Full Text Available Considering how persistently a certain amount of specialized critics work to diminish contemporary Brazilian poetry, this essay seeks to conceive an articulation among poetry, philosophy and politics. We atempt to do that, on the one hand, through the philosophical concepts of aporia and wonder (thaumazein, and, on the another hand, by considering what Giorgio Agamben refers to as “an insurmontable disjunction between whatever singularity and the State organization”. Among the many poets that could be approached in this context, we chose to close the text with an interpretation some of Tarso de Melo's remarkably and explicitly political poems.
Full Text Available This is basically an attempt at an original conceptual reconstruction of Hobbes’ philosophy as set in Lehiathan, namely one in the view of which Hobbes was neither an atheist nor an absolutist, as the standard interpretation holds, but rather what we could call an agnostical pragmatist (fact which, quite surprisingly, places Hobbes in the company of Burke. More to the point, my basic claim within this paper is that Hobbes was not such an ‘enemy of individual freedom’ as we traditionally hold him to be and that his thought was just as attached to the notion of individual freedom as the later contractualist views. The difference however, arises from the fact that Hobbes, unlike Locke, Rousseau or Kant, was what we could call a voluntaristic determinist and consequently viewed human freedom not so much as ‘unhindered action derived from reflective choice’, but rather as what we could call ‘reasonable fulfillment of the basic human inclinations’ (self-interest. As such, I will analyze the three main focal points of Hobbes’ thought, namely (i human nature, (ii the principle of association and (iii the principle of authority. More specifically I will try to offer a perspective on the link between his voluntaristic determinism, his notion of legitimate absolute coercion (sovereignity and his political theology (the view that any form of political authority rests on a religious legitimacy in trying to demonstrate how all these were Hobbes’ specific way of seeking to find individual freedom a place under the sun.
In this paper, I will argue that, while the ethical issues raised by cluster randomization can be challenging, they are not new. My thesis divides neatly into two parts. In the first, easier part I argue that many of the ethical challenges posed by cluster randomized human subjects research are clearly present in other types of human subjects research, and so are not novel. In the second, more difficult part I discuss the thorniest ethical challenge for cluster randomized research--cases where consent is genuinely impractical to obtain. I argue that once again these cases require no new analytic insight; instead, we should look to political philosophy for guidance. In other words, the most serious ethical problem that arises in cluster randomized research also arises in political philosophy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
van der Meulen, Barend; Leydesdorff, Loet
From 1980 until 1985, the Dutch Faculties of Philosophy went through a period of transition. First, in 1982 the national government introduced a new system of financing research at the universities. This was essentially based on the natural sciences and did not match philosophers' work organization.
Understanding political philosophy as practical implies reflecting on principles as well as on material matters, on justice as well as on government. Liberalism is the main challenge to political philosophy, since its optimistic laissez faire attitude denies the legitimacy of political government...... overcome liberalism to be able to practice politics and political philosophy in the way presented here....
The intention of this research is to elaborate on Socrates’ philosophy and its serious consequences for the relationship between philosophy and politics, hence making them hostile to each other, and Socrates an enemy of the people. The author explores the tension between philosophy and public life by comparing and contrasting two opposing philosophical projects – Socrates and Plato’s – while illuminating different methods and paths they follow in their understanding of philosophy and politics...
Socialism as an African Social and Political Philosophy: Senghor's Paradigm. ... What is the distinguishing factor of African Socialism? What is the direction of African socio-political philosophy? ... Socialism can be applied as a means of economic, social and political advancement in any society. Although situation and ...
Hegel's teaching is often omitted or considered summarily in political philosophy courses. In order to reduce these difficulties, an introductory discussion of Hegel's political thought in the context of a dialogue is presented. (RM)
Lawler, Peter Augustine
Advocates inclusion of political philosophy in the education of public administrators. States that U.S. public officials need knowledge gained through a general education rather than through a specialization in administrative science. Emphasizes that administrators must study philosophy if they are to make political decisions in line with the U.S.…
Francisco J. Gonzalez
Full Text Available Socrates can be said to have left the subsequent philosophical tradition with the problem of the relation between philosophy and politics. Already in the Republic the proposal of philosopher-kings represents more a tension than an identity. While Aristotle responds by insisting on a sharp distinction between politics and philosophical wisdom, this distinction proves on closer examination much less sharp than might appear. Heidegger characterizes philosophy as the only authentic politics and the philosopher as ruling just by virtue of being a philosopher. In contrast, Foucault insists that, if philosophy can play a role in relation to politics by transforming the subject who lives politically, it plays no role within politics. In this contrast can be seen the ‘fallout’ of the tension bequeathed by Socrates through both Plato and Aristotle.
This is a review of a collection of essays entitled Questioning Ireland: debates in political philosophy and public policy, edited by Joseph Dunne, Attracta Ingram and Frank Litton, published in Dublin by the Institute of Public Administration in 2000.
In responding to critics and reviewers of my book, "How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science," I attempt to identify some misleading conventional wisdom about the place of values in philosophy of science and then offer three distinct ways in which philosophers of science can engage their work with ongoing social and political currents.
Arguments from stability for liberal nationalism rely on considerations about conditions for the feasibility or stability of liberal political ideals and factual claims about the circumstances under which these conditions are fulfilled in order to argue for nationalist conclusions. Such reliance...... on factual claims has been criticised by among others G. A. Cohen in other contexts as ideological reifications of social reality. In order to assess whether arguments from stability within liberal nationalism, especially as formulated by David Miller, are vulnerable to a comparable critique, the rationale...... for their reliance on factual claims is discussed on the basis of a number of concerns in John Rawls's political liberalism. The concern with stability in liberal nationalism differs from stability in Rawls's work, mainly because of the stronger non-ideal or ‘realist' focus of the former. In so far as the ‘realism...
In response to such dispute, this paper argues that politics and religion are not only strongly connected, they are mutually compatible, both practically and theoretically. A working model to prove the workability of the compatibility of religion and politics in this paper will be Gandhism or better put – Gandhian philosophy.
Full Text Available I submit that epistemic progress in key areas of contemporary academic philosophy has been compromised by politically correct (“PC” ideology. First, guided by an evolutionary account of ideology, results from social and cognitive psychology and formal philosophical methods, I expose evidence for political bias in contemporary Western academia and sketch a formalization for the contents of beliefs from the PC worldview taken to be of core importance, the theory of social oppression and the thesis of anthropological mental egalitarianism. Then, aided by discussions from contemporary epistemology on epistemic values, I model the problem of epistemic appraisal using the frameworks of multi-objective optimization theory and multi-criteria decision analysis and apply it to politically correct philosophy. I conclude that philosophy guided by politically correct values is bound to produce constructs that are less truth-conducive and that spurious values which are ideologically motivated should be abandoned. Objections to my framework stemming from contextual empiricism, the feminine voice in ethics and political philosophy are considered. I conclude by prescribing the epistemic value of epistemic adequacy, the contextual value of political diversity and the moral virtue of moral courage to reverse unwarranted trends in academic philosophy due to PC ideology.
Sheehan, Helena M
This paper is an examination of the philosophical and political legacy of John Desmond Bernal. It addresses the evidence of an emerging consensus on Bernal based on the recent biography of Bernal by Andrew Brown and the reviews it has received. It takes issue with this view of Bernal, which tends to be admiring of his scientific contribution, bemused by his sexuality, condescending to his philosophy and hostile to his politics. This article is a critical defence of his philosophical and political position
Sheehan, Helena M [Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)
This paper is an examination of the philosophical and political legacy of John Desmond Bernal. It addresses the evidence of an emerging consensus on Bernal based on the recent biography of Bernal by Andrew Brown and the reviews it has received. It takes issue with this view of Bernal, which tends to be admiring of his scientific contribution, bemused by his sexuality, condescending to his philosophy and hostile to his politics. This article is a critical defence of his philosophical and political position.
Lewis, V. Bradley
The term "common good" names the end (or final cause) of political and social life in the tradition of moral thought that owes its main substance to Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas. It names a genuine good ("bonum honestum") and not merely an instrumental or secondary good defeasible in the face of particular goods. However, at the same time, it…
... how the exercise of moral imagination, as Murdoch conceives it, would seem to be essential to their full and proper recognition. While the discussion is necessarily preliminary in some respects, it should allay any suspicion that Murdoch's moral philosophy is blind to the moral and political importance of the imagination or ...
Full Text Available Plato is normally taken as one of the founders of Western political philosophy, not at least with his Republic. Here, he constructs a hierarchy of forms of governments, beginning with aristocracy at the top as a critical standard for the other forms of governments, and proceeding through timocracy and oligarchy to democracy and tyranny at the bottom. Following Karl Popper, the paper argues that Plato’s is a totalitarian philosophy that emphasizes the similarities between democracy and tyranny, which it considers to be the two worst forms of government. Plato’s denigration of democracy has dominated the tradition of political philosophy until recent times. This paper, however, shows that political philosophy in fact originates in democracy, especially as developed by the sophists and that philosophy is only a form of sophism with a similar origin in ancient Greek democracy. A discussion of Pericles’ funeral oration is used to show that Pericles presented a democratic political philosophy that can serve as a counterpoint to Plato’s political philosophy in the Republic.
Full Text Available In this paper I attempt to give an historically accurate statement of the fundamentals of Henry Peter Brougham, First Baron Brougham and Vaux's (1778-1867 political philosophy and to show how he seeks guidance in his development of this philosophy from the materials of history in general and Italian history in particular. The article seeks to explain Brougham's view that history should be written in a "non-historicist," "objective," "absolutist" and "judgmental" manner and that this position is linked to his belief that there are rationally demonstrable supreme objects of legitimate government which can be shown to be obligatory on all governments at all times however much the prevailing historical conditions may limit or condition actual practical choices. Brougham will be shown to be a proponent of representative, popular government over an extended territory as the best means to attaining the legitimate objects of government in the form of domestic order and external security. Brougham comes to this conclusion while being aware of the great advantages to be had from the absolute rule of one wise and virtuous monarch and the necessity for a purely democratic constitution when the conditions of public enlightenment and social advancement have reached their apogee. In outlining this portrait the article indicates some of the connecting links between Brougham's thought and that of both ancient and modern political philosophers as it was known to him. We find in Brougham a certain blend or melding of various strands within the tradition of liberal thought which as a central figure in the politics of the British Empire during the first third of the nineteenth century he was able to advance on the practical level. It is the hope of this article to contribute in some small way to the re-discovery of a heretofore undeservedly neglected or at least underestimated historical figure.
Konstantin M. Dolgov
Full Text Available The article is concerned with interrelationship of policy and culture, in particular N.Machiavelli's political philosophy and its reflection in some short stories by R.Kipling, one of the most recognized representatives of the British imperial thought. Policy and culture have traditionally been considered almost incompatible spheres of human activity as policy tended to become more and more severe, cynical, "dirty", while culture aspired to develop supreme values and perfect ideals. Sometimes the direct confrontation between policy and religion, policy and morals, policy and law, policy and literature, policy and art in the broad sense of the word could occur. The greatest Renaissance masters - Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Rafael etc. - actively opposed any evil manifestations: evil ideas, evil words, evil doings, expressing in their masterpieces the highest ideals and values. However, these ideals and values drastically diverged from the reality, political and public relations of the time, the "dirty" policy conducted by the rulers of numerous Italian principalities. It is no coincidence that N.Machiavelli develops his new political philosophy aiming not only to create the strong unitary state, but also to overcome this "dirty" policy at least to a certain extent. Therefore, describing the mechanism of the "dirty" policy that opposes high culture, N.Machiavelli introduces a new political philosophy which should be based on the highest ideals and values. As far as literary art is concerned, one can easily see that such world famous novelists as Kipling, Chekhov, Maupassant and many others reflected in their short stories that very longing for highest values and ideals which are almost absent in political doctrines and political practice. The true policy is necessarily based on the true culture and its values and ideals, whereas the true culture is indispensably connected with the true policy.
This article considers the public health and social-reform agitations of Dr. William Pulteney Alison (1790-1858), professor of medicine at Edinburgh University and leader of the Scottish medical profession, in the context of Scottish moral philosophy. Throughout his career, Alison reflected on what has come to be recognized as a central problem of social medicine: where did its domain end? At what point did the medical mission of identifying and eliminating factors that harm health pass into a non-medical domain-the provinces of political economy, individual liberty, participatory politics, or acceptance of nature's dictates? On these issues Alison was an expansionist, relentlessly pushing back the borders of medicine. Drawing on Alison's writings on such disparate topics as the philosophy of mind, the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and modes of agrarian organization, the article argues that the trajectory of much of Alison's work was to discover the structural implications of a comprehensive biological reading of human capacity and behavior. It is therefore appropriate to see him as a promulgator of a "political medicine," which he presented as a critical alternative to the classical political economy of the Scottish Malthusians. The article concludes by suggesting that Alison's work (and influence) have been under-recognized and remain pertinent to modern social epidemiology, public health, and medicine more broadly.
Small's philosophy draws its inspiration from the humanistic tradition of Western philosophical thinking. His appropriation of this tradition is especially evident in his reformulation of the western legacy of “philosophy-as-dialogue”. From this perspective, Small proceeds by way of a linguistic turn, in which Kaaps (the language ...
In China, the philosophy of science and technology (PST) is derived from "Dialectics of Nature" (DN), which is based on Engels' unfinished book "Dialektik der Natur." DN as a political ideology provides political guidance for scientists and engineers. Therefore, since 1981, "Introduction to Dialectics of Nature" (IDN)…
Full Text Available According to Plato, philosophy was born out of the amazement, out of the impact the contemplation of the grandiose and harmonious nature show and its regular cycles had upon the human mind. However amazement is only one of the impulses that determine one to search forintelligible answers to the questions of a reflexive mind when coming into contact with a reality that causes amazement.
Cowley, Stephen Graham
The philosopher James Mylne (1757-1839) vindicated the rational powers of humanity against the sceptical and “common sense” philosophies of his Scottish predecessors and earned the trust of his contemporaries for his Whig politics. He and the largely neglected philosophy and political economy classes he taught in Glasgow clearly merited closer study. My thesis thus contains a biography of Mylne and interpretative essays on his lectures on moral philosophy and political economy ...
Valery P. Terin
Full Text Available In contradistinction to the book and the other typographic products, the electronic media operates on a 24-hour-a-day basis evoking simultaneity as the guiding mode of perception and thinking for all those under its influence. The discovery of this fact manifested itself in the formation and development of the managerial technologies operating by means of the electronic information environment and following the principle of simultaneity in the first place. Thus, at the end of the 1960s already the election campaigns in the U.S.A. began to operate on the basis of the final cause as the guiding principle of the country's mass consciousness motivating to carry out each particular event as if already rejoicing at the victory. With this in mind, there emerged a problem of applying this approach with its enormous managerial potential elsewhere. To add, simultaneity as a norm of perception and thinking turned out to be increasingly important with the advent of the electrical telegraph and the press relying on its short disconnected messages instantaneously arriving from all parts of the world. All the other media, which emerged in the wake of this development, has served to fortify this mode of thought as governing in the electronic information environment. The potential of the electronically operating global managerial technologies is quickly growing. The article also deals with the information overload and pattern recognition problem understood in managerial terms as well as mythologization and demythologization processes as they are necessitated by the electronic media coverage worldwide.
Cornelissen, Wilhelm Wouter Herman (Wout)
Political philosophy is not only a form of theory, but also a practice. If we wish to learn something about politics, therefore, we should focus not only on its propositional content, but also on its performative meaning. This dissertation offers a reconstruction of the propositional contents of the
Sipowicz, Maksymilian Marek
In Kant scholarship, there has long been a debate about the connection between his political and ethical thought. In his works concerned with political theory, such as the Metaphysics of Morals, Perpetual Peace, or An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?, he concerns himself with coercively enforceable principles by which a society can be organised. In his works on ethics, such as The Groundwork to a Metaphysics of Morals, or The Critique of Practical Reason, he is co...
Helliksen, Lars Tore
This study is a comparative analysis of the political philosophies of the ancient Chinese thinker Han Fei (ca. 280-233 BC) and the Western Renaissance thinker Niccolò Machiavelli (AD 1469-1527). In the thought of these pioneers of strategic political thought – both notorious for their hardheaded and “realist” approach to political life – the special problems of power maintenance and political stability are focused. The strong focus on these issues in the two thinkers must be seen in the l...
The mind~body problem, in its most radical formulation, occurs only in Western philosophy and thinking. In many ways, this formulated problematic is the impetus for and foundation of psychology. The mind-body problem has its philosophical roots in Greek philosophy, especially in the thinking of Socrates and Plato, and ...
Full Text Available The concept of freedom constitutes the relationship between ethics and politics in Hegel’s thought. Contrary to Kantian understanding of the concept of freedom in which the concept is autonomous from nature and society, Hegel attempts to reconcile the social and individual existence of human being. The first condition of freedom for individual is to have a self-consciousness, that is being aware of himself. But freedom that could not being comprimized with being social is not the real freedom. Hegel also examines freedom in its historal manner. Freedom, in its historical manner, has reached its completed meaning only in Western societies. Hegel thinks that freedom becomes concrete in practical and political manner in Prussian State, in other words, in modern state. According to Hegel the modern state is a state in which justice and power is united. That is, the state has a both political and ethical existence. Hegel suggests that social institutions are legitimized only by realization of freedom. State is also the supreme normative insitution which concretize ethical life. The aim of this study is to understand Hegel’s attempt of synthesizing individual and society by using ethical and political concepts.
Meadow, Robert G.; Jackson-Beeck, Marilyn
Since voters rarely have access to a candidate's unexpurgated statements, they rely on political advertising, film footage, and media interpretations. Thus, their expectations of candidates generally reflect selective reporting and self-aggrandizement. A framework for researching the degree of understanding reached between politicians and the…
Gordon, G.M.; Pierik, R.; Reinalda, B.
Liberal theories of political philosophy inform the practice and tradition of non-state actors and non-governmental organizations (together, ‘non-governmental actors’). Aspirations for global justice or a democratic peace, among other things, arise out of liberal thought from John Locke and Immanuel
Gordon, G.; Pierik, R.; Reinalda, B.
Liberal theories of political philosophy inform the practice and tradition of non-state actors and non-governmental organizations (together, ‘non-governmental actors’). Aspirations for global justice or a democratic peace, among other things, arise out of liberal thought from John Locke and Immanuel
book is very topical in current security studies on the African continent as it shies away from the contemporary model, instead focusing the attention on philosophy, theology and the politics of confrontation. The authors contend that, although war is generally fought so that peace may be restored, in Africa, most wars are ...
In China, the philosophy of science and technology (PST) is derived from "Dialectics of Nature" (DN), which is based on Engels' unfinished book Dialektik der Natur. DN as a political ideology provides political guidance for scientists and engineers. Therefore, since 1981, "Introduction to Dialectics of Nature" (IDN) has been an obligatory course for master's degree students who study natural science or technology. In 1987, DN was renamed PST by the Chinese government in order to communicate and do research. The IDN teachers constitute most of the scholars who research PST. Nowadays, in China, PST includes philosophy of nature, philosophy of science, philosophy of technology, sociology of science, sociology of technology, "science, technology and society," history of science, history of technology, management of science, and management of technology due to having too many IDN teachers. In fact, it is neither a branch of philosophy, nor a subject. The number of the IDN teachers has been increasing since 1981, which makes PST a miscellaneous collection of many branches or subjects. Finally, PST is facing two new challenges: the reduction of IDN and academic corruption.
Jacob Dahl Rendtorff
Full Text Available The conservative Jewish, German and American philosopher Leo Strauss (1899-1973 proposes an interpretation of the causes of the crisis of modernity and argues that the only way in which we can reestablish social stability is to go back to classical political philosophy by Plato and Aristotle. In the following, I will introduce thought of Leo Strauss in order to show how we here can find a well-qualified concept of political conservativism. It is however clear, that this intellectual aristocratism is different from dominant conservative at the political right that also can be accused of having reduced politics to economics and utility maximization where focus is on promotion of personal privileges and interests rather than a concern for the common good in a strong political community.
Carmen Segura Peraita
Full Text Available The aim of this research is twofold. On the one hand, I attempt to show that Gadamer’s hermeneutics is at the same time both ontological and political. On the other hand, and to achieve this aim, I intend to show to what extent Gadamer’s interpretation of Aristotelian ethics is decisive, both in his practical philosophy as a whole, taken as human wisdom, and of φρονησιζ in particular. This research thus contributes to emphasise the ontological and political character of philosophical hermeneutics, showing how both strands are solidary and inseparable. This paper also clarifies the ethical basis on which Gadamer’s ontological-political project rests. Finally, this study includes an outline of the nature and scope of Gadamer’s interpretation of Aristotelian ethics.
Nye, Mary Jo
The names of Karl Popper, Michael Polanyi, and Thomas Kuhn are well-known among scientists and among historians and philosophers of science. Around 1960 they published books that excited considerable discussion because of their independent rejection of the philosophical tradition that uses simple empiricism or positivism to differentiate science from religion, metaphysics, ideology, or pseudo-science. Popper's original field of expertise was scientific education and psychology. Polanyi had a distinguished career in physical chemistry and chemical physics, while Kuhn worked briefly in solid-state physics before turning to the philosophy of science. Their descriptions of scientific practices and values have roots not only in their scientific educations and experiences, but also in the political questions of their time. This paper focuses on political dimensions in the philosophical work of these three twentieth-century figures.
Higgott, Richard A.
Recent years have seen international political economy (IPE) become an increasingly bifurcated field of inquiry. On the one hand deductive, rational choice driven analysis has taken IPE increasingly in the direction of economic analysis toute courte. This has especially been the case in the United States. On the other hand, driven more by the largely inductive tradition in the non-economic social sciences, IPE, especially in a European and 'southern' context has become more, indeed as some wo...
Williams O. Mbamalu
Full Text Available This article is a critical interpretation and commendation of Jakobus M. Vorster’s scholarly contribution to the field of ecclesiastical sciences, ethics and political philosophy. It shows that the imago Dei is a human creation of the image of God, a unifying concept in Vorster’s scholarly writing. What was implied is that Vorster’s ethico-biblical anthropology is the controlling thought in interpreting his ecclesio-political philosophy in this article. This is a proposed limitation of the essay rather than a limitation of Vorster as a person or his scholarly works in general. Jakobus Marthinus Vorster se ecclesio-politiese filosofie: 'n Kritiese interpretasie. Hierdie artikel is ‘n kritiese interpretasie en huldiging van Jakobus M. Vorster se navorsingsbydrae tot die geestelike wetenskappe, etiek en politieke filosofie. Dit openbaar die eenvormige konsep in Vorster se navorsing, naamlik dat die imago Dei ‘n menslike skepping van God se beeld is. Die implikasie van hierdie artikel is dat Vorster se eties-bybelse antropologie die hoofoorweging is in die interpretasie van sy geestelik-politiese filosofie. Hierdie artikel is slegs ‘n beperkte aanbieding wat nie ‘n beperking op Vorster as persoon of sy navorsing impliseer nie.
Through its social and political activism goals, postcolonial feminist theoretical approaches not only focus on individual issues that affect health but encompass the examination of the complex interplay between neocolonialism, neoliberalism, and globalization, in mediating the health of non-Western immigrants and refugees. Postcolonial feminism holds the promise to influence nursing research and practice in the 21st century where health remains a goal to achieve and a commitment for humanity. This is especially relevant for nurses, who act as global citizens and as voices for the voiceless. The commitment of nursing to social justice must be further strengthened by relying on postcolonial theories to address issues of health inequities that arise from marginalization and racialization. In using postcolonial feminist theories, nurse researchers locate the inquiry process within a Gramscian philosophy of praxis that represents knowledge in action.
Full Text Available The paper explores the relation between philosophy and rhetoric from a new perspective by highlighting the dramatic nature of the dialogue and paying attention not only to what is said about philosophy and rhetoric but also to what is shown, especially through Gorgias’ intervention throughout the dialogue in order to save a community of dialogue that inquires into the good and the just. This re-conception of the relation between philosophy and rhetoric implies a re-conception of the practice of politics itself, rooted in a philosophy concerned with turning individual souls toward the good and a rhetoric that motivates individuals to be turned in the same direction by the words of others.
Nicole Sparling Barco
Full Text Available Ariel Dorfman’s La última canción de Manuel Sendero (The Last Song of Manuel Sendero and Carlos Fuentes’s Cristóbal Nonato (Christopher Unborn explore conception, gestation, and birth as points of origin for humanity and citizenship alike by giving voice to life/lives that cannot speak for itself/themselves. Dorfman and Fuentes employ metafictional techniques and postmodern aesthetics, interrogate history in order to express their political commitments to rights, resistance, and revolution, and link textual production and human reproduction in order to posit national futures. Reading these works through a feminist lens, I weigh the poetic and philosophical implications of telling a story from the point of view of gametic, embryonic, or fetal, but decidedly male, narrators against the symbolic exclusion and silencing of mothers that bear them. When rendered a biopolitical frontier in symbolic or actual terms, the pregnant body poses particular philosophical quandaries that require further investigation. As such, this essay weaves together discourses on poetics, philosophy, and politics in order to uncover the perplexity that the pregnant mother, as figure for the nation, induces.
Heraldo Aparecido Silva
Full Text Available This article analyses the graphic novel U.S. Uncle Sam, by Steve Darnall and Alex Ross (1998, starting from the pop philosophy of McLaughlin (2005 and Goodenough, (2005 and the political philosophy of John Rawls (2000 and Robert Nozick (1991. First, the study focuses on the description of the work to then present the philosophical perspectives that function as analytical theoretical support. The theoretical foundation is based on authors such as: Eco (1993, Mix (1997, Eisner (1999, Moya (1994; 2003, McLaughlin (2005; Goodenough (2005, Vergueiro and Ramos (2009, among others. A reading from the philosophical ideas of Rawls (2000 and Nozick (1991 occurs through the interpretation of extracted themes of the comic book.
Introduction: Philosophical analyses of theoretical principles underlying these sub-domains reveal philosophy of information as underlying meta-theory of information science. Method: Conceptual research on the knowledge sub-domains in information science and philosophy and analysis of their mutual connection. Analysis: Similarities between…
Full Text Available In contemporary political discourse, the "clash of civilizations" rhetoric often undergirds philosophical analyses of "democracy" both at home and abroad. This is nowhere better articulated than in Jacques Derrida's Rogues, in which he describes Islam as the only religious or theocratic culture that would "inspire and declare any resistance to democracy" (Derrida 2005, 29. Curiously, Derrida attributes the failings of democracy in Islam to the lack of reference to Aristotle's Politics in the writings of the medieval Muslim philosophers. This paper aims to analyze this gross misconception of Islamic philosophy and illuminate the thoroughgoing influence the Muslim philosophers had on their Christian successors, those who are so often credited as foundations of Western political philosophy. In so doing, I compare the ideal states presented by Averroes and Dante – in which Aristotelian influence is intimately interlaced – and offer an analysis thereof as heralds of what we might call the secularization of the political, inspiring those democratic values that Derrida believes to be absent in the rich philosophy of the Middle Ages.
method in an attempt to conceptualize philosophy and then. African .... philosophy than this Wonder;xand Aristotle puts it thus, “it is through ... “science of all sciences”. That is why there is philosophy of education, political philosophy, philosophy of law philosophy of science, etc. Indeed, one can say that philosophy gives.
Jarvis, Douglas E
For both Aristotle and Hegel, the family is the foundation in which the universalized rule of law is validated according to the political structure of the 'Polis' or 'State' itself. This composite whole or structure of society (Ancient Polis/Modern State) is the political end of humanity for both philosophers, which in turn finds its primordial beginning in the family. For Aristotle, it is in the kingly rule of the household that the property-based distinction of citizenship is set for the rule of his ideal Polis. For Hegel, it is in the love affirmed through caring affection within the nuclear family that the dialectical framework for the freedom of civil society, and the rational unity of a congregational 'spirit' in the State, finds its foundation. For both thinkers, the family sets the base for a political theory that defines citizenship in a manner that transcends the particularities of kin bonds.
João Feres Jr
Full Text Available This article starts by identifying the crucial importance of the notion of historical handicap for the present-day social sciences of Latin America. Such notion is not an original invention made by Latinamericanists. On the contrary, I demonstrate that the genealogy of the notion of historical handicap must be sought in the tradition of Western political philosophy. Such genealogy must take into account the way it was integrated into ethnological descriptions. When and how did the Other become the backward, the primitive? While this relation was secondary for ancient Greek thought, theories of historical development became the main source of ethnological categories in the modern era. Interestingly enough, this modern synthesis suited the practical purpose of justifying two successive waves of European imperialistic: the era of discoveries, and 19th century colonialism. The article concludes by raising questions about the present role and application of the social sciences.Esse artigo começa por identificar o papel central da noção de incapacidade histórica para a literatura de Latin American studies produzida no pós-guerra. Tal noção não foi criada pelos Latinoamericanistas contemporâneos. É possível identificar o embrião da noção de incapacidade histórica nos mitos primitivistas da antiguidade clássica e, a partir daí, examinar as várias maneiras com que ela foi recebida e rearticulada pela tradição filosófica ocidental. Esse estudo é feito tendo em vista a incorporação da noção de incapacidade histórica a teorias etnológicas. Quando e como o "outro" passou a ser visto como o "atrasado", o "primitivo"? Se na antiguidade clássica essa identificação era incompleta, na era moderna teorias de desenvolvimento histórico se tornaram a fonte principal de categorias etnológicas. É importante notar que a síntese moderna dessas teorias também serviram para justificar as aventuras imperialistas Européias: a era dos
Full Text Available The author begins by drawing a distinction between an earlier stage of contemporary American political philosophy, informed by the Rawls-Nozick-Walzer debate, and a later stage geared towards social issues such as multiculturalism. His point is that the earlier debate was incomplete because an important group of views went underrepresented. This becomes clear when one use two variables to classify the main political theories: higher taxes and more social services versus lower taxes and fewer social services (economic left and right and the level of individualism versus collectivism (liberals and communitarians. This gives us four positions: left-wing liberalism, left-wing communitarianism, right-wing liberalism and right-wing communitarianism. The author claims that right-wing communitarianism is barely represented in the debate that grounded today's political philosophy. He sketches a version of conservatism, relying mostly on Nisbet and Kirk, to illustrate the missing position of right wing communitarianism. Although he does not endorse many aspects of conservatism as right-wing communitarianism, he argues that it is a theoretically viable option and suggest that sociological reasons may explain why it is underrepresented among professional philosophers. As a part of the argument he also outlines a position called equality without egalitarianism.
