization of animal husbandry areas, this paper used logistic regression model to analyze the key factors influencing payment behaviors of pig farmers in relation to individuals, family, production and business operations, and other external factors. The paper investigated the payment behaviors of 117 pig farmers in 7 villages of Luxia Town, Nanping City, Fujian Province. The results showed that: (1) the late/none payment of pollution fee greatly affected the normal operations of the third party governance. Although 73.50% of farmers believed that the fee should be paid, only 61.54% actually paid it in time. The main reason for the none/late payment was the farmers' judgment of the environment, which ignored the negative externalities of pollution on environment in the downstream areas. Other reasons included the lack of full understanding of "polluter-pays principle", effects of acquaintances in rural communities, public comparisons with other regions and the lack of law enforcement in punishing offenders. The performance of third-party governance was quite different from the expectations of the farmers. Also local governments did not have the means and mechanisms to efficiently implement the "polluter-pays principle". (2) The characteristics of production and management, and family and individuals had significant impacts on pay-ment behaviors of farmers. The order of influence was operating type

  13. Media bias under direct and indirect government control: when is the bias smaller?

    OpenAIRE

    Abhra Roy

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical framework to compare media bias under direct and indirect government control. In this context, we show that direct control can lead to a smaller bias and higher welfare than indirect control. We further show that the size of the advertising market affects media bias only under direct control. Media bias, under indirect control, is not affected by the size of the advertising market.

  14. THE UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES OF SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO‘S THOUGHT PATTERNS IN HIS ENGLISH SPEECH TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistya ningsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The underlying principles of thought patterns as shown in SBY's English Speeches Texts are made because there are different responses from the public, a part of public praise that SBY is a good president, and others claim and criticize him that  he is slow (Djalal, 2007: forward page. This title so far has not been investigated. This research was aimed at finding out:  the underlying principles of SBY’s thought patterns in his English Speech Texts related to Javanese philosophy. This research is qualitative. The data selected from SBY’s speech Texts were analyzed using semantic and pragmastylistic theory then were related to Javanese philosophy. The findings are the underlying principles of SBY’s thought patterns based on Javanese philosophy manifested in his English Speech Texts are: first is Memayu Hayuning Bawana, Ambrasta dur Hangkara means to reach safety, peace, happiness and well-being of the world and its contents, to keep the world maintained and harmony. Second, Rukun agawe santosa crah agawe bubrah  means to build the condition of harmony, and avoid conflict, because conflict can be harmful to both parties. Third, tepa selira means keep thinking not to offend others or lighten the burdens of others, tolerance. Fourth is ana rembug becik dirembug means thru negotiations can avoid conflict and achieve cooperation, safety, peace and prosperity. In sum, the world peace can be reached thru discussions without war, soft powers.

  15. Censoring the Press: A Barometer of Government Tolerance for Anti-regime Dissent under Authoritarian Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Stein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that dissident leaders aiming to build mass opposition movements follow the mainstream press to help them gauge government tolerance for anti-government mass actions in repressive authoritarian regimes. Under conditions of censorship, media–state interactions serve as a barometer of the government’s disposition toward and capacity to impede public displays of dissent. Observing trends in coverage and the government’s reaction to this coverage helps activist leaders assess when it should be safest to plan anti-government mass actions, such as demonstrations, marches, or strikes. Using original data derived from coding content from the Brazilian newspaper Folha de São Paulo over the period of 1974–1982, I test whether opposition mass actions followed trends in taboo content and government treatment of the press during the period of political liberalization of Brazil’s military regime.

  16. Elaboration of the recently proposed test of Pauli's principle under strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ktorides, C.N.; Myung, H.C.; Santilli, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to stimulate the experimental verification of the validity or invalidity of Pauli's principle under strong interactions. We first outline the most relevant steps in the evolution of the notion of particle. The spin as well as other intrinsic characteristics of extended, massive, particles under electromagnetic interactions at large distances might be subjected to a mutation under additional strong interactions at distances smaller than their charge radius. These dynamical effects can apparently be conjectured to account for the nonpointlike nature of the particles, their necessary state of penetration to activate the strong interactions, and the consequential emergence of broader forces which imply the breaking of the SU(2)-spin symmetry. We study a characterization of the mutated value of the spin via the transition from the associative enveloping algebra of SU(2) to a nonassociative Lie-admissible form. The departure from the original associative product then becomes directly representative of the breaking of the SU(2)-spin symmetry, the presence of forces more general than those derivable from a potential, and the mutated value of the spin. In turn, such a departure of the spin from conventional quantum-mechanical values implies the inapplicability of Pauli's exclusion principle under strong interactions, because, according to this hypothesis, particles that are fermions under long-range electromagnetic interactions are no longer fermions under these broader, short-range, forces. In nuclear physics possible deviations from Pauli's exclusion principle can at most be very small. These experimental data establish that, for the nuclei considered, nucleons are in a partial state of penetration of their charge volumes although of small statistical character

  17. The precautionary principle in fisheries management under climate change: How the international legal framework formulate it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, E.; Imanullah, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    One of the objectives of fisheries management is to reach long-term sustainable benefits of the fish stocks while reducing the risk of severe or irreversible damage to the marine ecosystem. Achieving this objective needs, the good scientific knowledge and understanding on fisheries management including scientific data and information on the fish stock, fishing catch, distribution, migration, the proportion of mature fish, the mortality rate, reproduction as well as the knowledge on the impact of fishing on dependent and associated species and other species belonging to the same ecosystem, and further the impact of climate change and climate variability on the fish stocks and marine ecosystem. Lack of this scientific knowledge may lead to high levels of uncertainty. The precautionary principle is one of the basic environmental principles needed in overcoming this problem. An essence of this principle is that, in facing the serious risk as a result of the limited scientific knowledge or the absence of complete evidence of harm, it should not prevent the precautionary measures in minimizing risks and protecting the fish stocks and ecosystem. This study aims to examine how the precautionary principle in fisheries management be formulated into the international legal framework, especially under the climate change framework.

  18. 25 CFR 1000.398 - May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a Tribe/Consortium invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? 1000.398 Section 1000.398 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... invest funds received under a self-governance agreement? Yes, self-governance funds may be invested if...

  19. Precautionary principles: a jurisdiction-free framework for decision-making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Paolo F; Cox, Louis A; MacDonald, Thomas R

    2004-12-01

    Fundamental principles of precaution are legal maxims that ask for preventive actions, perhaps as contingent interim measures while relevant information about causality and harm remains unavailable, to minimize the societal impact of potentially severe or irreversible outcomes. Such principles do not explain how to make choices or how to identify what is protective when incomplete and inconsistent scientific evidence of causation characterizes the potential hazards. Rather, they entrust lower jurisdictions, such as agencies or authorities, to make current decisions while recognizing that future information can contradict the scientific basis that supported the initial decision. After reviewing and synthesizing national and international legal aspects of precautionary principles, this paper addresses the key question: How can society manage potentially severe, irreversible or serious environmental outcomes when variability, uncertainty, and limited causal knowledge characterize their decision-making? A decision-analytic solution is outlined that focuses on risky decisions and accounts for prior states of information and scientific beliefs that can be updated as subsequent information becomes available. As a practical and established approach to causal reasoning and decision-making under risk, inherent to precautionary decision-making, these (Bayesian) methods help decision-makers and stakeholders because they formally account for probabilistic outcomes, new information, and are consistent and replicable. Rational choice of an action from among various alternatives--defined as a choice that makes preferred consequences more likely--requires accounting for costs, benefits and the change in risks associated with each candidate action. Decisions under any form of the precautionary principle reviewed must account for the contingent nature of scientific information, creating a link to the decision-analytic principle of expected value of information (VOI), to show the

  20. Under what conditions can local government nurture indigenous people’s democratic practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sareen, Siddharth; Nathan, Iben

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks whether and under what conditions participatory local government can best nurture indigenous peoples’ democratic practice. Based on fieldwork in two similar Ho communities in the Indian state Jharkhand, we show that their village assemblies function differently with regard...

  1. 76 FR 17762 - Regulations Governing the Performance of Actuarial Services Under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... receipt of a bachelor's or higher degree in either actuarial mathematics or another area which include at..., actuarial mathematics, and other areas determined by the Joint Board. These regulations provide that an... Governing the Performance of Actuarial Services Under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974...

  2. 48 CFR 1545.309 - Providing Government production and research property under special restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... improvements necessary for installing special tooling, special test equipment, or plant equipment, shall not be... production and research property under special restrictions. 1545.309 Section 1545.309 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Providing...

  3. Education Policy and Governance in England under the Coalition Government (2010-15): Academies, the Pupil Premium, and Free Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the governance of school-based and early education in England under the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition Government (2010-15). It draws on three prominent Coalition policy areas--the academies programme, the pupil premium, and free part-time early education--and focuses on changes to the role played by central government…

  4. Influence of the Good-Practice Principles and Codes in the Corporate Governance upon the Quality of the Financial-Accounting Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Niculae

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This hereby works tries to identify the principles regarding the corporate governance and analyze the way in which such corporate governance templates influence the qualitative characteristics of the financial information. The execution of the governance means the obligation to implement the processes and structures corresponding to the management and the administration of the business and company’s operations, to provide their good operation. The final scope of the good corporate governance is to provide the efficiency, credibility and reliability of the organization. Solid governance means the settlement of certain fundamental principles defining the relationships between different actors clearly tracks the responsibilities and provides a correct operation of the decision making processes. Starting from the statement according to which the transparency and the quality of the corporate governance system are two concepts coexisting and relating intensively, associations among the characteristics of the shareholding and the information transparency level can be identified in the activity of the public interest entities. The relationships with the current or future investors, with the financers, with the investment analysts, with the media are of great importance for the accomplishment of the scopes related to the image and credibility of the public interest entity and mean a correct and fluent communication.

  5. Principles, Economic and Institutional Prerequisites for Fiscal Decentralization under Conditions of Post-Conflict Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnevsky Valentine P.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study principles, economic and institutional prerequisites for fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories. It is determined that fiscal decentralization is one of the main ways to solve problems of post-conflict areas. There justified principles, economic and institutional prerequisites of fiscal decentralization on post-conflict territories with regard to the specificity of individual spheres of fiscal relations. Moreover, different spheres of fiscal relations require different approaches: the sphere of public revenues — providing economic efficiency with the formation of the tax structure contributing to the expansion of the tax base; the sphere of public spending — ensuring social justice and transparency in allocation of social cost at the local level; the sphere of subsidies — narrowing the scope of application of intergovernmental transfers with organizing the redistribution of financial resources under the principle of «center - post-conflict regions - post-conflict recipients»; the sphere of external assistance — ensuring proper coordination for cultivation of new co-operative institutions.

  6. The Dynamics of Corporate Governance in South Africa: Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment and the Enhancement of Good Corporate Governance Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Esser, Irene-marié; Dekker, Adriette

    2008-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect of BBBEE on good corporate governance.\\ud Corporate governance and specifically directors’ duties relating to stakeholder protection are\\ud focused on. Traditionally, directors are expected to manage a company in the best interests of the\\ud shareholders collectively. The question arises as to whether directors should also consider the\\ud interests of other stakeholders, inter alia employees, creditors, the environment and the\\ud community. The South African ...

  7. An ant colony optimization algorithm for phylogenetic estimation under the minimum evolution principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinkovitch Michel C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distance matrix methods constitute a major family of phylogenetic estimation methods, and the minimum evolution (ME principle (aiming at recovering the phylogeny with shortest length is one of the most commonly used optimality criteria for estimating phylogenetic trees. The major difficulty for its application is that the number of possible phylogenies grows exponentially with the number of taxa analyzed and the minimum evolution principle is known to belong to the NP MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaWenfgDOvwBHrxAJfwnHbqeg0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1aaceaGae8xdX7Kaeeiuaafaaa@3888@-hard class of problems. Results In this paper, we introduce an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO algorithm to estimate phylogenies under the minimum evolution principle. ACO is an optimization technique inspired from the foraging behavior of real ant colonies. This behavior is exploited in artificial ant colonies for the search of approximate solutions to discrete optimization problems. Conclusion We show that the ACO algorithm is potentially competitive in comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms for the minimum evolution principle. This is the first application of an ACO algorithm to the phylogenetic estimation problem.

  8. 75 FR 16824 - Notice of Modifications to U.S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ....S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement To Implement... of the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Government Procurement (Canada-U.S..., steel, and manufactured products in procurement above $7,804,000 for construction services through...

  9. From bacteria to mollusks: the principles underlying the biomineralization of iron oxide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, Damien; Godec, Tina Ukmar

    2015-04-13

    Various organisms possess a genetic program that enables the controlled formation of a mineral, a process termed biomineralization. The variety of biological material architectures is mind-boggling and arises from the ability of organisms to exert control over crystal nucleation and growth. The structure and composition of biominerals equip biomineralizing organisms with properties and functionalities that abiotically formed materials, made of the same mineral, usually lack. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms underlying biomineralization and morphogenesis is of interdisciplinary interest to extract design principles that will enable the biomimetic formation of functional materials with similar capabilities. Herein, we summarize what is known about iron oxides formed by bacteria and mollusks for their magnetic and mechanical properties. We describe the chemical and biological machineries that are involved in controlling mineral precipitation and organization and show how these organisms are able to form highly complex structures under physiological conditions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The role of sustainable development and the associated principles of environmental law and governance in the Anthropocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan; Kotzé, Louis

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, I tried to answer the question what, in the Anthropocene, is or can be the role of the concept of sustainable development and the associated principles of environmental law. In order to get an answer to this question, I first assessed the current impact of the principles of

  11. Biochemical principles underlying the stable maintenance of LTP by the CaMKII/NMDAR complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisman, John; Raghavachari, Sridhar

    2015-09-24

    Memory involves the storage of information at synapses by an LTP-like process. This information storage is synapse specific and can endure for years despite the turnover of all synaptic proteins. There must, therefore, be special principles that underlie the stability of LTP. Recent experimental results suggest that LTP is maintained by the complex of CaMKII with the NMDAR. Here we consider the specifics of the CaMKII/NMDAR molecular switch, with the goal of understanding the biochemical principles that underlie stable information storage by synapses. Consideration of a variety of experimental results suggests that multiple principles are involved. One switch requirement is to prevent spontaneous transitions from the off to the on state. The highly cooperative nature of CaMKII autophosphorylation by Ca(2+) (Hill coefficient of 8) and the fact that formation of the CaMKII/NMDAR complex requires release of CaMKII from actin are mechanisms that stabilize the off state. The stability of the on state depends critically on intersubunit autophosphorylation, a process that restores any loss of pT286 due to phosphatase activity. Intersubunit autophosphorylation is also important in explaining why on state stability is not compromised by protein turnover. Recent evidence suggests that turnover occurs by subunit exchange. Thus, stability could be achieved if a newly inserted unphosphorylated subunit was autophosphorylated by a neighboring subunit. Based on other recent work, we posit a novel mechanism that enhances the stability of the on state by protection of pT286 from phosphatases. We posit that the binding of the NMNDAR to CaMKII forces pT286 into the catalytic site of a neighboring subunit, thereby protecting pT286 from phosphatases. A final principle concerns the role of structural changes. The binding of CaMKII to the NMDAR may act as a tag to organize the binding of further proteins that produce the synapse enlargement that underlies late LTP. We argue that these

  12. General Principles and Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG – Uniformity under an Interpretation Umbrella?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lassila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and digitalization of international sales creates needs to harmonize rules of international commercial contracts. The question is whether the harmonization should be done by binding rules or using soft law tools or through digitalization. In this article I argue on favor of harmonization through international contracts law rules’ international interpretation.The international interpretation principles used in this article are found from on Art. 7(1 of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG which sets three interpretation rules: international character; promoting uniformity; and observance of good faith in international trade. These principles are not only principles of the CISG, but also principles commonly recognized in international commercial practice and also in domestic contract rules. I argue that by adopting an international interpretation umbrella – the meta-principle of international interpretation, cross-border contracts could be interpreted under the same principle no matter applicable substantial law. The meta-principle functions as an interpretation umbrella covering general principles and Articles of the CISG, general principles of international commercial contracts, Lex Mercatoria, and cross-border contract provision under national law.The outcomes points out that arbitral tribunals have interpreted general principles of the CISG and Lex Mercatoria in various ways. General principles and their application in case law is analyzed in connection with the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Tribunals found that general principles of the CISG are applicable even if the CISG is not. It follows Art.’s 7(2 logic to promote international standard to cross-border contracts where the closes connection is international commercial practice rather than any national jurisdiction.

  13. Forecasting uptake of retrofit packages in office building stock under government incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Andrew; Syme, Mike; McGregor, James; Marquez, Leorey; Seo, Seongwon

    2014-01-01

    As government and industry plan to reduce energy consumption in building stock, there is a need to forecast the uptake of retrofit packages across building stock over time. To address this challenge a diffusion model was set up and applied to office building stock across New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, accommodating a high spatial resolution and temporal capability for projecting uptake of technology packages characterised by multiple variables. Six retrofit packages were set up for the diffusion model, which ranged from inexpensive services and manuals through to mid-priced packages involving energy efficient T5 lighting and solar hot water through to expensive packages such as chilled beams and Solar PV. We evaluated the model using a base case and two policy programs, representing the Green Building Fund and Environmental Upgrade Agreements. These were recent incentive programs funded by the Australian government to accelerate the uptake of retrofit packages, by providing financial support to upfront expenditures and removing barriers to retrofit. By forecasting uptake of each retrofit package to 2032 under each program, we demonstrate how the model can be a valuable resource in tailoring expensive government programs and increasing their effectiveness. - Highlights: • Diffusion model for uptake of building retrofits. • Case study with New South Wales office buildings. • Forecast uptake of government policy programs

  14. An Assessment of Economic Stability under the New European Economic Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe HURDUZEU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis, followed by the sovereign debt crisis, resulted in high unemployment, unsustainable public finances and deepening disparities between Euro Area member states, and underlined the necessity of strengthening economic coordination. In order to lessen the effects of the crises, to prevent further deepening of the economic context and the appearance of new similar situations, the European framework was improved by the provisions of the new economic governance. The aim of this paper is to assess the effects regarding macroeconomic stability within Euro Area member states, achieved under the new economic governance framework. In this respect, the first part of the paper consists in an overview of the provisions imposed through the European Semester, the reformed Stability and Growth Pact and the other elements of the new European governance. In order to assess the achievement of economic stability we analyzed data for Southern Euro Area member states, during 2009-2013, as this group of countries registered most issues during 2013. We took into consideration five important indicators, essential in any economy that form the macroeconomic stability pentagon: economic growth rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, budgetary balance and current account balance. By comparing the area obtained through the macroeconomic stability pentagon, we conclude on meeting one of the main objectives of the new European governance: economic stability.

  15. Implications of Harmonizing the Future of the Federal Depository Library Program within E-Government Principles and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, John A.; Jaeger, Paul T.; Bertot, John Carlo

    2010-01-01

    For more than 150 years, the United States Government Printing Office (GPO), along with its Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP), has supported an informed citizenry and democracy by ensuring access and preservation to a broad swath of federal government information. This collaborative national public information program between local…

  16. Effect of Governance Indicators on Under-Five Mortality in OECD Nations: Generalized Method of Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamgholipour, Sara; Asemane, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Today, it is recognized that factors other than health services are involved in health improvement and decreased inequality so identifying them is the main concern of policy makers and health authorities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of governance indicators on health outcomes. A panel data study was conducted to investigate the effect of governance indicators on child mortality rate in 27 OECD countries from 1996 to 2012 using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model and EVIEWS.8 software. According to the results obtained, under-five mortality rate was significantly related to all of the research variables (p corruption and rule of law indicators decreased child mortality rate by 0.05 and 0.08%, respectively. Furthermore, 1% increase in public health expenditure per capita resulted in a 0.03% decrease in under-five mortality rate. The results of the study suggest that considering control variables, including GDP per capita, public health expenditure per capita, total fertility rate, and improvement of governance indicators (control of corruption and rule of law) would decrease the child mortality rate.

  17. 45 CFR 2520.60 - What government-wide requirements apply to staff fundraising under my AmeriCorps grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What government-wide requirements apply to staff fundraising under my AmeriCorps grant? 2520.60 Section 2520.60 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... C PROGRAMS § 2520.60 What government-wide requirements apply to staff fundraising under my Ameri...

  18. GROWTH, LIQUIDITY CONSTRAINTS, CREDIBILITY AND THE EFFECTS OF SHOCKS UNDER A NON-CREDIBLE GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURMUŞ ÖZDEMİR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overlapping generations model for a small open economy. The model is calibrated to fit data for Turkey. Simulations suggest that for a fairly open economy such as Turkey, credibility and liquidity constraints matter and the choice of income taxation rate, the mix of government spending and the long-run government debt/GDP ratio can all significantly affect the economic growth. The paper also examines the effectiveness of fiscal policy under different levels of liquidity constraint in an open economy within a dynamic framework. It shows that liquidity constraints can affect the outcome of any fiscal policy. Hence fiscal policy is even more important for the less developed economies of the world.

  19. J/ψ+χcJ production at the B factories under the principle of maximum conformality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sheng-Quan; Wu, Xing-Gang; Zheng, Xu-Chang; Shen, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Qiong-Lian

    2013-01-01

    Under the conventional scale setting, the renormalization scale uncertainty usually constitutes a systematic error for a fixed-order perturbative QCD estimation. The recently suggested principle of maximum conformality (PMC) provides a principle to eliminate such scale ambiguity in a step-by-step way. Using the PMC, all non-conformal terms in perturbative expansion series are summed into the running coupling, and one obtains a unique, scale-fixed, scheme-independent prediction at any finite order. In the paper, we make a detailed PMC analysis for both the polarized and the unpolarized cross sections for the double charmonium production process, e + +e − →J/ψ(ψ ′ )+χ cJ with (J=0,1,2). The running behavior for the coupling constant, governed by the PMC scales, are determined exactly for the specific processes. We compare our predictions with the measurements at the B factories, BaBar and Belle, and the theoretical estimations obtained in the literature. Because the non-conformal terms are different for various polarized and unpolarized cross sections, the PMC scales of these cross sections are different in principle. It is found that all the PMC scales are almost independent of the initial choice of renormalization scale. Thus, the large renormalization scale uncertainty usually adopted in the literature up to ∼40% at the NLO level, obtained from the conventional scale setting, for both the polarized and the unpolarized cross sections are greatly suppressed. It is found that the charmonium production is dominated by J=0 channel. After PMC scale setting, we obtain σ(J/ψ+χ c0 )=12.25 −3.13 +3.70 fb and σ(ψ ′ +χ c0 )=5.23 −1.32 +1.56 fb, where the squared average errors are caused by bound state parameters as m c , |R J/ψ (0)| and |R χ cJ ′ (0)|, which are non-perturbative error sources in different to the QCD scale setting problem. In comparison to the experimental data, a more accurate theoretical estimation shall be helpful for a precise

  20. Structural, Mechanical and Thermodynamic Properties under Pressure Effect of Rubidium Telluride: First Principle Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidai K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available First-principles density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of rubidium telluride in cubic anti-fluorite (anti-CaF2-type structure. The calculated ground-state properties of Rb2Te compound such as equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk moduli are investigated by generalized gradient approximation (GGA-PBE that are based on the optimization of total energy. The elastic constants, Young’s and shear modulus, Poisson ratio, have also been calculated. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the available theoretical and experimental data. The pressure dependence of elastic constant and thermodynamic quantities under high pressure are also calculated and discussed.

  1. First-principles studies of PETN molecular crystal vibrational frequencies under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Warren; Zhao, Jijun

    2005-07-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the PETN molecular crystal were calculated using the first-principles CRYSTAL03 program which employs an all-electron LCAO approach and calculates analytic first derivatives of the total energy with respect to atomic displacements. Numerical second derivatives were used to enable calculation of the vibrational frequencies at ambient pressure and under various states of compression. Three different density functionals, B3LYP, PW91, and X3LYP were used to examine the effect of the exchange-correlation functional on the vibrational frequencies. The pressure-induced shift of the vibrational frequencies will be presented and compared with experiment. The average deviation with experimental results is shown to be on the order of 2-3%, depending on the functional used.

  2. Physical principles underlying the experimental methods for studying the orientational order of liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, S.

    1989-01-01

    The basic physical principles underlying different experimental methods frequently used for the determination of orientational order parameters of liquid crystals are reviewed. The methods that are dealt with here include the anisotropy of the diamagnetic susceptibility, birefringence, linear dichroism, Raman scattering, fluorescence depolarization, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fundamental assertions that can be obtained by the different methods as well as their advantages, drawbacks and limitations are inspected. Typical sources of uncertainties and inaccuracies are discussed. To quantitatively evaluate the experimental data with reference to the orientational order the general tensor formalism developed by Schmiedel was employed throughout according to which the order matrix comprises 25 real elements yet. Within this context the interplay of orientational ordering and molecular conformation is scrutinized. (author)

  3. Decisions on Remanufacturing with WTP Disparity and Recycling Competition under Government Subsidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises have assigned increasing importance to remanufacturing, and meanwhile, the competitiveness of remanufacturing has also become established. In this article, game theory is exploited and government subsidies for remanufacturing, consumer willingness to pay and recycling competition are considered, with a focus on a supply chain consisting of one local manufacturer and one nonlocal remanufacturer. This study attempts to investigate how nonlocal remanufacturers and local manufacturers determine whether they recycle used products and engage in remanufacturing when these factors are considered, in the hope that the results can be constructive in terms of policies and management related to enterprises and governments. As such, four situations are considered and the corresponding models are built to derive the optimal production of each enterprise in the four different situations. Numerical results under the four situations are furthercompared. The results show that consumer acceptance of remanufactured products, irrespective of whether there is competition in production and recycling of remanufactured products and whetherthe government provides subsidy for remanufacturing directly affects each enterprise, remanufacturing and the profits of the overall supply chains. Based on these factors, enterprises should adjust strategies and choose to compete or stop competing or monopolize the market. The government should define attitudes towards the market competition and supervise the changes of market competitiveness based onmarket competition and consumer acceptance of remanufactured products. This study can provide some constructive guidance for some potential nonlocal enterprises engaged in remanufacturing, and at the same time shed some light for desirable direction in some further research onremanufacturing in theory and practice.

  4. Regulatory policy governing cadmium-telluride photovoltaics: A case study contrasting life cycle management with the precautionary principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Kriegner, Christopher J.; Schew, William A.; Kaczmar, Swiatoslav W.; Traister, Matthew; Wilson, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Market projections for cadmium-telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaics (PV) are tempered by global environmental policies based on the precautionary principle which restrict electronic products containing cadmium, a known human carcinogen. An alternative to the precautionary principle is life cycle management, which involves manufacturers assuming product stewardship from beginning to end of product life. Both approaches have the aim of minimizing environmental contamination, but attempt to do so in different ways. Restrictions on electronic products containing cadmium by the precautionary principle-based restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) directive in the European Union and a similar policy in China are presented, relative to their potential impact on CdTe PV. Life cycle environmental risks with respect to potential release of cadmium to the environment are also presented for routine operation of CdTe PV panels, potential catastrophic release of cadmium from a residential fire, and at the end of the product life. There is negligible risk of environmental cadmium contamination during routine operation and insignificant risk during catastrophic exposure events such as fire. At the end of the product life, risks of contamination are minimized by take-back programs that may be paid for by insurance premiums incorporated into the cost of the product. Therefore, policies based on the precautionary principle that could potentially ban the product based on its cadmium content may not be warranted

  5. Regulatory policy governing cadmium-telluride photovoltaics: A case study contrasting life cycle management with the precautionary principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Kriegner, Christopher J.; Schew, William A.; Kaczmar, Swiatoslav W.; Traister, Matthew; Wilson, David J. [O' Brien and Gere, Ecological Sciences, E. 512 Township Line Road, Two Valley Square, Suite 120, Blue Bell, PA 19422 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Market projections for cadmium-telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaics (PV) are tempered by global environmental policies based on the precautionary principle which restrict electronic products containing cadmium, a known human carcinogen. An alternative to the precautionary principle is life cycle management, which involves manufacturers assuming product stewardship from beginning to end of product life. Both approaches have the aim of minimizing environmental contamination, but attempt to do so in different ways. Restrictions on electronic products containing cadmium by the precautionary principle-based restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) directive in the European Union and a similar policy in China are presented, relative to their potential impact on CdTe PV. Life cycle environmental risks with respect to potential release of cadmium to the environment are also presented for routine operation of CdTe PV panels, potential catastrophic release of cadmium from a residential fire, and at the end of the product life. There is negligible risk of environmental cadmium contamination during routine operation and insignificant risk during catastrophic exposure events such as fire. At the end of the product life, risks of contamination are minimized by take-back programs that may be paid for by insurance premiums incorporated into the cost of the product. Therefore, policies based on the precautionary principle that could potentially ban the product based on its cadmium content may not be warranted. (author)

  6. Intergenerational aspects of government policy under changing demographic and economic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskin, M J

    1987-07-01

    Changing demographic and economic conditions in the US require that attention be given to some of the intergenerational equity features of government policy. In particular, social insurance programs and public debt leave public liabilities to future generations. Taken in the aggregate, the effects of rapidly rising public debt and especially social insurance programs are transferring substantial amounts of resources from younger working generations to the expanding generation of retirees. The most crucial element in evaluating the desirability of intergenerational wealth distribution in the long run is the rate of economic growth. A society's monetary, fiscal, tax, and regulatory policies can be more or less conducive to the generation of capital formation, technical change, and economic growth. Policies that influence growth and interest rates will combine with the national deficit to determine how rapidly the debt grows or shrinks. Present accounting procedures are insufficient to provide quantitative answers to the question of what is the impact of a given program on the age-specific distributions of resources. It is important to reconsider the desirability and efficiency of intergenerational redistributions of wealth in the US. It is likely that current policies are not in line with the principles of efficiency, equity, target effectiveness, and cost effectiveness.

  7. Rethinking the Relation between Government Spending and Economic Growth: A Composition Approach to Fiscal Policy Instruction for Principles Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Arthur H.

    2008-01-01

    Standard introductory textbook authors assert that an increase in government spending expands aggregate demand in the short run but also raises the interest rate and, thus, crowds out private investment in the long run. Because the decrease in investment results in a smaller capital stock, potential output or production capacity decreases. The…

  8. Working Mothers and the State: Under Which Conditions do governments spend much on maternal employment supporting policies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, K.; Vis, B.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last years, the level of spending on maternal employment supporting policies has risen in most countries. Still, the variation across governments in this level is substantial. Under which conditions do governments spend relatively much? Drawing on the critical mass literature, we argue that

  9. Risk analysis under uncertainty, the precautionary principle, and the new EU chemicals strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Michael D

    2003-06-01

    Three categories of uncertainty in relation to risk assessment are defined; uncertainty in effect, uncertainty in cause, and uncertainty in the relationship between a hypothesised cause and effect. The Precautionary Principle (PP) relates to the third type of uncertainty. Three broad descriptions of the PP are set out, uncertainty justifies action, uncertainty requires action, and uncertainty requires a reversal of the burden of proof for risk assessments. The application of the PP is controversial but what matters in practise is the precautionary action (PA) that follows. The criteria by which the PAs should be judged are detailed. This framework for risk assessment and management under uncertainty is then applied to the envisaged European system for the regulation of chemicals. A new EU regulatory system has been proposed which shifts the burden of proof concerning risk assessments from the regulator to the producer, and embodies the PP in all three of its main regulatory stages. The proposals are critically discussed in relation to three chemicals, namely, atrazine (an endocrine disrupter), cadmium (toxic and possibly carcinogenic), and hydrogen fluoride (a toxic, high-production-volume chemical). Reversing the burden of proof will speed up the regulatory process but the examples demonstrate that applying the PP appropriately, and balancing the countervailing risks and the socio-economic benefits, will continue to be a difficult task for the regulator. The paper concludes with a discussion of the role of precaution in the management of change and of the importance of trust in the effective regulation of uncertain risks.

