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Sample records for underlying parent-of-origin effects

  1. A powerful parent-of-origin effects test for qualitative traits on X chromosome in general pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qi-Lei; You, Xiao-Ping; Li, Jian-Long; Fung, Wing Kam; Zhou, Ji-Yuan

    2018-01-05

    Genomic imprinting is one of the well-known epigenetic factors causing the association between traits and genes, and has generally been examined by detecting parent-of-origin effects of alleles. A lot of methods have been proposed to test for parent-of-origin effects on autosomes based on nuclear families and general pedigrees. Although these parent-of-origin effects tests on autosomes have been available for more than 15 years, there has been no statistical test developed to test for parent-of-origin effects on X chromosome, until the parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XPAT) and its extensions were recently proposed. However, these methods on X chromosome are only applicable to nuclear families and thus are not suitable for general pedigrees. In this article, we propose the pedigree parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XPPAT) statistic to test for parent-of-origin effects in the presence of association, which can accommodate general pedigrees. When there are missing genotypes in some pedigrees, we further develop the Monte Carlo pedigree parental-asymmetry test on X chromosome (XMCPPAT) to test for parent-of-origin effects, by inferring the missing genotypes given the observed genotypes based on a Monte Carlo estimation. An extensive simulation study has been carried out to investigate the type I error rates and the powers of the proposed tests. Our simulation results show that the proposed methods control the size well under the null hypothesis of no parent-of-origin effects. Moreover, XMCPPAT substantially outperforms the existing tests and has a much higher power than XPPAT which only uses complete nuclear families (with both parents) from pedigrees. We also apply the proposed methods to analyze rheumatoid arthritis data for their practical use. The proposed XPPAT and XMCPPAT test statistics are valid and powerful in detecting parent-of-origin effects on X chromosome for qualitative traits based on general pedigrees and thus are recommended.

  2. Detection of parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For a diallelic marker locus in human, the parental-asymmetry tests Q-PAT() with any constant were developed to detect parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits. However, these methods can only be applied to deal with nuclear families and thus are not suitable for extended pedigrees. In this study, by making no ...

  3. Detection of parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China. Abstract ... asymmetry tests Q-PPAT(c) with any constant c for quantitative traits to test for parent-of-origin effects based on nuclear families with ... genomic imprinting is related to human genetic diseases.

  4. Detection of parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. Detection of parent-of-origin effects for quantitative traits using general pedigree data. HAI-QIANG HE1, WEI-GAO MAO1, ... complex diseases such as autism, diabetes, hereditary. ∗For correspondence. E-mail: zhoujiyuan@gmail.com. paragangliomas, intrauterine growth retardation, neural tube.

  5. Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Hepatocarcinogenesis with Parent-of-Origin Effects in A×B Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hines, Ian N.; Hartwell, Hadley J.; Feng, Yan; Theve, Elizabeth J.; Hall, Gregory A.; Hashway, Sara; Connolly, Jessica; Fecteau, Michelle; Fox, James G.; Rogers, Arlin B.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a defining feature of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus but also may occur independently of these conditions. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of these disorders, increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, mechanisms linking hyperinsulinemia to NAFLD and HCC require clarification. We describe a novel model of primary insulin resistance and HCC with strong parent-of-origin effects. Male AB6F1 (A/JCr dam ...

  6. Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Min; Murray, Jeff; Marazita, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin (POO) effects on risk of orofacial clefting (OC) using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test...

  7. Parent-of-Origin Effects in ADHD: Distinct Influences of Paternal and Maternal ADHD on Neuropsychological Functioning in Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, A.J.A.M.; Rommelse, N.N.J.; Altink, M.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; Buitelaar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined parent-of-origin effects in transmission of ADHD and neuropsychological functioning. Proof of these effects can identify more etiologically homogeneous ADHD subgroups and facilitate genetic studies. Method: The authors included 238 ADHD and 147 control families. ADHD

  8. Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Min; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L; Munger, Ronald G; Ruczinski, Ingo; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Wu, Tao; Murray, Tanda; Redett, Richard J; Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Wu-Chou, Yah Huei; Chen, Philip K; Wang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin effects on risk of orofacial clefting using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a p-value

  9. Parent-of-origin Effect in Schizophrenia and Non-affective Psychoses: Evidence from Dermatoglyphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaran, Anjith; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C.; Kalmadi, Sunil V.; Narayan, Vidya; Rao, Naren P.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aims at examining “parent-of-origin effect” (POE) in dermatoglyphic patterns among patients with schizophrenia and non-affective psychoses. Materials and Methods: Dermatoglyphic comparison was carried out for schizophrenia patients (n=200) and healthy controls (HC) (n=100). In addition, the effect of family history and POE was examined in the dermatoglyphic pattern. Results: Schizophrenia patients compared to HC had significantly lower left total finger ridge count (LTFRC) (t=3.63, P<0.001), right total finger ridge count (RTFRC) (t=4.86, P<0.001), and absolute finger ridge count (ATFRC) (t=4.80, P<0.001) compared to HC. It was also noted that patient group had significantly higher average number of arches (t=2.20, P=0.03). The comparison between the same sex POE group and the opposite sex POE group revealed that significant differences exist in LTFRC (t=2.91, P<0.01) and ATFRC (t=2.30, P=0.02). The same sex group also had lesser number of whorls compared to opposite sex group (t=2.04, P=0.04). Conclusions: The same sex parental inheritance group seem to be more developmentally compromised than the opposite sex parental inheritance group indicating a significant POE. Complex epigenetic mechanisms along with hormonal modulation could explain the sex specific disease phenotype expression, which is a plausible explanation as in the present study. PMID:24249928

  10. Parent of origin effect and differential allelic expression of BDNF Val66Met in suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, Vincenzo; Souza, Renan P; Zai, Clement C; Panariello, Fabio; Javaid, Naima; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James L; Tallerico, Teresa; Wong, Albert H

    2011-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and may also be involved in suicidal behaviour since BDNF levels are decreased in brain and plasma of suicide victims. Because the differential allelic expression of Val66Met BDNF gene on suicidal behaviour has not been investigated, we analyzed the parent-of-origin effect (POE) in suicide attempters and the differential expression of BDNF Val66Met alleles in suicide victims. We performed a family-based association study and ETDT analyses of the Val66Met polymorphism in nuclear families with at least one subject affected by major psychosis with suicidal behaviour, and compared allele-specific mRNA levels in post-mortem brain samples from suicide and non-suicide victims. The subjects included in this study have diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I and type II. Allele 3 in the GT repeat polymorphism was transmitted significantly more often to patients who attempted suicide (maternal transmissions: 46/22, P = 0.003; paternal transmissions: 55/30, P = 0.006). There was no significant difference between maternal and paternal transmission ratios. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the ratio of Val/Met-specific mRNA expression between suicide victims and controls. These data do not support a role for allelic imbalance or POE of BDNF for suicidal behaviour in major psychoses.

  11. An efficient study design to test parent-of-origin effects in family trios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaobo; Chen, Gao; Feng, Rui

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that genes may cause prenatal, neonatal, and pediatric diseases depending on their parental origins. Statistical models that incorporate parent-of-origin effects (POEs) can improve the power of detecting disease-associated genes and help explain the missing heritability of diseases. In many studies, children have been sequenced for genome-wide association testing. But it may become unaffordable to sequence their parents and evaluate POEs. Motivated by the reality, we proposed a budget-friendly study design of sequencing children and only genotyping their parents through single nucleotide polymorphism array. We developed a powerful likelihood-based method, which takes into account both sequence reads and linkage disequilibrium to infer the parental origins of children's alleles and estimate their POEs on the outcome. We evaluated the performance of our proposed method and compared it with an existing method using only genotypes, through extensive simulations. Our method showed higher power than the genotype-based method. When either the mean read depth or the pair-end length was reasonably large, our method achieved ideal power. When single parents' genotypes were unavailable or parental genotypes at the testing locus were not typed, both methods lost power compared with when complete data were available; but the power loss from our method was smaller than the genotype-based method. We also extended our method to accommodate mixed genotype, low-, and high-coverage sequence data from children and their parents. At presence of sequence errors, low-coverage parental sequence data may lead to lower power than parental genotype data. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  12. Genome wide study of maternal and parent-of-origin effects on the etiology of orofacial clefts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L; Munger, Ronald G; Ruczinski, Ingo; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B; Wu, Tao; Murray, Tanda; Redett, Richard J; Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Wu-Chou, Yah Huei; Chen, Philip K; Wang, Hong; Ye, Xiaoqian; Yeow, Vincent; Chong, Samuel S; Shi, Bing; Christensen, Kaare; Scott, Alan F; Patel, Poorav; Cheah, Felicia; Beaty, Terri H

    2013-01-01

    We performed a genome wide association analysis of maternally-mediated genetic effects and parent-of-origin effects on risk of orofacial clefting using over 2,000 case-parent triads collected through an international cleft consortium. We used log-linear regression models to test individual SNPs. For SNPs with a p-value <10−5 for maternal genotypic effects, we also applied a haplotype-based method, TRIMM, to extract potential information from clusters of correlated SNPs. None of the SNPs were significant at the genome wide level. Our results suggest neither maternal genome nor parent of origin effects play major roles in the etiology of orofacial clefting in our sample. This finding is consistent with previous genetic studies and recent population-based cohort studies in Norway and Denmark, which showed no apparent difference between mother-to-offspring and father-to-offspring recurrence of clefting. We, however, cannot completely rule out maternal genome or parent of origin effects as risk factors because very small effects might not be detectable with our sample size, they may influence risk through interactions with environmental exposures or may act through a more complex network of interacting genes. Thus the most promising SNPs identified by this study may still be worth further investigation. PMID:22419666

  13. Genetic loci with parent-of-origin effects cause hybrid seed lethality in crosses between Mimulus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Austin G; Kenney, Amanda M; Fishman, Lila; Sweigart, Andrea L

    2016-07-01

    In flowering plants, F1 hybrid seed lethality is a common outcome of crosses between closely related diploid species, but the genetic basis of this early-acting and potentially widespread form of postzygotic reproductive isolation is largely unknown. We intercrossed two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus tilingii, to characterize the mechanisms and strength of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Then, using a reciprocal backcross design, we performed high-resolution genetic mapping to determine the genetic architecture of hybrid seed lethality and directly test for loci with parent-of-origin effects. We found that F1 hybrid seed lethality is an exceptionally strong isolating barrier between Mimulus species, with reciprocal crosses producing species. It is also primarily caused by genetic loci with parent-of-origin effects, suggesting a possible role for imprinted genes in the evolution of Mimulus hybrid seed lethality. Our findings suggest that divergence in loci with parent-of-origin effects, which is probably driven by genomic coevolution within lineages, might be an important source of hybrid incompatibilities between flowering plant species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. A statistical model for estimating maternal-zygotic interactions and parent-of-origin effects of QTLs for seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Li

    Full Text Available Proper development of a seed requires coordinated exchanges of signals among the three components that develop side by side in the seed. One of these is the maternal integument that encloses the other two zygotic components, i.e., the diploid embryo and its nurturing annex, the triploid endosperm. Although the formation of the embryo and endosperm contains the contributions of both maternal and paternal parents, maternally and paternally derived alleles may be expressed differently, leading to a so-called parent-of-origin or imprinting effect. Currently, the nature of how genes from the maternal and zygotic genomes interact to affect seed development remains largely unknown. Here, we present a novel statistical model for estimating the main and interaction effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs that are derived from different genomes and further testing the imprinting effects of these QTLs on seed development. The experimental design used is based on reciprocal backcrosses toward both parents, so that the inheritance of parent-specific alleles could be traced. The computing model and algorithm were implemented with the maximum likelihood approach. The new strategy presented was applied to study the mode of inheritance for QTLs that control endoreduplication traits in maize endosperm. Monte Carlo simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical properties of the new model with the data simulated under different imprinting degrees. The false positive rate of imprinting QTL discovery by the model was examined by analyzing the simulated data that contain no imprinting QTL. The reciprocal design and a series of analytical and testing strategies proposed provide a standard procedure for genomic mapping of QTLs involved in the genetic control of complex seed development traits in flowering plants.

  15. Parent-of-origin effects in autism identified through genome-wide linkage analysis of 16,000 SNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Fradin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a common heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with complex etiology. Several genome-wide linkage and association scans have been carried out to identify regions harboring genes related to autism or autism spectrum disorders, with mixed results. Given the overlap in autism features with genetic abnormalities known to be associated with imprinting, one possible reason for lack of consistency would be the influence of parent-of-origin effects that may mask the ability to detect linkage and association.We have performed a genome-wide linkage scan that accounts for potential parent-of-origin effects using 16,311 SNPs among families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH autism repository. We report parametric (GH, Genehunter and allele-sharing linkage (Aspex results using a broad spectrum disorder case definition. Paternal-origin genome-wide statistically significant linkage was observed on chromosomes 4 (LOD(GH = 3.79, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex = 2.96, p = 0.008, 15 (LOD(GH = 3.09, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex = 3.62, empirical p = 0.003 and 20 (LOD(GH = 3.36, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex = 3.38, empirical p = 0.006.These regions may harbor imprinted sites associated with the development of autism and offer fruitful domains for molecular investigation into the role of epigenetic mechanisms in autism.

  16. Parent-of-origin effects in autism identified through genome-wide linkage analysis of 16,000 SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin, Delphine; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Newschaffer, Craig; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Arking, Dan E; Feinberg, Andrew; Fallin, M Daniele

    2010-09-02

    Autism is a common heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with complex etiology. Several genome-wide linkage and association scans have been carried out to identify regions harboring genes related to autism or autism spectrum disorders, with mixed results. Given the overlap in autism features with genetic abnormalities known to be associated with imprinting, one possible reason for lack of consistency would be the influence of parent-of-origin effects that may mask the ability to detect linkage and association. We have performed a genome-wide linkage scan that accounts for potential parent-of-origin effects using 16,311 SNPs among families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) autism repository. We report parametric (GH, Genehunter) and allele-sharing linkage (Aspex) results using a broad spectrum disorder case definition. Paternal-origin genome-wide statistically significant linkage was observed on chromosomes 4 (LOD(GH) = 3.79, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex) = 2.96, p = 0.008), 15 (LOD(GH) = 3.09, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex) = 3.62, empirical p = 0.003) and 20 (LOD(GH) = 3.36, empirical p<0.005 and LOD(Aspex) = 3.38, empirical p = 0.006). These regions may harbor imprinted sites associated with the development of autism and offer fruitful domains for molecular investigation into the role of epigenetic mechanisms in autism.

  17. Novel Approach Identifies SNPs in SLC2A10 and KCNK9 with Evidence for Parent-of-Origin Effect on Body Mass Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoggart, Clive J.; Venturini, Giulia; Mangino, Massimo; Gomez, Felicia; Ascari, Giulia; Zhao, Jing Hua; Teumer, Alexander; Winkler, Thomas W.; Tšernikova, Natalia; Luan, Jian'an; Mihailov, Evelin; Ehret, Georg B.; Zhang, Weihua; Lamparter, David; Esko, Tõnu; Macé, Aurelien; Rüeger, Sina; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Barcella, Matteo; Dauvilliers, Yves; Benyamin, Beben; Evans, David M.; Hayward, Caroline; Lopez, Mary F.; Franke, Lude; Russo, Alessia; Heid, Iris M.; Salvi, Erika; Vendantam, Sailaja; Arking, Dan E.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chambers, John C.; Fiorito, Giovanni; Grallert, Harald; Guarrera, Simonetta; Homuth, Georg; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Porteous, David; Moradpour, Darius; Iranzo, Alex; Hebebrand, Johannes; Kemp, John P.; Lammers, Gert J.; Aubert, Vincent; Heim, Markus H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Santamaria, Joan; Negro, Francesco; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Scott, Robert A.; Spector, Tim D.; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Yuan, Wei; Bell, Jordana T.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Peters, Annette; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wallaschofski, Henri; Whitfield, John B.; Paccaud, Fred; Vollenweider, Peter; Bergmann, Sven; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Tafti, Mehdi; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Cusi, Daniele; Bochud, Murielle; Frayling, Timothy M.; Metspalu, Andres; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Scherag, André; Smith, George Davey; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Rousson, Valentin; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Rivolta, Carlo; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Kutalik, Zoltán; de Bakker, P.; Bültmann, U.; Geleijnse, M.; Harst, P. v d; Koppelman, G.; Rosmalen, J. G. M.; van Rossum, L.; Smidt, H.; Swertz, M. A.; Stolk, R. P.; Alizadeh, B.; de Boer, R.; Boezen, H. M.; Bruinenberg, M.; Franke, L.; van der Harst, P.; Hillege, H.; van der Klauw, M.; Navis, G.; Ormel, J.; Postma, D.; Rosmalen, J.; Slaets, J.; Snieder, H.; Stolk, R.; Wolffenbuttel, B.; Wijmenga, C.; Berg, Jonathan; Blackwood, Douglas; Campbell, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Connell, John; Connor, Mike; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Deary, Ian; Dominiczak, Anna; Ellis, Paul; FitzPatrick, Bridie; Ford, Ian; Gertz, Rena; Grau, Antonio; Haddow, Gill; Jackson, Cathy; Kerr, Shona; Lindsay, Robbie; McGilchrist, Mark; McIntyre, Donald; Morris, Andrew; Morton, Robin; Muir, Walter; Murray, Graeme; Palmer, Colin; Pell, Jill; Philp, Alastair; Porteous, Mary; Procter, Rob; Ralston, Stuart; Reid, David; Sinnott, Richard; Smith, Blair; Clair, David St; Sullivan, Frank; Sweetland, Mary; Ure, Jenny; Watt, Graham; Wolf, Roland; Wright, Alan; Berndt, Sonja I.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Mägi, Reedik; Ganna, Andrea; Wheeler, Eleanor; Feitosa, Mary F.; Justice, Anne E.; Monda, Keri L.; Croteau- Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gentilini, Davide; Jackson, Anne U.; Randall, Joshua C.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Willer, Cristen J.; Wood, Andrew R.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Hu, Yi-Juan; Lee, Sang Hong; Liang, Liming; Lin, Dan-Yu; Min, Josine L.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Yang, Jian; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Cadby, Gemma; den Heijer, Martin; Eklund, Niina; Fischer, Krista; Goel, Anuj; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jarick, Ivonne; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E.; König, Inke R.; Kristiansson, Kati; Lamina, Claudia; Lecoeur, Cecile; Li, Guo; McArdle, Wendy L.; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Ngwa, Julius S.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Perola, Markus; Peters, Marjolein J.; Preuss, Michael; Rose, Lynda M.; Shi, Jianxin; Shungin, Dmitry; Smith, Albert Vernon; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Trip, Mieke D.; Tyrer, Jonathan; van Vliet- Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Waite, Lindsay L.; Absher, Devin; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Atalay, Mustafa; Attwood, Antony P.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Basart, Hanneke; Beilby, John; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Brambilla, Paolo; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chines, Peter S.; Collins, Francis S.; Connell, John M.; Cookson, William; de Faire, Ulf; de Vegt, Femmie; dei, Mariano; Dimitriou, Maria; Edkins, Sarah; Estrada, Karol; Farrall, Martin; Ferrario, Marco M.; Ferrières, Jean; Frau, Francesca; Gejman, Pablo V.; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Alistair S.; Hall, Per; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hu, Frank B.; Hunt, Sarah E.; Hyppönen, Elina; Iribarren, Carlos; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jansson, John-Olov; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kivimaki, Mika; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laitinen, Jaana H.; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J.; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Liu, Jianjun; Liuzzi, Antonio; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lorentzon, Mattias; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Manunta, Paolo; Marek, Diana; März, Winfried; Mateo Leach, Irene; McKnight, Barbara; Medland, Sarah E.; Milani, Lili; Mooser, Vincent; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Musk, Arthur W.; Narisu, Narisu; Navis, Gerjan; Nicholson, George; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ong, Ken K.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Palotie, Aarno; Peden, John F.; Pedersen, Nancy; Polasek, Ozren; Pouta, Anneli; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Prokopenko, Inga; Pütter, Carolin; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Raitakari, Olli; Rendon, Augusto; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Saaristo, Timo E.; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanna, Serena; Saramies, Jouko; Schipf, Sabine; Schreiber, Stefan; Schunkert, Heribert; Shin, So-Youn; Signorini, Stefano; Sinisalo, Juha; Skrobek, Boris; Soranzo, Nicole; Stancakova, Alena; Stark, Klaus; Stephens, Jonathan C.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stolk, Ronald P.; Stumvoll, Michael; Swift, Amy J.; Theodoraki, Eirini V.; Thorand, Barbara; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Tremoli, Elena; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Viikari, Jorma; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vitart, Veronique; Waeber, Gérard; Wang, Zhaoming; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Amouyel, Philippe; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dedoussis, George V.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Franks, Paul W.; Froguel, Philippe; Gieger, Christian; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hinney, Anke; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hveem, Kristian; Illig, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Lehtimäki, Terho; Levinson, Douglas F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Njølstad, Inger; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda; Power, Chris; Province, Michael A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Qi, Lu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Ridker, Paul M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Spector, Timothy D.; Stefansson, Kari; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Wilson, James F.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Ines; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunian, Talin; Hunter, David; Kaplan, Robert C.; Karpe, Fredrik; Moffatt, Miriam; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Pawitan, Yudi; Schadt, Eric E.; Schlessinger, David; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Strachan, David P.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Meyre, David; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Ingelsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic effect of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) depends on their parental origin. We present a novel approach to detect parent-of-origin effects (POEs) in genome-wide genotype data of unrelated individuals. The method exploits increased phenotypic variance in the heterozygous

  18. A Role for CHH Methylation in the Parent-of-Origin Effect on Altered Circadian Rhythms and Biomass Heterosis in Arabidopsis Intraspecific Hybrids[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Danny W.-K.; Miller, Marisa; Yu, Helen H.; Huang, Tien-Yu; Kim, Eun-Deok; Lu, Jie; Xie, Qiguang; McClung, C. Robertson; Chen, Z. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid plants and animals often show increased levels of growth and fitness, a phenomenon known as hybrid vigor or heterosis. Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and metabolism in plants and animals. In plant hybrids and polyploids, expression changes of the genes within the circadian regulatory network, such as CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), lead to heterosis. However, the relationship between allelic CCA1 expression and heterosis has remained elusive. Here, we show a parent-of-origin effect on altered circadian rhythms and heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 hybrids. This parent-of-origin effect on biomass heterosis correlates with altered CCA1 expression amplitudes, which are associated with methylation levels of CHH (where H = A, T, or C) sites in the promoter region. The direction of rhythmic expression and hybrid vigor is reversed in reciprocal F1 crosses involving mutants that are defective in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway (argonaute4 and nuclear RNA polymerase D1a) but not in the maintenance methylation pathway (methyltransferase1 and decrease in DNA methylation1). This parent-of-origin effect on circadian regulation and heterosis is established during early embryogenesis and maintained throughout growth and development. PMID:24894042

  19. A Role for CHH Methylation in the Parent-of-Origin Effect on Altered Circadian Rhythms and Biomass Heterosis in Arabidopsis Intraspecific Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Danny W-K; Miller, Marisa; Yu, Helen H; Huang, Tien-Yu; Kim, Eun-Deok; Lu, Jie; Xie, Qiguang; McClung, C Robertson; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    Hybrid plants and animals often show increased levels of growth and fitness, a phenomenon known as hybrid vigor or heterosis. Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and metabolism in plants and animals. In plant hybrids and polyploids, expression changes of the genes within the circadian regulatory network, such as CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), lead to heterosis. However, the relationship between allelic CCA1 expression and heterosis has remained elusive. Here, we show a parent-of-origin effect on altered circadian rhythms and heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 hybrids. This parent-of-origin effect on biomass heterosis correlates with altered CCA1 expression amplitudes, which are associated with methylation levels of CHH (where H = A, T, or C) sites in the promoter region. The direction of rhythmic expression and hybrid vigor is reversed in reciprocal F1 crosses involving mutants that are defective in the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway (argonaute4 and nuclear RNA polymerase D1a) but not in the maintenance methylation pathway (methyltransferase1 and decrease in DNA methylation1). This parent-of-origin effect on circadian regulation and heterosis is established during early embryogenesis and maintained throughout growth and development. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Preliminary Evidence for Aortopathy and an X-Linked Parent-of-Origin Effect on Aortic Valve Malformation in a Mouse Model of Turner Syndrome

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    Robert B. Hinton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome (TS, most frequently caused by X-monosomy (45,X, is characterized in part by cardiovascular abnormalities, including aortopathy and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV. There is a need for animal models that recapitulate the cardiovascular manifestations of TS. Extracellular matrix (ECM organization and morphometrics of the aortic valve and proximal aorta were examined in adult 39,XO mice (where the parental origin of the single X was paternal (39,XPO or maternal (39,XMO and 40,XX controls. Aortic valve morphology was normal (tricuspid in all of the 39,XPO and 40,XX mice studied, but abnormal (bicuspid or quadricuspid in 15% of 39,XMO mice. Smooth muscle cell orientation in the ascending aorta was abnormal in all 39,XPO and 39,XMO mice examined, but smooth muscle actin was decreased in 39,XMO mice only. Aortic dilation was present with reduced penetrance in 39,XO mice. The 39,XO mouse demonstrates aortopathy and an X-linked parent-of-origin effect on aortic valve malformation, and the candidate gene FAM9B is polymorphically expressed in control and diseased human aortic valves. The 39,XO mouse model may be valuable for examining the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular findings in TS, and suggest there are important genetic modifiers on the X chromosome that modulate risk for nonsyndromic BAV and aortopathy.

  1. A Generalized Linear Model for Decomposing Cis-regulatory, Parent-of-Origin, and Maternal Effects on Allele-Specific Gene Expression

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    Yasuaki Takada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Joint quantification of genetic and epigenetic effects on gene expression is important for understanding the establishment of complex gene regulation systems in living organisms. In particular, genomic imprinting and maternal effects play important roles in the developmental process of mammals and flowering plants. However, the influence of these effects on gene expression are difficult to quantify because they act simultaneously with cis-regulatory mutations. Here we propose a simple method to decompose cis-regulatory (i.e., allelic genotype, genomic imprinting [i.e., parent-of-origin (PO], and maternal [i.e., maternal genotype (MG] effects on allele-specific gene expression using RNA-seq data obtained from reciprocal crosses. We evaluated the efficiency of method using a simulated dataset and applied the method to whole-body Drosophila and mouse trophoblast stem cell (TSC and liver RNA-seq data. Consistent with previous studies, we found little evidence of PO and MG effects in adult Drosophila samples. In contrast, we identified dozens and hundreds of mouse genes with significant PO and MG effects, respectively. Interestingly, a similar number of genes with significant PO effect were detect in mouse TSCs and livers, whereas more genes with significant MG effect were observed in livers. Further application of this method will clarify how these three effects influence gene expression levels in different tissues and developmental stages, and provide novel insight into the evolution of gene expression regulation.

  2. A Generalized Linear Model for DecomposingCis-regulatory, Parent-of-Origin, and Maternal Effects on Allele-Specific Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yasuaki; Miyagi, Ryutaro; Takahashi, Aya; Endo, Toshinori; Osada, Naoki

    2017-07-05

    Joint quantification of genetic and epigenetic effects on gene expression is important for understanding the establishment of complex gene regulation systems in living organisms. In particular, genomic imprinting and maternal effects play important roles in the developmental process of mammals and flowering plants. However, the influence of these effects on gene expression are difficult to quantify because they act simultaneously with cis -regulatory mutations. Here we propose a simple method to decompose cis -regulatory ( i.e. , allelic genotype), genomic imprinting [ i.e. , parent-of-origin (PO)], and maternal [ i.e. , maternal genotype (MG)] effects on allele-specific gene expression using RNA-seq data obtained from reciprocal crosses. We evaluated the efficiency of method using a simulated dataset and applied the method to whole-body Drosophila and mouse trophoblast stem cell (TSC) and liver RNA-seq data. Consistent with previous studies, we found little evidence of PO and MG effects in adult Drosophila samples. In contrast, we identified dozens and hundreds of mouse genes with significant PO and MG effects, respectively. Interestingly, a similar number of genes with significant PO effect were detect in mouse TSCs and livers, whereas more genes with significant MG effect were observed in livers. Further application of this method will clarify how these three effects influence gene expression levels in different tissues and developmental stages, and provide novel insight into the evolution of gene expression regulation. Copyright © 2017 Takada et al.

  3. A Common Polymorphism within the IGF2 Imprinting Control Region Is Associated with Parent of Origin Specific Effects in Infantile Hemangiomas.

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    Brent Schultz

    Full Text Available Infantile hemangioma (IH is the most common tumor of the pediatric age group, affecting up to 4% of newborns ranging from inconsequential blemishes, to highly aggressive tumors. Following well defined growth phases (proliferative, plateau involutional IH usually regress into a fibro-fatty residuum. Despite the high prevalence of IH, little is known regarding the pathogenesis of disease. A reported six fold decrease in IGF2 expression (correlating with transformation of proliferative to involuted lesions prompted us to study the IGF-2 axis further. We demonstrate that IGF2 expression in IH is strongly related to the expression of a cancer testes and suspected oncogene BORIS (paralog of CTCF, placing IH in the unique category of being the first known benign BORIS positive tumor. IGF2 expression was strongly and positively related to BORIS transcript expression. Furthermore, a stronger association was made when comparing BORIS levels against the expression of CTCF via either a percentage or difference between the two. A common C/T polymorphism at CTCF BS6 appeared to modify the correlation between CTCF/BORIS and IGF2 expression in a parent of origin specific manner. Moreover, these effects may have phenotypic consequences as tumor growth also correlates with the genotype at CTCF BS6. This may provide a framework for explaining the clinical variability seen in IH and suggests new insights regarding CTCF and BORIS related functionality in both normal and malignant states.

  4. Maternal 5mCpG Imprints at the PARD6G-AS1 and GCSAML Differentially Methylated Regions Are Decoupled From Parent-of-Origin Expression Effects in Multiple Human Tissues

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    Graziela de Sá Machado Araújo

    2018-03-01

    iDMR regulates the tissue-specific, monoallelic expression of ZNF124 but not of OR2L13. We annotated the non-coding epigenomic marks in the two maternal iDMRs using data from the Roadmap Epigenomics project and showed that the PARD6G-AS1 and GCSAML iDMRs achieve contrasting activation and repression chromatin segmentations. Lastly, we found that the maternal 5mCpG imprints are perturbed in several hematopoietic cancers. We conclude that the maternal 5mCpG imprints at PARD6G-AS1 and GCSAML iDMRs are decoupled from parent-of-origin transcriptional expression effects in multiple tissues.

  5. Analysis of Parent-of-Origin Effects on the X Chromosome in Asian and European Orofacial Cleft Triads Identifies Associations with DMD, FGF13, EGFL6, and Additional Loci at Xp22.2

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    Øivind Skare

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although both the mother's and father's alleles are present in the offspring, they may not operate at the same level. These parent-of-origin (PoO effects have not yet been explored on the X chromosome, which motivated us to develop new methods for detecting such effects. Orofacial clefts (OFCs exhibit sex-specific differences in prevalence and are examples of traits where a search for various types of effects on the X chromosome might be relevant.Materials and Methods: We upgraded our R-package Haplin to enable genome-wide analyses of PoO effects, as well as power simulations for different statistical models. 14,486 X-chromosome SNPs in 1,291 Asian and 1,118 European case-parent triads of isolated OFCs were available from a previous GWAS. For each ethnicity, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P and cleft palate only (CPO were analyzed separately using two X-inactivation models and a sliding-window approach to haplotype analysis. In addition, we performed analyses restricted to female offspring.Results: Associations were identified in “Dystrophin” (DMD, Xp21.2-p21.1, “Fibroblast growth factor 13” (FGF13, Xq26.3-q27.1 and “EGF-like domain multiple 6” (EGFL6, Xp22.2, with biologically plausible links to OFCs. Unlike EGFL6, the other associations on chromosomal region Xp22.2 had no apparent connections to OFCs. However, the Xp22.2 region itself is of potential interest because it contains genes for clefting syndromes [for example, “Oral-facial-digital syndrome 1” (OFD1 and “Midline 1” (MID1]. Overall, the identified associations were highly specific for ethnicity, cleft subtype and X-inactivation model, except for DMD in which associations were identified in both CPO and CL/P, in the model with X-inactivation and in Europeans only.Discussion/Conclusion: The specificity of the associations for ethnicity, cleft subtype and X-inactivation model underscores the utility of conducting subanalyses, despite the

  6. A Parent-of-Origin Effect Impacts the Phenotype in Low Penetrance Retinoblastoma Families Segregating the c.1981C>T/p.Arg661Trp Mutation of RB1.

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    Philippine Eloy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma (Rb, the most common pediatric intraocular neoplasm, results from inactivation of both alleles of the RB1 tumor suppressor gene. The second allele is most commonly lost, as demonstrated by loss of heterozygosity studies. RB1 germline carriers usually develop bilateral tumors, but some Rb families display low penetrance and variable expressivity. In order to decipher the underlying mechanisms, 23 unrelated low penetrance pedigrees segregating the common c.1981C>T/p.Arg661Trp mutation and other low penetrance mutations were studied. In families segregating the c.1981C>T mutation, we demonstrated, for the first time, a correlation between the gender of the transmitting carrier and penetrance, as evidenced by Fisher's exact test: the probability of being unaffected is 90.3% and 32.5% when the mutation is inherited from the mother and the father, respectively (p-value = 7.10(-7. Interestingly, a similar correlation was observed in families segregating other low penetrance alleles. Consequently, we investigated the putative involvement of an imprinted, modifier gene in low penetrance Rb. We first ruled out a MED4-driven mechanism by MED4 methylation and expression analyses. We then focused on the differentially methylated CpG85 island located in intron 2 of RB1 and showing parent-of-origin-specific DNA methylation. This differential methylation promotes expression of the maternal c.1981C>T allele. We propose that the maternally inherited c.1981C>T/p.Arg661Trp allele retains sufficient tumor suppressor activity to prevent retinoblastoma development. In contrast, when the mutation is paternally transmitted, the low residual activity would mimic a null mutation and subsequently lead to retinoblastoma. This implies that the c.1981C>T mutation is not deleterious per se but needs to be destabilized in order to reach pRb haploinsufficiency and initiate tumorigenesis. We suggest that this phenomenon might be a general mechanism to explain

  7. Detecting parent of origin and dominant QTL in a two-generation commercial poultry pedigree using variance component methodology

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    Haley Christopher S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Variance component QTL methodology was used to analyse three candidate regions on chicken chromosomes 1, 4 and 5 for dominant and parent-of-origin QTL effects. Data were available for bodyweight and conformation score measured at 40 days from a two-generation commercial broiler dam line. One hundred dams were nested in 46 sires with phenotypes and genotypes on 2708 offspring. Linear models were constructed to simultaneously estimate fixed, polygenic and QTL effects. Different genetic models were compared using likelihood ratio test statistics derived from the comparison of full with reduced or null models. Empirical thresholds were derived by permutation analysis. Results Dominant QTL were found for bodyweight on chicken chromosome 4 and for bodyweight and conformation score on chicken chromosome 5. Suggestive evidence for a maternally expressed QTL for bodyweight and conformation score was found on chromosome 1 in a region corresponding to orthologous imprinted regions in the human and mouse. Conclusion Initial results suggest that variance component analysis can be applied within commercial populations for the direct detection of segregating dominant and parent of origin effects.

  8. Parent of origin, mosaicism, and recurrence risk: probabilistic modeling explains the broken symmetry of transmission genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian M; Stewart, Jonathan R; James, Regis A; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Paweł; Olofsson, Peter; Shaw, Chad A

    2014-10-02

    Most new mutations are observed to arise in fathers, and increasing paternal age positively correlates with the risk of new variants. Interestingly, new mutations in X-linked recessive disease show elevated familial recurrence rates. In male offspring, these mutations must be inherited from mothers. We previously developed a simulation model to consider parental mosaicism as a source of transmitted mutations. In this paper, we extend and formalize the model to provide analytical results and flexible formulas. The results implicate parent of origin and parental mosaicism as central variables in recurrence risk. Consistent with empirical data, our model predicts that more transmitted mutations arise in fathers and that this tendency increases as fathers age. Notably, the lack of expansion later in the male germline determines relatively lower variance in the proportion of mutants, which decreases with paternal age. Subsequently, observation of a transmitted mutation has less impact on the expected risk for future offspring. Conversely, for the female germline, which arrests after clonal expansion in early development, variance in the mutant proportion is higher, and observation of a transmitted mutation dramatically increases the expected risk of recurrence in another pregnancy. Parental somatic mosaicism considerably elevates risk for both parents. These findings have important implications for genetic counseling and for understanding patterns of recurrence in transmission genetics. We provide a convenient online tool and source code implementing our analytical results. These tools permit varying the underlying parameters that influence recurrence risk and could be useful for analyzing risk in diverse family structures. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of imprinted genes subject to parent-of-origin specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeown, Peter C

    2011-08-12

    Abstract Background Epigenetic regulation of gene dosage by genomic imprinting of some autosomal genes facilitates normal reproductive development in both mammals and flowering plants. While many imprinted genes have been identified and intensively studied in mammals, smaller numbers have been characterized in flowering plants, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. Identification of additional imprinted loci in flowering plants by genome-wide screening for parent-of-origin specific uniparental expression in seed tissues will facilitate our understanding of the origins and functions of imprinted genes in flowering plants. Results cDNA-AFLP can detect allele-specific expression that is parent-of-origin dependent for expressed genes in which restriction site polymorphisms exist in the transcripts derived from each allele. Using a genome-wide cDNA-AFLP screen surveying allele-specific expression of 4500 transcript-derived fragments, we report the identification of 52 maternally expressed genes (MEGs) displaying parent-of-origin dependent expression patterns in Arabidopsis siliques containing F1 hybrid seeds (3, 4 and 5 days after pollination). We identified these MEGs by developing a bioinformatics tool (GenFrag) which can directly determine the identities of transcript-derived fragments from (i) their size and (ii) which selective nucleotides were added to the primers used to generate them. Hence, GenFrag facilitates increased throughput for genome-wide cDNA-AFLP fragment analyses. The 52 MEGs we identified were further filtered for high expression levels in the endosperm relative to the seed coat to identify the candidate genes most likely representing novel imprinted genes expressed in the endosperm of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in seed tissues of the three top-ranked candidate genes, ATCDC48, PDE120 and MS5-like, was confirmed by Laser-Capture Microdissection and qRT-PCR analysis. Maternal-specific expression of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 seeds was

  10. High-resolution analysis of parent-of-origin allelic expression in the Arabidopsis Endosperm.

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    Philip Wolff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon leading to parent-of-origin specific differential expression of maternally and paternally inherited alleles. In plants, genomic imprinting has mainly been observed in the endosperm, an ephemeral triploid tissue derived after fertilization of the diploid central cell with a haploid sperm cell. In an effort to identify novel imprinted genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, we generated deep sequencing RNA profiles of F1 hybrid seeds derived after reciprocal crosses of Arabidopsis Col-0 and Bur-0 accessions. Using polymorphic sites to quantify allele-specific expression levels, we could identify more than 60 genes with potential parent-of-origin specific expression. By analyzing the distribution of DNA methylation and epigenetic marks established by Polycomb group (PcG proteins using publicly available datasets, we suggest that for maternally expressed genes (MEGs repression of the paternally inherited alleles largely depends on DNA methylation or PcG-mediated repression, whereas repression of the maternal alleles of paternally expressed genes (PEGs predominantly depends on PcG proteins. While maternal alleles of MEGs are also targeted by PcG proteins, such targeting does not cause complete repression. Candidate MEGs and PEGs are enriched for cis-proximal transposons, suggesting that transposons might be a driving force for the evolution of imprinted genes in Arabidopsis. In addition, we find that MEGs and PEGs are significantly faster evolving when compared to other genes in the genome. In contrast to the predominant location of mammalian imprinted genes in clusters, cluster formation was only detected for few MEGs and PEGs, suggesting that clustering is not a major requirement for imprinted gene regulation in Arabidopsis.

  11. Parent-of-origin and trans-generational germline influences on behavioral development: the interacting roles of mothers, fathers, and grandparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, J P; Mashoodh, R

    2010-05-01

    Mothers and fathers do not contribute equally to the development of their offspring. In addition to the differential investment of mothers versus fathers in the rearing of offspring, there are also a number of germline factors that are transmitted unequally from one parent or the other that contribute significantly to offspring development. This article shall review four major sources of such parent-of-origin effects. Firstly, there is increasing evidence that genes inherited on the sex chromosomes including the nonpseudoautosomal part of the Y chromosome that is only inherited from fathers to sons, contribute to brain development and behavior independently of the organizing effects of sex hormones. Secondly, recent work has demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA that is primarily inherited only from mothers may play a much greater than anticipated role in neurobehavioral development. Thirdly, there exists a class of genes known as imprinted genes that are epigenetically silenced when passed on in a parent-of-origin specific manner and have been shown to regulate brain development and a variety of behaviors. Finally, there is converging evidence from several disciplines that environmental variations experienced by mothers and fathers may lead to plasticity in the development and behavior of offspring and that this phenotypic inheritance can be solely transmitted through the germline. Mechanistically, this may be achieved through altered programming within germ cells of the epigenetic status of particular genes such as retrotransposons and imprinted genes or potentially through altered expression of RNAs within gametes.