This paper assesses the historical meaning and contemporary significance of Aristotle's educational ideas. It begins with a broad characterisation of the project of Aristotle's "Nicomachean Ethics" and "Politics", which he calls "political science" ("he politike episteme"), and the central place of education in his vision of statesmanship. It…
Oana-Celia GHEORGHIU; Michaela PRAISLER
This paper aims at evaluating J. M. Coetzee’s Diary of a Bad Year – a novel which, for the time being at least, has received much less critical assessment than the writer’s widely-acknowledged masterpieces – from the perspective of the intertextual relation it establishes with Western philosophers in point of political thinking, but also from that of its own politics of writing, which have geared the author towards experimenting with the traditional, feminine and introspective, diary mode ...
The motives of philosophers tend to be personal. Philosophy has mattered politically as part of continuing political debates. Its effects on politics, religion and the development of the sciences have been evident. Philosophy has been supposed to have special educational value, from its contents or from the benefits of its methods and arguments.…
Teitelbaum, Michael S
The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.
Reuben, E.; Traxler, C.; van Winden, F.
We study the formation of advocacy groups and how they can impact policy outcomes by revealing information about voters׳ preferences to uninformed political candidates. We conduct a laboratory experiment based on a two-candidate spatial electoral competition setting where the policy preferences of
White, Stephen R.
The modernist era of world history has been defined as the age of internationalism. Conversely, globalization is an academic concept that is used to define postmodern world history. Globalization is theoretically framed from varied perspectives. Most specifically it is analyzed as political, social, and economic phenomena but also within the…
Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is Hannah Arendt’s diagnosis that the introduction of philosophical truth into politics leads to tyrannical or totalitarian outcomes. A critique of this diagnosis is offered on the basis of Michel Foucault’s last lectures at the Collège de France where he discussed the practices of parrēsia, “truth-telling,” as multiple forms of political life of resistance, critique, and contestation. The common denominator of all parrhēsiastic practices is that none of them are concerned with “doctrines.” That is, none of them are concerned with laying out the “content” of politics. After the paper has identified and expounded four different manifestations of parrēsia—“political” (Pericles, “philosophical” (Plato, “philosophical-ethical” (Socrates and “ethical” (Diogenes the Cynic—an argument is presented for a kinship, instead of a difference, between Foucault and Arendt as parrhēsiastic or critical thinkers within the same tradition of political Kantianism.
de Boer, N.J.
This article assesses whether the EU Treaty freedoms - the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital - should be considered as fundamental rights which are hierarchically equal to other fundamental rights. It uses the political philosophy of John Rawls to assess why we should attach
Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that philosophical anthropology is central to ethics and politics. The denial of this has facilitated the triumph of debased notions of humans developed by Hobbes which has facilitated the enslavement of people to the logic of the global market, a logic which is now destroying the ecological conditions for civilization and most life on Earth. Reviving the classical understanding of the central place of philosophical anthropology to ethics and politics, the early work of Hegel and Marx is explicated, defended and further developed by interpreting this through developments in post-mechanistic science. Overcoming the opposition between the sciences and the humanities, it is suggested that the conception of humans developed in this way can orient people in their struggle for the liberty to avert a global ecological catastrophe.
Full Text Available Within the context of an era that appears to be defined by the triumph of gobalized capitalism, an alternative political project doesn?t seem possible. Accordingly, Marxism can only be conjured as a spectre, in Derrida?s sense. The ?philosophical conjuration? in postfordist society that Hardt & Negri propose in Empire is discussed, i.e. their notion of a General Intellect, by analogy with Saint Augustine?s messianism in The City of God. The differences with Derrida?s messianism are outlined, and the possibility to conceive of a ?messianism without a Messiah? in industrial society is discussed.
Full Text Available Within the context of an era that appears to be defined by the triumph of gobalized capitalism, an alternative political project doesn’t seem possible. Accordingly, Marxism can only be conjured as a spectre, in Derrida’s sense. The “philosophical conjuration” in postfordist society that Hardt & Negri propose in Empire is discussed, i.e. their notion of a General Intellect, by analogy with Saint Augustine’s messianism in The City of God. The differences with Derrida’s messianism are outlined, and the possibility to conceive of a “messianism without a Messiah” in industrial society is discussed.
Francisco Arenas Dolz
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to defend an adequate reading of Aristotle’s deliberative rhetoric that allows us to understand practical rationalization as a process of interpretation of human actions. After the consideration of rhetoric as a general human ability that is indispensable for political coexistence, the impact of the Aristotelian rhetorical proposal is pressed, not just as a defense of the importance of rhetoric in a democratic society, but also as a novel attempt to understand what it means to speak of practical rationality.
Jacobsen, Anja Skaar
This book is a social-intellectual biography of the Belgian physicist Léon Rosenfeld (1904-1974). Rosenfeld was at the center of modern theoretical physics and he became the Danish physicist Niels Bohr's right-hand man. Rosenfeld was a perceptive, polyglot cosmopolitan, whose life crossed those of many important people in many countries. He was also a strong integrated personality capable of performing exotic calculations at one moment, while disentangling subtle philosophical questions or intervening in a political discussion the next all at the highest level. This book aims at a broad audience interested in contextual history of twentieth century physics. No specialized knowledge of physics is required to read it.
sensibility of this person “a bit sickly,” he also claims that the sensibility is found in the heart of each of us. It indicates a fundamental sympathy with others. For this person such a word from another makes every power of one’s being vibrate in unison. So in this short speech, one will find Bergson distinguishing between material politeness, mental or spiritual politeness, and politeness of the heart. Politeness of the heart is true openness to others. And, for Bergson, it opens up to a society exemplified by ancient philosophy: true friends of each other and of ideas.
Sun, Shuhua; Chen, Huaizhong
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(10) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-34254-001). In the article, Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected.] We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hosseinloo, Ashkan Haji; Turitsyn, Konstantin
Vibratory energy harvesters as potential replacements for conventional batteries are not as robust as batteries. Their performance can drastically deteriorate in the presence of uncertainty in their parameters. Parametric uncertainty is inevitable with any physical device mainly due to manufacturing tolerances, defects, and environmental effects such as temperature and humidity. Hence, uncertainty propagation analysis and optimization under uncertainty seem indispensable with any energy harvester design. Here we propose a new modeling philosophy for optimization under uncertainty; optimization for the worst-case scenario (minimum power) rather than for the ensemble expectation of the power. The proposed optimization philosophy is practically very useful when there is a minimum requirement on the harvested power. We formulate the problems of uncertainty propagation and optimization under uncertainty in a generic and architecture-independent fashion, and then apply them to a single-degree-of-freedom linear piezoelectric energy harvester with uncertainty in its different parameters. The simulation results show that there is a significant improvement in the worst-case power of the designed harvester compared to that of a naively optimized (deterministically optimized) harvester. For instance, for a 10% uncertainty in the natural frequency of the harvester (in terms of its standard deviation) this improvement is about 570%. (paper)
Tédney Moreira da Silva
Full Text Available This paper studies the work of Pierre Clastres (1934-1977, a French philosopher and anthropologist whose ethnological studies focus on Political Anthropology seeking the investigation of power within the so-called primitive societies, by making a change in the determination of the study subject matter of this science. It intends to show the construction of his general political anthropology aimed to demystify Indigenous societies as societies without State, and to view them as societies against the State, opposed to the state organization which characterizes the European political community and most societies influenced (or determined by their cosmovision. This paper is split into two stages: the first is dedicated to societies against the State, which the philosopher-anthropologist discussed about, seeking to trail the road that would lead him to expose the need of a Copernicus revolution in the studies on the origin of power. The second stage deals with the return of ethnographic and ethnologic studies to Political Philosophy, examining our characteristic of being unnamable, those who have forgone freedom in order to abide by a model of oppression, those who overcame undesired animality, but denatured themselves into vassals of other men, their equals.Este artigo estuda a obra de Pierre Clastres (1934-1977, filósofo e antropólogo francês cujos estudos etnológicos centraram-se em Antropologia Política, com vistas à investigação do poder nas ditas sociedades primitivas, e operaram uma alteração na determinação do objeto de estudo dessa ciência. O trabalho destina-se à exposição da construção de sua antropologia política geral, voltada que está a desmitificar as sociedades indígenas como sociedades sem Estado, para encará-las como sociedades contra o Estado, opostas à organização estatal que caracteriza a comunidade política europeia e grande parte das sociedades influenciadas (ou determinadas por sua cosmovisão. O
Vilanova, Rita; Martins, Isabel
This article dialogues with Matthew Weinstein's paper named "NGSS, disposability, and the ambivalence of Science in/under neoliberalism", in which he explores the argument that at the same time the NGSS framework is largely identified with neoliberal discourse, it presents points of ambivalence and resistance within. In this dialogue, we focused on two topics that we believe are important for the discussion of the ambivalences highlighted in the author's argument, namely: the the social production of indifference as a consequence of the neoliberal ideology and the production of a version of science streamlined for the neoliberal technoscientific job market within the `neoliberal ecosystem'. Based on the thesis of the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor on ethics and on the concept of hybridism, we linked Weinsteins' analysis to issues related to individualism and instrumental reason, pointing out that it is possible that the ambivalences highlighted by Weinstein are, in fact, a component of neoliberal discourse. Nevertheless we agree that this kind of text presents loopholes that allows practices oriented for social change and for the improvement of democracies in progress. We conclude that for those who dedicate themselves to reflect upon educational strategies to cope with the hegemonic model remains the challenge of finding spaces and times in the curriculum in order to explore the gaps in policy texts and, more important, to promote the experience of democratic practices throughout the school communities.
Measures are important as the means to realize philosophy. Accordingly, it is meaningful to take measures as the object when the philosophy of ICRP is considered. As to controllable risk factors, restraint shall be done so as to make the risk being brought about as small as possible. When it is not necessary to limit restraining means, risk-free is ideal. Ionizing radiation is one of risk factors. The risk that ICRP speaks is the loss of the probability of maintaining life. The object of radiation protection is limited to the exposure to controllable radiation, and the aim of protection is to minimize risk under the condition of as low as reasonably achievable. The philosophy of ICRP and the problems in the measures are discussed. ICRP and ICRU must reconfirm the allotment of roles. Radiation protection system is composed of system of radiation dosimetry and system of dose limitation. The mission of ICRP is to recommend political decision, and it may make the political declaration 'The radiation below a certain amount may be regarded as safe'. It is better only to recommend the conversion relation of radiation dose and risk. The desire and demand to ICRP are mentioned. (K.I.)
Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der zunehmenden Tendenz politischer Eliten, auf die journalistische Berichterstattung und den politischen Journalismus Einfluss zu nehmen. Dabei wird gezeigt, inwieweit dadurch Handlungsspielräume im politischen Journalismus eingeschränkt werden. Untersucht werden insgesamt vier Länder, nämlich die USA, die Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Österreich und Italien. Beim diesem Vergleich stellt sich die Frage nach der Bedeutung struktureller Unterschiede angesichts der verschiedenen politischen Systeme in den untersuchten Ländern (z. B. präsidentielles vs. parlamentarische Systeme, parteien- vs. medienzentrierte Systeme. Abschließend geht es um Überlegungen zu unterschiedlichen privatrechtlich organisierten oder dualen Mediensystemen im Zusammenhang strategischer Einflussnahmen und Abwehrmaßnahmen. In this paper the proposition to be tested is whether the political elites’ attempt to exert influence on day-to-day news coverage and thus on political journalism is increasing and whether as a result political journalism’s autonomous leeway is continually diminishing. The countries examined are the United States, Germany, Austria and Italy. In this context the question whether there are structural differences due to the diverse political systems of the countries under consideration (presidential vs. parliamentary systems; systems centred more on parties vs. systems centred more on the media will also be investigated. Last but not least, the role of different media systems will be considered, too (media under private law, dual systems including the Italian version.
Full Text Available SOBERANIA E DEMOCRACIA EM TEMPOS MUNDIALIZADOS: ATUALIDADE DA FILOSOFIA POLÍTICA DE JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU E OS LIMITES DO CONTRATO SOCIAL Resumo: este artigo visa a problematizar os (descaminhos dos conceitos políticos e das práticas sociais e jurídicas em torno da soberania política do Estado Nacional e da democracia nos tempos de mundialização do Capital. Portanto, revisita e percorre uma breve arqueologia conceitual da Soberania, desde Isidoro de Sevilha até a clássica definição de Jean Bodin nos Seis Livros sobre a República (1576. O propósito é problematizar a filosofia política de Rousseau para, então, perceber e discutir seus limites suas virtualidades, bem como a atualidade de sua noção de Contrato Social e o papel da Filosofia Política na Era do Capital Global. Palavras-chave: Rousseau. Soberania. Mundialização do Capital. Abstract: this paper casts doubt on the ways and shunts of political concepts and social and legal practices concerning political sovereignty of the Nation State and democracy at the time of Capital’s globalization. It revisits a brief conceptual archeology of Sovereignty, since Isidore of Seville to the classical definition by Jean Bodin in The Six Books on the Republic (1576. The purpose is casting doubt on the political philosophy of Rousseau, in order to discuss its limits and virtualities, and the topicality of his notion of social contract and the role of Political Philosophy at the Age of Global Capital. Keywords: Rousseau. Sovereignty. Globalization of Capital.
Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten. Oslo: Res Publica, 2011. José Luis Martí and Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero's Spain. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010 (Simon Laumann Jørgensen)
Jørgensen, Simon Laumann
Anmeldelse af Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten, Oslo: Res Publica 2011, 199 NOK & José Luis Martí & Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero’s Spain, Princeton: Princeton University Press 2010, $ 24.95......Anmeldelse af Quentin Skinner, Staten og friheten, Oslo: Res Publica 2011, 199 NOK & José Luis Martí & Philip Pettit, A Political Philosophy in Public Life. Civic Republicanism in Zapatero’s Spain, Princeton: Princeton University Press 2010, $ 24.95...
Pablo Facundo Ríos Flores
However, in contemporary reception on Levinas’ reflections there’s a methodological and political discussion about how to interpret this appeal to a common "spirit" or "feeling" shared by European traditions, as well as about the meaning that acquires the elementary and threatening counterpart that is Hitlerism. This paper aims to inquire into some aspects of this methodological and political debate aroused by interwar writings of Levinas.
Jorge Raúl De Miguel
Full Text Available El artículo analiza las ideas filosóficas de Lisandro de la Torre, dirigente político y destacado legislador argentino de vasta trayectoria pública entre 1890 y 1937, a partir de algunas conferencias y escritos de sus últimos años. En el enfoque de su cosmovisión se toman en cuenta, por un lado, la relación entre filosofía, ciencia y religión, y, por otro, la concepción antropológica, mostrando la influencia de perspectivas filosóficas como el panteísmo y el positivismo. El estudio somete a crítica la desvinculación entre política y filosofía que hacía el propio de la Torre. Antes bien, concluye en que ambas esferas se encuentran conectadas y constituyen una raíz fundante del pensamiento latorrista.The article analyses Lisandro de la Torre's philosophical ideas. He was an important Argentinian politician, who had an active public life, mainly, as a legislator, between 1890 and 1937. The study is based upon some lectures and writings from his last years. His cosmological view is examined through the relation among philosophy, science and religion, on one hand, and through his anthropological account, on the other hand. The influence of pantheism and positivism is pointed out in both perspectives. It is criticised de la Torre's claim about politics as an anti-philosophical activity by arguing that philosophy and politics may be considered as foundations of his thought.
van der Tuin, I.
This article discusses microaggressions as new political material for feminist scholars and activists. The article asks how the new materialisms may contribute to the conceptualisation and operationalisation of microaggressions. After all, and taking them at face value, the ontological status of
Full Text Available In the present text I expose Alain Badiou’s post-marxist perspective elaborated in Circonstances 5: l'hypothese communiste and I present a critique to this perspective from the Lacanian concepts used by Badiou himself. This allows me, in a second moment, to clear some misunderstandings between the philosophical and the political in his device of thought and, in this way, to circumscribe the specificity of the contribution of each one to think current problems.
This article analyses the extent to which the rise of political Islam (Note 1) in Turkey has triggered an intense and polarized debate about the principle eligibility of Turkey to be a full European Union (EU) member state. The Justice and Development Party’s (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi......) The overall political targets of political Islam in Turkey seems less compatible with the traditional Turkish EU quest than formerly (2) The Turkish political Islamic turnaround is contributing to a climate of increasing scepticism in Europe, and presents significant obstacles to EU accession. As a result...
Full Text Available In the paper the author proposes a new model of political spectrum. Instead - as so far - arranging political philosophies in two or four dimensional diagrams (from the left to the right, from the top to the bottom he suggests a form of spiral, where political philosophies evolve naturally from amoralistic anarchism to communism. He also puts some names of philosophers who represent respective political views. Thus we start from amoralistic anarchism by Max Stirner, then we have moralistic anarchism by Murray N. Rothbard, then moralistic minarchism by Robert Nozick, which in turn evolves into utilitarian minarchism by Ludwig von Mises, then utilitarian liberalism by Friedrich A. von Hayek, socialist liberalism by John Rawls and socialism leading to communism by Karl Marx. In this model one organizes political views not as usually around the concept of freedom (personal and economic, but around the concept of private property. Therefore we are able to include in this model anarchism, which is usually ignored, as a non-political view.
de Bruin, B.P.
Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals
His magnum opus, A Theory of Justice, revolutionised moral and political philosophy by offering a deductive way out of the intellectually unsatisfying reliance on ... Rawls' grand ambitions, however, did not long survive: under intellectual pressure from several directions he retreated into a somewhat relativistic intuitionism, ...
Abdulfatai O. Sambo
Full Text Available The contemporary Arab world has witnessed uprisings and turmoil as a result of alleged power-overreaching by political elites. Consequently, people call for democracy with emphasis on constitutionalism, accountability and protection of human rights. Yet, the voice of the judiciary seems not to be heard in championing these values in many Muslim nations despite the clear roles Islam places on the judiciary regarding political matters. This paper therefore analyses the power of judicial review on political questions from the perspective of Islamic jurisprudence. It finds that the power of judicial review and its main institution existed in early Islamic periods after the demise of the Prophet (SAW. The paper concludes that failure to observe judicial review in many contemporary Muslim countries results in the absence of effective checks on the powers of the rulers by the judiciary.
Exorcising the demons of collectivism in art history’: Branko Mitrović, Rage and Denials. Collectivist Philosophy, Politics, and Art Historiography, 1890-1947, University Park, Pennsylvania University Press 2015
Branko Mitrović´s Rage and Denials. Collectivist Philosophy, Politics, and Art Historiography, 1890-1947 traces the history of collectivist approaches in (art) historiography and debates between the individualist and collectivist positions, with the dominant focus on German-speaking scholarship. Author further suggests that denials and false appropriations and other forms of bizzare and irrational claims inherent in many of these collectivist historiographies originated in the failures of s...
Thompson, A. [Department of Political Science, Ohio State University, 2140 Derby Hall, 154 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)
This article analyzes climate change from the perspective of international politics. In the anarchy of the international system, various cooperation problems have stalled the formation of an effective climate regime at the international level. Obstacles occur at three stages of regime formation: the bargaining stage, the transition stage, and the implementation stage. The importance of the transition stage of cooperation, which takes place between the signing of an agreement and its entry into force, has been overlooked by international relations scholars and is particularly important in the climate case. The article assesses the possibility of applying 'adaptive management' principles to climate change as a partial response to these political obstacles. While such an approach has significant appeal given the uncertainty surrounding the human-climate interface, its experimental, top-down characteristics are not politically feasible at the international level. I recommend certain modifications of existing institutions and practices to improve international information sharing and facilitate efficient learning. These changes would serve to promote a decentralized and passive - and thus politically viable - version of adaptive management, an effective approach to dealing with climate change at the global level.
Broad representation of different ethnic groups has implications in stability and the quality of democracy. The right to political participation is largely realized through the electoral system of a country. The choice among electoral systems should thus take various factors into account including the need for securing equitable ...
This article analyzes climate change from the perspective of international politics. In the anarchy of the international system, various cooperation problems have stalled the formation of an effective climate regime at the international level. Obstacles occur at three stages of regime formation: the bargaining stage, the transition stage, and the implementation stage. The importance of the transition stage of cooperation, which takes place between the signing of an agreement and its entry into force, has been overlooked by international relations scholars and is particularly important in the climate case. The article assesses the possibility of applying 'adaptive management' principles to climate change as a partial response to these political obstacles. While such an approach has significant appeal given the uncertainty surrounding the human-climate interface, its experimental, top-down characteristics are not politically feasible at the international level. I recommend certain modifications of existing institutions and practices to improve international information sharing and facilitate efficient learning. These changes would serve to promote a decentralized and passive - and thus politically viable - version of adaptive management, an effective approach to dealing with climate change at the global level
The movements of such elements were monitored at home and all their links with the international community were trapped and muffled. The main concern of this paper therefore, is to assess the religious policies of the British colonial administration in the Sokoto province in relation to what was termed as the political side of ...
nhoud: Introduction -- pt. 1. Making a state. The European impact in America, 1494-1676 -- North American colonies, 1632-1732 -- The colonies in the Empire, 1651-1774 -- War and order, 1775-1787 -- pt. 2. Consolidating the power of the state. The culture of politics, 1788-1826 --- From coexistence
culture rather than any abstract consideration into the relative merits of different voting methods.4 For example, countries with British political heritage are more inclined to plurality and majority systems, while those influenced by continental ..... ethnic makeup of the country with viable administrative divisions.63 Ethnicity in.
The paper discusses the nature and character of central political institutions in Benin and how these institutions checkmated one another. Such institutions included the Oba, the Uzama, the Eghaevbo orders, the Edaiken, the lyoba and the state council. It dwells in particular on the place of the Iyase (Prime Minister) in ...
Barely fi fty years after many African colonies gained their independence from the Europeans, every effort to develop in the continent has been constrained by the political opportunism and corruption of African leaders. This is happening at a time when many developing nations such as China, Brazil and India are making a ...
Full Text Available In this paper we examine the ability of the polysystem theory to analyze the translation of political texts. Based on the definitions outlined by Even Zohar of culture and centrality concepts, it is concluded that there is a political exclusion of the subject matter. The hypothesis is that, by including in its model translator to a subject acting on the material struggles of political-cultural system, polysystem, as a theory, gain new value and applicability. In this new context, the translator acts on the receptor system as such, but also as an intellectual and activist. An obvious derivation is that the translation stops mere thought of as ancillary activity and passes form a network of relationships in which translator, activist and intellectual are facets of the same subject, here defined as international. Taking the example of political and cultural system the anarchism of the early twentieth century system of Diego Abad de Santillán, who from his activity as leader, journalist, writer and translator, channeled through him stands relations between various subsystems of a kind of macro system international of anarchist movements.
Nik J. de Boer
Full Text Available This article assesses whether the EU Treaty freedoms - the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital - should be considered as fundamental rights which are hierarchically equal to other fundamental rights. It uses the political philosophy of John Rawls to assess why we should attach priority to certain rights and which rights should therefore be considered fundamental rights. On this basis it is argued that we should recognise two main types of fundamental rights, namely basic rights and liberties associated with Rawls' first principle of justice and the rights associated with the principle of fair equality of opportunity. This is followed by an analysis of the interpretation that the European Court of Justice (CJEU gives to the Treaty freedoms. On the basis of the normative framework, it is argued that the Treaty freedoms can be seen as fundamental rights insofar as they embody the value of equality of opportunity. Nonetheless, the CJEU increasingly seems to rely on a broader market access approach rather than an equal treatment approach in interpreting the Treaty freedoms. It is argued that where equal treatment is not at stake, the Treaty freedoms should not be seen as fundamental rights. Therefore, in cases where there is a conflict between a fundamental right and a Treaty freedom the CJEU should carefully distinguish between these two different interpretations of the Treaty freedoms. In cases where it is merely market access that is at stake, the CJEU should regard the protection of fundamental rights as more important, and be very careful in allowing a restriction of fundamental rights in order to protect the exercise of the Treaty freedom. On the other hand, in cases where the Treaty freedoms can be seen as protecting equality of opportunity and where they conflict with other fundamental rights, the Court is justified in construing the conflict as a right-right conflict in which a fair balance has to be sought.
Claudio Pérez Silva
Full Text Available This article inquires about the route of the military politics of the Communist Party of Chile, particularly under its political commitment to the Antifascist Front (1973-1980. In this regard, we argue that, in a first stage, this party pursued its military politics primarily based on evaluations about the causes of Allende’s defeat. This implied an almost unrestricted continuity of its military politics during the early years of dictatorship. However, after the first measures taken in order to palliate its shortcomings, and also face the imminent extension and institutionalization of dictatorship, there was a slow, but significant expansion of its military politics in the late 1970s, a dynamics that ended up contributing both to the political reconfiguration of its militancy and its commitment to bring the dictatorship to an end.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the following question: how is philosophy of anything possible? Where lies the boundary of specialisation area beyond which the term “philosophy” loses not only its strength, but also its meaning? When we talk about specific genre, for example, graphic art or sculpture we use the term “philosophy” in a broader, metaphorical sense. Why then should philosophy of photography be any different? All of the abovementioned questions are discussed in the present article. Philosophy of photography is, indeed, a legitimate discipline, just as philosophy of language, philosophy of science and technology and philosophy of politics are.
Reidy, Mary E.
This study began early in 2000, when the electric market was beginning to evolve from a vertical integrated industry to a market-driven, global industry where the generation portion of the industry was being sold to independent market-based companies. The beginnings of acquisitions, restructuring and re-alignments of the transmission and distribution systems were heightened during this period. In addition, as this study was underway, a tumultuous restructuring in California caused some proponents of deregulation to question the changes. The purpose of this study is to investigate price changes at the state level during the last 10 years (1990-2000). The conceptual framework is built on a study released in 1996. This study predicted lower prices as deregulation in the electric industry occurred and consumers had more choices in suppliers. In order to gain additional insight, the study is comprised of a quantitative analysis of price changes over time as well as a qualitative investigation of a certain geographic area. As a result of the quantitative analysis performed, the study has failed to reject the null hypothesis that deregulated states exhibited no difference in price ratios than those states that remain regulated. This was tested at the level of political influence (states with elected versus appointed) commissions. In fact, whether the population is segmented nationally, regionally, politically or by level of deregulation, price ratios have decreased from 1985-1996. National price ratios have been declining since the mid-1980s. A flattening of the trend for the last four years (1997-2000) may be due to the current retrenching as a result of the California deregulation experience. The qualitative section seeks to understand what influences electric prices have on regional economic development efforts. The interview results have determined that lower electric prices help to contribute to successful economic development activities, but they are not the
Full Text Available The previous studies of Islamization in Java follow a clear distinction of Priyayi-Abangan-Santri thesis, which was gradually developed and incompatible to capture the changing of political preferences of Javanese Muslims. This paper examines what kind of patterns formed on the dynamics of the Islamization process in Java under the influence of socio-political changes. The output of this paper is to show the pattern of Islamization process in Java under the political dynamic changes of Indonesian politics in the early twentieth century. The pattern of Islamization in Java was influenced by ethical policy, the transmission of Middle East Islam, and caused by the politization of Islam by the Colonial government. The ethical policy encouraged the creation of a public space for political contestations that determined the new identity of Indonesian elite. The transmission of Middle Eastern Islam triggered the polarization of Javanese Muslims into two patterns: the modernist Muslim strengthened the pattern of Priyayi-Santri in urban communities with Islamization through modern institutions. In this, the traditionalist Muslim also developed an intellectual genealogy through Pesantren networks scattered in the rural areas created the pattern of Santri-Abangan. Meanwhile the politization of Islam by Colonial government created a benefit to the unification of Islamic institutions.
... of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and the... of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State (202... Political-Military Affairs based on the underlying nature of the violations, but will generally be for three...
... of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and the... of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State (202... Political-Military Affairs based on the underlying nature of the violations, but will generally be for three...
Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler
Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?
Exorcising the demons of collectivism in art history’: Branko Mitrović, Rage and Denials. Collectivist Philosophy, Politics, and Art Historiography, 1890-1947, University Park, Pennsylvania University Press 2015
Full Text Available Branko Mitrović´s Rage and Denials. Collectivist Philosophy, Politics, and Art Historiography, 1890-1947 traces the history of collectivist approaches in (art historiography and debates between the individualist and collectivist positions, with the dominant focus on German-speaking scholarship. Author further suggests that denials and false appropriations and other forms of bizzare and irrational claims inherent in many of these collectivist historiographies originated in the failures of self-esteem regulation of their authors. The review then critically examines some problematic claims and assumptions which constitute the theoretical and conceptual backbone of the historical survey.
Full text: A review of the literature relating to exposure to, and exposure limits for, ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise was undertaken. The four hazards were chosen because they were insidious and ubiquitous, were potential hazards in both occupational and environmental settings and had early and late effects depending on dose and dose rate. For all four hazards, the effect of the hazard was enhanced by other exposures such as smoking or organic solvents. In the cases of inorganic lead and noise, there were documented health effects which affected a significant percentage of the exposed populations at or below the [effective] exposure limits. This was not the case for ionising radiation and asbestos. None of the exposure limits considered exposure to multiple mutagens/carcinogens in the calculation of risk. Ionising radiation was the only one of the hazards to have a model of all likely exposures, occupational, environmental and medical, as the basis for the exposure limits. The other three considered occupational exposure in isolation from environmental exposure. Inorganic lead and noise had economic considerations underlying the exposure limits and the exposure limits for asbestos were based on the current limit of detection. All four hazards had many variables associated with exposure, including idiosyncratic factors, that made modelling the risk very complex. The scientific idea of a time weighted average based on an eight hour day, and forty hour week on which the exposure limits for lead, asbestos and noise were based was underpinned by neither empirical evidence or scientific hypothesis. The methodology of the ACGIH in the setting of limits later brought into law, may have been unduly influenced by the industries most closely affected by those limits. Measuring exposure over part of an eight hour day and extrapolating to model exposure over the longer term is not the most effective way to model exposure. The statistical techniques used
... evident under both ideologies. It seems as if most South African citizens continue to be excluded from recreation access and opportunities as a social space conducive to individual exploration, reflecting social, cultural intellectual and spiritual growth. Key words: Public recreation provision; Apartheid ideology; Democracy.