  10. First-principles calculation of transport property in nano-devices under an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingzhe; Zhang Jin; Han Rushan

    2008-01-01

    The mesoscopic quantum interference phenomenon (QIP) can be observed and behaves as the oscillation of conductance in nano-devices when the external magnetic field changes. Excluding the factor of impurities or defects, specific QIP is determined by the sample geometry. We have improved a first-principles method based on the matrix Green's function and the density functional theory to simulate the transport behaviour of such systems under a magnetic field. We have studied two kinds of QIP: universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) and Aharonov–Bohm effect (A–B effect). We find that the amplitude of UCF is much smaller than the previous theoretical prediction. We have discussed the origin of difference and concluded that due to the failure of ergodic hypothesis, the ensemble statistics is not applicable, and the conductance fluctuation is determined by the flux-dependent density of states (DOSs). We have also studied the relation between the UCF and the structure of sample. For a specific structure, an atomic circle, the A–B effect is observed and the origin of the oscillation is also discussed

  11. Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Laurent

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive game software has been successful in remediation of dyslexia. Here we describe the cognitive and algorithmic principles underlying the development of similar software for dyscalculia. Our software is based on current understanding of the cerebral representation of number and the hypotheses that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in the link between number sense and symbolic number representations. Methods "The Number Race" software trains children on an entertaining numerical comparison task, by presenting problems adapted to the performance level of the individual child. We report full mathematical specifications of the algorithm used, which relies on an internal model of the child's knowledge in a multidimensional "learning space" consisting of three difficulty dimensions: numerical distance, response deadline, and conceptual complexity (from non-symbolic numerosity processing to increasingly complex symbolic operations. Results The performance of the software was evaluated both by mathematical simulations and by five weeks of use by nine children with mathematical learning difficulties. The results indicate that the software adapts well to varying levels of initial knowledge and learning speeds. Feedback from children, parents and teachers was positive. A companion article 1 describes the evolution of number sense and arithmetic scores before and after training. Conclusion The software, open-source and freely available online, is designed for learning disabled children aged 5–8, and may also be useful for general instruction of normal preschool children. The learning algorithm reported is highly general, and may be applied in other domains.

  12. Canada's Sub-Central Coverage Under the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Discusses Canada's failure to include its provincial governments in its commitments to the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement. Canada is one of the only developed states that has not opened government contracts to international competition. This may be linked to a strong sense of regionalism where government contracts are typically awarded to contractors within each province as well as a reluctance of governments to privatize traditional state purchasing generally.

  13. 25 CFR 256.25 - Is my Federal government-assisted dwelling eligible for services under the Housing Improvement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is my Federal government-assisted dwelling eligible for services under the Housing Improvement Program? 256.25 Section 256.25 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... dwelling eligible for services under the Housing Improvement Program? Yes. You may receive services under...

  14. Three comments on the combination of public law and private law principles in the new legislation governing radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of mixed public and private law in the Nuclear Energy Act, in particular with regard to the legal framework governing radioactive waste management. In fact, neither the old nor the new legal arrangements are exclusively of public law nature because a number of private law items are included. This fact is illustrated on some examples including provisions on liability for nuclear damage, the legal authority of the Radioactive Waste Repository Agency, and financial compensation to municipalities affected by the preparation of a deep geological radioactive waste disposal facility. (orig.)

  15. School Governing Bodies in South African Schools: Under Pressure to Enhance Democratization and Improve Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heystek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Governing bodies in South Africa are expected to have an important role in ensuring high quality education in schools as well as in the democratization of the post-apartheid South Africa. However, current legislation precludes governing bodies from involvement in the professional management of schools. Governing bodies are democratically elected…

  16. Further evidence that similar principles govern recall from episodic and semantic memory: the Canadian prime ministerial serial position function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neath, Ian; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2011-06-01

    The serial position function, with its characteristic primacy and recency effects, is one of the most ubiquitous findings in episodic memory tasks. In contrast, there are only two demonstrations of such functions in tasks thought to tap semantic memory. Here, we provide a third demonstration, showing that free recall of the prime ministers of Canada also results in a serial position function. Scale Independent Memory, Perception, and Learning (SIMPLE), a local distinctiveness model of memory that was designed to account for serial position effects in episodic memory, fit the data. According to SIMPLE, serial position functions observed in episodic and semantic memory all reflect the relative distinctiveness principle: items will be well remembered to the extent that they are more distinct than competing items at the time of retrieval. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Prokaryotic regulatory systems biology: Common principles governing the functional architectures of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli unveiled by the natural decomposition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyre-González, Julio A; Treviño-Quintanilla, Luis G; Valtierra-Gutiérrez, Ilse A; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa María; Alonso-Pavón, José A

    2012-10-31

    Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are two of the best-studied prokaryotic model organisms. Previous analyses of their transcriptional regulatory networks have shown that they exhibit high plasticity during evolution and suggested that both converge to scale-free-like structures. Nevertheless, beyond this suggestion, no analyses have been carried out to identify the common systems-level components and principles governing these organisms. Here we show that these two phylogenetically distant organisms follow a set of common novel biologically consistent systems principles revealed by the mathematically and biologically founded natural decomposition approach. The discovered common functional architecture is a diamond-shaped, matryoshka-like, three-layer (coordination, processing, and integration) hierarchy exhibiting feedback, which is shaped by four systems-level components: global transcription factors (global TFs), locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. The first mathematical criterion to identify global TFs, the κ-value, was reassessed on B. subtilis and confirmed its high predictive power by identifying all the previously reported, plus three potential, master regulators and eight sigma factors. The functionally conserved cores of modules, basal cell machinery, and a set of non-orthologous common physiological global responses were identified via both orthologous genes and non-orthologous conserved functions. This study reveals novel common systems principles maintained between two phylogenetically distant organisms and provides a comparison of their lifestyle adaptations. Our results shed new light on the systems-level principles and the fundamental functions required by bacteria to sustain life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 40 CFR 2.305 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended. 2.305 Section 2.305 Protection of... § 2.305 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as...

  19. Understanding Inclusive Education Practices in Schools under Local Government Jurisdiction: A Study of Khon Kaen Municipality in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantavong, Pennee

    2018-01-01

    This article investigates inclusive education practices in schools under the jurisdiction of Thai local government through a study of schools in Khon Kaen Municipality in Northeastern Thailand. Thailand's 1997 Constitution and 1999 National Education Act both legislated that the educational system must become inclusive, and under these laws…

  20. 40 CFR 2.308 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 2.308 Section 2.308 Protection of... § 2.308 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic... Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (2) Petition means a petition for the issuance of a...

  1. First-Principles Quantum Dynamics of Singlet Fission: Coherent versus Thermally Activated Mechanisms Governed by Molecular π Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene; Olivier, Yoann; Beljonne, David

    2015-09-01

    Singlet excitons in π -stacked molecular crystals can split into two triplet excitons in a process called singlet fission that opens a route to carrier multiplication in photovoltaics. To resolve controversies about the mechanism of singlet fission, we have developed a first principles nonadiabatic quantum dynamical model that reveals the critical role of molecular stacking symmetry and provides a unified picture of coherent versus thermally activated singlet fission mechanisms in different acenes. The slip-stacked equilibrium packing structure of pentacene derivatives is found to enhance ultrafast singlet fission mediated by a coherent superexchange mechanism via higher-lying charge transfer states. By contrast, the electronic couplings for singlet fission strictly vanish at the C2 h symmetric equilibrium π stacking of rubrene. In this case, singlet fission is driven by excitations of symmetry-breaking intermolecular vibrations, rationalizing the experimentally observed temperature dependence. Design rules for optimal singlet fission materials therefore need to account for the interplay of molecular π -stacking symmetry and phonon-induced coherent or thermally activated mechanisms.

  2. Connecting Corporate Human Rights Responsibilities and State Obligations under the UN Guiding Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Taking its point of departure in the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGP), this chapter discusses the complementarity between Pillars One on the State Duty to Respect and Pillar Two the Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights. It does this through HRDD and communicat......Taking its point of departure in the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGP), this chapter discusses the complementarity between Pillars One on the State Duty to Respect and Pillar Two the Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights. It does this through HRDD...

  3. Selection of energy source and evolutionary stable strategies for power plants under financial intervention of government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Currently, many socially responsible governments adopt economic incentives and deterrents to manage environmental impacts of electricity suppliers. Considering the Stackelberg leadership of the government, the government's role in the competition of power plants in an electricity market is investigated. A one-population evolutionary game model of power plants is developed to study how their production strategy depends on tariffs levied by the government. We establish that a unique evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) for the population exists. Numerical examples demonstrate that revenue maximization and environment protection policies of the government significantly affect the production ESS of competitive power plants. The results reveal that the government can introduce a green energy source as an ESS of the competitive power plants by imposing appropriate tariffs.

  4. Services procurement under the WTO’s agreement on government procurement: whither market access?

    OpenAIRE

    Shingal, Anirudh

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the government procurement of services from foreign suppliers by conducting a statistical analysis of data submitted by Japan and Switzerland to the WTO's Committee on Government Procurement. Using several metrics, the paper examines if the WTO’s Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) has led to greater market access for foreign suppliers in services procurement. Our results indicate that despite the GPA, the proportions of services contracts awarded to foreigners have d...

  5. The Ukrainian energetic system under the light of the crisis: beyond gas transit, a governance challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this report is to address and describe the problematic of the Ukrainian gas transit within a wider inner context and under the light of the current gas crisis. Beyond the European security of supply, maintaining the gas transit is a major domestic issue for Ukraine, from an economic as well as political point of view. This means that, in order to avoid a new gas crisis, Ukraine must significantly reform its energy sector in order to reduce its dependency and to re-balance its energy mix. In a first part, the author discusses gas price and transit network management as the main stakes of the gas crisis: recall of traditional dispute about gas between Russia and Ukraine, ageing and corruption as characteristics of a collapsing gas corridor, the Ukrainian law of September 2014 as a first step for a reform of energy governance. In a second part, the author discusses the future of the Ukrainian gas sector and the issue of stability of the national energy system. This should be based on short term options to strengthen the resilience of the gas sector in front of Russian supply disruption, a priority for a gas independence, and necessary review of the energy mix

  6. First-principles study of the nickel–silicon binary compounds under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuhong, E-mail: zyh388@sina.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Hou, Hua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhao, Yuhui [Department of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Hebei College of Industry and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050091 (China); Han, Peide [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The structural and elastic properties of Ni–Si system under pressure are firstly studied. • The lattice parameters of NiSi{sub 2} are the most sensitive to external pressure change. • Ni{sub 3}Si, Ni{sub 31}Si{sub 12}, Ni{sub 2}Si (δ) and Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 2} are mechanical stability with pressure up to 50 GPa. • The hardness of the four compounds can be improved by increasing pressure. • Electronic structures are analyzed to understand pressure effect on the seven compounds. - Abstract: The effects of high pressure on structural, stable, elastic, thermodynamic properties and electronic structures of Ni–Si binary compounds (i.e. β-Ni{sub 3}Si, γ-Ni{sub 31}Si{sub 12}, δ-Ni{sub 2}Si, θ-Ni{sub 2}Si, ε-Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, ε-NiSi and α-NiSi{sub 2}) have been firstly studied by first-principles calculation based on density functional theory method within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters of the seven compounds at zero pressure and zero temperature agree well with the available experimental values and previous theoretical data. The values of V/V{sub 0} decrease with pressure going up to 50 GPa and the rate of change decrease gradually. The lattice parameters of NiSi{sub 2} are the most sensitive to external pressure change. Ni{sub 3}Si, Ni{sub 31}Si{sub 12}, Ni{sub 2}Si (δ) and Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 2} are mechanical stability by estimating stability criteria with pressure ranging from 0 to 50 GPa. But Ni{sub 2}Si (θ), NiSi and NiSi{sub 2} are not mechanically stable with pressure up to 10, 40 and 30 GPa, respectively. The calculated results of bulk modulus B, shear modulus G and Young’s modulus E illustrate pressure can improve the hardness of Ni{sub 3}Si, Ni{sub 31}Si{sub 12}, Ni{sub 2}Si (δ) and Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 2} compounds. In addition, ratio of shear modulus to bulk modulus G/B shows that all the considered compounds are ductile materials except NiSi. The Debye temperature Θ{sub D} of Ni{sub 3}Si

  7. Principles underlying the epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring and other fishes throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Garver, Kyle A.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Although viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) typically occurs at low prevalence and intensity in natural populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and other marine fishes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, epizootics of the resulting disease (VHS) periodically occur, often in association with observed fish kills. Here we identify a list of principles, based on a combination of field studies, controlled laboratory experiments, and previously unpublished observations, that govern the epizootiology of VHS in Pacific herring. A thorough understanding of these principles provides the basis for identifying risk factors that predispose certain marine fish populations to VHS epizootics, including the lack of population resistance, presence of chronic viral carriers in a population, copious viral shedding by infected individuals, cool water temperatures, limited water circulation patterns, and gregarious host behavioral patterns. Further, these principles are used to define the epizootiological stages of the disease in Pacific herring, including the susceptible (where susceptible individuals predominate a school or subpopulation), enzootic (where infection prevalence and intensity are often below the limits of reasonable laboratory detection), disease amplification (where infection prevalence and intensity increase rapidly), outbreak (often accompanied by host mortalities with high virus loads and active shedding), recovery (in which the mortality rate and virus load decline owing to an active host immune response), and refractory stages (characterized by little or no susceptibility and where viral clearance occurs in most VHS survivors). In addition to providing a foundation for quantitatively assessing the potential risks of future VHS epizootics in Pacific herring, these principles provide insights into the epizootiology of VHS in other fish communities where susceptible species exist.

  8. Taylor Principle Supplements the Fisher Effect: Empirical Investigation under the US Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saiful ISLAM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the short- and long-run dynamics of interest rate and inflation of the United States. Basing upon quarterly as well as monthly data over the period 1957 to 2010, we find evidence that interest rate behaviour of the Federal Reserve is consistent with the Taylor principle in short run and with the Fisher hypothesis in long run. Entire sample justifies the existence of a long run cointegrating relationship between federal funds rate and inflation characterised as the Fisher effect. When data are split into different subsamples, the cointegrating relationship disappears. Interest rate dynamics of pre-1980 and post-2001 neither track Fisher hypothesis nor Taylor principle, rather represent substantial discretion.

  9. Self-Regulation Principles Underlying Risk Perception and Decision Making within the Context of Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda D.; Biesecker, Barbara Bowles; Peters, Ellen; Taber, Jennifer M.; Klein, William M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in theory and research on self-regulation and decision-making processes have yielded important insights into how cognitive, emotional, and social processes shape risk perceptions and risk-related decisions. We examine how self-regulation theory can be applied to inform our understanding of decision-making processes within the context of genomic testing, a clinical arena in which individuals face complex risk information and potentially life-altering decisions. After presenting key principles of self-regulation, we present a genomic testing case example to illustrate how principles related to risk representations, approach and avoidance motivations, emotion regulation, defensive responses, temporal construals, and capacities such as numeric abilities can shape decisions and psychological responses during the genomic testing process. We conclude with implications for using self-regulation theory to advance science within genomic testing and opportunities for how this research can inform further developments in self-regulation theory. PMID:29225669

  10. Self-Regulation Principles Underlying Risk Perception and Decision Making within the Context of Genomic Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda D; Biesecker, Barbara Bowles; Peters, Ellen; Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P

    2017-05-01

    Advances in theory and research on self-regulation and decision-making processes have yielded important insights into how cognitive, emotional, and social processes shape risk perceptions and risk-related decisions. We examine how self-regulation theory can be applied to inform our understanding of decision-making processes within the context of genomic testing, a clinical arena in which individuals face complex risk information and potentially life-altering decisions. After presenting key principles of self-regulation, we present a genomic testing case example to illustrate how principles related to risk representations, approach and avoidance motivations, emotion regulation, defensive responses, temporal construals, and capacities such as numeric abilities can shape decisions and psychological responses during the genomic testing process. We conclude with implications for using self-regulation theory to advance science within genomic testing and opportunities for how this research can inform further developments in self-regulation theory.

  11. The governance of cooperative societies under the Basque Act of 24-6.1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gadea Soler

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly presents the general guidelines of governance of cooperatives. Because of the numerous existing laws in Spain, one looks at the provisions of the State Law and Law in Basque Contry.

  12. Social work in a society under pressure. Keeping professional principles and standards upright.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Blok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the content and outcome of the 5th Annual International Conference on Social Work & Social Work Education in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands on February 5, 2016. It shows how Social Work is embedded in society, and describes the pressure of contemporary (international problems on society, and the way in which authorities respond to it. The article continues with a discussion of the answers given by the 200 conference participants on the question how social workers and social work educators could cope with this pressure without denying their international professional principles and standards.

  13. 75 FR 16825 - Notice of Modifications to U.S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... hearing- or speech-impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal... construction project, and the total construction project has an estimated value of more than $7,804,000....S. Commitments Under the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement To Implement...

  14. General Principles for the welfare of animals in production systems: the underlying science and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Duncan, Ian J H; Edwards, Sandra A; Grandin, Temple; Gregory, Neville G; Guyonnet, Vincent; Hemsworth, Paul H; Huertas, Stella M; Huzzey, Juliana M; Mellor, David J; Mench, Joy A; Spinka, Marek; Whay, H Rebecca

    2013-10-01

    In 2012, the World Organisation for Animal Health adopted 10 'General Principles for the Welfare of Animals in Livestock Production Systems' to guide the development of animal welfare standards. The General Principles draw on half a century of scientific research relevant to animal welfare: (1) how genetic selection affects animal health, behaviour and temperament; (2) how the environment influences injuries and the transmission of diseases and parasites; (3) how the environment affects resting, movement and the performance of natural behaviour; (4) the management of groups to minimize conflict and allow positive social contact; (5) the effects of air quality, temperature and humidity on animal health and comfort; (6) ensuring access to feed and water suited to the animals' needs and adaptations; (7) prevention and control of diseases and parasites, with humane euthanasia if treatment is not feasible or recovery is unlikely; (8) prevention and management of pain; (9) creation of positive human-animal relationships; and (10) ensuring adequate skill and knowledge among animal handlers. Research directed at animal welfare, drawing on animal behaviour, stress physiology, veterinary epidemiology and other fields, complements more established fields of animal and veterinary science and helps to create a more comprehensive scientific basis for animal care and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First principles molecular dynamics of metal/water interfaces under bias potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza, Luana; Brandimarte, Pedro; Rocha, Alexandre; Fernandez-Serra, Marivi

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of the water-metal system at an atomic level is extremely important in electrocatalysts for fuel cells, photocatalysis among other systems. The question of the interface energetics involves a detailed study of the nature of the interactions between water-water and water-substrate. A first principles description of all components of the system is the most appropriate methodology in order to advance understanding of electrochemically processes. In this work we describe, using first principles molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics of a combined surface(Au and Pd)/water system both in the presence and absence of an external bias potential applied to the electrodes, as one would come across in electrochemistry. This is accomplished using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green's functions methods (NEGF), thus accounting for the fact that one is dealing with an out-of-equilibrium open system, with and without van der Waals interactions. DOE Early Career Award No. DE-SC0003871.

  16. Source selection problem of competitive power plants under government intervention: a game theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Reza; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Pollution and environmental protection in the present century are extremely significant global problems. Power plants as the largest pollution emitting industry have been the cause of a great deal of scientific researches. The fuel or source type used to generate electricity by the power plants plays an important role in the amount of pollution produced. Governments should take visible actions to promote green fuel. These actions are often called the governmental financial interventions that include legislations such as green subsidiaries and taxes. In this paper, by considering the government role in the competition of two power plants, we propose a game theoretical model that will help the government to determine the optimal taxes and subsidies. The numerical examples demonstrate how government could intervene in a competitive market of electricity to achieve the environmental objectives and how power plants maximize their utilities in each energy source. The results also reveal that the government's taxes and subsidiaries effectively influence the selected fuel types of power plants in the competitive market.

  17. Governing decentralization in health care under tough budget constraint: what can we learn from the Italian experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Gabriele, Stefania; Longo, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    In many European countries, since the World War II, there has been a trend towards decentralization of health policy to lower levels of governments, while more recently there have been re-centralization processes. Whether re-centralization will be the new paradigm of European health policy or not is difficult to say. In the Italian National Health Service (SSN) decentralization raised two related questions that might be interesting for the international debate on decentralization in health care: (a) what sort of regulatory framework and institutional balances are required to govern decentralization in health care in a heterogeneous country under tough budget constraints? (b) how can it be ensured that the most advanced parts of the country remain committed to solidarity, supporting the weakest ones? To address these questions this article describes the recent trends in SSN funding and expenditure, it reviews the strategy adopted by the Italian government for governing the decentralization process and discusses the findings to draw policy conclusions. The main lessons emerging from this experience are that: (1) when the differences in administrative and policy skills, in socio-economic standards and social capital are wide, decentralization may lead to undesirable divergent evolution paths; (2) even in decentralized systems, the role of the Central government can be very important to contain health expenditure; (3) a strong governance of the Central government may help and not hinder the enforcement of decentralization; and (4) supporting the weakest Regions and maintaining inter-regional solidarity is hard but possible. In Italy, despite an increasing role of the Central government in steering the SSN, the pattern of regional decentralization of health sector decision making does not seem at risk. Nevertheless, the Italian case confirms the complexity of decentralization and re-centralization processes that sometimes can be paradoxically reinforcing each other.

  18. Optimisation of structural shielding of accelerator control room for compliance with ALARA principle under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Masood; Singh, Brijesh

    1999-01-01

    The case of a 20 MV x-ray accelerator has been considered in this paper for optimisation. An internationally recommended value of α = US$ 1000 per person-sievert has been assumed. Cost of concrete has been assumed as US$ 82.7/m 3 . It is seen that, extra shielding is needed to satisfy the ALARA principle. Further, the amount of requisite shielding increases with the degree of occupancy and, also, if the local construction materials or the labour are cheaper than considered in this paper. Accordingly 1.5 to 4.75 HVLs may be needed as extra shielding in different situations. Therefore, a site specific and installation specific optimisation of shielding is necessary

  19. Juarez and the Mexican Republic during the French Intervention: Government Under Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-02

    6overnment, 12 September 1857, ibid., 8.621-625; MIxico, Decree of 6overnment, 20 July 1863, Colecci6n de leyes, decretos . X circulares exedidas po...131; Decree of Government for minting of 40,000 pesos, 7 % March 1865, ibid., 2:169- 170 ; Decree of Government for minting of 100,000 pesos, 29 July 1865...Relations to people of Peru, 21 September 1863, ibid., 1:135-140; Governor of Tamaulipas to Benito Ju~rez, 26 October 1863, ibid., 1: 168- 170 . S-03 %e s" Vo

  20. Multilateral cooperation for literacy promotion under stress: governance and management issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J. Limage

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses recent organizational change and governance in UNESCO. The Organization has given priority to the promotion of universal literacy since its inception in 1946. It has persisted in its dual approach to universal literacy through both universal primary education and literacy learning opportunities through formal provision and non-formal learning opportunities for adults and out-of-school youth. A major policy shift in 2006 to abandon systematic and programmatic concern for literacy at UNESCO Headquarters drastically changed priorities. That decision is analysed in the broader UN system setting, United States’ policies since its return to UNESCO, and the recent internal governing dynamics of the agency.

  1. Nonlinear modeling and stability analysis of hydro-turbine governing system with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel under load disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wencheng; Yang, Jiandong; Wang, Mingjiang; Lai, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel nonlinear mathematical model of hydro-turbine governing system is proposed. • Hopf bifurcation analysis on the governing system is conducted. • Stability of the system under load disturbance is studied. • Influence of four factors on stability is analyzed. • Optimization methods of improving system stability are put forward. - Abstract: In order to overcome the problem of nonlinear dynamics of hydro-turbine governing system with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel, which is caused by the interface movement of the free surface-pressurized flow in the tailrace tunnel, and the difficulty of analyzing the stability of system, this paper uses the Hopf bifurcation theory to study the stability of hydro-turbine governing system of hydropower station with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel. Firstly, a novel and rational nonlinear mathematical model of the hydro-turbine governing system is proposed. This model contains the dynamic equation of pipeline system which can accurately describe the motion characteristics of the interface of free surface-pressurized flow in sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel. According to the nonlinear mathematical model, the existence and direction of Hopf bifurcation of the nonlinear dynamic system are analyzed. Furthermore, the algebraic criterion of the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation is derived. Then the stability domain and bifurcation diagram of hydro-turbine governing system are drawn by the algebraic criterion, and the characteristics of stability under different state parameters are investigated. Finally, the influence of step load value, ceiling slope angle and section form of tailrace tunnel and water depth at the interface in tailrace tunnel on stability are analyzed based on stable domain. The results indicate that: The Hopf bifurcation of hydro-turbine governing system with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel is supercritical. The phase space trajectories of characteristic variables stabilize at the equilibrium points

  2. Influence of music on memory and education, and the application of its underlying principles to acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, H

    1983-01-01

    The interrelations among learning, brain waves, music and the relief of pain by acupuncture are discussed from the standpoint of an educator, who has some practical experience in suggestive-accelerative learning and teaching (S.A.L.T.). Through the diverse fields of science, e.g. educational psychology, physiology, electronics and acoustics, the principal law governing the l/f fluctuations (where f is frequency), or the inverse frequency distribution of the power spectrum, seems to play an important role in their phenomenological mechanism. The author totally explained in this paper such relations and he arranged the related phenomena into physical, physiological, psychological and pedagogical fields. Finally, he referred to an interesting example of the application of l/f fluctuations to the relief of pain by acupuncture.

  3. Practical application of the ALARA principle in management of the nuclear legacy: optimization under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham; Sneve, Malgorzata K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiological protection has a long and distinguished history in taking a balanced approach to optimization. Both utilitarian and individual interests and perspectives are addressed through a process of constrained optimisation, with optimisation intended to lead to the most benefit to the most people, and constraints being operative to limit the degree of inequity among the individuals exposed. At least, expressed simplistically, that is what the recommendations on protection are intended to achieve. This paper examines the difficulties in achieving that objective, based on consideration of the active role of optimisation in regulatory supervision of the historic nuclear legacy. This example is chosen because the application of the ALARA principle has important implications for some very major projects whose objective is remediation of existing legacy facilities. But it is also relevant because timely, effective and cost efficient completion of those projects has implications for confidence in the future development of nuclear power and other uses of radioactive materials. It is also an interesting example because legacy management includes mitigation of some major short and long term hazards, but those mitigating measures themselves involve operations with their own risk, cost and benefit profiles. Like any other complex activity, a legacy management project has to be broken down into logistically feasible parts. However, from a regulatory perspective, simultaneous application of ALARA to worker protection, major accident risk mitigation and long-term environmental and human health protection presents its own challenges. Major uncertainties which exacerbate the problem arise from ill-characterised source terms, estimation of the likelihood of unlikely failures in operational processes, and prospective assessment of radiological impacts over many hundreds of years and longer. The projects themselves are set to run over decades, during which time the

  4. Using Coevolution Genetic Algorithm with Pareto Principles to Solve Project Scheduling Problem under Duration and Cost Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Victorovich Budylskiy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the multicriteria optimization approach using the modified genetic algorithm to solve the project-scheduling problem under duration and cost constraints. The work contains the list of choices for solving this problem. The multicriteria optimization approach is justified here. The study describes the Pareto principles, which are used in the modified genetic algorithm. We identify the mathematical model of the project-scheduling problem. We introduced the modified genetic algorithm, the ranking strategies, the elitism approaches. The article includes the example.

  5. The first-principles calculations for the elastic properties of Zr2Al under compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiaoli; Wei Dongqing; Chen Xiangrong; Zhang Qingming; Gong Zizheng

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The calculated elastic constants C ij as a function of pressure P. Display Omitted Research highlights: → It is found that the five independent elastic constants increase monotonically with pressure. C 11 and C 33 vary rapidly as pressure increases, C 13 and C 12 becomes moderate. However, C 44 increases comparatively slowly with pressure. Figure shows excellent satisfaction of the calculated elastic constants of Zr 2 Al to these equations and hence in our calculation, the Zr 2 Al is mechanically stable at pressure up to 100 GPa. - Abstract: The first-principles calculations were applied to investigate the structural, elastic constants of Zr 2 Al alloy with increasing pressure. These properties are based on the plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) method within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for exchange and correlation. The result of the heat of formation of Zr 2 Al crystal investigated is in excellent consistent with results from other study. The anisotropy, the shear modulus, and Young's modulus for the ideal polycrystalline Zr 2 Al are also studied. It is found that (higher) pressure can significantly improve the ductility of Zr 2 Al. Moreover, the elastic constants of Zr 2 Al increase monotonically and the anisotropies decrease with the increasing pressure. Finally, it is observed that Zr d electrons are mainly contributed to the density of states at the Fermi level.

  6. First Principles Prediction of Structure, Structure Selectivity, and Thermodynamic Stability under Realistic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceder, Gerbrand [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials and Engineering

    2018-01-28

    Novel materials are often the enabler for new energy technologies. In ab-initio computational materials science, method are developed to predict the behavior of materials starting from the laws of physics, so that properties can be predicted before compounds have to be synthesized and tested. As such, a virtual materials laboratory can be constructed, saving time and money. The objectives of this program were to develop first-principles theory to predict the structure and thermodynamic stability of materials. Since its inception the program focused on the development of the cluster expansion to deal with the increased complexity of complex oxides. This research led to the incorporation of vibrational degrees of freedom in ab-initio thermodynamics, developed methods for multi-component cluster expansions, included the explicit configurational degrees of freedom of localized electrons, developed the formalism for stability in aqueous environments, and culminated in the first ever approach to produce exact ground state predictions of the cluster expansion. Many of these methods have been disseminated to the larger theory community through the Materials Project, pymatgen software, or individual codes. We summarize three of the main accomplishments.

  7. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching, Germany (near Munich) on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in...

  8. Scaling laws governing the multiple scattering of diatomic molecules under Coulomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1992-01-01

    The trajectories of fast molecules during and after penetration through foils are governed by Coulomb explosion and distorted by multiple scattering and other penetration phenomena. A scattering event may cause the energy available for Coulomb explosion to increase or decrease, and angular momentum may be transferred to the molecule. Because of continuing Coulomb explosion inside and outside the target foil, the transmission pattern recorded at a detector far away from the target is not just a linear superposition of Coulomb explosion and multiple scattering. The velocity distribution of an initially monochromatic and well-collimated, but randomly oriented, beam of molecular ions is governed by a generalization of the standard Bothe-Landau integral that governs the multiple scattering of atomic ions. Emphasis has been laid on the distribution in relative velocity and, in particular, relative energy. The statistical distributions governing the longitudinal motion (i.e., the relative motion along the molecular axis) and the rotational motion can be scaled into standard multiple-scattering distributions of atomic ions. The two scaling laws are very different. For thin target foils, the significance of rotational energy transfer is enhanced by an order of magnitude compared to switched-off Coulomb explosion. A distribution for the total relative energy (i.e., longitudinal plus rotational motion) has also been found, but its scaling behavior is more complex. Explicit examples given for all three distributions refer to power-law scattering. As a first approximation, scattering events undergone by the two atoms in the molecule were assumed uncorrelated. A separate section has been devoted to an estimate of the effect of impact-parameter correlation on the multiple scattering of penetrating molecules

  9. Contractual stability and its relationship with the political process of law-making: An analysis of Peru’s public procurement and the principles of the Agreement on Government Procurement with the World Trade Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Zegarra Pinto, José; Peche Loayza, Luwing

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of the impacts of the Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) Principles and Rules on the Peruvian Public Procurement regulation, and Peruvian participation in the process of international standardisation of public procurement through signing different kinds of free trade agreements (FTAs).