  12. Parent-of-origin dependent gene-specific knock down in mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Khursheed; Kues, Wilfried A.; Niemann, Heiner

    2007-01-01

    In mice hemizygous for the Oct4-GFP transgene, the F1 embryos show parent-of-origin dependent expression of the marker gene. F1 embryos with a maternally derived OG2 allele (OG2 mat /-) express GFP in the oocyte and during preimplantation development until the blastocyst stage indicating a maternal and embryonic expression pattern. F1-embryos with a paternally inherited OG2 allele (OG2 pat /-) express GFP from the 4- to 8-cell stage onwards showing only embryonic expression. This allows to study allele specific knock down of GFP expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was highly efficient in embryos with the paternally inherited GFP allele, whereas embryos with the maternally inherited GFP allele showed a delayed and less stringent suppression, indicating that the initial levels of the target transcript and the half life of the protein affect RNAi efficacy. RT-PCR analysis revealed only minimum of GFP mRNA. These results have implications for studies of gene silencing in mammalian embryos

  13. Genome-wide transcript profiling of endosperm without paternal contribution identifies parent-of-origin-dependent regulation of AGAMOUS-LIKE36.

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    Reza Shirzadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed development in angiosperms is dependent on the interplay among different transcriptional programs operating in the embryo, the endosperm, and the maternally-derived seed coat. In angiosperms, the embryo and the endosperm are products of double fertilization during which the two pollen sperm cells fuse with the egg cell and the central cell of the female gametophyte. In Arabidopsis, analyses of mutants in the cell-cycle regulator CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE A;1 (CKDA;1 have revealed the importance of a paternal genome for the effective development of the endosperm and ultimately the seed. Here we have exploited cdka;1 fertilization as a novel tool for the identification of seed regulators and factors involved in parent-of-origin-specific regulation during seed development. We have generated genome-wide transcription profiles of cdka;1 fertilized seeds and identified approximately 600 genes that are downregulated in the absence of a paternal genome. Among those, AGAMOUS-LIKE (AGL genes encoding Type-I MADS-box transcription factors were significantly overrepresented. Here, AGL36 was chosen for an in-depth study and shown to be imprinted. We demonstrate that AGL36 parent-of-origin-dependent expression is controlled by the activity of METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1 maintenance DNA methyltransferase and DEMETER (DME DNA glycosylase. Interestingly, our data also show that the active maternal allele of AGL36 is regulated throughout endosperm development by components of the FIS Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2, revealing a new type of dual epigenetic regulation in seeds.

  14. Dynamic parent-of-origin effects on small interfering RNA expression in the developing maize endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Mingming; Yang, Ruolin; Yao, Yingyin; Ma, Chuang; Peng, Huiru; Sun, Qixin; Wang, Xiangfeng; Ni, Zhongfu

    2014-01-01

    Background In angiosperms, the endosperm plays a crucial placenta-like role in that not only is it necessary for nurturing the embryo, but also regulating embryogenesis through complicated genetic and epigenetic interactions with other seed compartments and is the primary tissue in which genomic imprinting occurs. Results We observed a gradual increase of paternal siRNA expression in the early stages of kernels and an expected 2:1 maternal to paternal ratio in 7-DAP endosperm via sequencing o...

  15. Detection of parent-of-origin specific expression quantitative trait loci by cis-association analysis of gene expression in trios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Paras; Borel, Christelle; Sharp, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Parent-of-origin (PofO) effects, such as imprinting are a phenomenon in which homologous chromosomes exhibit differential gene expression and epigenetic modifications according to their parental origin. Such non-Mendelian inheritance patterns are generally ignored by conventional association studies, as these tests consider the maternal and paternal alleles as equivalent. To identify regulatory regions that show PofO effects on gene expression (imprinted expression Quantitative Trait Loci, ieQTLs), here we have developed a novel method in which we associate SNP genotypes of defined parental origin with gene expression levels. We applied this method to study 59 HapMap phase II parent-offspring trios. By analyzing mother/father/child trios, rules of Mendelian inheritance allowed the parental origin to be defined for ~95% of SNPs in each child. We used 680,475 informative SNPs and corresponding expression data for 92,167 probe sets from Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays and performed four independent cis-association analyses with the expression level of RefSeq genes within 1 Mb using PLINK. Independent analyses of maternal and paternal genotypes identified two significant cis-ieQTLs (pgenes SFT2D2 and SRRT associated exclusively with maternally inherited SNPs rs3753292 and rs6945374, respectively. 28 additional suggestive cis-associations with only maternal or paternal SNPs were found at a lower stringency threshold of pgenes PEG10 and TRAPPC9, demonstrating the efficacy of our method. Furthermore, comparison of our method that utilizes independent analyses of maternal and paternal genotypes with the Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT) showed it to be more effective for detecting imprinting effects than the LRT. Our method represents a novel approach that can identify imprinted regulatory elements that control gene expression, suggesting novel PofO effects in the human genome.

  16. Molecular diagnosis of Prader-Willi syndrome: Parent-of-origin dependent methylation sites and non-isotopic detection of (CA){sub n} dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerer, I.; Meiner, V.; Pashut-Lavon, I.; Abeliovich, D.

    1994-08-01

    We describe our experience in the molecular diagnosis of 22 patients suspected of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) using a DNA probe PW71 (D15S63) which detects a parent-of-origin specific methylated site in the PWS critical region. The cause of the syndrome was determined as deletion or uniparental disomy according to the segregation of (CA){sub n} dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms of the PWS/AS region and more distal markers of chromosome 15. In 10 patients the clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the segregation of (CA){sub n}, probably due to paternal microdeletion in the PWs critical region which did not include the loci D15S97, D15S113, GABRB3, and GABRA5. This case demonstrates the advantage of the DNA probe PW71 in the diagnosis of PWS. 31 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Non-parent of Origin Expression of Numerous Effector Genes Indicates a Role of Gene Regulation in Host Adaption of the Hybrid Triticale Powdery Mildew Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praz, Coraline R.; Menardo, Fabrizio; Robinson, Mark D.; Müller, Marion C.; Wicker, Thomas; Bourras, Salim; Keller, Beat

    2018-01-01

    Powdery mildew is an important disease of cereals. It is caused by one species, Blumeria graminis, which is divided into formae speciales each of which is highly specialized to one host. Recently, a new form capable of growing on triticale (B.g. triticale) has emerged through hybridization between wheat and rye mildews (B.g. tritici and B.g. secalis, respectively). In this work, we used RNA sequencing to study the molecular basis of host adaptation in B.g. triticale. We analyzed gene expression in three B.g. tritici isolates, two B.g. secalis isolates and two B.g. triticale isolates and identified a core set of putative effector genes that are highly expressed in all formae speciales. We also found that the genes differentially expressed between isolates of the same form as well as between different formae speciales were enriched in putative effectors. Their coding genes belong to several families including some which contain known members of mildew avirulence (Avr) and suppressor (Svr) genes. Based on these findings we propose that effectors play an important role in host adaptation that is mechanistically based on Avr-Resistance gene-Svr interactions. We also found that gene expression in the B.g. triticale hybrid is mostly conserved with the parent-of-origin, but some genes inherited from B.g. tritici showed a B.g. secalis-like expression. Finally, we identified 11 unambiguous cases of putative effector genes with hybrid-specific, non-parent of origin gene expression, and we propose that they are possible determinants of host specialization in triticale mildew. These data suggest that altered expression of multiple effector genes, in particular Avr and Svr related factors, might play a role in mildew host adaptation based on hybridization. PMID:29441081

  18. Non-parent of Origin Expression of Numerous Effector Genes Indicates a Role of Gene Regulation in Host Adaption of the Hybrid Triticale Powdery Mildew Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline R. Praz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew is an important disease of cereals. It is caused by one species, Blumeria graminis, which is divided into formae speciales each of which is highly specialized to one host. Recently, a new form capable of growing on triticale (B.g. triticale has emerged through hybridization between wheat and rye mildews (B.g. tritici and B.g. secalis, respectively. In this work, we used RNA sequencing to study the molecular basis of host adaptation in B.g. triticale. We analyzed gene expression in three B.g. tritici isolates, two B.g. secalis isolates and two B.g. triticale isolates and identified a core set of putative effector genes that are highly expressed in all formae speciales. We also found that the genes differentially expressed between isolates of the same form as well as between different formae speciales were enriched in putative effectors. Their coding genes belong to several families including some which contain known members of mildew avirulence (Avr and suppressor (Svr genes. Based on these findings we propose that effectors play an important role in host adaptation that is mechanistically based on Avr-Resistance gene-Svr interactions. We also found that gene expression in the B.g. triticale hybrid is mostly conserved with the parent-of-origin, but some genes inherited from B.g. tritici showed a B.g. secalis-like expression. Finally, we identified 11 unambiguous cases of putative effector genes with hybrid-specific, non-parent of origin gene expression, and we propose that they are possible determinants of host specialization in triticale mildew. These data suggest that altered expression of multiple effector genes, in particular Avr and Svr related factors, might play a role in mildew host adaptation based on hybridization.

  19. Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions

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    George Levy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates not fully explained voltage offsets observed by several researchers during the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high Z materials. These offsets, traditionally attributed to faulty laboratory procedures, have proven to have an irreducible component that cannot be fully eliminated in spite of careful laboratory procedures. In fact, these offsets are commonly observed and routinely subtracted out of commercially available Seebeck measurement systems. This paper offers a possible explanation based on the spontaneous formation of an adiabatic temperature gradient in the presence of a force field. The diffusion-diffusion heat transport mechanism is formulated and applied to predict two new thermoelectric effects. The first is the existence of a temperature gradient across a potential barrier in a semiconductor and the second is the Onsager reciprocal of the first, that is, the presence of a measureable voltage that arises across a junction when the temperature gradient is forced to zero by a thermal clamp. Suggested future research includes strategies for utilizing the new thermoelectric effects.

  20. Etiologies underlying sex differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Sara M; Pfaff, Donald W

    2014-08-01

    The male predominance of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is one of the best-known, and at the same time, one of the least understood characteristics of these disorders. In this paper we review genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and environmental mechanisms underlying this male preponderance. Sex-specific effects of Y-linked genes (including SRY expression leading to testicular development), balanced and skewed X-inactivation, genes that escape X-inactivation, parent-of-origin allelic imprinting, and the hypothetical heterochromatin sink are reviewed. These mechanisms likely contribute to etiology, instead of being simply causative to ASD. Environments, both internal and external, also play important roles in ASD's etiology. Early exposure to androgenic hormones and early maternal immune activation comprise environmental factors affecting sex-specific susceptibility to ASD. The gene-environment interactions underlying ASD, suggested here, implicate early prenatal stress as being especially detrimental to boys with a vulnerable genotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Unsuspected pyocyanin effect in yeast under anaerobiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Rana; Goubet, Isabelle; Manon, Stephen; Berges, Thierry; Rosenfeld, Eric

    2014-02-01

    The blue-green phenazine, Pyocyanin (PYO), is a well-known virulence factor produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, notably during cystic fibrosis lung infections. It is toxic to both eukaryotic and bacterial cells and several mechanisms, including the induction of oxidative stress, have been postulated. However, the mechanism of PYO toxicity under the physiological conditions of oxygen limitation that are encountered by P. aeruginosa and by target organisms in vivo remains unclear. In this study, wild-type and mutant strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as an effective eukaryotic model to determine the toxicity of PYO (100-500 μmol/L) under key growth conditions. Under respiro-fermentative conditions (with glucose as substrate), WT strains and certain H2 O2 -hypersensitive strains showed a low-toxic response to PYO. Under respiratory conditions (with glycerol as substrate) all the strains tested were significantly more sensitive to PYO. Four antioxidants were tested but only N-acetylcysteine was capable of partially counteracting PYO toxicity. PYO did not appear to affect short-term respiratory O2 uptake, but it did seem to interfere with cyanide-poisoned mitochondria through a complex III-dependent mechanism. Therefore, a combination of oxidative stress and respiration disturbance could partly explain aerobic PYO toxicity. Surprisingly, the toxic effects of PYO were more significant under anaerobic conditions. More pronounced effects were observed in several strains including a 'petite' strain lacking mitochondrial DNA, strains with increased or decreased levels of ABC transporters, and strains deficient in DNA damage repair. Therefore, even though PYO is toxic for actively respiring cells, O2 may indirectly protect the cells from the higher anaerobic-linked toxicity of PYO. The increased sensitivity to PYO under anaerobic conditions is not unique to S. cerevisiae and was also observed in another yeast, Candida albicans. © 2013 The Authors

  2. Anomalous effects of dense matter under rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Guang; Nishimura, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2018-02-01

    We study the anomaly induced effects of dense baryonic matter under rotation. We derive the anomalous terms that account for the chiral vortical effect in the low-energy effective theory for light Nambu-Goldstone modes. The anomalous terms lead to new physical consequences, such as the anomalous Hall energy current and spontaneous generation of angular momentum in a magnetic field (or spontaneous magnetization by rotation). In particular, we show that, due to the presence of such anomalous terms, the ground state of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) under sufficiently fast rotation becomes the "chiral soliton lattice" of neutral pions that has lower energy than the QCD vacuum and nuclear matter. We briefly discuss the possible realization of the chiral soliton lattice induced by a fast rotation in noncentral heavy ion collisions.

  3. The Prototypical Majority Effect Under Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv-Mashinsky, Shiri; Undorf, Monika; Schwarz, Norbert

    2018-05-01

    Majority views are reported with greater confidence and fluency than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. This Prototypical Majority Effect (PME) was attributed generally to conformity pressure, but Koriat et al. showed that it can arise from the processes underlying decision and confidence independent of social influence. Here we examined the PME under conditions that differ in social influence. In Experiment 1, a robust PME emerged in the absence of information about the majority views, but the provision sof that information increased the choice of the majority view and magnified the PME. In Experiment 2, a PME emerged in a minority-biased condition that misled participants to believe that the majority view was the minority view, but the PME was stronger in a majority-biased condition. The results were discussed in terms of a dual-process view: The PME observed under social influence may contain externally driven and internally driven components.

  4. Effectiveness of Nivea Sunscreen under Ultraviolet Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piset Virachunya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between a sunscreen’s SPF and its absorbance for UV light of wavelength 240 to 320 was investigated. The investigation was conducted by diluting sunscreens with SPFs of 20, 30 and 50 and placing the solution in a spectrophotometer where the absorbance was measured under UVA, UVB and UVC light. It was shown that the sunscreen was effective over the whole range of wavelengths, with increased effectiveness at wavelengths 240 and 300. The results also show that as the SPF increased, the absorbance increased proportionally.

  5. Effectiveness of Nivea Sunscreen under Ultraviolet Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piset Virachunya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between a sunscreen’s SPF and its absorbance for UV light of wavelength 240 to 320 was investigated. The investigation was conducted by diluting sunscreens with SPF's of 20, 30 and 50 and placing the solution in a spectrophotometer where the absorbance was measured under UVA, UVB and UVC light. It was shown that the sunscreen was effective over the whole range of wavelengths, with increased effectiveness at wavelengths 240 and 300. The results also show that as the SPF increased, the absorbance increased proportionally.

  6. Radioresistance and immunization effectiveness under internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'nitskij, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of preliminary immunization on the radioresistance of mice to internal irradiation from incorporated 137 Cs or 90 Sr was studied, and it was found that a preliminary single immunization with bacterial vaccines had a favorable effect on the outcome of radiation injury. The present results suggested that vaccination had a very pronounced radioprotective effect and so may be used as a means of biologic protection from internal irradiation

  7. On hedge effectiveness assessment under IFRS 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder Pal Singh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IFRS 9 has introduced certain radical changes to the hedge effectiveness assessment criteria of IAS 39 for entities desirous of availing hedge accounting. It is necessary for business entities contemplating the use of financial derivatives for hedging purposes to appreciate the nuances associated with the upstaged provisions of hedge accounting of IFRS 9 in context of hedge effectiveness requirements envisaged therein. The present article addresses this issue and provides a threadbare analysis of the fundamental model on which the IFRS 9 hedge effectiveness assessment is premised.

  8. Transistor Small Signal Analysis under Radiation Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshar, K.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    A Small signal transistor parameters dedicate the operation of bipolar transistor before and after exposed to gamma radiation (1 Mrad up to 5 Mrads) and electron beam(1 MeV, 25 mA) with the same doses as a radiation sources, the electrical parameters of the device are changed. The circuit Model has been discussed.Parameters, such as internal emitter resistance (re), internal base resistance, internal collector resistance (re), emitter base photocurrent (Ippe) and base collector photocurrent (Ippe). These parameters affect on the operation of the device in its applications, which work as an effective element, such as current gain (hFE≡β)degradation it's and effective parameter in the device operation. Also the leakage currents (IcBO) and (IEBO) are most important parameters, Which increased with radiation doses. Theoretical representation of the change in the equivalent circuit for NPN and PNP bipolar transistor were discussed, the input and output parameters of the two types were discussed due to the change in small signal input resistance of the two types. The emitter resistance(re) were changed by the effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation, which makes a change in the role of matching impedances between transistor stages. Also the transistor stability factors S(Ico), S(VBE) and S(β are detected to indicate the transistor operations after exposed to radiation fields. In low doses the gain stability is modified due to recombination of induced charge generated during device fabrication. Also the load resistance values are connected to compensate the effect

  9. Determining the Effect (the Social Costs) of Exclusion under the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining the Effect (the Social Costs) of Exclusion under the South African Exclusionary Rule: Should Factual Guilt Tilt the Scales in Favour of the Admission of Unconstitutionally Obtained Evidence?

  10. The testing-effect under investigation. Experiences in Kiel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 22 January). The testing-effect under investigation. Experiences in Kiel. Presentation held at the Learning & Cognition meeting, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  11. Will malaria return to Europe under the greenhouse effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Wege, van de J.; Jetten, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    Malaria risk is determined by environmental and socio-economic factors. The predicted climate change under the greenhouse effect is likely to affect the epidemic potential of malaria due to a change in vector mosquito phenology and distribution. This effect was simulated using a computer model

  12. Effects of music therapy under general anesthesia in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... Background: Music therapy, an innovative approach that has proven effectiveness in many medical conditions, seems beneficial also in managing surgical patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate its effects, under general anesthesia, on perioperative patient satisfaction, stress, pain, and awareness.

  13. Effects of music therapy under general anesthesia in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate its effects, under general anesthesia, on perioperative patient satisfaction, stress, pain, and awareness. Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind study conducted in the operating theatre of visceral surgery at Sahloul Teaching Hospital over a period of 4 months. Patients ...

  14. Effects of Mulch and Cultivar on Strawberry Productivity under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine effects of four mulches (cut grass, clear polyfilm, black polfilm, and none) on productivity of four strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) cultivars (Pajaro, Aiko, Fern and Douglas) under tropical highland conditions. It was hypothesized that polyfilm would hasten growth and increase yield ...

  15. Age differences in the underlying mechanisms of stereotype threat effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, Lauren E; Hess, Thomas M

    2015-03-01

    The goals of the present study were to (a) examine whether age differences exist in the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects on cognitive performance and (b) examine whether emotion regulation abilities may buffer against threat effects on performance. Older and younger adults were exposed to positive or negative age-relevant stereotypes, allowing us to examine the impact of threat on regulatory focus and working memory. Self-reported emotion regulation measures were completed prior to the session. Older adults' performance under threat suggested a prevention-focused approach to the task, indexed by increased accuracy and reduced speed. The same pattern was observed in younger adults, but the effects were not as strong. Age differences emerged when examining the availability of working memory resources under threat, with young adults showing decrements, whereas older adults did not. Emotion regulation abilities moderated threat effects in young adults but not in older adults. The results provide support for the notion that stereotype threat may lead to underperformance through somewhat different pathways in older and younger adults. Future research should further examine whether the underlying reason for this age difference is rooted in age-related improvements in emotion regulation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Size-effect of explosive sensitivity under low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Danzhu; Chen, Pengwan; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Low velocity impact may ignite the solid high explosives and cause undesired explosion incidents. The safety of high explosives under low velocity impact is one of the most important problems in handling, manufacture, storage, and transportation procedures. More and more evaluation tests have been developed for low velocity impact scenarios, including, but not limited to the drop hammer impact test, the Susan test, the Spigot test, and the Steven test, with a charge mass varying from tens of milligrams to several kilograms. The effects of specimen size on explosive sensitivity were found in our drop hammer impact test and Steven tests, including the threshold velocity/height and reaction violence. To further analyze the size effects on explosive sensitivity under low velocity impacts, we collected the impact sensitivity data of several PBX explosives in the drop hammer test, the Steven test, the Susan test and the Spigot test. The effective volume of explosive charge and the threshold specific mechanical energy were introduced to investigate the size-effect on the explosive ignition thresholds. The effective volumes of explosive charge in Steven test and Spigot test were obtained by numerical simulation, due to the localization of the impact. The threshold specific mechanical energy is closely related to the effective volume of explosive charge. The results show that, with the increase of effective volume, the specific mechanical energy needed for explosive ignition decreases and trends to reach a constant value. The mechanisms of size effects on explosive sensitivity are also discussed.

  17. Specimen size effect of explosive sensitivity under low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Danzhu; Chen, Pengwan; Dai, Kaida; Zhou, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Low velocity impact may ignite the solid high explosives and cause undesired explosion incidents. The safety of high explosives under low velocity impact is one of the most important issues in handling, manufacture, storage, and transportation procedures. Various evaluation tests have been developed for low velocity impact scenarios, including, but not limited to the drop hammer test, the Susan test, the Spigot test, and the Steven test, with a charge mass varying from tens of milligrams to several kilograms. The effects of specimen size on explosive sensitivity were found in some impact tests such as drop hammer test and Steven tests, including the threshold velocity/height and reaction violence. To analyse the specimen size effects on explosive sensitivity under low velocity impacts, we collected the impact sensitivity data of several PBX explosives in the drop hammer test, the Steven test, the Susan test and the Spigot test. The effective volume of explosive charge and the critical specific mechanical energy were introduced to investigate the size-effect on the explosive reaction thresholds. The effective volumes of explosive charge in Steven test and Spigot test were obtained by numerical simulation, due to the deformation localization of the impact loading. The critical specific mechanical energy is closely related to the effective volume of explosive charge. The results show that, with the increase of effective volume, the critical mechanical energy needed for explosive ignition decreases and tends to reach a constant value. The mechanisms of size effects on explosive sensitivity are also discussed.

  18. Experimental studies on radiation effects under high pressure oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Eisuke

    1974-01-01

    The effect of oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of tumor cells is well known, but its clinical application for radiotherapy is not yet established. Rabbits with V x 2 carcinoma in the maxilla were irradiated by 60 Co under high pressure oxygen (experimental group), and compared with those treated in air (control group). For the purpose of examining the clinical effects of high pressure oxygen, an experiment was made in vivo. The following items were compared respectively: a) Tumor regression effect b) Tumor clearance rate c) Survival days d) Half size reduction time e) Inhibition of DNA synthesis in the tumor tissue. Results obtained were as follows: a) 56 per cent of animals showed tumor regression in the experimental group, whereas it occured 26 per cent in the control group. b) 53 per cent of animals showed tumor disappearance in the experimental group, while it was observed only in 13 per cent in the control group. c) Only 2 of 30 rabbits irradiated in air survived over 180 days, whereas 11 of 30 rabbits survived meanwhile in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen. d) About 11 days were necessary to reduce the tumor size by half after irradiation in the group under high pressure oxygen, while it took 17 days in the group treated in normal air. e) DNA synthesis was inhibited more prominently in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen in normal air. (author)

  19. Heterochromatin and the molecular mechanisms of 'parent-of-origin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/041/04/0759-0786. Keywords. Epigenetics; genomic imprinting; heterochromatin; HP1; KRAB-ZFP. Abstract. Twenty five years ago it was proposed that conserved components of constitutive heterochromatin assemble heterochromatinlikecomplexes in euchromatin and ...

  20. Heterochromatin and the molecular mechanisms of 'parent-of-origin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-30

    Nov 30, 2016 ... Department of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University,. Life Sciences Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. (Email, prim.singh@charite.de; P.Singh@ljmu.ac.uk). Twenty five years ago it was proposed that conserved components of constitutive heterochromatin ...

  1. Effect of vacancy loops on swelling of metals under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    Subsequent analysis of vacancy loops formation in metals under irradiation is carried out and effect of vacancy loops on vacancy porosity is studied. Expression for quasistationary function of vacancy loops distribution according to sizes taking into consideration two mechanisms of their initiation-cascade and fluctuational ones - is obtained. It is shown that rate of vacancy absorption and interstitials by vacancy loops in quasiequilibrium state is similar and depends only on summary length of loops, for its calculations the self-coordinated procedure is formulated. For the rate of metal swelling under irradiation obtained is the expression taking into consideration the presence of vacancy loops [ru

  2. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eChervyakov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals. It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols.

  3. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R

    1990-03-01

    Interviews were conducted with 848 Glasgow children aged between 11 and 14 years. There were consistent differences between smokers and non-smokers. Smokers tended to be more adept at recalling, recognizing and identifying cigarette advertisements. This suggests they tend to pay more attention to cigarette advertising. Smokers also tended to be generally more appreciative of cigarette advertising. Moreover, this greater awareness and appreciation of cigarette advertising was independent of other important predictors of under-age smoking, such as smoking by peers, siblings and parents. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous research, indicate that cigarette advertising is reinforcing under-age smoking. The smokers showed an enhanced or heightened preference for Kensitas Club, the brand favoured by adults. This is consistent with previous research indicating that promotional devices which help determine and reinforce adult cigarette brand preferences have an even greater effect on under-age smokers.

  4. Parametric effects of glass reaction under unsaturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Woodland, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    Eventual liquid water contact of high-level waste glass stored under the unsaturated conditions anticipated at the Yucca Mountain site will be by slow intrusion of water into a breached container/canister assembly. The water flow patterns under these unsaturated conditions will vary, and the Unsaturated Test method has been developed by the YMP to study glass reaction. The results from seven different sets of tests done to investigate the effect of systematically varying parameters, such as glass composition, composition and degree of sensitization of 304L stainless steel, water input volume, and the interval of water contact are discussed. Glass reaction has been monitored over a period of five years, and the parametric effects can result in up to a ten-fold variance in the degree of glass reaction

  5. Effective viscous flow properties for fiber suspensions under concentrated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The effective longitudinal and transverse shear viscosities are derived for an aligned fiber suspension. The solutions are valid under very concentrated conditions for a hexagonal arrangement of the single size fibers. The results compliment the classical dilute suspension forms at the other extreme of concentration. Empirical forms are constructed to cover the full range of volume fraction of the fiber phase. Also, single size spherical particle suspensions are given a similar treatment to that of the fiber case

  6. Cost-effective conservation of an endangered frog under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lucy E; Heard, Geoffrey W; Chee, Yung En; Wintle, Brendan A

    2016-04-01

    How should managers choose among conservation options when resources are scarce and there is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of actions? Well-developed tools exist for prioritizing areas for one-time and binary actions (e.g., protect vs. not protect), but methods for prioritizing incremental or ongoing actions (such as habitat creation and maintenance) remain uncommon. We devised an approach that combines metapopulation viability and cost-effectiveness analyses to select among alternative conservation actions while accounting for uncertainty. In our study, cost-effectiveness is the ratio between the benefit of an action and its economic cost, where benefit is the change in metapopulation viability. We applied the approach to the case of the endangered growling grass frog (Litoria raniformis), which is threatened by urban development. We extended a Bayesian model to predict metapopulation viability under 9 urbanization and management scenarios and incorporated the full probability distribution of possible outcomes for each scenario into the cost-effectiveness analysis. This allowed us to discern between cost-effective alternatives that were robust to uncertainty and those with a relatively high risk of failure. We found a relatively high risk of extinction following urbanization if the only action was reservation of core habitat; habitat creation actions performed better than enhancement actions; and cost-effectiveness ranking changed depending on the consideration of uncertainty. Our results suggest that creation and maintenance of wetlands dedicated to L. raniformis is the only cost-effective action likely to result in a sufficiently low risk of extinction. To our knowledge we are the first study to use Bayesian metapopulation viability analysis to explicitly incorporate parametric and demographic uncertainty into a cost-effective evaluation of conservation actions. The approach offers guidance to decision makers aiming to achieve cost-effective

  7. Effect of antioxidant on biodiesel properties under accelerated oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Sant' ana; Carvalho, Maria Wilma N.C.; Silva, Flavio Luiz Honorato da; Lima, Ezenildo Emanuel de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Silva, Everson de Lima [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola; Dantas, Hermeval Jales [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CTRN/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    This work aimed to study the effect of antioxidant tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) on oxidative stability of biodiesel. The effect of antioxidant was analyzed under aspects such as acid value, specific gravity, dynamic viscosity and FTIR spectroscopy. According to the results, the degraded samples treated with antioxidant presented the lowest values for acid value, specific mass and dynamic viscosity. FTIR spectra showed that the degraded samples treated with antioxidant have increased their oxidative stability, while those without antioxidant had an increase in the stretch band of hydroxyl (OH). (author)

  8. Will malaria return to Europe under the greenhouse effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takken, W.; Van de Wege, J.; Jetten, T.H. [Department of Entomology, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Malaria risk is determined by environmental and socio-economic factors. The predicted climate change under the greenhouse effect is likely to affect the epidemic potential of malaria due to a change in vector mosquito phenology and distribution. This effect was simulated using a computer model incorporating mosquito life stages and parasite infections in the mosquito and human host. It was found that both air and water temperature are the most important factors determining mosquito phenology and density. A temperature rise of +40C shows major changes in mosquito distributions and densities at a worldwide scale, but more so in temperature regions than near the equator. The European situation was taken as an example to study epidemic potential under climate change. Malaria risk, in particular that of Plasmodium vivax, would increase under climate change. There is little risk for transmission of P. falciparum in currently temperate areas because the local anophelines are refractory to this parasite. In areas adjacent to malaria endemic regions, however, climate change may cause a dramatic shift in P. falciparum risk. 2 figs., 10 refs.

  9. The levels of processing effect under nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Wendy; Hobbs, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated that inert gas (nitrogen) narcosis affects free recall but not recognition memory in the depth range of 30 to 50 meters of sea water (msw), possibly as a result of narcosis preventing processing when learned material is encoded. The aim of the current research was to test this hypothesis by applying a levels of processing approach to the measurement of free recall under narcosis. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of depth (0-2 msw vs. 37-39 msw) and level of processing (shallow vs. deep) on free recall memory performance in 67 divers. When age was included as a covariate, recall was significantly worse in deep water (i.e., under narcosis), compared to shallow water, and was significantly higher in the deep processing compared to shallow processing conditions in both depth conditions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this effect was not simply due to the different underwater environments used for the depth conditions in Experiment 1. It was concluded memory performance can be altered by processing under narcosis and supports the contention that narcosis affects the encoding stage of memory as opposed to self-guided search (retrieval).

  10. [Effect of Solcoseryl on nerve tissue under in vitro conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, G; Grosse, G; Plonka, G

    1976-01-01

    Explants from trigeminal ganglia and skin of chick embryos and hippocampus from fetal rats were cultivated in Maximow assembly in the presence of Solcoseryl (Solco AG, Basel), a blood extract of calf. Solcoseryl in vitro did not influence the regeneration of nerve fibers from CNS explants. A stimulatory effect of Solcoseryl in vitro by 1% concentration on the outgrowth of new processes in explants of PNS was demonstrated. It is discussed: under optimal concentration Solcoseryl may be important for the influence of the composition of the medium in which explants of the nerve system and skin are cultivated.

  11. Confining dyon gas with finite-volume effects under control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckmann, Falk [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Dinter, Simon [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, VBLHEP, Dubna (Russian Federation); Maier, Benjamin; Mueller-Preussker, Michael [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Wagner, Marc [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-11-15

    As an approach to describe the long-range properties of non-Abelian gauge theories at non-zero temperature Teffects. Therefore, we demonstrate the application of Ewald's summation method to this system. Finite-volume effects are shown to be under control, which is a crucial requirement for numerical studies of interacting dyon ensembles. (orig.)

  12. Confining dyon gas with finite-volume effects under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmann, Falk; Maier, Benjamin; Mueller-Preussker, Michael; Wagner, Marc; Frankfurt Univ.

    2011-11-01

    As an approach to describe the long-range properties of non-Abelian gauge theories at non-zero temperature T c , we consider a non-interacting ensemble of dyons (magnetic monopoles) with non-trivial holonomy. We show analytically, that the quark-antiquark free energy from the Polyakov loop correlator grows linearly with the distance, and how the string tension scales with the dyon density. In numerical treatments, the long-range tails of the dyon fields cause severe finite-volume effects. Therefore, we demonstrate the application of Ewald's summation method to this system. Finite-volume effects are shown to be under control, which is a crucial requirement for numerical studies of interacting dyon ensembles. (orig.)

  13. Cigar burning under different smoking intensities and effects on emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethloff, Ole; Mueller, Christian; Cahours, Xavier; Colard, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    The effect of smoking intensity on cigar smoke emissions was assessed under a range of puff frequencies and puff volumes. In order to potentially reduce emissions variability and to identify patterns as accurately as possible, cigar weights and diameters were measured, and outliers were excluded prior to smoking. Portions corresponding to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the cigar, measured down to the butt length, were smoked under several smoking conditions, to assess nicotine, CO and water yields. The remaining cigar butts were analysed for total alkaloids, nicotine, and moisture. Results showed accumulation effects during the burning process having a significant impact on smoke emission levels. Condensation and evaporation occur and lead to smoke emissions dependent on smoking intensity. Differences were observed for CO on one side as a gas phase compound and nicotine on the other side as a particulate phase compound. For a given intensity, while CO emission increases linearly as the cigar burns, nicotine and water emissions exhibited an exponential increase. Our investigations showed that a complex phenomena occurs during the course of cigar smoking which makes emission data: difficult to interpret, is potentially misleading to the consumer, and inappropriate for exposure assessment. The results indicate that, tobacco content and physical parameters may well be the most robust basis for product characterisation and comparison rather than smoke emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular Targets Underlying the Anticancer Effects of Quercetin: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazlullah; Niaz, Kamal; Maqbool, Faheem; Ismail Hassan, Fatima; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Nagulapalli Venkata, Kalyan C; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Bishayee, Anupam

    2016-08-29

    Quercetin, a medicinally important member of the flavonoid family, is one of the most prominent dietary antioxidants. It is present in a variety of foods-including fruits, vegetables, tea, wine, as well as other dietary supplements-and is responsible for various health benefits. Numerous pharmacological effects of quercetin include protection against diseases, such as osteoporosis, certain forms of malignant tumors, and pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders. Quercetin has the special ability of scavenging highly reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radicals. These oxygen radicals are called reactive oxygen species, which can cause oxidative damage to cellular components, such as proteins, lipids, and deoxyribonucleic acid. Various oxygen radicals play important roles in pathophysiological and degenerative processes, such as aging. Subsequently, several studies have been performed to evaluate possible advantageous health effects of quercetin and to collect scientific evidence for these beneficial health claims. These studies also gather data in order to evaluate the exact mechanism(s) of action and toxicological effects of quercetin. The purpose of this review is to present and critically analyze molecular pathways underlying the anticancer effects of quercetin. Current limitations and future directions of research on this bioactive dietary polyphenol are also critically discussed.

  15. Glycemic index: effect of food storage under low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cassab Carreira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of food storage under low temperature (-20ºC and the resistant starch formation, both on the glycemic index (GI. The GI of only cooked and cooked and stored foods under -20ºC for 30 days was evaluated in short-term tests with humans. Significant increase on the RS content was evidenced for all the stored foods. The food storage resulted in a significant decrease on the GI of beans and chick-peas; the GI of pasta remained the same and the GI of corn meal increased. Thus, the RS formation showed reduced influence on the glycemic index. The storage of starchy foods under low temperature can collaborate to the RS intake but its effect on the GI will depend on the characteristics of the carbohydrates of each food.O estudo foi realizado para avaliar a influência do armazenamento de alimentos sob baixa temperatura e a formação de amido resistente sobre o índice glicêmico (IG. O IG de alimentos cozidos ou cozidos e armazenados a -20ºC por 30 dias foi avaliado em ensaios de curta duração com humanos. Aumento significativo no conteúdo de AR foi evidenciado para todos os alimentos armazenados. O armazenamento dos alimentos resultou em significativa redução no IG do feijão e do grão de bico. O IG do macarrão foi o mesmo e da polenta sofreu aumento. Desta forma, a evidenciada formação de AR mostrou reduzida influência no IG. O armazenamento de alimentos fonte de amido sob baixa temperatura pode colaborar com a ingestão de AR, mas o efeito sobre o IG vai depender das características dos carboidratos de cada alimento.

  16. Molecular Bases Underlying the Hepatoprotective Effects of Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Salomone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide. Epidemiological studies with prospective cohorts showed that coffee intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independently of caffeine content. Cohort and case-control studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the degree of liver fibrosis as well as the development of liver cancer. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of coffee have been recently confirmed by large meta-analyses. In the last two decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the molecular determinants for the hepatoprotective effects of coffee. In the present article, we aimed to critically review experimental evidence regarding the active components and the molecular bases underlying the beneficial role of coffee against chronic liver diseases. Almost all studies highlighted the beneficial effects of this beverage against liver fibrosis with the most solid results indicating a pivot role for both caffeine and chlorogenic acids. In particular, in experimental models of fibrosis, caffeine was shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation by blocking adenosine receptors, and emerging evidence indicated that caffeine may also favorably impact angiogenesis and hepatic hemodynamics. On the other side, chlorogenic acids, potent phenolic antioxidants, suppress liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress and counteract steatogenesis through the modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver. Overall, these molecular insights may have translational significance and suggest that coffee components need clinical evaluation.

  17. Oxidation-reduction enzymes of myocardium under ionizing radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uteshev, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    Tissue respiration proceses under radiation effect were investigated which allowed one to reveal slight biochemical disturbances in a cell which make up the base of functional changes of different organs and tissues and to get to know the essence of tissue respiration processes. An attempt to explain significant value of oxidation enzyme system radiosensitivity in the course of cell respiration process altogether is made when studying the state of separate links of oxidation-reduction chain. It is shown that at early periods of radiation injury activity of catalase, dehydrogenases (isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, malic, succinic acids) is suppressed, concentration of a number of cytochromes is reduced and general ferrum content is increased which is connected with conformation changes of ultrastructure of mitochondrial membranes

  18. The effects of perceptual load on semantic processing under inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Mika; Revonsuo, Antti

    2009-10-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to a failure to consciously detect an irrelevant object that appears without any expectation when attention is engaged with another task. The perceptual load theory predicts that task-irrelevant stimuli will reach awareness only when the primary task is of low load, which allows processing resources to spill over to processing task-irrelevant stimuli as well. We studied whether perceptual load has an effect on inattentional blindness for a task-irrelevant stimulus whose meaning is or is not relevant to the attentional goals of the observer. In the critical trial, a word appeared without any expectation in the center of a display of attended pictures. The results showed that, under both high and low load, unexpected words belonging to the attended semantic category were detected more often than semantically unrelated words. These results imply that task-irrelevant stimuli, whose meanings are relevant to the observer's task, enter awareness irrespective of perceptual load.