S. A. Kravchenko
Full Text Available Philosophy and Social science school of MGIMO has received both nationwide and international recognition. The traditions of the school were laid by two highly respected scientists and science managers, George P. Frantsev, who was the rector MGIMO during the crucial period of its early years, and Alexander F. Shishkin, who was the founder and head of the Department of Philosophy. The former belonged to one of the best schools of antic history studies of the Petersburg (Leningrad University. Frantsev made a great contribution to the restoration of Russian social and political science after World War II. After graduating from MGIMO, he worked at the Foreign Ministry of USSR, and then served as a rector of the Academy of Social Sciences and chief-editor of the journal "Problems of Peace and Socialism" in Prague. He consistently supported MGIMO scientists and recommended them as participants for international congresses and conferences. Shishkin was born in Vologda, and studied in Petrograd during 1920s. His research interests included history of education and morality. He was the author of the first textbook on ethics in the postwar USSR. Other works Shishkin, including monograph "XX century and the moral values of humanity", played a in reorienting national philosophy from class interests to universal moral principles. During thirty years of his leadership of the Department of Philosophy, Shishkin managed to prepare several generations of researchers and university professors. Scientists educated by Shishkin students consider themselves to be his "scientific grandchildren". The majority of MGIMO post-graduate students followed the footsteps of Frantsev in their research, but they also were guided by Shishkin's ideas on morality in human relations. Philosophy and Social science school of MGIMO played an important role in the revival of Soviet social and political science. Soviet Social Science Association (SSSA, established in 1958, elected Frantsev
Full Text Available The previous studies of islamization in Java follow a clear distinction of priyayi-abangan-santri thesis, which was in its development gradually incompatible to capture the changing of political preferences of Javanese Muslims. This paper examines what kind of patterns formed on the dynamics of the process of Islamization in Java under the influence of socio-political changes. The output of this paper perhaps shows the pattern of islamization in Java under the dynamic changes of Indonesian politics in the early twentieth century. The pattern of islamization in Java was influenced, firstly, by ethical policy, secondly, the transmission of Middle East Islam, and, thirdly, politization of Islam by colonial government. The ethical policy encouraged the creation of a public space for political contestations that determined the new identity of Indonesian elite. The transmission of Middle Eastern Islam triggered the polarization of Javanese Muslims into two patterns: the modernist Muslim strengthened the pattern of priyayi-santri in urban communities with Islamization through modern institutions. The traditionalist Muslim developed an intellectual genealogy through pesantren networks scattered in the rural areas created the pattern of santriabangan. Meanwhile the politization of Islam by colonial government created a benefit to the unification of Islamic institutions.
From the Guilty City to the Ideas of Alternative Urbanization and Alternative Modernity: Anti-Urbanism as a Border-Zone of City-Philosophy and Cultural Criticism in the Interwar Hungarian Political Thought
Full Text Available The phenomenon of anti-urbanism has accompanied the process of modernisation since the emergence of modernity. The city, the modern metropolis played a vital role in this transition from premodern world to modern era. The metamorphosis of archaic structures, including the fields of economy, society and thinking, are inevitably associated with tensions engendering aversion against the city. Anti-urbanism appeared sporadically everywhere, as a continuous tradition, it emerged at two remote corners of the world: in United States and Germany. Hungarian anti-urbanism of the interwar period had been motivated by the shock of the disintegration of the “Historical Greater Hungary”. The motif of guilty city emerged in the atmosphere of scapegoating: Budapest appeared as incompatible with Hungarian national character. These ruminations about the role of city were embedded in a special context mixing city-philosophy, cultural criticism, German-origin crisis philosophy, political philosophy and national characterology. It was a peculiar mixture in the Central European region: Hungarian interwar thought, from this respect, follows the regional patterns.
Reports an error in "Is Political Behavior a Viable Coping Strategy to Perceived Organizational Politics? Unveiling the Underlying Resource Dynamics" by Shuhua Sun and Huaizhong Chen ( Journal of Applied Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, May 22, 2017, np). In the article, Table 1 contained a formatting error. Correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 6 were misplaced with correlation coefficient values in the last four cells of column 7. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-22542-001.) We conduct a theory-driven empirical investigation on whether political behavior, as a coping strategy to perceived organizational politics, creates resource trade-offs in moderating the relationship between perceived organizational politics and task performance. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesize that political behavior mitigates the adverse effect of perceived organizational politics on task performance via psychological empowerment, yet exacerbates its adverse effect on task performance via emotional exhaustion. Three-wave multisource data from a sample of 222 employees and their 75 supervisors were collected for hypothesis testing. Findings supported our hypotheses. Our study enhances understandings of the complex resource dynamics of using political behavior to cope with perceived organizational politics and highlights the need to move stress-coping research from a focus on the stress-buffering effect of coping on outcomes to a focus on the underlying competing resource dynamics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
... of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and the...: Lisa Studtmann, Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military... period for debarment will be determined by the Assistant Secretary for Political-Military Affairs based...
The use of philosophy in educational programmes and practices under such names as philosophy for children, philosophy with children, or the community of philosophical enquiry, has become well established in many countries around the world. The main attraction of the educational use of philosophy seems to lie in the claim that it can help children…
In 2009 Harvey Siegel edited "The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education." This article develops a theme, prompted by reflection on several essays in that volume, about the nature of philosophy of education and its relation to philosophy. Siegel's view that philosophy of education is a "branch" of philosophy is put to…
This article analyses executive politics under the second Grand Coalition in Germany with a particular emphasis on the role of the Chancellor and her Office. It applies a principal-agent framework to examine how the two parties in government affected the power relations within the executive. Next to
While the solution to this dilemma is still being sought, Socrates shifted the attention of philosophy (with obvious reasons) from nature to ethical-political question, that is, to the issue of human development. It interests this essay, to find out, what exactly is human development, and why philosophy after Socrates considers ...
The present book is no ordinary anthology, but rather a workroom in which anthropologists and philosophers initiate a dialogue on trust and hope, two important topics for both fields of study. The book combines work between scholars from different universities in the U.S. and Denmark. Thus, besid......, therefore, also inspire others to work in the productive intersection between anthropology and philosophy....
R. B. Shindaulova
Full Text Available In the article, the author found that noohumanistic philosophy emerged as a natural reflection of social consciousness on topical issues of the day: a systematic, global, ecological and economic, spiritual crisis; conflicts on religious and ethnic grounds, aggression, and terror. Having imbibed the ideas cosmism, kosmotsentrichnost antiques, the results of modern scientific research, noohumanistic philosophy its ultimate educational product is the formation of the human future the personality with planetarycosmic type of consciousness, which is inherent in the planetary mindset responsible for the impact on the environment, understanding of the development of its own strategy human activity, not harming, but on the contrary, consistent and harmonized with the biological, technological and socio processes. In the study of the problem was found that integrating a socioeconomic, environmental, spiritual and moral aspects noohumanistic philosophy focused on a conscious harmonization of socionatural systems, the need for the formation of planetary worldview, activation of vital position of the subject in this direction and raise responsibility, tolerance, moral standards, expansion of ideological horizon. The analysis revealed that noohumanizm it is a new paradigmatic tendency to form noohumanistic philosophy and ideology, which is in the process of its formation, productive, promising and meets the challenges of modern civilization.
This paper proposes a model of human uniqueness based on an unusual distinction between two contrasted kinds of political competition and political status: (1) antagonistic competition, in quest of dominance (antagonistic status), a zero-sum, self-limiting game whose stake--who takes what, when, how--summarizes a classical definition of politics (Lasswell 1936), and (2) synergistic competition, in quest of merit (synergistic status), a positive-sum, self-reinforcing game whose stake becomes "who brings what to a team's common good." In this view, Rawls's (1971) famous virtual "veil of ignorance" mainly conceals politics' antagonistic stakes so as to devise the principles of a just, egalitarian society, yet without providing any means to enforce these ideals (Sen 2009). Instead, this paper proposes that human uniqueness flourished under a real "adapted veil of ignorance" concealing the steady inflation of synergistic politics which resulted from early humans' sturdy egalitarianism. This proposition divides into four parts: (1) early humans first stumbled on a purely cultural means to enforce a unique kind of within-team antagonistic equality--dyadic balanced deterrence thanks to handheld weapons (Chapais 2008); (2) this cultural innovation is thus closely tied to humans' darkest side, but it also launched the cumulative evolution of humans' brightest qualities--egalitarian team synergy and solidarity, together with the associated synergistic intelligence, culture, and communications; (3) runaway synergistic competition for differential merit among antagonistically equal obligate teammates is the single politically selective mechanism behind the cumulative evolution of all these brighter qualities, but numerous factors to be clarified here conceal this mighty evolutionary driver; (4) this veil of ignorance persists today, which explains why humans' unique prosocial capacities are still not clearly understood by science. The purpose of this paper is to start lifting
Van Brakel, Jaap
In this paper I assess the relation between philosophy of chemistry and (general) philosophy of science, focusing on those themes in the philosophy of chemistry that may bring about major revisions or extensions of current philosophy of science. Three themes can claim to make a unique contribution to philosophy of science: first, the variety of materials in the (natural and artificial) world; second, extending the world by making new stuff; and, third, specific features of the relations betwe...
In the Starnberg Max-Planck Institute one of the working groups was concerned with science as the formative condition--or "hard core"--of societal modernity, and with science as potential resource for solving social problems and addressing future goals. More precisely, the group intended to differentiate between phases in which scientific disciplines predominantly care for their own paradigmatic completion and those allowing their theoretical potential resonate with external needs. The conceptual model was coined "finalization in science". It soon provoked a heated controversy on the dangers of social control of science. The paper analyses Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's views on the relation between philosophy and policy of science including his interpretation of Thomas Kuhn and reconstructs the impact of his ideas on the finalization model. It finally reflects on the relationship between science development and change of consciousness in the context of scientific responsibility for (the use of) research outcomes.
Esquith, Stephen L.
The connection between liberal political philosophy and political education is discussed with particular emphasis on the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. The purpose of the essay is to explain how liberal citizens become committed to a distinctively liberal conception of the common good. Part 1 discusses Hobbes' theory that rationally determining…
This article explores the politically contentious issue of White working-class student under-achievement within one particular school--a large and culturally diverse comprehensive secondary school in the greater London area. The article examines the equity philosophies and identity politics articulated by staff in their understanding of and…
Curtis L. Hancock
Full Text Available Peter Redpath is a distinguished historian of philosophy. He believes that the best way to acquire a philosophical education is through the study of philosophy’s history. Because he is convinced that ideas have consequences, he holds that the history of philosophy illuminates important events in history. Philosophy is a necessary condition for sound education, which, in turn, is a necessary condition for cultural and political leadership. Hence, the way educators and leaders shape culture reflects the effects of philosophy on culture. In light of this background, it is possible to discern in Redpath’s account of the history of philosophy a corresponding philosophy of history. This emerges as he explains how philosophers have produced changes in thinking that have profound consequences for the culture at large. Some of these changes, many of them significant, have been positive, but others have been disastrous. Much of Redpath’s philosophy of history diagnoses what went wrong in the history of philosophy so as to indicate why modern culture suffers considerable disorder. The good news is that Redpath’s philosophy of history prescribes ways to correct Western Civilization’s current malaise.
Environmental philosophy is a hybrid discipline drawing extensively from epistemology, ethics, and philosophy of science and analyzing disciplines such as conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability studies, and political ecology. The book being discussed both provides an overview of environmental philosophy and develops an anthropocentric framework for it. That framework treats natural values as deep cultural values. Tradeoffs between natural values are analyzed using decision theory to the extent possible, leaving many interesting question for philosophical deliberation. This framework is supposed to be applicable in practical contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to revisit, once again the question asked by Adorno and Habermas and other contemporary thinkers under different headings few decades ago. The author is suggesting that nowadays philosophy requires a final departure from the idea of having single and perennial face, and that this would not only allow, but also enable philosophy to test its various faces freely, that is, without norm or limit set in advance. At the same time, by creating such ′liberal′ climate philosophy would no longer be frightened by the possible answer, and hence would no longer dramatize the very question of ′why still?′. Even if philosophy turns out to be far less than the mission it once bestowed upon itself.
Beatty, Joy E.; Leigh, Jennifer S. A.; Dean, Kathy Lund
Teaching philosophy statements reflect our personal values, connect us to those with shared values in the larger teaching community, and inform our classroom practices. In this article, we explore the often-overlooked foundations of teaching philosophies, specifically philosophy and historical educational philosophies. We review three elements of…
Cole, David R.
The final lines of Deleuze and Guattari's What is Philosophy? call for a non-philosophy to balance and act as a counterweight to the task of philosophy that had been described by them in terms of concept creation. In a footnote, Deleuze and Guattari mention François Laruelle's project of non-philosophy, but dispute its efficacy in terms of the…
Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics...... of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies....
The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…
Delmo Mattos da Silva
Full Text Available O CONTRATUALISMO DE ROUSSEAU SOB A PERSPECTIVA DE RAWLS NAS CONFERÊNCIAS SOBRE A HISTÓRIA DA FILOSOFIA POLÍTICA (1960-1995 Resumo: a proposta da presente comunicação consiste em explorar os argumentos de Rawls sobre o contratualismo de Rousseau, em especial, o papel representativo da vontade geral e do pacto social no contexto do seu pensamento político. Para tanto, utiliza-se como pano de fundo as discussões proferidas pelo filósofo americano em uma série de cursos ministrados na Universidade de Harvard, entre 1960 a 1995, e reunidos na obra: Lectures on The History of Political Philosophy (Conferências sobre a História da Filosofia Política. Nesse curso, além de uma análise das condições de possibilidade do argumento do contrato no âmbito da modernidade política, Rawls, na parte destinada a Rousseau questiona, redefine e problematiza várias questões apresentadas pelo filósofo genebrino nas suas obras principais de filosofia política. Por uma questão de objetivo, o propósito definido será o de expor a problematização da vontade geral baseado na exposição de Rawls, especialmente aquelas inquietações teóricas sobre a legitimidade, função e promoção da justiça, liberdade e da igualdade em relação à vontade geral. Palavras-chave: Contratualismo. Vontade geral. Liberdade. Pacto social. Justiça. Abstract: the purpose of this paper is to explore Rawls's arguments about Rousseau's contractualism, in particular, about the representative role of the general will and the social pact in the context of his political thinking. To do so, use as background as discussions by the American philosopher in a series of courses taught at Harvard University from 1960 to 1995, and gathered in the work: Lectures on The History of Political Philosophy. In this course, in addition to an analysis of the conditions of possibility of the contract argument in the context of political modernity, Rawls in the part destined to Rousseau
Stump, David J.
This paper considers several models of politically engaged philosophy with the aim of provoking discussion of George Reisch's "How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science." At issue is the Unity of Science movement's conception of the philosophy of science in particular and what politically engaged philosophy of science might look…
Full Text Available Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further and the 1% of the World population will control 95% of all wealth in the World.
Robert A. Delfino
Full Text Available In this article the author discusses Peter A. Redpath’s understanding of the nature of philosophy and his account of how erroneous understandings of philosophy have led to the decline of the West and to the separation of philosophy from modern science and modern science from wisdom. Following Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas, Redpath argues that philosophy is a sense realism because it begins in wonder about real things known through the senses. Philosophy presupposes pre-philosophical knowledge, common sense, which consists of principles rooted in sensation that make human experience, sense wonder, and philosophy possible. Philosophy is certain knowledge demonstrated through causes and thus philosophy is the same as science. Redpath understands science as a habit that we acquire through repeated practice. More precisely, a scientific habit is a simple quality of the intellect that enables us to demonstrate (prove the necessary properties of a genus through their causes or principles. In this way, science is the study of the one and the many. Redpath argues that metaphysics is the final cause of the arts and sciences, providing the foundation for all of the arts and sciences and justifying their principles. Finally, he argues that with modernity’s loss of belief in God and its rejection of metaphysics as a science, utopian socialism has become an historical/political substitute for metaphysics.
Rosenberg, Shawn W.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the field of political psychology; like the social sciences more generally, is being challenged. New theoretical direction is being demanded from within and a greater epistemological sophistication and ethical relevance is being demanded from without. In response, direction for a reconstructed political psychology is offered here. To begin, a theoretical framework for a truly integrative political psychology is sketched. This is done in light of the appar...
This case study is primarily based on my PhD research conducted on Egyptian Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and their political educational activities. I was interested in analysing three important notions: how informal political education provided through CSOs plays a role in aiding social change and developing critical consciousness, how the Egyptian state attempts to repress CSOs and their political educational activities, and how CSOs are trying to overcome such hindrances. My fieldwor...
O. S. Tokovenko
Full Text Available The paper is submitted to a scientific discussion the possibility of considering the idea of political science, based on the criteria of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity. In this context, generally accepted among professionals and political scientists idea that political science as a scientific discipline occurs in the early twentieth century and its conceptual framework is still in a state of development, and a long preceding period should be characterized as a period of political thought is being challenged. The main idea that is being proved is recognition the existence of such scientific discipline as political science requires recognition of the existence of specific inherent ideals of science, cognitive standards, rules, procedures, explanations, etc. They allow political thinkers from the ancient world as well as modern researchers to combine it into a single, unique, different from others in their methodological principles and heuristic potential Science. It is convinced that the existence of intellectual integrity and disciplinary unity in Political Science is possible due to the existence of the ideals of scholarship, which are closely related to the cultural and historical context in which Political Science is being developed. The possibility of applying such disciplinary and integrated approach is considered as an example of the impact that was made by changes of the Great French Revolution and its consequences on transformation of the conceptual framework of Political Science. It is concluded that the consideration of the peculiarities of political thought development in the social and cultural contexts related to the events of the Great French Revolution and its consequences argues that political science is responsive to changing the social context, makes changes in categorical apparatus, introduces the new field of scientific inquiry, actualized subject field. These actions are due to the specific disciplinary unity
This thesis commissioned by MEP Sirpa Pietikäinen concerns political personal branding in social media. The focus is on adjusting personal branding efficiently in social media particularly in the political field. The thesis is a qualitative study. The study method used is benchmarking with the primary data of expert interviews. The secondary data includes other researches on the topic, books and online publications that are analyzed from the political personal branding point of view. Besides ...
Buden, D.; Madsen, W.; Redd, L.
The philosophy used for development of nuclear thermal propulsion will determine the cost, schedule and risk associated with the activities. As important is the impression of the decision makers. If the development cost is higher than the product value, it is doubtful that funding will ever be available. On the other hand, if the development supports the economic welfare of the country with a high rate of return, the probability of funding greatly increases. The philosophy is divided into: realism, design, operations and qualification. ''Realism'' addresses such items as political acceptability, potential customers, robustness-flexibility, public acceptance, decisions as needed, concurrent engineering, and the possible role of the CIS. ''Design'' addresses ''minimum requirement,'' built in safety and reliability redundancy, emphasize on eliminating risk at lowest levels, and the possible inclusion of electric generation. ''Operations'' addresses sately, environment, operations, design margins and degradation modes. ''Qualification'' addresses testing needs and test facilities
Daniel, Marie-France; Auriac, Emmanuelle
For centuries, philosophy has been considered as an intellectual activity requiring complex cognitive skills and predispositions related to complex (or critical) thinking. The Philosophy for Children (P4C) approach aims at the development of critical thinking in pupils through philosophical dialogue. Some contest the introduction of P4C in the…
This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.
Full Text Available Mark Risjord. Philosophy of Social Science. A Contemporary Introduction. Serie: Routledge Contemporary Introductions to Philosophy. New York and London: Routledge, 2014, 288 p., €42,75. ISBN 978 0 415 89825 6
Alexandre Anselmo Guilherme
Full Text Available Where does philosophy of education take us? In the social, political and cultural turmoil of the present age, it can be argued that our social imagination might be confined, and our political subverted. In response to this, some philosophers of education have strived to reveal many ideologies at work in modern myths such as the orders of educational progression, of equality of opportunity, and of the power of measurement. But is there something beyond what Paul Ricoeur called the «desert of criticism» (Ricoeur. The Symbolism of Evil? How helpful and effective have these criticisms of our modern age been? In this editorial, an introduction to the special issue of Philosophy of Education: Contemporary Critical Issues, I discuss the importance of a critical attitude in education, and philosophy of education, whilst making reference to the works of Ilan Gur-Ze’ev and David Carr.
The purpose of this thesis is to analyse political memories, through the life stories of people who participated in political parties or movements during the time of Pinochet’s dictatorship. The analysis focuses on two aspects of activism which have usually been neglected, namely family and gender relations.
Alba Robert DUMI
Full Text Available Albania is making big steps in the process of integration toward western institutions and organizations. The domestic political factor plays a leading role in Albanian society as an indicator of expressing the willingness to help the process of integration through well designed reforms. However, the resistance of political forces, especially those with direct or indirect heri tages from the old political class, is preventing the transition to newer western political concepts of doing politics. Reforms to improve democracy requires leadership from within the country as a prerequisite in building the political will for reform as very important for consolidating democracy and strengthen ties with European Union and distancing the society from its troubled past. In this paper I want to illustrate the model of development in politics of public administration in Albania, to be part of the political management in my country. Moreover, one of the biggest challenges in public reforming of Albanian economy and making Albania attractive to foreign investments is the implementation of the property rights. This still remains one of the biggest challenges due to the lack of transparency of the process of legalization and lack of state guidance in development of urban and rural areas. In this paper we analyze two topics directly related to change the public administration with Strategy of Decentralization and Local Autonomy.
Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions....
Gregory, Maughn; Granger, David
John Dewey was not a philosopher of education in the now-traditional sense of a doctor of philosophy who examines educational ends, means, and controversies through the disciplinary lenses of epistemology, ethics, and political theory, or of agenda-driven schools such as existentialism, feminism, and critical theory. Rather, Dewey was both an…
New York: Harper Torchbooks. Heidegger, M. (1977). The question concerning technology. New York: Harper and Row. Heidegger, M. (1985). The self-assertion of the German university. (Karsten Harries, Trans.). Review of Metaphysics. 38, 470-480. Lacoue-Labarthe, P. (1989). Typography: Mimesis, philosophy, politics.
Full Text Available Historical documents show that urban life and urbanization is the first manifestation of complete form of human life, and it seems that most of human thoughts, like philosophies, were shaped in the cities and urbanizations. It means that the urban life is a society which has many social factors like: social classes and groups, economy, political power, organizations, family, cultures and geographical and environmental circumstances, that they cause to form many thoughts like human philosophies, then we see that most of past philosophers were in the cities in where urbanization was formed and thinkers could think by using of elements which are grown in such urbanizations. So, the being of urban life is necessary for making philosophical thoughts, because there are such social factors of urban living, can effect human's thinking and shape his/her worldview. But we can see the role of humankinds as a free existent who has divine position, intellect and freedom, then, he/she can manage, control and change the impacts of urban factors on philosophical thought. It means that effects of urbanizations and cultures as clear manifestation of urban life on philosophies is possible only by using of human‘s will and thinking as the central factor of the urban life and philosophy, while he/she can control and change these impacts. In fact, although human is under the impact of social and urban factors, he/she is not determined absolutely, but has freedom and intellect to control and change them. So, there is no place for absolute determinism due to social forces of urban life, but it seems there is a kind of intermediate state between absolute determinism and libertarianism. In this paper, it is tries to analysis the role of social and urban factors as the most important elements of the urban life on philosophy and philosophical thinking, and to argue that how human can manage this process.
The article is a critical discussion of the aims behind the teaching of philosophy in British primary schools. It begins by reviewing the recent Special Issue of the "Journal of Philosophy of Education" Vol 45 Issue 2 2011 on "Philosophy for Children in Transition", so as to see what light this might throw on the topic just…
This article examines the rationale for my teaching philosophy. Using a personal perspective, I explain my objectives, mission, and vision in writing my philosophy of teaching statements. This article also creates a road map and reference points for educators who want to write their own teaching philosophy statements to help them make informed…
Bartels, Rob; Onstenk, Jeroen; Veugelers, Wiel
Philosophy for Democracy is a research project that aims to examine whether and how Philosophy with Children contributes to the development of democratic skills and attitudes. In the Netherlands, as in almost all Western countries, Philosophy with Children is linked with the movement for citizenship education. This article reports the research on…
Chambliss, J. J.
In this review essay J.J. Chambliss assesses the current state of the field of philosophy of education through analysis of four recent edited compilations: Randall Curren's "A Companion to Philosophy of Education"; Nigel Blake, Paul Smeyers, Richard Smith, and Paul Standish's "The Blackwell Guide to Philosophy of Education"; Wilfred Carr's "The…
Policies in the United States regarding personal responsibility and deviant behavior often follow an underlying moral philosophy. This paper examines the philosophies in American social policy, and how beliefs about personal responsibility, definitions of deviance and the role of the social welfare system shape current policies.
Policies in the United States regarding personal responsibility and deviant behavior often follow an underlying moral philosophy. This paper examines the philosophies in American social policy, and how beliefs about personal responsibility, definitions of deviance and the role of the social welfare system shape current policies.
Ramesh Chandra Das
Full Text Available In today’s world most of the countries are following the market rule to determine their economic determinants with some to follow the mixed role of the government. There are a very few countries or states that are following the socialistic nature of development. One such country is Venezuela which has a long history of socialism and the degree of socialism got magnified under the regime of Hugo Chavez. The last election result in favour of Chavez has put some questions before the economists and politicians regarding its grounds. The present study has been framed in line with examining whether the role of economic factors have done the trick for Chavez to regain the presidential power. The study for the period of 1998-2010 has observed that the country has suffered in major economic factors compared to two Latin heroes Brazil and Argentina, albeit he has won the election. The study further observed that there are certain political grounds that played role for the favourable verdict.
O'Shaughnessy, Roy J
Historically, the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL) has not engaged in debates on public policy. In its unique position at the interface of law and medicine, AAPL is able to make important contributions to social policy involving management of violent youths. In the 1990s, increasing rates of violence among adolescents spawned a new era of research into the causes and correlates of violence in youths. The resultant data on risk factors have provided opportunities for establishing empirical assessments and risk-focused treatment programs. Community treatment programs that demonstrate a moderate effect in reducing violence have renewed optimism about the benefit of treatment over punishment. The ongoing development of methodology to assess risk for violence presents opportunities for advancement of rehabilitation. Current social policies that limit the ability to provide treatment and rehabilitation in juvenile settings should be challenged by organized psychiatry.
This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…
Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne
A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...
SIYASETNAME AS AN INTERPRETATION OF TRADITIONAL PHILOSOPHY OF POLITICS AND STATE -ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF POLITICS AND STATE OF GREAT STATESMAN NIZAMULMULK- GELENEKSEL SİYASET VE DEVLET FELSEFESİNİN BİR YORUMU OLARAK “SİYASETNAME” - BÜYÜK DEVLET ADAMI NİZAMÜLMÜLK’ÜN DEVLET VE SİYASET ANLAYIŞI ÜZERİNE-
Full Text Available The present study, “Siyasetname” written by famous statesman Nizamülmülk is examined as an interpretation of traditional politics and government philosophy. This work of Nizamülmülk that managed to survive until today is an important resource for historians and political scientists, not only to understand the ideas of this scientist and statesman, but also because it reflects the properties of its period. There is no doubt that Nizamülmülk, who worked as a vizier for two sultans of Seljuk Government, had a significant impact on the structure and mentality of the Turkish state. Besides being the continuation of a previously existing tradition, “Siyasetname” also has aspects deviating from this earlier tradition. Not only did his work give advice and recommendations for sultans, but also contributed significantly to the system of government. In other words, concrete, practical, and feasible measures on what should happen were recommended in the work. It also reflects the structure of government and bureaucracy, interaction between the manager and the managed, and the rhetoric of opposition of the time. Because of these characteristics, the work definitely has a historical value. In summary, Nizamülmülk represents a philosophy of government and politics that is strong, paternalistic, and compatible with religion. This understanding strongly reflects perspectives regarding traditional state and politics. As well as his “twin sister” theory of religion and state, his idea of social state also has a current value and thus should be developed. Bu çalışmada ünlü devlet adamı Nizamülmülk tarafından yazılan “Siyasetname”, geleneksel siyaset ve devlet felsefesinin bir yorumu olarak incelenmektedir. Bir ilim ve siyaset adamı olan Nizamülmülk’ün günümüze kadar gelen bu yapıtı, sadece onun fikirlerini anlamak için değil, aynı zamanda döneminin özelliklerini de yansıtması itibariyle, tarihçiler ve siyaset
The system of direct provision for asylum seekers will be 14 years in operation on 10 April 2014. I contend that the system of direct provision violates a number of rights specifically protected under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR): in particular, the prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment, protection of the right to private and family life, and the right to equal treatment under law.
Conte, M. M.
The first 900 MWe units, built under the American Westinghouse licence and with reference to the U. S. regulation, were followed by 28 standardized units, C P1 and C P2 series. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from starting and operating experience of French nuclear power plants, completed by the experience learned from the operation of foreign reactors, has contributed to the improvement of French PWR design and safety philosophy. As early as 1976, this experience was taken into account by French Safety organisms to discuss, with Electricite de France, the safety options for the planned 1300 MWe units, P4 and P4 series. In 1983, the new reactor scheduled, Ni4 series 1400 MWe, is a totally French design which satisfies the French regulations and other French standards and codes. Based on a deterministic approach, the French safety analysis was progressively completed by a probabilistic approach each of them having possibilities and limits. Increasing knowledge and lessons learned from operating experience have contributed to the French safety philosophy improvement. The methodology now applied to safety evaluation develops a new facet of the in depth defense concept by taking highly unlikely events into consideration, by developing the search of safety consistency of the design, and by completing the deterministic approach by the probabilistic one
S. Z. Gontcharov
Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching.
DeFriez, Joshua; Larsen, Justine; Hilton, Nicholas
Environmental legislation is commonly accepted as an altruistic approach to land management. A closer examination however, reveals that political incentives and flawed arguments consistently shape U.S. environmental policy at high public costs. As student fellows at the Institute of Political Economy at Utah State University, we have had the opportunity to research this subject under the direction of Professor Randy Simmons. Political Ecology is his upcoming book that explores a variety of en...
Reginald M.J. Oduor
Research Methodology in Philosophy within an Interdisciplinary and Commercialised African Context 87 .... Second, I examine the distinct research methodologies of philosophy and of the social sciences, with a view to illustrating the need for the two fields of study to .... politics and political psychology, among others. What ...
Shuffelton, Amy B.
When the debate over the value of ideal and nonideal theory crosses from political philosophy into philosophy of education, do the implications of the debate shift, and, if so, how? In this piece, Amy Shuffelton considers the premise that no normative political theory, ideal or nonideal, is of any use to human beings unless it can be affiliated…
Keskinen, Suvi; Norocel, Ov Cristian; Bak Jørgensen, Martin
. This article identifies two main ways of understanding welfare chauvinism: 1) as a broad concept that covers all sorts of claims and policies to reserve welfare benefits for the ‘native’ population; 2) an ethnonationalist and racialising political agenda, characteristic especially of right-wing populist......The ongoing economic crisis that emerged in the wake of the global recession in 2008, and was followed by the more recent crisis of the Eurozone, has introduced new themes and remoulded old ways of approaching the welfare state, immigration, national belonging and racism in Northern Europe...... parties. Focusing on the relationship between politics and policies, we examine how welfare chauvinist political agendas are turned into policies and what hinders welfare chauvinist claims from becoming policy matters and welfare practices. It is argued that welfare chauvinism targeting migrants is part...