  10. 42 CFR 137.325 - What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to perform a construction project under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Project Assumption Process § 137.325 What does a Self-Governance Tribe do if it wants to perform a construction project under section...

  11. Comparative assessment of Japan's long-term carbon budget under different effort-sharing principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramochi, Takeshi; Asuka, Jusen; Fekete, Hanna; Tamura, Kentaro; Höhne, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses Japan's carbon budgets up to 2100 in the global efforts to achieve the 2 °C target under different effort-sharing approaches based on long-term GHG mitigation scenarios published in 13 studies. The article also presents exemplary emission trajectories for Japan to stay

  12. Comparative analysis of guide mode of government - oriented industry guidance funds under china’s new normal of economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunling; Cheng, Xuemei

    2017-11-01

    The government-oriented industry guidance Funds solve the problem of financing difficulty and high innovation under the background of China’s new normal. Through the provinces and cities of the policies and regulations of the collation and comparative analysis, it will be divided into three modes. And then compare among three modes and analyze applicability to guide the construction of provinces and cities.

  13. Principles of motivation revealed by the diverse functions of neuropharmacological and neuroanatomical substrates underlying feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A; Pratt, Wayne E; Will, Matthew J; Hanlon, Erin C; Bakshi, Vaishali P; Cador, Martine

    2013-11-01

    Circuits that participate in specific subcomponents of feeding (e.g., gustatory perception, peripheral feedback relevant to satiety and energy balance, reward coding, etc.) are found at all levels of the neural axis. Further complexity is conferred by the wide variety of feeding-modulatory neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that act within these circuits. An ongoing challenge has been to refine the understanding of the functional specificity of these neurotransmitters and circuits, and there have been exciting advances in recent years. We focus here on foundational work of Dr. Ann Kelley that identified distinguishable actions of striatal opioid peptide modulation and dopamine transmission in subcomponents of reward processing. We also discuss her work in overlaying these neuropharmacological effects upon anatomical pathways that link the telencephalon (cortex and basal ganglia) with feeding-control circuits in the hypothalamus. Using these seminal contributions as a starting point, we will discuss new findings that expand our understanding of (1) the specific, differentiable motivational processes that are governed by central dopamine and opioid transmission, (2) the manner in which other striatal neuromodulators, specifically acetylcholine, endocannabinoids and adenosine, modulate these motivational processes (including via interactions with opioid systems), and (3) the organization of the cortical-subcortical network that subserves opioid-driven feeding. The findings discussed here strengthen the view that incentive-motivational properties of food are coded by substrates and neural circuits that are distinguishable from those that mediate the acute hedonic experience of food reward. Striatal opioid transmission modulates reward processing by engaging frontotemporal circuits, possibly via a hypothalamic-thalamic axis, that ultimately impinges upon hypothalamic modules dedicated to autonomic function and motor pattern control. We will conclude by discussing

  14. Cesium under pressure: First-principles calculation of the bcc-to-fcc phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, S.; Franchini, A.; Bortolani, V.; Martinelli, S.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we present the ab initio calculation of the structural properties of cesium under pressure. The calculation of the total energy is done in the local-density approximation of density-functional theory, using a nonlocal pseudopotential including the nonlinear core corrections proposed by Louie et al. The calculation of the pressure-volume diagram for both bcc and fcc structures allows us to prove that the transition from bcc to fcc structure is a first-order transition.

  15. Experimental observation of dynamic ductile damage development under various triaxiality conditions - description of the principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillon L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Gurson model has been extended by Perrin to describe damage evolution in ductile viscoplastic materials. The so-called Gurson-Perrin model allows representing damage development with respect to strain-rate conditions. In order to fill a lack in current experimental procedures, we propose an experimental project able to test and validate the Gurson-Perrin model under various dynamic conditions and for different stress triaxiality levels.

  16. The structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of LiAlB{sub 4} under pressure from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayran, Ceren; Aydin, Sezgin [Department of Physics, Sciences Faculty, Gazi University, 06500, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    The structural, elastic, mechanical, and electronic properties of lithium aluminum tetraboride (LiAlB{sub 4}) under hydrostatic pressure have been investigated by using first-principles density functional theory calculations. The effects of pressure on the lattice parameters, volume, and bond lengths are studied. It is indicated from the calculated elastic constants that LiAlB{sub 4} compound is mechanically stable on 0-40 GPa pressure range. And, by means of these elastic constants set, some mechanical properties such as bulk, shear and Young's moduli, and then Poisson's ratio are determined as a function of pressure. Also, the ductile or brittle nature of LiAlB{sub 4} is examined. Additionally, using the first-principles data obtained from the geometry optimizations, the hardness of LiAlB{sub 4} is calculated, and its nature is investigated under pressure. Furthermore, in order to reveal the effects of pressure on the electronic and binding behavior of the compound, band structures, total and partial density of states, charge densities, Mulliken atomic charges, and bond overlap populations are searched as a function of pressure. To check the stability of the compound, phonon dispersion curves are calculated. And, the results are compared with the other convenient borides. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. First-principles investigations on structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature of orthorhombic Ni3Ta under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Jianxin; Ma, Shiyu; Jin, Huixin; Zhang, Youjian; Zhang, Wenyang

    2018-06-01

    The structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature of Ni3Ta under different pressures are investigated using the first-principles method based on density functional theory. Our calculated equilibrium lattice parameters at 0 GPa well agree with the experimental and previous theoretical results. The calculated negative formation enthalpies and elastic constants both indicate that Ni3Ta is stable under different pressures. The bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E and Poisson's ratio ν are calculated by the Voigt-Reuss-Hill method. The bigger ratio of B/G indicates Ni3Ta is ductile and the pressure can improve the ductility of Ni3Ta. In addition, the results of density of states and the charge density difference show that the stability of Ni3Ta is improved by the increasing pressure. The Debye temperature ΘD calculated from elastic modulus increases along with the pressure.

  18. Governance and Academic Culture in Higher Education: Under the Influence of the SSCI Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuing Prudence Chou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards neo-liberal policies which began in the 1980s has caused public finances around the world to be linked to market forces rather than state allocation. In consequence, the sharp reduction in public funding allotted to the education sector has affected both social values and educational quality. With the growing influence of globalization on higher education, many East Asian nations have enacted urgent university reforms designed to boost competitiveness of their domestic university systems. China’s Projects 211 and 985; South Korea’s BK21; Japan’s National University Corporation Plan; and Taiwan’s ‘Five Year- Fifty Billion Plan have all been initiated in response to the process of globalization and the demand for global talent in academia. Elsewhere, governments in the Arab Middle East, the Americas, Europe, East and Southeast Asia have all initiated new policies to enhance the global competitiveness and international visibility of their flagship universities, and many of these focus in an unprecedented away on journal publication as the major performance criterion for faculty reward. The increasing extent to which government policies worldwide favour measurements derived from publication indexes such as SCI/SSCI has led to strengthened managerial governance over academic culture and the academic profession itself. This paper argues that a phenomenon of ‘publish globally and perish locally’ has emerged, especially in the humanities and social sciences which are most vulnerable to ‘SSCI Syndrome’, and that this trend is detrimental to academic effectiveness and diversity.

  19. A Study of Market Structure in Liner Shipping Under the Influence of Government Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Peter Chi Chung; Bamford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The peculiar operational mode and involvement of international carriers\\ud granted liner operators special exemption from Anti-trust regulations\\ud globally. The changes of policy from USA and EU in recent years forbidden\\ud liner operators to form Liner Conference (LC) which seems to possess\\ud oligopoly power in the trade. This paper use the freight rate to verified the\\ud change of Government policies cannot stop the liner operators to form in\\ud their natural formation - Liner Conference.

  20. Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in Connection with the Application of Safeguards under a Co-Operation Agreement between the Two Governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in connection with the application of safeguards under the Agreement for Co-operation between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Norway Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy signed on 4 May 1967, as amended, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The protocol entered into force on 25 September 1973 pursuant to Section 4.

  1. First-principles calculations for elastic properties of OsB{sub 2} under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Junwei [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chen Xiangrong, E-mail: x.r.chen@tom.co [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); International Centre for Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Luo Fen [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Ji Guangfu [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2009-11-01

    The structure, elastic properties and elastic anisotropy of orthorhombic OsB{sub 2} are investigated by density functional theory method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as well as local density approximation (LDA). The obtained structural parameters, elastic constants, elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature for OsB{sub 2} under pressure are consistent with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. It is found that the elastic constants, bulk modulus and Debye temperature of OsB{sub 2} tend to increase with increasing pressure. It is predicted that OsB{sub 2} is not a superhard material from our calculations.

  2. First-principles calculations for elastic properties of OsB2 under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Junwei; Chen Xiangrong; Luo Fen; Ji Guangfu

    2009-01-01

    The structure, elastic properties and elastic anisotropy of orthorhombic OsB 2 are investigated by density functional theory method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as well as local density approximation (LDA). The obtained structural parameters, elastic constants, elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature for OsB 2 under pressure are consistent with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. It is found that the elastic constants, bulk modulus and Debye temperature of OsB 2 tend to increase with increasing pressure. It is predicted that OsB 2 is not a superhard material from our calculations.

  3. First-principles calculations for elastic properties of OsB 2 under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Wei; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Fen; Ji, Guang-Fu

    2009-11-01

    The structure, elastic properties and elastic anisotropy of orthorhombic OsB 2 are investigated by density functional theory method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as well as local density approximation (LDA). The obtained structural parameters, elastic constants, elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature for OsB 2 under pressure are consistent with the available experimental data and other theoretical results. It is found that the elastic constants, bulk modulus and Debye temperature of OsB 2 tend to increase with increasing pressure. It is predicted that OsB 2 is not a superhard material from our calculations.

  4. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation.

  5. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Act (except a provision of Part II of the Act with respect to a manufacturer of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines); (ii) Provided or obtained under section 208 of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 7542... of papers, books, or documents issued under the authority of section 307(a) of the Act, 42 U.S.C...

  6. Towards nearly zero-energy buildings. Definition of common principles under the EPBD. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermelink, A.; Schimschar, S.; Boermans, T. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Pagliano, L.; Zangheri, P.; Armani, R. [Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Voss, K.; Musall, E. [University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Europe aims at bringing about drastic reductions of greenhouse gas emissions in the residential and service sectors of about 90% compared to 1990 by 2050. Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings are a major element of European climate policy. Already by 2021, every new building in Europe has to meet this standard. During 2012, a consortium led by Ecofys undertook a study for the European Commission to provide more guidance to Member States and the Commission with regards to the implementation of the requirements for nearly zero-energy buildings under the EPBD. The study features benchmarks for nearly zero-energy buildings for different European climates, an analytical framework for evaluating Member States national plans for increasing the number of nearly zero energy buildings, a reporting template for these plans and an analysis of the convergence between cost optimal levels and nearly zero-energy buildings.

  7. High-temperature superconducting phase of HBr under pressure predicted by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qinyan; Lu, Pengchao; Xia, Kang; Sun, Jian; Xing, Dingyu

    2017-08-01

    The high pressure phases of HBr are explored with an ab initio crystal structure search. By taking into account the contribution of zero-point energy (ZPE), we find that the P 4 /n m m phase of HBr is thermodynamically stable in the pressure range from 150 to 200 GPa. The superconducting critical temperature (Tc) of P 4 /n m m HBr is evaluated to be around 73 K at 170 GPa, which is the highest record so far among binary halogen hydrides. Its Tc can be further raised to around 95K under 170 GPa if half of the bromine atoms in the P 4 /n m m HBr are substituted by the lighter chlorine atoms. Our study shows that, in addition to lower mass, higher coordination number, shorter bonds, and more highly symmetric environment for the hydrogen atoms are important factors to enhance the superconductivity in hydrides.

  8. The improving of methodological principles of enterprise competitiveness management under the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dyadyuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is methodological bases improving and forming of practical tools for enterprise competitiveness management under the crisis. The specific features of the competitive environment of enterprises in Ukraine under the global and national crisis are researched in the article. From this it is concluded that any enterprise must have a greater degree of flexibility than in periods of stability or economic growth for obtaining and maintaining of competitive advantages in the current period of global instability. Flexibility and adaptability of the economic system is the main prerequisite for obtaining and developing of enterprise competitive advantages and stem component of competitiveness. We identified and characterized the methodological components of adaptive management process on the base of systematic approach and with taking into account views of scientists. The obtained scientific results are the basis for conceptual model of integrated system of enterprise adaptive management in terms of dynamic and uncertainty environment. We propose to implement this kind of control on three levels: strategic (preventive management, functionality (tactical management and operational (symptomatic management on the base of analyzing economically grounded views and existing positions. It all together will ensure effective adaptation at the macroeconomic, meso and micro levels of management. The main purpose of the proposed integrated management system is ensuring the stability and integrity of enterprises activity in terms of variability and uncertainty of the environment. The implementation of such management system provides the enterprise with certain competitive advantages. It will allow to Ukrainian enterprises maintaining the competitive position in unfavorable external conditions, but also maintaining and improving the competitiveness.

  9. Bank Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ard; Alexander Berg

    2010-01-01

    Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...

  10. Alkem instruction: Legal relief of a Federal State against instructions under the Atomic Energy Act issued by the Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1987-01-01

    The German Federal Minister for the Environment, Protection of Nature, and Reactor Safety instructed the Hesse State Minister for Economics and Technology to grant the applications filed by Alkem GmbH for a first partial permit of the construction and operation of a fuel element factory, and to grant it on the basis of a draft working document discussed between the two ministries. The new feature is the refusal of the Hesse State Minister to follow these instructions. This has given rise to a conflict between the State and Federal Governments. The article deals with one aspect of the multifaceted legal controversy, i.e., the question of the possibilities of legal relief open to a Federal State against an instruction under the Atomic Energy Act issued by the Federal Government. First, the rank of this instruction within the scope of administration on behalf of the Federal Government will be discussed. Next, the central problem of the preconditions under which an instruction may violate rights of a Federal State will be investigated. Finally, the possibilities of litigation will be briefly referred to. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla Stan

    Full Text Available Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO. This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i business as usual, (ii increased deforestation, and (iii decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation.

  12. The structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature of Ni3Mo under pressure from first-principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Lei; Jin, Yuchun; Zhao, Yuhong; Yang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Hui; Han, Peide

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature under pressure. • Higher hardness of Ni 3 Mo compound may be obtained when pressure increases. • Proper pressure can improve the ductility but excess pressure was just the opposite. • Ni 3 Mo compound has no structural phase transformation under pressure up to 30 GPa. • Debye temperatures increase with increasing pressure. - Abstract: With the help of first principles method based on density functional theory, the structural, elastic, electronic properties and Debye temperature of Ni 3 Mo binary compound under pressure are investigated. Our calculated structural parameters are in good agreement with experimental and previous theoretical results. The obtained elastic constants show that Ni 3 Mo compound is mechanically stable. Elastic properties such as bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young’s modulus E and Poisson’s ratio υ are calculated by the Voigt–Reuss–Hill method. The results of B/G under various pressures show that proper pressure can improve the ductility of Ni 3 Mo but excess pressure will make the ductility decrease. In addition, the density of states as a function of pressure is analyzed. The Debye temperature Θ D calculated from elastic constants increases along with the pressure

  13. Solid phase stability of molybdenum under compression: Sound velocity measurements and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiulu [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology, 621010 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Liu, Zhongli [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); College of Physics and Electric Information, Luoyang Normal University, 471022 Luoyang, Henan (China); Jin, Ke; Xi, Feng; Yu, Yuying; Tan, Ye; Dai, Chengda; Cai, Lingcang [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

    2015-02-07

    The high-pressure solid phase stability of molybdenum (Mo) has been the center of a long-standing controversy on its high-pressure melting. In this work, experimental and theoretical researches have been conducted to check its solid phase stability under compression. First, we performed sound velocity measurements from 38 to 160 GPa using the two-stage light gas gun and explosive loading in backward- and forward-impact geometries, along with the high-precision velocity interferometry. From the sound velocities, we found no solid-solid phase transition in Mo before shock melting, which does not support the previous solid-solid phase transition conclusion inferred from the sharp drops of the longitudinal sound velocity [Hixson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 637 (1989)]. Then, we searched its structures globally using the multi-algorithm collaborative crystal structure prediction technique combined with the density functional theory. By comparing the enthalpies of body centered cubic structure with those of the metastable structures, we found that bcc is the most stable structure in the range of 0–300 GPa. The present theoretical results together with previous ones greatly support our experimental conclusions.

  14. Physiological and biochemical principles underlying volume-targeted therapy--the "Lund concept".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The optimal therapy of sustained increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) remains controversial. The volume-targeted therapy ("Lund concept") discussed in this article focuses on the physiological volume regulation of the intracranial compartments. The balance between effective transcapillary hydrostatic and osmotic pressures constitutes the driving force for transcapillary fluid exchange. The low permeability for sodium and chloride combined with the high crystalloid osmotic pressure (approximately 5700 mmHg) on both sides of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) counteracts fluid exchange across the intact BBB. Additionally, variations in systemic blood pressure generally are not transmitted to these capillaries because cerebral intracapillary hydrostatic pressure (and blood flow) is physio-logically tightly autoregulated. Under pathophysiological conditions, the BBB may be partially disrupted. Transcapillary water exchange is then determined by the differences in hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressure between the intra- and extracapillary compartments. Pressure autoregulation of cerebral blood flow is likely to be impaired in these conditions. A high cerebral perfusion pressure accordingly increases intracapillary hydrostatic pressure and leads to increased intracerebral water content and an increase in ICP. The volume-targeted "Lund concept" has been evaluated in experimental and clinical studies to examine the physiological and biochemical (utilizing intracerebral microdialysis) effects, and the clinical experiences have been favorable.

  15. First principles study of LiAlO2: new dense monoclinic phase under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangtao; Liu, Hanyu

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we have systematically explored the crystal structures of LiAlO2 at high pressures using crystal structure prediction method in combination with the density functional theory calculations. Besides the reported α, β, γ, δ and ɛ-phases, here we propose a new monoclinic ζ-LiAlO2 (C2/m) structure, which becomes thermodynamically and dynamically stable above 27 GPa. It is found that the cation coordination number increases from 4 to 6 under compression. Consisting of the compact {LiO6} and {AlO6} octahedrons, the newly-discovered ζ-phase possesses a very high density. Further electronic calculations show that LiAlO2 is still an insulator up to 60 GPa, and its bandgap increases upon compression. The present study advances our understanding on the crystal structures and high-pressure phase transitions of LiAlO2 that may trigger applications in multiple areas of industry and provoke more related basic science research.

  16. Stability and Complexity Analysis of a Dual-Channel Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Delayed Decision under Government Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoming Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs a continuous dual-channel closed-loop supply chain (DCLSC model with delayed decision under government intervention. The existence conditions of the local stability of the equilibrium point are discussed. We analyze the influence of delay parameters, the adjustment speed of wholesale price, recovery rate of waste products, direct price, carbon quota subsidy, and carbon tax on the stability and complexity of model by using bifurcation diagram, entropy diagram, attractor, and time series diagram and so on. Besides, the delay feedback control method is adopted to control the unstable or chaotic system effectively. The main conclusions of this paper show that the variables mentioned above must be within a reasonable range. Otherwise, the model will lose stability or enter chaos. The government can effectively adjust manufacturers' profit through carbon tax and carbon quota subsidy, and encourage manufacturers to reduce carbon emissions and increase the remanufacturing of waste products.

  17. Has the Federal Government the power to instruct State authorities in procedures under the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ost, W.; Pelzer, N.

    1979-01-01

    The differences in opinion which have emerged between the Federal Government and ministers of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia about further permits to be issued for construction of the SNR 300 fast breeder reactor at Kalkar have raised the question of whether the Federal Government has the right to issue directives to a state authority to grant a permit. Close examination of the legal aspects indicates that hardly any literature and no court decisions are as yet available on this problem, because it has never played a role so far. However, it is undisputed that there is such a right to give instructions. Under the Constitution and the Atomic Energy Act the state authorities are responsible for granting permits, but only as agents acting on behalf of the federal authority. Such instructions must be in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act and the objective sought must be lawful for the instructions to be effective. (orig.) [de

  18. In vitro thermal profile suitability assessment of acids and bases for thermochemical ablation: underlying principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Laura A; Anwer, Bilal; Brady, Ryan P; Smith, Benjamin C; Edelman, Theresa L; Misselt, Andrew J; Cressman, Erik N K

    2010-03-01

    To measure and compare temperature changes in a recently developed gel phantom for thermochemical ablation as a function of reagent strength and concentration with several acids and bases. Aliquots (0.5-1 mL) of hydrochloric acid or acetic acid and sodium hydroxide or aqueous ammonia were injected for 5 seconds into a hydrophobic gel phantom. Stepwise increments in concentration were used to survey the temperature changes caused by these reactions. Injections were performed in triplicate, measured with a thermocouple probe, and plotted as functions of concentration and time. Maximum temperatures were reached almost immediately in all cases, reaching 75 degrees C-110 degrees C at the higher concentrations. The highest temperatures were seen with hydrochloric acid and either base. More concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide tended to mix incompletely, such that experiments at 9 M and higher were difficult to perform consistently. Higher concentrations for any reagent resulted in higher temperatures. Stronger acid and base combinations resulted in higher temperatures versus weak acid and base combinations at the same concentration. Maximum temperatures obtained are in a range known to cause tissue coagulation, and all combinations tested therefore appeared suitable for further investigation in thermochemical ablation. Because of the loss of the reaction chamber shape at higher concentrations of stronger agents, the phantom does not allow complete characterization under these circumstances. Adequate mixing of reagents to maximize heating potential and avoid systemic exposure to unreacted acid and base must be addressed if the method is to be safely employed in tissues. In addition, understanding factors that control lesion shape in a more realistic tissue model will be critical. Copyright 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. First-Principles Studies of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN) Single Crystal Unit Cell Volumes and Vibrational Frequencies under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Warren F.; Zhao, Jijun; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2006-07-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the PETN molecular crystal were calculated using the first-principles CRYSTAL03 program which employs an all-electron LCAO approach and calculates analytic first derivatives of the total energy with respect to atomic displacements. Numerical second derivatives were used to enable calculation of the vibrational frequencies at ambient pressure and under various states of compression. Three different density functionals, B3LYP, PW91, and X3LYP were used to examine the effect of the exchange-correlation functional on the vibrational frequencies. The average deviation with experimental results is shown to be on the order of 2-3%, depending on the functional used. The pressure-induced shift of the vibrational frequencies is presented.

  20. The Obstacle Version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle: Application to the Pricing of American Options Under Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, Bruno; Vu, Thanh Nam

    2010-01-01

    We provide an obstacle version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle of Soner and Touzi (J. Eur. Math. Soc. 4:201-236, 2002) for stochastic target problems. This opens the doors to a wide range of applications, particularly in risk control in finance and insurance, in which a controlled stochastic process has to be maintained in a given set on a time interval [0,T]. As an example of application, we show how it can be used to provide a viscosity characterization of the super-hedging cost of American options under portfolio constraints, without appealing to the standard dual formulation from mathematical finance. In particular, we allow for a degenerate volatility, a case which does not seem to have been studied so far in this context.

  1. Monolayer Boron Nitride Substrate Interactions with Graphene Under In-Plane and Perpendicular Strains: A First-Principles Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Somayeh

    2018-04-01

    Effects of strain on the electronic and optical properties of graphene on monolayer boron nitride (BN) substrate are investigated using first-principle calculations based on density functional theory. Strain-free graphene/BN has a small band gap of 97 meV at the K point. The magnitude of band gap increases with in-plane biaxial strain while it decreases with the perpendicular uniaxial strain. The ɛ2 (ω ) spectrum of graphene/BN bilayer for parallel polarization shows red and blue shifts by applying the in-plane tensile and compressive strains, respectively. Also the positions of peaks in the ɛ2 (ω ) spectrum are not significantly changed under perpendicular strain. The calculated results indicate that graphene on the BN substrate has great potential in microelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  2. A multi-product green supply chain under government supervision with price and demand uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Zamani, Soma

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a bi-level game-theoretic model is proposed to investigate the effects of governmental financial intervention on green supply chain. This problem is formulated as a bi-level program for a green supply chain that produces various products with different environmental pollution levels. The problem is also regard uncertainties in market demand and sale price of raw materials and products. The model is further transformed into a single-level nonlinear programming problem by replacing the lower-level optimization problem with its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions. Genetic algorithm is applied as a solution methodology to solve nonlinear programming model. Finally, to investigate the validity of the proposed method, the computational results obtained through genetic algorithm are compared with global optimal solution attained by enumerative method. Analytical results indicate that the proposed GA offers better solutions in large size problems. Also, we conclude that financial intervention by government consists of green taxation and subsidization is an effective method to stabilize green supply chain members' performance.

  3. Oil sands and heavy oil development issues and prospects under a Liberal government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1993-01-01

    A short review is presented of some of the factors affecting development of the western Canadian oil sands and heavy oil deposits to the year 2000. The Alberta oil sands resource has at least 1 trillion bbl of recoverable oil. At current prices, technology is the key to reducing costs to a more economic level. Cash operating costs have halved to $15/bbl over the past decade and the oil sands companies have programs to halve that figure again. A problem is the rising cost of natural gas as a fuel, which could jeopardize further development of both oil sand and heavy oil resources. In Saskatchewan, over 25 billion bbl of heavy oil are estimated to be in place. The biggest question is what percentage can be recovered; again, technology such as horizontal wells, 3-dimensional seismic, and steam assisted recovery is playing an important role. Concerns are expressed about the intentions of the new Liberal government concerning oil sand/heavy oil development, especially on the issues of foreign investment, exports, and environmental policy. A Liberal energy policy is not likely to allow U.S. direct investment in an oil sands plant to be tied to export of production, and the energy- and emissions-intensive nature of the oil sand/heavy oil industry will tend to make environmental approvals difficult

  4. First-principles calculations of structural, elastic, and electronic properties of trigonal ZnSnO{sub 3} under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi-Jun, E-mail: qijunliu@home.swjtu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Chengdu 610031 (China); Bond and Band Engineering Group, Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory (for Universities) of High Pressure Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Qin, Han; Jiao, Zhen; Liu, Fu-Sheng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Chengdu 610031 (China); Bond and Band Engineering Group, Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory (for Universities) of High Pressure Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Liu, Zheng-Tang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2016-09-01

    First-principles calculations of the structural, elastic, mechanical and electronic properties of ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} under pressure have been investigated in the present paper. Our calculated lattice constants at zero pressure are in agreement with the published theoretical and experimental data. The elastic constants at zero and high pressure have been obtained, which are used to discuss the mechanical stability of ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3}. The mechanical properties such as bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio under pressure have been studied. Electronic properties show that ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} is shown to be a direct bandgap of 1.063 (GGA-PW91)/3.977 (PBE0) eV. The bandgap increases with the increasing pressure. Moreover, the partial density of states has been analyzed to explain the increased bandgap. - Highlights: • Physical properties of ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} under pressure have been investigated. • Ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} behaves in a ductile manner. • Ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} is a direct bandgap compound with 3.977 eV. • Bandgap of Ilmenite-type ZnSnO{sub 3} increases with the increasing pressure.

  5. Genetic Loci Governing Grain Yield and Root Development under Variable Rice Cultivation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Catolos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress to rice grain yield under unpredictable changing climatic scenarios. The widely grown, high yielding but drought susceptible rice varieties need to be improved by unraveling the genomic regions controlling traits enhancing drought tolerance. The present study was conducted with the aim to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for grain yield and root development traits under irrigated non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress in both lowland and upland situations. A mapping population consisting of 480 lines derived from a cross between Dular (drought-tolerant and IR64-21 (drought susceptible was used. QTL analysis revealed three major consistent-effect QTLs for grain yield (qDTY1.1, qDTY1.3, and qDTY8.1 under non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress conditions, and 2 QTLs for root traits (qRT9.1 for root-growth angle and qRT5.1 for multiple root traits, i.e., seedling-stage root length, root dry weight and crown root number. The genetic locus qDTY1.1 was identified as hotspot for grain yield and yield-related agronomic and root traits. The study identified significant positive correlations among numbers of crown roots and mesocotyl length at the seedling stage and root length and root dry weight at depth at later stages with grain yield and yield-related traits. Under reproductive stage drought stress, the grain yield advantage of the lines with QTLs ranged from 24.1 to 108.9% under upland and 3.0–22.7% under lowland conditions over the lines without QTLs. The lines with QTL combinations qDTY1.3+qDTY8.1 showed the highest mean grain yield advantage followed by lines having qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1 and qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1+qDTY1.3, across upland/lowland reproductive-stage drought stress. The identified QTLs for root traits, mesocotyl length, grain yield and yield-related traits can be immediately deployed in marker-assisted breeding to develop drought tolerant high yielding rice varieties.

  6. Creating Processes Associated with Providing Government Goods and Services Under the Commercial Space Launch Act at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Janet F.

    2011-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has decided to write its agreements under the Commercial Space Launch Act (CSLA) authority to cover a broad range of categories of support that KSC could provide to our commercial partner. Our strategy was to go through the onerous process of getting the agreement in place once and allow added specificity and final cost estimates to be documented on a separate Task Order Request (TOR). This paper is written from the implementing engineering team's perspective. It describes how we developed the processes associated with getting Government support to our emerging commercial partners, such as SpaceX and reports on our success to date.

  7. Problems of Instruments of Development of Local Self-Governance under Conditions of Ensuring Stabilisation of Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovnya Olena M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers sustainable social development of local society as a universal technology. Such a technology covers all levels of management, creates conditions for the market and allows consolidation of various social groups. Technology is developed and realised under specific conditions and specific features of economic, organisational and socio-political levels and structure of development of a municipal society. Today, unfortunately, insufficient attentions is paid to the issues of constructing a complex of technologies capable of ensuring dynamic economic development of an integrated system of municipal management. Moreover, one of the directions of the municipal policy should be creation of a system of employment of population and re-training of employees and formation of new working places. Associations of local self-governance bodies could play a significant importance in protection of interests of territorial societies. In order to solve the issue of attraction of the population to participation in local self-governance, it is necessary to establish a feedback between the society and its self-governance bodies – both elected by citizens and its executive structures.

  8. Electrohydrodynamic fibrillation governed enhanced thermal transport in dielectric colloids under a field stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Purbarun; Maganti, Lakshmi Sirisha; Harikrishnan, A R

    2018-05-30

    Electrorheological (ER) fluids are known to exhibit enhanced viscous effects under an electric field stimulus. The present article reports the hitherto unreported phenomenon of greatly enhanced thermal conductivity in such electro-active colloidal dispersions in the presence of an externally applied electric field. Typical ER fluids are synthesized employing dielectric fluids and nanoparticles and experiments are performed employing an in-house designed setup. Greatly augmented thermal conductivity under a field's influence was observed. Enhanced thermal conduction along the fibril structures under the field effect is theorized as the crux of the mechanism. The formation of fibril structures has also been experimentally verified employing microscopy. Based on classical models for ER fluids, a mathematical formalism has been developed to predict the propensity of chain formation and statistically feasible chain dynamics at given Mason numbers. Further, a thermal resistance network model is employed to computationally predict the enhanced thermal conduction across the fibrillary colloid microstructure. Good agreement between the mathematical model and the experimental observations is achieved. The domineering role of thermal conductivity over relative permittivity has been shown by proposing a modified Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) formalism. The findings have implications towards better physical understanding and design of ER fluids from both 'smart' viscoelastic as well as thermally active materials points of view.