  19. Response to recurrent selection under small effective population size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Jr. Cláudio Lopes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A formula was derived for the prediction of the response to recurrent selection when the effective population size (Ne is small. Usually, responses to selection have been estimated by Rs = icsigma²A/sigmaPh, where i, c, sigma²A, and sigmaPh stand for standardized selection differential, parental control, additive variance, and phenotypic standard deviation, respectively. This expression, however, was derived under the assumption of infinite population size. By introducing the effects of finite population size, the expression derived was Rs = [ic(sigma²A + deltaFD1/sigmaPh] - DFID, where deltaF, ID and D1 are the changes in the inbreeding coefficient, the inbreeding depression, and the covariance of additive and homozygous dominance effects, respectively. Thus, the predicted responses to selection based on these expressions will be smaller than those based on the standard procedures for traits with a high level of dominance such as yield. Responses to five cycles of half-sib selection were predicted for maize by both expressions, considering that 100 progenies were evaluated and 10 S1 progenies were recombined, which corresponds to Ne = 10 for each cycle. The accumulated response to selection estimated with the new expression was about 47 and 28% smaller than that based on the standard expression for yield and plant height, respectively. Thus, the expression usually used overestimates the responses to selection, which is in agreement with reported results, because it does not take into account the effective population size that is generally small in recurrent selection programs

  20. [Changes of agroecosystem services value under effects of land consolidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Jin-Quan; Wei, Chao-Fu

    2010-03-01

    This paper quantitatively described the changes of agroecosystem functions before (2003) and after (2007) the implementation of Gaolong land consolidation project in Hechuan of Chongqing. Engineering design and shadow price were integrated to quantify the effects of the project on the functions, and cost-benefit analysis was used to further explain the economic meanings of the functions, and to analyze the changes of the agroecosystem services value under effects of the project. Compared with that before the land consolidation, the agroecosystem services value after the land consolidation was somewhat improved, with the largest increment of nutrient cycling function and the smallest change of soil conservation function. In the implementation of the project, the changes of the agroecosystem services value induced by farmland water conservancy, field road building, and land-leveling engineering mainly manifested in the change of disturbance function. From the 7th to 35th year after the project, the cost benefit would have a rapid increase, and tended to be stable after then, giving a weak ecological pressure and little services value loss, and benefiting the improvement of regional ecological environment.

  1. Effects of incomplete mixing on chemical reactions under flow heterogeneities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lazaro; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of the mixing process in aquifers is of primary importance when assessing attenuation of pollutants. In aquifers different hydraulic and chemical properties can increase mixing and spreading of the transported species. Mixing processes control biogeochemical transformations such as precipitation/dissolution reactions or degradation reactions that are fast compared to mass transfer processes. Reactions are local phenomena that fluctuate at the pore scale, but predictions are often made at much larger scales. However, aquifer heterogeities are found at all scales and generates flow heterogeneities which creates complex concentration distributions that enhances mixing. In order to assess the impact of spatial flow heterogeneities at pore scale we study concentration profiles, gradients and reaction rates using a random walk particle tracking (RWPT) method and kernel density estimators to reconstruct concentrations and gradients in two setups. First, we focus on a irreversible bimolecular reaction A+B → C under homogeneous flow to distinguish phenomena of incomplete mixing of reactants from finite-size sampling effects. Second, we analise a fast reversible bimolecular chemical reaction A+B rightleftharpoons C in a laminar Poiseuille flow reactor to determine the difference between local and global reaction rates caused by the incomplete mixing under flow heterogeneities. Simulation results for the first setup differ from the analytical solution of the continuum scale advection-dispersion-reaction equation studied by Gramling et al. (2002), which results in an overstimation quantity of reaction product (C). In the second setup, results show that actual reaction rates are bigger than the obtained from artificially mixing the system by averaging the concentration vertically. - LITERATURE Gramling, C. M.,Harvey, C. F., Meigs, and L. C., (2002). Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci

  2. Effects of manual hyperinflation in preterm newborns under mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Camila Chaves; Nicolau, Carla Marques; Juliani, Regina Celia Turola Passos; Carvalho, Werther Brunow de; Krebs, Vera Lucia Jornada

    2016-09-01

    To assess the effects of manual hyperinflation, performed with a manual resuscitator with and without the positive end-expiratory pressure valve, on the respiratory function of preterm newborns under mechanical ventilation. Cross-sectional study of hemodynamically stable preterm newborns with gestational age of less than 32 weeks, under mechanical ventilation and dependent on it at 28 days of life. Manual hyperinflation was applied randomly, alternating the use or not of the positive end-expiratory pressure valve, followed by tracheal aspiration for ending the maneuver. For nominal data, the two-tailed Wilcoxon test was applied at the 5% significance level and 80% power. Twenty-eight preterm newborns, with an average birth weight of 1,005.71 ± 372.16g, an average gestational age of 28.90 ± 1.79 weeks, an average corrected age of 33.26 ± 1.78 weeks, and an average mechanical ventilation time of 29.5 (15 - 53) days, were studied. Increases in inspiratory and expiratory volumes occurred between time-points A5 (before the maneuver) and C1 (immediately after tracheal aspiration) in both the maneuver with the valve (p = 0.001 and p = 0.009) and without the valve (p = 0.026 and p = 0.001), respectively. There was also an increase in expiratory resistance between time-points A5 and C1 (p = 0.044). Lung volumes increased when performing the maneuver with and without the valve, with a significant difference in the first minute after aspiration. There was a significant difference in expiratory resistance between the time-points A5 (before the maneuver) and C1 (immediately after tracheal aspiration) in the first minute after aspiration within each maneuver.

  3. Bactericidal effect of solar water disinfection under real sunlight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M; Sichel, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Arias-Quiroz, G B; Iriarte-Puña, M; Mercado, A; Ubomba-Jaswa, E; McGuigan, K G

    2008-05-01

    Batch solar disinfection (SODIS) inactivation kinetics are reported for suspensions in water of Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and endospores of Bacillus subtilis, exposed to strong natural sunlight in Spain and Bolivia. The exposure time required for complete inactivation (at least 4-log-unit reduction and below the limit of detection, 17 CFU/ml) under conditions of strong natural sunlight (maximum global irradiance, approximately 1,050 W m(-2) +/- 10 W m(-2)) was as follows: C. jejuni, 20 min; S. epidermidis, 45 min; enteropathogenic E. coli, 90 min; Y. enterocolitica, 150 min. Following incomplete inactivation of B. subtilis endospores after the first day, reexposure of these samples on the following day found that 4% (standard error, 3%) of the endospores remained viable after a cumulative exposure time of 16 h of strong natural sunlight. SODIS is shown to be effective against the vegetative cells of a number of emerging waterborne pathogens; however, bacterial species which are spore forming may survive this intervention process.

  4. Bactericidal Effect of Solar Water Disinfection under Real Sunlight Conditions▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M.; Sichel, C.; Fernández-Ibáñez, P.; Arias-Quiroz, G. B.; Iriarte-Puña, M.; Mercado, A.; Ubomba-Jaswa, E.; McGuigan, K. G.

    2008-01-01

    Batch solar disinfection (SODIS) inactivation kinetics are reported for suspensions in water of Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and endospores of Bacillus subtilis, exposed to strong natural sunlight in Spain and Bolivia. The exposure time required for complete inactivation (at least 4-log-unit reduction and below the limit of detection, 17 CFU/ml) under conditions of strong natural sunlight (maximum global irradiance, ∼1,050 W m−2 ± 10 W m−2) was as follows: C. jejuni, 20 min; S. epidermidis, 45 min; enteropathogenic E. coli, 90 min; Y. enterocolitica, 150 min. Following incomplete inactivation of B. subtilis endospores after the first day, reexposure of these samples on the following day found that 4% (standard error, 3%) of the endospores remained viable after a cumulative exposure time of 16 h of strong natural sunlight. SODIS is shown to be effective against the vegetative cells of a number of emerging waterborne pathogens; however, bacterial species which are spore forming may survive this intervention process. PMID:18359829

  5. Mechanisms underlying the antihypertensive effects of garlic bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouk, Reem; Abdou, Aya; Shetty, Kalidas; Sarkar, Dipayan; Eid, Ali H

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide with hypertension being a major contributing factor to cardiovascular disease-associated mortality. On a population level, non-pharmacological approaches, such as alternative/complementary medicine, including phytochemicals, have the potential to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors, including high blood pressure. Several epidemiological studies suggest an antihypertensive effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and of many its bioactive components. The aim of this review is to present an in-depth discussion regarding the molecular, biochemical and cellular rationale underlying the antihypertensive properties of garlic and its bioactive constituents with a primary focus on S-allyl cysteine and allicin. Key studies, largely from PubMed, were selected and screened to develop a comprehensive understanding of the specific role of garlic and its bioactive constituents in the management of hypertension. We also reviewed recent advances focusing on the role of garlic bioactives, S-allyl cysteine and allicin, in modulating various parameters implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. These parameters include oxidative stress, nitric oxide bioavailability, hydrogen sulfide production, angiotensin converting enzyme activity, expression of nuclear factor-κB and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. This review suggests that garlic and garlic derived bioactives have significant medicinal properties with the potential for ameliorating hypertension and associated morbidity; however, further clinical and epidemiological studies are required to determine completely the specific physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in disease prevention and management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Corrosive effects of fluoride on titanium under artificial biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Azusa; Mayanagi, Gen; Sasaki, Keiichi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) on titanium corrosion using a biofilm model, taking environmental pH into account. Streptococcus mutans cells were used as the artificial biofilm, and pH at the bacteria-titanium interface was monitored after the addition of 1% glucose with NaF (0, 225 or 900ppmF) at 37°C for 90min. In an immersion test, the titanium samples were immersed in the NaF solution (0, 225 or 900ppm F; pH 4.2 or 6.5) for 30 or 90min. Before and after pH monitoring or immersion test, the electrochemical properties of the titanium surface were measured using a potentiostat. The amount of titanium eluted into the biofilm or the immersion solution was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The color difference (ΔE*ab) and gloss of the titanium surface were determined using a spectrophotometer. After incubation with biofilm, pH was maintained at around 6.5 in the presence of NaF. There was no significant change in titanium surface and elution, regardless of the concentration of NaF. After immersion in 900ppm NaF solution at pH 4.2, corrosive electrochemical change was induced on the surface, titanium elution and ΔE*ab were increased, and gloss was decreased. NaF induces titanium corrosion in acidic environment in vitro, while NaF does not induce titanium corrosion under the biofilm because fluoride inhibits bacterial acid production. Neutral pH fluoridated agents may still be used to protect the remaining teeth, even when titanium-based prostheses are worn. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the cable coupling effects under two kinds of HEMP environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Beiyun; Zhou Hui; Xie Yanzhao

    2002-01-01

    There are various kinds of HEMP environment definitions. The coupling effects of electronic system are more different under different HEMP environment. The responds of cable of different length are investigated under 1976 HEMP and 1996 HEMP environment. The results indicate that the cable coupling effects under 1976 HEMP environment are more serious than those under 1996 HEMP environment

  8. Effect of maternal exposure to intimate partner violence on under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... women with no education had the highest rate of death of a child under-5 though this was not statistically sig- nificant (p=0.1025) while those 20-29 had a signifi- cantly higher proportion of child death under-5 years. (p=0.001) compared to women in other age category. Expectedly women in the poor wealth ...

  9. Cardiovascular effects of oesophageal dilation under general anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C H; Rasmussen, V; Rosenberg, J

    1999-01-01

    under general anaesthesia. Ten consecutive patients with benign oesophageal strictures were evaluated. Arterial oxygen saturation was measured by continuous pulse oximetry, ECG was recorded continuously with a Holter tape recorder, and blood pressure was measured non-invasively every five minutes during...

  10. Effect of paclobutrazol on three different aquatic macrophytes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three aquatic plants, coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.), hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle] and giant duckweed [Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden], were successfully surface sterilized and cultured on liquid basal MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium under aseptic conditions. Shoot explants obtained from ...

  11. The Damage Effects in Steel Bridges under Highway Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, fatigue damage accumulation in steel bridges under highway random loading is studied. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histo...

  12. Effect of maternal exposure to intimate partner violence on under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The under-5 mortality rate in many developing countries has shown little or no improvement over the years. Ravaged by war and poverty, violence which is now a norm in most African countries (including Nigeria) is on the increase and has condensed into most families with women and children bearing the ...

  13. Effect on the HANARO CNS under a HRS Malfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Woon; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Hark Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Dong Gil [GNEC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Owing to national research demands on a cold neutron beam utilization, the Cold Neutron Research Facility project has been carried out since July 2003 and is now at the completion stage of the detail design for the HANARO cold neutron source. The cold neutron source (CNS) facility, one of the main parts of the CNRF, includes the in-pool assembly (IPA) and related systems to moderate thermal neutrons through a cryogenic moderator, liquid hydrogen, into cold neutrons with the generation of a nuclear heat load, about 500 W. In order to acquire the information about the IPA integrity under a helium refrigeration system (HRS) malfunction, a thermo-siphon mock-up test has been performed using liquid hydrogen as a working fluid. Of the pressure and temperature in the IPA, the experimental results are reported in this paper to determine whether the integrity of the IPA is maintained under an abnormal condition.

  14. Effect of moisture transport on microclimate under T-shirts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiao-Qun; Imamura, Ritsuko; Liu, Guo-Lian; Zhou, Fu-Ping

    2008-09-01

    Water transport through garments has influence on the microclimate between the garments and the body beneath; thus the thermal comfort feeling for the wearer. Soybean protein fiber (SPF), a new type environmental fiber, which has been reported to be superior in water transfer, is often blended with cotton to improve the water transport property. In this paper, T-shirts made of this SPF/cotton blended fabric were focused in comparison with T-shirts made of cotton fabric. Wicking and immersion tests were carried out on the two types of fabrics to investigate the water transport and absorption properties, respectively; wear trials of T-shirts made of the fabrics were also conducted. Comparing with the cotton fabric which had better water absorptive property, it was found that the blended fabric with superior wicking ability could not only delay the increase of the vapor pressure under the T-shirt at the beginning of the exercise, but also help to keep it lower through the exercise significantly, and also kept the skin temperature under the T-shirt lower. It was made clear that it is the water transfer property rather than the water absorption property helps to take away sweat quickly and prevents the increase of the humidity and temperature at skin surface, thus maintaining a comfort microclimate under garments.

  15. Biological effects under combined action of radiation and chemical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    The paper considers the manifoild factors of environmental pollution effect upon living organisms and their possible response manifested in additivity, synergism and anthogonism. Consideration is also given to the possible practical measures for improving ecological situation and decreasing the risk of anthropogenesis negative after-effects

  16. The effectiveness of dispersants under various temperature and salinity regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

    2005-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of dispersants in Arctic waters where salinity and temperature interactions play a critical role. In particular, Corexit 9500 was tested on Alaska North Slope oil at different temperatures and salinity using the ASTM standard test and variations of this test. Results were compared to the only historically reported test in which both temperature and salinity were changed over a range of values. This series of tests demonstrated that there is an interaction between salinity, temperature and dispersant effectiveness. It was shown that conventional and currently available dispersants are nearly ineffective at 0 salinity. Dispersant effectiveness peaks at 20 to 40 units of salinity, depending on the type of dispersant. Corexit is less sensitive to salinity, while Corexit 9527 is more sensitive to salinity. There is a smooth gradient of effectiveness with salinity both as the salinity rises to a peak point of effectiveness and as it exceeds this value. Results from the 2 field trials in fresh water suggest that laboratory tests correctly conclude that the effectiveness of dispersants is very low in freshwater. The study also examined several analytical factors such as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) versus relative petroleum hydrocarbon (RPH) methods, specific versus general calibration curves, and automatic versus manual baseline placement. The analytical variations of effectiveness by RPH or TPH methods do not affect the fundamental relationship between salinity and temperature. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  17. Analyzing Bullwhip Effect in Supply Networks under Exogenous Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Darvish

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains a model for analyzing and measuring the propagation of order amplifications (i.e. bullwhip effect for a single-product supply network topology considering exogenous uncertainty and linear and time-invariant inventory management policies for network entities. The stream of orders placed by each entity of the network is characterized assuming customer demand is ergodic. In fact, we propose an exact formula in order to measure the bullwhip effect in the addressed supply network topology considering the system in Markovian chain framework and presenting a matrix of network member relationships and relevant order sequences. The formula turns out using a mathematical method called frequency domain analysis. The major contribution of this paper is analyzing the bullwhip effect considering exogenous uncertainty in supply networks and using the Fourier transform in order to simplify the relevant calculations. We present a number of numerical examples to assess the analytical results accuracy in quantifying the bullwhip effect.

  18. Peltier effect in multilayered nanopillars under high density charge current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravier, L; Fukushima, A; Kubota, H; Yamamoto, A; Yuasa, S

    2006-01-01

    From the basic equations of thermoelectricity, we model the thermal regimes that develop in multilayered nanopillar elements experiencing continuous charge currents. The energy conservation principle was applied to all layer-layer and layer-electrode junctions. The obtained set of equations was solved to derive the temperature of each junction. The contribution of the Peltier effect is included in an effective resistance. This model gives satisfactory fits to experimental data obtained on a series of reference nanopillar elements

  19. Effects of Tariffication: Tariffs, Quotas and VERs under Monopolistic Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Jan G. Jorgensen; Philipp J. H. Schröder

    2002-01-01

    Recent rounds of GATT and later WTO have advocated widespread tariffication, meaning that existing non-tariff barriers be converted into import equivalent tariffs. From an economic point of view, the effects of such tariffication are not entirely clear. The paper presents a general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition to examine the welfare effects of tariffication. The ranking of pre- and post-tariffication welfare depends crucially on the nature of the initial trade barrier and t...

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhiza effects on plant performance under osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Christian; Aroca, Ricardo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Olave, Jorge; Cartes, Paula; Borie, Fernando; Cornejo, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    At present, drought and soil salinity are among the most severe environmental stresses that affect the growth of plants through marked reduction of water uptake which lowers water potential, leading to osmotic stress. In general, osmotic stress causes a series of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that affect plant performance. Several studies have found that diverse types of soil microorganisms improve plant growth, especially when plants are under stressful conditions. Most important are the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) which form arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) with approximately 80% of plant species and are present in almost all terrestrial ecosystems. Beyond the well-known role of AM in improving plant nutrient uptake, the contributions of AM to plants coping with osmotic stress merit analysis. With this review, we describe the principal direct and indirect mechanisms by which AM modify plant responses to osmotic stress, highlighting the role of AM in photosynthetic activity, water use efficiency, osmoprotectant production, antioxidant activities, and gene expression. We also discuss the potential for using AMF to improve plant performance under osmotic stress conditions and the lines of research needed to optimize AM use in plant production.

  1. Myopic Loss Aversion under Ambiguity and Gender Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Iturbe-Ormaetxe

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests that the frequency with which individuals get feedback information on their investments has an effect on their risk-taking behavior. In particular, when they are given information sufficiently often, they take less risks compared with a situation in which they are informed less frequently. We find that this result still holds when subjects do not know the probabilities of the lotteries they are betting upon. We also detect significant gender effects, in that the frequency with which information is disclosed mostly affects male betting behavior, and that males become more risk-seeking after experiencing a loss.

  2. Myopic Loss Aversion under Ambiguity and Gender Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñigo; Ponti, Giovanni; Tomás, Josefa

    2016-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the frequency with which individuals get feedback information on their investments has an effect on their risk-taking behavior. In particular, when they are given information sufficiently often, they take less risks compared with a situation in which they are informed less frequently. We find that this result still holds when subjects do not know the probabilities of the lotteries they are betting upon. We also detect significant gender effects, in that the frequency with which information is disclosed mostly affects male betting behavior, and that males become more risk-seeking after experiencing a loss.

  3. Effect of maternal exposure to intimate partner violence on under

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... e.g. stalking, name calling, intimidation or not allowing a partner see friends or family. Intimate partner violence is the third highest cause of death among people 15-44 years of age,5 and the most common form of violence against women. Its negative effects on women's health are serious enough to be rec-.

  4. Study motivation under social temptation; effects of trait procrastination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenburg, HC; Groenewoud, J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the view that procrastination can be explained as a result of the joint effect of a general discounting mechanism and a personality trait. To demonstrate the discounting mechanism, the process of study motivation prior to an examination was mentally simulated by

  5. Effects of Mulch and Cultivar on Strawberry Productivity under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A study was conducted to determine effects of four mulches (cut grass, clear polyjilm, black polyjilm, and none) on ... Most of the time, black polyjilm growth and .... Holes were opened in the mulches to facilitate' insertion of suckers into the soil. The suckers were planted in March 2002. Cut stargrass was applied to a.

  6. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging under Ice Cooling on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the use of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in combination with ice cooling on postharvest storage life (6 days) and market quality attributes of spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaves were investigated. Crates containing the leaves were stored at ambient conditions (temperature 23.7 ± 0.5°C and relative ...

  7. Pulsed pump: Thermal effects in solid state lasers under super ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, a fourth-order super-Gaussian pulse was assumed as a pump for SSL's and a complete analytical expression for the thermal phase shift is given. ... Pulse pump; thermal effects; thermal lensing; phase shift; diode-pumped ... of sapphire's excellent thermal, physical and optical properties with a material of.

  8. Seasonal effects on potato production under conventional and small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato production in the Mt. Elgon zone of Uganda is constrained by seasonal variations, lack of clean seed and the challenges of pests and diseases. Consequently, yield hardly exceeds 2.9 t ha-1 yet a potential of 10 t ha-1 can be realised. This study was conducted to determine the effect of seasons and the small seed ...

  9. Boron effect on stainless steel plasticity under hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, S.I.; Kardonov, B.A.; Sorokina, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of boron on plasticity of stainless steels at temperatures of hot deformation has been studied at three levels of alloying, i.e. 0-0.01% (micro-alloying or modifying), 0.01-0.02% (low alloying) and 0.02-2.0% (high alloying). Introduction of 0.001-0.005% of boron increases hot plasticity of both low and high carbon stainless steels due to decrease in grain size and strengthening of grain boundaries. Microalloying by boron has a positive effect at temperatures below 1200-1220 deg C. At higher temperatures, particularly when its content exceeds 0.008%, boron deteriorates plasticity by increasing the size of grains and weakening their boundaries. 0.1-2% boron strengthen the stainless steel and dectease its plasticity

  10. Nonvolatile memory effect of tungsten nanocrystals under oxygen plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ren; Lo, Yuan-Chun; Wu, Kai-Ting; Sze, S.M.; Chen, Jason; Liao, I.H.; Yeh, Fon-Shan

    2010-01-01

    In this work, an oxygen plasma treatment was used to improve the memory effect of nonvolatile W nanocrystal memory, including memory window, retention and endurance. To investigate the role of the oxygen plasma treatment in charge storage characteristics, the X-ray photon-emission spectra (XPS) were performed to analyze the variation of chemical composition for W nanocrystal embedded oxide both with and without the oxygen plasma treatment. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were also used to identify the microstructure in the thin film and the size and density of W nanocrystals. The device with the oxygen plasma treatment shows a significant improvement of charge storage effect, because the oxygen plasma treatment enhanced the quality of silicon oxide surrounding the W nanocrystals. Therefore, the data retention and endurance characteristics were also improved by the passivation.

  11. Nonvolatile memory effect of tungsten nanocrystals under oxygen plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shih-Cheng, E-mail: scchen0213@gmail.co [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute of Electronic Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang [Department of Physics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Ren [Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China); Lo, Yuan-Chun; Wu, Kai-Ting [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Sze, S.M. [Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China); Chen, Jason; Liao, I.H. [ProMOS Technologies, No. 19 Li Hsin Rd., Science-Based Industrial Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan 300 (China); Yeh, Fon-Shan [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute of Electronic Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    In this work, an oxygen plasma treatment was used to improve the memory effect of nonvolatile W nanocrystal memory, including memory window, retention and endurance. To investigate the role of the oxygen plasma treatment in charge storage characteristics, the X-ray photon-emission spectra (XPS) were performed to analyze the variation of chemical composition for W nanocrystal embedded oxide both with and without the oxygen plasma treatment. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were also used to identify the microstructure in the thin film and the size and density of W nanocrystals. The device with the oxygen plasma treatment shows a significant improvement of charge storage effect, because the oxygen plasma treatment enhanced the quality of silicon oxide surrounding the W nanocrystals. Therefore, the data retention and endurance characteristics were also improved by the passivation.

  12. Effect of support conditions on structural response under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, T.; Memon, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In design practice, dynamic structural analysis is carried out with base of structure considered as fixed; this means that foundation is placed on rock like soil material. While conducting this type of analyses the role of foundation and soil behaviour is totally neglected. The actions in members and loads transferred at foundation level obtained in this manner do not depict the true structural behaviour. FEM (Finite Element Methods) analysis where both superstructure and foundation soil are coupled together is quite complicated and expensive for design environments. A simplified model is required to depict dynamic response of structures with foundations based on flexible soils. The primary purpose of this research is to compare the superstructure dynamic responses of structural systems with fixed base to that of simple soil model base. The selected simple soil model is to be suitable for use in a design environment to give more realistic results. For this purpose building models are idealized with various heights and structural systems in both 2D (Two Dimensional) and 3D (Three Dimensional) space. These models are then provided with visco-elastic supports representing three soil bearing capacities and the analysis results are compared to that of fixed supports models. The results indicate that fixed support system underestimates natural time period of the structures. Dynamic behavior and force response of visco-elastic support is different from fixed support model. Fixed support models result in over designed base columns and under designed beams. (author)

  13. Elastic layer under axisymmetric indentation and surface energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarit, Pong-in; Senjuntichai, Teerapong; Rungamornrat, Jaroon

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a continuum-based approach is adopted to investigate the contact problem of an elastic layer with finite thickness and rigid base subjected to axisymmetric indentation with the consideration of surface energy effects. A complete Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity is employed to consider the influence of surface stresses. The indentation problem of a rigid frictionless punch with arbitrary axisymmetric profiles is formulated by employing the displacement Green's functions, derived with the aid of Hankel integral transform technique. The problem is solved by assuming the contact pressure distribution in terms of a linear combination of admissible functions and undetermined coefficients. Those coefficients are then obtained by employing a collocation technique and an efficient numerical quadrature scheme. The accuracy of proposed solution technique is verified by comparing with existing solutions for rigid indentation on an elastic half-space. Selected numerical results for the indenters with flat-ended cylindrical and paraboloidal punch profiles are presented to portray the influence of surface energy effects on elastic fields of the finite layer. It is found that the presence of surface stresses renders the layer stiffer, and the size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is observed in the present solutions. In addition, the surface energy effects become more pronounced with smaller contact area; thus, the influence of surface energy cannot be ignored in the analysis of indentation problem especially when the indenter size is very small such as in the case of nanoindentation.

  14. Valproate effect on ketosis in children under ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilioti, Martha; Pavlou, Evangelos; Gogou, Maria; Katsanika, Irene; Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia; Grafakou, Olga; Gkampeta, Anastasia; Dinopoulos, Argyrios; Evangeliou, Athanasios

    2016-07-01

    Although ketogenic diet has been proven useful in the management of intractable seizures, interactions with other medicines have been reported. This study reports two patients on co-administration with ketogenic diet and valproate appearing undesirable side effects after increase or decrease of valproate pharmaceutical levels. Totally 75 patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy were treated with ketogenic diet in our departments. Their age varied from 6 months to 9 years. All patients were followed for at least 12 months and up to five years. Clinical and laboratory variables have been regularly assessed. In 75 patients treated with ketogenic diet and valproate at the same time treatment was well tolerated. Two patients presented mild to moderate undesirable effects. In these patients the removal of valproate treatment resulted in an increase of ketosis with respective clinical signs. The conversion of the diet from 4:1 to 1:1 and 2,5:1 respectively resulted in reduction of ketosis and clinical improvement. In the majority of cases co-administration of valproate and ketogenic diet seems to be safe. In two cases, valproate appeared to have a negative effect on ketosis (and weaning it led to over-ketosis). This interaction is worthy of future study. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  16. Study on effective prestressing effects on concrete containment under the design-basis pressure condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Feng; Pan Rong; Wang Lu; Mao Huan; Yang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Prestressing technology is widely used in nuclear power plant containment building, and the durability of containment structure is affected directly by the distribution and loss of prestressing value under design-basis pressure. Containment structure and the distribution of prestressing system are introduced briefly. Furthermore, the calculating process of horizontal prestressing bunch loss near the equipment hatch hole is put forward in details, and the containment structure prestressing loss when 5-year pressure test is obtained. Based above analysis, the finite element model of the prestressed concrete containment structure is built by using ANSYS code, the prestressing effect on concrete containment is analysed. The results show that most of the design pressure is bore by the prestressing system under the design-basis pressure, so the containment structure is safe. These conclusions are consistent with prestressing containment system design concepts, which can provide reference to the engineering staff. (authors)

  17. Effect of certain psychopharmacological preparations on adaptation under stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanishevskaya, A. V.; Mezentseva, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments staged on rats demonstrated that the formation of pathological states caused by stress and accompanied by the development of ulcerative lesion of the gastric mucosa are associated with the degree of the catecholamines level drop in the mesencephalon and hypothalamus. The application of seduxen and also of combinations consisting of L-DOPA with seduxen, or with an L-adrenoblocking agent pyroxan tends to reduce the frequency of developing alcerative lesions of the stomach. The protective effect produced by the combination of L-DOPA with an L-adrenoblocking agent pyroxan is barred by an additional administration of an B-adrenoblocking agent, inderal.

  18. Confinement Effect on Material Properties of RC Beams Under Flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sumant; Shiyekar, Mukund Ramchandra; Shiyekar, Sandip Mukund

    2017-12-01

    In structural analysis, especially in indeterminate structures, it becomes essential to know the material and geometrical properties of members. The codal provisions recommend elastic properties of concrete and steel and these are fairly accurate enough. The stress-strain curve for concrete cylinder or a cube specimen is plotted. The slope of this curve is modulus of elasticity of plain concrete. Another method of determining modulus of elasticity of concrete is by flexural test of a beam specimen. The modulus of elasticity most commonly used for concrete is secant modulus. The modulus of elasticity of steel is obtained by performing a tension test of steel bar. While performing analysis by any software for high rise building, cross area of plain concrete is taken into consideration whereas effects of reinforcement bars and concrete confined by stirrups are neglected. Present aim of study is to determine elastic properties of reinforced cement concrete beam. Two important stiffness properties such as AE and EI play important role in analysis of high rise RCC building idealized as plane frame. The experimental program consists of testing of beams (model size 150 × 150 × 700 mm) with percentage of reinforcement varying from 0.54 to 1.63% which commensurate with existing Codal provisions of IS:456-2000 for flexural member. The effect of confinement is considered in this study. The experimental results are verified by using 3D finite element techniques.

  19. Semianalytic Integration of High-Altitude Orbits under Lunisolar Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effect of lunisolar perturbations on high-altitude orbits is studied after a double averaging procedure that removes both the mean anomaly of the satellite and that of the moon. Lunisolar effects acting on high-altitude orbits are comparable in magnitude to the Earth’s oblateness perturbation. Hence, their accurate modeling does not allow for the usual truncation of the expansion of the third-body disturbing function up to the second degree. Using canonical perturbation theory, the averaging is carried out up to the order where second-order terms in the Earth oblateness coefficient are apparent. This truncation order forces to take into account up to the fifth degree in the expansion of the lunar disturbing function. The small values of the moon’s orbital eccentricity and inclination with respect to the ecliptic allow for some simplification. Nevertheless, as far as the averaging is carried out in closed form of the satellite’s orbit eccentricity, it is not restricted to low-eccentricity orbits.

  20. Effects of Ph on Calcium Carbonate Precipitation Under Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Saksono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field effect on CaCO3 precipitation is the key parameter in evaluating the effectiveness of Anti-scale Magnetic Treatment (AMT. The purpose of this study was to investigate magnetic fields influence on CaCO3 precipitation in high and low super-saturated CaCO3 solution by varied pH CaCO3 solution using circulation flow fluid system. The observation results in the high super saturated solution (pH 8.5 showed the increase of precipited CaCO3 in magnetized solutions compared to those in non-magnetic solution during circulation process. In the low super-saturated CaCO3 solution (pH 6.4 it was found that magnetic treatment increased CaCO3 precipitation after circulation process. In high super-saturated solution, magnetic field strengthens ion interactions, which reduce precipitation during circulation process. However, in low super-saturated CaCO3 solution, magnetic field weakens hydrate ion interaction which indicated by decreasing of the conductivity of solution. It increases the precipitation of CaCO3 after the circulation of magnetization process has completed.

  1. Unconventional resource's production under desorption-induced effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sina Hosseini Boosari

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a numerical model to study the effect of changes in porosity, permeability and compaction on four major U.S. shale formations considering their Langmuir isotherm desorption behavior. These resources include; Marcellus, New Albany, Barnett and Haynesville Shales. First, we introduced a model that is a physical transport of single-phase gas flow in shale porous rock. Later, the governing equations are implemented into a one-dimensional numerical model and solved using a fully implicit solution method. It is found that the natural gas production is substantially affected by desorption-induced porosity/permeability changes and geomechancis. This paper provides valuable insights into accurate modeling of unconventional reservoirs that is more significant when an even small correction to the future production prediction can enormously contribute to the U.S. economy.

  2. Effective Shear Viscosity of Iron under Shock-Loading Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiao-Juan; Liu Fu-Sheng; Sun Yan-Yun; Zhang Ming-Jian; Peng Xiao-Juan; Li Yong-Hong

    2011-01-01

    We combine the flyer-impact experiment and improve the finite difference method to solve whether the shear viscosity coefficient of shock iron is more reliable. We find that the numerical simulated profile agrees well with the measured one, from which the determined effective shear viscosity coefficients of shocked iron are 3000 ± 100 Pa·s and 4000 ± 100 Pa·s, respectively, at 103 GPa and 159 GPa. These values are more than 2000 ± 300 Pa·s of Li Y L et al.[Chin. Phys. Lett. 26 (2009) 038301] Our values are more reasonable because they are obtained from a comprehensive simulation for the full-shocked perturbation evolving process. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  3. Mössbauer spectroscopy under acoustical excitation: thick target effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, E. K.; Yurichuk, A. A.; Vagizov, F. G.; Mubarakshin, Sh. I.; Valiullin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    A new model of Mössbauer absorption (transmission) spectra with an adequate analysis of the possible effects of acoustic excitation in the thick targets is proposed. In particular, the dependence of the line width of acoustical satellites on the degree of phase correlation of the sound oscillations of resonant nuclei in the target is established by calculations and confirmed in experiment. Such a model is stimulated by an increase in the informativeness of the Mössbauer experiments, using thick samples in ultrasound (US) field, and by possible applications of this research technique. The test measurements of Mössbauer absorption spectra on stainless steel are carried out. The fitting of these spectra confirms the relevance of modifications of the model base of Mössbauer processes in US field.

  4. Landau–Zener evolution under weak measurement: manifestation of the Zeno effect under diabatic and adiabatic measurement protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novelli, Anna; Belzig, Wolfgang; Nitzan, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution and the asymptotic outcome of a Landau–Zener–Stueckelberg–Majorana (LZ) process under continuous weak non-selective measurement is analyzed. We compare two measurement protocols in which the populations of either the adiabatic or the non-adiabatic levels are (continuously and weakly) monitored. The weak measurement formalism, described using a Gaussian Kraus operator, leads to a time evolution characterized by a Markovian dephasing process, which, in the non-adiabatic measurement protocol is similar to earlier studies of LZ dynamics in a dephasing environment. Casting the problem in the language of measurement theory makes it possible for us to compare diabatic and adiabatic measurement scenarios, to consider engineered dephasing as a control device and to examine the manifestation of the Zeno effect under the different measurement protocols. In particular, under measurement of the non-adiabatic populations, the Zeno effect is manifested not as a freezing of the measured system in its initial state, but rather as an approach to equal asymptotic populations of the two diabatic states. This behavior can be traced to the way by which the weak measurement formalism behaves in the strong measurement limit, with a built-in relationship between measurement time and strength. (paper)

  5. Psychological effects of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads under advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Steven J; Simmons, Tony; Fitzgerald, David M; Mitchell, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are standard therapy for patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death. Device implantation is a stressful event that has been associated with patient and anticipatory anxiety. While the psychological effects of normally functioning ICDs are known, only a dearth of literature evaluates how a warning about the potential for malfunction of an ICD lead, related to a device advisory, influences the degree of psychological distress. These effects are evaluated in a patient population with the Medtronic Sprint Fidelis defibrillation lead 6949 (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). A sample of 413 patients were studied. Groups included 158 with an advisory Medtronic 6949 and 255 with an ICD that had no current advisories. Patients were administered a validated disease-specific metric assessing concerns over ICDs, as well as a demographics questionnaire. The primary outcome was the total score on the ICD concerns (ICDC). Analysis was with one-way Analysis of Variance with preplanned orthogonal contrasts and multivariate regression. The advisory group tended to have higher numbers of high school and college graduates. The average length of device implant in the nonadvisory group was higher at 4.29 years versus 3.99 years in the advisory group (t = 0.901, P ≤ 0.5). A higher percentage of those with an advisory experienced more shocks (39% vs 32%; z =-1.51, P ≤ 0.5). Average ICDC scores in the advisory group with previous shock were significantly higher than in the nonadvisory group with prior shock ([27.7 standard deviation (SD) ± 14.5] vs [18.5 SD ± 12.5], P = 0.0001) . Average ICDC score in the advisory group without shock was also significantly elevated compared to the nonadvisory group (18.5 SD ± 14.5 vs 10.8, SD ± 12.5, P = 0.0001). There was a significant effect of having an advisory on total ICDC scores (F = 21.32, P ≤ 0.0001). History of shock also significantly increased total ICDC scores (F = 20.07, P

  6. Effect of flexibility on flapping wing characteristics under forward flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jianyang; Jiang, Lin; Zhou, Chaoying; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Through two-dimensional numerical simulation and by solving the unsteady incompressible Navier–Stokes (NS) equations, coupled with the structural dynamic equation for the motion of the wing, the effect of flexibility on flapping wing characteristics during forward flight is systematically studied. The flapping wing is considered as a cantilever, which performs the translational and rotational motion at its leading edge, and the other part is passively deformed by the aerodynamic force. The frequency ratio ω* and mass ratio m* are defined and used to characterize the flexibility of the flapping wing. It has been found that an optimal range of the frequency ratio exists in which the flexible wing possesses both a larger propulsive efficiency and lifting efficiency than their rigid counterpart. Also, the flexible wing with the smaller mass ratio may be of benefit to generate thrust, while the larger mass ratio may be of benefit to generate lift. In addition, a stronger leading edge vortex and reattachment vortex are observed around the appropriate flexibility wing’s surface, which therefore leads to better aerodynamic characteristics. (paper)

  7. Capillary filling under electro-osmotic effects in the presence of electromagneto-hydrodynamic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nikhil; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman

    2014-06-01

    We report various regimes of capillary filling dynamics under electromagneto-hydrodynamic interactions, in the presence of electrical double layer effects. Our chosen configuration considers an axial electric field and transverse magnetic field acting on an electrolyte. We demonstrate that for positive interfacial potential, the movement of the capillary front resembles capillary rise in a vertical channel under the action of gravity. We also evaluate the time taken by the capillary front to reach the final equilibrium position for positive interfacial potential and show that the presence of a transverse magnetic field delays the time of travel of the liquid front, thereby sustaining the capillary motion for a longer time. Our scaling estimates reveal that the initial linear regime starts, as well as ends, much earlier in the presence of electrical and magnetic body forces, as compared to the corresponding transients observed under pure surface tension driven flow. We further obtain a long time solution for the capillary imbibition for positive interfacial potential, and derive a scaling estimate of the capillary stopping time as a function of the applied magnetic field and an intrinsic length scale delineating electromechanical influences of the electrical double layer. Our findings are likely to offer alternative strategies of controlling dynamical features of capillary imbibition, by modulating the interplay between electromagnetic interactions, electrical double layer phenomena, and hydrodynamics over interfacial scales.