Veatch, Robert M
The celebration of thirty years of publication of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy provides an opportunity to reflect on how medical ethics has evolved over that period. The reshaping of the field has occurred in no small part because of the impact of branches of philosophy other than ethics. These have included influences from Kantian theory of respect for persons, personal identity theory, philosophy of biology, linguistic analysis of the concepts of health and disease, personhood theory, epistemology, and political philosophy. More critically, medicine itself has begun to be reshaped. The most fundamental restructuring of medicine is currently occurring--stemming, in part, from the application of contemporary philosophy of science to the medical field. There is no journal more central to these critical events of the past three decades than The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.
In this article, the author seeks to bridge analytic theory, which is used as an interpretive framework to understand patients' psychic lives, and political philosophy, which accounts for individuals living a life in common as citizens. Specifically, I address how we can understand the relation between the psychosocial space of a parent(s) and child interaction, which becomes part of the child's psychic life, and the political space between and within citizens. The underlying claim is that there is a correlation between political space and the space between parent and child. I use an emended version of Donald Winnicott's concept of potential space and political philosopher Hannah Arendt's notion of the space of appearances to suggest connections between the consulting room and political space.
interested in philosophy as a privileged object of investigation and investment ‐ an aim in itself. There are, however, moments and situations in my life where an interest in philosophy has appeared or is necessarily forced upon me; these are times when philosophy appears as a seemingly unavoidable...... and essential questioning of fundamentals,– as a ‘basic’ need. This being said, it can be annoying as well as cumbersome. Philosophy as a ‘basic’ need makes itself felt as an estrangement that has always already taken place. It takes the form of a “Schritt zurück” in which one pulls away from, problematizes...
Calvário, R.; Velegrakis, G.; Kaika, M.
The paper focuses on two largely understudied and interrelated aspects of the post-2008 economic crisis: how the politics of austerity influences the dynamics of environmental conflict and how the environment is mobilized in subaltern struggles against the normalization of austerity as the hegemonic
Wehling, Eva Elisabeth
Across the globe and throughout history, politics are regularly divided into "left-leaning" and "right-leaning" camps. Explaining the sources of this conservative-liberal divide has become a major quest in the cognitive and social sciences. Early attempts have focused on self-interest as a possible explanation. However, as the…
This paper contains a comment on an article by Professor Lave, recently published in this journal (Transpn Res. 28A, 83-91, 1994). Lave's approach towards analyzing the political feasibility of road pricing is challenged on several grounds. In a simple setting, where individual road users are
This article describes and analyzes an intervention program with social workers living and working in a situation of uncertainty created by political violence such as war and terrorism. The author used a social constructionist perspective as a theoretical framework, emphasizing the effect of the social and political context in constructing the experience and a recognition of the personal and professional knowledge acquired in the daily experience. The author used qualitative methods to evaluate the process and outcome. The narrative-holistic analysis focused on reconstructing meaning and adapting it to the new situation, the main thrust of the program. From the thematic analysis four main themes emerged: (1) loss as a result of political violence; (2) meaning of strength and weakness in situations of political violence; (3) preparation for terrorist attacks; and (4) definition of a safe place. The outcome evaluation describes the meaning of this kind of training program to the participants. The specific context of the training program is discussed as well as possibilities of using it in different contexts.
Tatyana V. Kushch
Full Text Available This paper will focus on the political elite of Byzantium in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries and the changes in its structure. According to the analysis of prosopographic data, the number of the ruling elite considerably decreased during the reign of Manuel II Palaiologos. The hierarchy of titles and offices declined, so that many of them, even of supreme level, were not granted anymore, and later disappeared from political life. The central administrative machinery was reduced to the size of the imperial court. The ruling elite incorporated the descendants of famous Byzantine families and persons who established friendly relations with Manuel II. The emperor considerably raised the role of his intellectual retinue. Often without official titles and positions, the intellectuals, nevertheless, became key figures in the empire’s political affairs. However, in parallel to the ruling class that concentrated in the capital, Morea and Thessalonike developed their own local political elites. The hierarchy of officeholders doubled at the level of despotates, where positions from the former all-empire administration still existed. The developed system of administration of separate parts of the empire, the reduction of territories, limited financial resources, economic stagnation, and the decline of taxable population caused the degradation of the hierarchy of dignitaries, the simplification of the administrative system, and the change of the nature of mutual relations of the emperor and his courtiers.
Sheahan, Megan; Liu, Yanyan; Barrett, Christopher B.; Narayanan, Sudha
Are ostensibly demand-driven public works programs with high levels of safeguards nonetheless susceptible to political influence? This conjecture is investigated using expenditure data at the local level from India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. Focusing on one state where accountability and transparency mechanisms have been employed and implementation efforts have been wide...
John White offers a provocative characterization of philosophy of education. In this brief reaction, I evaluate the characterization and urge the maintenance of a strong connection between philosophy of education and philosophy.
This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....
Philosophy of data should not be dismissed as a cluster of scholastic puzzles whose solutions are of limited practical value. On the contrary, philosophy of data should be recognized as constituting the core of a field of data studies that is informed by, but far from equivalent to, statistics, computer science, and library and information studies.
Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...
Sherman, Robert R.
Western philosophy, from Plato on, has had the tendency to separate feeling and thought, affect and cognition. This article argues that a strong philosophy (metaphorically, with "guts") utilizes both in its work. In fact, a "complete act of thought" also will include action. Feeling motivates thought, which formulates ideas,…
In the contention of Oladipo (2006), the debate on the idea of. African philosophy which has been divided into trends or schools, dates back to the 1960's and 70's, which constitute the modern epoch of African philosophy, when some African thinkers began to question the perspective that traditional African beliefs and.
The philosophy of dialectical materialism is applied to the history of the discovery of building blocks of matter. Engels' theory was adapted by Taketani to describe the cognizance of different levels of material structures. This philosophy was used to construct the composite Sakata model of hadrons in the early sixties. (D.Gy.)
Items 1 - 7 of 7 ... The Journal of Philosophy and Culture is devoted to the promotion of scholarship in philosophy, culture and allied disciplines. ... of capacity among black and women educationists in South Africa, and to broaden contributions to include writers from other African, Latin American, and Asian countries.
The philosophy of dialectical materialism is applied to the history of the discovery of building blocks of matter. Engels' theory was adapted by Taketani to describe the cognizance of different levels of material structures. This philosophy was used to construct the composite Sakata model of hadrons in the early sixties.
Lekisch, K; McDonald, J H
In 1933, when Adolf Hitler took power, the German medical community was faced with intense crisis and change. Because social processes become more clearly defined in times of crisis, the days of Nazi rule offer an excellent opportunity to examine health care and moral issues. This article describes historical events that illustrate physicians' and medical students' role in the political process. In addition, we detail four types of responses made by physicians and students: flight, conformism, individual resistance, and group resistance. We conclude that if the role of physicians is to aid and protect patients against disease or experimentation on humans, then he or she must maintain heightened political awareness in order to deal with social crises before they overwhelm any response.
In this essay, I first outline the contexts in which the idea of cosmopolitanism appears in Kant’s moral and political philosophy. I then survey the three main debates regarding his political cosmopolitanism, namely, on the nature of the international federation he advocated, his theory of
Stump, David J.
This paper considers several models of politically engaged philosophy with the aim of provoking discussion of George Reisch’s How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science. At issue is the Unity of Science movement’s conception of the philosophy of science in particular and what politically engaged philosophy of science might look like in general. The paper discusses the role that the pragmatist Sidney Hook plays in the book and considers some of the questions raised by the role that he plays: What does it mean to be a politically engaged philosopher of science? Do we want philosophy of science to be politically engaged?
The Russian political party system has developed through a tumultuous era, progressing from extreme fragmentation to a smaller, more stable number of parties. Much of this change was engineered by elites and especially by President Putin, leading to the question of whether the result is a normal party system by traditional Western standards or just a tool of the government. By means of a predictive mathematical model, the analysis shows that the party system indeed has grown strong popular ro...
Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne
A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...
Karl Bonhoeffer (1868-1948), professor of psychiatry at Breslau University and head of the psychiatric department of the Charité-hospital in Berlin, represented a view of personnel politics based solely on scientific and as personal competence. Anti-Semitism, often attributed to the faculty in Berlin during the Wilhelminian period and the Republic of Weimar, B. regarded as an utterly unsuitable criterion of personnel politics. Consequently, he had a considerable number of Jewish assistants as staff, about 30 altogether. In 1933, when massive persecution set in, quite a few of his students and assistants were persecuted for their political views. Some emigrated right away; others Bonhoeffer re-employed in spite of their membership in illegal leftist parties. Even larger was the number of assistants who were racially persecuted. Bonhoeffer took advantage of loop holes in the anti-Semitic legalities, using complaints at the ministry or cleverly written applications to extend contracts even against high odds. In spite of his support, however, they eventually were fired and had to emigrate. They often found work in other countries because of his recommendations, though. For at least one assistant and one patient as well as their families, Bonhoeffer's commitment saved their lives.
Reading Bohr: Physics and Philosophy offers a new perspective on Niels Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics as complementarity, and on the relationships between physics and philosophy in Bohr's work, which has had momentous significance for our understanding of quantum theory and of the nature of knowledge in general. Philosophically, the book reassesses Bohr's place in the Western philosophical tradition, from Kant and Hegel on. Physically, it reconsiders the main issues at stake in the Bohr-Einstein confrontation and in the ongoing debates concerning quantum physics. It also devotes greater attention than in most commentaries on Bohr to the key developments and transformations of his thinking concerning complementarity. Most significant among them were those that occurred, first, under the impact of Bohr's exchanges with Einstein and, second, under the impact of developments in quantum theory itself, both quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The importance of quantum field theory for Bohr's thi...
Full Text Available The process of democratic transition in Chile has generally been regarded as one of the most successful cases of democratization in Latin America, with the Concertación coalition governments aiming for high levels of political stability, economic growth and institutional strength. However, since mid-2011, there have been a large number of demonstrations and protests in the country, challenging the indicators of success and the social and political stability achieved so far. Similarly, declining rates of approval for political institutions, as well as political disaffection have given rise to a number of questions regarding the legitimacy of the current Chilean model. In this article, I will explore several possible explanations for the wave of demonstrations and the decline in support for institutions and elaborate on the challenges and opportunities these problems pose for the legitimacy of the Chilean democratization process.Resumen: Legitimidad democrática bajo tensión: Disminución del apoyo político y manifestaciones masivas en ChileLa transición democrática en Chile ha sido generalmente destacada como uno de los casos más exitosos de democratización en América Latina, con los gobiernos de la coalición Concertación logrando altos niveles de estabilidad política, crecimiento económico y solidez institucional. A partir del año 2011 sin embargo, protestas y movilizaciones han emergido en el país, desafiando los exitosos indicadores así como la estabilidad política y social observada hasta entonces. De la misma manera, una disminución de las tasas de aprobación de las instituciones así como una desafección política han dado lugar a una serie de preguntas sobre la legitimidad del modelo chileno actual. En este artículo, planteo posibles explicaciones para la ola de movilizaciones y la merma en el apoyo a las instituciones políticas, así como analizo los desafío y oportunidades que estos problemas pueden suponer para la
Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann
The book examines the emerging approach of using qualitative methods, such as interviews and field observations, in the philosophy of science. Qualitative methods are gaining popularity among philosophers of science as more and more scholars are resorting to empirical work in their study...... of scientific practices. At the same time, the results produced through empirical work are quite different from those gained through the kind of introspective conceptual analysis more typical of philosophy. This volume explores the benefits and challenges of an empirical philosophy of science and addresses...
34 leadership philosophy"? One writer states that it is a "distillation of experience and theory , arrived at through a long and somewhat tenuous process of... LEADERSHIP PHILOSOPHY MfODEL .11.9BY .IELJTEN 1NT CO)LONEL CLAYTON E. MELTO.; DIST-. jUTION STATEMIS.T A’ Approved for publiC relea~se; distributicrn...CATALOG NUMBER 4 TITLE (-d Subtitle) T YPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COvERE3 The Leadership Philosophy Model Study Project 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT N,.MBER 7
Roč. 7, č. 4 (2017), s. 565-580 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : revolution * participation * political economy * Russian revolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Political science
In this essay, Steven Burik discusses Jacques Derrida's position with regard to the place of education in philosophy within the university system, and then relates these thoughts to comparative philosophy. Philosophers find themselves constantly having to defend philosophy and the importance of teaching philosophy against pressure from the powers…
What is the philosophical status of the philosophy of education? Is it philosophy, no different from the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mind? Much depends on where these latter derive their philosophical bona fides from. There are two ways of viewing the matter. On one account, they are subdivisions of the veritable philosophy…
Simmel, Georg; Frisby, David; Bottomore, Tom
In The Philosophy of Money, Georg Simmel provides us with a now classic discussion of the social, psychological and philosophical aspects of the money economy, full of brilliant insights into the forms that social relationships take.
Searle, J R
There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries.
Searle, J R
There is no sharp dividing line between science and philosophy, but philosophical problems tend to have three special features. First, they tend to concern large frameworks rather than specific questions within the framework. Second, they are questions for which there is no generally accepted method of solution. And third they tend to involve conceptual issues. For these reasons a philosophical problem such as the nature of life can become a scientific problem if it is put into a shape where it admits of scientific resolution. Philosophy in the 20th century was characterized by a concern with logic and language, which is markedly different from the concerns of earlier centuries of philosophy. However, it shared with the European philosophical tradition since the 17th century an excessive concern with issues in the theory of knowledge and with scepticism. As the century ends, we can see that scepticism no longer occupies centre stage, and this enables us to have a more constructive approach to philosophical problems than was possible for earlier generations. This situation is somewhat analogous to the shift from the sceptical concerns of Socrates and Plato to the constructive philosophical enterprise of Aristotle. With that in mind, we can discuss the prospects for the following six philosophical areas: (1) the traditional mind-body problem; (ii) the philosophy of mind and cognitive science; (iii) the philosophy of language; (iv) the philosophy of society; (v) ethics and practical reasons; (vi) the philosophy of science. The general theme of these investigations, I believe, is that the appraisal of the true significance of issues in the philosophy of knowledge enables us to have a more constructive account of various other philosophical problems than has typically been possible for the past three centuries. PMID:10670025
Full Text Available Poland has recently experienced a constitutional crisis. The crisis involves the role of the Law and Justice Party (PiS in the election of judges and amendments to the Constitutional Tribunal Act which threatens the independence of the Tribunal. The situation is exacerbated by changes in the media, civil service, police, and prosecution laws introduced by the ruling party. This article analyses the changes, as well as the domestic and international reactions to the crisis, and considers whether the heavy criticism of the PiS is justified, or whether it results from, for instance, specific characteristics of the Polish political system and an unfavourable opinion in Europe about the Law and Justice party.
Full Text Available Despite economic integration challenges, ASEAN faces greater security challenges. It is obvious to assert that a stable economic development requires a secure regional atmosphere. The most probable threats against ASEAN are ranging from hostile foreign entities infiltration, intra and inter states disputes, radical religious movements, human trafficking, drugs and narcotics smuggling, cybercrimes and environmental disasters. In 2009, ASEAN established the ASEAN Political and Security Community as the umbrella of ASEAN’s political and security initiatives. APSC slots in some significant fora; ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR, ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting (AMM, ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF, ASEAN Defense Minister’s Meeting (ADMM, ASEAN Law Ministers Meeting (ALAWMM, and ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crimes (AMMTC. The wide array of these forums signify ASEAN efforts to confront double features of security; the traditional and nontraditional or critical security. The traditional security considers state security as the primary object security. While the critical security tends to focus on non-state aspects such as individual human being as its referent object. Even though some argue that APSC has been able to preserve the stability in the region, it still lack of confidence in solving critical issues such as territorial disputes and irregular migrants problems.Therefore, this piece would examine the fundamental questions: How does ASEAN address beyond state security issues in its security policy through APSC? To search for the answer this paper would apply critical security studies approach. Critical security posits that threats are not always for the states but in many cases for the people. Based on the examination of ASEAN security policies, this paper argues that ASEAN’s security policy has touched the non-traditional security issues but showing slow progress on its development and application.
The author's assessment of the use of safety philosophies is that, since 'safety philosophers' still are not certain whether a safety philosophy ought to be applicable to just one, particular technology, or rather to a variety of different technologies, there is reason to state that the required ethical, philosophical and political foundations to build a safety philosophy on are still missing. And this, the author presumes, is one of the reasons why our society to a far extent is incapable of acting, faced not only with the nuclear issue, but also with the present and future ecological challenge. (orig./DG) [de
I never became interested in philosophy primordially or originally. There is no source event or transformation that I can recall as being the defining moment. Stating ‘It began here!’ would be misleading… I am not even certain that I originally attained an interest, or even that I still am...... interested in philosophy as a privileged object of investigation and investment ‐ an aim in itself. There are, however, moments and situations in my life where an interest in philosophy has appeared or is necessarily forced upon me; these are times when philosophy appears as a seemingly unavoidable...... and essential questioning of fundamentals,– as a ‘basic’ need. This being said, it can be annoying as well as cumbersome. Philosophy as a ‘basic’ need makes itself felt as an estrangement that has always already taken place. It takes the form of a “Schritt zurück” in which one pulls away from, problematizes...
K. A. Ivanova
Full Text Available The philosophy of education is represented by a wide range of concepts and approaches. The basic concepts of the philosophy of education can be divided into 4 groups according to the «pure» philosophical systems: realism, idealism, pragmatism, existentialism. Among the goals of the philosophy of education as an independent science are: stimulation, analysis, ordering, research. The delineation of the concept of education and the notion of school education are an important aspect in formulating the goals of the philosophy of education. A significant place in the process of finding and setting the goals of the philosophy of education is occupied by an alternative: discipline of mind or discipline of knowledge? It is worth paying attention to the goals of the modern Western philosophy of education: training for the formation of character, training for personal growth and success, training for the development and refinement of aesthetic predispositions, etc. Within the frameworks of the American philosophy of education, three main directions were formed: empiricism, rationalism, naturalism. According to the approach of the empiricists, education is the main factor, influencing human existence, which stimulates human activity, forms the person’s abilities and character. Rationalists introduced the idea of «self-alienation» as the most important for the philosophy of education. «Self-alienation» is a transition of a student from one stage of training to another one under the supervision of a teacher, when human mind becomes an object of his own attention. At the last stage of the student’s intellectual development, discovery of universals, laws and principles takes place. According to naturalists’ concept, the conclusions of scientific study of nature should be understood not as a testimony of truth, but as working hypotheses for further investigation. Scientific discoveries should be discoveries for education. Modern educational systems
This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker.......This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker....
Full Text Available Hans Lipps compares pragmatism (William James and John Dewey existentialism (Friedrich Nietzsche, Soren Kierkegaard, and Martin Heidegger in this 1936 article translated from French. He claims that they aim at the same goals, e.g., a return to lived experience and a rejection of the Cartesian legacy in philosophy. While summarizing the commonalities of each, he engages in a polemic against philosophy then that remains relevant now into the next century.
From Plato to the beginnings of the last century, mathematics provided philosophers with methods of exposition, procedures of demonstration, and instruments of analysis. The unprecedented development of mathematics on the one hand, and the mathematicians' appropriation of Logic from the philosophers on the other hand, have given rise to two problems with which the philosophers have to contend: (1) Is there still a place for the philosophy of mathematics? and (2) To what extent is a philosophy of mathematics still possible? This article offers some reflections on these questions, which have preoccupied a good many philosophers and continue to do so.
A nuclear device can be detonated safely when it can ascertained that the detonation can be accomplished without injury to people, either directly or indirectly, and without unacceptable damage to the ecological system and natural or man made structures. This philosophy has its origin in the nuclear weapons testing program dating back to the first detonation in 1945 and applies without reservation to PIowshare projects. This paper therefore will outline the mechanics employed by government in implementing this safety philosophy. The talk will describe those type of actions taken by safety oriented organizations and committees to assure that necessary and desirable safety reviews are conducted. (author)
Dompere, Kofi Kissi
This book presents the development of a theory of social goal-objective formation and its relationship to national interest and social vision under a democratic decision-choice system with imperfect information structure. It provides a framework for the application of fuzzy logic and its mathematics to the analysis in resolving conflicts in individual preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence. The book demonstrates how to use fuzzy logic and its mathematics in the study of economics, social sciences and other complex systems. It also presents the use of collaborative tools of opposites, duality, polarity, continuum in fuzzy paradigm with its logic, laws of thought and mathematics in developing a new approach to the theory of political economy in order to enhance the constructs of social decision-choice theory.
Harding, Sandra G; Hintikka, Merrill B
... FOX KELLER / Gender and Science EVELYN FOX KELLER AND CHRISTINE R. GRONTKOWSKI / The Mind's Eye NAOMI SCHEMAN / Individualism and the Objects of Psychology JANE FLAX / Political Philosophy and the Pa...
One way to characterise pragmatism is to see it as a philosophy that placed communication at the heart of philosophical, educational and political thinking. Whereas the shift from consciousness to communication can be seen as a major innovation in modern philosophy, it is not without problems. This article highlights some of these problems and…
King, Paul C.
This article discusses the challenges faced when integrating new technologies into the classroom. Viewing the experiences of teaching a first year learning community through the lens of the principles of the Reflective Teaching Portfolio, the author looks to answer the question: "How should Technology relate to our Teaching Philosophy?"…
Punjani, Neelam Saleem
The heart of teaching learning philosophy is the concept of nurturing students and teaching them in a way that creates passion and enthusiasm in them for a lifelong learning. According to Duke (1990) education is a practice of artful action where teaching learning process is considered as design and knowledge is considered as colours. Teaching…
Full Text Available This study, motivated by the recognition that organizational performance and success always hinges on employee competencies and management’s skill in utilizing their potentials, focuses on one of the key factors in organizational efficiency: the possibilities of development of talented employees within Czech organizations. The data was collected via two quantitative studies. The first study involved 100 organizations from every economic sector with a main focus on the topic from the organization’s perspective. The second study explored the approach from employees’ perspective. Our analysis shows that different talent management philosophies are used in practice. Almost half of the sample use inclusive and stable philosophy, 11% inclusive and developable philosophy and almost 10% exclusive and developable philosophy. Employees are mostly developed in generally recommended areas without any consideration for the specific individual’s characteristics or related opportunities. It is a stable approach. Limitations of this study may be found in the focus on analysis outcomes - on practitioners in particular. The present findings provide a basis for future hypotheses and research in this area.
Full Text Available Was Plato the first philosophical dramatist to explore philosophical ideas through dramatic content, introducing dramatic structures currently in line with contemporary theatre? If Plato was an influential figure for philosophers as well as theatre-makers, it can arguably be said that he was a silent pioneer in creating the newly defined discipline of Performance Philosophy. There is an obvious polarity between performance and philosophy since both disciplines are on the quest of exploring and presenting what life is. At least this can be said of ancient Greek and Roman philosophy. Conceived as “biou techne” the art of living, Greek and Roman philosophers, especially the Epicureans, Stoics and Skeptics, saw philosophy as a way of conceiving what a good life is (a life worth living and pursuing its practical realization for the attainment of eudemonia. Plato was arguably the first significant philosopher to explore philosophical ideas through dramatic content, introducing dramatic structures currently in line with contemporary theatre views. As such, he can be seen as an influential figure for theatre makers as well as for philosophers. Plato’s artistic intention was to uncover the artist that lacked substance and support the knowledgeable creative philosophical mind that besides instant emotional pleasure has to contribute in social development.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Hersh, Jacques; Petersen-Overton, Kristofer
This book documents recent and historical events in the theoretically-based practice of peace development. Its diverse collection of essays describes different aspects of applied philosophy in peace action, commonly involving the contributors’ continual engagement in the field, while offering sup...
This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…
This Operations and Maintenance (O and M) Philosophy document is intended to establish a future O and M vision, with an increased focus on minimizing worker exposure, ensuring uninterrupted retrieval operations, and minimizing operation life-cycle cost. It is intended that this document would incorporate O and M lessons learned into on-going and future project upgrades
influential answers to this problem. He is also often credited with providing some of the intellectual foundation for the “neoconservative” movement. In particular, Strauss addressed two questions relevant to today’s political environment: What is the role of truth in politics? And, what is the relation......This article argues for the relevance of biblical thought to progressive political philosophy. One of the most significant problems for political philosophy is the role that religion, and particularly the role that biblical faith, ought to play. Philosopher Leo Strauss provided some of the most...... their control. It concludes with the argument that the Bush doctrine is an anathema to Straussian political philosophy. Neither Bush’s invocation of prophecy nor his neoconservatism provide him any theoretical ground to walk on....
This book reviews the transformation of natural philosophy in the 16th and 17th centuries: description of nature in mathematical terms; comparison of natural phenomena to existing or imaginary machines and the use of mechanical analogies in natural philosophy.
The relatively young field of research known as ‘the philosophy of design’ is briefly presented, by asking on behalf of the reader what the philosophy of design is about, and what its use may be.......The relatively young field of research known as ‘the philosophy of design’ is briefly presented, by asking on behalf of the reader what the philosophy of design is about, and what its use may be....
A manifestation of globalisation as an economic imperative has occurred at the national level in Australia. This manifestation is in the form of political policies, administrative practices and funding distribution ostensibly aimed at creating a more competitive national economy. Philosophy of Education, as a practice and product of some employees…
Could the 'analytic' approach take greater roots in the traditions of African Philosophy? In this contribution, I give an affirmative answer to the question. However, I also argue that the process requires a 'political will', as it involves a clear acknowledgement of the historical impetus animating the very idea—and contemporary ...
This paper titled “Philosophy and Method of Integrative Humanism and Religious Crises in Nigeria: Picking the Essentials”, acknowledges the damaging effects of religious bigotry, fanaticism and creed differences on the social, political and economic development of the country. The need for the cessation of religious ...
Full Text Available The works written in Persian about Jacques Derrida or the works translated into Persian about and from him have concentrated on Derrida’s aesthetic tendencies and forgotten his political philosophy and thought. But, we should know that his political philosophy and thought are so rich and working on them is necessary for our philosophical communities. In English-speaking world, it is for a decade that Derrida’s political thought has attracted writers’ and scholars’ attention. The works written in this period have concentrated independently on Derrida’s political philosophy and thought or have ‘politicized’ his aesthetic concepts. In this essay, we are trying to investigate the concepts of law, justice and responsibility in the philosophy of Derrida. First, we will clarify the distinctions between law and justice. For doing so, we will pay attention to Derridean concept of ‘deconstruction’. For Derrida, as we will see, law is ‘deconstructible’ and justice is ‘undeconstructible’. Second, we will investigate the relations between law, justice and responsibility. We will conclude that justice, contrary to law, does not prevent us from taking responsibility.
Hobbes's political philosophy departs from a number of premises that are supposed to be self-evident, supplemented by various observations from experience. These statements are examined critically and in their interrelatedness in order to find out to what extent Hobbes provides a convincing system
Full Text Available The works written in Persian about Jacques Derrida or the works translated into Persian about and from him have concentrated on Derridaâs aesthetic tendencies and forgotten his political philosophy and thought. But, we should know that his political philosophy and thought are so rich and working on them is necessary for our philosophical communities. In English-speaking world, it is for a decade that Derridaâs political thought has attracted writersâ and scholarsâ attention. The works written in this period have concentrated independently on Derridaâs political philosophy and thought or have âpoliticizedâ his aesthetic concepts. In this essay, we are trying to investigate the concepts of law, justice and responsibility in the philosophy of Derrida. First, we will clarify the distinctions between law and justice. For doing so, we will pay attention to Derridean concept of âdeconstructionâ. For Derrida, as we will see, law is âdeconstructibleâ and justice is âundeconstructibleâ. Second, we will investigate the relations between law, justice and responsibility. We will conclude that justice, contrary to law, does not prevent us from taking responsibility.
This precarious state has made many scholars cynical about the contributions philosophy has made towards the development of the continent. In this study, however, it is argued that such a cynical attitude is due to a myopic conception of “development,” which excludes growth in education, the economy, politics, science, ...
Wallace, James A.
This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…
The South African Journal of Philosophy publishes original contributions (articles, discussions of articles previously published, review articles and book reviews) within any field of philosophy. The South African Journal of Philosophy is indexed in The Philosopher's Index, Current Contents/Arts & Humanities, IBZ & IBR, Bio ...
Marshall, James D.
Simone de Beauvoir, best known outside France as a leading modern feminist theorist, is also recognized as a writer of literature, philosophy, and drama. In this essay, James D. Marshall aims to present Beauvoir, not as a mere entry in the history of French philosophy, nor as an under-laborer to Jean-Paul Sartre, but as someone who has important…
Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.
in philosophy. This state of affairs is lamentable, as it robs science and public policy of the expertise of philosophers, a desirable tool when evaluating empirical claims about well-being promotion. In this article, I examine the reasons for this lack of communication. In particular, I reject the view...... according to which it originates in the idea that philosophers take well-being to be a single and general concept, and argue instead that it is likely to be the result of the different theoretical constraints under which philosophy and empirical science respectively operate. Finally, I show...
Existentialism is a notoriously difficult philosophy to explain. The thesis here is that comparing it with Punk Rock is a useful way in. They share a number of features: nihilistic, extreme, passionate, liberating, inclusive, amateur and violent, and each of these serves as a heading under which similarities are explored.
Joskimovic, V.; Fisher, C.R.
The accident at the Three Mile Island has focused public attention on reactor safety. Many public figures advocate a safer method of generating nuclear electricity for the second nuclear era in the US. The paper discusses the safety philosophy of a concept deemed suitable for this second nuclear era. The HTGR, in the course of its evolution, included safety as a significant determinant in design philosophy. This is particularly evident in the design features which provide inherent safety. Inherent features cause releases from a wide spectrum of accident conditions to be low. Engineered features supplement inherent features. The significance of HTGR safety features is quantified and order-of-magnitude type of comparisons are made with alternative ways of generating electricity
Joksimovic, V.; Fisher, C.R.