  9. Developing "Personality" Taxonomies: Metatheoretical and Methodological Rationales Underlying Selection Approaches, Methods of Data Generation and Reduction Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Taxonomic "personality" models are widely used in research and applied fields. This article applies the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) to scrutinise the three methodological steps that are required for developing comprehensive "personality" taxonomies: 1) the approaches used to select the phenomena and events to be studied, 2) the methods used to generate data about the selected phenomena and events and 3) the reduction principles used to extract the "most important" individual-specific variations for constructing "personality" taxonomies. Analyses of some currently popular taxonomies reveal frequent mismatches between the researchers' explicit and implicit metatheories about "personality" and the abilities of previous methodologies to capture the particular kinds of phenomena toward which they are targeted. Serious deficiencies that preclude scientific quantifications are identified in standardised questionnaires, psychology's established standard method of investigation. These mismatches and deficiencies derive from the lack of an explicit formulation and critical reflection on the philosophical and metatheoretical assumptions being made by scientists and from the established practice of radically matching the methodological tools to researchers' preconceived ideas and to pre-existing statistical theories rather than to the particular phenomena and individuals under study. These findings raise serious doubts about the ability of previous taxonomies to appropriately and comprehensively reflect the phenomena towards which they are targeted and the structures of individual-specificity occurring in them. The article elaborates and illustrates with empirical examples methodological principles that allow researchers to appropriately meet the metatheoretical requirements and that are suitable for comprehensively exploring individuals' "personality".

  10. First-principles investigation of mechanical and electronic properties of LaAg5 Laves phase under pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高恩强; 黄福祥; 陈志谦; 王兰兰; 张照超

    2016-01-01

    The effects of applied pressure on the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of LaAg5 compound were investi-gated employing the first-principles method based on the density functional theory. The mechanical results demonstrated that bulk modulus, shear modulus and Young’s modulus presented the linearly increasing dependences on the external pressure; theB/G and Poisson’s ratio indicated that LaAg5 compound was a ductile material with central forces in interatomic under pressure from 0 to 40 GPa; the universal anisotropic index was performed to investigate the elastic anisotropic of LaAg5. Additionally, the pressure de-pendence of the density of states and Mulliken charge were also discussed. The bonding characterization in LaAg5 was composed of metallic, covalent and ionic. The metallic component was derived from free-electron transferring from Ag-s and Ag-d to Ag-p, and from La-s to La-d. The ionic component was due to the charge movement from La to Ag. The covalent was owing to Ag-p-La-d bonding hybridization and Ag-s-Ag-p in the Ag atomic chains. The covalent and ionic bonds were stronger under pressure but there was no significant change in metallic nature.

  11. Financial development and investment market integration: An approach of underlying financial variables & indicators for corporate governance growth empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinovič Borut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial development is correlated with several underlying regulatory variables (such as indicators of investor protection, market transparency variables for corporate governance growth and rules for capital market development, which are under the control of national legislators and EU directives. This paper provides estimates of the relationship between financial market development and corporate growth and assesses the impact of financial market integration on this relationship with reference to European Union (EU countries. The regression results obtained using this panel support the hypothesis that financial development promotes growth particularly in industries that are more financially dependent on external finance. For policy purposes, analyzing changes in these regulatory variables may be a more interesting exercise than analyzing integration of the financial systems themselves. Since assuming that EU countries will raise its regulatory and legal standards to the U.S. standards appears unrealistic, in this case we examine a scenario where EU countries raise their standards to the highest current EU standard.

  12. ‘We can do it better’: barriers to the integration of selfgovernance principles in existing governance practices in a Dutch initiative for community rural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, R.A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Gerritsen, A.L.; Stuiver, M.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing notion that the governance of natural resources issues is too complex to be solved by mere topdown government, the interest in the selfgovernance of natural resources by communities is growing. Nobel prize winner Elinor Ostrom brings forward a whole series of useful suggestions

  13. Study of blood flow inside the stenosis vessel under the effect of solenoid magnetic field using ferrohydrodynamics principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badfar, Homayoun; Motlagh, Saber Yekani; Sharifi, Abbas

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, biomagnetic blood flow in the stenosis vessel under the effect of the solenoid magnetic field is studied using the ferrohydrodynamics (FHD) model. The parabolic profile is considered at an inlet of the axisymmetric stenosis vessel. Blood is modeled as electrically non-conducting, Newtonian and homogeneous fluid. Finite volume and the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations) algorithm are utilized to discretize governing equations. The investigation is studied at different magnetic numbers ( MnF=164, 328, 1640 and 3280) and the number of the coil loops (three, five and nine loops). Results indicate an increase in heat transfer, wall shear stress and energy loss (pressure drop) with an increment in the magnetic number (ratio of Kelvin force to dynamic pressure force), arising from the FHD, and the number of solenoid loops. Furthermore, the flow pattern is affected by the magnetic field, and the temperature of blood can be decreased up to 1.48 {}°C under the effect of the solenoid magnetic field with nine loops and reference magnetic field ( B0) of 2 tesla.

  14. Elastin governs the mechanical response of medial collateral ligament under shear and transverse tensile loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Heath B; Valdez, William R; Scott, Sara A; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-01

    Elastin is a highly extensible structural protein network that provides near-elastic resistance to deformation in biological tissues. In ligament, elastin is localized between and along the collagen fibers and fascicles. When ligament is stretched along the primary collagen axis, elastin supports a relatively high percentage of load. We hypothesized that elastin may also provide significant load support under elongation transverse to the primary collagen axis and shear along the collagen axis. Quasi-static transverse tensile and shear material tests were performed to quantify the mechanical contributions of elastin during deformation of porcine medial collateral ligament. Dose response studies were conducted to determine the level of elastase enzymatic degradation required to produce a maximal change in the mechanical response. Maximal changes in peak stress occurred after 3h of treatment with 2U/ml porcine pancreatic elastase. Elastin degradation resulted in a 60-70% reduction in peak stress and a 2-3× reduction in modulus for both test protocols. These results demonstrate that elastin provides significant resistance to elongation transverse to the collagen axis and shear along the collagen axis while only constituting 4% of the tissue dry weight. The magnitudes of the elastin contribution to peak transverse and shear stress were approximately 0.03 MPa, as compared to 2 MPa for axial tensile tests, suggesting that elastin provides a highly anisotropic contribution to the mechanical response of ligament and is the dominant structural protein resisting transverse and shear deformation of the tissue. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Data governance implementation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrichová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    This master´s thesis discusses concept of implementation for data governance. The theoretical part of this thesis is about data governance. It explains why data are important for company, describes definitoons of data governance, its history, its components, its principles and processes and fitting in company. Theoretical part is amended with examples of data governance failures and banking specifics. The main goal of this thesis is to create a concept for implementing data governance and its...

  16. Elastic properties and electronic structure of WS{sub 2} under pressure from first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Civil Aviation Flight Univ. of China, Guanghan (China). Dept. of Physics; Zeng, Zhao-Yi [Chongqing Normal Univ., Chongqing (China). College of Physics and Electronic Engineering; Liang, Ting; Tang, Mei; Cheng, Yan [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics

    2017-07-01

    The influence of pressure on the elastic and mechanical properties of the hexagonal transition-metal dichalcogenide WS{sub 2} is investigated using the first-principles calculations. With the increase in pressure, the lattice parameters and the volume of WS{sub 2} decrease, which is exactly in agreement with the available experimental data and other calculated results. The elastic constants C{sub ij}, bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio σ of WS{sub 2} also increase with pressure. At last, for the first time, the band gaps of energy, the partial density of states, and the total density of states under three different pressures are obtained and analysed. It is found that the band gap of WS{sub 2} decreases from 0.843 to 0 eV when the external pressure varies from 0 to 20 GPa, which implies that WS{sub 2} may transform from semiconductors to semimetal phase at a pressure about 20 GPa.

  17. In situ growth of Ag nanoparticles on α-Ag2WO4 under electron irradiation: probing the physical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Miguel, Miguel A.; da Silva, Edison Z.; Zannetti, Sonia M.; Cilense, Mario; Fabbro, Maria T.; Gracia, Lourdes; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2016-06-01

    Exploiting the plasmonic behavior of Ag nanoparticles grown on α-Ag2WO4 is a widely employed strategy to produce efficient photocatalysts, ozone sensors, and bactericides. However, a description of the atomic and electronic structure of the semiconductor sites irradiated by electrons is still not available. Such a description is of great importance to understand the mechanisms underlying these physical processes and to improve the design of silver nanoparticles to enhance their activities. Motivated by this, we studied the growth of silver nanoparticles to investigate this novel class of phenomena using both transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. A theoretical framework based on density functional theory calculations (DFT), together with experimental analysis and measurements, were developed to examine the changes in the local geometrical and electronic structure of the materials. The physical principles for the formation of Ag nanoparticles on α-Ag2WO4 by electron beam irradiation are described. Quantum mechanical calculations based on DFT show that the (001) of α-Ag2WO4 displays Ag atoms with different coordination numbers. Some of them are able to diffuse out of the surface with a very low energy barrier (less than 0.1 eV), thus, initiating the growth of metallic Ag nanostructures and leaving Ag vacancies in the bulk material. These processes increase the structural disorder of α-Ag2WO4 as well as its electrical resistance as observed in the experimental measurements.

  18. 26 CFR 31.6302(c)-3 - Use of Government depositaries in connection with tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31.6302(c)-3 Section 31.6302(c)-3 Internal Revenue...) § 31.6302(c)-3 Use of Government depositaries in connection with tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax... transfer. For the requirement to deposit tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act by electronic funds...

  19. Global health governance as shared health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-07-01

    With the exception of key 'proven successes' in global health, the current regime of global health governance can be understood as transnational and national actors pursuing their own interests under a rational actor model of international cooperation, which fails to provide sufficient justification for an obligation to assist in meeting the health needs of others. An ethical commitment to providing all with the ability to be healthy is required. This article develops select components of an alternative model of shared health governance (SHG), which aims to provide a 'road map,' 'focal points' and 'the glue' among various global health actors to better effectuate cooperation on universal ethical principles for an alternative global health equilibrium. Key features of SHG include public moral norms as shared authoritative standards; ethical commitments, shared goals and role allocation; shared sovereignty and constitutional commitments; legitimacy and accountability; country-level attention to international health relations. A framework of social agreement based on 'overlapping consensus' is contrasted against one based on self-interested political bargaining. A global health constitution delineating duties and obligations of global health actors and a global institute of health and medicine for holding actors responsible are proposed. Indicators for empirical assessment of select SHG principles are described. Global health actors, including states, must work together to correct and avert global health injustices through a framework of SHG based on shared ethical commitments.

  20. The TCA Pathway is an Important Player in the Regulatory Network Governing Vibrio alginolyticus Adhesion Under Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lixing; Huang, Li; Yan, Qingpi; Qin, Yingxue; Ma, Ying; Lin, Mao; Xu, Xiaojin; Zheng, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Adhesion is a critical step in the initial stage of Vibrio alginolyticus infection; therefore, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the adhesion of V. alginolyticus and determine if environmental factors have any effect. A greater understanding of this process may assist in developing preventive measures for reducing infection. In our previous research, we presented the first RNA-seq data from V. alginolyticus cultured under stress conditions that resulted in reduced adhesion. Based on the RNA-seq data, we found that the Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA pathway) might be closely related to adhesion. Environmental interactions with the TCA pathway might alter adhesion. To validate this, bioinformatics analysis, quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR), RNAi, and in vitro adhesion assays were performed, while V. alginolyticus was treated with various stresses including temperature, pH, salinity, and starvation. The expression of genes involved in the TCA pathway was confirmed by qPCR, which reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data. Silencing of these genes was capable of reducing the adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus. Adhesion of V. alginolyticus is influenced substantially by environmental factors and the TCA pathway is sensitive to some environmental stresses, especially changes in pH and starvation. Our results indicated that (1) the TCA pathway plays a key role in V. alginolyticus adhesion: (2) the TCA pathway is sensitive to environmental stresses.

  1. The TCA pathway is an important player in the regulatory network governing Vibrio alginolyticus adhesion under adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing eHuang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion is a critical step in the initial stage of Vibrio alginolyticus infection; therefore, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the adhesion of V. alginolyticus and determine if environmental factors have any effect. A greater understanding of this process may assist in developing preventive measures for reducing infection. In our previous research, we presented the first RNA-seq data from V. alginolyticus cultured under stress conditions that resulted in reduced adhesion. Based on the RNA-seq data, we found that the Tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA pathway might be closely related to adhesion. Environmental interactions with the TCA pathway might alter adhesion. To validate this, bioinformatics analysis, qPCR, RNAi and in vitro adhesion assays were performed, while V. alginolyticus was treated with various stresses including temperature, pH, salinity and starvation. The expression of genes involved in the TCA pathway was confirmed by qPCR, which reinforced the reliability of the sequencing data. Silencing of these genes was capable of reducing the adhesion ability of V. alginolyticus. Adhesion of V. alginolyticus is influenced substantially by environmental factors and the TCA pathway is sensitive to some environmental stresses, especially changes in pH and starvation. Our results indicated that 1 the TCA pathway plays a key role in V. alginolyticus adhesion: 2 the TCA pathway is sensitive to environmental stresses.

  2. 25 CFR 170.809 - Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.809 Can a tribe perform road maintenance under a self-determination contract or self-governance agreement...

  3. A Comparative Study of the Principles Governing Criminal Responsibility in the Major Legal Systems of the World (England, United States, Germany, France, Denmark, Russia, China, and Islamic legal tradition)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elewa Badar, Mohamed; Marchuk, Iryna

    2013-01-01

    to demarcate between intentional and negligent conduct. Turning to comparative law as an invaluable tool of legal analysis, the study demonstrates that there are more common characteristics than originally anticipated regarding the concept of crime, as well as the basis of the principle of culpability......The purpose of this survey is to examine the underlying principles of criminal responsibility in selected common law and continental law jurisdictions as well as in the Islamic legal tradition through the lens of comparative law. By conducting a comprehensive legal analysis of the concept of crime...

  4. The Influence of Shariah (Islamic Principles) Corporate Governance on Cross-Border Merger and Acquisitions Involving Islamic Companies in the Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bindabel, Wardah Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    The central aim of the research is to examine whether cross-border Merger and Acquisitions (M&A) involving Islamic financial companies in three Gulf countries and non-Islamic financial companies from the Western countries is influenced by Shariah Corporate Governance (CG). Cross-border M&A is a corporate level strategy to achieve organisational growth and expansion through accessing new markets and additional strategic resources (knowledge, technology and complementary skills). Islamic financ...

  5. Governing Laws of Complex System Predictability under Co-evolving Uncertainty Sources: Theory and Nonlinear Geophysical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, R. A. P.

    2017-12-01

    Predictability assessments are traditionally made on a case-by-case basis, often by running the particular model of interest with randomly perturbed initial/boundary conditions and parameters, producing computationally expensive ensembles. These approaches provide a lumped statistical view of uncertainty evolution, without eliciting the fundamental processes and interactions at play in the uncertainty dynamics. In order to address these limitations, we introduce a systematic dynamical framework for predictability assessment and forecast, by analytically deriving governing equations of predictability in terms of the fundamental architecture of dynamical systems, independent of any particular problem under consideration. The framework further relates multiple uncertainty sources along with their coevolutionary interplay, enabling a comprehensive and explicit treatment of uncertainty dynamics along time, without requiring the actual model to be run. In doing so, computational resources are freed and a quick and effective a-priori systematic dynamic evaluation is made of predictability evolution and its challenges, including aspects in the model architecture and intervening variables that may require optimization ahead of initiating any model runs. It further brings out universal dynamic features in the error dynamics elusive to any case specific treatment, ultimately shedding fundamental light on the challenging issue of predictability. The formulated approach, framed with broad mathematical physics generality in mind, is then implemented in dynamic models of nonlinear geophysical systems with various degrees of complexity, in order to evaluate their limitations and provide informed assistance on how to optimize their design and improve their predictability in fundamental dynamical terms.

  6. A decade of adaptive governance scholarship: synthesis and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Chaffin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance is an emergent form of environmental governance that is increasingly called upon by scholars and practitioners to coordinate resource management regimes in the face of the complexity and uncertainty associated with rapid environmental change. Although the term "adaptive governance" is not exclusively applied to the governance of social-ecological systems, related research represents a significant outgrowth of literature on resilience, social-ecological systems, and environmental governance. We present a chronology of major scholarship on adaptive governance, synthesizing efforts to define the concept and identifying the array of governance concepts associated with transformation toward adaptive governance. Based on this synthesis, we define adaptive governance as a range of interactions between actors, networks, organizations, and institutions emerging in pursuit of a desired state for social-ecological systems. In addition, we identify and discuss ambiguities in adaptive governance scholarship such as the roles of adaptive management, crisis, and a desired state for governance of social-ecological systems. Finally, we outline a research agenda to examine whether an adaptive governance approach can become institutionalized under current legal frameworks and political contexts. We suggest a further investigation of the relationship between adaptive governance and the principles of good governance; the roles of power and politics in the emergence of adaptive governance; and potential interventions such as legal reform that may catalyze or enhance governance adaptations or transformation toward adaptive governance.

  7. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching (near Munich), Germany on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in Chile. The Director-General receiv...

  8. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  9. The role of the State in new governance: reinventing government ... again?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2013-01-01

    New environmental governance (NEG) gains momentum in addressing complex environmental problems. One of its bedrock principles is collaboration between state and non-state actors. Yet, what exactly does this collaboration look like? In scratching a bit deeper under the surface of the NEG literature

  10. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  11. Mechanism Governing Human Kappa-Opioid Receptor Expression under Desferrioxamine-Induced Hypoxic Mimic Condition in Neuronal NMB Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Babcock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular adaptation to hypoxia is a protective mechanism for neurons and relevant to cancer. Treatment with desferrioxamine (DFO to induce hypoxia reduced the viability of human neuronal NMB cells. Surviving/attached cells exhibited profound increases of expression of the human kappa-opioid receptor (hKOR and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α. The functional relationship between hKOR and HIF-1α was investigated using RT-PCR, Western blot, luciferase reporter, mutagenesis, siRNA and receptor-ligand binding assays. In surviving neurons, DFO increased HIF-1α expression and its amount in the nucleus. DFO also dramatically increased hKOR expression. Two (designated as HIFC and D out of four potential HIF response elements of the hKOR gene (HIFA–D synergistically mediated the DFO response. Mutation of both elements completely abolished the DFO-induced effect. The CD11 plasmid (containing HIFC and D with an 11 bp spacing produced greater augmentation than that of the CD17 plasmid (HIFC and D with a 17 bp-spacing, suggesting that a proper topological interaction of these elements synergistically enhanced the promoter activity. HIF-1α siRNA knocked down the increase of endogenous HIF-1α messages and diminished the DFO-induced increase of hKOR expression. Increased hKOR expression resulted in the up-regulation of hKOR protein. In conclusion, the adaptation of neuronal hKOR under hypoxia was governed by HIF-1, revealing a new mechanism of hKOR regulation.

  12. Mothers’ Characteristics and Immunization Status of Under-Five Children in Ojo Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lekan Oyefara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Immunization is a key element of public health, a pre-requisite to social and economic development, and a crucial element that enables every child to reach his or her full physical and intellectual potential. It is a prevention against various child killer diseases such as tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette Gurine [BCG], tetanus, whooping cough, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, yellow fever, and measles. The main objective of this study is to examine the relationships between household characteristics, social mobilization, and immunization status of under-5 children in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. To achieve this objective, a non-experimental research design was adopted. The research method utilized in the design is cross-sectional survey. The sampled study location is Ojo local government area of Lagos State. A total of 265 respondents were randomly sampled for the survey using multistage random sampling technique. Generated data were analyzed using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical techniques. The findings of the study reveal significant relationship between women’s level of education and full immunization of their children. Specifically, 38.9% of women without any formal education had fully immunized their children compared with 86.9% of women with secondary education. In addition, 90.9% of women who assessed themselves to be average on wealth assessment compared with 45.3% of the poor had fully immunized their children. On the basis of the study’s findings, there is a need for a holistic approach that will involve all social classes and communities on child immunization to have 100% immunization coverage and minimal child morbidity and mortality in all areas of the city.

  13. The influence of corporate governance on project governance

    OpenAIRE

    Gonda, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    This work identifies the interaction between corporate governance and project management in project governance. It begins with introduction of basics of corporate governance and various principles of corporate governance in chosen countries and organizations. Further it introduces theoretical background of project governance and its connection and to corporate governance. In practical part work analyzes the level of compliancy with Swiss codex of best praxis in chosen company. The results con...

  14. Why related bacterial species bloom simultaneously in the gut: principles underlying the 'Like will to like' concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2014-02-01

    The large intestine is host to a complex ecological community composed predominantly of obligate anaerobic bacteria belonging to the classes Bacteroidia and Clostridia. This community confers benefits through its metabolic activities and host interactions. However, a microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) characterized by a decreased abundance of Clostridia and a bloom of facultative anaerobic Proteobacteria is commonly observed during inflammation in the large bowel. Here we review recent insights into the principles that favour simultaneous increases in the abundance of closely related species belonging to the Proteobacteria during inflammation, which provides important clues for the rational design of strategies to treat dysbiosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...... were instrumental in this regard. However, the critics succeeded in weakening the initially strong focus on the transition from job security to employment security and the divisions between insiders and outsiders in the labour market. In contrast to some decision-making on the European Employment...

  16. Electronic Topological Transitions in CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn under pressure from first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambabu, P.; Kanchana, V.

    2018-06-01

    A detailed study on quaternary ordered full Heusler alloys CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn at ambient and under different compressions is presented using first principles electronic structure calculations. Both the compounds are found to possess ferromagnetic nature at ambient with magnetic moment of Mn being 3.14 μB and 3.35 μB respectively in CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn. The total magnetic moment for both the compounds is found to decrease under compression. Fermi surface (FS) topology change is observed in both compounds under pressure at V/V0 = 0.90, further leading to Electronic Topological Transitions (ETTs) and is evidenced by the anomalies visualized in density of states and elastic constants under compression.

  17. Under the Background of “Internet +” the Social Anomie and Governance Plan in Chinese Modernization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yundong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the reform and opening up in China, which appeared political anomie, values astray inevitably, and so on. To achieve the current benign social governance, the rule of law need to improve the Chinese characteristics of the socialist system, to promote the growth of the rule of law; which is need to improve socialism with Chinese characteristics system of moral standards to guide members of the community to actively Pursuits socialist core values; innovation and social governance mechanism, vigorously develop modern new social organizations; and which is need to explore the implementation of “Internet + supervision” mode, the innovation market regulatory approach, innovation in public service delivery.

  18. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  19. First-principles study of elastic and thermodynamic properties of orthorhombic OsB4 under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Mei-Guang; Huang, Duo-Hui; Wei, Qun

    2013-04-01

    The first-principles study on the elastic properties, elastic anisotropy and thermodynamic properties of the orthorhombic OsB4 is reported using density functional theory method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated equilibrium parameters are in good agreement with the available theoretical data. A complete elastic tensor and crystal anisotropies of the ultra-incompressible OsB4 are determined in the pressure range of 0-50 GPa. By the elastic stability criteria, it is predicted that the orthorhombic OsB4 is stable below 50 GPa. By using the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the heat capacity, the coefficient of thermal expansion, and the Grüneisen parameter of OsB4 are also successfully obtained in the present work.

  20. First-principles calculation of the polarization-dependent force driving the Eg mode in bismuth under optical excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Eamonn; Fahy, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of polarized light. When radiation with polarization perpendicular to the c-axis is absorbed in bismuth, the distribution of excited electrons and holes breaks the three-fold rotational symmetry and leads to a net force on the atoms in the direction perpendicular to the axis. We calculate the initial excited electronic distribution as a function of photon energy and polarization and find the resulting transverse and longitudinal forces experienced by the atoms. Using the measured, temperature-dependent rate of decay of the transverse force[2], we predict the approximate amplitude of induced atomic motion in the Eg mode as a function of temperature and optical fluence. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland and a Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship.

  1. The role to the citizen participation in public policies, under the current scenario of governance: theoretical reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Castillo Cubillos

    2017-09-01

    It is necessary to involve thinking about public policy, as one of the roles in which citizens may or may not make such effective participation. Taking into account, that public policy instruments can encourage and strengthen governance, in scenarios where there is a real participation of citizens. Let us see how true this is.

  2. E-Government and Citizen Adoption of Innovations: Factors Underlying Citizen Use of the Internet for State Tax Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Electronic government has been embraced by many organizations seeking to dramatically improve service delivery, but results to date have often fallen short of expectations. This dissertation is focused on state revenue agencies and their electronic tax filing mechanisms for state individual income taxes. It asks: What factors best explain whether…

  3. Benefit Incidence Analysis of Government Spending on Public-Private Partnership Schooling under Universal Secondary Education Policy in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokadala, J.; Barungi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The study establishes whether government spending on private universal secondary education (USE) schools is equitable across quintiles disaggregated by gender and by region in Uganda. The study employs benefit incidence analysis tool on the Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS 2009/10) data to establish the welfare impact of public subsidy on…

  4. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance systems adapt. We focus primarily on the interplay between key decision makers in society and legal systems. We argue that adaptive governance must overcome three cooperative dilemmas to facilitate adaptation: (1) encouraging collaborative problem solving, (2) garnering social acceptance and commitment, and (3) cultivating a culture of trust and tolerance for change and uncertainty. However, to do so governance systems must cope with biases in people’s decision making that cloud their judgment and create conflict. These systems must also satisfy people’s fundamental needs for self-determination, fairness, and security, ensuring that changes to environmental governance are perceived as legitimate, trustworthy, and acceptable. We discuss the implications of these principles for common governance solutions (e.g., public participation, enforcement) and conclude with methodological recommendations. We outline how scholars can investigate the social cognitive principles involved in cases of adaptive governance. Social-ecological stressors place significant pressure on major societal systems, triggering adaptive reforms in human governance and environmental law. Though potentially benefici

  5. First-principles investigation of mechanical and electronic properties of tetragonal NbAl3 under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhen; Liu, Qi-Jun; Liu, Fu-Sheng; Tang, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Using the density functional theory calculations, the mechanical and electronic properties of NbAl3 under different tensile loads were investigated. The calculated lattice parameters, elastic constants and mechanical properties (bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Pugh's criterion and Cauchy's pressure) indicated that our results were in agreement with the published experimental and theoretical data at zero tension. With respect to NbAl3 under tension in this paper, the crystal structure was changed from tetragonal to orthorhombic under tension along the [100] and [101] directions. The NbAl3 crystal has been classified as brittle material under tension from 0 to 20 GPa. The obtained Young's modulus and Debye temperature monotonically decreased with increasing tension stress. Combining with mechanical and electronic properties in detail, the decreased mechanical properties were mainly due to the weakening of covalency.

  6. Evolution of the bonding mechanism of ZnO under isotropic compression: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, G.C.; Sun, L.Z.; Wang, J.B.; Zhong, X.L.; Zhou, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic structure and the bonding mechanism of ZnO under isotropic pressure have been studied by using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density-functional theory (DFT) based on LDA+U exchange correlation (EXC) potential. We used the theory of Atoms in Molecules (AIM) method to analyze the change of the charge transfer and the bonding strength under isotropic pressure. The results of the theoretical analysis show that charge transfer between Zn and O atomic basins nearly linearly increases with the increasing pressure. Charge density along the Zn-O bond increases under the high pressure. The bonding strength and the ionicity of Zn-O bond also increase with the increasing pressure. The linear evolution process of the bonding mechanism under isotropic pressure was shown clearly in the present paper

  7. Bernoulli's Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  8. Social constructions of environmental services in a rapidly densifying peri-urban area under dual governance in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sutherland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biodiversity plays a critical role in improving the quality of life and resilience of poor urban communities in Durban. Objectives: However, the rapid densification that is taking place in the ‘rural periphery’ of the city is impacting significantly on the integrity of ecosystems, which provide valuable ecosystem services. It is also changing the relations between people and the environment. Mzinyathi and eSkebheni, in the north-west of Durban, are peri-urban areas located on Ingonyama Trust land and hence they are governed by both the traditional authority and the eThekwini Municipality. The settlement pattern is changing rapidly here as middle and upper income residents move into the area, changing the way of life from being rural and ‘traditional’ to urban and ‘modern’. Method: This paper focused on the nexus of rapid urban growth, dual governance systems, biodiversity loss and cultural change in these two areas. It adopted a qualitative methodology and social constructivist approach. Data on the value of environmental services in the area was collected through interviewing the traditional authority, provincial and municipal planners and environmentalists, and household members. Results: The paper revealed that environmental services are constructed in multiple ways within a particular socio-historical and political context, that they have value to peri-urban communities, and that their function and use is changing as a result of the ‘modernisation’ of the area. The impact of the dual governance system and traditional land allocation process on environmental services is significant. This has implications for long term sustainability, for the quality of life of peri-urban residents and for planning and urban governance.

  9. Non-voluntary licensing of antivirals under patent: options the Australian Government should consider in light of a potential bird flu pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Tim

    2006-05-01

    In the face of a potential bird flu pandemic, Australian Federal Health Minister, Tony Abbott, has recently dismissed expert advice that the government should begin, or even publicly consider, authorising generic manufacturers to produce antivirals, such as Tamiflu and Relenza, under patent via non-voluntary licensing methods. This is despite the fact that the demand for antivirals in Australia, and throughout the world, cannot be met by manufacturers under the control of limited patent owners alone. This article proposes that Australian patent law, which allows for non-voluntary licensing when it comes to important public health issues that affect Australian citizens, is relevant in meeting the demand for increased antiviral treatments during a possible bird flu pandemic, domestically and abroad. It argues that the Australian Government must go beyond what is currently being done and investigate and pursue such options.

  10. Productivity analysis of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Umar, H. S.; Okoye, C. U.; Agwale, A. O

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed productivity levels of sesame farms under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. Multi-stage random sampling was used in selecting 96 sesame farmers; made up of 48 organic and 48 inorganic fertilizers users. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using Total Factor Productivity Analysis, OLS Regression Analysis and Gross Margin Analysis. Results show that sesame farmers who applied inorganic...

  11. Water resource quality policy: the approach adopted by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry under the Water Law principles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available . More discussion in this paper is, therefore, centred on ecological integrity than on individual water users under the assumption that the resource will only be able to provide for long term water uses if ecological integrity is assured. A water Reserve...

  12. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN INDIA: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Thapar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is a process, relation and mechanism set up for the corporations and firms based on certain guidelines and principles by which a company is controlled and directed. The principles provided in the system ensure that the company is governed in a way that it is able to set and achieve its goals and objectives in the context of the social, regulatory and market environment, and is able to maximize profits and also benefit those whose interest is involved in it, in the long run. The division and distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders and inclusion of the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs are identified with the help of Corporate Governance mechanism and guidelines. The need to make corporate governance in India transparent was felt after the high profile corporate governance failure scams like the stock market scam, the UTI scam, Ketan Parikh scam, Satyam scam, which were severely criticized by the shareholders. Thus, Corporate Governance is not just company administration but more than that and includes monitoring the actions, policies, practices, and decisions of corporations, their agents, and affected stakeholders thereby ensuring fair, efficient and transparent functioning of the corporate management system. By this paper, the authors intend to examine the concept of corporate governance in India with regard to the provisions of corporate governance under the Companies Act 2013. The paper will highlight the importance and need of corporate governance in India. We will also discuss the important case laws which contributed immensely in the emergence of corporate governance in India.