  8. Oxidation pathways underlying the pro-oxidant effects of apigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andueza, Aitor; García-Garzón, Antonia; Ruiz de Galarreta, Marina; Ansorena, Eduardo; Iraburu, María J; López-Zabalza, María J; Martínez-Irujo, Juan J

    2015-10-01

    Apigenin, a natural flavone, is emerging as a promising compound for the treatment of several diseases. One of the hallmarks of apigenin is the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), as judged by the oxidation of reduced dichlorofluorescein derivatives seen in many cell types. This study aimed to reveal some mechanisms by which apigenin can be oxidized and how apigenin-derived radicals affect the oxidation of 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (H(2)DCF), a probe usually employed to detect intracellular ROS. Apigenin induced a rapid oxidation of H(2)DCF in two different immortalized cell lines derived from rat and human hepatic stellate cells. However, apigenin did not generate ROS in these cells, as judged by dihydroethidium oxidation and extracellular hydrogen peroxide production. In cell-free experiments we found that oxidation of apigenin leads to the generation of a phenoxyl radical, which directly oxidizes H(2)DCF with catalytic amounts of hydrogen peroxide. The net balance of the reaction was the oxidation of the probe by molecular oxygen due to redox cycling of apigenin. This flavonoid was also able to deplete NADH and glutathione by a similar mechanism. Interestingly, H(2)DCF oxidation was significantly accelerated by apigenin in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and xanthine oxidase, but not with other enzymes showing peroxidase-like activity, such as cytochrome c or catalase. We conclude that in cells treated with apigenin oxidation of reduced dichlorofluorescein derivatives does not measure intracellular ROS and that pro- and antioxidant effects of flavonoids deduced from these experiments are inconclusive and must be confirmed by other techniques. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Mechanisms Underlying the Nonconsumptive Effects of Parasitoid Wasps on Aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingerslew, K S; Finke, D L

    2017-02-01

    Natural enemies need not consume herbivores to suppress herbivore populations. Behavioral interactions can adversely impact herbivore fitness from reduced time feeding, investment in defense, or injury from failed attacks. The importance of such "nonconsumptive effects" for herbivore suppression may vary across species based on the specificity and intensity of the herbivore defensive response. In a series of manipulative studies, we quantified the nature and consequences of nonconsumptive interactions between two parasitoid wasps, Aphidius ervi Haliday and Aphidius colemani Viereck, on two aphid species, pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris)) and green peach aphids (Myzus persicae (Sulzer)). Both wasps successfully parasitize green peach aphids, but only A. ervi parasitizes pea aphids. We observed A. ervi antennating and stinging pea aphids and documented a decrease in pea aphid longevity in response to stinging even when the aphid survived the interaction and no mummy formed. The primary defensive tactic of pea aphids in response to either wasp species was dropping from the host plant. Both wasp species antennated and stung green peach aphids, but they elicited unique defensive behaviors. Green peach aphids kicked or emitted cornicle secretions in response to A. colemani but spent more time off the plant in the presence of A. ervi. Green peach aphid longevity and fecundity were not affected by wasp stings when the aphid survived and no mummy formed. Our study demonstrates the complexity of behavioral interactions between parasitoids and their potential hosts and contributes to a mechanistic understanding of variation in the nonconsumptive suppression of herbivore populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Sex effects on inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramien, Caren; Taenzer, Aline; Lupu, Andreea; Heckmann, Nina; Engler, Jan Broder; Patas, Kostas; Friese, Manuel A; Gold, Stefan M

    2016-08-01

    Clinical observations in human autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) suggest a pivotal role of sex-related factors in the etiopathogenesis. These include a female preponderance in MS incidence and an increasing sex bias over time, a parent-of-origin effect in MS inheritance, and the protective effect of pregnancy on disease activity. The complex interplay of factors contributing to these clinical phenomena, however, is incompletely understood and may include sex hormones as well as genetic or epigenetic sex differences. While genetic and hormonal effects are impossible to study independently in humans, novel mouse models have started to unravel the cause-effect relationship between individual sex-related factors and autoimmunity. Here, we present the evidence for mechanisms underlying sex differences in the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) and how these might help to explain some of the clinically observed sex differences in MS. A better understanding of the molecular underpinnings may ultimately help to devise sex-specific treatment strategies as well as highlight novel avenues for therapy in both sexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The joint flanker effect and the joint Simon effect: On the comparability of processes underlying joint compatibility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Kerstin; Bossert, Marie-Luise; Rothe-Wulf, Annelie; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies observed compatibility effects in different interference paradigms such as the Simon and flanker task even when the task was distributed across two co-actors. In both Simon and flanker tasks, performance is improved in compatible trials relative to incompatible trials if one actor works on the task alone as well as if two co-actors share the task. These findings have been taken to indicate that actors automatically co-represent their co-actor's task. However, recent research on the joint Simon and joint flanker effect suggests alternative non-social interpretations. To which degree both joint effects are driven by the same underlying processes is the question of the present study, and it was scrutinized by manipulating the visibility of the co-actor. While the joint Simon effect was not affected by the visibility of the co-actor, the joint flanker effect was reduced when participants did not see their co-actors but knew where the co-actors were seated. These findings provide further evidence for a spatial interpretation of the joint Simon effect. In contrast to recent claims, however, we propose a new explanation of the joint flanker effect that attributes the effect to an impairment in the focusing of spatial attention contingent on the visibility of the co-actor.

  12. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and under-2-years child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2010-01-01

    A number of trials on maternal multi-micronutrient supplementation (MMS) have found a benefical effect on birth weight, but few have demonstrated a beneficial effect on infant survival. We examined the effect of two different preparations of antenatal MMS on fetal loss and under-2-years child...

  13. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and under-2-years child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2010-01-01

    A number of trials on maternal multi-micronutrient supplementation (MMS) have found a benefical effect on birth weight, but few have demonstrated a beneficial effect on infant survival. We examined the effect of two different preparations of antenatal MMS on fetal loss and under-2-years child mor...

  14. Effect of normal stress under an excitation in poroelastic flat slabs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of normal stress under an excitation in poroelastic flat slabs. BS Rani, T Ramesh, PM Reddy. Abstract. Biot's poroelastic theory is employed to investigate stresses under an excitation in an infinite poroelastic slab of arbitrary thickness. Both for pervious and impervious surfaces, the radial normal stress is obtained, and ...

  15. On electro-hydrodynamic effects over liquids under influence of corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, V. L.; Abakumov, V. I.; Bikmukhametova, A. R.; Chernikov, V. A.; Safronenkov, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Electrohydrodynamic effects over liquids under high voltage electrode are considered in experiments with corona discharge. Simple theory is applied for description of a funnel appearance over a liquid is presented. New types of electrohydrodynamic instabilities are revealed.

  16. Interactivity effects in social media marketing on brand engagement: an investigation of underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; van Noort, G.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Although, SNS advertising spending increases, research on SNS campaigning is still underexposed. First, this study aims to investigate the effect of SNS campaign interactivity on the receivers brand engagement, taking four underlying mechanisms into account (brand identification, campaign

  17. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  18. The effect of torsional muscle dysfunction and surgery on eye position under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, L C; Isenberg, S J; Apt, L

    1993-01-01

    Under general anesthesia, normal eyes exhibit 2.0 degrees to 2.5 degrees of extorsion. To investigate the effect of torsional muscle dysfunction and surgery on eye position under general anesthesia, we measured the torsional change before and after torsional muscle surgery in 26 eyes of 18 patients with clinical torsional muscle dysfunction. Under general anesthesia, compared with normals, eyes with preoperative intorter overaction or extorter underaction demonstrated a significant intorsional change (P extorsion while intorter strengthening procedures and extorter weakening procedures produced measurable intorsion. Superior oblique tenotomy produced a greater net torsional change than inferior oblique weakening surgery (P < .01). Under general anesthesia, eyes with preoperative torsional muscle dysfunction exhibit torsion in the direction consistent with the dysfunction. After surgery on the torsional muscles, a measurable torsional effect can be demonstrated while the patient is still under general anesthesia.

  19. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  20. Current Percolation in Medium with Boundaries under Quantum Hall Effect Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Malakeeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current percolation has been considered in the medium with boundaries under quantum Hall effect conditions. It has been shown that in that case the effective Hall conductivity has a nonzero value due to percolation of the Hall current through the finite number of singular points (in our model these are corners at the phase joints.

  1. A theoretical model of the evolution of maternal effects under parent-offspring conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido

    The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict

  2. Experimental study on the Kaiser effect of AE under multiaxial loading in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hidehiko; Hiroi, Takehiro

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the in-situ stresses is essential for underground excavation design, particularly in evaluating stability of excavation. Acoustic Emission method, which utilizes the Kaiser effect, is one of the simple methods for measuring in-situ stresses. Experiments on the Kaiser effect has been carried out under uniaxial compression and triaxial compression (σ 1 > σ 2 = σ 3 ), but has not been carried out under the three different principal stresses (σ 1 > σ 2 > σ 3 ). In this study, we performed two experiments on the Kaiser effect under multiaxial loading, using a hollow cylindrical granite specimen. The rapidly increasing point of cumulative AE event count was determined as the peak point of AE event count rate increment (AERI). The main results are summarized as follows. (1) In the case of the cyclic incremental σ 1 loading under σ 2 ≠σ 3 , the large peak point of AERI appeared just before the pre-stress level. And as more stresses prior to just before the peak point were estimated, the estimated error showed a tendency to increase. (2) In the case of re-loading under the lower σ 2 and σ 3 more than pre-loading, the estimated stresses using the three peak points of AERI corresponded to the pre-differential stresses (σ 1 -σ 2 ), (σ 1 -σ 3 ) and pre-axial stress σ 1 . The magnitudes of the three principal stresses were estimated under multiaxial loading from the Kaiser effect, using only one specimen. (author)

  3. The effects of defects on copper melting under hydrostatic and shock loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; An, Qi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Li - Bo [USTC

    2009-07-24

    With molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigate the effects of defects on Cu melting under hydrostatic and shock wave loading. We explore preexistent defects including vacancies, stacking faults and grain boundaries, as well as shock-induced defects. Depending on defect characteristics (energy and concentration), defects may have negligible or considerable effects on melting at MD scales However, it is expected that defects have more pronounced effects at heating rates lower than the MD rates.

  4. Stochastic description of compounds stability under irradiation: Temperature, flux and cascade size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, N.V.; Martin, G.; Haider, F.; Bellon, P.

    1989-01-01

    Assessing cascade size effects on compound stability under irradiation requires a safe stochastic description of the order-disorder transition under external forcing. To address multidimensional order parameter structures, we introduce the Kubo Ansatz technique and apply it to the FCC lattice. Irradiation-induced stabilization of unexpected structures is predicted: a diagram for the respective stability of L1 2 , L1 0 and disordered FCC solid solution is established

  5. Effects of Irrigation on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Wheat under Drip Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenhua Wang; Guojun Jiang; Xurong Zheng

    2014-01-01

    In arid areas, wheat Growth and yield is extremely significant affected by irrigation, under different study of drip irrigation, the irrigation amount has impact on the physiological indicators of wheat, in order to help improve the efficiency of irrigation water use. In order to reveal the effects of irrigation on photosynthetic characteristics of the Wheat Under Drip Irrigation (WUDI), we designed four different irrigation treatments as W1 (315 mm), W2 (360 mm), W3 (405 mm) and W4 (450 mm) ...

  6. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Men under Methadone Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    L Mohammadi; M Salehzade Abarghoei; M Nasirian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Today, third wave therapy in psychotherapy puts special emphasis on the individuals’ awareness  as well as their emotional and cognitive acceptance rather than challenging the cognitions. Therfore, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on cognitive emotion regulation in the addicted men under Methadone treatment. Method: The study population consisted of all the addicted men under Methadone treatment referring to an addiction ...

  7. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LARISSA C. SNEIDERIS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress.

  8. [Effects of eutrophic nitrogen nutrition on carbon balance capacity of Liquidambar formosana seedlings under low light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan-Hua; Li, Jun-Qing; Yang, Ying

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on the seedlings regeneration of Liquidambar formosana, a greenhouse experiment was conducted, in which, the low light- and nitrogen supplies were controlled similar to those in typical L. formosana secondary forests, with the effects of different light- and nitrogen supply on the L. formosana seedlings survival, leaf functional traits, biomass allocation, and gas exchange studied. The whole plant light compensation point (LCP(whoIe-plant)) of the seedlings was estimated with a whole plant carbon balance model, and then compared with the understory photosynthetic active radiance (PAR) of the typical secondary forests. Under 3.0% and 6.0% of full sunlight, eutrophic nitrogen supply led to a decrease of seedlings survival (shade tolerance) and specific leaf area (SLA), but had no obvious effects on the seedlings biomass allocation. At eutrophic nitrogen supply, light intensity had significant effects on the leaf area based maximum assimilation rate, whereas increasing nitrogen supply under low light induced the increase of leaf mass based dark respiration rate. Both light intensity and nitrogen supply had significant effects on the mass based leaf respiration rate, and the interaction of light and nitrogen had significant effects on the mass based stem respiration rate. Increasing nitrogen supply increased the LCP(wholeplant), under 3.0%, 6.0%, and 12.0% of full sunlight, but decreased the LCP(whoIe-plant) under 25.0% of full sunlight. The decrease of the seedlings shade tolerance induced by the increasing nitrogen supply under low light was correlated with the variations of the seedlings carbon balance capacity. Under the background of elevated atmospheric nitrogen deposition, the maintenance of L. formosana populations in China would more depend on disturbances and gap regeneration, and the population dynamics would be deeply affected.

  9. Effects of Charter Party Arbitration Clauses Under the New Turkish Commercial Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Algantürk Light

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The New Turkish Commercial Code has became effective on 1 July 2012. The new Code covers bareboat charterparty, time charterparty, voyage charterparty and contracts of carriage by sea which is defined in general terms. On the other hand, Turkey is the one of the conracting State of Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York Convention, 1958 as well as European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration, 1961. In this study, we will examine the effects of the charter party arbitration clauses under the new Turkish Commercial Code and discuss the characteristics of the clauses to be valid under Turkish Law.

  10. The Energy Effectiveness Of Crops In Crop Rotation Under Different Soil Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašil Zdeněk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and compares the energy balance of winter wheat, spring barley and white mustard – all grown in crop rotation under different tillage conditions. The field trial included the conventional tillage (CT method, minimum tillage (MT and a system with no tillage (NT. The energy inputs included both the direct and indirect energy component. Energy outputs are evaluated as gross calorific value (gross heating value of phytomass dry matter of the primary product and the total harvested production. The energy effectiveness (energy output: energy input was selected for evaluation. The greatest energy effectiveness for the primary product was established as 6.35 for barley, 6.04 for wheat and 3.68 for mustard; in the case of total production, it was 9.82 for barley, 10.08 for wheat and 9.72 for mustard. When comparing the different tillage conditions, the greatest energy effectiveness was calculated for the evaluated crops under the MT operation and represented the primary product of wheat at 6.49, barley at 6.69 and mustard at 3.92. The smallest energy effectiveness for the primary product was found in wheat 5.77 and barley 6.10 under the CT option; it was 3.55 for mustard under the option of NT. Throughout the entire cropping pattern, the greatest energy effectiveness was established under the minimum tillage option – 5.70 for the primary product and 10.47 for the total production. On the other hand, the smallest values were calculated under CT – 5.22 for the primary product and 9.71 for total production.

  11. [Priming Effects of Soil Moisture on Soil Respiration Under Different Tillage Practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liang, Ai-zhen; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Sheng-long; Sun, Bing-jie; Liu, Si-yi

    2016-03-15

    In the early stage of an incubation experiment, soil respiration has a sensitive response to different levels of soil moisture. To investigate the effects of soil moisture on soil respiration under different tillage practices, we designed an incubation trial using air-dried soil samples collected from tillage experiment station established on black soils in 2001. The tillage experiment consisted of no-tillage (NT), ridge tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (CT). According to field capacity (water-holding capacity, WHC), we set nine moisture levels including 30%, 60%, 90%, 120%, 150%, 180%, 210%, 240%, 270% WHC. During the 22-day short-term incubation, soil CO₂ emission was measured. In the early stage of incubation, the priming effects occurred under all tillage practices. There were positive correlations between soil respiration and soil moisture. In addition to drought and flood conditions, soil CO₂ fluxes followed the order of NT > RT > CT. We fitted the relationship between soil moisture and soil CO₂ fluxes under different tillage practices. In the range of 30%-270% WHC, soil CO₂ fluxes and soil moisture fitted a quadratic regression equation under NT, and linear regression equations under RT and CT. Under the conditions of 30%-210% WHC of both NT and RT, soil CO₂ fluxes and soil moisture were well fitted by the logarithmic equation with fitting coefficient R² = 0.966 and 0.956, respectively.

  12. The effect of light-cured nanofilled composite resin shades on their under-surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanum, U. A.; Herda, E.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the effect of shades of light-cured nanofilled composite resins on their under-surface temperature. Resin composites specimens of shades bright, medium, and dark shade were obtained from a cylindrical mold. While polymerizing using a curing unit, the under-surface temperature was determined at the bottom of the specimens using a thermocouple wire 20 sec after the start. Results showed that the under-surface temperature of the darker shade specimens were relatively higher that those of the brighter shades with significant diffferences between the resin composites of different shades. To conlude, the under-surface temperature of the light-cured nanofilled resin composites raised from the brighter to the darker shades.

  13. The Effectiveness of "Teach for America" and Other Under-certified Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Laczko-Kerr

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The academic achievements of students taught by under-certified primary school teachers were compared to the academic achievements of students taught by regularly certified primary school teachers.  This sample of under-certified teachers included three types of under-qualified personnel: emergency, temporary and provisionally certified teachers.  One subset of these under-certified teachers was from the national program "Teach For America (TFA."  Recent college graduates are placed by TFA where other under-qualified under-certified teachers are often called upon to work, namely, low-income urban and rural school districts. Certified teachers in this study were from accredited universities and all met state requirements for receiving the regular initial certificate to teach.  Recently hired under-certified and certified teachers (N=293 from five low-income school districts were matched on a number of variables, resulting in 109 pairs of teachers whose students all took the mandated state achievement test. Results indicate 1 that students of TFA teachers did not perform significantly different from students of other under-certified teachers, and 2 that students of certified teachers out-performed students of teachers who were under-certified.  This was true on all three subtests of the SAT 9—reading, mathematics and language arts.  Effect sizes favoring the students of certified teachers were substantial.  In reading, mathematics, and language, the students of certified teachers outperformed students of under-certified teachers, including the students of the TFA teachers, by about 2 months on a grade equivalent scale.  Students of under-certified teachers make about 20% less academic growth per year than do students of teachers with regular certification.  Traditional programs of teacher preparation apparently result in positive effects on the academic achievement of low-income primary school children.  Present

  14. Effect of aromatherapy massage on elderly patients under long-term hospitalization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Tadaaki; Chikama, Mizuki; Chikama, Yoshiko; Hachigo, Masato; Urayama, Haruna; Murakami, Shio; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Koikem, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    To verify the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage on elderly patients under long-term hospitalization. Aromatherapy massage was performed twice a week for a total of eight times. Nursing home. Elderly women under long-term hospitalization. Questionnaire and measurement of stress marker levels (salivary amylase activity) before and after the first, fifth, and eighth aromatherapy massages. Questionnaire (Face scale, General Health Questionnaire-12 [GHQ-12]), measurement of salivary amylase activity. A decrease in stress after aromatherapy massage compared to before each massage was confirmed at all measurement times and with the stress marker. No marked reduction was observed in Face scale or saliva amylase activity as a whole over the long term, although decreasing tendencies were seen. Marked reductions in GHQ-12 were observed over the long term. Aroma massage appears likely to prove effective in reducing psychological stress among elderly patients under long-term hospitalization.

  15. The effect of shiatsu massage on underlying anxiety in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaddes Ardabili, Fatemeh; Purhajari, Soybeh; Najafi Ghzeljeh, Tahereh; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Burn patients experience high levels of predictable anxiety during dressing changes while anti-anxiety drugs cannot control these anxieties. The nurses can limit the side effects of medications by undertaking complementary therapies. Hand pressure massage was introduced as a technique that can reduce these anxieties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hand pressure massage using Shiatsu method on underlying anxiety in burn patients. In an available randomized study, 60 burn patients with underlying pain were enrolled. They were randomly allocated in two groups of hand massage and the control. The anxiety of underlying burn pain before and after the massage was evaluated using Burn Specific Pain Anxiety Scale (BSPAS). The difference for anxiety scores in the hand Shiatsu massage group before and after massage were statistically significant, but in the control group was not significant. Based on our findings, 20 minutes of hand Shiatsu massage in conjunction with analgesic medications can be beneficial to control the anxiety of burn patients.

  16. The Effect of Shiatsu Massage on Underlying Anxiety in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddes Ardabili, Fatemeh; Purhajari, Soybeh; Najafi Ghzeljeh, Tahereh; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burn patients experience high levels of predictable anxiety during dressing changes while anti-anxiety drugs cannot control these anxieties. The nurses can limit the side effects of medications by undertaking complementary therapies. Hand pressure massage was introduced as a technique that can reduce these anxieties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hand pressure massage using Shiatsu method on underlying anxiety in burn patients. METHODS In an available randomized stu...

  17. Effect of methanol on the liquefaction reaction of biomass in hot compressed water under microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chun-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2013-01-01

    Liquefaction of sawdust was studied in methanol-water solutions using an acid catalyst under microwave energy. The effect of the methanol concentration on the changes of components in the liquefied products was analyzed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS). It was found that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid are the...

  18. Stover removal effects on continuous corn yield and nitrogen use efficiency under irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue or stover is harvested as supplemental feed for livestock and is a primary feedstock for cellulosic biofuels. Limited information is available on corn residue removal effects on grain yield under different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates, irrigation rates and amelioration pr...

  19. Effect of rainfall and under-canopy vegetation on the ability to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combined effects of seasonal variation in rainfall and the presence or absence of under-canopy vegetation on soil moisture content may have a negative or positive impact on the ability to debark eucalypts. A study was initiated to investigate these interactions on the ability to debark Eucalyptus grandis x E.

  20. Effect of health education on hand washing of mothers of under five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age in middle and low income countries. Nearly one in five child deaths is due to diarrhea and globally it accounts for 1.5million deaths annually. Although hand washing with soap is effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhea ...

  1. Effects of Missing Data Methods in SEM under Conditions of Incomplete and Nonnormal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lomax, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, this research examined the performance of four missing data methods in SEM under different multivariate distributional conditions. The effects of four independent variables (sample size, missing proportion, distribution shape, and factor loading magnitude) were investigated on six outcome variables: convergence rate,…

  2. Immediate effect of instrumentation on the subgingival microflora in deep inflamed pockets under strict plaque control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhemrev, GE; Timmerman, MF; Veldkamp, A; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Van der Velden, U

    Objective: To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Materials and Method: Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at

  3. Effect of abiotic stress under light and dark conditions on carotenoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of abiotic stress under light and dark conditions on pumpkin calluses carotenoid. Plant elicitors used to create abiotic stress in this study were Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for drought stress, Jasmonic Acid and Salicylic Acid for hormones stress and Murashige and Skoog Salt for ...

  4. Analysis on stress state of box-girder web under prestressing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Haijun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of prestressed box girder webs stresss state, determining the stress distribution within a web, research and analysis of vertical prestressed box girder, curved beam prestressed sensitivity under the web. Establishing the finite element model of the box girder web vertical prestressing effect is analyzed, results show that the principal tensile stress of the web is sensitive to the vertical prestress, applying the vertical prestress can effectively reduce the principal tensile stress of the web; with the decrease of the effective vertical prestress, the neutral axis above the principal compressive stress decreases rapidly, while below the neutral axis decreases relatively slow; Under the same vertical preloading stress level, the roots of cross section of the compressive stress of web reserves than L / 4 section of the web. Calculation and analysis of curved beam under bending point, different bending angles and bending radius of principal stress effect on the web, Results show that the set of curved beam web when the curved beam bending stress concentration easily, appear the main tensile stress; Increase the bending radius can effectively reduce beam cross-section of web principal tensile stress, along with the rising of the next corner, principal tensile stress peak value increases gradually, thus setting bending beam, should try to reduce the bending angle.

  5. Effect Analysis of Service Supply Chain with Dynamic Game under the Condition of Sensitive Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the real circumstances of service supply chain, there is one demand appearing as the sensitive feature, to face the increasing uncertainty. It could be elaborated upon the decision variables such as price, quantity, and efforts. The member behaviors are operated and coordinated in the process of multiperiod dynamic game. Based on the multiperiod dynamic game theory, the service demand and price, quantity of goods, and efforts of members in the secondary service supply chain are considered. The paper discusses the reputation effect and ratchet effect in the multiperiod dynamic game service supply chain. Additionally, the paper describes this problem, builds a programming model based on the multiperiod dynamic game, and deduces the optimal solution. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the impact of reputation effect and ratchet effect on the agent’s revenue. Through the simulation, it is found that the agency efforts are a combination result of reputation effect and ratchet effect in the process of multiperiod dynamic game. Through the long-term dynamic game, the short-term moral risk in service supply chain can be restrained so that the result under the asymmetric information is the same as that under the complete information.

  6. Proteomic study on the effects of silver nanoparticles on soybean under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Sakata, Katsumi; Hossain, Zahed; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-06-03

    Flooding negatively affects the soybean growth; however, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) enhanced the growth under stress. To study the effects of AgNPs on soybean under flooding, a gel-free proteomic technique was used. The morphological analysis of early-stage soybean exposed to flooding with AgNPs of various sizes and concentrations revealed enhanced seedling growth by treatment with 15n m AgNPs at 2 ppm. Differentially changed 107 root proteins were predominantly associated with stress, signaling, and cell metabolism. Hierarchical clustering divided these proteins into 3 clusters. Based on cluster analysis, the abundances of glyoxalase II 3 and fermentation related proteins were time-dependently increased under flooding stress, but decreased in response to AgNPs. Six enzymes involved in metabolic pathways were analyzed at the transcriptional level. The alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and pyruvate decarboxylase 2 genes were up-regulated under flooding stress while down-regulated in response to AgNPs. Moreover, comparatively low transcript level of glyoxalase II 3 under AgNPs treatment implies that less cytotoxic by-products of glycolysis are produced in AgNPs exposed soybeans as compared to flooded soybean. These results suggest that the AgNPs treated soybeans might have experienced less oxygen-deprivation stress, which might be the key factor for better growth performance of AgNPs treated soybeans under flooding stress. This study highlighted the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the soybean under flooding stress. Silver nanoparticles (2 ppm AgNPs, 15 nm in size) treatment facilitate the soybean under flooding stress enhancing seedling growth. A time-course comparative gel-free proteomic study was performed to analyze the changes inproteome profiles in response to AgNPs treatment under flooding. The 107 differentially changed root proteins were predominantly associated with stress, signaling, cell metabolism. The abundances of the glyoxalase II 3 and fermentation

  7. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Low Impact Development Practices (LIDs) under Various Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, M.; Jaber, F. H.

    2014-12-01

    Stormwater problems from urban development have been occurring in recent years in the United States. Low Impact Development practices (LIDs) have been used as an alternative stormwater management approach in urban areas. The effects of LIDs on hydrology and water quality have been indicated to be positive through much of research, showing the decrease of surface runoff volumes and pollutant loadings. However, LIDs can cause different effectiveness under a variety of conditions. In this study, the effectiveness of LIDs was assessed under various urban planning (a compact high-density urban type (UHD), a conventional medium-density urban type (UMD), and a conservational medium-density urban type (UMC)) and under various LIDs conditions (types, locations, and percent allocations of LIDs) for surface runoff, nitrate, and total phosphorus to evaluate the effectiveness of LIDs for these conditions at a development scale. Rain gardens, rainwater harvesting systems, and permeable pavements were considered for simulations. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used and model development was performed to simulate the LIDs considered. A manual optimization was used to identify the LIDs conditions that meet both targeted reduction amounts and minimal cost. The effectiveness of LIDs was evaluated for the three urban land uses and for the optimized LIDs conditions. The study demonstrated different effectiveness of LIDs under various conditions considered. Under the condition of the urban land uses, the largest reduction by LIDs occurred in the order of following land uses for all variables: in UMD land use > in UMC land use > in UHD land use. Among post-LIDs scenarios, the UHD land use represented low values for surface runoff and nitrate and the UMD land use for TP. For the LIDs optimization, the various combinations of type, location, and percent allocation for each variable changed the effectiveness of LIDs and/or caused the same effectiveness of LIDs. This study can

  8. Effectiveness of dye sensitised solar cell under low light condition using wide band dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin, E-mail: ahmadzsahmer@gmail.com; Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Zaine, Siti Nur Azella, E-mail: ct.azella@gmail.com [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dye sensistised solar cell (DSC) based on nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} has the potential to be used in indoor consumer power application. In realizing this, the DSC must be optimized to generate power under low lighting condition and under wider visible light range. The use of wide band dye N749 which has a wider spectrum sensitivity increases the photon conversion to electron between the visible light spectrums of 390nm to 700nm. This paper reports the study on the effectiveness of the dye solar cell with N749 dye under low light condition in generating usable power which can be used for indoor consumer application. The DSC was fabricated using fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass with screen printing method and the deposited TiO{sub 2} film was sintered at 500°C. The TiO{sub 2} coated FTO glass was then soaked in the N749 dye, assembled into test cell, and tested under the standard test condition at irradiance of 1000 W/m{sup 2} with AM1.5 solar soaker. The use of the 43T mesh for the dual pass screen printing TiO{sub 2} paste gives a uniform TiO{sub 2} film layer of 16 µm. The low light condition was simulated using 1/3 filtered irradiance with the solar soaker. The fabricated DSC test cell with the N749 dye was found to have a higher efficiency of 6.491% under low light condition compared to the N719 dye. Under the standard test condition at 1 sun the N749 test cell efficiency is 4.55%. The increases in efficiency is attributed to the wider spectral capture of photon of the DSC with N749 dye. Furthermore, the use of N749 dye is more effective under low light condition as the V{sub OC} decrement is less significant compared to the latter.

  9. Behavioral Effects of Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses: A Consideration of Possible Underlying Cognitive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47 had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54. Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these effects.

  10. Soft-tissue material properties under large deformation: strain rate effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tie; Desai, Jaydev P

    2004-01-01

    Biomechanical model of soft tissue derived from experimental measurements is critical for developing a reality-based model for minimally invasive surgical training and simulation. In our research, we have focused on developing a biomechanical model of the liver with the ultimate goal of using this model for local tool-tissue interaction tasks and providing feedback to the surgeon through a haptic display. We are interested in finding the local effective elastic modulus (LEM) of the liver tissue under different strain rates. We have developed a tissue indentation equipment for characterizing the biomechanical properties of the liver and compared the local effective elastic modulus (LEM) derived from experimental data with plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric element types in ABAQUS under varying strain rates. Our results show that the experimentally derived local effective modulus matches closely with the plane stress analysis in ABAQUS.

  11. Accuracy assessment of Precise Point Positioning with multi-constellation GNSS data under ionospheric scintillation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo Antonio; Marques, Heloísa Alves Silva; Aquino, Marcio; Veettil, Sreeja Vadakke; Monico, João Francisco Galera

    2018-02-01

    GPS and GLONASS are currently the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with full operational capacity. The integration of GPS, GLONASS and future GNSS constellations can provide better accuracy and more reliability in geodetic positioning, in particular for kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP), where the satellite geometry is considered a limiting factor to achieve centimeter accuracy. The satellite geometry can change suddenly in kinematic positioning in urban areas or under conditions of strong atmospheric effects such as for instance ionospheric scintillation that may degrade satellite signal quality, causing cycle slips and even loss of lock. Scintillation is caused by small scale irregularities in the ionosphere and is characterized by rapid changes in amplitude and phase of the signal, which are more severe in equatorial and high latitudes geomagnetic regions. In this work, geodetic positioning through the PPP method was evaluated with integrated GPS and GLONASS data collected in the equatorial region under varied scintillation conditions. The GNSS data were processed in kinematic PPP mode and the analyses show accuracy improvements of up to 60% under conditions of strong scintillation when using multi-constellation data instead of GPS data alone. The concepts and analyses related to the ionospheric scintillation effects, the mathematical model involved in PPP with GPS and GLONASS data integration as well as accuracy assessment with data collected under ionospheric scintillation effects are presented.

  12. Effect of different phototherapy lights on incubator characteristics and dynamics under three modes of servocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollberg, S; Atherton, H D; Hoath, S B

    1995-01-01

    Phototherapy is one of the most common therapeutic interventions in modern neonatal medicine. Analysis of physiological responses to phototherapy requires understanding the physical effects of incident light under different modes of environmental control. In this study, we tested the effect of initiation of phototherapy under laboratory conditions in a convective incubator maintained in three clinically used servocontrol modes. Under conditions of air servocontrol, the initiation of phototherapy resulted in an abrupt sustained increase in the surface temperature of an infant simulator (a blackened aluminum disc). In contrast, when the surface (skin) temperature was the controlled variable, there was a profound drop in the incubator air temperature. An algorithm that simultaneously controlled both the skin and the air temperatures showed intermediate effects. Under conditions of skin servocontrol, fluctuations in air and environmental temperatures were observed for a period of 3 hours before steady state was reached. These findings are most clearly demonstrated using phase plane plotting techniques. We conclude that wide, abrupt, and sustained changes in the thermal environment of an incubator occur after phototherapy is initiated. Such changes must be anticipated in physiological studies using phototherapy.

  13. Effect of educational training on nutrition and weight control in under-18 Spanish wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Visiedo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a formative program concerning nutrition, weight control, and its risks wrestlers under the age of 18 (under-18 at the Spanish national level. The sample comprised 36 under-18 wrestlers that were pre-selected for the Spanish national team. A quasi-experimental design with a pre-test and post-test was used. The dependent variableswere the knowledge of nutrition and weight control and its risks. The independent variable was the educational program. The program had three 30-minute sessions that combined talks, videos, and tasks to complete. Descriptive and inferential analyses were done (t-test, Wilcoxon test. Results indicate that the educational program was effective at increasing under-18 wrestlers’ knowledge about weight control and its risks,but was ineffective with regard to nutrition knowledge. The paper concludes with a discussion regarding the effect of the intervention program, the difficulties with including this type of knowledge and skill in the preparation of combat sport athletes, and the need for further research in this area.

  14. Accuracy assessment of Precise Point Positioning with multi-constellation GNSS data under ionospheric scintillation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Haroldo Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available GPS and GLONASS are currently the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS with full operational capacity. The integration of GPS, GLONASS and future GNSS constellations can provide better accuracy and more reliability in geodetic positioning, in particular for kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP, where the satellite geometry is considered a limiting factor to achieve centimeter accuracy. The satellite geometry can change suddenly in kinematic positioning in urban areas or under conditions of strong atmospheric effects such as for instance ionospheric scintillation that may degrade satellite signal quality, causing cycle slips and even loss of lock. Scintillation is caused by small scale irregularities in the ionosphere and is characterized by rapid changes in amplitude and phase of the signal, which are more severe in equatorial and high latitudes geomagnetic regions. In this work, geodetic positioning through the PPP method was evaluated with integrated GPS and GLONASS data collected in the equatorial region under varied scintillation conditions. The GNSS data were processed in kinematic PPP mode and the analyses show accuracy improvements of up to 60% under conditions of strong scintillation when using multi-constellation data instead of GPS data alone. The concepts and analyses related to the ionospheric scintillation effects, the mathematical model involved in PPP with GPS and GLONASS data integration as well as accuracy assessment with data collected under ionospheric scintillation effects are presented.

  15. Failure-delay effect in destruction of steel samples under spalling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, N. V.; Volkov, G. A.; Meshcheryakov, Yu. I.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Utkin, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic spalling tests have been run on two batches of 30KhN4M steel samples. Experimental data have been processed with the classical technique based on solution of the elastic wave equation. Three samples have been revealed that demonstrated the failure-delay effect under testing. The incubation-time criterion has been used to show the conditions of emergence of failure delay with the example of triangular loading pulses. A rate strength curve has been constructed for the other samples. It has been shown that the limiting strengths under dynamic loads considerably differ for samples from different batches despite the same chemical composition and static strength.

  16. Carcinogenic effectiveness of combined dust-and-radiation effect under experimental and occupational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Z.; Mikhajlov, M.; Todorov, A.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is made of the latest reports, reflecting the statistically significant increase of the lung cancer among workers in underground working sites at cumulative exposure to radon decay products under 60 monthly working levels. The significance of the non-radiation components of the occupational environment, participating in the carcinogenic process together with the classical noxiousness are emphasized. The significance of the functional sufficiency of the immune and endocrine systems, the tobacco smoking and the role of the inflammation respiratory tract diseases , etc. is denoted. Inferences are made for the complexity and multiformity of the occupational carcinogenesis according to the intensity, classical mutagenic factors and multitude of noncarcinogenic components of the occupational environment. Paralelly to the sanitary-technical fool-proof rendering of the respective productions, the necessity of purposeful balneotherapeutic and medical treatment of the risk worker contingents is pointed out

  17. Effect of superhydrophobicity on flashover characteristics of silicone rubber under wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufeng; Jin, Haiyun; Nie, Shichao; Tong, Cheng; Gao, Naikui

    2018-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surface has aroused much interest among researchers due to the low adhesion between water and a substrate surface. This study focuses on the influence of the low adhesion of superhydrophobic surface on flashover characteristics under wet conditions. The flashover experiments were conducted under two different wet conditions. One was placing a constant volume droplet on the silicone rubber. The other one was that silicone rubber was wetted by salt fog. It was found that the adhesion between water droplets and a superhydrophobic surface was very low because of the presence of air cushion. Accordingly, water droplets were easy to slide on a superhydrophobic surface under the effect of electric filed. The sliding of droplets could provide a longer insulation path before flashover occurred. Results showed that flashover voltage could be improved greatly on a superhydrophobic silicone rubber surface.

  18. Effect of superhydrophobicity on flashover characteristics of silicone rubber under wet conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic surface has aroused much interest among researchers due to the low adhesion between water and a substrate surface. This study focuses on the influence of the low adhesion of superhydrophobic surface on flashover characteristics under wet conditions. The flashover experiments were conducted under two different wet conditions. One was placing a constant volume droplet on the silicone rubber. The other one was that silicone rubber was wetted by salt fog. It was found that the adhesion between water droplets and a superhydrophobic surface was very low because of the presence of air cushion. Accordingly, water droplets were easy to slide on a superhydrophobic surface under the effect of electric filed. The sliding of droplets could provide a longer insulation path before flashover occurred. Results showed that flashover voltage could be improved greatly on a superhydrophobic silicone rubber surface.

  19. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term ( 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation

  20. Effects of loading sequence for notched specimens under high-low two-step fatigue loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of loading sequence on crack-initiation period were investigated for notched aluminum-alloy specimens under high-low two-step loading with special emphasis on local cyclic stresses and strains at the notch root. Local stress and strain were determined by a procedure based on an equation proposed by Neuber which relates elastoplastic stress and strain at a notch. Local stress and strain were also measured experimentally to verify the Neuber equation. The effects of initial high load on the crack-initiation periods were demonstrated with notched specimens and were simulated in unnotched specimens fatigue tested with local stress sequences. An analysis of the results indicated that sequence effects were not caused solely by local residual stresses, as is usually assumed; the existence of a damaging effect, resulting from the high local strain cycles, was demonstrated. The sequence effects observed with notched specimens were interpreted as the combined result of residual stresses and high local strain cycles.

  1. Effects of RTV coating on the electrical performance of polymer insulator under lightning impulse voltage condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Adilah Jamaludin

    Full Text Available Located near the equator, Malaysia is a country with one of the highest lightning densities in the world. Lightning contributes to 70% of the power outages in Malaysia and affects power equipment, automated network systems, causes data losses and monetary losses in the nation. Therefore, consideration of insulator evaluation under lightning impulses can be crucial to evaluate and attempt to overcome this issue. This paper presents a new approach to increase the electrical performance of polymer insulators using a Room Temperature Vulcanisation (RTV coating. The evaluation involves three different settings of polymer insulator, namely uncoated, RTV type 1, and RTV type 2 upper surface coatings. All the insulators were tested under three different conditions as dry, clean wet and salty under different impulse polarities using the even-rising test method. The voltage breakdown for each test was recorded. From the experiment, it was found that the effectiveness of the RTV coating application became apparent when tested under salty or polluted conditions. It increased the voltage withstand capabilities of the polymer insulator up to 50% from the basic uncoated insulator. Under dry and clean conditions, the RTV coating provided just a slight increase of the breakdown voltage. The increase in voltage breakdown capability decreased the probability of surface discharge and dry band arcing that could cause degradation of the polymeric material housing. The RTV type 1 coating was found to be more effective when performing under a lightning impulse. The findings might help the utility companies improve the performance of their insulators in order to increase power system reliability.

  2. Effects of cold plasma treatment on alfalfa seed growth under simulated drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinkui, FENG; Decheng, WANG; Changyong, SHAO; Lili, ZHANG; Xin, TANG

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different cold plasma treatments on the germination and seedling growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seeds under simulated drought stress conditions was investigated. Polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG 6000)with the mass fraction of 0% (purified water), 5%, 10%, and 15% were applied to simulate the drought environment. The alfalfa seeds were treated with 15 different power levels ranged between 0-280 W for 15 s. The germination potential, germination rate, germination index, seedling root length, seedling height, and vigor index were investigated. Results indicated significant differences between treated with proper power and untreated alfalfa seeds. With the increase of treatment power, these indexes mentioned above almost presented bimodal curves. Under the different mass fractions of PEG 6000, results showed that the lower power led to increased germination, and the seedlings presented good adaptability to different drought conditions. Meanwhile, higher power levels resulted in a decreased germination rate. Seeds treated with 40 W resulted in higher germination potential, germination rate, seedling height, root length, and vigor index. Vigor indexes of the treated seeds under different PEG 6000 stresses increased by 38.68%, 43.91%, 74.34%, and 39.20% respectively compared to CK0-0, CK5-0, CK10-0, and CK15-0 (the control sample under 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% PEG 6000). Therefore, 40 W was regarded as the best treatment in this research. Although the trend indexes of alfalfa seeds treated with the same power were statistically the same under different PEG 6000 stresses, the cold plasma treatment had a significant effect on the adaptability of alfalfa seeds in different drought environments. Thus, this kind of treatment is worth implementing to promote seed growth under drought situations.