The accident at the Three Mile Island has focused public attention on reactor safety. Many public figures advocate a safer method of generating nuclear electricity for the second nuclear era in the U.S. The paper discusses the safety philosophy of a concept deemed suitable for this second nuclear era. The HTGR, in the course of its evolution, included safety as a significant determinant in design philosophy. This is particularly evident in the design features which provide inherent safety. Inherent features cause releases from a wide spectrum of accident conditions to be low. Engineered features supplement inherent features. The significance of HTGR safety features is quantified and order-of-magnitude type of comparisons are made with alternative ways of generating electricity. (author)
Full Text Available The survival of the homo sapiens sapiens species depends upon learning and passing on to future generations quality knowledge. Yet, we find to an increasing extent a corruption of the process, resulting in ignorance, environmental destruction, and breakdown of community. A fundamental shift in priorities is required to avert disaster. Articulating a solution depends upon a language, which, in turn, depends upon clarifying concepts. This paper identifies the dialectical (something existing because of what it is not interrelationship of episteme (theory and techné (practice within the framework of ethos, pathos, and logos. This structure and process as learning provides coherence in developing knowledge and can then be what in a generic sense is religion (to cohere, or bind. In a monk-like devotion to learning to generate quality knowledge humanity can appreciate its own meaning and make this world a better place in which to live. In this way religion becomes philosophy, and philosophy religion.
Full Text Available The survival of the homo sapiens sapiens species depends upon learning and passing on to future generations quality knowledge. Yet, we find to an increasing extent a corruption of the process, resulting in ignorance, environmental destruction, and breakdown of community. A fundamental shift in priorities is required to avert disaster. Articulating a solution depends upon a language, which, in turn, depends upon clarifying concepts. This paper identifies the dialectical (something existing because of what it is not interrelationship of episteme (theory and techné (practice within the framework of ethos, pathos, and logos. This structure and process as learning provides coherence in developing knowledge and can then be what in a generic sense is religion (to cohere, or bind. In a monk-like devotion to learning to generate quality knowledge humanity can appreciate its own meaning and make this world a better place in which to live. In this way religion becomes philosophy, and philosophy religion.
Hendry, Robin Findlay
In this paper I examine the relationship between historians, philosophers and sociologists of science, and indeed scientists themselves. I argue that (i) they co-habit a shared intellectual territory (science and its past); and (ii) they should be able to do so peacefully, and with mutual respect, even if they disagree radically about how to describe the methods and results of science. I then go on to explore some of the challenges to mutually respectful cohabitation between history, philosophy and sociology of science. I conclude by identifying a familiar kind of project in the philosophy of science which seeks to explore the worldview of a particular scientific discipline, and argue that it too has a right to explore the shared territory even though some historians and sociologists may find it methodologically suspect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D; Saunders, Simon
Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.
Jensen, Lars Bogø; Christiansen, Birgitte Lund; Hansen, Claus Thorp
teaching philosophies in a collective process. The perspectives of introducing such methods are to support a team-oriented approach to teaching and to strengthen communities of practice (Wenger 2008)/ communities of learning among teachers. So how can we do this? The authors have conceived and designed......, among directors of Bachelor of Engineering programmes, and at an international conference. Based on our experiences, we have identified a number of possible scenarios where the game can be used: • Participants in a teachers’ training course. Purpose: to clarify and articulate own teaching philosophy......-on session, which is a revised version of a previous workshop, we will introduce the ideas and intentions of the game and guide the participants in playing the game. Ample time will be given for individual reflection and collective discussion of identified values and approaches to teaching and the general...
Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)
O'Malley, Maureen A
There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available The author attempts to answer the question concerning whether or not philosophy is needed in seminaries. In light of his analysis, it can be concluded that philosophical studies for future priests are a serious alternative to the fideistic positions often adopted by Catholics. The presence of philosophy in the seminary curriculum is supported by: (1 the need for building intellectual foundations of the religious faith professed by a cleric; the faith which cannot do without reason and abstain from justifying the rationale of its content; (2 the need for introducing the alumnus to the mysteries of the classical philosophy of being which can equip him with a better understanding of human nature and the surrounding reality. In this way, the seminarian: (1 acquires a reasonable belief that the human mind is able to know the objective and universal truth, including the truth about God as the Ultimate Cause of all that exists; (2 is able to enter into an intelligent dialogue about the truth with an increasingly globalized world.
This article examines Isaac Newton's engagement with scholastic natural philosophy. In doing so, it makes two major historiographical interventions. First of all, the recent claim that Newton's use of the concepts of analysis and synthesis was derived from the Aristotelian regressus tradition is challenged on the basis of bibliographical, palaeographical and intellectual evidence. Consequently, a new, contextual explanation is offered for Newton's use of these concepts. Second, it will be shown that some of Newton's most famous pronouncements - from the General Scholium appended to the second edition of the Principia (1713) and from elsewhere - are simply incomprehensible without an understanding of specific scholastic terminology and its later reception, and that this impacts in quite significant ways on how we understand Newton's natural philosophy more generally. Contrary to the recent historiographical near-consensus, Newton did not hold an elaborate metaphysics, and his seemingly 'metaphysical' statements were in fact anti-scholastic polemical salvoes. The whole investigation will permit us a brief reconsideration of the relationship between the self-proclaimed 'new' natural philosophy and its scholastic predecessors.
Angel Maya, Augusto
Physics and philosophy has join developments since the Jonios. The present article tries to analyze some of the philosophical problems that arise of the classic and contemporary physics and that affect the environmental vision. In general, it can be said that the discoveries of the physics has meant a progressive desplatonization of the western world, including the remaining of Platon that is included in Aristoteles philosophy. From the analysis some problems arise that is worthwhile to emphasize. Above all the relationship between determinism and random theory, from the environmental perspective it is necessary to wonder if it is licit to apply these concepts to man. With it the problem of freedom arise, attacked by Spinoza, but carefully protected by Kant's philosophy. Their acceptance supposes, however, the division between man and the cultural schizophrenia. Is it possible to explain freedom from the physics, such as was pretended by Epicuro or Prigonine? Has nature a wide field of freedom as it is assumed in some of the currents of contemporary physics? All of them are questions that the environmental thought has to confront, although it cannot solve them
Friedman, S R
Some long-term, large-scale socio-economic changes may affect the politics of HIV and other emerging viruses such as hepatitis C. It is useful to ask why the potential peace dividend of the early 1990s failed to provide adequate resources for HIV-related social and medical service delivery in developed or developing nations. This failure can be understood by looking at long-term global economic trends and the pressures they put on governments and corporations. They have produced a period in which fundamental issues of political and economic structure are at stake and, often, the response is a divide-and-rule politics to promote stability. National politics differ in terms of the extent to which such a 'politics of scapegoating' is institutionalized and in terms of which groups are scapegoated. Groups such as drug injectors, gay and bisexual men and sex traders are particularly likely to be targeted both by the scapegoaters and by HIV. Given this framework, how should public health professionals and activists engaged in HIV-related issues respond? Under what circumstances should we orient efforts upwards towards corporate, political or bureaucratic leaders? Under what circumstances, and how, should we orient towards popular forces? Relatedly, we need to consider an issue we often ignore: What do we have to offer potential allies? That is, in terms of their goals, philosophies and needs, why should they ally with us?
Antonio Rivera García
Full Text Available This article puts forward the concept of political paranoia as a useful category to understand some contemporary manifestations of the pathologies of power. For this aim an interdisciplinary approach has been used, namely, the knowledge provided by psychoanalysis, political philosophy, theology and literary or aesthetic studies. Freud’s and Lacan’s psychoanalysis allows us to understand why the paranoid subject is a megalomaniac and hyperrational subject who wants to be in control of everything. It is a sovereign subject, who has adapted not only to the Society of Control initially defined by Deleuze, but also to a conception of philosophy that aims for totality. After dealing with the close relationship between paranoia and conspiratorial political theory, the article explains the reason why contemporary political paranoia represents a case of the most radical political theology: political Gnosticism. This term stands for a conception of politics that reduces the Other to the condition of an absolute enemy that needs to be eliminated. Lastly, the article establishes a close link between the cure for political paranoia and the assumption of an ontology of incompleteness
This paper explores the possible implications of leading contemporary theories of political philosophy for some of the main questions that the political institutions of the European Union will have to decide on concerning the future of European contract law. Thus, it explores what a utilitarian,
Sant, Edda; Hanley, Chris
Teacher education in England now requires that student teachers follow practices that do not undermine "fundamental British values" where these practices are assessed against a set of ethics and behaviour standards. This paper examines the political assumptions underlying pedagogical interpretations about the education of national…
Philosophy Newsletter. Articles by: Edward Craig - From the Chairman. Onora O'Neill - "It's the newspapers I can't stand. Serena Olsaretti - The 2004 Annual Royal Institute of Philosophy Conference. Mary Leng - Mathematical Knowledge Conference. Postgraduate Conference. Jane Heal - Facts, Fables and Funds. Hugh Mellor - Uses and Abuses of Probability. Amanda Boyle - Nobody Knows Anything: Philosophy, Film and Me. Jaime Whyte - Seven Years at Cambridge Alex Oliver...
Full Text Available Our aim in this paper is to give reasons for thinking that Badioursquo;s philosophy is not prepared to follow through all the consequences of the historical retreat of the political event. We want to suggest that it is important to come to terms with the implications of this retreat as no less a revolutionary aspect of the revolution. Whereas fidelity to the event demands that we not be selective in following the consequences of an event, fidelity to the eventrsquo;s retreat points to a more direct relation of philosophy to the event than Badiou allows. In the first section of our paper we outline the philosophical orientation that informs our encounter with Badioursquo;s thought. In the second we examine the relationship between philosophy and the political event in order to set the context for the elaboration of our claim in the third section that fidelity to the event calls for attention not only to the demands of its emergence but also to those associated with the eventrsquo;s retreat. In the final section we indicate how the retreat of the political event might give rise to the philosophical subject and to the requirements of a philosophy of the event.
Full Text Available Berber Bevernage does not share the pessimistic view that the philosophy of history is in crisis or coming to an end: it can have a bright and fascinating future. However in order to remain relevant, he argues, philosophy of history should look beyond academic historiography and transform into a broad ‘philosophy of historicities’ that also pays attention to the wide variety of extra-academic ways of dealing with the past. In order to do this current philosophy of history has to overcome a number challenges. First, it has to recognise that academic historiography did not develop in an intellectual vacuum but is closely related to particular social, cultural and political presuppositions about time and historicity on which it is partly dependent but which it can also reinforce or contradict. Second, it should recognise that different approaches to time and historicity have different social, cultural and political functions and not restrict its focus to philosophy of science or epistemological/cognitive issues. Third, it should focus on the ethics of history.
Emily A. Sulka
Full Text Available Shakespeare is one of the most widely read figures in literature, but his use of music is not usually touched on in literary discussions of his works. In this paper, I discuss how Shakespeare portrays music within the context of his plays, through both dialogue and songs performed within each work. In Shakespeare’s time, Boethius’s philosophy of the Music of the Spheres was still highly popular. This was the idea that the arrangement of the cosmos mirrored musical proportions. As a result, every aspect of the universe was believed to be highly ordered, and this idea is prominent throughout Shakespeare’s works, from "Hamlet" to "A Midsummer Night’s Dream." To make this clear to the reader, I discuss dialogue symmetry weaved throughout "The Merchant of Venice," clear allusions to the music of the spheres in "Pericles," and the use of music as a signifier of the strange and mysterious – from madness to love – in numerous works, always relating these topics back to the philosophy of the music of the spheres. In order to compile this information and make it clear, I researched the philosophy of music during Shakespeare’s era. I also researched how he uses music thematically to emphasize different characters’ struggles as well as plot details. After examining his plays as well as the other sources available on the subject, it is clear that Shakespeare was highly influenced by the philosophical and practical ideas regarding music of his time, specifically the theory of the music of the spheres.
Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon
Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? - comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O
Full Text Available There has been a recent upsurge in the quest for world class manufacturing. Tremendous amounts of effort are being exerted to attain Total quality Control (TQC - so as to be able to produce "the best". The EEC has stated categorically that it will only support accredited suppliers, and this has been partly responsible for the recent fixation on techniques for excellence. These techniques often fail to produce results. This paper presents a systems based philosophy for working towards world class levels of manufacturing.
Amein, H.; Joyia, Y.; Qureshi, M.N.; Asif, M.
In view of the huge power demand in future, the capital investment requirements for the development of power projects to meet the future energy requirements are so alarming that public sector alone cannot manage to raise funds and participation of the private sector in power generation development has become imperative. This paper discusses a power generation philosophy based on preference to the exploitation of indigenous resources and participation of private sector. In order to have diversification in generation resources, due consideration has been given to the development of nuclear power and even non-conventional but promising technologies of solar, wind, biomass and geothermal etc. (author)
What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual acc
Gabbay, Dov M; Woods, John
One of the most striking features of mathematics is the fact that we are much more certain about the mathematical knowledge we have than about what mathematical knowledge is knowledge of. Are numbers, sets, functions and groups physical entities of some kind? Are they objectively existing objects in some non-physical, mathematical realm? Are they ideas that are present only in the mind? Or do mathematical truths not involve referents of any kind? It is these kinds of questions that have encouraged philosophers and mathematicians alike to focus their attention on issues in the philosophy of mat
The famous philosopher Henri Bergson criticized Einstein's special theory of relativity by imagining giants, microbes, two-dimensional beings, and a ''supreme consciousness.'' He argued that Einstein had arbitrarily made a sharp distinction between local and distant events and that Einstein confused time itself with mere clock measurements. I will discuss why Einstein dodged Bergson's pushy efforts to inject more subjectivity into relativity theory by explaining how Einstein, as a lonely young man, developed his critical views on philosophy. This talk is part of the invited FHP session on The Physicist and the Philosopher: Einstein, Bergson and the Debate that Changed Our Understanding of Time.
Full Text Available This essay examines the ways in which Israeli philosophy has approached the question of war. Because of the influence of the neo-Kantian pacifism on the first generation of Israeli philosophers, it is only in the aftermath of the 1982 Lebanon war that a punctual reflection on issues of military ethics develops (as for instance in Weiler’s and Casher’s thought. The problem of the peculiarity of Israel’s wars, however, has been the focus of other Israel thinkers only in the light of the relationship between State and religion (as in Leibowitz and Margalit as well as between the civil society and the political institutions (as in Adi Ophir. In conclusion and in spite of its unquestionable originality, Israeli philosophy differs from other Western intellectual traditions only in the fact that it has generally avoided the question of war at the expense of other issues perceived as more urgent.
Full Text Available This essay argues for two complementary theses, one pertaining to epistemology and the other to politics. First, unless philosophy adopts a radical empiricist standpoint and seeks the uttermost generalities, it cannot differentiate itself from yet another form of limited expertise and becomes useless. Second, both radical empiricism and imaginative pragmatism lead the philosopher towards the left end of the political spectrum, i.e., to a radically progressive politics.
Full Text Available One of Richard Rorty's legacies is to have put a Jamesian version of pragmatism on the contemporary philosophical map. Part of his argument has been that pragmatism and analytic philosophy are set against each other, with pragmatism almost having been killed off by the reigning analytic philosophy. The argument of this paper is that there is a better and more interesting reading of both the history of pragmatism and the history of analytic philosophy.
The paper deals with the historical and social circumstances that led to the evolution of the peculiar structure of the Ga political system, which articulates the Ga political philosophy and theory of power relations. The theory of Ga politics, which has been described as graduated authority or diffuse authority expressed in ...
textabstractProf.dr. Jodi Dean, hoogleraar politieke filosofie aan Hobart and William Smith Colleges (Geneva, New York), sprak donderdag 19 februari 2009 haar inaugurele rede uit, getiteld "Politics without politics". Dean is dit jaar Erasmus Professor op de Erasmus Chair of Humanities in de Faculteit der Wijsbegeerte. De Erasmus Wisselleerstoel is ingesteld door de G. Ph. Verhagen Stichting. V In haar oratie gaat Dean in op het thema democratie in relatie tot linkse politiek. Enkele politiek...
Does the future exist already? What is space? Are time machines physically possible? What is quantum mechanical reality like? Are there many universes? Is there a 'true' geometry of the universe? Why does there appear to be an arrow of time? Do humans play a special role in the world? In this unique introductory book, Dean Rickles guides the reader through these and other core questions that keep philosophers of physics up at night. He discusses the three pillars of modern physics (quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and the theories of relativity), in addition to more cutting-edge themes such as econophysics, quantum gravity, quantum computers, and gauge theories. The book's approach is based on the idea that philosophy of physics is a kind of 'interpretation game' in which we try to map physical theories onto our world. But the rules of this game often lead to a multiplicity of possible victors: rarely do we encounter a simple answer. The Philosophy of Physics offers a highly accessible introduction...
(wisdom). Thus, to the Greeks, philosophy meant philosophia love of wisdom and a philosopher was regarded as a lover or friend of wisdom. This was what Pythagoras the one who purportedly was the first to use the word 'philosopher' called himself in preference to being called a 'wise man.xivPhilosophy here means 'love ...
Urofsky, Robert I.; Engels, Dennis W.
Over the past several decades, increased attention has been given to ethics in the preparation of counselors and psychologists. With that increase comes a number of voices calling for exposure to and integration of not only moral philosophy but other areas of philosophy to enhance understanding and provide a foundation for counseling practice. The…
This article was first published in 1982 in "Educational Analysis" (4, 75-91) and republished in 1998 (Hirst, P. H., & White, P. (Eds.), "Philosophy of education: Major themes in the analytic tradition," Vol. 1, "Philosophy and education, Part 1," pp. 61-78. London: Routledge). I was then a lecturer in philosophy…
Mirtz, Timothy A
The philosophy of chiropractic has been a much debated entity throughout the existence of the chiropractic profession. Much criticism has been passed upon the historical philosophy of chiropractic and propagated by contemporary adherents. To date, a new philosophy has not been detailed nor presented that demonstrates principles by which to follow. The purpose of this paper is to expand upon the work of Russell Kirk (b.1918, d. 1994), an American political theorist, as a basis for principles to guide the formation of a philosophy of chiropractic medicine (PCM). Each of Kirk's principles will be explained and expounded upon as applicable to a PCM. The addition of the term "medicine" to chiropractic is indicative of a new direction for the profession. The ten principles that provide a foundation for a PCM include: (a) moral order, (b) custom, convention and continuity, (c) prescription, (d) prudence, (e) variety, (f) imperfectability, (g) freedom and property linkage, (h) voluntary community and involuntary collectivism, (i) prudent restraints upon power and human passions, and (j) permanence and change. Each of these principles offers not a dogmatic approach but provides insight into the application of chiropractic medicine to the entire station of the patient and society at large especially that of the economic, social and political. These principles provide direction in not only the approach to the doctor-patient encounter but can be used to visualize the wider world and its potential impact. Instead, these principles examine many tangential issues worthy of discussion that may impact health, social, political, and economic policy and how the chiropractic profession can approach these issues. This paper provides the initial steps in formulating a PCM using principles from a sociological, political and economic standpoint which may impact on how chiropractic medicine approaches the patient and society in totality. In addition, these principles provide the necessary
Despite being there from the beginning, philosophical approaches have never had a settled place in cognitive research and few cognitive researchers not trained in philosophy have a clear sense of what its role has been or should be. We distinguish philosophy in cognitive research and philosophy of cognitive research. Concerning philosophy in cognitive research, after exploring some standard reactions to this work by nonphilosophers, we will pay particular attention to the methods that philosophers use. Being neither experimental nor computational, they can leave others bewildered. Thought experiments are the most striking example but not the only one. Concerning philosophy of cognitive research, we will pay particular attention to its power to generate and test normative claims, claims about what should and should not be done. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Brey, Philip A.E.; Franssen, M.; Vermaas, P.E.; Kroes, P.; Meijers, A.W.M.
This essay argues for a new turn after the empirical turn in the philosophy of technology: the societal turn, which is the turn from reflective philosophy of technology (academic philosophy concerned with analysis and understanding) to constructive philosophy of technology (philosophy that is
Pedersen, David Budtz
This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....
Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter
Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Albæk, E.; van Dalen, A.; Jebril, N.; de Vreese, C.H.
Political journalism is often under fire. Conventional wisdom and much scholarly research suggest that journalists are cynics and political pundits. Political news is void of substance and overly focused on strategy and persons. Citizens do not learn from the news, are politically cynical, and are
Presently, there are competing philosophies of education which need comparison. Two philosophies will be compared which are at opposite ends of the continuum. They are distinctly different. And yet, both schools of thought have their disciples. Each of the two will be discussed in terms of its essential features and then there will be selected…
Commentators on the four trends in contemporary African philosophy as enunciated by H. Odera Oruka frequently focus on the merits and demerits of each trend. However, many of them are obblivious to the way in which sagacity emancipates African philosophy by putting reason in its rightful pivotal position. This article ...
Wartenberg, Thomas E.
This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…
Goals for adding philosophy to the school curriculum centre on the perceived need to improve the general quality of critical thinking found in society. School philosophy also provides a means for asking questions of value and purpose about curriculum content across and between subjects, and, furthermore, it affirms the capability of children to…
Critical philosophy also includes observations of the technical amplified senses make, i.e. the application of accessory instruments, measuring instruments and statistic methods. The application of this philosophy is, among other things, referred to when taking the linear dose response relationship for stochastic radiation effects as an example. (DG) [de
Bai, Heesoon; Eppert, Claudia; Scott, Charles; Tait, Saskia; Nguyen, Tram
In this paper, we propose an understanding of philosophy of education as cultural and intercultural work and philosophers of education as cultural and intercultural workers. In our view, the discipline of philosophy of education in North America is currently suffering from measures of insularity and singularity. It is vital that we justly and…
Forster, Malcolm R
Statisticians and philosophers of science have many common interests but restricted communication with each other. This volume aims to remedy these shortcomings. It provides state-of-the-art research in the area of philosophy of statistics by encouraging numerous experts to communicate with one another without feeling "restricted” by their disciplines or thinking "piecemeal” in their treatment of issues. A second goal of this book is to present work in the field without bias toward any particular statistical paradigm. Broadly speaking, the essays in this Handbook are concerned with problems of induction, statistics and probability. For centuries, foundational problems like induction have been among philosophers' favorite topics; recently, however, non-philosophers have increasingly taken a keen interest in these issues. This volume accordingly contains papers by both philosophers and non-philosophers, including scholars from nine academic disciplines.
Full Text Available The diversity and interdisciplinary of Computer Sciences, and the multiplicity of its uses in other sciences make it difficult to define them and prescribe how to perform them. Furthermore, also cause friction between computer scientists from different branches. Because of how they are structured, these sciences programs are criticized for not offer an adequate methodological training, or a deep understanding of different research traditions. To collaborate on a solution, some have decided to include in their curricula courses that enable students to gain awareness about epistemology and methodological issues in Computer Science, as well as give meaning to the practice of computer scientists. In this article the needs and objectives of the courses on the philosophy of Computer Science are analyzed, and its structure and management are explained.
Full Text Available Introduction: Education is defined as an art with scientific principle. It is described as a form of learning by which knowledge, skills and attitudes of an age group are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, research and practice. Method: This is a historical review about the philosophy of medical education and its changes during the time. Results: It is unfortunate that many developing countries follow the US system rather than those with public financing pattern. Indeed, these systems are “disease care” and not “healthcare” and are mainly motivated by profit. Conclusion: The educational planners in medical schools must design a curricula for students and residents to acquire a crucial set of professional values and qualities, by which the willingness to put the needs of the patient and society first.
Feyerabend, P K; Agassi, Joseph
This collection of the writings of Paul Feyerabend is focused on his philosophy of quantum physics, the hotbed of the key issues of his most debated ideas. Written between 1948 and 1970, these writings come from his first and most productive period. These early works are important for two main reasons. First, they document Feyerabend's deep concern with the philosophical implications of quantum physics and its interpretations. These ideas were paid less attention in the following two decades. Second, the writings provide the crucial background for Feyerabend's critiques of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn. Although rarely considered by scholars, Feyerabend's early work culminated in the first version of Against Method. These writings guided him on all the key issues of his most well-known and debated theses, such as the incommensurability thesis, the principles of proliferation and tenacity, and his particular version of relativism, and more specifically on quantum mechanics.
Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A
The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...
Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.
I. L’héritage d’Avicenne au xviie siècle : le Commentaire de la Métaphysique du Shifā’ par Mullā Ṣadrā Les philosophes de l’Iran safavide ont une dette envers l’œuvre d’Avicenne, Abū ʽAlī ibn Sīnā (m. 428/1037). L’ouvrage synthétique et allusif d’Avicenne, al-Ishārāt wa l-tanbīhāt fut méthodiquement étudié par les savants imamites quand Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī en eut achevé son commentaire vers 664/1246. Les philosophes instruits de la théologie rationnelle imamite et de la philosophie « illumin...
The renewal of the philosophical debate in psychiatry is one exciting news of recent years. However, its use in psychopharmacology may be problematic, ranging from self-confinement into the realm of values (which leaves the evidence-based domain unchallenged) to complete rejection of scientific evidence. In this paper philosophy is conceived as a conceptual audit of clinical psychopharmacology. Its function is to criticise the epistemological and methodological problems of current neopositivist, ingenuously realist and evidence-servant psychiatry from within the scientific stance and with the aim of aiding psychopharmacologists in practicing a more self-aware, critical and possibly useful clinical practice. Three examples are discussed to suggest that psychopharmacological practice needs conceptual clarification. At the diagnostic level it is shown that the crisis of the current diagnostic system and the problem of comorbidity strongly influence psychopharmacological results, new conceptualizations more respondent to the psychopharmacological requirements being needed. Heterogeneity of research samples, lack of specificity of psychotropic drugs, difficult generalizability of results, need of a phenomenological study of drug-induced psychopathological changes are discussed herein. At the methodological level the merits and limits of evidence-based practice are considered, arguing that clinicians should know the best available evidence but that guidelines should not be constrictive (due to several methodological biases and rhetorical tricks of which the clinician should be aware, sometimes respondent to extra-scientific, economical requests). At the epistemological level it is shown that the clinical stance is shaped by implicit philosophical beliefs about the mind/body problem (reductionism, dualism, interactionism, pragmatism), and that philosophy can aid physicians to be more aware of their beliefs in order to choose the most useful view and to practice coherently
Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime
The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.
Lugg, Catherine A.
For American public schools, the interplay between religion and public policy has been rather volatile, thanks to both state and federal constitutions mandating an ever shifting degree of separation between church and state, yet permitting free religious expression. Some of the most intense political disputes in the past 40 years have involved…
Full Text Available Interpretations of Kant usually focus on his legal or political cosmopolitanism, a cluster of ideas revolving around perpetual peace, an international organisation, the reform of international law, and what Kant has termed cosmopolitan law or the law of world citizens (Weltbürgerrecht. In this essay, I argue that there are different cosmopolitanisms in Kant, and focus on the relationship among political, legal or juridical, moral and ethico-theological cosmopolitanisms. I claim that these form part of a comprehensive system and are fully compatible with each other, given Kant's framework. I conclude that it is not self-evident that one can pick out some elements of this greater system as if they were independent of it.
The US NRC has put forth the initial steps in what is viewed as the resolution of the severe accident issue. Underlying this process is a fundamental philosophy that if followed will likely lead to an order of magnitude reduction in the risk of severe accidents. Thus far, this philosophy has proven cost effective through improved performance. This paper briefly examines this philosophy and the next step in closure of the severe accident issue, the IPE. An example of the authors experience with determinist. (author)
Special Operations Forces (SOF) medical personnel (clinicians) directly impact their patients' outcomes, regardless if the patient is a Soldier, civilian, or indigenous person. Any health practitioner who specializes in trauma, Soldiers' healthcare, or tactical and/or operational healthcare must have a working knowledge of SOF medicine and its philosophical, political, and contextual origins. SOF clinical evidence and knowledge base is extensive and inextricably linked to SOF clinicians' underlying warrior philosophy and worldview. This submission will argue the point that SOF healthcare is a discipline and mature science in its own right, as evidenced by SOF's utilization and/or rejection of other disciplines' (nursing, medicine, conventional military) paradigms, community-wide adoption of its own specific paradigms, disciplinary matrix, and language. Peer-reviewed articles relevant to SOF and military healthcare from 2009-2011 are reviewed to determine possible philosophical frameworks, identify extant methodologies, and demonstrate underlying philosophical constructs. 2011.
It is common knowledge that modern political societies, and to even greater extent contemporary ones, are characterized by pluralism. The term is used to describe situations which contain within the same society individuals and groups associated by various religions, various cultures, and various ethical systems. This is the consequence of several historical phenomena of widespread influence, which began in modern epoch and has intensified in the contemporary era, such as secularization, emig...
Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer
The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...
Janssen, F. J. J. M.; van Berkel, B.
Philosophy of science education can play a vital role in the preparation and professional development of science teachers. In order to fulfill this role a philosophy of science education should be made practical for teachers. First, multiple and inherently incomplete philosophies on the teacher and teaching on what, how and why should be integrated. In this paper we describe our philosophy of science education (ASSET approach) which is composed of bounded rationalism as a guideline for understanding teachers' practical reasoning, liberal education underlying the why of teaching, scientific perspectivism as guideline for the what and educational social constructivism as guiding choices about the how of science education. Integration of multiple philosophies into a coherent philosophy of science education is necessary but not sufficient to make it practical for teachers. Philosophies are still formulated at a too abstract level to guide teachers' practical reasoning. For this purpose, a heuristic model must be developed on an intermediate level of abstraction that will provide teachers with a bridge between these abstract ideas and their specific teaching situation. We have developed and validated such a heuristic model, the CLASS model in order to complement our ASSET approach. We illustrate how science teachers use the ASSET approach and the CLASS model to make choices about the what, the how and the why of science teaching.
Abstract Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, and freedom. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide reasons to think they are ill-founded. PMID:28392629
Full Text Available The use of sports and politics has had both positive and negative implications over history. Sports competitions or activities have had the intention to bring about change in certain cases. Nationalistic fervor is sometimes linked to victories or losses to some sport on sports fields. Also, new independent countries need to be recognized on international arena, so participating at the Olympic Games, they become more visible and marginalization is broken. National feelings are boosted by some of the finest sports performances. The interwar period took politics to the sporting arena; when governments decided to control the sport and politics became more authoritative and states went on to find new ways to dominate the thinking process and imagination of their citizens. Fascist regimes developed techniques that allowed them to use achievements made in sporting arena to inspire people within their geographical boundaries and impress those beyond these boundaries. A fanatic love with sports was developed and through it, symbols of nationalist socialism were entrenched.
Full Text Available This review paper on John Dewey, the pioneering educationist of the 20th century, discusses his educational thoughts, and writings, which gave a new direction to education at the turn of the century. Dewey’s contributions are immense and overwhelming in the fields of education, politics, humanism, logic, and aesthetics. This discussion will focus on Dewey and his philosophy related to educational approaches, pedagogical issues, and the linkages that he made between education, democracy, experience, and society. At the heart of his educational thought is the child. Dewey’s idea on humanism springs from his democratic bent and his quest for freedom, equity, and the value of child’s experiences.