  13. First-principles predictions of structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. P.; Fang, Q. H.; Li, J.; Liu, B.

    2018-04-01

    Structural, mechanical and electronic properties of βTiNb alloy under high pressure have been investigated based on the density functional theory (DFT). The dependences of dimensionless volume ratio, elastic constants, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, ductile/brittle, anisotropy and Poisson's ratio on applied pressure are all calculated successfully. The results reveal that βTiNb alloy is mechanically stable under pressure below 23.45 GPa, and the pressure-induced phase transformation could occur beyond this critical value. Meanwhile, the applied pressure can effectively promote the mechanical properties of βTiNb alloy, including the resistances to volume change, elastic deformation and shear deformation, as well as the material ductility and metallicity. Furthermore, the calculated electronic structures testify that βTiNb alloy performs the metallicity and the higher pressure reduces the structural stability of unit cell.

  14. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: The need to empower local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N. Bang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risks in Cameroon with particular focus on the challenges local government faces in implementing disaster risk reduction strategies. The hypothesis is that the governance of disaster risks is too centralised at the national level, with huge implications for the effective governance of disaster risks at the local level. Although Cameroon has reinvigorated efforts to address growing disaster risks in a proactive way, it is argued that the practical actions are more reactive than proactive in nature. The overall aim is to explore the challenges and opportunities that local government has in the governance of disaster risks. Based on the findings from this research, policy recommendations are suggested on ways to mainstream disaster risk reduction strategies into local governance, and advance understanding and practice in the local governance of disaster risks in the country.

  15. the role of principles of good governance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    1 Oloka-Onyango and Udagama Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Preliminary report submitted in accordance with Sub-Commission resolution 1999/8. 2 Ibid par .... 10 Hoekman and Kostecki Political Economy 13. ..... Uruguay Round (Marrakech agreement)47, which reads. 44 In a strict legal sense it is not appropriate ...

  16. Decoding the principles underlying the frequency of association with nucleoli for RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belagal, Praveen; Normand, Christophe; Shukla, Ashutosh; Wang, Renjie; Léger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Dez, Christophe; Bhargava, Purnima; Gadal, Olivier

    2016-10-15

    The association of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-transcribed genes with nucleoli seems to be an evolutionarily conserved property of the spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes. However, recent studies of global chromosome architecture in budding yeast have challenged this view. We used live-cell imaging to determine the intranuclear positions of 13 Pol III-transcribed genes. The frequency of association with nucleolus and nuclear periphery depends on linear genomic distance from the tethering elements-centromeres or telomeres. Releasing the hold of the tethering elements by inactivating centromere attachment to the spindle pole body or changing the position of ribosomal DNA arrays resulted in the association of Pol III-transcribed genes with nucleoli. Conversely, ectopic insertion of a Pol III-transcribed gene in the vicinity of a centromere prevented its association with nucleolus. Pol III-dependent transcription was independent of the intranuclear position of the gene, but the nucleolar recruitment of Pol III-transcribed genes required active transcription. We conclude that the association of Pol III-transcribed genes with the nucleolus, when permitted by global chromosome architecture, provides nucleolar and/or nuclear peripheral anchoring points contributing locally to intranuclear chromosome organization. © 2016 Belagal et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. First principles and Debye model study of the thermodynamic, electronic and optical properties of MgO under high-temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yurun; Li, Huayang; Wang, Hongjuan; He, Kaihua; Wang, Qingbo

    2018-02-01

    First principles and quasi-harmonic Debye model have been used to study the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties of MgO up to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) condition (137 GPa and 3700 K). Thermodynamic properties calculation includes thermal expansion coefficient and capacity, which have been studied up to the CMB pressure (137 GPa) and temperature (3700 K) by the Debye model with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local-density approximation (LDA). First principles with hybrid functional method (PBE0) has been used to calculate the electronic and optical properties under pressure up to 137 GPa and 0 K. Our results show the Debye model with LDA and first principles with PBE0 can provide accurate thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties. Calculated enthalpies show that MgO keep NaCl (B1) structure up to 137 GPa. And MgO is a direct bandgap insulator with a 7.23 eV calculated bandgap. The bandgap increased with increasing pressure, which will induce a blue shift of optical properties. We also calculated the density of states (DOS) and discussed the relation between DOS and band, optical properties. Equations were used to fit the relations between pressure and bandgaps, absorption coefficient (α(ω)) of MgO. The equations can be used to evaluate pressure after careful calibration. Our calculations can not only be used to identify some geological processes, but also offer a reference to the applications of MgO in the future.

  18. The Registration of Special Notarial Bonds under the Security by Means of Movable Property Act and the Publicity Principle: Lessons from Developments in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people do not own immovable property to offer as security but do have movable property which can be offered as security for the repayment of a debt. In today's world, where the costs of a motor car can exceed that of a house, the increasing value of movable things makes them popular and appropriate security objects. Under the common law pledge, delivery of the movable property from the pledgor (the debtor to the pledgee (the creditor has to take place in order for the pledgee to acquire a real security right in the property. Delivery of the property is aimed at ensuring compliance with the publicity principle. The principle of publicity entails that the existence of a real security must be known to the public. With the aim of promoting commerce, certain countries have taken the initiative in reforming their laws on pledge to allow the debtor to retain possession of the movable property that serves as security. Furthermore, technology has advanced to a level where national registration systems which can be accessed easily and at minimal cost can be established. The South African legislature enacted the Security by Means of Movable Property Act 57 of 1993 which makes provision for a pledge without possession. This Act deemed a duly registered notarial bond over specified movable property to have been delivered as if delivery had in fact taken place, thereby substituting the common law delivery requirement with registration in the Deeds Office. On 30 May 2013 the Belgian House of Representatives adopted a Belgian Pledge Act which allows for a non-possessory pledge on movable property subject to registration in a newly created public register called the Electronic Pledge Register. This article therefore examines the efficacy of the registration system of special notarial bonds in South African law and whether this form of registration complies with the publicity principle looking at the developments of a computerised registration system taking

  19. Fair and just or just fair? Examining models of government--not-for-profit engagement under the Australian Social Inclusion Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Riley, Therese

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores the interrelationship between two contemporary policy debates: one focused on the social determinants of health and the other on social (inclusion) policy within contemporary welfare regimes. In both debates, academics and policy makers alike are grappling with the balance between universal and targeted policy initiatives and the role of local 'delivery' organizations in promoting health and social equality. In this paper, we discuss these debates in the context of a recent social policy initiative in Australia: the Social Inclusion Agenda. We examine two proposed models of engagement between the government and the not-for-profit welfare sector for the delivery of social services. We conclude that the two models of engagement currently under consideration by the Australian government have substantially different outcomes for the health of disadvantaged communities and the creation of a more socially inclusive Australia.

  20. First-principles study of the structural, phonon, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of Al_3Ta compound under high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Leini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the phonon, elastic and thermodynamic properties of L1_2 phase Al_3Ta by density functional theory approach combining with quasi-harmonic approximation model. The results of phonon band structure shows that L1_2 phase Al_3Ta possesses dynamical stability in the pressure range from 0 to 80 GPa due to the absence of imaginary frequencies. The pressure dependences of the elastic constants C_ij, bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, Young's modulus Y, B/G and Poisson's ratio ν have been analysed. The elastic constants are satisfied with mechanical stability criteria up to the external pressure of 80 GPa. The results of the elastic properties studies show that Al_3Ta compound possesses a higher hardness, improved ductility and plasticity under higher pressures. Further, we systematically investigate the thermodynamic properties, such as the Debye temperature Θ, heat capacity C_p, and thermal expansion coefficient α, and provide the relationships between thermal parameters and pressure.

  1. Polarization-dependent force driving the Eg mode in bismuth under optical excitation: comparison of first-principles theory with ultra-fast x-ray experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Eamonn

    2015-03-01

    Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of a ultrafast pulse of polarized light. To compare the results with recent ultra-fast, time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we include the decay of the force due to carrier scattering, as measured in optical Raman scattering experiments, and simulate the optical absorption process, depth-dependent atomic driving forces, and x-ray diffraction in the experimental geometry. We find excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed oscillations of the x-ray diffraction signal, indicating that first-principles theory of optical absorption is well suited to the calculation of initial atomic driving forces in photo-excited materials following ultrafast excitation. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland (Grant No. 12/IA/1601) and EU Commission under the Marie Curie Incoming International Fellowships (Grant No. PIIF-GA-2012-329695).

  2. Optimalisasi Penerapan Prinsip Good Governance Bidang Akademik dalam Upaya Mewujudkan Good University Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Harjono Muljo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study wants to know and understand whether good governance principles have been well applied as well as the factors influencing optimization of the implementation of good governance principles on the academic field in an effort to realize good university governance in Bina Nusantara University. The study aims to evaluate the implementation of good governance principles on the academic field, know the factors that affect the implementation of good governance principles on the academic field, and improve and develop the academic areas in accordance with good governance principles in order to maximize the role of Bina Nusantara University as Good University Governance. The approach model used to understand the implementation of good governance principles was a model to educational institution using the 8 principles, namely academic freedom, shared governance, clear rights and responsibilities, selection at merit, financial stability, accountability, regular testing of standards, and the importance of close cooperation. Research used qualitative method with descriptive analysis, by analyzing the factors influencing optimization of the implementation of good governance principles, particularly on academic areas. The results achieved there were 18 factors that affect the optimization of the implementation of good governance principles. Then the factors affected the optimization ofthe implementation of good governance principles the most are operational centralization and academic decentralization which were the novelty of this study.

  3. The meaning of the EPSRC principles of robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    2017-04-01

    In revisiting the Principles of Robotics (as we do in this special issue), it is important to carefully consider their full meaning - their history, the intentions behind them, and their actual societal impact to date. Here I address first the meaning of the document as a whole, then of its constituent parts. Further, I describe the nature of policy, and use the Principles as a case study to discuss how government and academia can interact in constructing policy. I defend the Principles and their main themes: that commercially manufactured robots should not be responsible parties under the law, and that users should not be deceived about robots' capacities or moral status. This perspective allows for the incorporation of robots immediately into UK society and law - the objective of the Principles. The Principles were not designed for every conceivable robot, but rather serve in part as design specifications for robots to be incorporated as legal products into British society.

  4. Analysis of underlying causes of inter-expert disagreement in retinopathy of prematurity diagnosis. Application of machine learning principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataer-Cansizoglu, E; Kalpathy-Cramer, J; You, S; Keck, K; Erdogmus, D; Chiang, M F

    2015-01-01

    Inter-expert variability in image-based clinical diagnosis has been demonstrated in many diseases including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), which is a disease affecting low birth weight infants and is a major cause of childhood blindness. In order to better understand the underlying causes of variability among experts, we propose a method to quantify the variability of expert decisions and analyze the relationship between expert diagnoses and features computed from the images. Identification of these features is relevant for development of computer-based decision support systems and educational systems in ROP, and these methods may be applicable to other diseases where inter-expert variability is observed. The experiments were carried out on a dataset of 34 retinal images, each with diagnoses provided independently by 22 experts. Analysis was performed using concepts of Mutual Information (MI) and Kernel Density Estimation. A large set of structural features (a total of 66) were extracted from retinal images. Feature selection was utilized to identify the most important features that correlated to actual clinical decisions by the 22 study experts. The best three features for each observer were selected by an exhaustive search on all possible feature subsets and considering joint MI as a relevance criterion. We also compared our results with the results of Cohen's Kappa [36] as an inter-rater reliability measure. The results demonstrate that a group of observers (17 among 22) decide consistently with each other. Mean and second central moment of arteriolar tortuosity is among the reasons of disagreement between this group and the rest of the observers, meaning that the group of experts consider amount of tortuosity as well as the variation of tortuosity in the image. Given a set of image-based features, the proposed analysis method can identify critical image-based features that lead to expert agreement and disagreement in diagnosis of ROP. Although tree

  5. Protection of business and industrial secrets under the Atomic Energy Act and the relevant ordinances governing licensing and supervisory procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, R.

    1988-01-01

    The article deals with problems concerning the protection of secret information in licensing and supervisory procedures under the Atomic Energy Act and the relevant ordinances. The extent of the secret protection of business and industrial secrets is regulated differently for both procedures. These legal provisions have to be interpreted with due consideration for third party interests in information. (WG) [de

  6. Global Harmonic Current Rejection of Nonlinear Backstepping Control with Multivariable Adaptive Internal Model Principle for Grid-Connected Inverter under Distorted Grid Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a brief review on current harmonics generation mechanism for grid-connected inverter under distorted grid voltage, the harmonic disturbances and uncertain items are immersed into the original state-space differential equation of grid-connected inverter. A new algorithm of global current harmonic rejection based on nonlinear backstepping control with multivariable internal model principle is proposed for grid-connected inverter with exogenous disturbances and uncertainties. A type of multivariable internal model for a class of nonlinear harmonic disturbances is constructed. Based on application of backstepping control law of the nominal system, a multivariable adaptive state feedback controller combined with multivariable internal model and adaptive control law is designed to guarantee the closed-loop system globally uniformly bounded, which is proved by a constructed Lyapunov function. The presented algorithm extends rejection of nonlinear single-input systems to multivariable globally defined normal form, the correctness and effectiveness of which are verified by the simulation results.

  7. Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg

    2002-01-01

    Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming investigates the mathematical structures and principles underlying the design of efficient algorithms for optimization problems. Recent advances in algorithmic theory have shown that the traditionally separate areas of discrete optimization, linear

  8. First-principles study on the phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanjun [Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Equipment of Ministry of Education, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Huang, Huawei [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Pan, Yong, E-mail: yongpanyn@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Platinum Metals, Kunming 650106 (China); Zhao, Guanghui; Liang, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Equipment of Ministry of Education, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • The phase transition of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys occurs at 60 GPa. • The elastic modulus of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys increase with increasing pressure. • The cubic structure has good resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. • The pressure enhances the hybridization between Pt atom and Al atom. - Abstract: The phase transition, formation enthalpies, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys are studied using first-principle approach. The calculated results show that the pressure leads to phase transition from tetragonal structure to cubic structure at 60 GPa. With increasing pressure, the elastic constants, bulk modulus and shear modulus of these Pt{sub 3}Al alloys increase linearly and the bond lengths of Pt–Al metallic bonds and the peak at E{sub F} decrease. The cubic Pt{sub 3}Al alloy has excellent resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. We suggest that the phase transition is derived from the hybridization between Pt and Al atoms for cubic structure is stronger than that of tetragonal structure and forms the strong Pt–Al metallic bonds under high pressure.

  9. First-principles study on the phase transition, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt3Al alloys under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Huang, Huawei; Pan, Yong; Zhao, Guanghui; Liang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The phase transition of Pt 3 Al alloys occurs at 60 GPa. • The elastic modulus of Pt 3 Al alloys increase with increasing pressure. • The cubic structure has good resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. • The pressure enhances the hybridization between Pt atom and Al atom. - Abstract: The phase transition, formation enthalpies, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt 3 Al alloys are studied using first-principle approach. The calculated results show that the pressure leads to phase transition from tetragonal structure to cubic structure at 60 GPa. With increasing pressure, the elastic constants, bulk modulus and shear modulus of these Pt 3 Al alloys increase linearly and the bond lengths of Pt–Al metallic bonds and the peak at E F decrease. The cubic Pt 3 Al alloy has excellent resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. We suggest that the phase transition is derived from the hybridization between Pt and Al atoms for cubic structure is stronger than that of tetragonal structure and forms the strong Pt–Al metallic bonds under high pressure

  10. A multidisciplinary audit of clinical coding accuracy in otolaryngology: financial, managerial and clinical governance considerations under payment-by-results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouraei, S A R; O'Hanlon, S; Butler, C R; Hadovsky, A; Donald, E; Benjamin, E; Sandhu, G S

    2009-02-01

    To audit the accuracy of otolaryngology clinical coding and identify ways of improving it. Prospective multidisciplinary audit, using the 'national standard clinical coding audit' methodology supplemented by 'double-reading and arbitration'. Teaching-hospital otolaryngology and clinical coding departments. Otolaryngology inpatient and day-surgery cases. Concordance between initial coding performed by a coder (first cycle) and final coding by a clinician-coder multidisciplinary team (MDT; second cycle) for primary and secondary diagnoses and procedures, and Health Resource Groupings (HRG) assignment. 1250 randomly-selected cases were studied. Coding errors occurred in 24.1% of cases (301/1250). The clinician-coder MDT reassigned 48 primary diagnoses and 186 primary procedures and identified a further 209 initially-missed secondary diagnoses and procedures. In 203 cases, patient's initial HRG changed. Incorrect coding caused an average revenue loss of 174.90 pounds per patient (14.7%) of which 60% of the total income variance was due to miscoding of a eight highly-complex head and neck cancer cases. The 'HRG drift' created the appearance of disproportionate resource utilisation when treating 'simple' cases. At our institution the total cost of maintaining a clinician-coder MDT was 4.8 times lower than the income regained through the double-reading process. This large audit of otolaryngology practice identifies a large degree of error in coding on discharge. This leads to significant loss of departmental revenue, and given that the same data is used for benchmarking and for making decisions about resource allocation, it distorts the picture of clinical practice. These can be rectified through implementing a cost-effective clinician-coder double-reading multidisciplinary team as part of a data-assurance clinical governance framework which we recommend should be established in hospitals.

  11. Positioning Model-Supported, Participatory, Water Management Decision Making under Uncertainty within the Western Philosphical Discourse on Knowledge and Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, D. R.; Escobar, M.; Mehta, V. K.; Forni, L.

    2016-12-01

    Two important trends currently shape the manner in which water resources planning and decision making occurs. The first relates to the increasing reliance on participatory stakeholder processes as a forum for evaluating water management options and selecting the appropriate course of action. The second relates to the growing recognition that earlier deterministic approaches to this evaluation of options may no longer be appropriate, nor required. The convergence of these two trends poses questions as to the proper role of data, information, analysis and expertise in the inherently social and political process of negotiating water resources management agreements and implementing water resources management interventions. The question of how to discover the best or optimal option in the face of deep uncertainty related to climate change, demography, economic development, and regulatory reform is compelling. More fundamentally the question of whether the "perfect" option even exits to be discovered is perhaps more critical. While this existential question may be new to the water resource management community, it is not new to western political theory. This paper explores early classical philosophical writing related to issues of knowledge and governance as captured in the work of Plato and Aristotle; and then attempts to place a new approach to analysis-supported, stakeholder-driven water resources planning and decision making within this philosophical discourse. Using examples from river systems in California and the Andes, where the theory of Robust Decision Making has been used as an organizing construct for stakeholder processes, it is argued that the expectation that analysis will lead to the discovery of the perfect option is not warranted when stakeholders are engaged in the process of discovering a consensus option. This argument will touch upon issue of the diversity of values, model uncertainty and creditability, and the visualization of model output required

  12. Pedagogical Principles in Online Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    of the seven pedagogical principles that govern the teaching at our university. We also present a case study that illustrates how both opportunities and challenges were met in two “first-mover” fully online courses during Fall 2014. The experiences from this case study are discussed in terms of to what extent...... they met the pedagogical principles and observations unrelated to the pedagogical principle are shared....

  13. Project governance: "Schools of thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Christiaan Bekker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.

  14. Overview of the fundamental safety principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chishinga, Milton Mulenga

    2015-02-01

    The primary objective of this work was to provide an overview of the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) document; 'Fundamental Safety principles, SF.1'. The document outlines ten (10) fundamental principles which provide the basis for an effective the radiation protection framework. The document is the topmost in the hierarchy of the IAEA Safety Standards Series. These principles are the foundation of the nuclear safety put stringent obligations on Parties under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The fundamental Safety objective of protecting people individually and collectively and the environment has to be achieved without unduly limiting the operation of facilities or the conduct of activities that give rise to risks. The thematic areas covered are; responsibility for safety, role of government, leadership and management for safety, justification of facilities and activities, optimization of protection, limitation of risks to individuals, protection of present and future generations, prevention of accidents, emergency preparedness and response and protective actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. Appropriate recommendations have been provided for effective application of the principles by Governments, Regulatory Bodies and Operating Organizations of facilities and Nuclear Installations the give rise to radiation risks. (au)

  15. Fundamental Principles underlying Motor Reflexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Zhou (Kuikui)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe cerebellum has been suggested to be involved in motor control ever since the early 19th century. The motor control ranges from timing and strength of simple reflexes to multiple joint/limb coordination and complex motor sequence acquisition. The current thesis discusses the

  16. Institutionalizing Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Global Compact – which is a Global Public Policy Network advocating 10 universal principles in the areas of human rights, labor standards, environmental protection, and anticorruption – has turned into the world's largest corporate responsibility initiative. Although the Global...... Compact is often characterized as a promising way to address global governance gaps, it remains largely unclear why this is the case. To address this problem, we discuss to what extent the initiative represents an institutional solution to exercise global governance. We suggest that new governance modes...

  17. Legitimising Emerging Power Diplomacy: an Analysis of Government and Media Discourses on Brazilian Foreign Policy under Lula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mesquita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyses whether Brazilian foreign policy under Lula successfully legitimised the country's international identity as a rising power in the eyes of the domestic and international media. Based on a constructivist framework, we have applied French Discourse Analysis to a corpus of 36 official addresses by the President of the Republic and the Minister of Foreign Relations and 137 news articles from four news outlets, two Brazilian and two international, concerning two diplomatic episodes deemed representative of Brazil's quest for greater pre-eminence: the leadership of MINUSTAH (2004 and the Nuclear Deal signed with Iran and Turkey (2010. Results show that official discourse characterises Brazil's identity as a rising power chiefly by South-South diplomacy, while media discourse was more heterogeneous, being the discursive formation of each news outlet determinant in explaining their interpretation of Brazil's international identity.

  18. Principles for social impact assessment: A critical comparison between the international and US documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The 'International Principles for Social Impact Assessment' and the 'Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment in the USA', both developed under the auspices of the International Association for Impact Assessment and published in 2003, are compared. Major differences in the definition and approach to social impact assessment (SIA) are identified. The US Principles and Guidelines is shown to be positivist/technocratic while the International Principles is identified as being democratic, participatory and constructivist. Deficiencies in both documents are identified. The field of SIA is changing to go beyond the prevention of negative impacts, to include issues of building social capital, capacity building, good governance, community engagement and social inclusion

  19. Lattice stabilities, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of Al3Tm and Al3Lu intermetallics under high pressure from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu-Dong, Zhang; Wei, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    The effects of high pressure on lattice stability, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of L12 structure Al3Tm and Al3Lu are studied by first-principles calculations within the VASP code. The phonon dispersion curves and density of phonon states are calculated by using the PHONONPY code. Our results agree well with the available experimental and theoretical values. The vibrational properties indicate that Al3Tm and Al3Lu keep their dynamical stabilities in L12 structure up to 100 GPa. The elastic properties and Debye temperatures for Al3Tm and Al3Lu increase with the increase of pressure. The mechanical anisotropic properties are discussed by using anisotropic indices AG, AU, AZ, and the three-dimensional (3D) curved surface of Young’s modulus. The calculated results show that Al3Tm and Al3Lu are both isotropic at 0 GPa and anisotropic under high pressure. In the present work, the sound velocities in different directions for Al3Tm and Al3Lu are also predicted under high pressure. We also calculate the thermodynamic properties and provide the relationships between thermal parameters and temperature/pressure. These results can provide theoretical support for further experimental work and industrial applications. Project supported by the Scientific Technology Plan of the Educational Department of Liaoning Province and Liaoning Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. LT2014004) and the Program for the Young Teacher Cultivation Fund of Shenyang University of Technology, China (Grant No. 005612).

  20. Governing the Nexus for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Sina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the challenges of and requirements for effective governance of the water, energy and food nexus. With global dynamics such as climate change, urbanization and changing consumption patterns, governing resources in a coherent manner becomes both more complex and more relevant for sustainable development. Governance challenges include nexus economics (costs and benefits of different approaches to resource management, institutional design (like questions of how decision-making should be best distributed and good governance (how to make sure that nexus governance adheres to certain agreed upon principles and values. In terms of economics, a balance between sector specific actions and nexus governance is required. For effective decision-making it is important that power among different institutions is both distributed and coordinated. Good nexus governance requires targets that can be monitored to make sure that basic principles are followed and to examine whether progress toward sustainable development is being made.

  1. Architecture Governance: The Importance of Architecture Governance for Achieving Operationally Responsive Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Mike; Estefan, Jeff; Giovannoni, Brian; Barkley, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered (1) Why Governance and Why Now? (2) Characteristics of Architecture Governance (3) Strategic Elements (3a) Architectural Principles (3b) Architecture Board (3c) Architecture Compliance (4) Architecture Governance Infusion Process. Governance is concerned with decision making (i.e., setting directions, establishing standards and principles, and prioritizing investments). Architecture governance is the practice and orientation by which enterprise architectures and other architectures are managed and controlled at an enterprise-wide level

  2. First-principles study on the electronic structure, phonons and optical properties of LaB_6 under high-pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Luomeng; Bao, Lihong; Wei, Wei; O, Tegus; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    The electronic structure, phonons and optical properties of LaB_6 compound under different pressure have been studied by first-principles calculation. The electronic structure calculation shows that the d band along the M-Γ direction of the Brillouin zone moves up with increasing pressure and the band minimum is above the Fermi level at 45 GPa. The pressure-induced charge transfer from La to B atoms is reflected in the upshift of d band along the M-Γ direction with pressure. The calculated phonon dispersion curve at zero pressure is in good agreement with the experimental results. However, the phonon dispersion under high pressure does not show any information about the phase transition at 10 GPa, which was reported previously. The acoustic and optical phonon modes harden all the way with increasing pressure. In addition, the dielectric function is in accordance with the Drude model in the pressure range of 0 GPa–35 GPa and follows the Lorentz model at 45 GPa. The LaB_6 compound exhibits better visible light transmittance performance with the increasing pressure in the range of 0 GPa–35 GPa and visible light transmittance peak would be shifted towards ultraviolet region. - Highlights: • Physical properties of LaB_6 under high pressure have been theoretically studied. • Predict an electronic topological transition occurs at 45 GPa for LaB_6. • Predict a pressure-induced charge transfer from La to B atoms. • The phonon modes at Γ point show an increasing trend with increasing pressure. • The LaB_6 exhibits better heat-shielding performance with the increasing pressure.

  3. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  4. Chemical constraints governing the origin of metabolism: the thermodynamic landscape of carbon group transformations under mild aqueous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    The thermodynamics of organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions was examined in order to begin to understand its influence on the structure and operation of metabolism and its antecedents. Free energies (deltaG) were estimated for four types of reactions of biochemical importance carbon-carbon bond cleavage and synthesis, hydrogen transfer between carbon groups, dehydration of alcohol groups, and aldo-keto isomerization. The energies were calculated for mainly aliphatic groups composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The energy values showed (1) that generally when carbon-carbon bond cleavage involves groups from different functional group classes (i.e., carboxylic acids, carbonyl groups, alcohols, and hydrocarbons), the transfer of the shared electron-pair to the more reduced carbon group is energetically favored over transfer to the more oxidized carbon group, and (2) that the energy of carbon-carbon bond transformation is primarily determined by the functional group class of the group that changes oxidation state in the reaction (i.e., the functional group class of the group that donates the shared electron-pair during cleavage, or that accepts the incipient shared electron-pair during synthesis). In contrast, the energy of hydrogen transfer between carbon groups is determined by the functional group class of both the hydrogen-donor group and the hydrogen-acceptor group. From these and other observations we concluded that the chemistry involved in the origin of metabolism (and to a lesser degree modern metabolism) was strongly constrained by (1) the limited redox-based transformation energy of organic substrates that is readily dissipated in a few energetically favorable irreversible reactions; (2) the energy dominance of a few transformation half-reactions that determines whether carbon-carbon bond transformation (cleavage or synthesis) is energetically favorable (deltaG +3.5 kcal/mol); and (3) the dependence of carbon group transformation energy on the

  5. PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES ON FISCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal science advertise in most analytical situations, while the principles reiterated by specialists in the field in various specialized works The two components of taxation, the tax system relating to the theoretical and the practical procedures relating to tax are marked by frequent references and invocations of the underlying principles to tax. This paper attempts a return on equity fiscal general vision as a principle often invoked and used to justify tax policies, but so often violated the laws fiscality . Also want to emphasize the importance of devising procedures to ensure fiscal equitable treatment of taxpayers. Specific approach of this paper is based on the notion that tax equity is based on equality before tax and social policies of the executive that would be more effective than using the other tax instruments. I want to emphasize that if the scientific approach to justify the unequal treatment of the tax law is based on the various social problems of the taxpayers, then deviates from the issue of tax fairness justification explaining the need to promote social policies usually more attractive to taxpayers. Modern tax techniques are believed to be promoted especially in order to ensure an increasing level of high efficiency at the expense of the taxpayers obligations to ensure equality before the law tax. On the other hand, tax inequities reaction generates multiple recipients from the first budget plan, but finalities unfair measures can not quantify and no timeline for the reaction, usually not known. But while statistics show fluctuations in budgetary revenues and often find in literature reviews and analysis relevant to a connection between changes in government policies, budget execution and outcome. The effects of inequality on tax on tax procedures and budgetary revenues are difficult to quantify and is among others to this work. Providing tax equity without combining it with the principles of discrimination and neutrality

  6. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  7. Tenure, Academic Freedom, and Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Tenure itself is not the central issue in the debate over faculty tenure; honest faculty evaluation, adequate faculty development, and termination when appropriate are the real issues as are fears that abandonment of the tenure principle would amount to abandonment of the principles of academic freedom and shared governance. (MSE)

  8. First Principles Investigation of the Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of FeSn{sub 5} and CoSn{sub 5} Intermetallic Phases under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wenming; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hong [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China); Zhang, Zhenwei [Linyi Academy of Technology Cooperation and Application, Linyi (China); Zhang, Liang [NeoTrident Technology Ltd., Shanghai (China); Bu, Yuxiang [Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2017-02-15

    For guidance for developing Fe/Co-Sn-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of FeSn{sub 5} and CoSn{sub 5} intermetallic phases under pressures ranging from 0 to 30 GPa have been investigated systematically using first-principles total-energy calculations within the framework of the generalized gradient approximation. The pressure was found to have significant effects on the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of these compounds. In the selected pressure range, CoSn{sub 5} has a more negative formation enthalpy than FeSn{sub 5}. Based on the calculated elastic constants, the bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young's modulus were determined via the Viogt-Reuss-Hill averaging scheme. The variations of specific heats at constant volume for FeSn{sub 5} and CoSn{sub 5} in a wide pressure (0 - 30 GPa) and temperature (0 - 1000 K) range are also predicted from phonon density of states calculation. The calculated results suggested that both FeSn{sub 5} and CoSn{sub 5} are mechanically stable at pressure from 0 to 30 GPa. FeSn{sub 5} is dynamically stable at pressure up to, 30 GPa, at least, however, CoSn{sub 5} is dynamically stable no higher than 15 GPa.

  9. Testing the Underlying Chemical Principles of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) to Marine Copper Systems: Measuring Copper Speciation Using Fluorescence Quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Tara N; McGeer, James C; Smith, D Scott

    2018-01-01

    Speciation of copper in marine systems strongly influences the ability of copper to cause toxicity. Natural organic matter (NOM) contains many binding sites which provides a protective effect on copper toxicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize copper binding with NOM using fluorescence quenching techniques. Fluorescence quenching of NOM with copper was performed on nine sea water samples. The resulting stability constants and binding capacities were consistent with literature values of marine NOM, showing strong binding with [Formula: see text] values from 7.64 to 10.2 and binding capacities ranging from 15 to 3110 nmol mg [Formula: see text] Free copper concentrations estimated at total dissolved copper concentrations corresponding to previously published rotifer effect concentrations, in the same nine samples, were statistically the same as the range of free copper calculated for the effect concentration in NOM-free artificial seawater. These data confirms the applicability of fluorescence spectroscopy techniques for NOM and copper speciation characterization in sea water and demonstrates that such measured speciation is consistent with the chemical principles underlying the biotic ligand model approach for bioavailability-based metals risk assessment.