  3. Relativistic Anandan quantum phase and the Aharonov–Casher effect under Lorentz symmetry breaking effects in the cosmic string spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Furtado, C., E-mail: furtado@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Belich, H., E-mail: belichjr@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Goiabeiras, 29060-900, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry and write an effective metric for the cosmic string spacetime. Then, we investigate the arising of an analogue of the Anandan quantum phase for a relativistic Dirac neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment in the cosmic string spacetime under Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. Besides, we analyse the influence of the effects of the Lorentz symmetry violation and the topology of the defect on the Aharonov–Casher geometric quantum phase in the nonrelativistic limit.

  4. Effect of laser priming on canola yield and its components under salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, S. K.; Shekari, F.; Fotovat, R.; Darudi, A.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of laser priming at different irradiation times on canola yield and its components under saline conditions were investigated. The results showed that laser priming had a positive effect on yield and its components and caused yield increase under saline conditions. Increase in salt levels had a negative and significant effect on seed yield, number of seeds per pod, number of pod per plant, pod length and plant height. The results showed that 45-min laser priming had the strongest effect on yield and yield components and reduced significantly the adverse effects of salinity. By contrast, laser radiation applied for 60 and 75 min, resulted in a dramatic decrease in yield and its components. Correlation coefficients between the attributes showed that canola yield had a positive and significant correlation with plant height, number of seeds, pod per main branch and lateral branches, length of pod and number of lateral branches. Effects of laser and salinity were significant on lateral branch pod length but not on main branch pods.

  5. Effects of delaying transplanting on agronomic traits and grain yield of rice under mechanical transplantation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Liu

    Full Text Available A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency and the grain yield under mechanical transplanting pattern, an experiment with a split-plot design was conducted over two consecutive years. The main plot includes two types of cultivation: mechanical transplanting and artificial transplanting (AT. The subplot comprises four japonica rice cultivars. The results indicate that the rice jointing, booting, heading and maturity stages were postponed under MT when using AT as a control. The tiller occurrence number, dry matter weight per tiller, accumulative dry matter for the population, leaf area index, crop growth rate, photosynthetic potential, and dry matter remobilization efficiency of the leaf under MT significantly decreased compared to those under AT. In contrast, the reduction rate of the leaf area during the heading-maturity stage was markedly enhanced under MT. The numbers of effective panicles and filled grains per panicle and the grain yield significantly decreased under MT. A significant correlation was observed between the dry matter production, remobilization and distribution characteristics and the grain yield. We infer that, as with rice from old seedlings, the decrease in the tiller occurrence, the photosynthetic productivity and the assimilate remobilization efficiency may be important agronomic traits that are responsible for the reduced grain yield under MT.

  6. Financial management systems under decentralization and their effect on malaria control in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization.

  7. Effect of mycorrhizas application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    Mycorrhizas application in horticultural production in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey has been studied under field conditions for several years. The effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been evaluated under field conditions for cucumber production. The parameters measured were seedling survival, plant growth and yield, and root colonization. In 1998 and 1999, Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum inoculated cucumber seedlings were treated with and without P (100 kg P2O5 ha-1) application. A second experiment was set up to evaluate the response of cucumber to the inoculation with a consortia of indigenous mycorrhizae, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus caledonium and a mixture of these four species. Inoculated and control non inoculated cucumber seedlings were established under field conditions in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2004. Seedling quality, seedling survival under field conditions and yield response to mycorrhiza were tested. Fruits were harvested periodically; at blossom, plant leaves and root samples were taken for nutrient content and mycorrhizal colonization analysis respectively. The field experiment results showed that mycorrhiza inoculation significantly increased cucumber seedling survival, fruit yield, P and Zn shoot concentrations. Indigenous mycorrhiza inoculum was successful in colonizing plant roots and resulted in better plant growth and yield. The relative effectiveness of each of the inocula tested was not consistent in the different experiments, although inoculated plants always grew better than control no inoculated. The most relevant result for growers was the increased survival of seedlings. (Author) 20 refs.

  8. Seed Priming with Melatonin Effects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth in Maize under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Li, H.; Song, X.

    2016-01-01

    The effects on seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress by seed priming with melatonin were investigated. Seeds of maize cultivar Nonghua101 were soaked in 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM aerated solution of melatonin for 24 h, and primed seeds were germinated under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with paper media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin was the best performance of all the treatments to seed germination and seedling growth in maize under salinity stress. Then primed with 0.8 mM melatonin or water for 24 h and unprimed seeds were germination under the condition of 150 mM NaCl with sand media. The results showed seed priming with 0.8 mM melatonin significantly improved germination energy, germination percentage, seedling vigor index, shoot and root lengths, seedling fresh and dry weights, K/sup +/ content, relative water content, proline and total phenolic contents, superoxide dismutase, catalase and phenylalanin ammonia lyase activities; and significantly decreased mean emergence time, Na/sup +/ content, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde content compared with untreated seeds under salinity stress. These results suggest that seed priming with melatonin alleviates the salinity damage to maize and seed priming with melatonin may be an important alternative approach to decrease the impact of salinity stress in maize. (author)

  9. The effect of subdivision on variation at multi-allelic loci under balancing selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Charlesworth, D

    2000-01-01

    Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution of polymorp......Simulations are used to investigate the expected pattern of variation at loci under different forms of multi-allelic balancing selection in a finite island model of a subdivided population. The objective is to evaluate the effect of restricted migration among demes on the distribution......, and to the possibility of inferring ancient population genetic events and processes. In addition, it is shown that, for sporophytic self-incompatibility systems, it is not necessarily true in a subdivided population that recessive alleles are more frequent than dominant ones. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Aug...

  10. Empirical Statistical Power for Testing Multilocus Genotypic Effects under Unbalanced Designs Using a Gibbs Sampler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaeyoung Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Epistasis that may explain a large portion of the phenotypic variation for complex economic traits of animals has been ignored in many genetic association studies. A Baysian method was introduced to draw inferences about multilocus genotypic effects based on their marginal posterior distributions by a Gibbs sampler. A simulation study was conducted to provide statistical powers under various unbalanced designs by using this method. Data were simulated by combined designs of number of loci, within genotype variance, and sample size in unbalanced designs with or without null combined genotype cells. Mean empirical statistical power was estimated for testing posterior mean estimate of combined genotype effect. A practical example for obtaining empirical statistical power estimates with a given sample size was provided under unbalanced designs. The empirical statistical powers would be useful for determining an optimal design when interactive associations of multiple loci with complex phenotypes were examined.

  11. Effect of biocompatible polymers on the structural integrity of lipid bilayers under external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Kausik, Ravinath; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Han, Song-I.; Marks, Jeremy; Lee, Ka Yee

    2010-03-01

    Cell membrane dysfunction due to loss of structural integrity is the pathology of tissue death in trauma and common diseases. It is now established that certain biocompatible polymers, such as Poloxamer 188, Poloxamine 1107 and polyethylene glycol (PEG), are effective in sealing of injured cell membranes, and able to prevent acute necrosis. Despite these broad applications of these polymers for human health, the fundamental mechanisms by which these polymers interact with cell membranes are still under debate. Here, the effects of a group of biocompatible polymers on phospholipid membrane integrity under osmotic and oxidative stress were explored using giant unilamellar vesicles as model cell membranes. Our results suggest that the adsorption of the polymers on the membrane surface is responsible for the cell membrane resealing process due to its capability of slowing down the surface hydration dynamics.

  12. Effect of Different Irrigation Water Regime on Cucumber Yield and Water Use under Sprinkler System

    OpenAIRE

    Adeogun, E. O

    2017-01-01

    A research study was conducted on irrigation research field in National Centre for Agricultural Mechanization, NCAM, Ilorin, Nigeria to determine the effect of different irrigation water regime on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) yield, water use efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency. Cucumber grown under field condition using sprinkler irrigation system on an irrigation research field showed good production responses. Yield of cucumber was reasonably appreciable when the crop was admin...

  13. Effects of Exogenous Spermine on Seed Germination and Early Growth of Sunflower Seeds Under Salinity Stress

    OpenAIRE

    MUTLU, Fatma; BOZCUK, Suna

    2014-01-01

    The effects of various concentrations (0.01, 1, 2mM) of spermine (Spm) on germination and some early growth parameters of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L. cv. Santafe) seeds were investigated in media containing different concentrations of NaCl (50, 100, 200mM). Regardless of its concentrations, application of Spm under non-saline conditions remained ineffective on germination percentage as well as on the early growth parameters studied (length of radicle, fresh and dry weights). The sal...

  14. [Effects of medicinal plant species on gymnasium pupils' cardiac performance under exam stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gukasian, L E; Gevorkian, E S; Minasian, S M; Daian, A V

    2010-01-01

    The use of antistress tea from the medicinal herb species "Treasure of Nature" as a dietary supplement (DS) by pupils in the exam period causes positive changes in their psychophysiological status, reduces the magnitude of sympathoadrenal system tension, and exerts an optimizing effect on the mechanisms responsible for regulation of the cardiovascular system. In this connection, in addition to other DSs, the above species may be recommended for use as a non-specific adaptogen under stress.

  15. The effects and underlying mechanisms of mirror therapy – literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Urška Puh; Sonja Hlebš

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mirror therapy is a relatively new therapeutic modality, where movement of the unaffected limb is used to facilitate performance of the affected limb. Literature review of clinical studies regarding the effectiveness of mirror therapy in different groups of patients was performed. The review focussed on randomised controlled trials and studies, which explore the underlying mechanisms of mirror therapy. Conclusions: The majority of randomised controlled ...

  16. Enhanced sputtering of Ge nanowires under synergetic effect of Mn ion and electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vincent

    Full Text Available To monitor the damage evolution in Ge nanowires during Mn implantation, in situ transmission electron microscopy observations were carried-out as a function of the Mn fluence. Special interest lies in the sputtering of nanowires. We evidence an enhanced sputtering under the synergetic effects of Mn implantation and electron beam which may alert experimenters to some possible artefacts related to in situ observations in the case of nanostructures.

  17. Rejuvenating of Kidney Tissues on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice under the Effect of Momordica charantia

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar Sharma; Mohd. Sufiyan Siddiqui; Gurudayal Ram; Ranjeet Kumar Yadav; Arti Kumari; Gaurav Sharma; Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder in human and responsible for different complications and also causes mortality and morbidity. A wide number of herbal products are employed in the treatment of diabetes for their better efficacy and safety compared to synthetic medicine. The present studies have established the antidiabetic potential and rejuvenating capacity of kidney tissues under the effect of extract. Diabetes was induced in the Swiss albino mice by injecting alloxan at the dose of...

  18. Charging process of polyurethane based composites under electronic irradiation: Effects of cellulose fiber content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjadj, Aomar; Jbara, Omar; Tara, Ahmed; Gilliot, Mickael; Dellis, Jean-Luc

    2013-09-01

    The study deals with the charging effect of polyurethanes-based composites reinforced with cellulose fibers, under electronic beam irradiation in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that the leakage current and the trapped charge as well as the kinetics of charging process significantly change beyond a critical concentration of 10% cellulose fibers. These features are correlated with the cellulose concentration-dependence of the electrical properties, specifically resistivity and capacitance, of the composite.

  19. Effects of Rhizobium inoculation on Trifolium resupinatum antioxidant system under sulfur dioxide pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Bayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plant growth stimulating rhizobacteria are beneficial bacteria that can cause resistance to various stresses in plants. One of these stresses is SO2 air pollution. SO2 is known as a strong damaging air pollutant that limits growth of plants. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effects of bacterial inoculation with native and standard Rhizobium on Persian clover root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity under air SO2 pollution. Materials and methods: In this study, 31 days plants (no-inoculated and inoculated with two strains of Rhizobium exposed to the different concentrations of SO2 (0 as a control, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 ppm for 5 consecutive days and 2 hours per day. Results: Results showed different concentrations of SO2 had a significant effect on Persian clover root weight and antioxidant system. Increasing SO2 stress decreased root fresh and dry weight and antioxidant capacities (IC50 and increased antioxidant activities (I% of Persian clover leaves significantly in comparison to the control plants (under 0 ppm and increased SOD, CAT and GPX activity. Inoculation of Persian clover plants with native and standard Rhizobium increased root weight and did not show a significant effect on antioxidants activity and capacity, but interaction between Rhizobium inoculation and SO2 treatment reduced significantly the stress effects of high concentration of SO2 on root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity. In fact, level of this change of root growth and antioxidant system under SO2 pollution stress in inoculated plants was lower than in the non-inoculated plants. Discussion and conclusion: As a result, an increase in SO2 concentration caused a decrease in root weight, increase in antioxidants activity and capacity of Persian clover. Inoculation with Rhizobium strains could alleviate the effect of SO2 pollution on antioxidant system by effects on root growth.

  20. Portevin-Le Chatelier effect under cyclic loading: experimental and numerical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazière, M.; Pujol d'Andrebo, Q.

    2015-10-01

    The Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect is generally evidenced by the apparition of serrated yielding under monotonic tensile loading conditions. It appears at room temperature in some aluminium alloys, around ? in some steels and in many other metallic materials. This effect is associated with the propagation of bands of plastic deformation in tensile specimens and can in some cases lead to unexpected failures. The PLC effect has been widely simulated under monotonic conditions using finite elements and an appropriate mechanical model able to reproduce serrations and strain localization. The occurrence of serrations can be predicted using an analytical stability analysis. Recently, this serrated yielding has also been observed in specimens made of Cobalt-based superalloy under cyclic loading, after a large number of cycles. The mechanical model has been identified in this case to accurately reproduce this critical number of cycle where serrations appear. The associated apparition of localized bands of deformation in specimens and their influence on its failure has also been investigated using finite element simulations.

  1. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making under Ambiguous and Risky Conditions in Healthy Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-López, Irene; Cano-López, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza

    2016-09-20

    Acute stress and decision making (DM) interact in life - although little is known about the role of ambiguity and risk in this interaction. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of acute stress on DM under various conditions. Thirty-one young healthy men were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental and control. DM processes were evaluated before and after an experimental session. For the experimental group, the session consisted of an acute stress battery; and the protocol was similar for the control group but the instructions were designed to minimize acute stress. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded 30 minutes before the DM tasks and during the experimental session. Cortisol, glucose, mood responses, and personality factors were also assessed. Acute stress was found to enhance disadvantageous decisions under ambiguous conditions (F(1, 29) = 4.16, p = .05, η2 p = .13), and this was mainly explained by the stress induced cortisol response (26.1% of variance, F(1, 30) = 11.59, p = .002). While there were no significant effects under risky conditions, inhibition responses differed between groups (F(1, 29) = 4.21, p = .05, η2 p = .13) and these differences were explained by cardiovascular and psychological responses (39.1% of variance, F(3, 30) = 7.42, p stress and could have implications for intervention in acute stress effects on DM in contexts such as addiction or eating disorders.

  2. Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Maize under Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoor, K.; Ilyas, N.; Batool, N.; Arshad, M.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring signaling molecule and growth regulator that enhances plant growth particularly in stress conditions. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of different levels of SA on maize growth under drought and salt stress conditions. An experiment was conducted to test the morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in two cultivar of maize D-1184 and TG-8250. Varying levels of salicylic acid, i.e. 5mM, 10mM and 15mM were applied through foliar method. Exogenous applications of salicylic acid were done after 20 days of germination of the maize plants. Salicylic acid significantly affects root and shoot dry matter under drought and salt stress. Foliar application of SA significantly increased proline concentration (11 percentage and 12 percentage), amino acid accumulation (25 percentage and 18 percentage), relative water (17 percentage and 14 percentage) and Chlorophyll content. Overall, it can be concluded that SA at lower concentration is effective to minimize the effect of stress conditions. Maize cultivar TG-8250 showed better tolerance under drought and salt stress condition as compared to D-1184 cultivar. (author)

  3. Combined Effect of Textured Patterns and Graphene Flake Additives on Tribological Behavior under Boundary Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhen-bing; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Yue, Wen; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-01-01

    A ball-on-plate wear test was employed to investigate the effectiveness of graphene (GP) nanoparticles dispersed in a synthetic-oil-based lubricant in reducing wear. The effect by area ratio of elliptically shaped dimple textures and elevated temperatures were also explored. Pure PAO4 based oil and a mixture of this oil with 0.01 wt% GP were compared as lubricants. At pit area ratio of 5%, GP-base oil effectively reduced friction and wear, especially at 60 and 100°C. Under pure PAO4 oil lubrication, the untextured surfaces gained low friction coefficients (COFs) and wear rates under 60 and 100°C. With increasing laser—texture area ratio, the COF and wear rate decreased at 25 and 150°C but increased at 60 and 100°C. Under the GP-based oil lubrication, the textured surface with 5% area ratio achieved the lowest COF among those of the area ratios tested at all test temperatures. Meanwhile, the textured surface with 20% area ratio obtained the highest COF among those of the area ratios. With the joint action of GP and texture, the textured surface with 10% area ratio exhibited the best anti-wear performance among all of the textured surfaces at all test temperatures. PMID:27054762

  4. Combined Effect of Textured Patterns and Graphene Flake Additives on Tribological Behavior under Boundary Lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhen-bing; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Xu; Yue, Wen; Zhu, Min-hao

    2016-01-01

    A ball-on-plate wear test was employed to investigate the effectiveness of graphene (GP) nanoparticles dispersed in a synthetic-oil-based lubricant in reducing wear. The effect by area ratio of elliptically shaped dimple textures and elevated temperatures were also explored. Pure PAO4 based oil and a mixture of this oil with 0.01 wt% GP were compared as lubricants. At pit area ratio of 5%, GP-base oil effectively reduced friction and wear, especially at 60 and 100 °C. Under pure PAO4 oil lubrication, the untextured surfaces gained low friction coefficients (COFs) and wear rates under 60 and 100 °C. With increasing laser--texture area ratio, the COF and wear rate decreased at 25 and 150 °C but increased at 60 and 100 °C. Under the GP-based oil lubrication, the textured surface with 5% area ratio achieved the lowest COF among those of the area ratios tested at all test temperatures. Meanwhile, the textured surface with 20% area ratio obtained the highest COF among those of the area ratios. With the joint action of GP and texture, the textured surface with 10% area ratio exhibited the best anti-wear performance among all of the textured surfaces at all test temperatures.

  5. Handling magnetic anisotropy and magnetoimpedance effect in flexible multilayers under external stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agra, K.; Bohn, F. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Mori, T.J.A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 1000, Guará, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Callegari, G.L.; Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Correa, M.A., E-mail: marciocorrea@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We investigate the dynamic magnetic response though magnetoimpedance effect of ferromagnetic flexible NiFe/Ta and FeCuNbSiB/Ta multilayers under external stress. We explore the possibility of handling magnetic anisotropy, and consequently the magnetoimpedance effect, of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates. We quantify the sensitivity of the multilayers under external stress by calculating the ratio between impedance variations and external stress changes, and show that considerable values can be reached by tuning the magnetic field, frequency, magnetostriction constant, and external stress. The results extend possibilities of application of magnetostrictive multilayers deposited onto flexible substrates when under external stress and place them as very attractive candidates as element sensor for the development of sensitive smart touch sensors. - Highlights: • We investigate the magnetoimpedance effect in magnetostrictive flexible multilayers grown on flexible substrates. • The external applied stress enables to tuning the samples anisotropies, and consequently the MI performance. • The flexible substrate becomes promising candidate for RF-frequency devices.

  6. Some problems of biological effects under the combined action of nitrogen oxides, their metabolites and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    The progress of power engineering envisages the intensive construction of nuclear-energy plants, where an organic or nuclear fuel is used. Nowadays the concept of nuclear-energy plant with the coolant based on dissociating N 2 O 4 is being developed. A great deal of radioactive and chemical products escapes into surroundings as the result of the power plants being in service. Their action on organisms is performed simultaneously, that could have an essential effect on the quantitative and qualitative regularities of response. The estimation of the combined effect of nitrogen oxides, sodium nitrite and nitrate and radiation has been carried out on the base of the investigation into methemoglobin formation, genetic effects and the pathomorphological changes in lungs. The formation of methemoglobin has been studied on rats in 1, 3, 7 and 15 days after the single total irradiation of 300 and 700 R doses at the gamma-installation (UGU-420) using a radioactive 60 Co. Methemoglobin was determined in the interval of 15-180 min after NaNO 2 administration in the dosage of 7.0 mg per 100 g body weight. The irradiation essentially affects the process of methemoglobin formation and its reduction. The methemoglobin content in the blood of radiation exposed animals exceeds the value, that could be expected to obtain by summing up its concentration under the separate effects of nitrite and irradiation. The genetic effects of sodium nitrite and nitrate and X-radiation have been studied on the Drosophila. The one-day flies were exposed to the radiation dose of 1500 R in the medium with the sodium nitrite or nitrate contents of 0.1 or 1.0 g/l, respectively. The combined action estimated through the frequency of the dominant lethal mutation, recessive coupled with a lethal mutation sex, viability and fecundity definitely differs from the expected summing values of the separate effect indices of radiation and toxic factors. The morpho- and functional changes in the rat lungs (the

  7. Anharmonic effective pair potentials of gold under high pressure and high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Okube, M; Ohtaka, O; Fukui, H; Katayama, Y; Utsumi, W

    2002-01-01

    In order to examine the effect of pressure on the anharmonicity of Au, extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectra near the Au L sub 3 edge were measured in the temperature range from 300 to 1100 K under pressures up to 14 GPa using large-volume high-pressure devices and synchrotron radiation. The anharmonic effective pair potentials of Au, V (u) = au sup 2 + bu sup 3 , at 0.1 MPa, 6 and 14 GPa have been calculated. The pressure dependence of the thermal expansion coefficients has also been evaluated. The reliability of the anharmonic correction proposed on the basis of the Anderson scale has been discussed.

  8. Denaturation of collagen structures and their transformation under the physical and chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankin, A.; Boldirev, V.; Fadeev, G.; Baburina, M.; Kulikovskii, A.; Vostrikova, N.

    2017-11-01

    The process of denaturation of collagen structures under the influence of physical and chemical factors play an important role in the manufacture of food technology and the production of drugs for medicine and cosmetology. The paper discussed the problem of the combined effects of heat treatment, mechanical dispersion and ultrasonic action on the structural changes of the animal collagen in the presence of weak protonated organic acids. Algorithm combined effects of physical and chemical factors as a result of the formation of the technological properties of products containing collagen has been shown.

  9. Evolution of nanoscale interstitial dislocation loops under coupling effect of stress and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ning; Shen, Tielong; Kurtz, Richard; Wang, Zhiguang; Gao, Fei

    2017-07-01

    The properties of nano-scale interstitial dislocation loops under the coupling effect of stress and temperature are studied using atomistic simulation methods and experiments. The decomposition of a loop by the emission of smaller loops is identified as one of the major mechanisms to release the localized stress induced by the coupling effect, which is validated by the TEM observations. The classical conservation law of Burgers vector cannot be applied during such decomposition process. The dislocation network is formed from the decomposed loops, which may initiate the irradiation creep much earlier than expected through the mechanism of climb-controlled glide of dislocations.

  10. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  11. Structural-impurity ordering under the effect of low doses of penetrating radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkovskaya, O.Yu.; Grusha, S.A.; Dmitruk, N.L.

    1985-01-01

    Electrophysical, photoelectrical, electrooptical and metallographic investigations of the effect of radiation-induced ordering in multilayer homoepitaxial structures n + -n-n ++ -GaAs being in contact with metal (Au, Sn, Cr, Pt) are performed. It is established that this effect manifested in the growth of charge carrier mobility and their lifetime owing to weakening of radiationless recombination is clearly prounced in thin near the surface n + -layers and occurs but in imperfect structures with high density of three-dimensional defects (''cupolas''). Experimental features of the radiation-induced ordering effect indicate the structural-impurity transformations in the n + -GaAs near the surface under penetrating radiation. It is assumed that the nature of these transformations consists in the interaction of impurities and primary defects resulting in formation of neutral complexes. The surface effect intensification is explained by planar gettering of defects in the course of which their shifting along the surface occurs

  12. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shwarze, G.E.; Wieserman, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets

  13. Dynamic responses of concrete-filled steel tubular member under axial compression considering creep effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X. T.; Wang, Y. D.; Dai, C. H.; Ding, M.

    2017-08-01

    The finite element model of concrete-filled steel tubular member was established by the numerical analysis software considering material nonlinearity to analyze concrete creep effect on the dynamic responses of the member under axial compression and lateral impact. In the model, the constitutive model of core concrete is the plastic damage model, that of steel is the Von Mises yield criterion and kinematic hardening model, and the creep effect at different ages is equivalent to the change of concrete elastic modulus. Then the dynamic responses of concrete-filled steel tubular member considering creep effects was simulated, and the effects of creep on contact time, impact load, deflection, stress and strain were discussed. The fruits provide a scientific basis for the design of the impact resistance of concrete filled steel tubular members.

  14. Condition of the ratchet effect of a magnetic domain wall motion under an asymmetric potential energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Hong-Guang; Zhang, Xiaozhong; Choi, Hyeok-Cheol; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, Chun-Yeol

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the ratchet effect of magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in a straight ferromagnetic nanowire under ac magnetic field by means of micromagnetic simulation. A structure-stable DW ratchet effect along the ferromagnetic nanowire is observed utilizing an asymmetric potential produced by a nonuniform magnetostatic stray field from an array of a periodic non-contact trapezoidal stubs. A diode-like consecutive operation process for a transverse DW motion is examined with variation of the ac field frequency and amplitude, where the necessary conditions for the DW ratchet effect are systematically examined. We have also obtained the empirical relation between a DW velocity of the ratchet effect and the ac field frequency and amplitude.

  15. Nonlinear vibration behaviors of suspended cables under two-frequency excitation with temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaobing; Huang, Chaohui; Chen, Lincong; Peng, Jian

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate temperature effects on the nonlinear vibration behaviors of suspended cables under two-frequency excitation. For this purpose, two combination and simultaneous resonances are chosen and studied in detail. First of all, based on the assumptions of the temperature effects, the partial differential equations of the in-plane and out-of-plane motions with thermal effects under multi-frequency excitations are obtained. The Galerkin method is adopted to discretize the nonlinear dynamic equations, and the single-mode planar discretization is considered. Then, in the absence of the primary and internal resonances, the frequency response equations are obtained by using the multiple scales method. The stability analyses are conducted via investigating the nature of the singular points of equations. After that, temperature effects on nonlinear vibration characteristics of the first symmetric mode are studied. Parametric investigations of temperature effects on corresponding non-dimensional factors and coefficients of linear and nonlinear terms are performed. Numerical results are presented to show the temperature effects via the frequency-response curves and detuning-phase curves of four different sag-to-span ratios. It is found out that effects of temperature variations would lead to significant quantitative and/or qualitative changes of the nonlinear vibration properties, and these effects are closely related to the sag-to-span ratio and the degree of the temperature variation. Specifically, the softening/hardening-type spring behaviors, the response amplitude, the range of the resonance, the intersection and number of branches, the number and phase of the steady-state solutions are all affected by the temperature changes.

  16. Evaluating BMP effectiveness in improving freshwater provisioning under changing climate in the upper Mississippi river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Logsdon Muenich, Rebecca; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Wei, Xiaomei

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater provisioning (FWP) is one of the critical ecosystem services that is sensitive to climate change and variability and agricultural management strategies. Best management practices (BMPs) are widely used to relieve the adverse impacts of agricultural production on hydrology and water quality. However, climate change may alter the BMP effectiveness in protecting hydrology and water quality. A relatively large number of studies have evaluated BMP effectiveness in improving water quality and attenuating peak flow, however the impact of climate change on BMPs effectiveness in improving FWP service is poorly understood. In this study, five BMP scenarios (no tillage, filter strips, cover crops, grassed waterways and combination of all BMPs) were simulated using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Then an index-based ecosystem service approach was adopted to quantify annual FWP services by using model outputs for each BMP scenario, in order to evaluate the BMP effectiveness in improving FWP service for 13 studied watersheds in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) in the US. The effectiveness of each BMP was evaluated both for baseline climate (1975-2004) and projected near future climate (2021-2050) from three regional climate models (CCCma-CanESM2 RCA4, ICHEC-EC-EARTH RCA4 and ICHEC-EC-EARTH HIRHAM5) under two Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), with an objective to assess the impacts of future climate changes on BMP effectiveness. Results suggest that the annual FWP could be improved by implementing BMPs. The future climate change may reduce the BMP effectiveness due to altered runoff conditions under projected increased precipitation and temperature resulting in increased losses of pollutants from crop fields to streams and reduced freshwater availability. Results from this study may provide an insight for water resource managers to implement effective BMPs in responding to future climate change, in order to protect and

  17. [Investigation the Inhibitory Effects of Kaempferol on Rat Renalmesangial Cells Proliferation under High Glucose Condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ni; Han, Peng-Ding; Chen, Wen; Deng, Yan

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the protective effects of kaempferol on rat renal mesangial cells under high glucose condition and explore its mechanism. The HBZY-1 cells were divided into normal glucose group (5.5 mmol/L), high glucose group (25 mmol/L), 10 μmol/L kaempferol+high glucose group, and 30 μmol/L kaempferol+high glucose group. Cell proliferative ability was measured by MTT; cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry; mRNA and protein levels were determined by Real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Kaempferol had no effect on the proliferative ability of rat renal mesangial cells under normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L) condition. High glucose (25 mmol/L) enhanced the cell proliferative ability, and this effect was antagonized by kaempferol (10-30 μmol/L) treatment. High glucose reduced the cell population at G 0 /G 1 phase with an associated increase in S phase, and had no effect on G₂/M phase; and kaempferol treatment restored high glucose-induced changes in cell cycle. Kaempferol also prevented high glucose-induced increase in fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor mRNA and protein expression levels. Kaempferol also prevented high glucose-induced increase in fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor mRNA and protein expression levels. Further, high glucose caused an increase in protein level of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK), which was antagonized by kaempferol treatment. Our results suggest that kaempferol exerts its protective effect on rat renal mesangial cells under high glucose condition via p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  18. The bactericidal effect of an ionizer under low concentration of ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Soo; Sung, Bong-Jo; Yoon, Kyung-Soo; Jeong, Choon-Soo

    2016-07-30

    Several mechanisms have been suggested for the bactericidal action of ionizers including electrical phenomena, effects of negative and positive ions and electrostatic repulsion. Negative and positive ions have indeed been shown to have bactericidal effects. In addition, since ozone is generated along with ions, these may contribute to the bacterial killing. In this study, we used a newly developed ionizer, which generates a relatively low concentration of ozone, to determine whether its effect on bacterial cells were due to ions or ozone, and, if ions, how the ions exerted their effects. The effect of ions on bacterial killing was compared with that of the ozone produced using an ion trap to remove the ions. The ionizer had the ability to kill the bacteria, and ion capture dramatically reduced its bactericidal effect, indicating that the ozone generated had little or no bactericidal effect under these conditions, and the ions produced were responsible for almost all the bacterial killing. Operation of the ionizer increased the level of 8-oxo-dG, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and decreased aconitase activity, which is known to be sensitive to ROS. The ionizer further affected the adenylate energy charge of bacterial cells. Removal of the ions with the ion trap greatly reduced all these effects. These results indicate that negative and positive ions generated by the ionizer are responsible for inducing oxidative stress and so reducing bacterial survival.

  19. Revealing the Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Beneficial Effects of Tai Chi: A Neuroimaging Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Angus P; Tam, Bjorn T; Lai, Christopher W; Yu, Doris S; Woo, Jean; Chung, Ka-Fai; Hui, Stanley S; Liu, Justina Y; Wei, Gao X; Siu, Parco M

    2018-01-01

    Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain. These neuroimaging findings have provided new clues for revealing the mechanisms behind the observed effects of TCC. In this review paper, we discussed the possible effects of TCC-induced modulation of brain morphology, functional homogeneity and connectivity, regional activity and macro-scale network activity on health. Moreover, we identified possible links between the alterations in brain and beneficial effects of TCC, such as improved motor functions, pain perception, metabolic profile, cognitive functions, mental health and sleep quality. This paper aimed to stimulate further mechanistic neuroimaging studies in TCC and its effects on brain morphology, functional homogeneity and connectivity, regional activity and macro-scale network activity, which ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of TCC on human health.

  20. The effect of music on the neurohormonal stress response to surgery under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migneault, Brigitte; Girard, François; Albert, Caroline; Chouinard, Philippe; Boudreault, Daniel; Provencher, Diane; Todorov, Alexandre; Ruel, Monique; Girard, Dominique C

    2004-02-01

    Several pharmacological interventions reduce perioperative stress hormone release during surgery under general anesthesia. Listening to music and therapeutic suggestions were also studied, but mostly in awake patients, and these have a positive effect on postoperative recovery and the need for analgesia. In this study, we evaluated the effect of listening to music under general anesthesia on the neurohormonal response to surgical stress as measured by epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) blood levels. Thirty female patients scheduled for abdominal gynecological procedures were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: group NM (no music) and group M (music). In group M, music was played from after the induction of anesthesia until the end of surgery. In the NM group, the patients wore the headphones but no music was played. We established three sample times for hormonal dosage during the procedure and one in the recovery room. Hemodynamic data were recorded at all times, and postoperative consumption of morphine in the first 24 h was noted. There was no group difference at any sample time or in the postoperative period in terms of mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, isoflurane end-tidal concentration, time of the day at which the surgery was performed, bispectral index (BIS) value, doses of fentanyl, or consumption of postoperative morphine. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to plasmatic levels of norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, or ACTH at any sample time, although the blood level of these hormones significantly increased in each group with surgical stimulation. In conclusion, we could not demonstrate a significant effect of intraoperative music on surgical stress when used under general anesthesia. Listening to music under general anesthesia did not reduce perioperative stress hormone release or opioid consumption in patients undergoing gynecological surgery.

  1. The effects of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team-based performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Vander Wood, Melissa A; O'Connell, Kristina L

    2011-07-01

    Teamwork is becoming increasingly common in today's workplaces; however, little research has examined how well teams perform under sleep deprivation conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of extended work under sleep deprivation conditions on team performance. A total of 24 participants were sleep deprived for 30 h and completed 16 h of sustained operations during the last portion of the sleep deprivation period. The participants completed the Wombat, a complex task including vigilance and cognitive components, with a partner in four 24-min testing sessions during the sustained operations period. The results indicated that team performance increased during the work period while, within each testing session, team performance on vigilance tasks remained stable and overall performance decreased. The current results suggest that performance on two-person teams results in improved performance but does not fully counteract the decreases in performance within each work period. Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Performance in two-person teams increased across an extended work shift under sleep deprivation conditions. However, vigilance performance remained stable while overall performance decreased when examining performance in 8-min segments. These results suggest that averaging team-based performance over a longer testing period may mask the negative effects of sleep deprivation.

  2. Antidepressant effects of ketamine: mechanisms underlying fast-acting novel antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ann Browne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Newer antidepressants are needed for the many individuals with major depressive disorder that do not respond adequately to treatment and because of a delay of weeks before the emergence of therapeutic effects. Recent evidence from clinical trials shows that the NMDA antagonist ketamine is a revolutionary novel antidepressant because it acts rapidly and is effective for treatment-resistant patients. A single infusion of ketamine alleviates depressive symptoms in treatment-resistant depressed patients within hours and these effects may be sustained for up to 2 weeks. Although the discovery of ketamine’s effects has reshaped drug discovery for antidepressants, the psychotomimetic properties of this compound limit the use of this therapy to the most severely ill patients. In order to develop additional antidepressants like ketamine, adequate preclinical behavioral screening paradigms for fast-acting antidepressants need to be established and used to identify the underlying neural mechanisms. This review examines the preclinical literature attempting to model the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine. Acute administration of ketamine has produced effects in behavioral screens for antidepressants like the forced swim test, novelty suppression of feeding and in rodent models for depression. Protracted behavioral effects of ketamine have been reported to appear after a single treatment that last for days. This temporal pattern is similar to its clinical effects and may serve as a new animal paradigm for rapid antidepressant effects in humans. In addition, protracted changes in molecules mediating synaptic plasticity have been implicated in mediating the antidepressant-like behavioral effects of ketamine. Current preclinical studies are examining compounds with more specific pharmacological effects at glutamate receptors and synapses in order to develop additional rapidly acting antidepressants without the hallucinogenic side effects or abuse

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on biomass production of ground vegetation under broadleaved forests of northern Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitkovski, J.; Salmonson, B.J.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of γ irradiation (10,000 Ci 137 Cs source) for one growing season on biomass production of ground vegetation under northern Wisconsin aspen and maple-aspen-birch forests and on an abandoned logging road were evaluated during and one year after irradiation. No significant changes in production were determined during the irradiation year. One year later three distinct zones - semi-devastated, herbaceous, and original forest - developed along the radiation gradient. Biomass production under forest canopies decreased significantly in the semi-devastated zone, increased significantly in the herbaceous zone (primarily responding to additional light), and remained unchanged under the original forest. Logging road vegetation responded similarly but the changes were restricted within higher radiation doses. At comparable levels of radiation, production of species of the logging road vegetation was affected less than that of species under forest canopies. Such a trend was predictable from the generally smaller interphase chromosome volumes, ICV's, of the species on the logging road and from their ability to survive in severe habitats. (author)

  4. Effects of gamma radiation on biomass production of ground vegetation under broadleaved forests of northern Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitkovski, J.; Salmonson, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation (10,000-Ci 137 Cs source) for one growing season on biomass production of ground vegetation under northern Wisconsin aspen and maple-aspen-birch forests and on an abandoned logging road were evaluated during and 1 year after irradiation. No significant changes in production were determined during the irradiation year. One year later three distinct zones--semidevastated, herbaceous, and original forest--developed along the radiation gradient. Biomass production under forest canopies decreased significantly in the semidevastated zone, increased significantly in the herbaceous zone (primarily responding to additional light), and remained unchanged under the original forest. Logging-road vegetation responded similarly, but the changes were restricted within higher radiation doses. At comparable levels of radiation, production of species of the logging-road vegetation was affected less than that of species under forest canopies. Such a trend was predictable from the generally smaller interphase chromosome volumes of the species on the logging road and from their ability to survive in severe habitats

  5. Effect of Psychological Intervention on Marital Satisfaction of Mothers with Slow Pace Under 5 Years Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Objective of this study was investigating impact of early psychological interventions on marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children. Considering variables of the research, that is, early psychological interventions and marital satisfaction, research hypotheses was as follows: "early psychological interventions affect marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children" and it was examined. Methods: This research is of experimental type and pretest-posttest plan with control groups was used. Statistical population included all mothers with slow pace under 5 years children in Urmia. To this end, 40 mothers with slow pace children were selected as the sample in a non-random manner by convenience sampling. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 20 (20 test group and 20 control group, and finally psychological interventions were conducted on one of groups randomly. In order to evaluate marital satisfaction, Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire with 47 items was used. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of covariance. Results: findings showed that there is significant difference between two groups in posttest in overall score of marital satisfaction as well as in some elements such as conventional responses, marital satisfaction, personality issues, marital relationships, conflict resolution, leisure, parenting, family and friends, and ideological orientation and sexual relations (P<0.005, and no significant difference was observed in financial supervision and roles related to gender equality. Discusion: Psychological interventions were effective in promoting marital satisfaction in mothers with slow pace under 5 years children.

  6. [Effects of exogenous spermidine on Cucumis sativus L. seedlings photosynthesis under root zone hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wang, Suping; Guo, Shirong; Sun, Yanjun

    2006-09-01

    With water culture, this paper studied the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), apparent quantum yield (phi c), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of cucumber seedlings tinder hypoxia stress. The results showed that the Pn decreased gradually under hypoxia stress, and reached the minimum 10 days after by 63. 33% of the control. Compared with that of hypoxia-stressed plants, the Pn after 10 days application of exogenous Spd increased 1.25 times. A negative correlation (R2 = 0.4730 - 0.7118) was found between Pn and Ci. Gs and Tr changed in wider ranges, which decreased under hypoxia-stress, but increased under hypoxia-stress plus exogenous Spd application. There was a significant positive correlation between Gs and Tr (R2 = 0.7821 - 0.9458), but these two parameters had no significant correlation with Pn; Hypoxia stress induced a decrease of phi c and CE by 63.01% and 72.33%, respectively, while hypoxia stress plus exogenous Spd application made phi c and CE increase by 23% and 14%, respectively. The photo-inhibition of cucumber seedlings under hypoxia stress was mainly caused by non-stomatal limitation, while exogenous Spd alleviated the hypoxia stress by repairing photosynthesis system.