Full Text Available Mathematical models, such as sets of equations, are used in engineering to represent and analyze the behaviour of physical systems. The conventional notations in formulating engineering models do not clearly provide all the details required in order to fully understand the equations, and, thus, artifacts such as ontologies, which are the building blocks of knowledge representation models, are used to fulfil this gap. Since ontologies are the outcome of an intersubjective agreement among a group of individuals about the same fragment of the objective world, their development and use are questions in debate with regard to their competencies and limitations to univocally conceptualize a domain of interest. This is related to the following question: “What is the criterion for delimiting the specification of the main identifiable entities in order to consistently build the conceptual framework of the domain in question?” This query motivates us to view the Yoneda philosophy as a fundamental concern of understanding the conceptualization phase of each ontology engineering methodology. In this way, we exploit the link between the notion of formal concepts of formal concept analysis and a concluding remark resulting from the Yoneda embedding lemma of category theory in order to establish a formal process.
The problem of establishing boundaries between cosmology and philosophy is discussed. It is stated that the theoretic knowledge and observation data do not contradict the selection of one of non-stationary homogenous and isotropic relativistic models, which are also called the Friedmann models. In this model (with a zero Λ - member) there is a critical value of the substance density which is 10 -29 g/cm 2 . The determination of the average density of the Universe substance relatively to this value enables to choose between a closed and an open Universe model. Nowadays, this problem is not yet solved. But some philosophic theses reject the closed cosmological model without any naturally scientific argumentation. Critical remarks about such an approach to the problem studied are presented. The conclusion is made that the problems of the Universe volume infinity of finity, laws of its evolution in time or the like are not philosophic and should be considered taking into account the data of astronomic observations and modern physics
It is the JME's 40th anniversary and my 20th anniversary working in the field. I reflect on the nature of bioethics and medical ethics. I argue that both bioethics and medical ethics together have, in many ways, failed as fields. My diagnosis is that better philosophy is needed. I give some examples of the importance of philosophy to bioethics. I focus mostly on the failure of ethics in research and organ transplantation, although I also consider genetic selection, enhancement, cloning, futility, disability and other topics. I do not consider any topic comprehensively or systematically or address the many reasonable objections to my arguments. Rather, I seek to illustrate why philosophical analysis and argument remain as important as ever to progress in bioethics and medical ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Philosophical hermeneutics claims that human understanding, while being contingent and historical, is likewise universal and bears within itself some pervasive features detectable via hermeneutical analyses of historically imparted tradition and language. Similarly, hermeneutical philosophy of science is confident that hermeneutical methods are the only proper tool to adequately assess, reconstruct, explain or give a meaning to historical but universal scientific knowledge and its various forms. I point out two versions of hermeneutical philosophy of science and argue that whenever philosophical hermeneutics pursues rescuing "scientificity", human rationality, human rights, common values, and so forth under the pretence of its universality and competence, it necessarily transcends and violates the tenets of its own. I conclude in the favour of moderate interpretation of practical hermeneutics, perhaps in the very essence of it rest postmodern concepts of historicality, transparency and tolerance, without which there is no possibility of extricating oneself from hermeneuticism.
Full Text Available Parallel or tacit agreement with the European cultural model, union political projects have evolved over time from imperial ambitions in the global democratic principles. The current project of European integration, initiated by Pan Europe manifesto as an philosophical-political alternative centered on the individual, personality and freedom ideas has a striking table normative component, for both theoretical and ideological initiatives are under the sign of moral imperative, i.e. the soteriological peaceful shade.
is to analyze Jacob Brucker’s employment of the concept in his influential history of philosophy, Historia critica philosophiae, dating from 1742-68. To Brucker, a ‘system of philosophy’ is characterized by the following four features: (a) it is autonomous in regard to other, non-philosophical disciplines; (b......In this article I shall examine and discuss the concept ‘system of philosophy’ as a methodological tool in the history of philosophy. I shall do so in two moves. First I shall analyze the historical origin of the concept in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Thereafter I shall undertake...... a discussion of its methodological weaknesses — a discussion, which is not only relevant to the writing of history of philosophy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but also to the writing of history of philosophy in our times, where the concept remains an important methodological tool. My first move...
Iara Costa Leite
Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo é desconsagrar o caráter heróico que a obra de Hobbes assumiu para os estudantes de relações internacionais ao ter sido enquadrada - assim como as de Tucídides, Maquiavel, Rousseau, Hegel etc. - no épico realista. Veremos que a subsunção do filósofo à "tradição realista" é raramente questionada, mesmo pelos críticos das concepções veiculadas por essa tradição. Assim, o nome de Hobbes permanece, em grande medida, associado à analogia entre anarquia internacional e estado de natureza. Em primeiro lugar, o artigo resgata o caráter hipotético do modelo de estado de natureza, dando ênfase especial ao reconhecimento de Hobbes à limitação de seu reducionismo motivacional para a descrição da realidade. Em segundo, partindo do pressuposto de que a dicotomia interno-externo era inexistente na época de Hobbes, explora, a partir de sua obra, o argumento de que a paz internacional estaria diretamente relacionada à resolução do problema da ordem nas sociedades domésticas.The purpose of this article is to deconsecrate the heroic status that international relations students have attached to Hobbes's texts - an attachment that results from their inclusion, together with texts by Thucydides, Machiavelli, Rousseau and Hegel, in the realist epic. We will see that the subsuming of the philosopher under the "realist tradition" is rarely questioned, even by the critics of the conceptions endorsed by it. Therefore, the name of Hobbes remains, in a large extent, associated to the analogy between international anarchy and the state of nature. In the first place, we'll bring to light the hypothetical status of the state of nature model, emphasizing the fact that Hobbes himself recognized the limitation of its motivational reductionism to the description of reality. Secondly, having taken as a premise the fact that the dichotomy inside/outside did not exist in Hobbes's time, we'll explore the argument that
In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.
Full Text Available Deleuze will not wait until he had completed his works to frame and formulate a theory on the relation between philosophy and science. The first articulations of this question are already present as early as the 1950s and 1960s in the studies on Bergson and Nietzsche, and then in Difference and repetition as well as in The Logic of Sense. It is also true that this question will be specifically developed in 1991 in What Is Philosophy? But throughout his work, the main thrust would proceed. This issue, it seems, comprises three main aspects: in the first place, in a polemic against the neo-Kantian epistemological legacy, it primarily consists in denying the critical definition of philosophy as being a ‘reflection on scientific knowledge’ to replace it by a conception drawn from Bergson’s expressionist ontology that places science and philosophy on both sides of the being; secondly, in an attempt to restore the concept of dialectics, it consists in making the dialectics of ideas the communal sphere of both science and philosophy; thirdly, aiming to specify every form of thinking, it consists in shaping how each expresses its ideas or its problems with its own signs. These three aspects, it seems, can frame the overall conception Deleuze formed of the link between science and philosophy. We shall successively analyze them, exclusively considering the first period of Deleuze’s work, which is to say the pre-guattarian publications.
Михаил Михайлович Кухтин
Full Text Available The German economic expansion in the EU is examined in the article. Berlin is using the European debt crisis and the political instability in Ukraine to strengthen its positions in the world. Interests of weak countries of the Eurozone are being ignored. Chancellor A. Merkel is striving for a gradual revision of European legislation in Germany’s favor. Today’s Berlin is supporting Ukrainian nationalists, hoping to hinder the growth of Russian influence in Eastern Europe with their help. The aggravation of international competition does not allow Germany to pursue a different European policy.
The ontological status of African Philosophy has generated a lot of controversy. While some scholars have been sceptical on the existence of African philosophy, others have maintained that African philosophy is an established branch of philosophy, and dismissed any sceptical attitude towards it. Against this background ...
Accidents of low probability and severe consequences represent the same risk as accidents of higher probability and less severe consequences. This fact is not accepted by the population. People can visualize consequences, but do not understand probabilities. People fear the large-scale accident much more than the many small ones. If political acceptance of a decision is to be obtained, it is much more important to be able to limit the consequences than to reduce probabilities. It must also be realized that unlimited safety cannot be obtained. We can pay for greater safety and greater security. But resources are limited, and therefore there are also limits to how far we can go in combatting risks
Lewis, Orion; Steinmo, Sven
In this essay, we explore the epistemological and ontological assumptions that have been made to make political science "scientific." We show how political science has generally adopted an ontologically reductionist philosophy of science derived from Newtonian physics and mechanics. This mechanical framework has encountered problems and constraints on its explanatory power, because an emphasis on equilibrium analysis is ill-suited for the study of political change. We outline the primary differences between an evolutionary ontology of social science and the physics-based philosophy commonly employed. Finally, we show how evolutionary thinking adds insight into the study of political phenomena and research questions that are of central importance to the field, such as preference formation.
to understanding the ontology of consumer society. But rather than simply placing sovereignty into the hands of the independent, self-determined consumer, the earliest ontologists of the consumer society took recourse to medieval political theology and presented the consumer market as a new corpus mysticum. Thus......The article analyses the common notion that the consumer society is a reflection of those principles in the market that also provide the ideas of democracy and liberal constitutionalism with legitimacy in the political realm. The inalienable right to self-development and self-determination makes...... for the same reason and in the same manner as legal and political philosophy dissects the legitimacy and validity of the parliamentary institutions of modern democracy. Just as in the political philosophy of the constitutional structure of the democratic state, the question of who is sovereign is key...
Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein
The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies. The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums. Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square). We define...
Full Text Available African communities continue to experience social disharmony and disunity which result in their inability to independently address their political economic and moral challenges for the communal well-being. This paper argues on the need for the mainstreaming of Botho philosophy in education provision in African schools in order to instill harmony and well-being among the African learners from a tender age. This philosophy is of paramount importance in facilitating political stability economic security and good moral standards. It is also important for promoting personal and spiritual development.
Podría decirse que Sócrates le dejó a la tradición filosófica posterior el problema de la relación entre filosofía y política. Ya en la República la propuesta del rey filósofo representa más una tensión que una identidad. Mientras que la respuesta de Aristóteles insiste en una clara distinción entre la política y la sabiduría filosófica, un examen cuidadoso demuestra que esta distinción es menos clara de lo que parece. Heidegger caracteriza la filosofía como la única política auténtica y al f...
It continued to teach them to hate themselves and to over-value 'foreign ideas and values' in the schools. TOFFEL and ILETS are remaining legitimate vehicles of the system and above all the litmus test for non English intelligence. African children, among others, continue to stay on the margins of real communication and ...
In spite of the erroneous claim of superiority by males over their females' counterpart in various spheres of human endeavours, it has become necessary to state that there is no need for such pride and irrational belief. Experiences in recent years have shown that such claims no longer hold water. This paper believes that ...
Souza, Sharon Cristine Ferreira de; Oliveira, Thiago Vieira Mathias de
Desenvolve-se uma análise trazendo, principalmente, um apanhado histórico e uma descrição sistemática a respeito da vida e obra do contratualista Thomas Hobbes, bem como sua filosofia, suas influências, delineando o porquê das concepções e conceitos trazidos em seus escritos, seus objetivos e como o Absolutismo, na posteridade, desemboca no modelo de Estado Liberal, com a sede por direitos individuais observadas na crescente burguesia. The paper develops an analysis bringing primarily a hi...
In Pirate Philosophy, Gary Hall considers whether the fight against the neoliberal corporatization of higher education in fact requires scholars to transform their own lives and labor. Is there a way for philosophers and theorists to act not just for or with the antiausterity and student protestors—“graduates without a future”—but in terms of their political struggles? Drawing on such phenomena as peer-to-peer file sharing and anticopyright/pro-piracy movements, Hall explores how those in academia can move beyond finding new ways of thinking about the world to find instead new ways of being theorists and philosophers in the world. Hall describes the politics of online sharing, the battles against the current intellectual property regime, and the actions of Anonymous, LulzSec, Aaron Swartz, and others, and he explains Creative Commons and the open access, open source, and free software movements. But in the heart of the book he considers how, when it comes to scholarly ways of creating, performing, an...
Full Text Available The article will be devoted to such problems as a idea of subsidiarity, a cosmopolitan right and a visitor figure in context and interpretation of ancient and modern philosophy. The article deals with the concept of subsidiarity which is taken as a point of departure for the discipline of borderology, an academic study with Kantian roots. Borderology, according to the principle of subsidiarity, can present as a new field of investigation which invites philosophers and social scientists to replace a “top down” with a “bottom up” procedure. The figure of the visitor is close linked with the experience of subsidiarity which means the freedom and initiative below the level of State. In Immanuel Kant’s strategy for perpetual peace, the figure of the visitor launches a critique of a tendency to self-aggrandizement, characteristic of the modern State and thereby a defense of the political independence of local border regions. The visitor also invites us to see, think and work to liberate our own subjectivity from false voices of sovereignty. Kant articulates the offer of the visitor by bringing in the term Verkehr. Using Kant scholar Otfried Höffe,s methodology we show how idea of subsidiarity is overlooked in international political theory, explain some constitutive principles of borderology, from which is more important is the methodological principle of an intercultural discourse and presents borderology as an anti-Huntingtonian model for border studies.
are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....
resolve com a sustentação de um vínculo cultural (difusão das tradições, dos costumes, das práticas sociais ou dos saberes estabelecidos, mas também, e fundamentalmente, político (enquanto garantia do laço social constituído. A avaliação é um procedimento de normalização que engloba prescrições políticas, culturais e pedagógicas. Constitui uma forma de localizar cada um dentro de uma ordem normal de distribuição de lugares a partir da ponderação dos saberes e das práticas e de administrar as possíveis trocas de lugar. Neste trabalho, foram revisadas as hipóteses políticas e pedagógicas que sustentam o ato de evolução no caso particular do ensino institucionalizado da Filosofia. São comentadas algumas perspectivas que permitem visualizar uma dimensão criativa do ensino de Filosofia e sua avaliação, que atribuem um lugar ativo aos sujeitos da aprendizagem, tanto de um ponto de vista individual quanto coletivo.Each institutionalized education reaffirms the conception of State and place that corresponds or can correspond to each member of a society. The progressive integration of the members since their childhood is made according to a set of requisites and norms, which are dominant, and try to guarantee what needs to be maintained or changed, permissively or tolerantly. The possibility of society's reproduction is spread through the social support of a cultural link (in such traditions, habits and established practices' dissemination or knowledge but also and essentially political (as a social consolidated link. Evaluation is a procedure of normalization that combines political, cultural and educational prescriptions. It is a way of putting each of them in a normal sequence of distribution points regarding places, based on the weighting of knowledge and practices, and management of any changes of place. In this article, we analyze the political and pedagogical assumptions that usually secure the act of assessment, in the case of the
Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann
People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…
Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus
This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....
Goldenberg, Maya J
The evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement is touted as a new paradigm in medical education and practice, a description that carries with it an enthusiasm for science that has not been seen since logical positivism flourished (circa 1920-1950). At the same time, the term "evidence-based medicine" has a ring of obviousness to it, as few physicians, one suspects, would claim that they do not attempt to base their clinical decision-making on available evidence. However, the apparent obviousness of EBM can and should be challenged on the grounds of how 'evidence' has been problematised in the philosophy of science. EBM enthusiasm, it follows, ought to be tempered. The post-positivist, feminist, and phenomenological philosophies of science that are examined in this paper contest the seemingly unproblematic nature of evidence that underlies EBM by emphasizing different features of the social nature of science. The appeal to the authority of evidence that characterizes evidence-based practices does not increase objectivity but rather obscures the subjective elements that inescapably enter all forms of human inquiry. The seeming common sense of EBM only occurs because of its assumed removal from the social context of medical practice. In the current age where the institutional power of medicine is suspect, a model that represents biomedicine as politically disinterested or merely scientific should give pause.
With a thorough understanding of the political system and possession of relevant political knowledge and attitude the various factors that hinder appropriate pratice of democracy and development of enlightened citizenship are gradually nipped in the bud. SOPHIA: An African Journal of Philosophy Vol. 8 (2) 2006: pp. 133- ...
DuBois, James M; Iltis, Ana S; DuBois, Susan G
Twelve personal narratives address the impact of political influence on bioethics. Three commentary articles explore these stories and suggest lessons that can be learned from them. The commentators come from backgrounds that include bioethics, medicine, educational psychology, health care management, and philosophy.
Full Text Available This paper supports the following theses: 1. It is necessary to affirm that all humanity has always expressed certain “core universal problems” that are present in all cultures. 2. The rational responses to these “core problems” first acquire the form of mythical narratives. 3. The formulation of categorical philosophical discourses is a subsequent development in human rationality that does not negate all mythical narratives. These philosophical discourses have arisen in all the great urban Neolithic cultures (even if only on a very beginning level. 4. Modern European philosophy confused its economic and political domination of culture and the crises derived from other regional philosophies with a Eurocentric pretention to universality, which must be questioned. 5. In any case, there are formal, universal aspects on which all regional philosophies can coincide and which respond to the “core problems” on an abstract level. 6. All of this impels us to enter a new age of inter-philosophical dialogue, respectful of differences and open to learning from the useful discoveries of other traditions. 7. A new philosophical project must be developed that, going beyond Eurocentric philosophical modernity, tries to shape a global, trans-modern pluriverse, drawing upon the development of its own resources of peripheral, subaltern, post-colonial philosophies that have been “discarded” by modernity.
There is an interesting overlap between Heidegger and Nishida that has not gained attention in the literature. During the late 1920s, both philosophers looked to transcendental philosophy as a way to overcome the Western metaphysical tradition. Neither philosopher, however,simply accepted...... traditional forms of transcendental philosophy. Rather, both attempted to transform it from within. In this work, I aim to articulate the extent to which Heidegger and Nishidastill worked within a traditional transcendental framework and also the ways in which they attempt to transform transcendental...... philosophy. I argue that while Heidegger’s “hermeneutic” and Nishida’s “chorological” (I employ this term from Plato’s chōra) transformations have much in common, the latter is more radical than the former. Specifically, Nishida reveals the pre-reflective origin of transcendental reflection not in the pre...
Full Text Available This article describes the experience of the Department of Philosophy of the South Ural State University (Russia on the use of media technology in the teaching of philosophy. Media technologies are examined not simply as tools of knowledge translation to students, but they are comprehended as a media reality, which sometimes completely dissolve a human. Media philosophy which appeared as a new philosophical trend that meets the today realities, contemplates the nowadays situation of influence of mass communications on human’s world outlook, on his selfidentification, also on his body and feelings. The students are possessed to analyze a visual media material, because the foundation of media reality is a visual image.
Carey, James W.
Discusses political correctness and cultural studies, dealing with cultural studies and the left, the conservative assault on cultural studies, and political correctness in the university. Describes some of the underlying changes in the university, largely unaddressed in the political correctness debate, that provide the deep structure to the…
The application of nursing models has been a recent theme in British nursing. Part of this process is the development of a nursing philosophy which underpins the model. Nurses at clinical level are often required to define their philosophy to meet clinical, educational and managerial objectives. The first part of this two-part article explores the significance of nursing philosophy to practice. In the second part, a case study is used to illustrate how clinical nurses can set about defining a philosophy of nursing for themselves. Dickoff et al (1) indicate that a philosophy is significant in the generation of theory. By identifying the nature of practice, theoretical relationships become apparent. It is also significant as Johnson (2) states in nursing's development as a profession. Johnson further asserts that nurses should use their beliefs to build a conceptual system of the person to be served and an abstract model for practice which allows such purpose to be fulfilled. However a nurse's beliefs and values about nursing may have no theoretical substance to them. They may be purely intuitive in nature. Writing a philosophy legitimates intuition. Kitson (3) considers that nurse theorists who believe that only developing a knowledge base through a scientific approach are at risk of throwing away the intuitive sources of knowledge within nursing. Yet gut reactions have been shown to be critical in the development of excellence in nursing (4). Kitson believes that intuitions can lead to developing 'grassroots standards of care' and a clearer definition of what nursing is.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Elena N. Yarkova
Full Text Available Aim. The article is devoted to the representation of utilitarianism as the philosophy of education. The main problem is the relevance of utilitarian strategies for the present stage of development of education in Russia. Methods, results and scientific novelty. Utilitarianism is presented as an educational strategy, nominating at the forefront the principle of usefulness of education, positioning education as a means of achieving social and individual wellbeing. The author represents the basic principles of utilitarian philosophy, and also reveals how these principles have been refracted in the philosophy of education using the methods of value-semantic reduction and qualitative content analysis. The first part of the article is devoted to the history of utilitarianism as the philosophy of education in the Euro-American pedagogical culture, as well as the analysis of modern utilitarianism as widely existent in this culture of philosophy of education. In the second part of the article the author explicates the role of utilitarianism in the education strategies of the Russian pedagogical culture, past and present. The main idea of the article is the idea that we have two value-semantic forms of utilitarianism: narrowly understood (tactical utilitarianism and widespread (strategic utilitarianism. Within the tactical utilitarianism as socially and/or individually useful education is considered to be vocationalism, claimed the currently market education. This kind of education is characterized by its focus on learning/teaching applied science and recognition of the futility of Sciences fundamental and philosophical. Under the strategic utilitarianism individually and/or socially beneficial is considered: first, the versatile education characterized by its focus on learning/teaching not only applications, but also fundamental and philosophical disciplines, secondly, eclectic education aimed at obtaining different professional competences. Versatile
International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...
An operating philosophy and operations cost estimate were prepared to support the Conceptual Design Report for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), a new research reactor planned for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The operating philosophy was part of the initial effort of the ANS Human Factors Program, was integrated into the conceptual design, and addressed operational issues such as remote vs local operation; control room layout and responsibility issues; role of the operator; simulation and training; staffing levels; and plant computer systems. This paper will report on the overall plans and purpose for the operations work, the results of the work done for conceptual design, and plans for future effort
Kalimat M. Alilova
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the research is to study environmental problems related to the decline of culture, the importance of philosophy in overcoming private and personal interests as well as the unilateral approach of man in his relationship to nature. The study shows how philosophy can participate in the formation of ecological culture, a new ecological consciousness in man, while ecological culture is called upon to resist technocratic stereotypes and the course of history was aimed at preventing the biosphere from becoming deserted. Discussion. On the basis of the analysis of literary sources, we used the method of socio-cultural and socio-natural approaches based on the possibility of philosophy to introduce a new life into culture, new ecological values and new ecological principles. To solve these problems, environmental philosophy develops new theories. Representatives of different cultures, ethnic groups, nations, religions must learn to coexist with each other. We consider philosophy as a means of teaching rapprochement between peoples and creating new opportunities for understanding and improving the environmental situation. Cultural development makes it possible to assess the level of a man’s knowledge of nature, himself and the world around him. Ecological culture is a way of connecting man with nature on the basis of deeper knowledge and understanding. Philosophy says that you cannot move away from nature and be lauded over it since this will destroy culture. Rational doctrines tend to put a person above other living beings so the synthesis of philosophy with culture can have a positive ecological meaning. Conclusion. The findings obtained can be recommended for practical use in schools, starting from primary school, as well as in secondary special educational institutions and universities. It is necessary to work on the motivation and values of people, develop a common and ecological culture. Only a cultured person can move from
A.N. Prior (1914-69) in the course of the 1950s and 1960s founded a new and revolutionary paradigm in philosophy and logic. Its most central feature is the preoccupation with time and the development of the logic of time. However, this was inseparably interwoven with fundamental questions about...... human freedom, ethics, and existence. This remarkable integration of themes also embodies an original and in fact revolutionary conception of logic. The book series, Logic and Philosophy of Time, is dedicated to a deep investigation and also the further development of Prior’s paradigm. ...
Troy R. E. Paddock
Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.
Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…
Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás
In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.
This response argues that Jefferson's educational philosophy must be considered in a proper historical context. Holowchak accurately demonstrates both Jefferson's obsession with education and the political philosophy on which his educational beliefs are built. However, the effort to apply modern democratic and meritocratic attributes to…
This article argues that the little everyday things of life often provide excellent entries into the intellectual problems of academic philosophy. This is illustrated with an analysis of four small stories taken from daily life in which people are in agony because they do not know what to do. It is
F. A. Tykhomirova
Full Text Available The review deals with the principles and guidelines of “Green chemistry” in comparison with the philosophy of nanotechnology. Modern philosophy and methodology of science research focus is on the process of the growth of scientific knowledge. Modern chemistry is complex, hierarchical, multilevel and multidimensional system. Philosophy of nanotechnology relies heavily on the value of scientism and the idea of domination of man over nature , there is an apology of human intervention in nature. “Green chemistry” is called “new thinking”of chemistry, philosophy of modern chemical research. The chemicals and processes in accordance with the principles of “Green chemistry” are considered not only in terms of production of substances and materials with desired properties, but also taking into account the consequences for the environment. In the “Green chemistry” created image of the “ideal customer” – he uses a minimum number of products understands the need to preserve the environment. Ideological landmark “Green chemistry” – co-evolution of man and nature, preservation of the biosphere. It emphasized the need to implement the ideology of “Green chemistry” in the training of future specialists.
research inquiry in the philosophy of mathematics education. It is part of a broader practice of ‘philosophical archaeology’: the uncovering of hidden assumptions and buried ideologies within the concepts and methods of research and practice in mathematics education. An extensive bibliography is also...
Michael Polanyi's Philosophy of Science. Positivism may be said to be the outcome of the changing contours of modern science that relies solely on observation, experimentation, and measurement. Experiments in modern science are designed solely to elicit 'yes' or 'no' for an answer. The resultant facts can be fitted into.
Over the last four decades computers and the internet have become an intrinsic part of all our lives, but this speed of development has left related philosophical enquiry behind. Featuring the work of computer scientists and philosophers, these essays provide an overview of an exciting new area of philosophy that is still taking shape.
Dean SPGS NAU
prominent issues. Really, the problem of African identity, one dares to say, has constituted the basic perennial question of contemporary. African philosophy. In various ..... of the trauma of the slave trade, of the humiliation that was colonization, of ... form of government could be “bad” or “ideally good,” it is not the case that it ...
Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de
This article proposes turn-taking as a way to understand how European management scholarship opens up to societal phenomena as play, critique, artistry, and aesthetics co-creating business realities. European management scholarship rests on contributions, still mostly under the Anglo-Saxon public......This article proposes turn-taking as a way to understand how European management scholarship opens up to societal phenomena as play, critique, artistry, and aesthetics co-creating business realities. European management scholarship rests on contributions, still mostly under the Anglo...... criticizes the Business School for building speculative castles in the sky. European scholarship might rethink it as an Art School where managerial action is seen as philosophizing in a speculative realism-mode....
Full Text Available In the X century, when numerous representatives of scientific and cultural life of Muslims appeared, a secret philosophical-political group Ikhwan al-Safa was formed whose members tried to ideologically oppose the central caliphate leading political set. Believing that it is imperative that Muslim society should move towards ideals established back in the VII century the prophet Muhammad, and that Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates did not advocate those ideals, they tried in their works - published under the name of Rasa'il Ikhwan al-Safa (Epistles of the Brethren of Purity - to clarify in detail their philosophical, social and political attitudes. The Epistles is an encyclopaedic review of almost all previously known scientific disciplines. They are 51 or 52, if we count the last one that offers a short overview of all the previous ones. In their Epistles, the Ikhwan al-Safa representatives wrote about a variety of scientific disciplines, such as philosophy, physics, astronomy, mathematics, geometry and music. Still, they did not neglect social sciences, and they extensively discussed the relationship between man and society, the role of government in the community, the issues of social justice, of bliss, the relationship between politics and religion, social life models, and many other topics. In this article we will try to look at the basic features of their social thought. It should be noted that the views of this group representatives significantly influenced the development of various scientific disciplines in Islam, and the way they worked had an impact on many theological branches such as Ismaili Muslims. In fact, in the Ismaili fortresses of Gazarhan, Lambasar, Shahdej, Tabas, and Qohestan, many historians have noted traces of covert activities of the Ikhwan al-Safa group members.
Baranov G. V.
in article the main content of problems and achievements of philosophy of Russia on initial stage of its history is researched; urgent achievements of the Russian philosophy in their value for modern humanitarian culture are characterized.
documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_2006. 0912_university-regensburg_en.html. Boudouris, K., & Kalimtzis, K. (Eds.). (1999). Philosophy and ecology: Greek philosophy and the environment. (Vols. 1 & 2). Athens: Ionia Publications. Davis, C. (1967).
Full Text Available Bertrand Russell won Nobel Prize for arguing that science has triumphed over religion. Since religions are based on god, Russell’s argument implies that science has triumphed over both religion and god. But neither Russell nor anyone else has ever defined religion and god, rationally. The assertion about triumph of science (which is founded on rationality over concepts such as religion and god (which are not defined rationally or scientifically in the extant literature cannot be rational. This paper offers a novel rational philosophical foundation for the concepts of god, religion and science in which the claim that science triumphs over religion is redundant. This paper also presents substantial new insights about epistemic truths to help resolve current problems facing humanity like financial moral hazard and terrorism which have unnerved nations worldwide. The humanity now begs to answer a fundamental question of how we can govern ourselves. This paper offers a coherent set of credible answers. In particular, it offers a coherent unified philosophy about how humans have universally formed beliefs to govern themselves and how this philosophy could help resolve current problems. The universal rendering of beliefs articulated here subsumes the extant characterization of probability beliefs in mathematics, science, engineering, economics, religion and philosophy. The universal beliefs so articulated in this paper obviate the currently prevalent philosophical conflicts between religion and science or between theism and atheism and paves the way for optimal governance for prosperity amid stability. This philosophy also offers a rational characterization of the spiritual notion of Nirvana or salvation of the soul and the notion of epistemic truth. The unifying philosophy can help humanity achieve unity, stability and prosperity, sans financial moral hazard, antagonism, wars, nuclear proliferation, global warming and atmospheric pollution.
Philosophy of medicine, narrowly defined as ontology and epistemology of medicine, is a well developed research field, yet education in this field is less well developed. The aim of this paper is to present an educational development in philosophy of medicine-an introductory course in philosophy of medicine. Central features of the course are described. Participants (medical undergraduate students) scored high on average. The conclusion is that further such educational ventures in philosophy of medicine should be developed and implemented.
Friis, Jan Kyrre Berg O.; Pedersen, Stig Andur; Hendricks, Vincent F.
The aim of philosophy of technology is to help us understand technology's complex interrelationships with the environment, society, culture - and with our very existence. A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is the first comprehensive, authoritative reference source for this burgeoning...... those of the humanities, social studies, natural science, sociology, psychology, and engineering sciences and reflect a diversity of philosophical traditions such as pragmatism, analytical philosophy, and phenomenology. Erudite and authoritative, A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is a major...
Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette
We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....
Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui
Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...
Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...
Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels
One of the major discussions of the 1990s has been about the relation between politics and administration. The themes of the discussions have been many and varied. It has been suggested that the level of politics should concentrate on the general political outlining and entrust the remaining to the administration. It has been criticised that politicians make their decisions on the basis of single cases, which ought to be an administrative matter entirely. It has been a theme that efficient op...
Environmentalism, an ethical imperative to preserve and protect nature, has become in the last decade a central ethical, political and pedagogic theme. Against this background, this article focuses on the postwar philosophy of the German-Jewish scholar Hans Jonas (1903-93). It points to Jonas's radical theory of pedagogic responsibility, and to…
Holowchak, M. Andrew
Jefferson's republicanism--a people-first, mostly bottom-up political vision with a moral underpinning--was critically dependent on general education for the citizenry and higher education for those who would govern. This paper contains an analysis of Jefferson's general philosophy of education by enumerating some of its most fundamental…
This paper looks at the case of moral philosophy in order to assess the extent to which and ways in which teacher education should respond to the liberal principle of justification. This principle states that moral and political decisions made by citizens with special kinds of influence and other coercive powers should be accountable to other…
Besley, A. C.
Following Aristotle's description of youth and brief discussion about indoctrination and parrhesia, the article historicizes Socrates' trial as the intersection of philosophy, education and a teacher's influence on youth. It explores the historic-political context and how contemporary Athenians might have viewed Socrates and his student's actions,…
Does America needs more welders and fewer philosophers? Community college humanities professors and administrators say it benefits all students, whether liberal arts or career track, to take courses in philosophy, history, political science, language arts, and other liberal arts subjects. And they're developing innovative humanities curricula to…
The paper discusses the place of feminist epistemology in philosophy of education. Against frequently raised criticisms, the paper argues that the issues raised by feminist standpoint theory lead neither to a reduction of questions of knowledge to questions of power or politics nor to the endorsement of relativism. Within the on-going discussion…
A recent "strategic initiative" literature review developed for the Aotearoa/New Zealand Ministry of Education advised that care and education are no longer distinct. This article explores this suggestion in terms of the politics and the philosophy of early childhood education. It argues that the synthesis of care and education reflects…
One figure who was transitional between educational philosophy and philosophy of education, and who by his industry and prominence laid the foundation for the London school of analytical philosophers of education, was Louis Arnaud Reid who was appointed at the London Institute of Education to the first UK professorship in the philosophy of…
Why is freedom of speech so seldom raised as an issue in philosophy of education? In assessing this question, it is important to distinguish (i) between a freedom and its exercise, and (ii) between different philosophies of education. Western philosophies of education may be broadly divided into classes derived from theories of knowledge first…
... all philosophies remain context-dependent and cultureoriented. A contrary view ignores the proper nature of philosophy. A new phenomenon confronts currently confronts all comers to contemporary African philosophy: an expansive vision of African philosophical discourse. Contemporary African philosophers attempt to ...
Howe, Kenneth R.
This article largely agrees with John White's characterizations of the relationships among philosophy of education, philosophy more generally, and the conventional world. It then extends what White identifies as the fundamental problem that should now be occupying philosophy of education--the irreconcilable opposition between education for…
This work examines the borderlines of philosophy in relation to the central concern of other disciplines. As a preliminary step towards our examination, we attempt to uncover the specific nature of philosophy on the basis of its subject matter. We argue that while philosophy asks 'second order' questions about the totality of ...
students of philosophy do not understand what philosophy students do in their philosophy classes. Some people have ... contributing to the practical existence of the contemporary society or to society in general? To hold a position in the ..... bewitchment of our intelligence by means of language”.27. For this singular reason, ...
Philosophy of literature and philosophy of history is of similar value in understanding the humanities and philosophy ... thinking about value, ethical theory and the messy facts of human social arrangements into the discussion. .... guide the journalist in the collection and dissemination of news information. If journalists have.
Postmodernism is a philosophical description that encompasses philosophy, the arts, a period of history, and many other aspects of today's existence. This dissertation examines the extent to which Indiana public school superintendents use postmodern philosophy as opposed to modern philosophy to inform their practice. This was accomplished by…
In this study, I aimed to carry out a comparative analysis of the methods of conversational philosophy and sage philosophy as contributions towards overcoming the problem of methodology in African philosophy. The purpose was to show their points of convergence and probably, if possible, their point of divergence as well.
What is at stake in high school philosophy education, and why? Why is it a good idea to teach philosophy at this level? This essay seeks to address some issues that arose in revising the Ontario grade 12 philosophy curriculum documents, significant insights from philosophy teacher education, and some early results of recent research funded by the…
In this article, I suggest that the question whether the proper place for philosophy of education is in the domain of philosophy or the domain of education cannot be resolved as long as we think of the connection between philosophy and education in terms of the idea of "philosophy of education". To substantiate this point, I look into…
Love, Alan C
This paper focuses on abstraction as a mode of reasoning that facilitates a productive relationship between philosophy and science. Using examples from evolutionary developmental biology, I argue that there are two areas where abstraction can be relevant to science: reasoning explication and problem clarification. The value of abstraction is characterized in terms of methodology (modeling or data gathering) and epistemology (explanatory evaluation or data interpretation).
In this paper we now focus on critically examining the theoretical and methodological conceptual foundations in the particular field of science of the living, namely the philosophy of biology. The latter seems to draw attention to two disparate disciplines in methods and scope of interest. On the one hand there seems to be a point of view that considers the cognitive phenomenon in question in a way so as to say "abstract", i.e. as something that seeks to determine the nature or essence, to use a term dear to many philosophers. On the other hand, there is a point of view that considers these phenomena in the actual place, the result of a process caused by the cognitive system of the subject, if the latter, of course, does not mean that they are human beings. We will argue that the two approaches do not represent two distinct planes of research: in fact philosophy takes on a main task, namely helping to lay the foundations for a philosophy of nature capable of meeting first a completeness, that is, to describe and explain what is special in all the different layers of the different natural systems.
ans to show that Lukács has been the first to undertake a genealogy of the multiple activities of the conscience and their objectifications (economy, rights, politics and its institutions, art or philosophy from the dialectical tension between subjectivity and objectivity. That is to say, there is in the last thought of the Hungarian philosopher an “ontological-genetic” method, since it is attached to show the progressive stratification of the subject (for example: utilitarian activity, hedonistic activity and aesthetic activity, indicating the transitions and mediations, until the circumscription of each specificity in function of the role that it fills in social life phenomenology.
Indeed, Hawking's appeal to multiverse theory and his core discussion of the metaphysical problem of being are philosophical. The question of the death of Philosophy has contemporary relevance for the discipline which is particularly under threat for its survival in the academy, oftentimes assumed to be irrelevant.
Relatively little contemporary philosophy of education employs economic concepts directly. Even where issues such as marketisation of education are discussed there may be little clarification of underlying concepts. The paper argues that while much contemporary economic thinking on education may be philosophically naive, it is also the case that…
Hansen, Stig Børsen
This article sets out by distinguishing Wittgenstein’s own views in the philosophy of religion from a school of thought in the philosophy of religion that relies on later Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language. After a survey of distinguishing features of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, the third...... section explores Wittgenstein’s treatment of Frazer’s account of magic among primitive peoples. The following section offers an account of Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion, including the use of the notions of a language game and superstition. I conclude by criticizing a very influential argument...
This paper focuses on three key notions of Chinese traditional philosophy, i.e., Zhongyong, Yin Yang, and Wu, pointing out the possible mistakes in Prof. Peter Ping Li's arguments as well as some questions that are often neglected and taken for granted. The author posits, Chinese traditional...... philosophy is a system of thought distinct from the Western philosophy; while the Western philosophy is mainly concerned about the True, i.e., the objective knowledge of the world, the aim of Chinese traditional philosophy is the pursuit of the Good, i.e., the unification of heaven and human....
da Silva, Cléber Domingos Cunha
Medicine and philosophy: where do these concepts intersect? From a biopolitical standpoint, the scope of this essay is to highlight the existence of new challenges for those who deal with the issue of pharmaceuticalization in contemporary society. The analyses revealed that essentially technical approaches are insufficient to confront issues such as: the exorbitant profits from the sale of medication; the disproportionate ratio of these amounts with the number of new innovative molecules; and the difficulty of access to the few new drugs. It would seem to be the opportune moment for adopting a more critical stance for drafting a philosophy of medication in the field of public health with the establishment of areas of resistance to the omnipresent pharmacotherapeutic onslaught. After all, medication is not a constitutive element that is isolated from human life; although, it has become a central component in the management of contemporary life, its adequate use requires the exercise of in-depth introspection.
This essay historically explores philosophical views about the nature and significance of human sexuality, starting with the Ancient Greeks and ending with late 20th-century Western philosophy. Important figures from the history of philosophy (and theology) discussed include Sappho, Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, the Pelagians, St. Thomas Aquinas, Michel de Montaigne, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Arthur Schopenhauer, Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Sigmund Freud, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Wilhelm Reich, and Herbert Marcuse. Contemporary philosophers whose recent work is discussed include Michel Foucault, Thomas Nagel, Roger Scruton, Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II), Catharine MacKinnon, Richard Posner, and John Finnis. To show the unity of the humanities, the writings of various literary figures are incorporated into this history, including Mark Twain, Arthur Miller, James Thurber, E. B. White, Iris Murdoch, and Philip Roth.
This is a vast and vague topic. In order to do justice to it one has to write a book or maybe more than one. For it can be understood in quite different ways and on different levels. For example you may think mainly of the historical aspect, that is how philosophy of science developed in the last hundred or so years and how its influence on…
Aakre, Bjørn Magne
In Japan as well as Norway we experience growing interests and discussions about education. The main reason seems to be the fact that education has become more important than ever before. At the same time, most educational systems seem to face problems adapting to the rapid changes caused by globalization of values and cultures. Therefore, discussions about education not only involve new technology or alternative teaching methods, but also fundamental issues related to philosophy of education...
Stepanov, Viacheslav; Luchynska, Iryna
The article aims at critical assessment of methodological approaches to historical analysis of Heidegger's references to Kierkegaard. Heidegger's relation to existentialist philosophy seems to be one of the is sues which are deeply contaminated by the philosopher's ambivalent self-interpretations distorting the course of objective historical and philosophical study of real links between Heidegger's discourse and the legacy of existentialist thinkers. Analysis of reflexive literature on the pr...
Full Text Available As the title of suggests the article deals with the problems of democracy, its philosophy and also dominant principles. The author reflects interpretation of democracy on the society with their different understand. Democracy represents a form of government, a way of political life where these principles are put into practice. Democracy and its separate principles are expressed in the ultimate legal rules in the democratic countries. Principle of participation as a democratic principle rests with the fact that citizens have right to participate in state administration either directly or via their elected representatives. This principle also ensures that citizens participating in state administration enjoy equal basic rights and liberties and also guarantees that no person can be excluded from participation in state administration or from access to elected or other posts. Methodology: In the article I using method of analyze - I analyzing dominant problems of democracy-its principles in democratic countries. Another method is comparation- understanding democracy from historical aspect. And the end I also using method of synthesis-explanation democracy understand today.
Full Text Available That the publication of the Origin of Species marked an epoch in the development of the natural sciences is well known to the layman. That the combination of the very words origin and species embodied an intellectual revolt and introduced a new intellectual temper is easily overlooked by the expert. The conceptions that had reigned in the philosophy of nature and knowledge for two thousand years, the conceptions that had become the familiar furniture of the mind, rested on the assumption of the superiority of the fixed and final; they rested upon treating change and origin as signs of defect and unreality. In laying hands upon the sacred ark of absolute permanency, in treating the forms that had been regarded as types of fixity and perfection as originating and passing away, the Origin of Species introduced a mode of thinking that in the end was bound to transform the logic of knowledge, and hence the treatment of morals, politics, and religion.
Full Text Available This essay suggests, first of all, that the power of transnational studies lies in its fundamentally dialectical approach, and, secondly, that this approach opens the way to a fresh consideration of the human subject of history. In the kind of transnational studies highlighted here, the focus is less strictly on the movements of people and capital across national borders and more on the implicitly other-oriented interactions between and among nations, making them mutually contingent phenomena, a situation which in turn entails intersubjective and intertextual events and calls for a fresh philosophy of the subject. Doyle draws on the thinking of Frantz Fanon, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Louis Althusser to explore one such possible "transnational philosophy." The second half of the essay pursues the idea that literature offers a micro-world of the dialectics of both transnational history and existential intersubjectivity. Doyle interprets Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative in relation to each other as well as in relation to transnational Atlantic history. Such readings model a method for transnational literary studies, one grounded in philosophy as well as history.
Full Text Available
This essay suggests, first of all, that the power of transnational studies lies in its fundamentally dialectical approach, and, secondly, that this approach opens the way to a fresh consideration of the human subject of history. In the kind of transnational studies highlighted here, the focus is less strictly on the movements of people and capital across national borders and more on the implicitly other-oriented interactions between and among nations, making them mutually contingent phenomena, a situation which in turn entails intersubjective and intertextual events and calls for a fresh philosophy of the subject. Doyle draws on the thinking of Frantz Fanon, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Louis Althusser to explore one such possible "transnational philosophy." The second half of the essay pursues the idea that literature offers a micro-world of the dialectics of both transnational history and existential intersubjectivity. Doyle interprets Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative in relation to each other as well as in relation to transnational Atlantic history. Such readings model a method for transnational literary studies, one grounded in philosophy as well as history.
Hoang Linh Nguyen
Full Text Available This paper undertakes a comparative analysis of rural–urban land conversion policies in China and Vietnam, and examines the ideology of the state in land policymaking under a market socialism environment. It argues that land policies in both countries include ambiguous boundaries, which allow the socialist state to legitimize its politico-administrative power in land management and retain strong intervention capacity in the land market. In addition to similarities, land policies in China and Vietnam show significant differences in terms of the ownership of rural land and related legislation on land expropriation and transactions. Together, these distinctions cause divergent impacts on the interests and motivations of multiple stakeholders in rural land conversion. It is further observed that the state in both countries is characterized by dynamic, complex, and self-coordinated institutional systems, in which multiple levels of government have different driving forces and strategies in land development. The internal structure of authority in rural–urban land conversion between the multiple levels of government is readjusted by the regulatory land control of the central government.
Full Text Available After the famous book on political philosophy of Karl Popper and in support of the liberal doctrine titled" Open society and its enemies", the most famous theory of John Rawls, the university of Harwaed professor in political philosophy in, which a book titled" A theory of justice "was published in 1971. This book includes several articles that eventually, has formed like a book has increased a wide audience in the university and professional journals, particularly in English –speaking countries. Rawls book, based on ethical approach –the political challenge with common issues, including comments utilitarianism payment. Rawl's theory of john Stuart Mill, David Hume and the ethical discussion sidgwick quit common and was considered beyond established based tradition of ethical contractivism and deontological ethics theory of Kant and Hegel's philosophy of right to and re-design concepts of his theory in the tradition of normative political philosophy west restored."Theory of justice" due to the boroad variety of social sciences, audience many attracted. Readers of this theory found a wide variety of disciplines ranging from psychology and economic to ethical issues. Selected topic for which it repeatedly Rawls in his book and his theory named the Kantian and did not name in Hegel, the Hegelian's philosophy of Right theory of the hidden angles of this article will focus on, as well as his abut influence on some views Interpreters.
Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.
This is a vast and vague topic. In order to do justice to it one has to write a book or maybe more than one. For it can be understood in quite different ways and on different levels For example you may think mainly of the historical aspect, that is how philosophy of science developed in the last hundred or so years and how its influence on education changed; you may think of quite different schools of philosophy, from Marxist or positivist to such exotic but at some places influential philosophic positions like that of Rudolph Steiner; of course, you may limit the subject to special fields like epistemology, theory of scientific methodology, or, what has become fashionable recently, sociology of knowledge which may have a considerable bearing on physics teaching (Collins and Shapin 1983; Jung 1985). Again we may think of the topic treated by a philosopher, a scientist, an educationalist, a teacher, which would mean quite a difference. I am trying here to speak as an educationalist, with the physics teacher in mind: this is my vocational perspective as someone who educates physics teachers. Of course, our main concern is the contribution of science, especially physics, to general education, which integrates many of the special topics mentioned. Philosophy of science comes in because it is not at all clear what science and physics is, and what of it should be taught, and how such chosen parts should be taught. I also take this opportunity to give an idea of the longstanding tradition of this discussion in Germany, connected with names like Wagenshein, Litt, Heisenberg and many others.
Full Text Available The acoustic dimension of political philosophy has rarely attracted serious attention, in part because scholars have tended to assume that political theories, ideas, and concepts, exist as abstract entities that are often noiselessly communicated in written texts. And yet, the noisy communication of political ideas whether in the form of Socratic dialogues, Churchillian orations, or in the hushed tones of focus group conversations treasured by deliberative democrats today, has a rich political history and a continuing relevance. This paper will focus on five performative modes for the communication of political ideas: the monologue, the dialogue, the oration, the interjection, and the noisy crowd. While this list may not be exhaustive, it will be used here as a starting point for further exploration. I will contend that in each of these performative modes, the communication of political ideas is framed by the noise of actual, or textually imagined kinds of political speech designed to underscore the validity of the ideas conveyed. One of the most important reasons for traversing this variable performative and acoustic terrain today is to enable us to hear and to listen to political speech amid the potentially polluting hum of political white noise.
The following piece is a response to the critiques from Frank, Garson, and Odenbaugh. The issues at stake are: the definition of biodiversity and its normativity, historical fidelity in ecological restoration, naturalism in environmental ethics, and the role of decision theory. The normativity of the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology is defended. Historical fidelity is criticized as an operative goal for ecological restoration. It is pointed out that the analysis requires only minimal assumptions about ethics. Decision theory is presented as a tool, not a domain-limiting necessary requirement for environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available After “Erasmian Science” and “Gastronomy and Revolution”, the Journal of Interdisciplinary History of Ideas has again issued a Call for Paper, for a special issue dedicated to the historical relations of Philosophy and Geography. It will be guest-edited by Ernesto Sferrazza Papa and Simone Mammola, and appear end 2017. In the Editorial we present the contents of the Call, that can also be found, together with practical information for submission, in the News of the JIHI.
Pernu, Tuomas K
According to one traditional view, empirical science is necessarily preceded by philosophical analysis. Yet the relevance of philosophy is often doubted by those engaged in empirical sciences. I argue that these doubts can be substantiated by two theoretical problems that the traditional conception of philosophy is bound to face. First, there is a strong normative etiology to philosophical problems, theories, and notions that is dfficult to reconcile with descriptive empirical study. Second, conceptual analysis (a role that is typically assigned to philosophy) seems to lose its object of study if it is granted that terms do not have purely conceptual meanings detached from their actual use in empirical sciences. These problems are particularly acute to the current naturalistic philosophy of science. I suggest a more concrete integration of philosophy and the sciences as a possible way of making philosophy of science have more impact.
Andrew James Taggart
Full Text Available ‘On the Need for Speculative Philosophy Today’ takes seriously Hegel’s claims that speculative philosophy begins in diremption and ends in higher-order conceptualization. To make Hegel’s theses more perspicuous, I examine the set of modern life needs—historical, metaphysical, phenomenological, and political—that give rise to speculative philosophy. I then attempt to show that speculative philosophy’s ultimate aim is to provide us with higher-order consolation. In the final section, I mean to draw on the second sense of speculation, conjecturing that rational form of inquiry I have undertaken is a propaedeutic to ‘philosophies of action’: philosophy of life and public philosophy.
Full Text Available This writing aims to outline the principles of researches on philosophy in Central and Eastern European countries, preferably USSR, in the latest soviet and post-soviet periods. In author’s opinion, the crucial points for such kind of research are: a to discover a correlation between philosophy and the phenomenon of totalitarianism; b to correlate a soviet philosophy with totalitarian experience. The article considers methodological and axiological problems in research of post-totalitarian practices in general as such as in philosophy. In author’s opinion the main problem in development of the post-soviet philosophy is interiorisation of intellectual, cultural and social practices, which were formed concerning to totalitarian experience. This became a reason of “cynicism” and “nihilism” of post-soviet philosophy. It’s impossible to cast mentioned phenomena off without consideration of totalitarian phenomenon and critical reconsideration of the own totalitarian experience.
Pollot, Elena Linda Maria
This thesis is situated at the intersection of feminist political theory, identity politics and moral philosophy. Its broader aim is to show the positive consequences of returning the self and its inner activity to the ethical domain for feminist identity politics. To this end, it brings feminist identity politics into dialogue with contemporary developments in virtue ethics, in particular Christine Swanton’s pluralistic virtue ethics. As its starting point, it takes issue with...
Full Text Available The article focuses on some political categories of Antonio Gramsci’s political philosophy such as common language, political work and common sense. The thesis is that for Gramsci the analysis of language is always critique of language and the purpose of this criticism is the political transformation of the existing form of life. The political work on the life form needs a very long processing time so the intellectual characteristic for Gramsci is patience.
Herrero de Miñón, Miguel
Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.
Full Text Available A short review of some recent developments in the philosophy of physics is presented. I focus on themes which illustrate relations and points of common interest between philosophy of physics and three of its `neighboring' elds: Physics, metaphysics and general philosophy of science. The main examples discussed in these three `border areas' are (i decoherence and the interpretation of quantum mechanics; (ii time in physics and metaphysics; and (iiimethodological issues surrounding the multiverse idea in modern cosmology.
This paper describes a prospect of French industrial technology research and development under President Chirac`s political power. The research and development in France is characterized by the national leadership. It depends greatly on the system and organization as well as the economical factors. The policy concentrates on the reformation of development organization rather than the research and development itself. It is required to provide the cultural and social tradition and environment that can bring up people bearing it, the system that can supply the methods of research and development, and the force of technology and market development that can industrialize and commercialize its results. The national leadership in France basically relates to all of these three factors. The actors of framework for the financing and enforcement of research and development are illustrated in a scheme by dividing them into government and companies. The actors for the enforcement of research and development are also divided into governmental public organizations and companies. This paper also provides the defense development in the private companies having a large finance of research and development from the government. The finance of research and development for public welfare from the government is roughly divided into the large-scale projects with determined usage by the government, and the supports for proposals by the companies. 13 refs., 4 figs., 40 tabs.
Designated Aviation Medical Examiners need available basic information concerning the FAA medical certification system, the philosophy which underlies standards, policy and procedures, and certain limitations of the system. It is through such informa...
Mohammed A. Muqtedar Khan
Full Text Available This paper argues that the contemporary attempts at reviving Islamic civilization will remain incomplete until a simultaneous effort is made to revive Islamic philosophy. This paper identifies the characteristics of Islamic philosophy and underscores its significance to Islamic intellectual renaissance. Islamic philosophy has a unique dimension-it encompasses science and spirituality along with reason and logic. Arguing that perhaps the decline of philosophy was an important element in the decline of Islamic civilization, the paper contends that Muslim efforts at negotiating modernity or appropriating science will not be successful without the support of a rejuvenated Islamic philosophical tradition.
Kolen, Filip; Van de Vijver, Gertrudis
The aim of this article is to clarify the meaning of a naturalistic position within philosophy of biology, against the background of an alternative view, founded on the basic insights of transcendental philosophy. It is argued that the apparently minimal and neutral constraints naturalism imposes on philosophy of science turn out to involve a quite heavily constraining metaphysics, due to the naturalism's fundamental neglect of its own perspective. Because of its intrinsic sensitivity to perspectivity and historicity, transcendental philosophy can avoid this type of hidden metaphysics.
In this introduction to a special subsection of Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics comprising separate reviews of the Springer Handbook of the Philosophy of Medicine, The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Medicine, and The Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine, I compare the three texts with respect to their overall organization and their approach to the relation between the science and the art of medicine. I then indicate two areas that merit more explicit attention in developing a comprehensive philosophy of medicine going forward: health economics and systematic relations within the field as a whole. The reviews that follow speak for themselves.
Olsen, Jan-Kyrre Berg
The aim of philosophy of technology is to help us understand technology's complex interrelationships with the environment, society, culture - and with our very existence. A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is the first comprehensive, authoritative reference source for this burgeoning...... those of the humanities, social studies, natural science, sociology, psychology, and engineering sciences and reflect a diversity of philosophical traditions such as pragmatism, analytical philosophy, and phenomenology. Erudite and authoritative, A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is a major...... contribution to one of the fastest-growing and most vital areas of scholarship and study today....
Full Text Available In thisarticle the authors examine the current understanding ofthe foundations ofthe philosophy of education. Lately when it is spoken about human development and education and concretized that it is the perfection of its mind. And if at the end of the twentieth century the subject of educational impact was human being, consisting of social and biological entities, at the beginning of the XXI century the situation has changed. Advances in neuroscience (Risto Nааtаnеn, James Olds, Donald Hebb, Elkhonon Goldberg and others allowed specifying the subject of the educational impact and identifying in a person the material organization that really makes him standing out from the world of living organisms. We are talking about the neural structures that are formed and developed in the human brain and which are not observed (and if they are observed, then in a different format and with different functional manifestations in the brain of higher animals. We are talking about consistently evolving neural networks and subconscious consciousness which perform the corresponding functions: subliminal (unconscious and conscious. If the consistent development of the structure of the human brain sees neuroscience, the development of the functions of this structure, considering psychology. Methods, ways and means of transmission of socio-cultural heritage from one generation to another explores pedagogy. Therefore, the philosophy of education that considers the impact of educational technology, global educational model should be based on the integration of research in neuroscience, psychology and pedagogy.
Aich, Tapas Kumar
Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!
Sanchez-Gonzalez, M A
John Locke's philosophy was deeply affected by medicine of his times. It was specially influenced by the medical thought and practice of Thomas Sydenham. Locke was a personal friend of Sydenham, expressed an avid interest in his work and shared his views and methods. The influence of Sydenham's medicine can be seen in the following areas of Locke's philosophy: his "plain historical method"; the emphasis on observation and sensory experience instead of seeking the essence of things; the rejection of hypotheses and principles; the refusal of research into final causes and inner mechanisms; the ideal of irrefutable evidence and skepticism on the possibilities of certainty in science. The science which for Locke held the highest paradigmatic value in his theory of knowledge was precisely medicine. To a great extent, Locke's Essay on Human Understanding can be understood as an attempt to justify, substantiate, and promote Sydenham's medical method. This method, generalized, was then proposed as an instrument for the elaboration of all natural sciences.
This bibliography is a classified list of published research material on the contemporary Indian political system. The research references assembled have been organized under three broad categories: Indian political institutions, Indian political behavior, and public policy issues. The political institutions section focuses on the presidency,…
Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de
…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers.......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...
Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette
We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....... in developing economies from CSR. In this paper we argue that local SMEs CSR work have strong influence in developing economies, that also includes counterproductive influence for social development. Based on empirical findings from African countries, we conceptualize how CSR in African SMEs differ from...
Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.; O'Shaughnessy, Nicholas J.
relationships with a wide range of stakeholders using tools and concepts that exhibit a context-specific development to suit the assumed unique political context. The key difference between these approaches is whether political marketing manifests itself as a dedicated organisational function or as a wider...... organisational philosophy. The narrow and wide interpretations of political marketing are grounded in alternative paradigms, the managerial/instrumental and relationship paradigms, respectively. Many authors use the managerial/instrumental paradigm as the implicit foundation for their research, whilst more...... recent work has argued that the relationship marketing paradigm shows the most promise as a framework for understanding political behaviour. This divergence reflects discussions that have occurred in the marketing literature about the most appropriate research lens in the commercial context...
Full Text Available This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.
This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633
Boele Van Hensbroek, Pieter; Afolayan, A.; Falola, T.
Central to the endeavor of nationalist thought is the nineteenth-century idea of the nation as the primary political community, resulting in territorially bounded nation-states becoming the globally dominant model. In this chapter, Boele van Hensbroek identifies the imaginative intellectuals and
Bigo, Didier; Isin, Engin; Ruppert, Evelyn
The commentary raises political questions about the ways in which data has been constituted as an object vested withcertain powers, influence, and rationalities.We place the emergence and transformation of professional practices such as‘data science’, ‘data journalism’, ‘data brokerage’, ‘data mining’, ‘data storage’, and ‘data analysis’ as part of the reconfigurationof a series of fields of power and knowledge in the public and private accumulation of data. Data politics asksquestions about ...
A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...
Blair, David C.
Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…
I examine Wiredu's views that (1) ethnophilosophy cannot be considered a legitimate philosophy because it has the feature of authoritarianism, and that (2) this feature of African tradition will not allow modern philosophy to flourish because it prevents individuals from rationally and critically examining beliefs. The ability to ...
In this essay, I challenge the open-closed dualism at the heart of Allsup's project and question the very possibility of an "open" philosophy. I propose an account of music, musical instruction, and philosophy as ethically guided practices, discussing a number of practical and philosophical consequences that follow from such a view.
Philosophy and schools, children and dynamite, elephants and postage stamps: each has a place, but not necessarily in any natural combination with the other. Whether schools and philosophy belong together depends largely on what we mean by both. To the extent that schools are instruments of government regulation and a mechanism for production of…
Over the years, there has been this controversy over the relationship between philosophy and culture. It is an issue that has always polarized scholars including philosophers. On one side, a group of philosophers and scholars hold the view that philosophy is distinct from culture, whereas an opposing group is of the opinion ...
This article builds on the recent Special Interest issue of this journal on "Philosophy for Children in Transition" (2011) and the way that the debate about philosophy in schools has now shifted to whether or not it ought to be a compulsory part of the curriculum. This article puts the spotlight on Catholic schools in order to present a…
Radiation protection philosophy, or paradigm, has evolved over a number of decades and it is still evolving. Traditionally, it has dealt only with man-made, planned, in principle avoidable, radiation exposures of workers and general public. This philosophy, as presently accepted around the world, has some deficiencies. The object of this paper is to discuss these deficiencies and propose some changes. (author)
Principal Contact. Prof Andrea Hurst Editor Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU). South African Journal of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Fort Hare, 50 Church Street, East London 5201. Phone: +27 41 504 4848. Email: Andrea.Hurst@nmmu.ac.za ...
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The article examines the statements made by Immanuel Kant with reference to medicine as well as the impact of his philosophy on medicine. It describes the initial reaction of Kantian philosophy on medicine in the late 18th and early 19th century and its influence in the late 20th century.