  10. First-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of cubic InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} ternary alloys under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattabi, I. [Ibn Khaldoun Univ. de Tiaret (Algeria). Lab. Synthese et Catalyse; Abdiche, A.; Riane, R. [Sidi-bel-Abbes Univ. (Algeria). Applied Materials Lab.; Moussa, R. [Sidi-bel-Abbes Univ. (Algeria). Physic Dept.; Hadji, K. [Ibn Khaldoun Univ. de Tiaret (Algeria). Science and Technology Dept.; Soyalp, F. [Yuezuencue Yil Univ., Van (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Varshney, Dinesh [Devi Ahilya Univ., Indore (India). Materials Science Lab.; Syrotyuk, S.V. [National Univ. ' Lviv Polytechnic' , Lviv (Ukraine). Semiconductor Electronics Dept.; Khenata, R. [Mascara Univ. (Algeria). Lab. de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M)

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present results of the first-principle study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the InN, InP binary compounds and their related ternary alloy InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} in the zinc-blend (ZB) phase within a nonrelativistic full potential linearised augmented plan wave (FP-LAPW) method using Wien2k code based on the density functional theory (DFT). Different approximations of exchange-correlation energy were used for the calculation of the lattice constant, bulk modulus, and first-order pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. Whereas the lattice constant decreases with increasing nitride composition x. Our results present a good agreement with theoretical and experimental data. The electronic band structures calculated using Tran-Blaha-modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) approach present a direct band gap semiconductor character for InN{sub x}P{sub 1-x} compounds at different x values. The electronic properties were also calculated under hydrostatic pressure for (P=0.00, 5.00, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 25.0 GPa) where it is found that the InP compound change from direct to indirect band gap at the pressure P≥7.80 GPa. Furthermore, the pressure effect on the dielectric function and the refractive index was carried out. Results obtained in our calculations present a good agreement with available theoretical reports and experimental data.

  11. On the invariance principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller-Nielsen, Thomas [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Physicists and philosophers have long claimed that the symmetries of our physical theories - roughly speaking, those transformations which map solutions of the theory into solutions - can provide us with genuine insight into what the world is really like. According to this 'Invariance Principle', only those quantities which are invariant under a theory's symmetries should be taken to be physically real, while those quantities which vary under its symmetries should not. Physicists and philosophers, however, are generally divided (or, indeed, silent) when it comes to explaining how such a principle is to be justified. In this paper, I spell out some of the problems inherent in other theorists' attempts to justify this principle, and sketch my own proposed general schema for explaining how - and when - the Invariance Principle can indeed be used as a legitimate tool of metaphysical inference.

  12. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  13. Global health justice and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2012-01-01

    While there is a growing body of work on moral issues and global governance in the fields of global justice and international relations, little work has connected principles of global health justice with those of global health governance for a theory of global health. Such a theory would enable analysis and evaluation of the current global health system and would ethically and empirically ground proposals for reforming it to more closely align with moral values. Global health governance has been framed as an issue of national security, human security, human rights, and global public goods. The global health governance literature is essentially untethered to a theorized framework to illuminate or evaluate governance. This article ties global health justice and ethics to principles for governing the global health realm, developing a theoretical framework for global and domestic institutions and actors.

  14. Adaptive approaches to biosecurity governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David C; Liu, Shuang; Murphy, Brendan; Lonsdale, W Mark

    2010-09-01

    This article discusses institutional changes that may facilitate an adaptive approach to biosecurity risk management where governance is viewed as a multidisciplinary, interactive experiment acknowledging uncertainty. Using the principles of adaptive governance, evolved from institutional theory, we explore how the concepts of lateral information flows, incentive alignment, and policy experimentation might shape Australia's invasive species defense mechanisms. We suggest design principles for biosecurity policies emphasizing overlapping complementary response capabilities and the sharing of invasive species risks via a polycentric system of governance. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis

  15. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  16. Leadership, Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts About » Leadership, Governance Leadership national security and energy challenges. Leadership, Governance Ethics, Accountability Los Alamos National . Director's Office terry wallace in leadership, governance Director Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Terry C. Wallace, Jr

  17. Stakeholder Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... of governance. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for future work in adapting ST to the e-government context....

  18. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Reminder Given the current state of the financial markets and the continuing uncertainty as to their future evolution, we begin by reiterating the introductory statement of the last report from the Pension Fund: "The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position." Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) The PFGB held its ninth and tenth meetings on 1st December 2008 and 11 February 2009 respectively. At the ninth meeting, the Governing Board bade farewell to P. Lambert, who had been an expert member since November...

  19. PENERAPAN PRINSIP-PRINSIP GOOD GOVERNANCE DALAM PELAYANAN PUBLIK DI KANTOR CAMAT SAIL KOTA PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Roserdevi Nasution

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance is the new face of hearts implement the principles of Public Service in the reform era. Public services Law No. 25 of 2009 is activities or circuit hearts Frame activities Fulfillment Services Under legislation with every citizen Share And Population differences Goods, services, and administrative services or Provided By Operation of Public Service. Public services carried out by the Government showed to society who asked service. Research Type singer is descriptive qualitative approach with, the techniques data collection using depth Interviews and Documentation. Results of Research Singer nearly all the principles of good governance hearts Services Not Running In accordance with From UNDP as Principles of Participation, legal rules, Transparency, Responsiveness, consensus-oriented, fairness, effectiveness, accountability, and strategic vision, Many Are Being inhibit the progress of the Principles of good governance. The conclusion from the findings of research, so authors concluded that the application of good governance in the hearts Implementation Services Head Office Sail Maximum yet. It is because that the singer Leadership And yet the implementation of communication subordinate ones in line so that although Head Already Trying to give the Best but if NOT in Support By subordinates will Difficult accomplished. Lack of human resources is a prayer One That Become an inhibiting factor hearts implementation of the Principles of good governance in the future Head Office Sail.

  20. Government and Ethics: The Constitutional Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossum, Ralph A.

    1984-01-01

    Government and ethics teachers should educate students in the "wholesale sanity" of American democracy. In particular they should (1) identify and defend the principles of the American constitutional order, (2) criticize government actions departing from these principles, and (3) seek means by which to correct for these departures. (RM)

  1. Program governance

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Muhammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes     Behavioral Assumptions     Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern     Incomplete Contracting     Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation     Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp

  2. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....

  3. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  4. Safety Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grinenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.

  5. Maquet principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.

    1985-04-01

    Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications.

  6. Cosmological principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution

  7. Government Is Whose Problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Jon D. Wisman

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the political meaning of President Ronald Reagan's 1981 declaration that "government is the problem." Whereas historically the state had been used by elites to extract as much surplus as possible from producers, with democratization of the franchise, the state became the sole instrument that could limit, or even potentially end, the extraction of workers' surplus. Once control of the state is in principle democratized by the ballot box, the fortunes of the elite depend ...

  8. Thermodynamic properties of ideal Fermi gases in a harmonic potential in an n-dimensional space under the generalized uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heling; Ren, Jinxiu; Wang, Wenwei; Yang, Bin; Shen, Hongjun

    2018-02-01

    Using the semi-classical (Thomas-Fermi) approximation, the thermodynamic properties of ideal Fermi gases in a harmonic potential in an n-dimensional space are studied under the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The mean particle number, internal energy, heat capacity and other thermodynamic variables of the Fermi system are calculated analytically. Then, analytical expressions of the mean particle number, internal energy, heat capacity, chemical potential, Fermi energy, ground state energy and amendments of the GUP are obtained at low temperatures. The influence of both the GUP and the harmonic potential on the thermodynamic properties of a copper-electron gas and other systems with higher electron densities are studied numerically at low temperatures. We find: (1) When the GUP is considered, the influence of the harmonic potential is very much larger, and the amendments produced by the GUP increase by eight to nine orders of magnitude compared to when no external potential is applied to the electron gas. (2) The larger the particle density, or the smaller the particle masses, the bigger the influence of the GUP. (3) The effect of the GUP increases with the increase in the spatial dimensions. (4) The amendments of the chemical potential, Fermi energy and ground state energy increase with an increase in temperature, while the heat capacity decreases. T F0 is the Fermi temperature of the ideal Fermi system in a harmonic potential. When the temperature is lower than a certain value (0.22 times T F0 for the copper-electron gas, and this value decreases with increasing electron density), the amendment to the internal energy is positive, however, the amendment decreases with increasing temperature. When the temperature increases to the value, the amendment is zero, and when the temperature is higher than the value, the amendment to the internal energy is negative and the absolute value of the amendment increases with increasing temperature. (5) When electron

  9. Is there such a thing as free government data?

    OpenAIRE

    Morando (Federico); Iemma (Raimondo); Basso (Simone)

    2013-01-01

    The recently-amended European Public Sector Information (PSI) Directive rests on the assumption that government data is a valuable input for the knowledge economy. As a default principle, the directive sets marginal costs as an upper bound for charging PSI. This article discusses the terms under which the 2013 consultation on the implementation of the PSI Directive addresses the calculation criteria for marginal costs, which are complex to define, especially for internet-based services. What ...

  10. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  11. RESTRUCTURING MEASURES, UPGRADING AND RETHINKING OF THE ROLE AND FUNCTIONING OF THE GOVERNMENT UNDER THE REQUIRED INFORMATION SOCIETY. CASE STUDY: GORJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa Enea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The spirit of the Lisbon strategy (2000 defines a new opportunity to increase competitiveness at all levels, which is supported by the implementation of scientific knowledge, infrastructure and its implementation mechanisms to serve the new economy based on a new revolution, a life-oriented good for present and next, taking control of major risks that affect global action under uncertainty. With the relaunch of the Lisbon Strategy (2005, the policy has been recognized as a primary tool at the community level, helping to implement the idea of growth and jobs - not only because a third of the Community budget, but also that the strategies drawn up at the local and regional levels should form an integral part of efforts to promote sustainable development at local level. Programming period 2007-2013 suggests that one of the areas of intervention of the Structural Funds, namely the European Social Fund reform and upgrading administrative capacity in the context of achieving good governance, especially in those areas that generate progress, as well as economic, employment, education, social and environmental. Romania is the most important development opportunities, nearly four years after accession to the European Union and integration in an increasingly globalized economy. Romania's future is that of a dynamic, competitive and innovative, working in the economic, social and political European Union and the global economy. In this context, we can say that “we need to rebuild post-integration is first and foremost a spiritual and institutional process that must include all public and private interests carriers” (revised Lisbon Strategy, 2005, p.4. Therefore, the Romanian National Reform Programme for 2007- 2010, elaborated in the context of the European Strategy for Growth and Employment Strategy (revised Lisbon Strategy, 2005, p.4 states that “to achieve economic and employment performance, coupled with a social system is the essence of policies

  12. 42 CFR 137.101 - What standard applies to a Self-Governance Tribe's management of funds paid under a compact or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applied to investments not in isolation but in the context of the investment portfolio and as a part of an.... In addition, the Self-Governance Tribe must: (a) Conform to fundamental fiduciary duties of loyalty... to the investment responsibilities of the Self-Governance Tribe. Carryover of Funds ...

  13. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  14. Experimentalist governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.

    2012-01-01

    A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately

  15. Remaking Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, John

    2000-01-01

    The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded…

  16. The Playtime Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, Christian; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    be derived from this large-scale analysis, notably that playtime as a function of time, across the thousands of games in the dataset, and irrespective of local differences in the playtime frequency distribution, can be modeled using the same model: the Wei bull distribution. This suggests...... that there are fundamental properties governing player engagement as it evolves over time, which we here refer to as the Playtime Principle. Additionally, the analysis shows that there are distinct clusters, or archetypes, in the playtime frequency distributions of the investigated games. These archetypal groups correspond...

  17. Principles of asymmetric synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Gawley, Robert E; Aube, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis, this book presents a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles governing stereoselective reactions, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Practical Aspects of Asymmetric Synthesis" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds, techniques for analysis of stereoisomers using chromatographic, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The authors then present an overview of the most important methods in contemporary asymmetric synthesis organized by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, one chapter on reductions...

  18. Governance in genomics: a conceptual challenge for public health genomics law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schulte in den Bäumen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing levels of genomic knowledge has led to awareness that new governance issues need to be taken into consideration. While some countries have created new statutory laws in the last 10 years, science supports the idea that genomic data should be treated like other medical data. In this article we discuss the three core models of governance in medical law on a conceptual level. The three models, the Medical, Public Health and Fundamental Rights Model stress different values, or in legal terms serve different principles. The Medical Model stands for expert knowledge and the standardisation of quality in healthcare. The Public Health Model fosters a social point of view as it advocates distribution justice in healthcare and an awareness of healthcare as a broader concept. The Fundamental Rights Model focuses on individual rights such as the right to privacy and autonomy. We argue that none of the models can be used in a purist fashion as governance in genomics should enable society and individuals to protect individual rights, to strive for a distribution justice and to ensure the quality of genomic services in one coherent process. Thus, genomic governance in genomics requires procedural law and a set of applicable principles. The principle which underlies all three models is the principle of medical beneficence. Therefore genomic governance should refer to it as a key principle when conflicting rights of individuals or communities need to be balanced.

  19. 8 CFR 312.2 - Knowledge of history and government of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fundamentals of the history, and of the principles and form of government, of the United States. A person who... person who is unable to demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of the history, and... knowledge and understanding. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1115-0208...

  20. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  1. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE – WAY OF GOVERNANCE FOR MODERN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Through corporate governance is aimed the building of a structure enabling a wide degree of freedom, within the law, and includes several changes of principle in accordance with international standards of transparency. A good governance within an organization mitigate risk, increase performance, pave the way towards financial markets, brings competitive goods and services on market, improves management style, show transparency towards all stakeholders and social responsibility. The lack of some mandatory rules and structures can lead to chaos in business. The paper aims to present the role and the importance of the corporate governance for modern companies, as well as the principles on which this is based. In order to do that we also identified the main ways to quantificate the level of corporate governance, including also the non-financial performance criteria used by investors to assess companies listed on stock exchange.

  2. 14 CFR 1274.919 - Cost principles and accounting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles and accounting standards... principles and accounting standards. Cost Principles and Accounting Standards July 2002 The expenditure of... Recipient (See clause entitled “Resource Sharing Requirements”) shall be governed by the FAR cost principles...

  3. Zymography Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.

  4. Privacy and Open Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Scassa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.

  5. Organizational governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...

  6. Waste governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available of governance in Africa. The next section focuses on regulation, and the status of the regulatory frameworks in different African countries. Shortcomings in the regulatory framework are highlighted through examples in various countries. Specific policy...

  7. Good Governance in Public Procurement: A South African Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Roos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article good governance in public procurement, with particular reference to accountability is discussed. The principle of providing adequate remedies in public procurement is put under the spotlight. This is done with reference to the decision in Steenkamp NO v Provincial Tender Board, Eastern Cape. In this case the Constitutional Court had to consider whether an initially successful tenderer could lodge a delictual claim for damages to compensate for expenses incurred after conclusion of a contract, which was subsequently rendered void on an application for review of the tender award. The applicable principles of good governance and the applicable provisions of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Public Procurement and the WTO plurilateral Government Procurement Agreement are analysed. This is done to enable an evaluation of the decision by the Constitutional Court in the above case. It is concluded that the South African public procurement system does in this instance comply with the basic principles of good governance with regard to accountability.

  8. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  9. Sovereign Wealth Funds – the New Challenge for Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Urban

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Sovereign Wealth Funds with reference do the process of corporate governance. In the first part the paper presents the rise, growth and current investment activity of those funds. In the second section the author consider reasons for implementation of corporate governance best practices. The last part of the paper compares Santiago Principles with OECD principles of corporate governance.

  10. Corporate Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș-Mihail Daghie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.

  11. Government, Money, and International Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppe, Hans-Hermann

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author deals with: (1) Definition of government; incentive structure under government: taxation, war and territorial expansion. (2) Origin of money; government and money; the devolution of money from commodity to fiat money. (3) International politics and monetary regimes; monetary imperialism and the drive toward a one-world central bank and fiat currency.

  12. Climate change governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knieling, Joerg [HafenCity Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Urban Planning and Regional Development; Leal Filho, Walter (eds.) [HAW Hamburg (Germany). Research and Transfer Centre Applications of Life Science

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is a cause for concern both globally and locally. In order for it to be tackled holistically, its governance is an important topic needing scientific and practical consideration. Climate change governance is an emerging area, and one which is closely related to state and public administrative systems and the behaviour of private actors, including the business sector, as well as the civil society and non-governmental organisations. Questions of climate change governance deal both with mitigation and adaptation whilst at the same time trying to devise effective ways of managing the consequences of these measures across the different sectors. Many books have been produced on general matters related to climate change, such as climate modelling, temperature variations, sea level rise, but, to date, very few publications have addressed the political, economic and social elements of climate change and their links with governance. This book will address this gap. Furthermore, a particular feature of this book is that it not only presents different perspectives on climate change governance, but it also introduces theoretical approaches and brings these together with practical examples which show how main principles may be implemented in practice.

  13. Business Climate and Good Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Besmira Manaj

    2015-01-01

    This paper consists of three factors, namely: Good Governance, Business Climate and Corruption. How they affect the development product of Albania, not only as a concept, and a principle but mostly as a sensitive aspect in the integration process. There are some interpretations of this concept, but I intend to analyze the key factors and actors, their cooperation and concrete production in society. Improving governance is necessary to have an integrated long term strategy based upon a continu...

  14. Goals and Principles of Environmental Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at how contemporary environmental (including climate) policy problems are phrased in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. The latter three concepts have served as foci of theoretical discussions among economists who analyse these issues and identify criteria that determine relevant regulations and programmes adopted by governments. The paper starts with a discussion of Pigouvian taxation as model instrument used in order to solve policy problems. It analyses to what extent and under what circumstances alternative instruments - such as marketable pollution permits - can achieve environmental and climate goals while serving other purposes too. Coase theorem is used as a reference for discussing what government interventions are indeed indispensable to achieve both explicit and tacit policy goals. Popular principles and practically applied 'rules of thumb' - such as the Polluter Pays Principle - are then reviewed. The next part is devoted to examining market structures as they influence environmental outcomes of economic activities. This is followed by a discussion of Environmental Tax Reforms which seems to inspire much of the economic thinking about contemporary policies. An outlook for the 21st century concludes the paper.

  15. Government influence on international trade in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections, entitled; introduction (history of uncertainty in the uranium market, opposition to nuclear power); unsatisfactory features of today's trade conditions (including discussion of restrictions in production, exports and imports); desirable principles governing international trade in uranium, apart from the non-proliferation issue (limitation on governmental intervention for economic purposes, reservation of adequate uranium resources in exporting countries, government export price control); desirable principles for achieving balance between security of supply and non-proliferation (need for consensus, reprocessing and fast breeder reactors, principles guiding government controls established for non-proliferation purposes). (U.K.)

  16. General principles of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The daily practice of any established branch of medicine should be based on some acceptable principles. This chapter is concerned with the general principles on which the radiotherapy of the Manchester school is based. Though many radiotherapists in other centres would doubtless accept these principles, there are sufficiently wide differences in practice throughout the world to suggest that some therapists adhere to a fundamentally different philosophy. The authors believe it is important, especially for those beginning their formal training in radiotherapy, to subscribe to an internally consistent school of thought, employing methods of treatment for each type of lesion in each anatomical site that are based on accepted principles and subjected to continuous rigorous scrutiny to test their effectiveness. Not only must each therapeutic technique be evaluated, but the underlying principles too must be questioned if and when this seems indicated. It is a feature of this hospital that similar lesions are all treated by the same technique, so long as statistical evidence justifies such a policy. All members of the staff adhere to the accepted policy until or unless reliable reasons are adduced to change this policy

  17. Ten guiding principles for youth mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Frank; Hebel, Lisa; Badcock, Paul; Parker, Alexandra G

    2018-06-01

    Guiding principles are arguably central to the development of any health service. The aim of this article is to report on the outcomes of a youth mental health (YMH) community of practice (CoP), which identified a range of guiding principles that provide a clear point of comparison for the only other set of principles for YMH service delivery proposed to date. A YMH CoP was established in 2010 as part of the Victorian State Government approach to improving YMH care. An initial literature search was undertaken to locate articles on YMH service delivery. A number of common themes were identified, which the YMH community of practice (YMHCoP) members then elaborated upon by drawing from their collective experience of the YMH sector. The resultant themes were then refined through subsequent group discussions to derive a definitive set of guiding principles. These principles were then augmented by a second literature search conducted in July 2015. Fifteen key themes were derived from the initial literature search and YMH CoP discussions. These were refined by the YMH CoP to produce 10 guiding principles for YMH service development. These are discussed through reference to the relevant literature, using the only other article on principles of YMH service delivery as a notable point of comparison. The 10 principles identified may be useful for quality improvement and are likely to have international relevance. We suggest the timely pursuit of an international consensus on guiding principles for service delivery under the auspices of a peak body for YMH. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Corporate Governance and Shariah Governance at Islamic Financial Institutions : Assessing from Current Practice in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mizushima, Tadashi; Tadashi, Mizushima

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between corporate governance and Shariah governance, and how those governance concepts are handled at Islamic financial institutions.Although using the same word “governance,” Western corporate governance and Islamic Shariah governance may be different. The main research question is how different or similar are governance at conventional banks and Shariah governance at Islamic banks? We would like to find an answer to this question by under...

  19. A perfect wetting of Mg monolayer on Ag(111) under atomic scale investigation: First principles calculations, scanning tunneling microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migaou, Amani; Guiltat, Mathilde; Payen, Kevin; Landa, Georges; Hémeryck, Anne, E-mail: anne.hemeryck@laas.fr [LAAS-CNRS, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse (France); Sarpi, Brice; Daineche, Rachid; Vizzini, Sébastien [Aix Marseille University, IM2NP, Fac Sci St. Jérôme, F-13397 Marseille (France)

    2016-05-21

    First principles calculations, scanning tunneling microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy experiments of the adsorption of Mg on Ag(111) substrate are conducted. This detailed study reveals that an atomic scale controlled deposition of a metallic Mg monolayer perfectly wets the silver substrate without any alloy formation at the interface at room temperature. A liquid-like behavior of the Mg species on the Ag substrate is highlighted as no dot formation is observed when coverage increases. Finally a layer-by-layer growth mode of Mg on Ag(111) can be predicted, thanks to density functional theory calculations as observed experimentally.

  20. Principles of the Energy Conservation Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes 21 principles of the draft Energy Conservation Bill. The principles lay down fundamental responsibilities of the government, the municipalities, business entities, citizens and power plants in the field of economical energy management. Included are principles to minimize energy consumption and to stimulate a reasonable energy management, the role of the energy distribution network, responsibilities of the central load dispatching center, and power plant output regulation schemes. (J.B.)

  1. Gesture & Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2017-01-01

    The development of architecture is governed by an increasing gap between the experienced quality of architectural space, manifest as a sense of interiority on behalf of the user, and the means applied in its realization. Between means and ends, one could say, which calls for a continuous...... and critical development of architectural method. By method, I mean a systematic series of steps taken to acquire knowledge about an architectural problem. As the building industry and the actual construction of architecture is becoming ever more complex moving from craft over industrialization through...... to integration of digital technologies, the mentioned gap is becoming present in the processes and models of collaborations between the multiple parties involved in the realization of architecture, as well as in the work itself. This, as an increase of construction layers, installations and equipment tending...

  2. Tax Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette

    to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...

  3. Mobilizing Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2016-01-01

    The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...

  4. Reflections on the juridicial roots of the principle of optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Boehler, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    The disciplines of jurisprudence tend in general towards a rationalisation and stabilisation of social or economic practice and are oriented towards concepts or practices which belong to the field of the determinate. When it comes to the principle of optimising radiological protection, however, the classical juridical technique of administrative law does not exactly answer the problems of implementing this. From the obligations of performance traditionally imposed by the government, a transition to obligation of behaviour by those involved seems to be called for, and this is what makes the optimisation principle difficult to qualify juridically. Instead of a law of command, exemption and control the government must essentially put its trust in the operators of nuclear installations by issuing a standard which sets an objective rather than a standard with the force of a regulation as in the past. Does the future of the juridical sciences in fact lie in the development of an administrative law of the indeterminate which would oblige the government to recognise that, even in the field of the determinate, it is not always government which knows best? While our classical administrative law is a law of command and control, the administrative law of the indeterminate will be that of the law of common effort, framed in collective acts and based on trust, consultation, and obligations of behaviour, all under the control of a judge who intervenes when there is a manifest contradiction between the acts and the promised behaviour. In French law optimisation has remained a general principle unaccompanied by specific provisions for its implementation. The object of our paper is to examine on what juridical foundations it would be possible to apply this principle at practical level without betraying its spirit. (author)

  5. Governability in Contemporary Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Curzio Gutiérrez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the difficulties to establish a concept of governability and the frequent ideological usage of the term, it is much more operative to turn to the principle of governability, in the broad sense, which supports itself on five pillars: the political legitimacy of the government, the governmental efficiency to attend to the demands of society, the existence of shared social project, the agreement with the principle special interest groups, and international viability. The analysis of the structure and relevance of these five points during the long period of political transition that Mexico underwent between 1988 and 1997 shows how it was possible for this country to play off certain factors against each other in order to secure governability and safeguard against the consequences of any resultant imbalances. Between 1998-1993, the government of Salinas de Gotari based itself on the viability of a neoliberal project within an international context, and on this projectís attention to domestic demands as well as on the governmentís pact with elites. Institutional integration and legitimacy made up, then, for a process of discreet liberalization and the lack of democratic electoral commitment, which culminated in the PRI’s 1994 elections victory.The assassination of Colosia, though, and the appearance of the EZLN and the subsequent crisis surrounding the peso’s devaluation that accompanied Ernesto Zedilloís rise to power soon led to the collapse of those pillars of support. Crowning the process of the silenttransition were the elections of 1997, which makes it possible to say that in Mexico today there are now smooth elections, but that reform of the State is still unresolved —a subject that includes the reduction of the president’s competence. Seen in the short term, the most direct threats to Mexico’s governability will come as a result of the lack of attention to those demands of society’s underprivileged and the ill

  6. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  7. Corporate Governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Andy Knight; David Malone; Faith Mitchell. Finance and Audit Committee. Members: Denis Desautels (Chairman); Ahmed Galal;. Frieda Granot; Elizabeth Parr-Johnston; Andrés Rozental;. Gordon Shirley. Governance Committee. Members: The Honourable Barbara McDougall (Chairman);. Claude-Yves Charron; Denis ...

  8. Assessing an Adaptive Cycle in a Social System under External Pressure to Change: the Importance of Intergroup Relations in Recreational Fisheries Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Daedlow

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive cycle constitutes a heuristic originally used to interpret the dynamics of complex ecosystems in response to disturbance and change. It is assumed that socially constructed governance systems go through similar phases (K, Ω [omega], α [alpha], r as evident in ecological adaptive cycles. Two key dimensions of change shaping the four phases of an adaptive cycle are the degree of connectedness and the range of potential in the system. Our purpose was to quantitatively assess the four phases of the adaptive cycle in a social system by measuring the potential and connectedness dimensions and their different levels in each of the four phases. We assessed these dimensions using quantitative data from content analysis of magazine articles describing the transition process of East German recreational fisheries governance after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. This process was characterized by the discussion of two governance alternatives amendable for implementation: a central East German and a decentralized West German approach. Contrary to assumptions in the adaptive cycle heuristic, we were unable to identify the four phases of the adaptive cycle in our governance system based on quantitatively assessed levels of connectedness and potential alone. However, the insertion of in-group (East Germans and out-group (West Germans dimensions representing the two governance alternatives in our analysis enabled us to identify the specific time frames for all four phases of the adaptive cycle on a monthly basis. These findings suggest that an unmodified "figure-eight model" of the adaptive cycle may not necessarily hold in social systems. Inclusion of disciplinary theories such as intergroup relation theory will help in understanding adaptation processes in social systems.

  9. DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE AND THE POOR: ADJUSTING TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    what actually constitute the fundamental challenges of the Nigerian democratic ... Democratic governance has inherent checks and balance principles that ..... billion on less than $2 a day globally (WDI, 2012), with Africa accounting for a large.

  10. Preservation of government records in Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rv1

    merging Records Services with the National. Archives was to “create .... Government Audit and the District. Commissioner were not covered ... develop quality assurance manuals, guide the .... information management principles are applied to ...

  11. Microhydrodynamics principles and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sangtae; Brenner, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications presents analytical and numerical methods for describing motion of small particles suspended in viscous fluids. The text first covers the fundamental principles of low-Reynolds-number flow, including the governing equations and fundamental theorems; the dynamics of a single particle in a flow field; and hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. Next, the book deals with the advances in the mathematical and computational aspects of viscous particulate flows that point to innovations for large-scale simulations on parallel co

  12. The Principle of General Tovariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.

    2008-06-01

    We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.

  13. Growing controversy over "wise international water governance".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trondalen, J M

    2004-01-01

    This article takes the perspective that when political relationships are strained, there seem to be few examples of wise international water resources governance. The Middle East is a striking example. Much effort has been put into policy development and the design of international principles, but very little into the translation of those into concrete and lasting governance. One of the theses of the article is that politics--whether domestic or international--in most cases overrides these principles and standards. Moreover readymade regional co-operation models of water managements are not directly applicable to every geographical, political, economic and social setting. Certain factors are often under-estimated in international water negotiations, such as: the complexity of any hydro-political negotiations, and need to develop commonly accepted standards; the difficulty of translating policy--either politically or legally--into an operational and realistic negotiations strategy; the format of the procedures and meetings; recognition that third parties should have a long-term perspective on any conflict they get involved in. With reservations, the lessons learned indicate that the following factors have an impact on grid locked situations, such as: new substantive information; new trade-offs between the parties; and changed political climate or relationship with external power-brokers.

  14. The board of directors in listed companies under the corporate governance system in Saudi law as compared to English law and global standards

    OpenAIRE

    Alamri, Khalid; Milman, David; Lawton, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has a unique environment in terms of its political, economic, legal and judicial aspects which have some anomalous characteristics that create challenges for corporate governance. Further challenges are presented by the current structure of listed companies and by Saudi Arabia’s Vision for 2030.1 This environment significantly influences the role of the board of directors in listed companies and increases its role in safeguarding the interests of different shareholders and stakeh...

  15. Plural Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....

  16. IT Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Šimková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    IT governance (control of information technology) is a frequently discussed topic today which represents current needs to take control of IT, judge impacts of all resolutions and lead up investments running to the information technology. It is very important for both small and large organizations to have IT which encourages business strategy and helps to meet objectives of a company. The theoretical part of this paper is focused on characterization of the main areas, benefits, rules and vario...