  7. Dynamic Pricing in Cloud Manufacturing Systems under Combined Effects of Consumer Structure, Negotiation, and Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a game-theory based framework to model the dynamic pricing process in the cloud manufacturing (CMfg system. We considered a service provider (SP, a broker agent (BA, and a dynamic service demander (SD population that is composed of price takers and bargainers in this study. The pricing processes under linear demand and constant elasticity demand were modeled, respectively. The combined effects of SD population structure, negotiation, and demand forms on the SP’s and the BA’s equilibrium prices and expected revenues were examined. We found that the SP’s optimal wholesale price, the BA’s optimal reservation price, and posted price all increase with the proportion of price takers under linear demand but decrease with it under constant elasticity demand. We also found that the BA’s optimal reservation price increases with bargainers’ power no matter under what kind of demand. Through analyzing the participants’ revenues, we showed that a dynamic SD population with a high ratio of price takers would benefit the SP and the BA.

  8. [Effect of AM fungi on water and nutrition status of corn plants under salt stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G; Li, X; Zhang, F; Li, S

    2000-08-01

    Under NaCl stress, the dry matter production of corn plants inoculated with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus mosseae) was decreased, but the decrement for non-mycorrhizal plants was 10% higher than that for mycorrhizal ones. Under salt stress condition, the dry weights of root system and aboveground part of mycorrhizal corn and its leaf water potential were higher than those of non-mycorrhizal corn, while the proline content of mycorrhizal corn was less than that of non-mycorrhizal corn. The contribution of hypha to P uptake of plants decreased from 45.3% to 42.6%, while the effect of AM fungi on plant growth increased from 30.9% to 63.5% under salt stress condition. The above-mentioned results indicated that the mechanism that AM fungi enhance the salt-resistance of corn is related with the improvements of water and P nutrition conditions. Meanwhile, it was found whether under salt stress or not, the ratio of P accumulation of root system to aboveground part of mycorrhizal corn was higher than that of non-mycorrhizal corn, indicating that the infection of AM fungi changed the P distribution pattern in plant bodies, which is beneficial to increase the salt-resistance of plants.

  9. Effects of melatonin on the proliferation and apoptosis of sheep granulosa cells under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; He, Chang-Jiu; Ji, Peng-Yun; Zhuo, Zhi-Yong; Tian, Xiu-Zhi; Wang, Feng; Tan, Dun-Xian; Liu, Guo-Shi

    2014-11-14

    The cross-talk between oocyte and somatic cells plays a crucial role in the regulation of follicular development and oocyte maturation. As a result, granulosa cell apoptosis causes follicular atresia. In this study, sheep granulosa cells were cultured under thermal stress to induce apoptosis, and melatonin (MT) was examined to evaluate its potential effects on heat-induced granulosa cell injury. The results demonstrated that the Colony Forming Efficiency (CFE) of granulosa cells was significantly decreased (heat 19.70% ± 1.29% vs. control 26.96% ± 1.81%, p thermal stress compared with the control group. Melatonin (10⁻⁷ M) remarkably reduced the negative effects caused by thermal stress in the granulosa cells. This reduction was indicated by the improved CFE and decreased apoptotic rate of these cells. The beneficial effects of melatonin on thermal stressed granulosa cells were not inhibited by its membrane receptor antagonist luzindole. A mechanistic exploration indicated that melatonin (10⁻⁷ M) down-regulated p53 and up-regulated Bcl-2 and LHR gene expression of granulosa cells under thermal stress. This study provides evidence for the molecular mechanisms of the protective effects of melatonin on granulosa cells during thermal stress.

  10. Radiation induced bystander effect on hepatoma HepG2 cells under hypoxia condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianghong; Jin Yizun; Shao Chunlin; Prise KM

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiation induced bystander effect and its mechanism on hepatoma HepG2 cells under hypoxia condition. Methods: Non-irradiated bystander hepatoma cells were co-cultured with irradiated cells or treated with the conditioned medium (CM) from irradiated cells, then micronuclei (MN) were measured for both irradiated cells and bystander cells. Results: The MN yield of irradiated HepG2 cells under hypoxic condition was significantly lower than that under normoxia, the oxygen enhancement ratio of HepG2 cells of MN was 1.6. For both hypoxic and normoxic condition, the MN yield of bystander cells were obviously enhanced to a similar high level after co-culturing with irradiated cells or with CM treatment, and it also correlated with the irradiation dose. When the hypoxic HepG2 cells were treated with either DMSO, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), or aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, the yield of bystander MN was partly diminished, and the reducing rate of DMSO was 42.2%-46.7%, the reducing rate of aminoguanidine was 42% . Conclusion: ROS, NO and their downstream signal factors are involved in the radiation induced bystander effect of hypoxic HepG2 cells. (authors)

  11. The effects of silicon and titanium on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. growth under moisture deficit condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Safflower is one of important crop in semi-arid regions of the world, where the precipitations are limited. In order to investigate the effect of foliar spray of nano-silicon dioxide (10 and 20 mM and nano titanium dioxide (25 and 50 mM and water-deficit stress (irrigation after 110 mm evaporation on growth parameters and yield components of spring safflower a field experiment was carried out at the highland semi-arid region, in, North West of Iran. Water deficit stress significantly reduced morpho-physiological traits such as ground cover, canopy width, leaf fresh mass, leaf are and plant height as well as yield components (e.g. capitulum diameter, seed mass and seed number per capitulum. However, the plants grown under water deficit condition showed the higher harvest index than well irrigated plants. Comparison of the foliar treatments showed that the both nano-particles (silicon and titanium improved the plant growth and yield components over the control. However, the effect of nano-silicon was more prominent than titanium. The highest amount of seed oil was recorded under well irrigated condition (irrigation after 60 mm evaporation with foliar application of nano-titanium. The percentage of palmitic acid, arachidic acid and myristic acid in seed increased by nano-titanium application. Altogether, principal component analysis indicated that spray of 10 mM nano silicon dioxide was best foliar treatments under all moisture regimes.

  12. Effect of Two Halophyte Plants Irrigated with Saline Water on Soil Salinization under Different Soil Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M. F.; Rizk, M. A.; Abdel Aziz, A.; Moustafa, S. M.; Eigala, A. M.; Abuo El-Naga, H.

    2007-01-01

    A lysimeter experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of saline water irrigation at three levels namely, fresh water (0.3), 4 and 8 dS/m on salt accumulation and its effect on different soil types. The tested halophyte plants were Kallar grass and Atriplex (Salt bush). The tested soil types were sandy, calcareous and clayey soils. Irrigating the soil with saline water (either 4 or 8 dS/m) resulted in increasing salinity levels in soil profile with different orders of magnitude, depending on the soil type layer and the cultivated plant. Kallar grass seems limit the accumulation of salts in soil profile, compared to Atriplex at any tested soil. This may be attributed to its root effect on soil profile such as dispersed soil matrix and improved soil structure, which provide channels for solute movement through the profile under halophyte cultivation. Calculating the SAR average values for each irrigation treatment (18 values) showed significant increase in soil SAR values, especially under Kallar grass compared to Atriplex. The highest SAR values were observed in the case of clayey soil. However, the relevant SAR values under Atriplex cultivation were always lower. Values for SAR were always higher in the saline clayey > calcareous > sandy soils

  13. [Effects of silicon on the ultrastructures of wheat radical cells under copper stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dai-Jing; Ma, Jian-Hui; Yang, Shu-Fang; Chen, Hui-Ting; Liu, Pei; Wang, Wen-Fei; Li, Chun-Xi

    2014-08-01

    To explore the alleviation effect of silicon on wheat growth under copper stress, cultivar Aikang 58 was chosen as the experimental material. The growth, root activities and root tip ultrastructures of wheat seedlings, which were cultured in Hoagland nutrient solution with five different treatments (control, 15 mg x L(-1) Cu2+, 30 mg x L(-1) Cu2+, 15 mg x L(-1) Cu2+ and 50 mg x L(-1) silicon, 30 mg x L(-1) Cu2+ and 50 mg x L(-1) silicon), were fully analyzed. The results showed that root length, plant height and root activities of wheat seedlings were significantly restrained under the copper treatments compared with the control (P effects were alleviated after adding silicon to copper-stress Hoagland nutrient solution. Under copper stress, the cell wall and cell membrane of wheat seedling root tips suffered to varying degrees of destruction, which caused the increase of intercellular space and the disappearance of some organelles. After adding silicon, the cell structure was maintained intact, although some cells and organelles were still slightly deformed compared with the control. In conclusion, exogenous silicon could alleviate the copper stress damages on wheat seedlings and cellular components to some extent.

  14. Applicability and Effectiveness of Closed Reduction of Nasal Fractures under Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilela, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A significant portion of patients treated in emergency departments have nasal fracture. It is important that the otolaryngologist know how to treat such damage. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of nasal fracture reduction under local anesthesia and tolerance to the procedure. Methods Twenty-four patients treated in the emergency department with closed reduction under local anesthesia were prospectively followed. Epidemiologic information and data regarding pain and complications during the management were noted. The degree of satisfaction was researched by visual analog scale. Results The majority of patients were male (75%, and the most common cause of injury was motor vehicle accident. We found a significant association between time to reduction and referred pain during the procedure. In patients in whom the procedure was delayed (over 3 days, there was less pain, and those who bled during the procedure had a shorter average time to reduction than the group of patients who did not bleed. Most patients were very satisfied, with more than 95% of these willing to undergo the same process again, if necessary. Conclusions The closed approach in the clinic under local anesthesia was effective and safe in restoration of the nose.

  15. The Effects of Coping Interventions on Ability to Perform Under Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Sofie; Devonport, Tracey J; Lane, Andrew M; Nicholls, Wendy; Friesen, Andrew P

    2018-03-01

    The ability to perform under pressure is necessary to achieve goals in various domains of life. We conducted a systematic review to synthesise findings from applied studies that focus on interventions developed to enhance an individual's ability to cope under performance pressure. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a comprehensive search of five electronic databases was conducted. This yielded 66,618 records, of which 23 peer review papers met inclusion criteria of containing an intervention that targeted coping skills for performing under pressure. Using the Standard Quality Assessment for evaluation of primary research papers (Kmet et al., 2004) to assess quality, included studies performed well on reporting research objectives, research design, and statistical procedures. Sixteen studies showed poor quality in controlling for potentially confounding factors and small sample sizes. A narrative aggregate synthesis identified intervention studies that provided an educational focus ( n = 9), consultancy sessions ( n = 6), simulation training ( n = 5) and emotion regulation strategies ( n = 3). Findings highlight a need to; 1) establish a contextualized pressure task which will generate high levels of ecological validity for participants. Having established a suitable pressure task, 2) research should assess the effects of pressure by evaluating conscious and nonconscious effects and associated coping mechanisms, which should inform the subsequent development of interventions, and 3) assess interventions to enhance understanding of the ways in which they improve coping with pressure, or may fail, and the mechanisms which may explain these outcomes.

  16. The Effects of Coping Interventions on Ability to Perform Under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Kent, Tracey J. Devonport, Andrew M. Lane, Wendy Nicholls, Andrew P. Friesen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perform under pressure is necessary to achieve goals in various domains of life. We conducted a systematic review to synthesise findings from applied studies that focus on interventions developed to enhance an individual’s ability to cope under performance pressure. Following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines, a comprehensive search of five electronic databases was conducted. This yielded 66,618 records, of which 23 peer review papers met inclusion criteria of containing an intervention that targeted coping skills for performing under pressure. Using the Standard Quality Assessment for evaluation of primary research papers (Kmet et al., 2004 to assess quality, included studies performed well on reporting research objectives, research design, and statistical procedures. Sixteen studies showed poor quality in controlling for potentially confounding factors and small sample sizes. A narrative aggregate synthesis identified intervention studies that provided an educational focus (n = 9, consultancy sessions (n = 6, simulation training (n = 5 and emotion regulation strategies (n = 3. Findings highlight a need to; 1 establish a contextualized pressure task which will generate high levels of ecological validity for participants. Having established a suitable pressure task, 2 research should assess the effects of pressure by evaluating conscious and nonconscious effects and associated coping mechanisms, which should inform the subsequent development of interventions, and 3 assess interventions to enhance understanding of the ways in which they improve coping with pressure, or may fail, and the mechanisms which may explain these outcomes.

  17. Thermal aging effects of VVER-1000 weld metal under operation temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernobaeva, A.A.; Kuleshova, E.A.; Gurovich, B.A.; Erak, D.Y.; Zabusov, O.O.; Maltsev, D.A.; Zhurko, D.A.; Papina, V.B.; Skundin, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The VVER-1000 thermal aging surveillance specimen sets are located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) under real operation conditions. Thermal aging surveillance specimens data are the most reliable source of the information about changing of VVER-1000 RPV materials properties because of long-term (hundred thousand hours) exposure at operation temperature. A revision of database of VVER-1000 weld metal thermal aging surveillance specimens has been done. The reassessment of transition temperature (T t ) for all tested groups of specimens has been performed. The duration of thermal exposure and phosphorus contents have been defined more precisely. The analysis of thermal aging effects has been done. The yield strength data, study of carbides evolution show absence of hardening effects due to thermal aging under 310-320 C degrees. Measurements of phosphorus content in grain boundaries segregation in different states have been performed. The correlation between intergranular fracture mode in Charpy specimens and transition temperature shift under thermal aging at temperature 310-320 C degrees has been revealed. All these data allow developing the model of thermal aging. (authors)

  18. Effect of putative mitoviruses on in vitro growth of Gremmeniella abietina isolates under different laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeralo, C.; Botella, L.; Santamaria, O.; Diez, J.

    2012-07-01

    Mitoviruses have been found in several forest pathogens (i.e. Cryphonectria parasitica, Gremmeniella abietina), and because they have been shown to reduce the virulence of host fungi there is a growing interest in studying their use as a biocontrol. This study was carried out to test the effect of temperature (5 degree centigrade, 15 degree centigrade, 25 degree centigrade and 35 degree centigrade), pH (4, 5, 7 and 9) and osmotic potential (-0.6, -1.2, -1.8 and 2.4 MPa) on the mycelial growth of seven G. abietina isolates under controlled laboratory conditions. Four of the isolates hosted mitoviruses and three of them did not. During the experiment, mycelial growth was recorded every week for a period of 8 weeks. Results showed no differences in growth behavior between mitovirus infected and non-infected isolates when placed under different pH modifications. However, the mitovirus-infected isolates presented larger mycelial growth than the mitovirus-free ones when at the fungi's optimal growing temperature of 15 degree centigrade. When growing at certain osmotic potentials (-0.6 and -1.8 MPa) a reduction in growth of the mitovirus-infected isolates was observed. The results of this experiment suggest that mycelial growth among non-infected isolates and isolates naturally infected by mitovirus vary under different culture conditions, thus providing further insight into the effects of mitovirus on Gremmeniella abietina isolates. (Author) 57 refs.

  19. Growth, Toxin Production and Allelopathic Effects of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries under Iron-Enriched Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernanda Sobrinho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of Fe-enrichment on the growth and domoic acid (DA production of the toxigenic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, static cultures that received the addition of different iron (Fe concentrations were maintained for 30 days. Intra- and extracellular DA concentrations were evaluated over time, and growth and chain-formation were compared to those of non-toxic diatoms, Bacillaria sp. Growth rates of P. multiseries (μ = 0.45–0.73 d−1 were similar among cultures containing different Fe concentrations. Likewise, the similar incidence and length of P. multiseries stepped cell chains (usually 2–4; up to 8-cell long among the treatments reinforces that the cultures were not growth-inhibited under any condition tested, suggesting an efficient Fe acquisition mechanism. Moreover, DA concentrations were significantly higher under the highest Fe concentration, indicating that Fe is required for toxin synthesis. Bacillaria sp. reached comparable growth rates under the same Fe concentrations, except when the dissolved cell contents from a P. multiseries culture was added. The 50–70% reduction in cell density and 70–90% decrease in total chlorophyll-a content of Bacillaria sp. at early stationary growth phase indicates, for the first time, an allelopathic effect of undetermined compounds released by Pseudo-nitzschia to another diatom species.

  20. Inhibition Underlies the Effect of High Need for Closure on Cultural Closed-Mindedness under Mortality Salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrij Agroskin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that people respond to reminders of mortality with closed-minded, ethnocentric attitudes has received extensive empirical support, largely from research in the Terror Management theory tradition. However, the basic motivational and neural processes that underlie this effect remain largely hypothetical. According to recent neuropsychological theorizing, mortality salience (MS effects on cultural closed-mindedness may be mediated by activity in the behavioral inhibition system (BIS, which leads to passive avoidance and decreased approach motivation. This should be especially true for people motivated to avoid unfamiliar and potentially threatening stimuli as reflected in a high need for closure (NFC. In two studies involving moderated mediation analyses, people high on trait NFC responded to MS with increased BIS activity (as indicated by EEG and the line bisection task, which is characteristic of inhibited approach motivation. BIS activity, in turn, predicted a reluctance to explore foreign cultures (Study 1 and generalized ethnocentric attitudes (Study 2. In a third study, inhibition was induced directly and caused an increase in ethnocentrism for people high on NFC. Moreover, the effect of the inhibition manipulation × NCF interaction on ethnocentrism was explained by increases in BIS-related affect (i.e., anxious inhibition at high NFC. To our knowledge, this research is the first to establish an empirical link between very basic, neurally-instantiated inhibitory processes and rather complex, higher-order manifestations of intergroup negativity. Our findings contribute to a fuller understanding of the cultural worldview defense phenomenon by illuminating the motivational underpinnings of cultural closed-mindedness in the wake of existential threat.

  1. EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Panachuki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT, conventional tillage (CT, and minimum tillage (MT with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.. Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

  2. Estimation of the ancestral effective population sizes of African great apes under different selection regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-08-01

    Reliable estimates of ancestral effective population sizes are necessary to unveil the population-level phenomena that shaped the phylogeny and molecular evolution of the African great apes. Although several methods have previously been applied to infer ancestral effective population sizes, an analysis of the influence of the selective regime on the estimates of ancestral demography has not been thoroughly conducted. In this study, three independent data sets under different selective regimes were used were composed to tackle this issue. The results showed that selection had a significant impact on the estimates of ancestral effective population sizes of the African great apes. The inference of the ancestral demography of African great apes was affected by the selection regime. The effects, however, were not homogeneous along the ancestral populations of great apes. The effective population size of the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees was more impacted by the selection regime when compared to the same parameter in the ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas. Because the selection regime influenced the estimates of ancestral effective population size, it is reasonable to assume that a portion of the discrepancy found in previous studies that inferred the ancestral effective population size may be attributable to the differential action of selection on the genes sampled.

  3. [Recognition of visual objects under forward masking. Effects of cathegorial similarity of test and masking stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, N Iu; Slavutskaia, A V; Kalinin, S A; Kulikov, M A; Mikhaĭlova, E S

    2013-01-01

    In 38 healthy subjects accuracy and response time were examined during recognition of two categories of images--animals andnonliving objects--under forward masking. We revealed new data that masking effects depended of categorical similarity of target and masking stimuli. The recognition accuracy was the lowest and the response time was the most slow, when the target and masking stimuli belongs to the same category, that was combined with high dispersion of response times. The revealed effects were more clear in the task of animal recognition in comparison with the recognition of nonliving objects. We supposed that the revealed effects connected with interference between cortical representations of the target and masking stimuli and discussed our results in context of cortical interference and negative priming.

  4. Potential neural mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Katherine; Stone, Wendy L.; Dawson, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence supports the efficacy of early intervention for improving outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the mechanisms underlying their effectiveness remain poorly understood. This paper reviews the research literature on the neural bases of the early core deficits in ASD and proposes three key features of early intervention related to the neural mechanisms that may contribute to its effectiveness in improving deficit areas. These features include (1) the early onset of intensive intervention which capitalizes on the experience-expectant plasticity of the immature brain, (2) the use of treatment strategies that address core deficits in social motivation through an emphasis on positive social engagement and arousal modulation, and (3) promotion of complex neural networks and connectivity through thematic, multi-sensory and multi-domain teaching approaches. Understanding the mechanisms of effective early intervention will enable us to identify common or foundational active ingredients for promoting optimal outcomes in children with ASD. PMID:25108609

  5. Comparison of the EEG effects of midazolam, thiopental, and propofol: the role of underlying oscillatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshchenko, V A; Veselis, R A; Reinsel, R A

    1997-01-01

    The EEG effects of 3 intravenous sedative drugs from different chemical families were studied during conscious sedation in 47 normal volunteers. The drugs studied were midazolam (a benzodiazepine), propofol (an alkylphenol) and thiopental (a barbiturate). Though these drugs cause different degrees of amnesia, they have the common EEG effects of suppressing alpha-rhythm and increasing total beta-power. A large portion of the increase in beta-power can be accounted for by beta-rhythms. We used the UNIFAC-EEG technique to differentiate oscillatory systems underlying the rhythms induced by these drugs in a quantitative fashion. While thiopental induced beta-rhythms which were similar to those appearing during drowsiness, midazolam and propofol induced beta-rhythms with substantially different characteristics. The differences between the beta-rhythms induced by drug infusion and previously described 'sleep spindles' are discussed. We conclude that a quantitative analysis of beta-rhythms can differentiate the effects of these drugs on the EEG.

  6. Effect of l-tryptophan on plant weight and pod weight in chickpea under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.H.; Sohail, M.

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous application of plant growth regulators is an important element in modern day agricultural production technology. The precursor of auxin, L-Tryptophan (L-TRP), is the most important plant growth regulator and is physiologically very vital in modelling plant growth and development. To evaluate the effect of L-TRP on chickpea plant weight and pod weight, a field experiment was conducted during 2003, employing randomised complete block design under rain-fed conditions. The treatments were L-TRP at the rate 10 -2 M, L-TRP at the rate 10-3 M, L-TRP at the rate 10/sup -4/ M and a control. Analysis showed that L-TRP at the rate 10/sup -3/M had a significant effect on plant and pod weight, suggesting the additional effect of plant growth promoting factor provided by auxin production. The L-TRP improved the crop vegetative and reproductive growth that consequently increases pod weight. (author)

  7. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Aging and Anti-Tumor Effects of Lithocholic Bile Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Arlia-Ciommo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids are cholesterol-derived bioactive lipids that play essential roles in the maintenance of a heathy lifespan. These amphipathic molecules with detergent-like properties display numerous beneficial effects on various longevity- and healthspan-promoting processes in evolutionarily distant organisms. Recent studies revealed that lithocholic bile acid not only causes a considerable lifespan extension in yeast, but also exhibits a substantial cytotoxic effect in cultured cancer cells derived from different tissues and organisms. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the robust anti-aging and anti-tumor effects of lithocholic acid have emerged. This review summarizes the current knowledge of these mechanisms, outlines the most important unanswered questions and suggests directions for future research.

  8. Under-examined aspects of the potential environmental effects of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Penner, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    In addition to destroying the area near the explosions, a nuclear war would lead to injection of a wide range of substances into the environment, both as a result of the delivery systems and explosions themselves and as a consequence of the blast, fires, and resulting destruction and disruption. While addressing the many remaining uncertainties concerning the effects of smoke injections on climate is the major topic of present research, there are a number of other potential impacts that could have major consequences, but which are currently poorly understood and have not yet been carefully examined. These under-examined effects include perturbations to atmospheric chemistry, the effects of injections of dust and water (which could create ice particles), the consequences of emissions from the smoldering phase of the fires, resuspension of materials due to perturbed surface conditions, and a range of other potential consequences.

  9. Under-examined aspects of the potential environmental effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Penner, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    In addition to destroying the area near the explosions, a nuclear war would lead to injection of a wide range of substances into the environment, both as a result of the delivery systems and explosions themselves and as a consequence of the blast, fires, and resulting destruction and disruption. While addressing the many remaining uncertainties concerning the effects of smoke injections on climate is the major topic of present research, there are a number of other potential impacts that could have major consequences, but which are currently poorly understood and have not yet been carefully examined. These under-examined effects include perturbations to atmospheric chemistry, the effects of injections of dust and water (which could create ice particles), the consequences of emissions from the smoldering phase of the fires, resuspension of materials due to perturbed surface conditions, and a range of other potential consequences

  10. Effect of Bio char on Plant Growth and Aluminium Form of Soil under Aluminium Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lianwen; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Jingwei; Feng, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Aluminium-enriched acid red soils in South China easily cause aluminium toxicity to plants, but biochip can improve soils and eliminate soil contaminations. In this project, biochip was used in potted plant control test to study the effect of biochip on plant growth in soil under acid aluminium stress and the migration and conversion of aluminium in plant-soil system. The fin dings show that the application of biochip increases the pH value of soil under aluminium stress significantly, changes the existing form of aluminium ion in soil, reduces the plants’ absorption of aluminium, and alleviates the aluminium toxicity to plants, but too much biochip may inhibit the growth of plants. In this case, further study should be carried out as regards the volume and way of biochip input in practical applications as well as the timeliness of aluminium toxicity removal.

  11. Technique under compressive stress for determining the magneto-elastic effects in ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gallou, J.-H.; Ledieu, M.; Grimal, V.; Acher, O.

    2008-01-01

    A method for determining the magneto-elastic effects in spinel ferrites at high frequencies is presented. To investigate the high-frequency properties of different ferrite materials under stress, a reflection/transmission cell had been designed. In the measurement technique described here, we use a cell which based on a modified reflection/transmission line. This setup allows measurement of permeability under stress up to 20 MPa from 1 MHz to 10 GHz. Specific retrieval procedures have been developed to take into account the modifications in the line geometry. In this study, the permeability properties of spinel ferrites versus frequency between 1 MHz and 6 GHz as a function of the applied stress are showed. The two most important contributions of the permeability are the wall bulging and the gyro-magnetism which have a different behavior versus the applied stress

  12. Effects of inhaled (S)-linalool on hypothalamic gene expression in rats under restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoto; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Saito-Iizumi, Kana; Kamei, Asuka; Shinozaki, Fumika; Watanabe, Yuki; Abe, Keiko; Nakamura, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Linalool has two enantiomers, (R)-linalool and (S)-linalool. Both are known to possess several biological activities in stressed animals. Our previous work revealed that inhalation of (R)-linalool altered hypothalamic gene expression in rats under stress. In the present study, we monitored hypothalamic gene expression in restrained rats with and without (S)-linalool inhalation by DNA microarray. The entire gene expression profile showed that inhalation of (S)-linalool significantly changed the expression levels of 316 hypothalamic genes in the restrained rats. The differentially expressed genes (e.g., App, Avp, Igf2, Igfbp2, Sst and Syt5) were found to relate to cell-to-cell signaling and nervous system development. These results indicate that (S)-linalool influences hypothalamic gene expression in restrained rats, and that inhalation of (S)-linalool under the stressed condition has some effects on stress-related biological responses.

  13. Effects of molecule anchoring and dispersion on nanoscopic friction under electrochemical control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wijn, A S; Fasolino, A; Filippov, A E; Urbakh, M

    2016-01-01

    The application of electric fields is a promising strategy for in situ control of friction. While there have recently been many experimental studies on friction under the influence of electric fields, theoretical understanding is very limited. Recently, we introduced a simple theoretical model for friction under electrochemical conditions that focused on the interaction of a force microscope tip with adsorbed molecules whose orientation was dependent on the applied electric field. Here we focus on the effects of anchoring of the molecules on friction. We show that anchoring affects the intensity and width of the peak in the friction that occurs near a reorientation transition of adsorbed molecules, and explain this by comparing the strength of molecule–molecule and molecule–tip interactions. We derive a dispersion relation for phonons in the layer of adsorbed molecules and demonstrate that it can be used to understand important features of the frictional response. (paper)

  14. The Effect Of Temperature On The Performance Of PV Array Operating Under Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng. Sameh. M.El Sayed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The sun is the worlds sole source of energy. In fact all of the energy being used on the earth today is driven from solar energy. Because of the increase in world energy demand and the threat of global warming there is a pressing need for the development of reliable cost-effective sources of renewable energy. Renewable energy sources include indirect solar energy such as hydro wind and direct solar energy conversion through thermal receivers or photovoltaic. This paper discusses the parameters that affects on the cell temperature under concentration. Comparison between fixed modules and solar cells operating under concentration to get the optimum solution. By increasing the concentration factor one minimizes the area of the cell .System uses special cell Fresnel lens and multilayer cells.This cell has large efficiency and bear high temperature. The economic studies are necessary to calculate the cost of 1kwh for each case.

  15. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa and soybean under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydon, S.A.; Mohamad, A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of 20% increase of UVB on growth and yield of alfalfa (Medicago Sativa L.) and two cultivars of soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Mer) under field conditions have been investigated. The increase of UVB dose ranged between 1.746 and 7.112 J/cm 2 during experiment. The results showed that soybean yield decrease by 16% and 31% in A. 3803 and A. 2522 cultivars respectively, under UVB exposure. The dry weight and leaf area were sensitive in the A. 3803 cultivar, while they were tolerant in the A. 2522 cultivar. Alfalfa response to UVB varied during the different stages of growth, whereas the yield was 12% less in the exposed plants. (author)

  16. The effect of laser treatment of WC-Co coatings on their failure under thermal cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasterov, Artur; Shugurov, Artur; Kazachenok, Marina; Panin, Alexey; Cheng, Chin-Hsiang; Chang, I.-Ling

    2016-11-01

    The given paper studies the effect of surface laser treatment of WC-Co coatings on their surface morphology, phase composition and thermal cycling behavior. The coatings were sprayed on stainless steel substrates with the use of a high velocity oxy fuel spraying process. Application of the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that re-melting of the coating surface layer during laser treatment induced changes in its phase composition as well as the formation of regular rows of globular asperities on the coating surface. The latter resulted in a sharp increase in thermal shock resistance of the laser treated WC-Co coatings under water quench tests; its underlying mechanism are proposed and discussed in the paper.

  17. Mechanism underlying the effects of doxepin on β-amyloid -induced memory impairment in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimei Bu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In previous studies, researchers observed that doxepin could improve cognitive processes and has protective effectson the central nervous system. Thus, this study was designed to analyze the effects of doxepin on β-amyloid (Aβ-induced memory impairment and neuronal toxicity in ratand to explore the underlying mechanism. Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with Aβ1-42 and doxepin was injected to validate its effects on cognitive function. The Morris water maze test was performed to detect memory function.  Aβ1-42-treated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line was also used to detect the effects of doxepin and to explore the underlying mechanism. Western blotting analysis was used to detect the protein expression levels of PSD-95, synapsin 1, p-AKT and p-mTOR in rats. Results: After treated with 1 mg/kg of doxepin, Aβ1-42-treated rats showed markedly lower escape latency and higher platform-finding strategy score. Low doses of doxepin significantly reversed the effects of Aβ1-42 on the protein expression levels of PSD-95, synapsin 1, p-AKT and p-mTOR in rats.   In vitro experiment showed the consistent results. Besides, PI3K inhibitor (LY294002 treatment could markedly reversed the effects of doxepin on Aβ1-42-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that doxepin could protect against the Aβ1-42-induced memory impairment in rats. The protective effect of doxepin was associated with the enhancement of PSD-95 and synapsin 1 expression via PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

  18. Effects of gamma radiation on Clostridium botulinum type E under various parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Y.H.

    1986-01-01

    Spores of Clostridium botulinum type E strain Eklund (Eklund) was irradiated with gamma radiation and its recovery was tested on the tryptone-peptone-glucose-yeast extract-agar (TPGYA) containing various levels of NaCl and Na-thioglycollate. The presence of 0.5% or more NaCl in the media decreased the viable counts, while Na-thioglycollate of up to 0.15% did not affect the recovery of both irradiated and non-irradiated spores. Eklund spores were also irradiated under air (21% O 2 ), N 2 O and N 2 , with or without the additive of one of the following agents (additive/concentration): disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), 0.01 M; t-butanol, 0.1 M; NaCl, 0.01 M; catalyze, 10 mg/ml and DL-cysteine, 0.1 mM. Radiation process was most effective in destroying the spores when carried out under air (21% O 2 ), followed by N 2 O and N 2 . Among the additives tested, EDTA was the most efficient protector followed by t-butanol when irradiation process was carried under N 2 O and N 2 gas environment. Catalase and DL-cysteine sensitized the spores when irradiated under N 2 O and N 2 , while NaCl only sensitized under N 2 . Spores kept frozen at -75 0 C for 30 days but thawed prior to irradiation were more sensitive to radiation damage than freshly prepared spores. Radiation resistance of the spores increased when 15% glycerol was added to the phosphate bugger (0.06 M, pH 7.0) and used as suspending media. When the concentration of the spore increased from 10 6 /ml to 10 11 /ml, the radiosensitivities also increased. Seven strains of C. botulinum type E were screened for plasmids by agarose gel electrophoresis

  19. Antioxidative effects of Kimchi under different fermentation stage on radical-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boh Kyung; Choi, Ji Myung; Kang, Soon Ah; Park, Kun Young; Cho, Eun Ju

    2014-12-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable containing several ingredients. We investigated the protective activity of methanol extract of kimchi under different fermentation stages against oxidative damage. Fresh kimchi (Fresh), optimally ripened kimchi (OptR), and over ripened kimchi (OvR) were fermented until the pH reached pH 5.6, pH 4.3, and pH 3.8, respectively. The radical scavenging activity and protective activity from oxidative stress of kimchi during fermentation were investigated under in vitro and cellular systems using LLC-PK1 cells. Kimchi exhibited strong radical scavenging activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical. In addition, the free radical generators led to loss of cell viability and elevated lipid peroxidation, while treatment with kimchi resulted in significantly increased cell viability and decreased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, the protective effect against oxidative stress was related to regulation of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB p65, and IκB expression. In particular, OvR showed the strongest protective effect from cellular oxidative stress among other kimchi. The current study indicated that kimchi, particularly OptR and OvR, played a protective role against free radical-induced oxidative stress. These findings suggest that kimchi is a promising functional food with an antioxidative effect and fermentation of kimchi led to elevation of antioxidative activity.

  20. Immediate effect of instrumentation on the subgingival microflora in deep inflamed pockets under strict plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, G E; Timmerman, M F; Veldkamp, I; Van Winkelhoff, A J; Van der Velden, U

    2006-01-01

    To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at one deep pocket in 22 patients (11 smokers and 11 non-smokers). Immediately after initial therapy, experimental sites, under strict plaque control, were instrumented subgingivally. Microbiological evaluation was performed at pre-instrumentation, immediate post-instrumentation and 1 and 2 weeks post-instrumentation. Mean total anaerobic colony forming units (CFUs) dropped from 3.9 x 10(6) before to 0.09 x 10(6) immediately following instrumentation. Significant reductions were found for Tannerella forsythia, Micromonas micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum and spirochetes. Significant reductions were not observed for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Campylobacter rectus. Except for spirochetes, no reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria was found immediately after instrumentation. During follow-up, mean total CFU tended to increase. Prevalence of periodontal bacteria further reduced. No effect of smoking was found. Results indicate that subgingival mechanical cleaning in itself, has a limited effect, in actually removing bacteria. The subsequent reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria shows that it is apparently difficult for these species to survive in treated pockets.

  1. Molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac antihypertrophic and antifibrotic effects of natriuretic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvieri, Camilla; Rubattu, Speranza; Volpe, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) exert well-characterized protective effects on the cardiovascular system, such as vasorelaxation, natri- and diuresis, increase of endothelial permeability, and inhibition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. It has been reported that they also possess antihypertrophic and antifibrotic properties and contribute actively to cardiac remodeling. As a consequence, they are involved in several aspects of cardiovascular diseases. Antihypertrophic and antifibrotic actions of NPs appear to be mediated by specific signaling pathways within a more complex cellular network. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of NPs on cardiac remodeling represents an important research objective in order to gain more insights on the complex network leading to cardiac hypertrophy, ventricular dysfunction, and transition to heart failure, and in the attempt to develop novel therapeutic agents. The aim of the present article is to review well-characterized molecular mechanisms underlying the antihypertrophic and antifibrotic effects of NPs in the heart that appear to be mainly mediated by guanylyl cyclase type A receptor. In particular, we discuss the calcineurin/NFAT, the sodium exchanger NHE-1, and the TGFβ1/Smad signaling pathways. The role of guanylyl cyclase type B receptor, along with the emerging functional significance of natriuretic peptide receptor type C as mediators of CNP antihypertrophic and antifibrotic actions in the heart are also considered.

  2. NULIFE - Project CABINET. RPV Assessment under Consideration of Constraint and Warm Pre-Stress Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, F.; Nicak, Tomas; Keim, Elisabeth; Fekete, Tamas; Scibetta, Marc; Planman, Tapio; Laukkanen, Anssi; Carcia, Carlos Cueto-Felgueroso; Sattari-Far, Iradj

    2012-01-01

    At the moment, nuclear power plant regulators do not predominantly consider constraint and biaxial effects in their concepts for failure assessment of nuclear components. The warm pre-stressing (WPS) effect is only partly considered in some assessment procedures and codes. There is also a lack of a harmonized treatment of these effects in the safety assessment of European plants. This paper introduces the project CABINET (Constraint and Biaxial Loading Effects and their Interactions Considering Thermal Transients) which is a collaborative project under the EU's Network of Excellence NULIFE. The overall objective of CABINET is to investigate and understand constraint, biaxial loading and WPS effects in terms of a clearly defined application window, especially in the light of long term operation. The focus lies on already available experimental data and methodologies. The intention is to provide recommendations for a harmonized application of those effects in European nuclear safety assessment. The possibility to include different level of analysis depending on input data and acceptance of National Regulatory Body is also being evaluated. Although the CABINET project is not completed yet, it has been found that it is possible to rationalize the different existing codes. (author)

  3. GWAS of DNA Methylation Variation Within Imprinting Control Regions Suggests Parent-of-Origin Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renteria, M.E.; Coolen, M.W.; Statham, A.L.; Choi, R.S.; Qu, W.; Campbell, M.J.; Smith, S.; Henders, A.K.; Montgomery, G.W.; Clark, S. J.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Imprinting control regions (ICRs) play a fundamental role in establishing and maintaining the non-random monoallelic expression of certain genes, via common regulatory elements such as non-coding RNAs and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of DNA. We recently surveyed DNA methylation levels

  4. Identification of imprinted genes subject to parent-of-origin specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckeown, P.C.; Laouielle-Duprat, S.; Prins, J.C.P.; Wolff, de P.; Schmid, M.W.; Donoghue, M.T.; Fort, A.; Duszynska, D.; Comte, A.; Lao, N.T.; Wennblom, T.J.; Smant, G.; Köhler, C.; Grossniklaus, U.; Spillane, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epigenetic regulation of gene dosage by genomic imprinting of some autosomal genes facilitates normal reproductive development in both mammals and flowering plants. While many imprinted genes have been identified and intensively studied in mammals, smaller numbers have been characterized

  5. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, John R. B.; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E.

    2014-01-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-causemortality(1). Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal...

  6. Modelling the effectiveness of grass buffer strips in managing muddy floods under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Donal; Vandaele, Karel; Boardman, John; Meneely, John; Crossley, Laura H.

    2016-10-01

    Muddy floods occur when rainfall generates runoff on agricultural land, detaching and transporting sediment into the surrounding natural and built environment. In the Belgian Loess Belt, muddy floods occur regularly and lead to considerable economic costs associated with damage to property and infrastructure. Mitigation measures designed to manage the problem have been tested in a pilot area within Flanders and were found to be cost-effective within three years. This study assesses whether these mitigation measures will remain effective under a changing climate. To test this, the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to examine muddy flooding diagnostics (precipitation, runoff, soil loss and sediment yield) for a case study hillslope in Flanders where grass buffer strips are currently used as a mitigation measure. The model was run for present day conditions and then under 33 future site-specific climate scenarios. These future scenarios were generated from three earth system models driven by four representative concentration pathways and downscaled using quantile mapping and the weather generator CLIGEN. Results reveal that under the majority of future scenarios, muddy flooding diagnostics are projected to increase, mostly as a consequence of large scale precipitation events rather than mean changes. The magnitude of muddy flood events for a given return period is also generally projected to increase. These findings indicate that present day mitigation measures may have a reduced capacity to manage muddy flooding given the changes imposed by a warming climate with an enhanced hydrological cycle. Revisions to the design of existing mitigation measures within existing policy frameworks are considered the most effective way to account for the impacts of climate change in future mitigation planning.

  7. 'On the doctor's orders': A pilot study of the effects of website marketing for medical specialist providers under gatekeeping arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.

    2017-01-01

    Websites from medical specialist providers are becoming increasingly marketing oriented, but there exists a paucity of empirical research on the effects. This experimental study explored effects of exposure to real websites from medical specialist providers among Dutch adults under physician

  8. Effects of Boundary Conditions on the Parametric Resonance of Cylindrical Shells under Axial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y. Ng

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a formulation for the dynamic stability analysis of circular cylindrical shells under axial compression with various boundary conditions is presented. The present study uses Love’s first approximation theory for thin shells and the characteristic beam functions as approximate axial modal functions. Applying the Ritz procedure to the Lagrangian energy expression yields a system of Mathieu–Hill equations the stability of which is analyzed using Bolotin’s method. The present study examines the effects of different boundary conditions on the parametric response of homogeneous isotropic cylindrical shells for various transverse modes and length parameters.