Brey, Philip A.E.; Nan, Wang; Yating, Zhu
In this essay, I argue that where the 20th century saw the emergence of a reflective philosophy of technology, one that attempted to understand technology and its implications for society, our focus in the 21st century should be on a constructive philosophy of technology that actively seeks to
Do these schools exhaust all there is to African Philosophy in the present? In this paper, the researcher thinks that the various schools of African. Philosophy were not well-founded, and that there still exists another school of thought ..... emotions is artificial intelligence like computers and robots.14 Thus, any system of ...
van Gerwen, R.C.H.M.
Not metaphysics but aesthetics should be viewed as first philosophy, because it, and its subject matter, art, are concerned with the way representations work. All other disciplines, whether in philosophy or in the sciences base their insights in representations, assuming that these work as intended.
Author Guidelines. Manuscripts, books for review, subscriptions, advertising and related correspondences should be sent to The Corresponding Editor, Journal of Philosophy and Culture, Department of Classics and Philosophy, University of Cape Coast, PMB, GHANA. Electronic submission should be on Microsoft Word ...
This book presents an original perspective by opening up housing to a philosophical approach. It fully integrates discussions on contemporary housing policy and social philosophy in a manner not previously attempted in the housing literature. Professor Jim Kemeny (Uppsala University) described it as ‘the first systematic application of social philosophy from an individual choice perspective’.
Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...
By inquiring into the translatability of Judaism and philosophy, we reawaken an ancient problem that asks after philosophy's relation with religion: What has Athens to do with Jerusalem? Translation is a rejuvenated means of wrestling with this irksome question, which seeks to understand how multiple approaches to ...
The time has come to re-assess the role that Philosophy has to play in the education of teachers, both at the beginning of and during their careers. The currently fashionable craft conception of teaching is inadequate as a preparation for a career in teaching. Philosophy of Education has an important role to play in preparing for a career in…
Clark, John A.
The apparently simple question, "Does philosophy of education have a future?", is without a simple answer. Like so many other questions, it all depends on what we mean, and in this case, what we mean by the expression "philosophy of education". I shall look at it in all of three ways: as a social institution, as an academic…
The article explores the place, role and status of technology in Muslim moral philosophy. Invoking early Muslim encounters with technology the author makes the case why technology is already deeply embedded in contemporary Muslim bioethical thinking. Due to an absence of the philosophical grounding there remains some ambivalence as to why technology is essential to Muslim ethical thinking. Countering the techno-pessimists, the author makes a case in favor of compositional thinking, namely that our thinking itself is altered by our tools and our environment. Compositional thinking opposes the representational mode of thinking that creates a dichotomy between nature versus culture, and technology versus nature. One should, however, anticipate an environment in which technology would be beneficial and not be viewed as potentially harmful.
Full Text Available This paper investigates some of the philosophical and conceptual issues raised by the search for a quantum theory of gravity. It is critically discussed whether such a theory is necessary in the first place, and how much would be accomplished if it is eventually constructed. I argue that the motivations behind, and expectations to, a theory of quantum gravity are entangled with central themes in the philosophy of science, in particular unification, reductionism, and the interpretation of quantum mechanics. I further argue that there are —contrary to claims made on behalf of string theory— no good reasons to think that a quantum theory of gravity, if constructed, will provide a theory of everything, that is, a fundamental theory from which all physics in principle can be derived.
This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…
Lucas, W. R.
Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.
Dixit, Avinash K.; Weibull, Jörgen W.
Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.
Dixit, Avinash K; Weibull, Jörgen W
Failures of government policies often provoke opposite reactions from citizens; some call for a reversal of the policy, whereas others favor its continuation in stronger form. We offer an explanation of such polarization, based on a natural bimodality of preferences in political and economic contexts and consistent with Bayesian rationality.
This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a
Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard
The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term ’...
In this article, I suggest that the question whether the proper place for philosophy of education is in the domain of philosophy or the domain of education cannot be resolved as long as we think of the connection between philosophy and education in terms of the idea of 'philosophy of education'. To substantiate this point, I look into the history of the idea of 'philosophy of education', both as a general idea and with regard to the way in which it became institutionalised in universities in ...
Lowe, P.; Goyder, J.
The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)
Andersen, Sigrid Bjerre
This thesis investigates the concept of political partnership as a way of describing relations between the European Union and the ACP countries (Africa, Carribean and Pacific). The concept reflects two trends in current development discourse. On the one hand, the renaming of donor-recipient relations as 'partnerships', implying a more equal status between donors and recipients. On the other hand, the bringing in of political principles into donor-recipient relations, based on the philosophy t...
Staley, Kent W
This book guides readers by gradual steps through the central concepts and debates in the philosophy of science. Using concrete examples from the history of science, Kent W. Staley shows how seemingly abstract philosophical issues are relevant to important aspects of scientific practice. Structured in two parts, the book first tackles the central concepts of the philosophy of science, such as the problem of induction, falsificationism, and underdetermination, and important figures and movements, such as the logical empiricists, Thomas Kuhn, and Paul Feyerabend. The second part turns to contemporary debates in the philosophy of science, such as scientific realism, explanation, the role of values in science, the different views of scientific inference, and probability. This broad yet detailed overview will give readers a strong grounding whilst also providing opportunities for further exploration. It will be of particular interest to students of philosophy, the philosophy of science, and science. Read more at h...
Artificial intelligence, quantum mechanics, neuroscience, and the philosophy of mind. - In: Philosophy and the many faces of science / ed. by Dionysios Anapolitanos ... - Lanham u.a. : Rowman & Littlefield, 1998. - S. 235-251. - (CPS Publications in the philosophy of science)
Full Text Available In the article it is pointed out that European and worldwide integration processes, the informatization and the competitive character of all the spheres of social life require the overcoming of the tendency of “catching up” that is characteristic of Ukraine — in favour of leaving behind the transformation of the educational sphere, especially the pedagogical one. The attitude of a human being to the world contains theoretical (knowledge and ideas and practical aspects. Created in the process of social development new establishments, things, technologies have a human content; implement human subjectivity — knowledge, intellect, feelings, thinking, volition, convictions, objectives etc. Under discordant challenges of globalization, the philosophy of education can provide an adequate answer, approaches and objectives. The philosophy of education functions as a combination of world view theories (ideas, scientific, cultural, value, moral and ethical principles that predetermine not only the content of education but also a certain type of personality… This takes into account the peculiarities of technogenic (western and traditional (eastern cultures, that is the type of personality: individualistic (the West, collectivistic (the East. The methodological prospects are determined by the correlation of humanitarian, dialogical, synergetic paradigms, the philosophic anthropology and ontology with the accent on culture creation as overcoming the boundaries of the possible (cognition, activity creation of the being by means of culture. The humanitarian and culture creating strategies of the philosophy of education are grounded as conceptually reasonable: integrity and interaction of basic being and value concepts (man-science-culture-art-the style of thinking and objectives — the formation of a personality as a subject of culture. The formation of the subject of culture takes place in a certain social community, among moral rules, customs and
This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming…
Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.
Pieter Lemmens’ neo-Marxist approach to technology urges us to rethink how to do political philosophy of technology. First, Lemmens’ high level of abstraction raises the question of how empirically informed a political theory of technology needs to be. Second, his dialectical focus on a “struggle”
problems of political and social life must in the end be sought in the kind of reflective consideration characteristic of an outward facing philosophy (Almond and Hill, 1991, 6). For quite some time public media have carried unsettling stories of rape, ranging from the rape of minors, the elderly, people with mental disabilities, ...
Within the New Zealand curriculum, hauora has been co-opted as an underlying and interdependent concept at the heart of the learning area of health and physical education. Hauora is identified as a Maori philosophy of well-being, advocating a Maori world view of hauora. Contemporary understandings of hauora as a Maori philosophy of health are…
Political incorporation resulting from voter participation is often a relevant feature of the migration experience. When the legislation of the receiving nations enables the newcomers to get naturalized and grants citizenship to their children born in the adoptive country by means of the jus soli, as is the case of the United States, casting ballots in the elections of the land of their destination usually becomes part of the first and second-generation immigrants’ accommodation into the host...
Full Text Available Richard Rorty is a neo-Pragmatist philosopher. For three decades, he has attacked the traditional philosophy (from Plato to Kant as well as any other epistemology searching for truth or claiming to mirror the nature in his philosophical works. Rorty holds that, according to the history of philosophy in his reading, there is no final answer to the traditional questions concerning knowledge, truth, and representation. These questions, therefore, should be dissolved and denied. He maintains that knowledge is justified belief, justification, however, being not the consequence of some correspondence between the theory or the statement, but the consequence of conversation, social practice, group consensus, and social solidarity. Rorty also thinks that democracy has priority on philosophy, disagreeing with the thesis that philosophy is the foundation of the rest of culture.Despite of usefulness of some elements and implications of Rorty’s metaphilosophy (such as his emphasis on freedom, democracy, and pluralism as well as his insisting on philosophical humility and avoiding scientific pride, it is faced with several problems, including 1 ignoring the referential and realist features of language, 2 confusing interpretation and reality, 3 eliminating the border between objectivity and subjectivity, 4 interfering of public and private life, and 5 ignoring the need of science, culture, technology and, in particular, politics, in philosophy. The authors try to show and analyze some elements of these problems.
Full Text Available Joseph T. O’Connell drew attention to the relative scarcity of academic work on religion in South Asia, and offered as a plausible explanation for this state of affairs the tension between secular and religio‑political communal interests. This paper explores the potential role of philosophy as an established academic discipline within this situation, in the context of India. It argues that objective study, including evaluation, of the truth claims of various religious traditions is an important aspect of academic as opposed to confessional engagement with religion, and that philosophy in India is especially well suited to undertake such reflection and to provide corresponding education. Unlike Western countries, philosophy and religion were never clearly separated in India and did not evolve in tension with one another. The history of Indian philosophy therefore includes and is included within the history of its ‘religions’, in a way that makes philosophical examination of the truth claims of Indian religions internal to those religions themselves. By tracing this history, the discipline of philosophy can help to unsettle the idea of religion as a matter of fixed dogma. It can also continue the procedure of interpreting and evaluating metaphysical and epistemological theses that has been an intrinsic component of Indian religious thought for most of its history.
Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.
Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…
Full Text Available Political ecology is the field where power strategies are deployed to deconstruct the unsustainable modern rationality and to mobilize social actions in the globalised world for the construction of a sustainable future founded on the potentialities of nature and cultural creativity; in emancipatory thinking and political ethics to renew the meaning and sustainability of life. Political ecology roots theoretical deconstruction in the political arena; beyond recognizing cultural diversity, traditional knowledge and indigenous peoples’ rights, radical environmentalism contests the hegemonic unification power of the market as the ineluctable fate of humanity. Political ecology in Latin America is operating a similar procedure as the one achieved by Marx with Hegelian idealism, turning the philosophy of post-modernity (Heidegger, Levinas, Derrida on the grounds of a political ontology: territorializing thinking on being, difference and otherness in an environmental rationality, rooted in an ontology of cultural diversity, a politics of difference and an ethics of otherness. Decolonizing knowledge and legitimizing other knowledges-savoirs-wisdoms liberate alternative ways of understanding reality, nature, human life and social relations opening up different paths to reconstruct human life in the planet.
Alperson, Sunny Yim
This article analyzes the philosophy underpinning Tai Chi practice in light of nursing epistemology. The first half of the article reviews the general characteristics of major Chinese philosophical traditions that have been merged in Tai Chi: Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. In the second half, themes of integration and praxis in Tai Chi are linked with Carper's fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Tai Chi is a practical fusion of humanistic philosophy with an experiential dimension of movement in a nondualistic foundation. The author argues that TC philosophy can be applied to integrated knowledge development and nursing praxis.
The Handbook Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Sciences addresses numerous issues in the emerging field of the philosophy of those sciences that are involved in the technological process of designing, developing and making of new technical artifacts and systems. These issues include the nature of design, of technological knowledge, and of technical artifacts, as well as the toolbox of engineers. Most of these have thus far not been analyzed in general philosophy of science, which has traditionally but inadequately regarded technology as mere applied science and focused on physics, biology, mathematics and the social sciences.
Nistrup Madsen, Bodil; Hjørland, Birger; Brier, Søren
In Denmark, all higher education programs must include a course on philosophy of science. Therefore, a group of researchers at Copenhagen Business School (CBS) are developing a smartphone application where information about central theoretical paradigms and concepts from philosophy of science can...... be visualized and disseminated in an easily accessible and systematic manner. This will be achieved by entering structured knowledge about concepts from philosophy of science in both Danish and English into a terminology and knowledge base which will provide the opportunity to “navigate in conceptual landscapes...
Stepp, Nigel; Chemero, Anthony; Turvey, Michael T
Cognitive science has always included multiple methodologies and theoretical commitments. The philosophy of cognitive science should embrace, or at least acknowledge, this diversity. Bechtel's (2009a) proposed philosophy of cognitive science, however, applies only to representationalist and mechanist cognitive science, ignoring the substantial minority of dynamically oriented cognitive scientists. As an example of nonrepresentational, dynamical cognitive science, we describe strong anticipation as a model for circadian systems (Stepp & Turvey, 2009). We then propose a philosophy of science appropriate to nonrepresentational, dynamical cognitive science. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Full Text Available Given the encroaching, seemingly pernicious backlash against Alain Badiou’s thinking, which appears partly motivated by the bad faith of “philosophical” rivalries, this essay aims to argue in favour of the ongoing and authentically philosophical stakes of Badiou’s ontology. At the same time the essay attempts to highlight the methodological difficulties Badiou encounters in attempting to reconcile an intrinsic ontology as the dominant condition of philosophy, with a philosophy of the event. The essay concludes by speculating on the “unbound”, “unconditioned” potential of this two-headed philosophy.
Özgen, Mehmet Kasım
What is meant by the ‘I’ is the philosophy that places the ‘I’ in the center and has a reflectional view on the ‘I’. This article deals with the differences between the philosophy of the ‘I’ in the West and the philosophy of the ‘Truth’ in the East. The person who approaches to the ‘I’ will also approaches to the ‘Truth’ or vice versa. In the modern point of view, modern ‘I’ is not innate. It is something man made, a result of human intention and decision and something invented. Individuals b...
Full Text Available This paper aims to restore, from the political thought of Merleau-Ponty, the rightful place of conflict. To achieve this hypothetical premise it is necessary to consider some issues that are woven into possible readings of the origin or foundation of politics. First, tracing back to the original cartesian proposition that the body is related with extensive substance invalid when detecting who we are. Then, considering the reading Merleau-Ponty makes of Machiavelli considering the notion of riot or mass under a conflicting structure of politics in relation to the subject. In this regard, it is noted from this reading, the conditions proposed by Merleau-Ponty to highlight the importance of the singular in a politically shared space. And finally, to understand these problem areas of the history of philosophy as their own "world of life" where the contingent has a particular sense understood as the ontological place of the practical subject. Thus, in this context, it is possible to reconcile from Merleau-Ponty in the area of the contingent, body and language; what is felt and thought; perceived and settled. To understand the features of sedimentation helps to the formation of the localized subject; that is, it habituated or instituted.
Rostbøll, Christian F.
An important interpretation of Kant’s Philosophy of Right suggests that we should not regard political-legal institutions as mere means for realizing an independently conceived moral end. Particularly, it holds that the relationship between public Right and freedom is constitutive rather than...... instrumental. The “constitutive interpretation” argues this point mainly in relation to domestic Right and members’ relation to their own state. The latter has resulted in a statist bias in the interpretation of Kant’s notion of Right, which has not adequately dealt with the fact that Kant regards public Right...... of the relationship between Right at all three levels and “freedom in the external relation” of all human beings. This interpretation follows from Kant’s acknowledgement of the fact that global interconnectedness has come so far that people and states affect one another across borders. Kant, however, speaks...
Lening Zhang; Jianhong Liu
The present study introduces and discusses the Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Law of the People's Republic of China. The law was promulgated in the context of Chinese socioeconomic reforms and legal reforms in response to the rising delinquency since the early 1980s. The study explains the social and political background of the law with respect to the patterns of delinquency in China. The law has several main features that reflect the Chinese philosophical underpinnings of crime prevention and control, and the study discusses the connection between the law and the traditional Chinese philosophy and thinking. Finally, the study discusses the challenges to the enforcement of the law in Chinese society, which has lacked a legal tradition in its history.
"Whether or not scientists at the LHC will find the Higgs boson, they will learn something about the secrets of Nature that will greatly advance human understanding". These are the words of Anthony Grayling, Professor of Philosophy at Birkbeck College, University of London, and presenter of the forthcoming BBC series "Exchanges at the Frontier". He visited CERN to prepare for his next interview with Jim Virdee, CMS Spokesperson.Grayling’s interview with Virdee is part of a series of events at Welcome Trust Collection in London: five of the biggest names in the world of science will discuss the social impact of their discoveries. These events will be broadcast to over 40 million people worldwide in December 2009 by the BBC World Service in the framework of the Exchanges at the Frontier series. Grayling has been following the LHC via the media but his tour of the CMS experiment increased his philosophical awareness of the international cooperation that has enabled it be bu...
Ellis, George Francis Rayner
This paper gives an overview of significant issues in the philosophy of cosmology, starting off by emphasizing the uniqueness of the universe and the way models are used in description and explanation. It then considers, basic limits on observations; the need to test alternatives; ways to test consistency; and implications of the uniqueness of the universe as regards distinguishing laws of physics from contingent conditions. It goes on to look at the idea of a multiverse as a scientific explanation of facts about fine-tuning, in particular considering criteria for a scientific theory and for justifying unseen entities. It considers the relation between physical laws and the natures of existence, and emphasizes limits on our knowledge of the physics relevant to the early universe (the physics horizon), and the non-physical nature of some claimed infinities. The final section looks briefly at deeper issues, commenting on the scope of enquiry of cosmological theory and the limits of science in relation to the creation of the universe.
This paper reviews past and present testing philosophies and simulation techniques in the field of structure loading and response studies. The main objective of experimental programmes in the past was to simulate a hypothetical energy release with explosives and to deduce the potential damage to a reactor from the measured damage to the model. This approach was continuously refined by improving the instrumentation of the models, by reproducing the structures as faithful as possible and by developing new explosive charges. This paper presents an analysis of the factors which are expected to have an influence on the validity of the results e.g. strain rate effects and the use of water instead of sodium. More recently the discussion of a whole series of accidents in the probabilistic accident analysis and the intention to compare different reactor designs has revealed the need to develop and validate computer codes. Consequently experimental programmes have been started in which the primary aim is not to test a specific reactor but to validate codes. This paper shows the principal aspects of this approach and discusses first results. (Auth.)
Full Text Available Analytical metaphysics in the 20th century was marked by the predominance of scientifi c reductionism. As a result metaphysics was considered dependent on the natural sciences in its topics and methodology. Conversely, the last two decades introduced new trends, defending the autonomy of metaphysical knowledge, while keeping such an important distinguishing feature of analytical philosophy as orientation on achievements of natural sciences. Hylomorphism is one of these new trends, which might be characterized as 'neo-Aristotelian’. Contemporary Hylomorphism is heterogeneous, has a number of branches, which are united by the idea that all material objects are composed of two basic elements — matter and form. The latter is often understood as a form in the strict sense, as a structure, a constitution or a power. The author considers the main issue faced by all hylomorphic ontologies: if matter and form are independent principles, what then unites them into a single composite? The article pays particular attention to the application of hylomorphic ontologies in solving such important philosophical and theological problems as the problem of the material constitution, mind-body problem, the Trinity. The last aspect deserves special attention. The author analyzes advantages and disadvantages of the proposed hylomorphic solutions. The main advantage is the amazing fl exibility of hylomorphic ontologies — they allow philosophers to introduce easily new principles, thus adopting to various problems solving. The disadvantages come directly from the main advantage and consist in weak reconcilement of those new principles with each other.
Full Text Available Modern society is changing under the influence of IT technologies, more and more we talk about 'digital revolution', and political and economic developments are shaped by computer networks. Undeniably, the Internet has opened new possibilities for socio-political expansion, networking and mobilization. Besides the political establishment, many social movements found their chance in cyberspace recognizing the IT technology as a platform for the development and improvement of their internal and external communication. In this article we will focus on the Pirate Party, movement that has been seriously growing on the European political stage for last several years. Following the example of German Pirate Party we will try to explain the characteristics of the movement, its goals and communication strategies, and political dilemmas which it brings.
Savić Mile V.
Full Text Available The article examines the implications of the discourse about postmodernity. Postmodernity is analyzed as a complex discursive figure. Within the discourse about postmodernity three levels are distinguished: the postmodern condition, postmodernism, and reflection of the postmodern condition. Special attention is paid to globalization and the problem of the enforcement of modern projects in East-European societies, particularly Serbia. These societies are termed object-societies, while their modification of modernity is called eastmodernity. The author's answer to the complexity of the postmodern condition is a conception of the politics of subsistence.
As discourses of globalisation and the knowledge-based economy become increasingly influential in both policy-making and in public debates about education, employability and national competitiveness--the choice of language in the classroom takes on a strategic importance. The paper employs a critical realist Cultural Political Economy lens to…
Full Text Available True dreams that explicitly or symbolically reveal the events of the past and the future, in the ontological sense tell more than just about the content of a dream because they bespeak the supratemporal dimension of human beings and represent man's ability to connect to different worlds, and respectively multitudinous forms and levels of being. In this paper, without going into the psychological or physiological analysis of dreams, we try to clarify the ontological significance and position of true dreams in existing worlds. In Islamic philosophy, the underlying cognitive basis for the description of the ontological level of true dreams was established by the founder of Illuminative Philosophy, Shaykh al-Ishraq (1155-1191, and it was expanded by the founder of Transcendental Philosophy, Mulla Sadra Shirazi (1572-1640. Shaykh al-Ishraq explained in detail existential position of supramaterial beings that on the one hand are above the world of matter and in a direct active contact with it, and on the other hand, are under the dominant world of intellect. He called these creatures Midworld (Barzakh and, for the first time in Islamic philosophy, stated that it is a separate world of imagination that is different from the material and intelligible one. True dreams are one of the many indications that man has a supratemporal dimension that exposes supramaterial and temporally unlimited worlds to him. Apart from true dreams, most important signs of supramaterial worlds in human life are the prophetic revelation, as well as revelations and mystical-gnostic intuition. Unlike the last two examples, true dreams are known and accessible to all people, both from their immediate experience and from the stories of the ones close to them. For this reason, in this paper we explain how true dreams represent a blend of worlds in human life.
Malihe Aboie Mehrizi
Full Text Available The article deals with the examination of method of hypothesis in Plato's philosophy. This method, respectively, will be examined in three dialogues of Meno, Phaedon and Republic in which it is explicitly indicated. It will be shown the process of change of Plato’s attitude towards the position and usage of the method of hypothesis in his realm of philosophy. In Meno, considering the geometry, Plato attempts to introduce a method that can be used in the realm of philosophy. But, ultimately in Republic, Plato’s special attention to the method and its importance in the philosophical investigations, leads him to revise it. Here, finally Plato introduces the particular method of philosophy, i.e., the dialectic
In this paper, I present and discuss critically the main elements of Mario Bunge's philosophy of mathematics. In particular, I explore how mathematical knowledge is accounted for in Bunge's systemic emergent materialism.
Compares and contrasts contemporary philosophies of education in Africa with two philosophical doctrines (naturalism and idealism). Topics discussed include value selectors, westernization, the role of missionaries in African education, critical consciousness, relevance, and African education today. (DB)
Full Text Available This volume contains the papers presented at the Philosophy and History of Talmudic Logic Affiliated Workshop of Krakow Conference on History of Logic (KHL2016, held on October 27, 2016, in Krakow, Poland.
Full Text Available I try to show that Richard Rorty, although is not a moral philosopher like Kant, nerveless, has moral philosophy that must be taken seriously. Rorty was not engaged with moral philosophy in the systematic manner common among leading modern and contemporary moral philosophers. This paper has two parts: first part, in brief, is concerned with principles of his philosophy such as anti-essentialism, Darwinism, Freudism, and historicism. Second part which be long and detailed, considers many moral themes in Rorty's thought such as critique of Kantian morality, solidarity, moral progress, cruelty and concept of other, etc. Subsequently, I will try to answer the research question of the article namely, has Rorty a moral philosophy?
Full Text Available The author argues that love should play a central role in philosophy (and ethics. In the past, philosophical practice has been too narrowly defined by theory and explanation. Although unquestionably important, they do not belong to the very core of our philosophizing. Philosophy is primarily a way of life, centered on the soul and the development of our humanity – in its most diverse aspects and to its utmost potential. For such a life to be possible, love must play a central role in philosophy and philosophy should be understood not in the traditional sense as “the love of wisdom,” but in a new way – as the wisdom of love.
Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae
King Jungjo who introduced the advent of cultural renaissance of Chosun Dynasty as little been known about his work in medicine. With a wide knowledge in medicine, he was the only one among the kings who wrote a book on medicine, called "SueMinMyoJeon". In this paper, his perspective on medicine will be looked into based on "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty", "Seungjeongwon Ilgi", "Hong Je jun Se", "KukGoBoGam", "Ildkrok", "JeJungShinPyun", "SueMinMyoJeon" etc. King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine. He deepened understandings in medicine while taking care of King Youngjo, the late king. And it led him to author "SueMinMyoJeon" himself, and further ordered the publications of "JeJungShinPyun" "MaGuaHeoiTong". These two books were conducted to include empirical cases of folklore remedy. King Jungjo's medical philosophy can be epitomized in filial piety and realization of people-serving politics, which are the essentials of Confucianism. His filial piety towards the late king, Youngjo and his mother is shown in his devotion when taking care of them. Especially the way he examined the differentiation of diseases and corresponding treatments is well described in "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty". "JeJungShinPyun" was also published and it came handy for folk villagers in times of medical needs. Later this book influenced "BangYakHaepPyun" by Hwang Do Yeon. King Jungjo emphasized pragmatism in spreading medical knowledges, thus removing the theoretical contents that are related to Taoism, especially the ones on alchemy from "DongEuiBoGam", when publishing "SueMinMyoJeon". Even the excerpts from "SoMun" were taken out, if not practical. King Jungjo, however, discussed the importance of healthy regimen and mentioned himself practicing it from the book "IlDeukLok", which seems to be the only book that derailed from the pragmatistic track. King Jungjo put emphasis on consistency between diagnosis and treatment. In diagnosing, Meridian pulse was taken
Greer, Scott L; Bekker, Marleen; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Wismar, Matthias; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Ribeiro, Sofia; Stuckler, David
If public health is the field that diagnoses and strives to cure social ills, then understanding political causes and cures for health problems should be an intrinsic part of the field. In this article, we argue that there is no support for the simple and common, implicit model of politics in which scientific evidence plus political will produces healthy policies. Efforts to improve the translation of evidence into policy such as knowledge transfer work only under certain circumstances. These circumstances are frequently political, and to be understood through systematic inquiry into basic features of the political economy such as institutions, partisanship and the organization of labour markets. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Hopmann, David Nicolas; Van Aelst, Peter; Salgado, Susana
Before every election campaign, the French Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (CSA) publishes detailed rules on how much news coverage candidates are allowed to have vis-à-vis one another in the electronic media to ensure what it calls pluralisme politique (e.g., CSA 2011). Also outside election...... and control news coverage (mainly public broadcasters) or have informal rules that determine news coverage of politics (Hopmann, Van Aelst, and Legnante 2012; Kaid and Strömbäck 2008)....
Iranian political strategy wants to be presented as a political break, with a Pan-Islamic vocation. Brought about by Ayatollah Khomeyni, this political philosophy has produced the intended effects, as seen with the return of more moderate policies. Khomeyni's death confronted the Islamic Republic with a choice: Hachemi Rasfandjani put Iran back into the international scene by conciliating pragmatism with ideological values. In 2005, M. Ahmadinejad came to power. His declarations concerning the Hebrew State and his position on nuclear weapons pose the question as to whether or not Iran is reverting to an export policy of revolution. It is important to place these elements in the historical context of the Islamic Republic so as to see if Iranian foreign policy is again taking an ideological turn or if it is continuing down the lane of pragmatism
Kidd, Ian James
The purpose of this paper is to offer a sympathetic reconstruction of the political thought of Paul Feyerabend. Using a critical discussion of the idea of the 'free society' it is suggested that his political thought is best understood in terms of three thematic concerns-liberation, hegemony, and the authority of science-and that the political significance of those claims become clear when they are considered in the context of his educational views. It emerges that Feyerabend is best understood as calling for the grounding of cognitive and cultural authorities-like the sciences-in informed deliberation, rather than the uncritical embrace of prevailing convictions. It therefore emerges that a free society is best understood as one of epistemically responsible citizenship rather than epistemically anarchistic relativism of the 'anything goes' sort-a striking anticipation of current debates about philosophy of science in society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simón Gallegos Gabilondo
Full Text Available Anquetil-Duperron was one of the main critics of Montesquieu’s concept of despotism, a tenacious opponent of eurocentrism and an unconventional exponent of anticolonial thought in the Enlightenment. He questioned the philosophical use of travel literature and also denounced that philosophy can be an instrument of conquest, grounding colonization’s image of the world. This article focuses on the original relationship that his works disclosed between colonialism and philosophy.
Can we make machines that think and act like humans or other natural intelligent agents? The answer to this question depends on how we see ourselves and how we see the machines in question. Classical AI and cognitive science had claimed that cognition is computation, and can thus be reproduced on other computing machines, possibly surpassing the abilities of human intelligence. This consensus has now come under threat and the agenda for the philosophy and theory of AI must be set anew, re-defining the relation between AI and Cognitive Science. We can re-claim the original vision of general AI from the technical AI disciplines; we can reject classical cognitive science and replace it with a new theory (e.g. embodied); or we can try to find new ways to approach AI, for example from neuroscience or from systems theory. To do this, we must go back to the basic questions on computing, cognition and ethics for AI. The 30 papers in this volume provide cutting-edge work from leading researchers that define where we s...
Full Text Available Recent accounting history is characterised by many developments, including several high-profile corporate failures, such as Enron, Parmalat and even Saambou, as well as major developments in financial reporting standards, such as the broadbased acceptance of international financial reporting standards and the convergence efforts between the UK-based International Accounting Standards Board and the US-based Financial Accounting Standards Board. As a result, long-accepted accounting assumptions are being challenged in favour of new principles and practices. Furthermore, in academic circles the scientific foundation of accounting is being questioned. At many universities, limited education is taking place in the underlying theory and philosophy of accounting in favour of teaching prospective accountants how to pass difficult professional exams. Seen against this backdrop, a reconsideration of the objectives and purpose of accountancy may be overdue. This article attempts to illuminate the intrinsic assumptions and objectives of accountancy, seen in the light of modern-day accounting issues and developments.