  17. University Internal Governance under the Perspective of Incentive Compatibility%激励相容视角下的大学内部治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海滨

    2012-01-01

    优化大学内部治理实质是促进高校内部各种主体利益的激励相容,实现大学办学效益的最大化。大学内部治理存在激励不相容问题主要有:权力结构的激励不相容、层级管理的激励不相容、办学功能的激励不相容。为此,要加强顶层设计,完善决策执行机制,创新学术组织设置,椎进人事管理制度,加强大学章程建设,促进大学内部治理的激励相容。%University internal governance is actually the promotion of the incentive compatibility between the stakeholders, to achieve maximum efficiency of running schools. The problems of incentive incompatibility in university internal governance mainly include the incentive incompatibility of power structure, incentive incompatibility of level management, and incentive in- compatibility of school-running function. Therefore, we should strengthen top-level design, perfect decision-making mechanism, innovate academic organization setting, promote personnel management system, strengthen university constitutions and promote the incentive compatibility of university internal governance.

  18. Reducing repeat pregnancies in adolescence: applying realist principles as part of a mixed-methods systematic review to explore what works, for whom, how and under what circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Joanna M; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Aslam, Rabeea'h; Hendry, Maggie; Pasterfield, Diana; Whitaker, Rhiannon

    2016-09-20

    Previous research has demonstrated emotional, psychological and educational harm to young mothers following unintended conceptions. The UK has one of the highest rates of pregnancies in adolescence in Western Europe with a high proportion of these being repeat pregnancies, making it a topic of interest for public health policy makers, and health and social care practitioners. As part of a wider mixed-methods systematic review, realist principles were applied to synthesise evidence about interventions aiming to reduce repeat pregnancies in adolescence. A multi-streamed, mixed-methods systematic review was conducted searching 11 major electronic databases and 9 additional databases from 1995 onwards, using key terms such as pregnancy, teen or adolescent. The principles of realist synthesis were applied to all included literature to uncover theories about what works, for whom, how and in what context. Initial theory areas were developed through evidence scoping, group discussion by the authors and stakeholder engagement to uncover context + mechanism = outcome (CMO) configurations and related narratives. The searches identified 8,664 documents initially, and 403 in repeat searches, filtering to 81 included studies, including qualitative studies, randomised controlled trials, quantitative studies and grey literature. Three CMO configurations were developed. The individual experiences of young mothers' triggered self-efficacy, notions of perceived risks, susceptibility and benefits of pregnancy, resulting in the adolescent taking control of their fertility and sexual encounters. The choice between motherhood and other goals triggered notions of motivations, resulting in the adolescent managing their expectations of motherhood and controlling their fertility and sexual encounters. Barriers and facilitators to accessing services triggered notions of connectedness and self-determination; resulting in interventions that are tailored so they are relevant to young

  19. Civil Affairs Framework For Executing Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management ...19 7. Theory of Competitive Control ...................................................21 D. PRINCIPLES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE...84 E. UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE (USIP) AND THE U.S. ARMY PEACEKEEPING AND STABILITY OPERATIONS INSTITUTE’S (PKSOI) GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF

  20. Structural phases arising from reconstructive and isostructural transitions in high-melting-point oxides under hydrostatic pressure: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hao; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Mao, Ai-Jie; Yang, Yurong; Xu, Changsong; Sayedaghaee, S. Omid; Bellaiche, L.

    2018-01-01

    High-melting-point oxides of chemical formula A B O3 with A =Ca , Sr, Ba and B =Zr , Hf are investigated as a function of hydrostatic pressure up to 200 GPa by combining first-principles calculations with a particle swarm optimization method. Ca- and Sr-based systems: (1) first undergo a reconstructive phase transition from a perovskite state to a novel structure that belongs to the post-post-perovskite family and (2) then experience an isostructural transition to a second, also new post-post-perovskite state at higher pressures, via the sudden formation of a specific out-of-plane B -O bond. In contrast, the studied Ba compounds evolve from a perovskite phase to a third novel post-post-perovskite structure via another reconstructive phase transition. The original characteristics of these three different post-post-perovskite states are emphasized. Unusual electronic properties, including significant piezochromic effects and an insulator-metal transition, are also reported and explained.

  1. Decentralized environmental governance

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tula

    Human Development, a Road to the. Future. Systematization of ... Opportunities for Sustainability and Natural Resources Access for Poor. Rural Areas ... natural resource management. Under this ... Governance is defined as the formal and informal ... approval of the Environmental Impact Study, the strong oppo- sition of the ...

  2. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  3. 5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In all exemption determinations, the agency must observe the following principles: (a) Each employee is presumed to...

  4. 24 CFR 3282.402 - General principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General principles. 3282.402... and Remedial Actions § 3282.402 General principles. (a) Nothing in this subpart or in these... manufactured home manufacturers to provide remedial actions under this subpart is limited by the principle that...

  5. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  6. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  7. Cost-Sharing Contracts for Energy Saving and Emissions Reduction of a Supply Chain under the Conditions of Government Subsidies and a Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yuyin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the cooperation of upstream and downstream enterprises of a supply chain in energy saving and emissions reduction, we establish a Stackelberg game model. The retailer moves first to decide a cost-sharing contract, then the manufacturer determines the energy-saving level, carbon-emission level, and wholesale price successively. In the end, the retailer determines the retail price. As a regulation, the government provides subsidies for energy-saving products, while imposing a carbon tax on the carbon emitted. The results show that (1 both the energy-saving cost-sharing (ECS and the carbon emissions reduction cost-sharing (CCS contracts are not the dominant strategy of the two parties by which they can facilitate energy savings and emissions reductions; (2 compared with single cost-sharing contracts, the bivariate cost-sharing (BCS contract for energy saving and emissions reduction is superior, although it still cannot realise prefect coordination of the supply chain; (3 government subsidy and carbon tax policies can promote the cooperation of both the upstream and downstream enterprises of the supply chain—a subsidy policy can always drive energy saving and emissions reductions, while a carbon tax policy does not always exert positive effects, as it depends on the initial level of pollution and the level of carbon tax; and (4 the subsidy policy reduces the coordination efficiency of the supply chain, while the influences of carbon tax policy upon the coordination efficiency relies on the initial carbon-emission level.

  8. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  9. The principle of empowerment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nelly MILITARU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Delimitation of competences in the EU is governed by the principle of conferral. Based on the content of these provisions work in the first three parts of it, defining and classifying skills appropriate attribution Treaties underlying the European Union (Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and the Court of Justice. The next three parts of the paper detailing each classification in hand, highlighting, clear delineation of the Union competences of the Member States carried out by the Lisbon Treaty and the amendments made by this treaty.

  10. An Embalse nuclear power plant basic principles simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Oscar; Galdoz, Erwin; Flury, Celso; Fontanini, Horacio

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear power plant basic principles simulator is a package of programs that numerically solve the dynamic equations of the simulated plant. This kind of tools is mainly used in the first step of training of operational personnel, to allow mental representation of physical phenomena governing the plant. They are also used for students or professional training, and experienced operators can also improve there performance under abnormal operation situations using the simulator. For the Embalse nuclear power plant, mainly the thermohydraulic behaviour, is simulated. The mathematical model was adapted from MANUVR, a code developed at the Electric Systems and Control Department of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). (Author) [es

  11. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  12. Integrating adaptive governance and participatory multicriteria methods: a framework for climate adaptation governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Munaretto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation is a dynamic social and institutional process where the governance dimension is receiving growing attention. Adaptive governance is an approach that promises to reduce uncertainty by improving the knowledge base for decision making. As uncertainty is an inherent feature of climate adaptation, adaptive governance seems to be a promising approach for improving climate adaptation governance. However, the adaptive governance literature has so far paid little attention to decision-making tools and methods, and the literature on the governance of adaptation is in its infancy in this regard. We argue that climate adaptation governance would benefit from systematic and yet flexible decision-making tools and methods such as participatory multicriteria methods for the evaluation of adaptation options, and that these methods can be linked to key adaptive governance principles. Moving from these premises, we propose a framework that integrates key adaptive governance features into participatory multicriteria methods for the governance of climate adaptation.

  13. 42 CFR 494.180 - Condition: Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Governance. 494.180 Section 494.180... Administration § 494.180 Condition: Governance. The ESRD facility is under the control of an identifiable governing body, or designated person(s) with full legal authority and responsibility for the governance and...

  14. 42 CFR 460.62 - Governing body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Governing body. 460.62 Section 460.62 Public Health... Administrative Requirements § 460.62 Governing body. (a) Governing body. A PACE organization must be operating under the control of an identifiable governing body (for example, a board of directors) or a designated...

  15. Corporate Governance, Sustainability and Capital Markets Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela M. Salvioni; Francesca Gennari

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted principles of effective corporate governance have taken hold in the context of different models of governance, whose implementation is also linked to the share structure of the companies and to the dynamics of risk’s capital markets. Global companies need a global approach in the acquisition of consensus and financial resources, first of all through a correct development of the corporate governance activities and promoting a market-driven management inspired by long-term su...

  16. Good government and good governance: record keeping in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the challenges that arise when record keeping systems are advocated as a necessary under-pinning for good government and good governance. The relationship between record keeping and accountability is analysed and contextualised in relation to transparency and Freedom of Information ...

  17. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  18. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  19. Applied predictive analytics principles and techniques for the professional data analyst

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Learn the art and science of predictive analytics - techniques that get results Predictive analytics is what translates big data into meaningful, usable business information. Written by a leading expert in the field, this guide examines the science of the underlying algorithms as well as the principles and best practices that govern the art of predictive analytics. It clearly explains the theory behind predictive analytics, teaches the methods, principles, and techniques for conducting predictive analytics projects, and offers tips and tricks that are essential for successful predictive mode

  20. The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency. Latest Status (Spanish Edition); Texto Revisado de Los Principios Rectores n Normas Generales de Ejecucion Para la Prestacion de Asistencia Tecnica por el Organismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-15

    The Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules to Govern the Provision of Technical Assistance by the Agency were approved by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1979. The test is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The provisions established by the Board of Governors on 24 September 1977 for the application of safeguards in relation to the granting of technical assistance are also reproduced in the Annex to the Revised Guiding Principles and General Operating Rules. [Spanish] El 21 de febrero de 1979 la Junta de Gobernadores aprobo el texto revisado de los Principios rectores y normas generales de ejecucion para la prestacion de asistencia tecnica por el Organismo. Para informacion de todos los Estados Miembros, en el presente documento se transcribe dicho texto. En el Anexo del texto revisado de los Principios rectores y normas generales de ejecucion se transcriben tambien las disposiciones prescritas por la Junta de Gobernadores el 24 de septiembre de 1977 acerca de la aplicacion de salvaguardias en relacion con la asistencia tecnica.

  1. Thematic report on public governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouder, F.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the FSC workshop was to learn from the process that led to the ratification by the Finnish Parliament, on 18 May 2001, of the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. One of the objectives clearly expressed by the NEA was to help government to make the right decisions, including by looking at successful policy making and decision-making practices. This gave 'Public Governance' issues a prominent role in the debates. In addition, the meeting was conceived as a discussion between stakeholders, which, interestingly, also made it an exercise in 'Public Governance'. This purpose of this report is to identify some key governance lessons that emerged from looking at this process in detail. It looks at the difficult policy context in which the Decision in Principle had to be taken. It highlights the governance challenge that emerged and suggests some key findings that could possibly be relevant in other similar circumstances. (author)

  2. Exposing the “One China” Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-yuan Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, when the governments from both sides across the Taiwan Strait began having contacts, both of them, at the People’s Republic of China (PRC’s request, expressed verbally, and in relation to functional issues, that they advocated the “one China” principle, though what “one China” actually meant was open to different interpretations, and the shift that elevated the 1992 “one China” interpretations from the functional level to the political level did not occur until April 2005. Since President Tsai Ing-wen was sworn in and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP became the ruling party of the Republic of China (ROC on Taiwan in early 2016, the PRC has used Tsai’s rejection of this so-called “1992 consensus” as a pretext to discontinue all intergovernmental communication channels with the ROC on Taiwan, while also cutting down on cross-strait civil exchanges in travel and education. This thinkpiece article aims to scrutinise this “one China” principle, how it has developed over the years, and expose its underlying realities.

  3. Proposal on state affairs and government system for next government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-15

    The contents of this book are introduction of need of study and purpose, building ecosystem to create jobs, consolidation of social innovation to improve life quality, construction of infrastructure to revitalize region, construction of new digital ecosystem, building of effective intellectual property system, creation of future competitiveness with scientific technology, establishment of raising of creative person and comprehensive discussion on reorganization of government system like need, principle, feature, difficulty, and arrangement of discussion.

  4. Proposal on state affairs and government system for next government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of need of study and purpose, building ecosystem to create jobs, consolidation of social innovation to improve life quality, construction of infrastructure to revitalize region, construction of new digital ecosystem, building of effective intellectual property system, creation of future competitiveness with scientific technology, establishment of raising of creative person and comprehensive discussion on reorganization of government system like need, principle, feature, difficulty, and arrangement of discussion.

  5. Alignment between business process governance and IT governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Møller, Charles; Hvam, Lars

    2014-01-01

    frameworks to enable business-IT strategic alignment, efficient process and IT requirements specification, and IT-enabled business value realization. We examine the actuality of this alignment in practice through a case study conducted in a relatively mature multinational corporation. The findings indicate......The importance of business processes and the increasing centrality of IT to an organization's performance have called for a specific focus on business process governance and IT governance in contemporary enterprises. Despite the wide scope of business process management, which covers both business...... and IT domains, and the profound impact of IT on process innovations, the association between business process governance and IT governance remains under-explored. Analyzing the constituting elements of the two governance concepts, we propose the necessity of alignment between business process and IT governance...

  6. BNNTs under the influence of external electric field as potential new drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmanzadeh, Davood; Ghazanfary, Samereh

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solvation energies show that the BNNTs/amino acids complex stabilizes in presence of solvent. • The adsorption process is sensitive to the external electric field. • The electric field is a suitable method for adsorption and storage of amino acids on BNNTs. - Abstract: The interaction of Glu (Glutamic acid), Lys (Lysine), Gly (Glycine) and Ser (Serine) amino acids with different polarities and (9, 0) zigzag single-wall boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with various lengths in the presence and absence of external electric field (EF) in gas and solvent phases, are studied using density functional theory. It is found that interaction of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids with BNNTs in both phases is energetically favorable. From solvation energy calculations, it can be seen that the BNNTs/amino acid complex dissolution in water is spontaneous. The adsorption energies and quantum molecular descriptors changed in the presence of external EF. Therefore, the study of BNNTs/amino acid complex under influence of external electric field is very important in proposing or designing new drug delivery systems in the presence of external EF. Results indicate that Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids can be adsorbed considerably on the BNNTs in the existence of external electric field. Our results showed that the BNNTs can act as a suitable drug delivery vehicle of Glu, Lys, Gly and Ser amino acids within biological systems and strength of adsorption and rate of drug release can be controlled by the external EF

  7. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Reminder Given the current state of the financial markets and the continuing uncertainty as to their future evolution, we begin by reiterating the introductory statement of the last report from the Pension Fund: "The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position." Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board (PFGB) The PFGB held its ninth and tenth meetings on 1st December 2008 and 11 February 2009 respectively. At the ninth meeting, the Governing Board bade farewell to P. Lambert, who had been an expert member since November 2007 and a membe...

  8. Progress in classical and quantum variational principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C G; Karl, G; Novikov, V A

    2004-01-01

    We review the development and practical uses of a generalized Maupertuis least action principle in classical mechanics in which the action is varied under the constraint of fixed mean energy for the trial trajectory. The original Maupertuis (Euler-Lagrange) principle constrains the energy at every point along the trajectory. The generalized Maupertuis principle is equivalent to Hamilton's principle. Reciprocal principles are also derived for both the generalized Maupertuis and the Hamilton principles. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle is the classical limit of Schroedinger's variational principle of wave mechanics and is also very useful to solve practical problems in both classical and semiclassical mechanics, in complete analogy with the quantum Rayleigh-Ritz method. Classical, semiclassical and quantum variational calculations are carried out for a number of systems, and the results are compared. Pedagogical as well as research problems are used as examples, which include nonconservative as well as relativistic systems. '... the most beautiful and important discovery of Mechanics.' Lagrange to Maupertuis (November 1756)

  9. Politics and health in eight European countries: a comparative study of mortality decline under social democracies and right-wing governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, José A Tapia

    2010-09-01

    Recent publications have argued that the welfare state is an important determinant of population health, and that social democracy in office and higher levels of health expenditure promote health progress. In the period 1950-2000, Greece, Portugal, and Spain were the poorest market economies in Europe, with a fragmented system of welfare provision, and many years of military or authoritarian right-wing regimes. In contrast, the five Nordic countries were the richest market economies in Europe, governed mostly by center or center-left coalitions often including the social democratic parties, and having a generous and universal welfare state. In spite of the socioeconomic and political differences, and a large gap between the five Nordic and the three southern nations in levels of health in 1950, population health indicators converged among these eight countries. Mean decadal gains in longevity of Portugal and Spain between 1950 and 2000 were almost three times greater than gains in Denmark, and about twice as great as those in Iceland, Norway and Sweden during the same period. All this raises serious doubts regarding the hypothesis that the political regime, the political party in office, the level of health care spending, and the type of welfare state exert major influences on population health. Either these factors are not major determinants of mortality decline, or their impact on population health in Nordic countries was more than offset by other health-promoting factors present in Southern Europe. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. First-principles investigations on structural, elastic, dynamical, and thermal properties of earth-abundant nitride semiconductor CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ying-Qin; Liu, Lei; Cheng, Yan [Sichuan Univ. (China). College of Physical Science and Technology; Hu, Cui E. [Chongqing Normal Univ. (China). College of Physics and Electronic Engineering; Cai, Ling-Cang [CAEP, Mianyang (China). National Key Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research

    2017-04-01

    We presented a detailed first-principal calculation to study the structural, elastic, dynamical, and thermal properties of a new synthetic ternary zinc nitride semiconductors CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} using the generalised gradient approximation (GGA) method. The obtained lattice parameters of CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} at 0 K and 0 GPa are in good agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical findings. The pressure dependences of the elastic constants C{sub ij} together with other derived mechanical properties of CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} compound have also been systematically investigated. The results reveal that CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} is mechanically stable up to 20 GPa. The calculated the phonon curves and phonon density of states under different pressures indicate that the CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} compound maintains its dynamical stability up to 20 GPa. An analysis in terms of the irreducible representations of group theory obtained the optical vibration modes of this system, and we obtained the frequencies of the optical vibrational modes at Γ points together with the atoms that contributed to these vibrations of CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2}. Meanwhile, the pressure dependencies of the frequencies Raman-active and IR-active modes at 0-20 GPa have been studied. The quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA) was applied to calculate the thermal properties of CaZn{sub 2}N{sub 2} as functions of pressures and temperatures such as the heat capacity, thermal expansions, the entropy, and Grueneisen parameter γ.

  11. Scientific principles underlying the production of metallurgy-grade formed coke from weakly baking coals. Nauchnye osnovy proizvodstva formovannogo metallurgicheskogo koksa iz slabospekayushchikhsya uglei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranskaya, G.V.; Tyutyunnikov, Yu.B.; Erkin, L.I.; Nefedov, P.Ya.; Sheptovitskii, M.S.; Toryanik, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    Coking coal resources of the USSR are nonuniformly distributed among major coal basins (Donetsk 26%, Pechora 7%, Kizelovsk and L'vov-Volyn' 0.5% each, Kuznetsk 48.2%, Karaganda 7%, South Yakutiya 4.4%, others 7.4%). Only one-third of the resources are available in the European area of the USSR where the demand for blast-furnace coke is greater. The use of weakly baking and nonbaking coals for the production of metallurgy-grade formed coke has been found to be the simplest way to avoid transportation of fat components of coking blends and to cut the cost of pig iron production under Soviet circumstances. Commercial production of the formed coke should enable the blast-furnace coke production to be raised by 15 Mio t/a now and by 20-22 Mio t/a in the nearest future without the structure of the Soviet coal production being significantly affected. The book describes technical properties of the gas, weakly baking and long-flame coals (G, SS and D types, respectively) from Donetsk, Kuznetsk, Irkutsk and Karaganda coal basins used as coking blend components, discusses many scientific and technological aspects of the industrial-scale process (i.e. thermal pretreatment of coal with a gaseous heat-carrier, effect of pressure on the plastic layer formation in weakly baking coal blends, coke oven construction), and reviews technical properties of formed coke (shape and size of coke lumps, drum strength, macro- and microstructure, thermal stability, reactivity) used in the blast-furnace process. 122 refs., 118 figs., 87 tabs.

  12. Hooke's Law: Applications of a Recurring Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Briggs, Whitney S.; Palani, Gurunanthan; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Students generally approach topics in physiology as a series of unrelated phenomena that share few underlying principles. However, if students recognized that the same underlying principles can be used to explain many physiological phenomena, they may gain a more unified understanding of physiological systems. To address this concern, we…

  13. OIG News Release: Former EPA official sentenced to 32 months in prison for defrauding government under ‘CIA agent’ guise

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON – John C. Beale, a former employee of the EPA, today was sentenced to 32 months in prison following a plea agreement in which he admitted perpetrating multiple frauds under the bogus guise of performing undercover work as a CIA agent.

  14. Symbiotic architecture: Redefinition of recycling design principles

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Šijaković; Ana Perić

    2018-01-01

    The study seeks to examine the possibility of implementing the biological concept of symbiosis into the field of architecture for redefining the design principles of architectural recycling. Through an in-depth analysis of the biological concept of symbiosis (i.e., a close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species and the criteria that govern the differentiation between symbiotic associations), three redefined design principles of recycling—commensalism,...

  15. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  16. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  17. Food and Nutrition (UnGovernance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sarmento

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses, from a political economy perspective, the complexity of food and nutrition security governance, including different views underlying the expected role that such governance should play in agriculture food security and nutrition.

  18. The governance of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Whitman

    2007-01-01

    Despite the promises made for nanotechology, its direction and momentum as it has developed to date already pose very considerable problems of regulation and control in quite fundamental ways. This article will review these difficulties under four themes. First, the principal agents for framing governance agreements (states) are also the principal proponents of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Second, the speed of new advances in nanotechnology and the reach of their implications are already o...

  19. Hospital utilization and out of pocket expenditure in public and private sectors under the universal government health insurance scheme in Chhattisgarh State, India: Lessons for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen; Dixit, Priyanka

    2017-01-01

    further examine the roles of public and private sectors in financial risk protection through government health insurance.

  20. Hospital utilization and out of pocket expenditure in public and private sectors under the universal government health insurance scheme in Chhattisgarh State, India: Lessons for universal health coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulakshana Nandi

    the need to further examine the roles of public and private sectors in financial risk protection through government health insurance.

  1. RISK MANAGEMENT - AT THE CONVERGENCE BETWEEN PRUDENCE AND CONTINUITY, A BASIS FOR AN EFFICIENT GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Geanina, TUDOSE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The accountancy principles are sine qua non for a faithful image, nevertheless when it is about evaluation, accountancy is considered a source of uncertainty. The principle of being prudent is the pillar of accountancy having a view to protect the invested capital, although under the conditions of organizations development and of the desire to better results, which inevitably implies risk, this would infringe initiatives and change. Even more, prudence offers a continuity in organization activity, becoming accountancy fundamentals in the principles of corporation governance, the organization management respectively, by accepting the benefits of risk management, of financial management and internal control under the monitor of internal audit. The activity continuity is not only an accountancy principle but also an absolutely necessary element to quarantee the financial information. The principle of continuity also confers the accountancy science a provisional role because it extends its action from a simple elaboration of financial statements to the assurance of financial information to prevent difficulties, the finding and removal of risk and offering the necessary factors for an efficient provisional management. A good governance within a company reduces risks, increases performance, opens the way to financial markets, improves the marketing capacity for goods and services, the management style, shows transparency and social responsability.

  2. Quasi-static responses and variational principles in gradient plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Son

    2016-12-01

    Gradient models have been much discussed in the literature for the study of time-dependent or time-independent processes such as visco-plasticity, plasticity and damage. This paper is devoted to the theory of Standard Gradient Plasticity at small strain. A general and consistent mathematical description available for common time-independent behaviours is presented. Our attention is focussed on the derivation of general results such as the description of the governing equations for the global response and the derivation of related variational principles in terms of the energy and the dissipation potentials. It is shown that the quasi-static response under a loading path is a solution of an evolution variational inequality as in classical plasticity. The rate problem and the rate minimum principle are revisited. A time-discretization by the implicit scheme of the evolution equation leads to the increment problem. An increment of the response associated with a load increment is a solution of a variational inequality and satisfies also a minimum principle if the energy potential is convex. The increment minimum principle deals with stables solutions of the variational inequality. Some numerical methods are discussed in view of the numerical simulation of the quasi-static response.

  3. Contemporary treatment principles for early rheumatoid arthritis: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Patrick D W; Brown, Andrew K; Edwards, Christopher J; O'Reilly, David T; Ostör, Andrew J K; Quinn, Mark; Taggart, Allister; Taylor, Peter C; Wakefield, Richard J; Conaghan, Philip G

    2009-07-01

    RA has a substantial impact on both patients and healthcare systems. Our objective is to advance the understanding of modern management principles in light of recent evidence concerning the condition's diagnosis and treatment. A group of practicing UK rheumatologists formulated contemporary management principles and clinical practice recommendations concerning both diagnosis and treatment. Areas of clinical uncertainty were documented, leading to research recommendations. A fundamental concept governing treatment of RA is minimization of cumulative inflammation, referred to as the inflammation-time area under the curve (AUC). To achieve this, four core principles of management were identified: (i) detect and refer patients early, even if the diagnosis is uncertain: patients should be referred at the first suspicion of persistent inflammatory polyarthritis and rheumatology departments should provide rapid access to a diagnostic and prognostic service; (ii) treat RA immediately: optimizing outcomes with conventional DMARDs and biologics requires that effective treatment be started early-ideally within 3 months of symptom onset; (iii) tight control of inflammation in RA improves outcome: frequent assessments and an objective protocol should be used to make treatment changes that maintain low-disease activity/remission at an agreed target; (iv) consider the risk-benefit ratio and tailor treatment to each patient: differing patient, disease and drug characteristics require long-term monitoring of risks and benefits with adaptations of treatments to suit individual circumstances. These principles focus on effective control of the inflammatory process in RA, but optimal uptake may require changes in service provision to accommodate appropriate care pathways.

  4. LEGAL PRINCIPLES IN FUNCTION AND PERFORMANCE OF BOT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifon Cristabella Eventia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT represents a long term partnership of the government and private sector. In BOT project, either the government or a private sector identifies a need for a development project. The philosophy in BOT contract begins from the increasing infrastructural needs in all areas and with a limited budget, government are required to commit the duties and functions state governance so that the concept of BOT give a solution through a partnership with the private sector. The government then gives a concession to the private sector to build the project and operate it for a fixed period years, after the period ended, the building shall be transferred to the government. Through BOT, the country is able to gain asset without government spending while maintaining a measure of regulatory control over the project. BOT permits the government to use private sector fund to finance public infrastructure development. The main issues elaborated in this article are the legal principle in the formation of BOT contract and the legal principle in the performance of BOT contract. There are two results; firstly, in the formation of a BOT contract, the principles of partnership and the principle of transparency should be emphasized. Secondly, in performance of the BOT contract, the principle of risk management and the principle of proportionality should be clearly stated in the rules and legal norms.

  5. Prospects and Challenges of Corporate Governance in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Agyemang, Otuo Serebour; Aboagye, Emmanuel; Ahali, Aaron Yao Ofoe

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of corporate governance principles in the management of corporate organisations cannot be underestimated. The increasing influence of principles of corporate governance across the globe has been greatly linked to the recent corporate frauds and scandals. These frauds and scandals largely resulted from the failure of authorities of countries to effectively implement the legal and regulatory frameworks pertaining to corporate governance. Ghana is archetypal in regards to the failu...

  6. Government or Non-Government Schools: A British Colonial Legacy and Its Aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clive

    This paper discusses voluntary schools in the former British colonies of Singapore, Malaysia, and Fiji, and the relevance of some aspects of voluntaryism for government schooling in Australia. The first section presents the historical background to the voluntary principle by which schools are owned and operated by non-government agencies assisted…

  7. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ROMANIA. EVOLUTION AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUȘAN GABRIELA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to slow way to political, legal, social and economic reform, the corporate governance appears in Romania, from concept and filing, until the early 2000`s. This paper analyzes the evolution of corporate governance in the period 2000-2015, it is presented the OECD principles of corporate governance of companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange and it analyse the situation of the public entities who had the obligation to apply the provisions of O.U.G 109/2011 on corporate governance of public entities and to publish on its Web site the Annual Report

  8. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this framework and provide the balance for all governance domains. (aut.ref.)

  9. The Specificity Principle in Acculturation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    The Specificity Principle in Acculturation Science asserts that specific setting conditions of specific people at specific times moderate specific domains in acculturation by specific processes. Our understanding of acculturation depends critically on what is studied where, in whom, how, and when. This article defines, explains, and illustrates the Specificity Principle in Acculturation Science. Research hypotheses about acculturation can be more adequately tested, inconsistencies and discrepancies in the acculturation literature can be satisfactorily resolved, acculturation interventions can be tailored to be more successful, and acculturation policies can be brought to new levels of effectiveness if the specificity principle that governs acculturation science is more widely recognized. PMID:28073331

  10. Business Climate and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besmira Manaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of three factors, namely: Good Governance, Business Climate and Corruption. How they affect the development product of Albania, not only as a concept, and a principle but mostly as a sensitive aspect in the integration process. There are some interpretations of this concept, but I intend to analyze the key factors and actors, their cooperation and concrete production in society. Improving governance is necessary to have an integrated long term strategy based upon a continuous cooperation between institutions and citizens. But in developing countries like Albania there are some important questions such as: How can we measure the improvement of Good Governance through policies? Has Good Governance indicated an effective way for the sustainable development? (Meisel, 2008, 6. These question give us the orientation to reflect about the process of development, social economic political behavior and how this multidimensional is transformed in product of good governance. The business cycle is strongly connected with many aspects of political-, social-, juridical aspects and good governance. Despite attempts to draft law regulations, the level of corruption and informality in Albania continues to be a major obstacle. The credibility level in the implementation of law is an indicator that affects democratization and institutional integration. At present, different reports of international institutions, define Albania as the country with the highest level of Corruption in the Balkans, which is a key factor influencing business. The ways with

  11. Population health management guiding principles to stimulate collaboration and improve pharmaceutical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamer, Betty; Baan, Caroline; Putters, Kim; van Oers, Hans; Drewes, Hanneke

    2018-04-09

    Purpose A range of strategies to improve pharmaceutical care has been implemented by population health management (PHM) initiatives. However, which strategies generate the desired outcomes is largely unknown. The purpose of this paper is to identify guiding principles underlying collaborative strategies to improve pharmaceutical care and the contextual factors and mechanisms through which these principles operate. Design/methodology/approach The evaluation was informed by a realist methodology examining the links between PHM strategies, their outcomes and the contexts and mechanisms by which these strategies operate. Guiding principles were identified by grouping context-specific strategies with specific outcomes. Findings In total, ten guiding principles were identified: create agreement and commitment based on a long-term vision; foster cooperation and representation at the board level; use layered governance structures; create awareness at all levels; enable interpersonal links at all levels; create learning environments; organize shared responsibility; adjust financial strategies to market contexts; organize mutual gains; and align regional agreements with national policies and regulations. Contextual factors such as shared savings influenced the effectiveness of the guiding principles. Mechanisms by which these guiding principles operate were, for instance, fostering trust and creating a shared sense of the problem. Practical implications The guiding principles highlight how collaboration can be stimulated to improve pharmaceutical care while taking into account local constraints and possibilities. The interdependency of these principles necessitates effectuating them together in order to realize the best possible improvements and outcomes. Originality/value This is the first study using a realist approach to understand the guiding principles underlying collaboration to improve pharmaceutical care.