  9. Water diffusion in cytoplasmic streaming in Elodea internodal cells under the effect of antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, Vladimir N; Anisimov, Alexander V; Dautova, Nailya R

    2008-07-01

    The translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water in Elodea stem cells resulting from protein motor activity was measured using the NMR method. A 24-h treatment with vincristine results in a reduction of the translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water. With a constant cytoplasmic streaming velocity, the dynamics of the translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water under the effect of taxol are characterized by a continuous increase at a concentration of 0.05 mM, and reaching a plateau at a concentration of 0.5 mM.

  10. Description of the shape memory effect of radiation-modified polymers under thermomechanical action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernous, D.A.; Shil'ko, S.V.; Pleskachevskij, Yu.M.

    2004-01-01

    The 'shape memory' effect of crystallizing polymer materials is simulated. The polymer is considered to be an inhomogeneous medium with a moving boundary (temperature-dependent phase composition). Using a model based on the 'frozen strain' hypothesis, the temperature dependences of stresses under isometric heating and cooling have been obtained. On the basis of the known data on the influence of gamma-irradiation on the thermomechanical characteristics the dependences of thermorelaxation and thermoshrinkage stresses on the absorbed dose for high-density polyethylene have been found. (Authors)

  11. Stabilizing effects of a fiber bridge on delamination under compressive load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daridon, L. [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Multimateriaux Industriels, Strasbourg (France); Zidani, K. [Batna Univ. (Algeria)

    2000-07-01

    Propagation, due to local buckling, of an existing crack in composite plates under compressive load is modelized by an assembly of beams associated with a damageable component localized at crack tip, identified as a fiber bridge. Based upon the model's predictions, an extensive parametric study exhibits a strong stabilizing effect for the fiber bridge. Even for deeply located cracks, the stabilizing length is likely to be reduced by a factor two to four. We finally give a concrete example of prediction of crack propagation behaviour based on parameter values issuing from a DCB test. (orig.)

  12. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic induction under fluctuating light in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öztürk, Isik; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    for photosynthetic induction. Gas exchange measurements were used to investigate the rate of induction and the opening of stomata. It was determined that induction equilibrium for C. morifolium at varying temperatures under dynamic light conditions was reached within 15 to 45 minutes except at saturating light...... intensity. For the same photon irradiance, the momentary state of induction equilibrated was higher approximately at 30° C and it decreased as temperature increased. The interaction effect of irradiance and temperature on induction equilibrium was not significant. The rate of photosynthetic induction...

  13. Calorigenic effect of adrenaline in rats under conditions of restricted motor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, L.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    In previous studies, it was demonstrated that long term restricted motor activity in rats induces a decrease in body weight, an increase in release of adrenaline, and a decrease in the release of noradrenaline with the urine, as well as a reduction in activity of the thymus gland and level of thyroxin in the blood. At the same time, a decrease was found in the internal body temperature that was accompanied by an increase in the rate of metabolism in the state of rest. An investigation is presented which attempts to clarify whether the calorigenic effect of adrenaline under conditions of increased metabolism in the period of immobility is exposed to changes.

  14. Effect of anemia on tumor radiosensitivity under normo and hyperbaric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, A.; Stewart, F.A.; Smith, K.A.; Soranson, J.A.; Randhawa, V.S.; Stratford, M.R.; Denekamp, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of chronic anemia on tumor radiosensitivity in a murine tumor has been investigated. Anemia was induced by bilateral kidney irradiation given several months before tumor implantation. Anemic, anemic transfused, and normal non-anemic age-matched tumor bearing animals were irradiated with X rays (2 F/24 hr) either in air, air plus misonidazole, or under hyperbaric oxygen. The most resistant response was that of tumors grown in normal mice treated in air. Anemia produced an increase in radiosensitivity which was further enhanced by red blood cell replacement. The most sensitive overall response was seen in the anemic-transfused group treated with HBO

  15. Effect Of Low External Flow On Flame Spreading Over ETFE Insulated Wire Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Osamu; Ito, Kenichi; Kikuchi, Masao; Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Fire safety is one of the most important issues for manned space missions. A likely cause of fires in spacecraft is wire insulation combustion in electrical system. Regarding the wire insulation combustion it important to know the effect of low external flow on the combustion because of the presence of ventilation flow in spacecraft. Although, there are many researches on flame spreading over solid material at low external flows under microgravity, research dealing with wire insulation is very limited. An example of wire insulation combustion in microgravity is the Space Shuttle experiments carried out by Greenberg et al. However, the number of experiments was very limited. Therefore, the effect of low flow velocity is still not clear. The authors have reported results on flame spreading over ETFE (ethylene - tetrafluoroetylene) insulated wire in a quiescent atmosphere in microgravity by 10 seconds drop tower. The authors also performed experiments of polyethylene insulated nichrom wire combustion in low flow velocity under microgravity. The results suggested that flame spread rate had maximum value in low flow velocity condition. Another interesting issue is the effect of dilution gas, especially CO2, which is used for fire extinguisher in ISS. There are some researches working on dilution gas effect on flame spreading over solid material in quiescent atmosphere in microgravity. However the research with low external flow is limited and, of course, the research discussing a relation of the appearance of maximum wire flammability in low flow velocity region with different dilution gas cannot be found yet. The present paper, therefore, investigates the effect of opposed flow with different dilution gas on flame spreading over ETFE insulated wire and change in the presence of the maximum flammability depending on the dilution gas type is discussed within the limit of microgravity time given by ground-based facility.

  16. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term (< 6 months) and long-term (> 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation.

  17. Effect of Cyclic Loading on Surface Instability of Silicone Rubber under Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglin Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work combines experiments and finite element simulations to study the effect of pre-imposed cyclic loading on surface instability of silicon rubber under compression. We first fabricate cuboid blocks of silicon rubber and pinch them cyclicly a few times. Then, an in-house apparatus is set to apply uniaxial compression on the silicon rubber under exact plane strain conditions. Surprisingly, we find multiple creases on the surface of silicone rubber, significantly different from what have been observed on the samples without the cyclic pinching. To reveal the underlying physics for these experimentally observed multiple creases, we perform detailed nanoindentation experiments to measure the material properties at different locations of the silicon rubber. The modulus is found to be nonuniform and varies along the thickness direction after the cyclic pinching. According to these experimental results, three-layer and multilayer finite element models are built with different materials properties informed by experiments. The three-layer finite element model can excellently explain the nucleation and pattern of multiple surface creases on the surface of compressed silicone rubber, in good agreement with experiments. Counterintuitively, the multilayer model with gradient modulus cannot be used to explain the multiple creases observed in our experiments. According to these simulations, the experimentally observed multiple creases should be attributed to a thin and stiff layer formed on the surface of silicon rubber after the pre-imposed cyclic loading.

  18. Effect of Luting Cement Space on the Strain Response of Gold Crowns Under Static Compressive Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbia, S; Ibbetson, R; Reuben, B

    2015-03-01

    The aim the work was to investigate the effect of varying degrees of luting cement thickness on the strain of the cemented gold alloy crowns under compression. Five dies with their corresponding crowns were fabricated using a lost wax technique. Three gold crowns for each die were fabricated under the control of specific die spacer layers to provide a space of 40 µm (10 layers of die-spacer thickness) and 80 µm (20 layers of die-spacer thickness). The crowns were subsequently cemented using zinc phosphate cement. The crowns were subjected to gradual static compressive loading between 10N to 250N (Newton) and the strain measured simultaneously. The results were statistically analysed using Independent t-test for the different die-spacer thickness at the 95% confidence interval (p = 0.05). It was found that a significant relationship in the three thicknesses. It was concluded that the absence of die-spacer significantly reduced strain response, whereas a very little change in the strain recorded as the die spacer layers has increased. Clinically, decreasing the number of die-spacer layers is advantageous as it provides a lower strain response under static compressive loading that would improve the longevity of the cemented full crowns inside the patient's mouth.

  19. Effects of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated engine conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of ambient oxygen concentration on biodiesel and diesel spray combustion under simulated compression-ignition engine conditions in a constant-volume chamber. The apparent heat release rate (AHRR) is calculated based on the measured pressure. High-speed imaging of OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity (NL) is employed to visualize the combustion process. Temporally and spatially resolved NL and OH* contour plots are obtained. The result indicates that AHRR depends monotonically on the ambient oxygen concentration for both fuels. A lower oxygen concentration yields a slower AHRR increase rate, a lower peak AHRR value, but a higher AHRR value during the burn-out stage when compared with higher ambient oxygen concentration conditions. OH* chemiluminescence and NL contours indicate that biodiesel may experience a longer premixed-combustion duration. The 18% ambient O2 condition works better for biodiesel than diesel in reducing soot luminosity. With 12% O2, diesel combustion is significantly degraded. However, both fuels experience low temperature combustion at 10% O2. These results may imply that biodiesel is able to achieve the desired lower soot production under a moderate oxygen level with higher combustion efficiency, while diesel needs to be burned under very low ambient oxygen concentration for low soot production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Electro-migration effect of titanium structure under high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaida, Y; Iwai, K; Asai, S

    2009-01-01

    It is well known topic that electro-migration accompanies the transport of atoms, ions and holes in a material. Then we can say that both electro-migration and strong magnetic field have potential to control crystal alignment. In this study, an electric current and/or a static magnetic field were applied to a titanium sample parallel to each other to investigate the effects of the electric current and the static magnetic field on crystal alignment in the titanium. Using XRD analysis, it was understood that titanium crystals having a c-axis perpendicular to the electric current direction increased under the imposition of only the electric current and under the simultaneous imposition of the electric current and the magnetic field. On the other hand, titanium crystals having a c-axis parallel to the magnetic field direction increased under the imposition of only the magnetic field. The aligned result can be explained from the viewpoint of anisotropy of the Joule loss and the magnetization energy.

  1. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Cognitive Emotion Regulation in Men under Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, third wave therapy in psychotherapy puts special emphasis on the individuals’ awareness  as well as their emotional and cognitive acceptance rather than challenging the cognitions. Therfore, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on cognitive emotion regulation in the addicted men under Methadone treatment. Method: The study population consisted of all the addicted men under Methadone treatment referring to an addiction treatment clinic in Isfahan in 2014-2015, out of which 24 addicted men were selected via convenience sampling method, and then were appointed randomly into two experimental and control groups (n= 12. Both groups filled Cognition Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The therapeutic interventions based on aacceptance and commitment therapy were held for the experimental group for 8 sessions of one hour once a week. Ultimately, the collected data were analyzed applying SPSS software via ANCOVA method . Result: The findings of the present study demonstrated a significant positive impact of acceptance and commitment  therapy on reduction of self blame, rumination, catastrophizing as well as blaming others. Moreover, a significant increase was observed in regard with the acceptance, positive refocus, refocus on planning, positive reappraisal and positive perspective. Conclusion: It was concluded that acceptance and commitment therapy seems to be beneficial to enhancing the emotion regulation of addicted men under Methadone treatment, which can be related to training the referrents to accept their thoughts and conditions.

  2. Stochastic description of cascade size effects on phase stability under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Bellon, P.

    1988-01-01

    Cascade size may affect phase stability under irradiation because of two distinct contributions: the replacement to displacement cross section ratio depends on the deposited energy density; ballistic jumps which tend to disorder ordere compounds occur by bursts (of size b), while thermal jumps which restored long range order occur one by one. The latter effect cannot be handled by standard rate theory. A stochastic treatment of the problem, based on a Fokker Planck approximation of the relevant master equation is summarized. It is shown that the possible values of the long range order parameter under irradiation are not affected by the size b of the bursts, but that the respective stability of the former is b dependent. As a consequence, the stability diagram of phases under irradiation varies with b. Such a diagram is computed for the Ni 4 Mo system where three structures are competing: the disordered solid solution, D1 a and DO 23 . A broadening by 100K of the stability domain of the short range ordered structure to the expense of the long range ordered one is predicted when increasing b from 1 to 100. The stochastic potentials introduced in the present treatment are by no means free energies of some constrained state. They can however be computed in a mean field type approximation. 23 refs

  3. 29 CFR 37.16 - What is this part's effect on a recipient's obligations under other laws, and what limitations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is this part's effect on a recipient's obligations under other laws, and what limitations apply? 37.16 Section 37.16 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor... (WIA) General Provisions § 37.16 What is this part's effect on a recipient's obligations under other...

  4. Heavy-ion radiobiology: new approaches to delineate mechanisms underlying enhanced biological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, E. A.; Kronenberg, A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of polonium and radium by Marie Curie and her husband and colleague, Pierre Curie, it was learned that exposure to these alpha-particle emitters produced deleterious biological effects. The mechanisms underlying the increased biological effectiveness of densely ionizing radiations, including alpha particles, neutrons and highly energetic heavy charged particles, remain an active area of investigation. In this paper, we review recent advances in several areas of the radiobiology of these densely ionizing radiations, also known as heavy ions. Advances are described in the areas of DNA damage and repair, chromosome aberrations, mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation in vitro, genomic instability, normal tissue radiobiology and carcinogenesis in vivo. We focus on technical innovations, including novel applications of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), linkage analysis, and studies of gene expression and protein expression. We also highlight the use of new cellular and animal systems, including those with defined DNA repair deficiencies, as well as epithelial cell model systems to assess neoplastic transformation both in vitro and in vivo. The studies reviewed herein have had a substantial impact on our understanding of the genotoxic effects of heavy ions as well as their distinct effects on tissue homeostasis. The use of these radiations in cancer therapy is also discussed. The use of both heavy-ion and proton therapy is on the upswing in several centers around the world, due to their unique energy deposition characteristics that enhance the therapeutic effect and help reduce damage to normal tissue.

  5. Underlying Processes of an Inverted Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning – An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Zander

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the frequently examined design principles in multimedia learning is the personalization principle. Based on empirical evidence this principle states that using personalized messages in multimedia learning is more beneficial than using formal language (e.g., using ‘you’ instead of ‘the’. Although there is evidence that these slight changes in regard to the language style affect learning, motivation and the perceived cognitive load, it remains unclear, (1 whether the positive effects of personalized language can be transferred to all kinds of content of learning materials (e.g., specific potentially aversive health issues and (2 which are the underlying processes (e.g., attention allocation of the personalization effect. German university students (N = 37 learned symptoms and causes of cerebral hemorrhages either with a formal or a personalized version of the learning material. Analysis revealed comparable results to the few existing previous studies, indicating an inverted personalization effect for potentially aversive learning material. This effect was specifically revealed in regard to decreased average fixation duration and the number of fixations exclusively on the images in the personalized compared to the formal version. These results can be seen as indicators for an inverted effect of personalization on the level of visual attention.

  6. The effects of stoichiometry on the mechanical properties of icosahedral boron carbide under loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, DeCarlos E; McCauley, James W; Wright, T W

    2012-12-19

    The effects of stoichiometry on the atomic structure and the related mechanical properties of boron carbide (B(4)C) have been studied using density functional theory and quantum molecular dynamics simulations. Computational cells of boron carbide containing up to 960 atoms and spanning compositions ranging from 6.7% to 26.7% carbon were used to determine the effects of stoichiometry on the atomic structure, elastic properties, and stress-strain response as a function of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and shear loading paths. It was found that different stoichiometries, as well as variable atomic arrangements within a fixed stoichiometry, can have a significant impact on the yield stress of boron carbide when compressed uniaxially (by as much as 70% in some cases); the significantly reduced strength of boron carbide under shear loading is also demonstrated.

  7. Effect of chitooligosaccharides with different degrees of acetylation on wheat seedlings under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping; Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Qin, Yukun; Yu, Huahua; Zhou, Miaomiao; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-08-01

    In this study, chitooligosaccharides (COSs) with varying degrees of acetylation (DAs) were applied to wheat seedlings in order to investigate their effect on the plants' defence response under salt stress. The results showed that treatment with exogenous COSs that had different DAs could promote the growth of plants, decrease the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), improve the photosynthetic efficiency and enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The mRNA expression level examination of several salt stress response genes suggested that COS could protect plants from the damage of salt stress by adjusting intracellular ion concentration and enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, COS with DA 50% was the most effective in alleviating salt stress to wheat seedlings, which indicated that the activity of COS was closely related with its DAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of iron(III) ion on moso bamboo pyrolysis under microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Li, Xiangqian; Wang, Zhaoyu; Bi, Yanhong; Yang, Rongling; Zhang, Jinfeng; Luo, Hongzhen; Niu, Miaomiao; Qi, Bo; Lu, Chen

    2017-11-01

    The effect of iron(III) ion on microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo was investigated. Hydrofluoric acid washing was used as a pilot process to demineralize moso bamboo in order to eliminate the influences of the other inorganics contained in moso bamboo itself. The results indicated that the addition of iron(III) ion increased the maximal reaction temperatures under microwave condition dependent on the amount of the added iron(III) ion. The production of the non-condensable gases was promoted by the addition of iron(III) ion mainly at the expense of liquid products. Iron(III) ion exhibited the positive effect for syngas production and inhibited the formation of CO 2 and CH 4 . The formation of Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 was found during microwave pyrolysis and the mechanism of the two metallic oxides formation was described in this work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of pre-stressing on the behaviour of CFRP under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnay, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of pre-stressing on the behaviour of CFRP composites under gamma irradiation has been studied for three materials: 0 deg carbon/epoxy, 0 deg carbon/toughened epoxy and 0 deg/90 deg carbon/PES. Irradiation was carried out at room temperature and at 77 K. Preliminary results illustrate that pre-stressing can significantly affect the degradation of these materials, particularly after irradiation at room temperature. The data indicate that stress cannot be ignored when assessing the durability of structural composites for space applications. This work, which completes the preliminary assessment of low-temperature irradiation effects, has highlighted a number of queries which should be of concern to those using structural composites in space applications. (Author). 15 refs., 17 figs

  10. The case for a United Nations verification agency. Disarmament under effective international control. Working paper 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, A.W.

    1990-07-01

    It is now universally recognized that arms control treaties should be effectively verified. The most objective, flexible and cost-effective means to verify the majority of multilateral treaties would be through a new agency under the United Nations. As a cooperative international effort to develop both the technology and the political framework for arms control verification, a United Nations verification agency (UNVA) would speed up and help secure the disarmament process by: verifying a number of existing and future treaties; investigating alleged breaches of treaties; and certifying, upon request, that voluntary arms control and confidence-building measures have been carried out. This paper presents the case for such a proposal, outlines a possible institutional configuration, considers the possibilities for growth and discusses the challenges facing the establishment of such an agency. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab

  11. Analytical Study of Common Rigid Steel Connections under the Effect of Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohola Rahnavard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important members of steel structure’s connection region is beam-to-column connection. Rigid connection in steel moment frame has special role in the behavior of these structures and the fire resistance of these connections can be important. In this paper the behaviors of three common types of rigid connections in Iran under the effect of heat were studied by the use of numerical finite element methods through ABAQUS software. The models were verified by the use of an experimental model through elastic and plastic amplitudes up to collapse and during numerical results, and the effect of large deformation in the nonlinear region has also been considered. The results show that the connection with the end plate had a better performance against heat than other connections. Also reduced stiffness and lateral buckling in this connection were less than other connections.

  12. Effect of Admixtures on the Yield Stresses of Cement Pastes under High Hydrostatic Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hong Jae; Kim, Jae Hong; Kwon, Seung Hee

    2016-03-02

    When cement-based materials are transported at a construction site, they undergo high pressures during the pumping process. The rheological properties of the materials under such high pressures are unknown, and estimating the workability of the materials after pumping is a complex problem. Among various influential factors on the rheology of concrete, this study investigated the effect of mineral and chemical admixtures on the high-pressure rheology. A rheometer was fabricated that could measure the rheological properties while maintaining a high pressure to simulate the pumping process. The effects of superplasticizer, silica fume, nanoclay, fly ash, or ground granulated blast furnace slag were investigated when mixed with two control cement pastes. The water-to-cement ratios were 0.35 and 0.50.

  13. Effect of different atmospheres on the electrical contact performance of electronic components under fretting wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Long; Cai, Zhen-Bing; Cui, Ye; Liu, Shan-Bang; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Zhu, Min-Hao

    2018-04-01

    The effects of oxide etch on the surface morphology of metals for industrial application is a common cause of electrical contacts failure, and it has becomes a more severe problem with the miniaturization of modern electronic devices. This study investigated the effects of electrical contact resistance on the contactor under three different atmospheres (oxygen, air, and nitrogen) based on 99.9% copper/pogo pins contacts through fretting experiments. The results showed the minimum and stable electrical contact resistance value when shrouded in the nitrogen environment and with high friction coefficient. The rich oxygen environment promotes the formation of cuprous oxide, thereby the electrical contact resistance increases. Scanning electron microscope microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to analyze the morphology and distribution of elements of the wear area, respectively. The surface product between contacts was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis to explain the different electrical contact properties of the three tested samples during fretting.

  14. The effect of the diazepam to the free radical under the brain radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hongmei; Wang Chen; Zhang Zhilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the diazepam on free radical under in the brain radiation injury in the early stage. Methods: A model of whole brain radiation injury in wakefulness was established in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Diazepam was given intraperitoneally 30 minutes before radiation. The brain tissue homogenate was prepared respectively while the rats were executed 6 hours, 1 day, 1 week, 1 month after irradiation. The contents of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) in the tissue homogenate were measured by chemical colorimetry. Results: Diazepam could increase the vigor of SOD and reduce the MDA contents after irradiated. Conclusions: Diazepam has certain neuroprotection effect on radiation injury and decreasing the level of the free radicals. (authors)

  15. The Varying Effects of Uniaxial Compressive Stress on the Bainitic Transformation under Different Austenitization Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal simulation experiments under different austenitization temperatures and different stress states were conducted. High-temperature laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM, thermal dilatometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used to quantitatively investigate the effects of the uniaxial compressive stress on bainitic transformation at 330 °C following different austenitization temperatures. The transformation plasticity was also analyzed. It was found that the promotion degree of stress on bainitic transformation increases with the austenitization temperature due to larger prior austenite grain size as well as stronger promoting effect of mechanical driving force on selected variant growth at higher austenitization temperatures. The grain size and the yield strength of prior austenite are other important factors which influence the promotion degree of stress on bainitic transformation, besides the mechanical driving force provided by the stress. Moreover, the transformation plasticity increases with the austenitization temperature.

  16. Influence of plasma on the densification mechanism of SPS under multi-field effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-hong; Huang, Di; Jia, Cheng-chang; Cui, Zhao-wen; Wang, Cong-cong; Liang, Dong

    2014-09-01

    The densification mechanism of an Fe-based alloy powder containing tiny oxide particles under the synergic multi-field effect of spark plasma sintering (SPS) was investigated. Metallographic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the morphology of samples sintered at different temperatures, and the temperature distribution in an individual spherical powder particle during sintering was calculated in consideration of the influence of plasma, which was qualified and quantified through the analysis of the U- I curve. The plasma was observed to play a substantial role in activating and heating the samples at the very early stage of sintering, whereas the joule-heat effect played a dominant role during sintering. Moreover, the plasma also facilitated the diffusion and migration of materials for neck formation.

  17. Effect of soft denture liner on stress distribution in supporting structures under a denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, F; Koran, A; Asaoka, K; Matsumoto, N

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a soft denture liner on the distribution of stresses in the denture-supporting structures. Dentures without a linear and with three configurations of a soft liner were simulated by using a two-dimensional viscoelastic finite-element stress analysis. The stress intensity at functional force-bearing areas decreased when a soft denture liner was used. However, the stresses in the bone increased remarkably up to 3.0 seconds after loading. Because of the time-dependent effect of stresses applied to soft denture liners, denture patients who clench or brux may not benefit as greatly from soft denture liners. The study indicates that viscoelastic finite-element analysis is helpful for evaluating soft denture liners. Soft denture liners appear to be useful for improving the stress distribution in the supporting structures under dentures.

  18. The effect of ion-implantation on germination of alfalfa under phenanthrene stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hong; Wang Naiyan; Huang Jianwei; Liu Xijian; Dou Junfeng; Du Yongchao; Li Shuairan

    2011-01-01

    To investigate mutagenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation plant under phenanthrene stress and to test germination level of alfalfa after ion-implantation alfalfa seeds were irradiated with N + beam. The germination percentage and the root length distribution of alfalfa, which grew in environment with different mass fraction of phenanthrene was investigated, respectively. The results indicated that the relation of dose and germination rate was shown as 'saddle' curve characteristics. It was found that the 5 x 10 15 cm -2 would be the best dose of implantation. And the longest root length was about 10.32 cm. The experiment also showed phenanthrene would have inhibitive effect on germination percentage and root growth of alfalfa. The stress resistance of PAHs with alfalfa could be enhanced by ion implantation. (authors)

  19. Thermomagnetic effect with two temperature theory for photothermal process under hydrostatic initial stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Lotfy

    Full Text Available A novel technique is used to investigate the influence of magnetic field for a two dimensional deformations on a two temperature problem at the free surface of a semi-infinite medium. The investigation is carried out under the effects of both mechanical force and hydrostatic initial stress during a photothermal excitation theory. The equations of elastic waves, heat conduction equation, quasi-static electric field, carrier density, two temperature coefficient, ratios, and constitutive relationships for the thermo-magnetic-electric medium are obtained using the Harmonic Wave Method (HWM technique. The effects of thermoelastic, thermoelectric and two temperature parameters of the applied force on the displacement component, force stress, carrier density and temperature distribution has been depicted graphically. Keywords: Photothermal theory, Initial stress, Magnetic field, The harmonic wave, Two temperature

  20. Study of the effects of 1-MCP to blueberry under cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shenchen; Chu, Huailiang; Chen, Xiaomin; Yuan, Huwei; Qiu, Lingling; Zhao, Liang; Yan, Daoliang; Zheng, Bingsong

    2017-04-01

    Blueberry is one of the thinnest exocarp fruits in the world, which is difficult to keep fresh due to the special structure of its skin. 1-Methlcyclopropene (1-MCP) is able to combine with ethylene(ETH) receptor. In this study we investigated the effect of 1-MCP on rotting rate, weight loss ratio, soluble sugar content, titratable acid content, antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosun ‘O Neal’ and ‘North Road’) under cold storage. 1-MCP reduced the rotting rate, weight loss ratio and MDA content, while keeping high-leveled stability in antioxidant enzyme activities, soluble sugar content and titratable acid content. These results showed the role of 1-MCP in alleviating the negative effects of blueberry and suggested that 1-MCP could be used as a preservative for keeping thin exocarp fruit in fresh.

  1. Effect of Recombination in the Evolutionary Dynamics of HIV under the Surveillance of Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weiqun; Yang, Wenjing; Wang, Guanyu

    2009-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has become one of the most destructive pandemics in history. The fact that HIV virus evolves very fast plays a central role in AIDS immunopathogenesis and the difficulty we face in finding a cure or a vaccine for AIDS. A distinguishing feature of HIV is its high frequency of recombination. The effect of recombination in the HIV evolution is not clear. We establish a mathematical model of the evolutionary dynamics. This model incorporates both point mutation and recombination for genetic diversity, and employs a fitness function developed by Wang and Deem (PRL 97, 188106, 2006) that accounts for the effect of immune system. Using this model, we explore the role of recombination in the battle between the virus population and the immune system, with a special focus on the condition under which recombination helps the virus population to escape from the immune system.

  2. Effect of Admixtures on the Yield Stresses of Cement Pastes under High Hydrostatic Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jae Yim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When cement-based materials are transported at a construction site, they undergo high pressures during the pumping process. The rheological properties of the materials under such high pressures are unknown, and estimating the workability of the materials after pumping is a complex problem. Among various influential factors on the rheology of concrete, this study investigated the effect of mineral and chemical admixtures on the high-pressure rheology. A rheometer was fabricated that could measure the rheological properties while maintaining a high pressure to simulate the pumping process. The effects of superplasticizer, silica fume, nanoclay, fly ash, or ground granulated blast furnace slag were investigated when mixed with two control cement pastes. The water-to-cement ratios were 0.35 and 0.50.

  3. A THEORY OF CONSUMER’S PERCEIVED RISK UNDER THE HALO EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian-Laurenţiu FLOREA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being largely tackled by a manifold of sciences, perceived risk is still a rather unclear concept concerning its formation and update. In today’s economy, where poor purchase decisions are so easy to make, consumers have developed mental shields residing in actions based on perceived risk. This paper develops and tests a theory of perceived risk formation under the halo effect, based on correlation analysis in two forms: rankings individuals on their contribution to the correlations increase and partial correlations. Both internal and external halo effects were found, emerging from the perceived risk component – functional risk, financial risk, social risk, physical risk, psychological risk and time risk –, brand attitude, product category attitude, consumer’s regret, others’ regret expressed through word-of-mouth, recency, and awareness of awareness. The intricate halo that was revealed needs further attention from the scientific community in order to better delimit halo sources and, eventually, to explain its variability.

  4. Effect of Gynosaponin on Rumen Methanogenesis under Different Forage-Concentrate Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhetgul Manatbay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of gynosaponin on in vitro methanogenesis under different forage-concentrate ratios (F:C ratios. Experiment was conducted with two kinds of F:C ratios (F:C = 7:3 and F:C = 3:7 and gynosaponin addition (0 mg and 16 mg in a 2×2 double factorial design. In the presence of gynosaponin, methane production and acetate concentration were significantly decreased, whereas concentration of propionate tended to be increased resulting in a significant reduction (p<0.05 of acetate:propionate ratio (A:P ratio, in high-forage substrate. Gynosaponin treatment increased (p<0.05 the butyrate concentration in both F:C ratios. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis showed there was no apparent shift in the composition of total bacteria, protozoa and methanogens after treated by gynosaponin under both F:C ratios. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis indicated that variable F:C ratios significantly affected the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Rumninococcus flavefaciens, total fungi and counts of protozoa (p<0.05, but did not affect the mcrA gene copies of methanogens and abundance of total bacteria. Counts of protozoa and abundance of F.succinogenes were decreased significantly (p<0.05, whereas mcrA gene copies of methanogens were decreased slightly (p<0.10 in high-forage substrate after treated by gynosaponin. However, gynosaponin treatment under high-concentrate level did not affect the methanogenesis, fermentation characteristics and tested microbes. Accordingly, overall results suggested that gynosaponin supplementation reduced the in vitro methanogenesis and improved rumen fermentation under high-forage condition by changing the abundances of related rumen microbes.

  5. Effect of energy under-reporting on secular trends of dietary patterns in a mediterranean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N Funtikova

    Full Text Available Diet is an important factor in the prevention of chronic diseases. Analysis of secular trends of dietary patterns can be biased by energy under-reporting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the impact of energy under-reporting on dietary patterns and secular trends in dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis.Two cross-sectional population-based surveys were conducted in Spain, in 2000 and 2005, with 3058 and 6352 participants, respectively, aged 25 to 74 years. Validated questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Cluster analysis was run separately for all participants, plausible energy reporters (PER, and energy under-reporters (EUR to define dietary patterns.Three clusters, "healthy", "mixed" and "western", were identified for both surveys. The "mixed" cluster was the predominant cluster in both surveys. Excluding EUR reduced the proportion of the "mixed" cluster up to 6.40% in the 2000 survey; this caused secular trend increase in the prevalence of the "mixed" pattern. Cross-classification analysis of all participants and PER' data showed substantial agreement in cluster assignments: 68.7% in 2000 and 84.4% in 2005. Excluding EUR did not cause meaningful (≥ 15% changes in the "healthy" pattern. It provoked changes in consumption of some food groups in the "mixed" and "western" patterns: mainly decreases of unhealthy foods within the 2000 and increases of unhealthy foods within the 2005 surveys. Secular trend effects of EUR were similar to those within the 2005 survey. Excluding EUR reversed the direction of secular trends in consumption of several food groups in PER in the "mixed" and "western" patterns.EUR affected distribution of participants between dietary patterns within and between surveys, secular trends in food group consumption and amount of food consumed in all, but not in the "healthy" pattern. Our findings emphasize threats from energy under-reporting in dietary data analysis.

  6. Temperate mountain forest biodiversity under climate change: compensating negative effects by increasing structural complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunisch, Veronika; Coppes, Joy; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Suchant, Rudi; Zellweger, Florian; Bollmann, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Species adapted to cold-climatic mountain environments are expected to face a high risk of range contractions, if not local extinctions under climate change. Yet, the populations of many endothermic species may not be primarily affected by physiological constraints, but indirectly by climate-induced changes of habitat characteristics. In mountain forests, where vertebrate species largely depend on vegetation composition and structure, deteriorating habitat suitability may thus be mitigated or even compensated by habitat management aiming at compositional and structural enhancement. We tested this possibility using four cold-adapted bird species with complementary habitat requirements as model organisms. Based on species data and environmental information collected in 300 1-km2 grid cells distributed across four mountain ranges in central Europe, we investigated (1) how species' occurrence is explained by climate, landscape, and vegetation, (2) to what extent climate change and climate-induced vegetation changes will affect habitat suitability, and (3) whether these changes could be compensated by adaptive habitat management. Species presence was modelled as a function of climate, landscape and vegetation variables under current climate; moreover, vegetation-climate relationships were assessed. The models were extrapolated to the climatic conditions of 2050, assuming the moderate IPCC-scenario A1B, and changes in species' occurrence probability were quantified. Finally, we assessed the maximum increase in occurrence probability that could be achieved by modifying one or multiple vegetation variables under altered climate conditions. Climate variables contributed significantly to explaining species occurrence, and expected climatic changes, as well as climate-induced vegetation trends, decreased the occurrence probability of all four species, particularly at the low-altitudinal margins of their distribution. These effects could be partly compensated by modifying

  7. Temperate mountain forest biodiversity under climate change: compensating negative effects by increasing structural complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Braunisch

    Full Text Available Species adapted to cold-climatic mountain environments are expected to face a high risk of range contractions, if not local extinctions under climate change. Yet, the populations of many endothermic species may not be primarily affected by physiological constraints, but indirectly by climate-induced changes of habitat characteristics. In mountain forests, where vertebrate species largely depend on vegetation composition and structure, deteriorating habitat suitability may thus be mitigated or even compensated by habitat management aiming at compositional and structural enhancement. We tested this possibility using four cold-adapted bird species with complementary habitat requirements as model organisms. Based on species data and environmental information collected in 300 1-km2 grid cells distributed across four mountain ranges in central Europe, we investigated (1 how species' occurrence is explained by climate, landscape, and vegetation, (2 to what extent climate change and climate-induced vegetation changes will affect habitat suitability, and (3 whether these changes could be compensated by adaptive habitat management. Species presence was modelled as a function of climate, landscape and vegetation variables under current climate; moreover, vegetation-climate relationships were assessed. The models were extrapolated to the climatic conditions of 2050, assuming the moderate IPCC-scenario A1B, and changes in species' occurrence probability were quantified. Finally, we assessed the maximum increase in occurrence probability that could be achieved by modifying one or multiple vegetation variables under altered climate conditions. Climate variables contributed significantly to explaining species occurrence, and expected climatic changes, as well as climate-induced vegetation trends, decreased the occurrence probability of all four species, particularly at the low-altitudinal margins of their distribution. These effects could be partly compensated

  8. Effects and mechanism on Kapton film under ozone exposure in a ground near space simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Yang, Guimin; Liu, Gang; Jiang, Haifu; Zhang, Tingting

    2018-05-01

    The effect on aircraft materials in the near space environment is a key part of air-and-space integration research. Ozone and aerodynamic fluids are important organizational factors in the near space environment and both have significant influences on the performance of aircraft materials. In the present paper a simulated ozone environment was used to test polyimide material that was rotated at the approximate velocity of 150-250 m/s to form an aerodynamic fluid field. The goal was to evaluate the performance evolution of materials under a comprehensive environment of ozone molecular corrosion and aerodynamic fluids. The research results show that corrosion and sputtering by ozone molecules results in Kapton films exhibiting a rugged "carpet-like" morphology exhibits an increase in surface roughness. The morphology after ozone exposure led to higher surface roughness and an increase in surface optical diffuse reflection, which is expressed by the lower optical transmittance and the gradual transition from light orange to brown. The mass loss test, XPS, and FTIR analysis show that the molecular chains on the surface of the Kapton film are destroyed resulting in Csbnd C bond breaking to form small volatile molecules such as CO2 or CO, which are responsible for a linear increase in mass loss per unit area. The Csbnd N and Csbnd O structures exhibit weakening tendency under ozone exposure. The present paper explores the evaluation method for Kapton's adaptability under the ozone exposure test in the near space environment, and elucidates the corrosion mechanism and damage mode of the polyimide material under the combined action of ozone corrosion and the aerodynamic fluid. This work provides a methodology for studying materials in the near-space environment.

  9. The role of under-employment and unemployment in recent birth cohort effects in Australian suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Milner, Allison; Morrell, Stephen; Taylor, Richard

    2013-09-01

    High suicide rates evident in Australian young adults during an epidemic period in the 1990s appear to have been sustained in older age-groups in the subsequent decade. This period also coincides with changes in employment patterns in Australia. This study investigates age, period, and birth cohort effects in Australian suicide over the 20th century, with particular reference to the period subsequent to the 1990s youth suicide epidemic in young males. Period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide were examined for 1907-2010 based on descriptive analysis of age-specific suicide rates and a series of age-period-cohort (APC) models using Poisson regression. Under-employment rates (those employed part-time seeking additional hours of work) and unemployment rates (those currently seeking employment) for the latter part of this time series (1978-2010) were also examined and compared with period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide. A significant increasing birth cohort effect in male suicide rates was evident in birth cohorts born after 1970-74, after adjusting for the effects age and period. An increasing birth cohort effect was also evident in female suicide rates, but was of a lesser magnitude. Increases in male cohort-specific suicide rates were significantly correlated with increases in cohort-specific under-employment and unemployment rates. Birth cohorts that experienced the peak of the suicide epidemic during the 1990s have continued to have higher suicide rates than cohorts born in earlier epochs. This increase coincides with changes to a labour force characterised by greater 'flexibility' and 'casualised' employment, especially in younger aged cohorts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temporary effect of chiseling on the compaction of a Rhodic Hapludox under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmala Glícia Carneiro Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical chiseling has been used to alleviate the effects of compaction in soils under no-tillage (NT. However, its effect on the soil physical properties does not seem to have a defined duration period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the bulk density (BD and degree of compaction (DC at different soil depths, after chiseling in no-tillage, for one year. The experiment was performed in Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, using an Oxisol (Rhodic Hapludox. Bulk density and DC were previously measured in an area under NT for 16 years, then immediately after chiseling (CHI in May 2009, six months after chiseling (CHI6M in October 2009 and one year after chiseling (CHI12M in May 2010. In the layers 0.0-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m, there was a significant BD reduction CHI and a marked increase CHI6M. The BD values measured CHI12M were similar to those before tillage. Chiseling reduced the DC in the layers 0.0-0.10 m and 0.10-0.20 m, but returned to the initial values one year later. During the evaluation periods CHI, CHI6M and CHI12M, the BD increased in the layer 0.30-0.40 m, compared with NT. The highest DC values were observed six months after chiseling; nevertheless the structural recovery of the soil was considerable, possibly due to the high degree of soil resilience and the influence of the wetting and drying cycles detected in the study period. The chiseling effects, evaluated by BD and DC, lasted less than one year, i.e., the beneficial short-term effects of chiseling on the reduction of the surface BD increased the risk of compaction in deeper soil layers.

  11. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  12. Quantification of site-city interaction effects on the response of structure under double resonance condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Narayan, Jay Prakash

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the site-city interaction (SCI) effects on the response of closely spaced structures under double resonance condition (F_{02{{D}}}^{{S}} = F_{02{{D}}}^{{B}}), where F_{02{{D}}}^{{S}} and F_{02{{D}}}^{{B}} are fundamental frequencies of 2-D structure and 2-D basin, respectively. This paper also presents the development of empirical relations to predict the F_{02{{D}}}^{{B}} of elliptical and trapezoidal basins for both the polarizations of the S wave. Simulated results revealed that F_{02{{D}}}^{{B}} of a 2-D basin very much depends on its geometry, shape ratio and polarization of the incident S wave. The obtained spectral amplification factor (SAF) at F_{02{{D}}}^{{S}} of a standalone structure in a 2-D basin is greater than that in the 1-D case under double resonance condition. A considerable reduction of the fundamental resonance frequency of structures due to the SCI effects is observed for both the polarizations of the S wave. The SAFs at F_{02{{D}}}^{{S}} of closely spaced structures due to SCI effects is larger in the case of SV than SH waves. A splitting of the fundamental-mode frequency bandwidth along with the drastic decrease of SAF due to the SCI effects is obtained. The findings of this paper raise the question concerning the validity of the predicted response of standalone structure based on soil-structure interaction for the design of structures in a 2-D small basin, in an urban environment.