  12. Agreement Between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities. Addition to the List of Facilities Subject to Safeguards Under the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities (hereinafter “the Agreement”), India shall notify the Agency in writing of its decision to offer any facility identified by India for Agency safeguards under the Agreement. Any facility so notified by India becomes subject to the Agreement as of the date of receipt by the Agency of such written notification from India, and is to be included in the Annex to the Agreement. On 11 March 2014, the Agency received from India written notification, pursuant to Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement, of its decision to bring one additional facility under safeguards in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. Pursuant to Paragraph 14 4(a) of the Agreement, the Annex to the Agreement has been updated and is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency

  13. Governança corporativa na América Latina: a relevância dos princípios da OCDE na integridade dos conselhos e autonomia dos conselheiros Corporate governance in Latin America: the relevance of OECD principles for the board's integrity and directors' independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Kitagawa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os conselhos de administração são caracterizados como um importante elemento da boa governança corporativa. Nesse sentido, este trabalho busca identificar as práticas de governança das empresas latino-americanas aos princípios recomendados pela Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico, OCDE, para essa região (Brasil, Argentina, México e Chile. Dentre os sete princípios por ela recomendados para a América Latina, este trabalho tem como foco apenas o quinto princípio, que trata das "Responsabilidades do Conselho de Administração", mais especificadamente das recomendações com respeito à "Integridade dos Conselhos e Autonomia dos Conselheiros". O principal objetivo é de verificar o posicionamento das empresas em relação às responsabilidades e a supervisão dos administradores como forma de garantir o controle e os resultados esperados pelos acionistas. Para atingir esse objetivo, formulou-se um questionário que expressa as principais recomendações de governança da OCDE para a América Latina e confrontou-se com as legislações desses quatro países e com as práticas societárias das empresas da amostra, de modo a identificar procedimentos adicionais em relação aos exigidos pela legislação. Os resultados evidenciam que o México é o país com maior índice de atendimento às recomendações da OCDE, seguido do Brasil, Argentina e Chile. Os principais pontos fracos, de modo geral, são a ausência de comitês específicos, compostos, no mínimo, por maioria de conselheiros independentes, e proibições de práticas como reuniões prévias ou instruções de voto dadas por acionistas controladores a conselheiros.Boards of directors are characterized as important elements for good corporate governance. In this regard, the present study aims to associate governance practices of Latin American companies to the principles recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD, for

  14. Occupational Pension Funds (IORPs) & Sustainability: What does the Prudent Person Principle say?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horváthová, Alexandra; Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian; Ulfbeck, Vibe Garf

    2017-01-01

    The European Union encourages individuals to save in private and occupational pension funds to complement their state saving-plans. Throughout their lives, employers directly sponsor occupational retirement saving plans, so individual employees may top up their future pensions. While the European...... Union clearly supports the formation and cross-border participation in these financial vehicles by adopting EU regulatory framework, the EU has also decided to determine a common investment decision standard to be used in all Member States, called the Prudent Person Principle. According...... to this principle, the fund - the future retirement for many - shall be managed with care, the skill of an expert, prudence and due diligence. Under this principle, the pension fund’s governing body is given a broad authority to invest the pension assets in a prudent fashion in light of the particular investment...... plan of a fund. At the same time, the EU is also moving towards more Responsible Investment and inclusion of the ESG-principles (Environment, Social and Governance). The question we aim to answer in this paper is how these two principles co-exist and whether, due to the new Directive adopted...

  15. Developmental principles: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durston, A J

    2012-01-01

    While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, "whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm". We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level?) adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  16. Developmental Principles: Fact or Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Durston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While still at school, most of us are deeply impressed by the underlying principles that so beautifully explain why the chemical elements are ordered as they are in the periodic table, and may wonder, with the theoretician Brian Goodwin, “whether there might be equally powerful principles that account for the awe-inspiring diversity of body forms in the living realm”. We have considered the arguments for developmental principles, conclude that they do exist and have specifically identified features that may generate principles associated with Hox patterning of the main body axis in bilaterian metazoa in general and in the vertebrates in particular. We wonder whether this exercise serves any purpose. The features we discuss were already known to us as parts of developmental mechanisms and defining developmental principles (how, and at which level? adds no insight. We also see little profit in the proposal by Goodwin that there are principles outside the emerging genetic mechanisms that need to be taken into account. The emerging developmental genetic hierarchies already reveal a wealth of interesting phenomena, whatever we choose to call them.

  17. From Co-Management to Landscape Governance: Whither Ghana’s Modified Taungya System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam A. F. Ros-Tonen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource management literature has documented three paradigm shifts over the past decade: from co-management to adaptive co-management and adaptive governance respectively and, more recently, towards landscape governance. The latter is conceived as a governance approach towards negotiated land use at the landscape level to deal with global challenges such as food insecurity, climate change and biodiversity loss. There is not a lot of clarity about how co-management systems could actually evolve into landscape governance. This paper aims to address the gap by exploring how a stalled co-management system for the reforestation of degraded forest areas—the modified taungya system (MTS in Ghana—could be revitalised and redesigned as a landscape approach. Drawing on case studies and expert consultation, the performance of the national MTS and the MTS under the Community Forestry Management Project is reviewed with regard to five principles (integrated approach, multi-stakeholder negotiation, polycentric governance, continual learning and adaptive capacity and three enabling conditions (social capital, bridging organisations and long-term funding distilled from the literature. The authors conclude that some of these principles and conditions were met under the Community Forestry Management Project, but that continual learning, transcending jurisdictional boundaries, developing adaptive capacity, and long-term funding and benefits still pose challenges.

  18. Ion exchange : principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bank, Nader; Majumdar, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a brief state-of-the-art review of the basic principles underlying the unit operation of ion exchange and its numerous and diverse commercial applications. A selective bibliography is provided for the benefit of the reader interested in pursuing any specific aspect of ion exchange. (author)

  19. GM Food. Fundamental safety principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena GALLARDO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a concise exposition of some of the most basic legal principles linked to the process of evaluation of genetically modified food safety, revealing their most salient features and also highlighting the deficiencies that some of them bring along in their application to the products under study.

  20. Integrating Principles Underlying Ancestral Spirits Belief in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , associated with ancestral spirits and its use as powerful therapeutic agent for influencing behavior or lifestyle changes. Explanatory models of attachment to ancestral spirits by living descendants are first discussed, followed by a discussion ...

  1. Governance and Youth Participation in local policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Haaber Pettersen, Charlotte Louise; Aro, Arja R.

    2016-01-01

    research strategy was applied to examine these two case studies. Data was collected under the REPOPA Project (Research into Policy to enhance Physical Activity) though semi-structures interviews (N=11), analysed through content analysis and supported by analysis of 123 background documents. Results: Youth...... was involved in policy making only through adult representation. These adult stakeholders became part of participatory governance in developing the healthy public policies in both Odense and Esbjerg municipalities. Conclusion: Youth participation in local HEPA policy making in Esbjerg and Odense did not meet...... the Danish principle of participatory policy process and good health system governance. Main messages: Mechanisms to facilitate youth participation in policy making in the study communities were lacking. The Danish goal of improved participatory policy making at the local level was not met....

  2. Can complex cellular processes be governed by simple linear rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajoo, Kumar; Tomita, Masaru; Tsuchiya, Masa

    2009-02-01

    Complex living systems have shown remarkably well-orchestrated, self-organized, robust, and stable behavior under a wide range of perturbations. However, despite the recent generation of high-throughput experimental datasets, basic cellular processes such as division, differentiation, and apoptosis still remain elusive. One of the key reasons is the lack of understanding of the governing principles of complex living systems. Here, we have reviewed the success of perturbation-response approaches, where without the requirement of detailed in vivo physiological parameters, the analysis of temporal concentration or activation response unravels biological network features such as causal relationships of reactant species, regulatory motifs, etc. Our review shows that simple linear rules govern the response behavior of biological networks in an ensemble of cells. It is daunting to know why such simplicity could hold in a complex heterogeneous environment. Provided physical reasons can be explained for these phenomena, major advancement in the understanding of basic cellular processes could be achieved.

  3. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  4. Ablation of an Ovarian Tumor Family Deubiquitinase Exposes the Underlying Regulation Governing the Plasticity of Cell Cycle Progression in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Animesh; de Paula Baptista, Rodrigo; Kissinger, Jessica C; Snow, E Charles; Sinai, Anthony P

    2017-11-21

    The Toxoplasma genome encodes the capacity for distinct architectures underlying cell cycle progression in a life cycle stage-dependent manner. Replication in intermediate hosts occurs by endodyogeny, whereas a hybrid of schizogony and endopolygeny occurs in the gut of the definitive feline host. Here, we characterize the consequence of the loss of a cell cycle-regulated o varian tu mor (OTU family) deubiquitinase, OTUD3A of Toxoplasma gondii (TgOTUD3A; TGGT1_258780), in T. gondii tachyzoites. Rather than the mutation being detrimental, mutant parasites exhibited a fitness advantage, outcompeting the wild type. This phenotype was due to roughly one-third of TgOTUD3A-knockout (TgOTUD3A-KO) tachyzoites exhibiting deviations from endodyogeny by employing replication strategies that produced 3, 4, or 5 viable progeny within a gravid mother instead of the usual 2. We established the mechanistic basis underlying these altered replication strategies to be a dysregulation of centrosome duplication, causing a transient loss of stoichiometry between the inner and outer cores that resulted in a failure to terminate S phase at the attainment of 2N ploidy and/or the decoupling of mitosis and cytokinesis. The resulting dysregulation manifested as deviations in the normal transitions from S phase to mitosis (S/M) (endopolygeny-like) or M phase to cytokinesis (M/C) (schizogony-like). Notably, these imbalances are corrected prior to cytokinesis, resulting in the generation of normal progeny. Our findings suggest that decisions regarding the utilization of specific cell cycle architectures are controlled by a ubiquitin-mediated mechanism that is dependent on the absolute threshold levels of an as-yet-unknown target(s). Analysis of the TgOTUD3A-KO mutant provides new insights into mechanisms underlying the plasticity of apicomplexan cell cycle architecture. IMPORTANCE Replication by Toxoplasma gondii can occur by 3 distinct cell cycle architectures. Endodyogeny is used by asexual

  5. The terms 'current scientific knowledge', and 'precautionary measures to provide protection' in the provisions governing the licensing procedure under the Atomic Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renneberg, W.

    1986-01-01

    Under the Atomic Energy Act, a licence may be granted for a nuclear installation provided that 'every precaution which is necessary in the light of existing scientific knowledge and technology has been taken to provide adequate protection against damage due to the erection or operation of the installation' (section 7, sub-sec. (2), no. 3 of the Atomic Energy Act). This condition can be split off into two specific problem fields, and for each a rather unspecific legal concept is to be more exactly defined. The author explains the technique of the law hitherto applied in the weighting and evaluation of hazards and risks and comes to the conclusion that the technique adopted has been subject to pre-legal appraisals: the result in terms of the law is not the final step in the process of legal evaluation, but quite to the contrary, the legal technique applied has been derived from the wanted result. This, the author says, is a crisis of legitimation of the law. (HSCH) [de

  6. An Anatomico -physiological Principle Governing the Direction of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogmatic statements about the direction of the folds are often made. Radiologists have long been aware of mucosal movements, but after the fundamental work of Forssell, no further views have been put forward. Radiological procedures have been used to investigate the normal, macroscopic, physiological movements of ...

  7. Bernard Bekink's principles of South African Local Government Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 3 (2006) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Principles Governing the Mechanics and Control of Snake Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-26

    small, potentially evasive target with an impact sufficient for prey capture but without 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13...strike a small, potentially evasive target with an impact sufficient for prey capture but without damaging their lightly-built skull. Although the...p o rt io n o f To ta l M as s Segment Number Boa/Python Mean Colubrid Mean Viper Mean Figure 3 – Proportion of body mass in each of 10 equal-length

  9. An Anatomico-physiological Principle Governing the Direction of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-09

    Mar 9, 1974 ... III waves, tone, peristalsis, rhythmic segmentation, and pendulum movements ... follows: the size of the gastric and intestinal lumen can be modified by reflex ..... dinal, thus forming longitudinal furrows which act as a conduit for ...

  10. Drying principles and theory: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    1995-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the fundamental principles and theories governing the drying process is presented. Basic definitions are given. The development of contemporary models of drying of agricultural products are traced from the earliest reported sorption and moisture equilibrium models, through the single kernel of product models to the thin layer and deep bed drying analysis. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs

  11. Three principles of competitive nonlinear pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Page Junior, Frank H.; Monteiro, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    We make three contributions to the theory of contracting under asymmetric information. First , we establish a competitive analog to the revelation principle which we call the implementation principle. This principle provides a complete characterization of all incentive compatible, indirect contracting mechanisms in terms of contract catalogs (or menus), and allows us to conclude that in competitive contracting situations, firms in choosing their contracting strategies can restrict attention, ...

  12. ESA and IPSAS: harmonization of government financial reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, F.; Haakman, L.

    2013-01-01

    The European statistical guidelines for governments - prescribing how to determine government deficit and debt under Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) guidelines - and international government accounting standards have many similarities: they are both accrual accounting systems and they report on

  13. Radiation protection principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari

    2007-01-01

    The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit

  14. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  15. Principles and applications of tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Desmond F

    1975-01-01

    Principles and Applications of Tribology provides a mechanical engineering perspective of the fundamental understanding and applications of tribology. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 16 chapters that cover the principles of friction and different types of lubrication. Chapter 1 deals with the immense scope of tribology and the range of applications in the existing technology, and Chapter 2 is devoted entirely to the evaluation and measurement of surface texture. Chapters 3 to 5 present the fundamental concepts underlying the friction of metals, elastomers, and other material

  16. Fiber optics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Azzawi, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser, our fascination with the photon has led to one of the most dynamic and rapidly growing fields of technology. New advances in fiber optic devices, components, and materials make it more important than ever to stay current. Comprising chapters drawn from the author's highly anticipated book Photonics: Principles and Practices, Fiber Optics: Principles and Practices offers a detailed and focused treatment for anyone in need of authoritative information on this critical area underlying photonics.Using a consistent approach, the author leads you step-by-step throug

  17. The Analysis of the Cost and Benefit About Government Regulation Under the Administrative Law---Taking License Plate Limit in Six Cities as the Example%行政法下政府规制成本与收益分析--以全国六个城市的限牌令为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖丽环

    2015-01-01

    限牌令的本质是政府规制工具当中的命令控制型工具,也是行政特许的一种。尽管就适当性原则的目的审查而言,限牌令的施行有合理的现实需求和考虑,但就合法性审查而言,仍然遭遇规制主体不独立、程序不合法的困境。探究限牌令是否在其他城市具有可复制性,要借助政府规制的成本与效益分析。具体而言,成本分析应考虑规制工具的选择因素以及立法、执法成本;效益分析应着重于风险和收益的平衡。据此,在中国语境下,政府规制应立足于提高规制型公共政策的可接受性、加强公私协力和自主规制在社会管理中的应用、发展公众参与型行政、完善替代性方案。%License plate limit in essence is one of the government regulation tools—command and control tool, which also belongs to the administrative franchise.Although license plate limit has reasonable practical needs from purpose review of rational principle, in terms of legality review, some problems still remain unsolved:lack of inde-pendent regulatory body and the legal procedure.As for whether or not license plate limit can be copied in other cities, the analysis of the cost and benefit about government regulation becomes vital.Specifically, the cost analysis should consider choice of a regulatory tool and the cost of legislation and enforcement while benefit analysis should focus on the balance between risks and benefits.Accordingly, under Chinese context, government regulation must be based on improving the acceptability of the public policy regulation, strengthening the application of public-private partnership and the independent regulation in social management, developing the administration with the participation of the public and perfecting the plans for alternative.

  18. The certainty principle (review)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbatsky, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    The certainty principle (2005) allowed to conceptualize from the more fundamental grounds both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (1927) and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation (1945). In this review I give detailed explanation and discussion of the certainty principle, oriented to all physicists, both theorists and experimenters.

  19. Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.

  20. The European Union and Multilateral Global Governance

    OpenAIRE

    BARROSO, José Manuel Durão

    2010-01-01

    The Global Governance Programme at the EUI. The world faces increasingly complex problems that have taken on global significance - including conflict and peace-building, humanitarian crises and intervention, international economic inequality and instability, and global environmental change. Global Governance points to the international framework of principles, processes and rules - and the set of institutions that uphold them - which are needed to tackle global problems. ‘Global governance’ h...

  1. Processes Governing Alkaline Groundwater Chemistry within a Fractured Rock (Ophiolitic Mélange Aquifer Underlying a Seasonally Inhabited Headwater Area in the Aladağlar Range (Adana, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Güler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate natural and anthropogenic processes governing the chemical composition of alkaline groundwater within a fractured rock (ophiolitic mélange aquifer underlying a seasonally inhabited headwater area in the Aladağlar Range (Adana, Turkey. In this aquifer, spatiotemporal patterns of groundwater flow and chemistry were investigated during dry (October 2011 and wet (May 2012 seasons utilizing 25 shallow hand-dug wells. In addition, representative samples of snow, rock, and soil were collected and analyzed to constrain the PHREEQC inverse geochemical models used for simulating water-rock interaction (WRI processes. Hydrochemistry of the aquifer shows a strong interseasonal variability where Mg–HCO3 and Mg–Ca–HCO3 water types are prevalent, reflecting the influence of ophiolitic and carbonate rocks on local groundwater chemistry. R-mode factor analysis of hydrochemical data hints at geochemical processes taking place in the groundwater system, that is, WRI involving Ca- and Si-bearing phases; WRI involving amorphous oxyhydroxides and clay minerals; WRI involving Mg-bearing phases; and atmospheric/anthropogenic inputs. Results from the PHREEQC modeling suggested that hydrogeochemical evolution is governed by weathering of primary minerals (calcite, chrysotile, forsterite, and chromite, precipitation of secondary minerals (dolomite, quartz, clinochlore, and Fe/Cr oxides, atmospheric/anthropogenic inputs (halite, and seasonal dilution from recharge.

  2. Government and governance strategies in medical tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even

  3. Engineering governance: introducing a governance meta framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this

  4. Governing the carbon offset market

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon offsets are produced and sold under the international climate change regime (the United Nations Kyoto Protocol) and also within an expanding voluntary offset market in which companies and individuals can voluntarily opt to compensate for their greenhouse gas emissions. The volume of carbon produced and consumed within compliance and voluntary markets has grown dramatically in the last 5 years, raising a number of governance challenges. This Focus Article gives an overview of the govern...

  5. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Limei Cao; Wanfu Li; Limin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the ri...

  6. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  7. The LeChatelier-Samuelson principle revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, E

    1992-01-01

    Within the context of a linear Leontief model, the LeChatelier-Samuelson principle examines the effects of an increase in some final demand on the output levels under the constraint that the production of certain goods is held at its original value. The principle states that the increase in any

  8. 31 CFR 29.321 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.321 Section 29.321 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER....321 General principle. Any service performed after June 30, 1997, may never be credited toward Federal...

  9. 31 CFR 29.341 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.341 Section 29.341 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER... Benefit Payments § 29.341 General principle. Except for disability retirements after June 30, 1997, and...

  10. 31 CFR 29.331 - General principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General principle. 29.331 Section 29.331 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT PAYMENTS UNDER... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.331 General principle. To determine whether service is creditable for the...

  11. The Comonotonic Sure-Thing Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Chew, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    This article identifies the common characterizing condition, the comonotonic sure-thing principle, that underlies the rank-dependent direction in non-expected utility. This condition restricts Savage's sure-thing principle to comonotonic acts, and is characterized in full generality by means of a

  12. 38 CFR 70.30 - Payment principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment principles. 70.30 Section 70.30 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VHA BENEFICIARY TRAVEL UNDER 38 U.S.C. 111 § 70.30 Payment principles. (a) Subject to the other provisions of this...

  13. 5 CFR 551.401 - Basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic principles. 551.401 Section 551.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work General Provisions § 551.401 Basic principles. (a) All time...

  14. The Europeanization of Health Care Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    that the EU has a significant impact and that we may be witnessing the formation of a new institutional legacy that represents the initiation of a Europeanized healthcare model: a model emerging around a new set of stakeholders, principles and structures, which includes the market, principles of free movement...... increasingly conspicuous and has contributed to a gradual restructuring of healthcare boundaries as well as of some of its organizing principles. Furthermore, the process and impact have a de-structuring effect on the more traditional governance tools used in relation to healthcare. The paper concludes...

  15. Dimensional cosmological principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle

  16. Aligning Requirements-Driven Software Processes with IT Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Huynh Anh, Vu; Kolp, Manuel; Heng, Samedi; Wautelet, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Requirements Engineering is closely intertwined with Information Technology (IT) Governance. Aligning IT Governance principles with Requirements-Driven Software Processes allows them to propose governance and management rules for software development to cope with stakeholders’ requirements and expectations. Typically, the goal of IT Governance in software engineering is to ensure that the results of a software organization business processes meet the strategic requirements of the organization...

  17. Brexit and government procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Dawar, Kamala

    2017-01-01

    This briefing paper looks at some of the legal issues that will affect the UK’s public procurement laws and policies following Brexit. For, once the UK revokes the European Communities Act 1972, it will no longer be obligated to follow the EU Procurement Directives, nor will it be subject to the commitments the EU has signed up to on behalf of the UK in the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) and in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Additionally, under the Devolution Settlement of ...

  18. Safety of spanish nuclear park. Analysis of the fundamental principles of security of nuclear facilities and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the fundamental principles underlying the safety of nuclear installations and activities, which defined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These principles determine the roles of government and responsibilities of the holders of power, explain how to achieve security and nuclear energy to justify the society, present and future and the environment from the risks of ionizing radiation, both and explain natural and man must be managed as waste that occur or have occurred in the past. (Author)

  19. Cognitive Principles in Metonymic Headlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Milkevich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on metonymy as a linguistic device. Traditionally metonymy is considered within the domain of stylistics. However, methods of cognitive linguistics help to penetrate into the essence of language phenomena and explain their nature as part f more general process of human cognition. Cognitive linguistics puts forward the hypothesis that the use of metonymy is governed by cognitive principles. They are based on our experience, perception and culture. The article presents a study of metonymy in political headlines and analyses the application of cognitive principles to metonymy. We analyse the cases of metonymy presented by proper nouns geographical names such as names of countries, capital, continents. We come to the conclusion that the concept «COUNTRY» is the metonymic vehicle in three types of models: most frequent types of metonymy are: «COUNTRY FOR ITS GOVERNMENT», «COUNTRY FOR EVENT» and «COUNTRY FOR ACTION». The concept «COUNTRY» can also be the target in metonymy types «CAPITAL FOR COUNTRY» and «CONTINENT FOR COUNTRIES». The leading cognitive principles in such types of metonymic relationships are: based on human experience «CONCRETE OVER ABSTRACT», «INERACTIONAL OVER NON-INTERACTIONAL»; based on perceptual selectivity «DOMINANT OVER LESS DOMINANT», «MORE OVER LESS»; based on cultural preference «CENTRAL OVER PERIPHERAL», «MORE IMPORTANT OVER LESS IMPORTANT».

  20. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  1. Federalism and multilevel governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wusten, H.; Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.; Secor, A.J.; Sharp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Federalism and multilevel governance both emphasize polycentricity in governing arrangements. With their different intellectual pedigrees, these concepts are discussed in two separate sections. Fragments are now increasingly mixed up in hybrid forms of governance that also encompass originally

  2. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  3. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  4. E-Government Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Rosiyadi, Didi; Suryana, Nana; Cahyana, Ade; Nuryani, Nuryani

    2007-01-01

    Makalah ini mengemukakan E-Government Dimension yang merupakan salah satu hasil TahapanPengumpulan Data, dimana tahapan ini adalah bagian dari penelitian kompetitif di Lembaga Ilmu PengetahuanIndonesia 2007 yang sekarang sedang dilakukan. Data E-Government Dimension ini didapatkan dari berbagaisumber yang meliputi E-Government beberapa Negara di dunia, E-Government yang dibangun oleh beberapapenyedia aplikasi E-Government. E-Government Dimension terdiri dari tiga dimensi yaitu DemocraticDimen...

  5. Governance matters: an ecological association between governance and child mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-09-01

    Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control. We obtained indicators of six dimensions of governance (perceptions of voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption) and national under-5 mortality rates for 149 countries between 1996 and 2010. We applied a semi-parametric generalized additive mixed model to examine associations after controlling for the effects of development factors (urbanization level and economy), disease control factors (hygienic conditions and vaccination rates), health expenditures, air quality, and time. Governance, development, and disease control showed clear inverse relations with the under-5 mortality rate (pcountry's need for better governance is as important as improvements in development and disease control. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. The four variational principles of mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.G.; Karl, G.; Novikov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    We argue that there are four basic forms of the variational principles of mechanics: Hamilton close-quote s least action principle (HP), the generalized Maupertuis principle (MP), and their two reciprocal principles, RHP and RMP. This set is invariant under reciprocity and Legendre transformations. One of these forms (HP) is in the literature: only special cases of the other three are known. The generalized MP has a weaker constraint compared to the traditional formulation, only the mean energy bar E is kept fixed between virtual paths. This reformulation of MP alleviates several weaknesses of the old version. The reciprocal Maupertuis principle (RMP) is the classical limit of Schroedinger close-quote s variational principle of quantum mechanics, and this connection emphasizes the importance of the reciprocity transformation for variational principles. Two unconstrained formulations (UHP and UMP) of these four principles are also proposed, with completely specified Lagrange multipliers Percival close-quote s variational principle for invariant tori and variational principles for scattering orbits are derived from the RMP. The RMP is very convenient for approximate variational solutions to problems in mechanics using Ritz type methods Examples are provided. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  7. Impacts, risks, and governance of climate engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate engineering is a potential alternative method to curb global warming, and this discipline has garnered considerable attention from the international scientific community including the Chinese scientists. This manuscript provides an overview of several aspects of climate engineering, including its definition, its potential impacts and risk, and its governance status. The overall conclusion is that China is not yet ready to implement climate engineering. However, it is important for China to continue conducting research on climate engineering, particularly with respect to its feasible application within China, its potential social, economic, and environmental impacts, and possible international governance structures and governing principles, with regard to both experimentation and implementation.

  8. Risk measurement with equivalent utility principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denuit, M.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.; Kaas, R.; Laeven, R.

    2006-01-01

    Risk measures have been studied for several decades in the actuarial literature, where they appeared under the guise of premium calculation principles. Risk measures and properties that risk measures should satisfy have recently received considerable attention in the financial mathematics

  9. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal org...... to Anna Grandori for numerous excellent comments on anearlier draft. The standard disclaimer applies.Keywords: Knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, governance, organizationaleconomics, organizational behavior.......An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...... organizational practices in order to foster knowledge sharing andcreation. Theoretically, we unfold this argument by relying on key ideas oforganizational economics and organizational behaviour studies. We put forwarda number of refutable propositions derived from this reasoning.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful...

  10. Kong Zi on Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Aaron T. Angeles

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will delve into the problem of Good Governance in the light of Kong Zi. What makes up a Just State? What are the elements that constitute a prosperous Kingdom? What principles of Confucianism can we employ to achieve a just and humane society? These are the primary questions that we will try to investigate as we go along. The paper will be thus divided into three essential parts: The Notion of Li and the Sovereign, The ConfucianMoral Ideal, and lastly, The Great Commonwealth.

  11. The Governance of Money Laundering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsingou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    What are the drivers behind the anti-money laundering (AML) governance framework? Who are the actors and institutions, and what is the policy content? This chapter provides an overview of the processes and mechanisms of AML policy-making. AML is often presented as a financial problem, and something......, moreover, that is key to debates about international political economy (IPE) since it goes to the heart of the integrity of the financial system and also, at least in principle, aims to impose controls on the movement of money. Yet, as a policy concern, thinking about money laundering was developed away...... from traditional settings for the regulation of global finance. Instead, AML policies were driven by and linked to the public policy objectives of law and order. As a result, the governance of money laundering encompasses a broad set of goals, techniques and professional knowledge. It brings together...

  12. Constructing a European Governance Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    Financial crisis has emphasized the need for harmonized public sector accounts in Europe. After a public consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, the European Commission considers that the proper way is the development of European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renaming....... On the basis of that discussion, Eurostat launched another public consultation named; ‘Towards implementing European Public Sector Accounting Standards for EU member states-Public consultation on future EPSAS governance principles and structures’. This paper seeks to provide an in-depth understanding...... of the negotiations and interactions that took place prior to, during and after the issuance of the public consultation on the ‘Suitability of IPSAS’. The focus of this paper is therefore on a systematic analysis of the construction of regional-transnational governance of public sector accounting, using the EPSAS...

  13. Page | 69 ENSURING GOOD GOVERNANCE THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    WAHAB, Ph.D, Sociology Department, International Islamic University, Malaysia, Email: ... Such regimes do not promote and practice good governance. ... The control that parliament exerts over the executive stems from one fundamental principle. ... taxation is necessary for the public service as declared by the crown.

  14. Associative corporate governance: the steel industry case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues for a radical change in the way multinational corporations prepare their decisions, both on a strategic level and on a day-to-day operational level. It proposes and details a new perspective of corporate governance based on the principles of associative democracy as a

  15. Philosophy of democracy and Principles of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Chovancová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the title of suggests the article deals with the problems of democracy, its philosophy and also dominant principles. The author reflects interpretation of democracy on the society with their different understand.             Democracy represents a form of government, a way of political life where these principles are put into practice.             Democracy and its separate principles are expressed in the ultimate legal rules in the democratic countries. Principle of participation as a democratic principle rests with the fact that citizens have right to participate in state administration either directly or via their elected representatives. This principle also ensures that citizens participating in state administration enjoy equal basic rights and liberties and also guarantees that no person can be excluded from participation in state administration or from access to elected or other posts.             Methodology: In the article I using method of analyze - I analyzing dominant problems of democracy-its principles in democratic countries. Another method is comparation- understanding democracy from historical aspect. And the end I also using method of synthesis-explanation democracy understand today.

  16. Design Principles for Improving the Process of Publishing Open data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, A.M.G.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Choenni, R.; Meijer, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    · Purpose: Governments create large amounts of data. However, the publication of open data is often cumbersome and there are no standard procedures and processes for opening data. This blocks the easy publication of government data. The purpose of this paper is to derive design principles for

  17. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  18. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  19. Agreement Between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities. Addition to the List of Facilities Subject to Safeguards Under the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities (hereinafter “the Agreement”), India shall notify the Agency in writing of its decision to offer any facility identified by India for Agency safeguards under the Agreement. Any facility so notified by India becomes subject to the Agreement as of the date of receipt by the Agency of such written notification from India, and is to be included in the Annex to the Agreement. On 11 March 2014, the Agency received from India written notification, pursuant to Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement, of its decision to bring one additional facility under safeguards in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. Pursuant to Paragraph 14 4(a) of the Agreement, the Annex to the Agreement has been updated and is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency [es

  20. Governance mechanisms for healthcare apps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kyng, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the `app store' concept has challenged the way software is distributed and marketed: developers have easier access to customers, while customers have easy access to innovative applications. Apps today are increasingly focusing on more "mission-critical" areas like healthcare...... with the Apple AppStore counting more than 40,000 apps under the category "health & fitness". This rapid development of healthcare apps increases the necessity of governance as, currently, healthcare apps are not thoroughly governed. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission only have...... policies for apps that are medical devices.In this paper, we approach the problem of how to govern healthcare and medical apps by addressing the risks the use of these apps pose, while at the same time inviting for development of new apps. To do so we (i) analyze four cases of healthcare app governance...