  13. Effect of silica Nanoparticles on Basil (Ocimum basilicum Under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Kalteh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of nanofertilizers is one of the promising methods for increasing resources use efficiency and reducing environmental pollutions. Uncontrolled application of chemical fertilizer and pesticides has caused many problems to human health and domestic animals. Nanofertilizers application could be a suitable way to reduce these problems. Accordingly, in order to assess the silicon nanoparticles effect on some vegetative features of basil under salinity stress, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in greenhouse condition. Treatments included different levels of silicon fertilizer (without silicon, normal silicon fertilizer and silicon nanoparticles and salinity stress (1, 3 and 6 ds/m. Physiological traits (chlorophyll and proline content of leaves and morphological traits (shoot fresh weight and dry weight were investigated in this study. Results showed a significant reduction in growth and development indices due to the salinity stress.  Leaf dry and fresh weight reduced by increment in NaCl concentration while significantly (P≤0.01 increased with silicon nanoparticles application. The chlorophyll content reduced in salinity stress, but increased by silicon nanoparticles treatment. Proline content increased under salinity stress which was a response to stress. Moreover, proline increased by silicon nanoparticles which was due to tolerance induction in plant. Silicon nanoparticles application reduced the pollution effects originated from salinity in Basil.

  14. Influence of Surface Energy Effects on Elastic Fields of a Layered Elastic Medium under Surface Loading

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    Supakorn Tirapat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of a layered elastic half space under the action of axisymmetric surface loading and the influence of the surface energy effects. The boundary value problems for the bulk and the surface are formulated based on classical linear elasticity and a complete Gurtin-Murdoch constitutive relation. An analytical technique using Love’s representation and the Hankel integral transform is employed to derive an integral-form solution for both displacement and stress fields. An efficient numerical quadrature is then applied to accurately evaluate all involved integrals. Selected numerical results are presented to portray the influence of various parameters on elastic fields. Numerical results indicate that the surface stress displays a significant influence on both displacement and stress fields. It is also found that the layered half space becomes stiffer with the presence of surface stresses. In addition, unlike the classical elasticity solution, size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is noted. The present analytical solutions provide fundamental understanding of the influence of surface energy on layered elastic materials. It can also be used as a benchmark solution for the development of numerical techniques such as FEM and BEM, for analysis of more complex problems involving a layered medium under the influence of surface energy effects.

  15. Immature pea seeds: effect of storage under modified atmosphere packaging and sanitation with acidified sodium chlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Elena; Venzke Klug, Tâmmila; Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Artés-Hernandez, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna; Artés, Francisco; Fernández, Juan A; Gómez, Perla A

    2017-10-01

    Appropriate sanitation is a priority for extending the shelf life and promoting the consumption of immature pea seeds, as processing accelerates quality deterioration and microbial growth. The combined effect of disinfection with acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or sodium hypochlorite (SH) and packaging under a passive modified atmosphere (MAP) at 1 or 4 °C on quality was analysed. After 14 days, greenness and vitamin C had decreased, especially in the SH-disinfected samples. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity were not affected by disinfection. Proteins levels fell by around 27%, regardless of the sanitizer and storage temperature. Compared with the initial microbial load, samples stored at 1 °C showed an increase of 1 log CFU g -1 in psychrophiles when treated with SH, whereas no increase of note occurred with ASC. In general, microbial counts were always below 3 log CFU g -1 for all the treatments. Immature pea seeds could be stored for 14 days at 1-4 °C under MAP with only minor quality changes. Disinfection with ASC resulted in better sensory quality, higher content of vitamin C and lower psychrophile counts. More research is needed to analyse the effect of these treatments on other quality parameters. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effect of Governance Indicators on Under-Five Mortality in OECD Nations: Generalized Method of Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamgholipour, Sara; Asemane, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Today, it is recognized that factors other than health services are involved in health improvement and decreased inequality so identifying them is the main concern of policy makers and health authorities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of governance indicators on health outcomes. A panel data study was conducted to investigate the effect of governance indicators on child mortality rate in 27 OECD countries from 1996 to 2012 using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model and EVIEWS.8 software. According to the results obtained, under-five mortality rate was significantly related to all of the research variables (p corruption and rule of law indicators decreased child mortality rate by 0.05 and 0.08%, respectively. Furthermore, 1% increase in public health expenditure per capita resulted in a 0.03% decrease in under-five mortality rate. The results of the study suggest that considering control variables, including GDP per capita, public health expenditure per capita, total fertility rate, and improvement of governance indicators (control of corruption and rule of law) would decrease the child mortality rate.

  17. The Effect of Acupressure on Nausea and Vomiting after Cesarean Section Under Spinal Anesthesia

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    Heydar Noroozinia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV is one of the most common postoperative complications. Aside from pharmacological interventions, other complementary healing modalities have been introduced to assist patients in decreasing PONV and improving postoperative outcomes. This study examined acupressure as a safe complement to the more traditional approach of using drugs to prevent and/or relieve nausea and vomiting in the Cesarean section (C/S under spinal anesthesia. In a prospective randomized clinical trial, 152 patients who were candidate for elective C/S under spinal anesthesia were evaluated in two groups (acupressure vs control groups. Subjects in the acupressure group received constant pressure by a specific wrist elastic band (without puncture of the skin on the Nei-Guan acupuncture point, 30 min prior to spinal anesthesia. The incidence of PONV was assessed during the surgery, at recovery room and at 1st, 2nd and 3rd two hours after the surgery. Significant differences in the incidence of the post-operative nausea and vomiting were found between the acupressure and control groups, with a reduction in the incidence rate of nausea from 35.5% to 13.2%. The amount of vomitus and the degree of discomfort were, respectively, less and lower in the study group. In view of the total absence of side-effects in acupressure, its application is worthy. Our study confirmed the effectiveness of acupressure in preventing post-operative nausea and vomiting, when applied 30 minutes prior to surgery

  18. Effect of the alien invasive bivalve Corbicula fluminea on the nutrient dynamics under climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, J. P.; Lillebø, A. I.; Crespo, D.; Leston, S.; Dolbeth, M.

    2018-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the alien invasive bivalve Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) in the nutrient dynamics of temperate estuarine systems (oligohaline areas) under climate change scenarios. The scenarios simulated shifts in climatic conditions, following salinity (0 or 5) and temperature (24 or 30 °C) changes, usual during drought and heat wave events. The effect of the individual size/age (different size classes with fixed biomass) and density (various densities of <1 cm clams) on the bioturbation-associated nutrient dynamics were also evaluated under an 18-day laboratory experimental setup. Results highlight the significant effect of C. fluminea on the ecosystem nutrient dynamics, enhancing the efflux of both phosphate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from the sediments to the water column. Both drought and heat wave events will have an impact on the DIN dynamics within C. fluminea colonized systems, favouring a higher NH4-N efflux. The population structure of C. fluminea will have a decisive role on the impact of the species, with stronger nutrient effluxes associated with a predominantly juvenile population structure.

  19. Genetic variation underlying psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis: critical review and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, Jeroen; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; De Hert, Marc; van Winkel, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with an increased risk for psychotic disorder, yet most cannabis users do not develop psychosis, suggesting that other factors are also involved. This paper reviews the available evidence suggesting that differential sensitivity to the psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis may be related to underlying genetic liability. There is robust evidence that persons at psychometric risk for psychosis are most vulnerable to display psychotic symptoms subsequent to the use of cannabis. Multiple studies have also found that persons at familial risk for psychosis have an increased sensitivity to the effects of cannabis. Together, these findings support the concept of a biological interaction between cannabis use and one's underlying genetic vulnerability. At the molecular-genetic level, however, few (if any) interactions have been consistently replicated, although a reported interaction with variation in AKT1 is promising and deserves further follow-up. The apparent lack of consistent replication can be ascribed to problems of initial gene selection, statistical power, a bias towards positive results and insufficient attempts at true replication, leading to the conclusion that increased sample sizes, greater density of genetic markers and a stronger focus on true replication are necessary. The major challenge for molecular-genetic gene-environment interaction research will be to combine the agnostic detection of disorder-associated genetic variants from genome-wide studies with the hypothesis-based approach from epidemiological and neurobiological studies. Possible strategies for future cannabis interaction studies are discussed.

  20. Performance Investigation of Air Velocity Effects on PV Modules under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Junction temperature of PV modules is one of the key parameters on which the performance of PV modules depends. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out to analyze the effects of air velocity on the performance of two PV modules, that is, monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon under the controlled conditions of a wind tunnel in the presence of an artificial solar simulator. The parameters investigated include the surface temperature variation, power output, and efficiency of PV modules under varying air velocity from near zero (indoor lab. conditions to 15 m/s. Additionally, the results were also determined at two different module angular positions: at 0° angle, that is, parallel to air direction and at 10° angle with the direction of coming air to consider the effects of tilt angles. Afterwards, the thermal analysis of the modules was performed using Ansys-Fluent in which junction temperature and heat flux of modules were determined by applying appropriate boundary conditions, such as air velocity, heat flux, and solar radiation. Finally, the numerical results are compared with the experiment in terms of junction temperatures of modules and good agreement was found. Additionally, the results showed that the maximum module temperature drops by 17.2°C and the module efficiency and power output increased from 10 to 12% with increasing air velocity.

  1. Effect of high ambient temperature on behavior of sheep under semi-arid tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Kalyan; Kumar, Davendra; Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Thirumurugan, Palanisamy; Naqvi, Syed Mohammed Khursheed

    2017-07-01

    High environmental temperature is a major constraint in sheep production under semi-arid tropical environment. Behavior is the earliest indicator of animal's adaptation and responses to the environmental alteration. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of high ambient temperature on the behavior of sheep under a semi-arid tropical environment. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks on 16 Malpura cross (Garole × Malpura × Malpura (GMM)) rams. The rams were divided equally into two groups, designated as C and T. The rams of C were kept in comfortable environmental conditions served as control. The rams of T were exposed to a different temperature at different hours of the day in a climatic chamber, to simulate a high environmental temperature of summer in semi-arid tropic. The behavioral observations were taken by direct instantaneous observation at 15-min intervals for each animal individually. The feeding, ruminating, standing, and lying behaviors were recorded twice a week from morning (0800 hours) to afternoon (1700 hours) for 6 weeks. Exposure of rams to high temperature (T) significantly ( P sheep to high ambient temperature severely modulates the behavior of sheep which is directed to circumvent the effect of the stressor.

  2. Effective Domain Partitioning for Multi-Clock Domain IP Core Wrapper Design under Power Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Thomas Edison; Yoneda, Tomokazu; Zhao, Danella; Fujiwara, Hideo

    The rapid advancement of VLSI technology has made it possible for chip designers and manufacturers to embed the components of a whole system onto a single chip, called System-on-Chip or SoC. SoCs make use of pre-designed modules, called IP-cores, which provide faster design time and quicker time-to-market. Furthermore, SoCs that operate at multiple clock domains and very low power requirements are being utilized in the latest communications, networking and signal processing devices. As a result, the testing of SoCs and multi-clock domain embedded cores under power constraints has been rapidly gaining importance. In this research, a novel method for designing power-aware test wrappers for embedded cores with multiple clock domains is presented. By effectively partitioning the various clock domains, we are able to increase the solution space of possible test schedules for the core. Since previous methods were limited to concurrently testing all the clock domains, we effectively remove this limitation by making use of bandwidth conversion, multiple shift frequencies and properly gating the clock signals to control the shift activity of various core logic elements. The combination of the above techniques gains us greater flexibility when determining an optimal test schedule under very tight power constraints. Furthermore, since it is computationally intensive to search the entire expanded solution space for the possible test schedules, we propose a heuristic 3-D bin packing algorithm to determine the optimal wrapper architecture and test schedule while minimizing the test time under power and bandwidth constraints.

  3. Effects of nanoparticle types and size on boiling feat transfer performance under different pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shouguang; Huang, Xiaogan; Song, Yindong; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Shili

    2018-02-01

    The experimental study on the boiling heat transfer performance and visualization of Al2O3-H2O, SiO2-H2O and Al2O3-SiO2-H2O nanofluids with 0.01% mass concentration were carried out. Alumina and silica nanoparticles with average particle diameters of 30 nm and 50 nm were selected. Al2O3-SiO2-H2O was the mixed aqueous nanofluids with a mass ratio of Al2O3 to SiO2 of 1: 1. The results show that the effect of particle size on the boiling heat transfer performance is small. For nanofluids with a particle size of 30 nm, the boiling heat transfer performance of Al2O3-H2O nanofluids is better than that of Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and SiO2-H2O nanofluids under the working pressure of 101 kPa. The critical heat fluxes increased by 7.9% and 22.1% respectively, and the maximum heat transfer coefficients increased by 18.3% and 32.6% respectively. The critical heat flux and the maximum heat transfer coefficient are 162.1 W/cm2 and 7.01W/(m2.K). The working pressure has an important effect on the boiling heat transfer performance of nanofluids. Compared with the boiling heat transfer performance under high pressure conditions, the boiling heat transfer performance of nanofluids is better under low pressure.

  4. Lifetime of Poly(triaryl amine) Based Organic Field Effect Transistors under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Tobias; Lorenz, Enno; Koyuncu, Metin

    2013-04-01

    Characterization of reliability and lifetime is a key issue on the way to commercialization of products based on organic electronics. Prediction of the lifetime requires the understanding of failure mechanisms and the circumstances leading to failure. In this work the stability of poly(triaryl amine) (PTAA) based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) on a poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) substrate is investigated under environmental stressing. PTAA is known to form amorphous thin films after spin coating and to be air stable for extended periods of time. This inherent air stability makes it a good candidate for testing of environmental influences. The samples were electrically characterized regularly between storage cycles at 85 °C and 85 °C/85% relative humidity (RH). Samples stored under dry atmosphere and inert gas were used as reference. More than 1700 OFETs were produced in multiple batches and measured using an automated measurement system to collect statistically significant data. Circuit-relevant OFET parameters such as on- and off-current, mobility, threshold voltage and gate leakage current were extracted applying a thin film transistor (TFT) device model to the measured transfer and output curves. The threshold voltage is found to be the most sensitive parameter especially for the samples stored at 85 °C. The effect of storage under 85 °C/85%RH is observed to be comparably small. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements of the aged OFET samples indicate a correlation between the shift of the electrical parameters and the appearance of carbonyl groups in the dielectric layer of the devices. Possible degradation mechanisms are discussed based on this observation.

  5. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  6. Florigenic effects of IAA for improving pistillate and staminate flowering in some cucurbits under Pb stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Chaudhary, N.Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to the enhancement of on knowledge about behaviour of cucurbits with heavy metal i.e., Pb (NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and/or their combination with growth hormones (IAA). Effects of Pb and IAA were studied on flowering in Cucumis sativus L. and Momordica charantia L. There is very little information on the effects of heavy metals on the flowering in plants particularly in cucurbits; this in itself makes the issue of interest apart from the interaction of heavy metals with hormones. Plant under the stress of heavy metals can be treated with growth hormones to improve growth parameters, to avoid delay in flowering and likewise quality of fruit can be improved. Applied 400 mg/l IAA caused precocious flowering, increasing the number of flowers in both the plants. Lead caused significant delay in flowering, consequently leading to reduction in the number of pistillate and staminate flowers. However, when IAA was applied with Pb (NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, there was less decrease in staminate and pistillate flowers, revealing the dominant effect of IAA. Current study reveals that inhibitory effects of heavy metals on flowering were partially restored by IAA applications. (author)

  7. Effect of temperature on the permeability of gas adsorbed coal under triaxial stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangchen; Yan, Xiaopeng; Kang, Yili

    2018-04-01

    The combined effects of gas sorption, stress and temperature play a significant role in the changing behavior of gas permeability in coal seams. The effect of temperature on nitrogen and methane permeability of naturally fractured coal is investigated. Coal permeability, P-wave velocity and axial strain were simultaneously measured under two effective stresses and six different temperatures. The results showed that the behavior of nitrogen and methane permeability presented nonmonotonic changes with increasing temperature. The variation in the P-wave velocity and axial strain showed a good correspondence with coal permeability. A higher effective stress limited the bigger deformation and caused the small change in permeability. Methane adsorption and desorption significantly influence the mechanical properties of coal and play an important role in the variations in coal permeability. The result of coal permeability during a complete stress-strain process showed that the variation in permeability is determined by the evolution of the internal structure. The increase in the temperature of the gas saturated coal causes the complex interaction between matrix swelling, matrix shrinkage and micro-fracture generation, which leads to the complex changes in coal structure and permeability. These results are helpful to understand the gas transport mechanism for exploiting coal methane by heat injection.

  8. Caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on attention under emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2017-01-01

    Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days. Emotional arousal was induced by highly arousing negative film clips and pictures. Mood, salivary cortisol, and visual attention were evaluated. Caffeine accentuated global processing of visual attention on the hierarchical shape task (p Caffeine reduced flanker conflict difference scores on the Attention Network Test (p caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on certain attentional processes, but when consumed together, they counteract the effects of each other.

  9. Afforestation to mitigate climate change: impacts on food prices under consideration of albedo effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidenweis, Ulrich; Humpenöder, Florian; Stevanović, Miodrag; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Kriegler, Elmar; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Popp, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    Ambitious climate targets, such as the 2 °C target, are likely to require the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Afforestation is one such mitigation option but could, through the competition for land, also lead to food prices hikes. In addition, afforestation often decreases land-surface albedo and the amount of short-wave radiation reflected back to space, which results in a warming effect. In particular in the boreal zone, such biophysical warming effects following from afforestation are estimated to offset the cooling effect from carbon sequestration. We assessed the food price response of afforestation, and considered the albedo effect with scenarios in which afforestation was restricted to certain latitudinal zones. In our study, afforestation was incentivized by a globally uniform reward for carbon uptake in the terrestrial biosphere. This resulted in large-scale afforestation (2580 Mha globally) and substantial carbon sequestration (860 GtCO2) up to the end of the century. However, it was also associated with an increase in food prices of about 80% by 2050 and a more than fourfold increase by 2100. When afforestation was restricted to the tropics the food price response was substantially reduced, while still almost 60% cumulative carbon sequestration was achieved. In the medium term, the increase in prices was then lower than the increase in income underlying our scenario projections. Moreover, our results indicate that more liberalised trade in agricultural commodities could buffer the food price increases following from afforestation in tropical regions.

  10. Effect of apple polyphenol concentrate on lipid metabolism in rats under experimental insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagayko, Andriy L; Kravchenko, Ganna B; Fylymonenko, Viktoriia P; Krasilnikova, Oksana A

    Obesity is strongly associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance as the metabolic indicator of prediabetes and a major risk factor in diabetes mellitus type 2 pathogenesis. Medicinal products obtained from apples can be used as potent prophylactic and therapeutic remedies in treatment of diabetes mellitus. Experiment was designed to study the effect of total apple polyphenol food concentrate on lipid metabolism under experimental IR. Male Wistar rats weighting 180-210 g were used in the experiment. IR was induced by high-calorie diet enriched with fructose. The effect of total apple polyphenol food concentrate was compared with the action of epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin. To estimate the alterations in lipid metabolism in liver homogenate were measured triacylglycerols, free fatty acids, total phospholipids, TBA-reactive substance and conjugated dienes contents. In blood serum were measured total lipids, triacylglycerols, cholesterol, total phospholipids and reduced glutathione levels. The obtained results indicated that feeding rats with high-calorie diet enriched with fructose caused the dyslipidemia and oxidative stress development. The administration of quercetin, epigallocatechin gallate and total apple polyphenol food concentrate improved disorders of lipid metabolism and pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis. Total apple polyphenol food concentrate had a more pronounced effect on studied indices that is probably due to synergism and additive effect of extract numerous components.

  11. Wall thickness variation effect on tank’s shape behaviour under critical harmonic settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shamel Fahmy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wall thickness variation on tank’s wall buckling mode under the effect of critical harmonic settlement for open top tanks. The study was performed on four tanks which have the same geometric and material properties except wall thickness, for each case the tank was subjected to several settlement waves which has the same settlement amplitude, and the buckling mode and critical vertical settlement results were compared. For buckling mode, the results show that tanks with wall thickness at a close range have similar buckling mode behaviour and in case using too thick wall the buckling mode starts to change. And for the effect on critical vertical settlement, the results show that vertical settlement is sensitive to any variation in wall thickness beside that settlement value changes with the effected wave number and this variation could change the whole behaviour of the tanks. The study recommended that in case of performing analysis for a tank with neglecting the variation in wall thickness values, the value of chosen wall thickness should be the average of wall thickness values obtained from the designed equation.

  12. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

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    Tanja Stocks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( REGISTRATION: ISRCTN25867281. One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat% in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6 greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1 greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007. The replication study showed a similar (non-significant interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on

  13. Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on soil fertility and biology under field conditions in subtropical inceptisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S; Singh, Surender

    2013-01-01

    Although there is large-scale adoption of Bt cotton by the farmers because of immediate financial gain, there is concern that Bt crops release Bt toxins into the soil environment which reduces soil chemical and biological activities. However, the majorities of such studies were mainly performed under pot experiments, relatively little research has examined the direct and indirect effects of associated cover crop of peanut with fertilization by combined application of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen under field conditions. We compared soil chemical and biological parameters of Bt cotton with pure crop of peanut to arrive on a valid conclusion. Significantly higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity and KMnO(4)-N content of soil were observed in Bt cotton with cover crop of peanut over pure Bt cotton followed by pure peanut at all the crop growth stages. However, higher microbial population was maintained by pure peanut over intercropped Bt cotton, but these differences were related to the presence of high amount of KMnO(4)-N content of soil. By growing cover crop of peanut between Bt cotton rows, bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes population increased by 60%, 14%, and 10%, respectively, over Bt cotton alone. Bt cotton fertilized by combined application of urea and farm yard manure (FYM) maintained higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity, KMnO(4)-N content of soil and microbial population over urea alone. Significant positive correlations were observed for dry matter accumulation, dehydrogenase enzyme activity, KMnO(4)-N content, and microbial population of soil of Bt cotton, which indicates no harmful effects of Bt cotton on soil biological parameters and associated cover crop. Our results suggest that inclusion of cover crop of peanut and FYM in Bt cotton enhanced soil chemical and biological parameters which can mask any negative effect of the Bt toxin on microbial activity and thus on enzymatic activities.

  14. Effect of Silicon Supplementation on Bone Status in Ovariectomized Rats Under Calcium-Replete Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, So Young; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that silicon (Si) had positive effects on bone, but such benefits from Si may be dependent on calcium status. Also, several biochemical roles of Si in osteoblastic mineralization, the regulation of gene expression related to bone matrix synthesis, and the decrease in reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory mediators were reported, but these effects were mostly shown in cell culture studies. Hence, we tested the effect of Si supplementation on bone status and the gene expression related to bone metabolism and inflammatory mediators in young estrogen-deficient rats under calcium-replete condition (0.5 % diet). Results showed that 15-week supplementation of both high and very high doses of Si (0.025 and 0.075 % diet, respectively) could not restore the ovariectomy (OVX)-induced decrease of bone mineral density (BMD) of vertebrae, femur, and tibia. Also, several bone biochemical markers (ALP, osteocalcin, CTx) and mRNA expression of COL-I, RANKL, IL-6, and TNF-α in femur metaphysis were not significantly changed by Si in OVX rats. However, a very high dose (0.075 %) of Si supplementation significantly increased OPG expression and decreased the ratio of RANKL/OPG in mRNA expression comparable to that of sham-control animals. Taken together, Si supplementation did not increase BMD under calcium-replete condition but the decrease in the ratio of RANKL/OPG expression to the normal level suggests the possibility of a bone health benefit of Si in estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.

  15. Effects of Light Quality on Growth and Phytonutrient Accumulation of Herbs under Controlled Environments

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    Haijie Dou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, consumption of herb products has increased in daily diets, contributing to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, chronic diseases, and certain types of cancer owing to high concentrations of phytonutrients such as essential oils and phenolic compounds. To meet the increasing demand for high quality herbs, controlled environment agriculture is an alternative and a supplement to field production. Light is one of the most important environmental factors influencing herb quality including phytonutrient content, in addition to effects on growth and development. The recent development and adoption of light-emitting diodes provides opportunities for targeted regulation of growth and phytonutrient accumulation by herbs to optimize productivity and quality under controlled environments. For most herb species, red light supplemented with blue light significantly increased plant yield. However, plant yield decreased when the blue light proportion (BP reached a threshold, which varied among species. Research has also shown that red, blue, and ultraviolet (UV light enhanced the concentration of essential oils and phenolic compounds in various herbs and improved antioxidant capacities of herbs compared with white light or sunlight, yet these improvement effects varied among species, compounds, and light treatments. In addition to red and blue light, other light spectra within the photosynthetically active region—such as cyan, green, yellow, orange, and far-red light—are absorbed by photosynthetic pigments and utilized in leaves. However, only a few selected ranges of light spectra have been investigated, and the effects of light quality (spectrum distribution of light sources on herb production are not fully understood. This paper reviews how light quality affected the growth and phytonutrient accumulation of both culinary and medicinal herbs under controlled environments, and discusses future research opportunities to produce high

  16. The effects of low impact development on urban flooding under different rainfall characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua-peng; Li, Zhuo-xi; Fu, Guangtao

    2013-11-15

    Low impact development (LID) is generally regarded as a more sustainable solution for urban stormwater management than conventional urban drainage systems. However, its effects on urban flooding at a scale of urban drainage systems have not been fully understood particularly when different rainfall characteristics are considered. In this paper, using an urbanizing catchment in China as a case study, the effects of three LID techniques (swale, permeable pavement and green roof) on urban flooding are analyzed and compared with the conventional drainage system design. A range of storm events with different rainfall amounts, durations and locations of peak intensity are considered for holistic assessment of the LID techniques. The effects are measured by the total flood volume reduction during a storm event compared to the conventional drainage system design. The results obtained indicate that all three LID scenarios are more effective in flood reduction during heavier and shorter storm events. Their performance, however, varies significantly according to the location of peak intensity. That is, swales perform best during a storm event with an early peak, permeable pavements perform best with a middle peak, and green roofs perform best with a late peak, respectively. The trends of flood reduction can be explained using a newly proposed water balance method, i.e., by comparing the effective storage depth of the LID designs with the accumulative rainfall amounts at the beginning and end of flooding in the conventional drainage system. This paper provides an insight into the performance of LID designs under different rainfall characteristics, which is essential for effective urban flood management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of vegetative filter strips on herbicide runoff under various types of rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Stefan; Cardinali, Alessandra; Marotta, Ester; Paradisi, Cristina; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Narrow vegetative filter strips proved to effectively reduce herbicide runoff from cultivated fields mainly due to the ability of vegetation to delay surface runoff, promote infiltration and adsorb herbicides. A field trial was conducted from 2007 to 2009 in north-east Italy in order to evaluate the effectiveness of various types of vegetative filter strips to reduce spring-summer runoff of the herbicides mesotrione, metolachlor and terbuthylazine, widely used in maize, and to evaluate the effect of the rainfall characteristics on the runoff volume and concentration. Results show that without vegetative filter strip the herbicide load that reaches the surface water is about 5-6 g ha(-1)year(-1) for metolachlor and terbuthylazine (i.e. 0.5-0.9% of the applied rate), confirming that runoff from flat fields as in the Po Valley can have a minor effect on the water quality, and that most of the risk is posed by a few, or even just one extreme rainfall event with a return period of about 25-27 years, causing runoff with a maximum concentration of 64-77 μg L(-1). Mesotrione instead showed rapid soil disappearance and was observed at a concentration of 1.0-3.8 μg L(-1) only after one extreme (artificial) rainfall. Vegetative filter strips of any type are generally effective and can reduce herbicide runoff by 80-88%. Their effectiveness is steady even under severe rainfall conditions, and this supports their implementation in an environmental regulatory scheme at a catchment or regional scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phototransformation of membrane lipids and its role in biomembrane function change under the effect of UV-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, D.I.; Anosov, A.K.; Murina, M.A.; Lordkipanidze, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    The papers devoted to the investigation of photochemical transformations of lipid under the effect of UV radiation of biological membranes are reviewed. The mechanism of peroxide photooxidation of mebrane lipid is considered. Data on the effect of antioxidants and the structure state of membranes on the process of peroxide photooxidation of lipid are presented. The problem on the role of this process under the effect of UV-radiation on blood and skin of mammals is discussed. 48 refs.; 4 refs

  19. Effect of Layering on Cracking Initiation and Propagation under Uniaxial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiriasari, A.; Jiang, L.; Yoon, H.; Bobet, A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Rock anisotropy can arise from textural and structural causes both of which contribute to anisotropic strength and moduli. Rock variability makes it difficult to determine which properties dominate failure. Here, laboratory experiments were performed on 3D printed samples to examine the effect of layering on crack formation. Samples with two pre-existing coplanar flaws were fabricated using an additive 3D printing process (Projet CJP 360). Layers of gypsum (0.2 mm thick) were printed in either a horizontal (H) or a vertical (V) orientation to create prismatic samples (152.4 mm x 76.2 mm x 25.1 mm) with two 12.7 mm long coplanar flaws (19.05 mm apart) oriented at 450 with the load. Cracks were induced under uniaxial loading conditions. Digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE) (18 AE sensors with a frequency range of 100-450 kHz) were used to monitor crack evolution. DIC imaging of the V specimen during uniaxial compression showed that smooth cracks were initiated and propagated from the tips of the flaws parallel to the layering. Unlike the strongly bonded samples, no cracks were formed between the pre-existing flaws. The failure mechanism between the flaws was controlled by the weak bonding between the layers, and not by the coalescence of the new cracks. However, for the H specimen, failure was caused by crack coalescence between the two flaws. The new cracks exhibited a step-like roughness that was influenced by the layering in the sample. AE events were only detected when a synchronized mode was used. 3D printed samples can be effectively used to study the effect of anisotropic layering on crack initiation and propagation in a repeatable and controlled manner. Acknowledgements: Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security

  20. Experimental investigations on chloride effects on EAC of LAS under BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, M.; Roth, A.; Widera, M.

    2015-01-01

    This program was devoted to examine the principle effects of permanent and temporary chloride contaminations on environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels (LAS). Particular focus was laid on deriving a better understanding with regard to the effects of chloride on the general corrosion behavior of LAS in oxygenated high-temperature water (HTW) and to investigate the underlying mechanisms for crack initiation and propagation due to chloride assisted EAC. Therefore, systematic investigations on the effect of chloride on the EAC behavior of LAS were performed to understand and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The overall project was therefore divided into three phases, focusing on the effect of chloride on: 1) general corrosion, 2) crack initiation, and 3) crack growth of low-alloy steels in oxygenated high-temperature water. Studies on the effect of chloride on the general corrosion behaviour were performed by immersion tests that were evaluated using electrochemical monitoring techniques and different post-test investigation methods like SEM, ToF-SIMS, and others. From the performed investigations it is concluded that the presence of small amounts of chloride in oxygenated HTW causes an incorporation of chloride into the oxide layer, a thinning of the oxide layer thickness, and pronounced pitting. The crack initiation susceptibility of LAS was investigated using CERT tests. These tests showed an increased number of crack initiation locations and a decrease of the elongation at fracture with increasing chloride concentrations. Crack growth rate tests clearly demonstrated that not the increase in the chloride concentration per se, but the conjoint occurrence of an active or dormant crack and increased chloride concentration causes an increase in the observed crack growth rates. For practical applications of LAS in oxygenated HTW the results obtained in the frame of this project clearly indicate that short term transients, as simulated in this

  1. Evidence summary: which dental liners under amalgam restorations are more effective in reducing postoperative sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Mona

    2011-06-10

    Since August 2009, members of the Primary Care Dentistry Research Forum (www.dentistryresearch.org) have taken part in an online vote to identify questions in day-to-day practice that they felt most needed to be answered with conclusive research. The question that receives the most votes each month forms the subject of a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. Each month a new round of voting takes place to decide which further questions will be reviewed. Dental practitioners and dental care professionals are encouraged to take part in the voting and submit their own questions to be included in the vote by joining the website. The paper below details a summary of the findings of the ninth critical appraisal. In order to address the question raised by dentistry research forum, first a search was conducted for systematic reviews on the topic. There was one systematic review retrieved comparing bonded amalgam restorations versus non-bonded amalgam restorations. However, there was no other systematic review identified assessing the effectiveness of dental liners under amalgam restorations in general. Therefore, a search was conducted for any randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing use of a lining under amalgam restorations versus no lining or RCTs comparing differing lining materials under amalgam against each other. There were eight relevant RCTs identified. Due to the low quality, small sample sizes or lack of adequate reporting of the outcome data, the evidence is inadequate to claim or refute a difference in postoperative sensitivity between different dental liners. Further well-conducted RCTs are needed to answer this question. These RCTs would be preferably included and synthesised in a systematic review.

  2. Water deficit effects on maize yields modeled under current and greenhouse climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.; Sinclair, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The availability of water imposes one of the major limits on rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. This analysis was undertaken in an attempt to quantify the effects of limited water on maize growth and yield by extending a simple, mechanistic model in which temperature regulates crop development and intercepted solar radiation is used to calculate crop biomass accumulation. A soil water budget was incorporated into the model by accounting for inputs from rainfall and irrigation, and water use by soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The response functions of leaf area development and crop gas exchange to the soil water budget were developed from experimental studies. The model was used to interpret a range of field experiments using observed daily values of temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall or irrigation, where water deficits of varying durations developed at different stages of growth. The relative simplicity of the model and its robustness in simulating maize yields under a range of water-availability conditions allows the model to be readily used for studies of crop performance under alternate conditions. One such study, presented here, was a yield assessment for rainfed maize under possible greenhouse climates where temperature and atmospheric CO 2 concentration were increased. An increase in temperature combined with decreased rainfall lowered grain yield, although the increase in crop water use efficiency associated with elevated CO 2 concentration ameliorated the response to the greenhouse climate. Grain yields for the greenhouse climates as compared to current conditions increased, or decreased only slightly, except when the greenhouse climate was assumed to result in severly decreased rainfall

  3. Combination effects of sorafenib with PI3K inhibitors under hypoxia in colorectal cancer

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    Bhatia DR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimple R Bhatia, Padma Thiagarajan School of Biosciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India Aim: This study reports the influence of hypoxia on response of colorectal cancer cells to anticancer effects of sorafenib in combination with PI3K inhibitors GDC-0941 and BEZ-235.Materials and methods: All hypoxic exposures were carried out at 1% O2/5% CO2. Antiproliferation activity was evaluated by 48 hours propidium iodide and 14 days clonogenic assay. Protein levels were evaluated by fluorescence ELISA. Metabolites lactate and glucose were evaluated biochemically.Results: In the 48-hour proliferation assay, sorafenib acted synergistically with GDC-0941 but not with BEZ-235. In long-term colony-forming assays, both GDC-0941 and BEZ-235 were shown to potentiate the antiproliferative activity of sorafenib. At the molecular level, the synergism is mediated through inhibition of pAKT, pS6, p4EBP1, pERK, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2. No change in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α levels was observed in cells treated with the combination of compounds under hypoxia. A significant reduction in glucose uptake and lactate release was observed in cells treated with the combination of compounds under normoxia and hypoxia.Conclusion: Combinations of sorafenib with PI3K inhibitors BEZ-235 and GDC-0941 are efficacious under hypoxia. Thus, these anticancer combinations have a potential to overcome the hypoxia-mediated resistance mechanisms to antiproliferative agents in cancer therapy. Keywords: GDC-0941, BEZ-235, anticancer, antiproliferation

  4. Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Peach Growth under Commercial Orchard Management Conditions

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    M. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of vegetative growth to water deficit stress of a late-maturing peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Elberta under orchard conditions, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete-block design with three treatments and four repetitions in Shahdiran commercial orchard in Mashhad during 2011. Three irrigation treatments including 360 (low stress, 180 (moderate stress and 90 (severe stress m3ha-1week-1 using a drip irrigation system (minimum stem water potential near harvest: -1.2, -1.5 and -1.7 MPa, respectively from the mid-pit hardening stage (12th of June until harvest (23rd of Sep. applied. Predawn, stem and leaf water potentials, leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature, the number of new shoots on fruit bearing shoots and vegetative shoots lengths during growing season as well as leaf area at harvest were measured. The results showed that water deficit stress had negative effects on peach tree water status, thereby resulting in decreased leaf gas exchange and tree vegetative growth. As significant decreased assimilate production of tree was resulted from both decreased leaf assimilation rate (until about 23 % and 50 %, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions and decreased leaf area of tree (until about 57% and 79%, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions at harvest. The significant positive correlation between leaf water potential and vegetative growth of peach revealed that shoot growth would decrease by 30% and 50% of maximum at leaf water potential of –1.56 and –2.30 MPa, respectively.

  5. Effect of multidisciplinary disease management for hospitalized heart failure under a national health insurance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chun-Tai; Liu, Min-Hui; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Huang, Yu-Yen; Yang, Ning-I; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2015-09-01

    Multidisciplinary disease management programmes (MDPs) for heart failure have been shown to be effective in Western countries. However, it is not known whether they improve outcomes in a high population density country with a national health insurance programme. In total, 349 patients hospitalized because of heart failure were randomized into control and MDP groups. All-cause death and re-hospitalization related to heart failure were analyzed. The median follow-up period was approximately 2 years. Mean patient age was 60 years; 31% were women; and 50% of patients had coronary artery disease. MDP was associated with fewer all-cause deaths [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27-0.91, P = 0.02] and heart failure-related re-hospitalizations (HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.25-0.77, P = 0.004). MDP was still associated with better outcomes for all-cause death (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.29-0.98, P = 0.04) and heart failure-related re-hospitalization (HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.26-0.81, P = 0.007), after adjusting for age, diuretics, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, sodium, and albumin. However, MDPs' effect on all-cause mortality and heart failure-related re-hospitalization was significantly attenuated after adjusting for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers or β-blockers. A stratified analysis showed that MDP combined with guideline-based medication had synergistic effects. MDP is effective in lowering all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization rates related to heart failure under a national health insurance programme. MDP synergistically improves the effectiveness of guidelines-based medications for heart failure.

  6. Photoresponsive nanocapsulation of cobra neurotoxin and enhancement of its central analgesic effects under red light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Q

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Qian Yang, Chuang Zhao, Jun Zhao, Yong Ye Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cobra neurotoxin (CNT, a peptide isolated from snake venom of Naja naja atra, shows central analgesic effects in our previous research. In order to help CNT pass through blood–brain barrier (BBB and improve its central analgesic effects, a new kind of CNT nanocapsules were prepared by double emulsification with soybean lecithin and cholesterol as the shell, and pheophorbide as the photosensitizer added to make it photoresponsive. The analgesic effects were evaluated by hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The CNT nanocapsules had an average particle size of 229.55 nm, zeta potential of -53.00 mV, encapsulation efficiency of 84.81% and drug loading of 2.98%, when the pheophorbide content was 1% of lecithin weight. Pheophorbide was mainly distributed in outer layer of the CNT nanocapsules and increased the release of the CNT nanocapsules after 650 nm illumination. The central analgesic effects were improved after intraperitoneal injection of CNT at 25 and 50 µg·kg-1 under 650 nm irradiation for 30 min in the nasal cavity. Activation of pheophorbide by red light generated reactive oxygen species which opened the nanocapsules and BBB and helped the CNT enter the brain. This research provides a new drug delivery for treatment of central pain. Keywords: cobra neurotoxin, nanocapsules, photoresponsive, central analgesic effects, red light, drug delivery, photosensitizer

  7. Are biological effects of space radiation really altered under the microgravity environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, Fumio; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2014-10-01

    Two major factors of space environment are space radiation and microgravity. It is generally considered that a high level of ionizing radiation (IR) in space has an influence on living organisms including humans; therefore, the possible alteration of space-radiation influences by the microgravity environment is of great concern. In fact, examination of such a possibility has been extensively conducted since the early days of space experiments, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity in some experiments but a negative observation in others. Because these complicated results remain not well understood, we propose a solution to this problem. Gene expression analysis is one of the solutions to the problem. In fact, gene expression may be changed by microgravity, and further modification may be possible through IR. This result could reveal an interactive effect of both factors on the cellular responses, which could in turn reveal whether the human-health abnormalities expected under the microgravity environment can be altered by space radiation. We believe that this is a new aspect in the study of the interactive effect of radiation and microgravity. However, further improvements in space experimental technologies are required for future studies.

  8. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-05-09

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA). Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  9. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winne Sia Chiaw Mei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05 higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA. Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  10. Cytotoxicity and the effect of cationic peptide fragments against cariogenic bacteria under planktonic and biofilm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreling, Paula Fernanda; Aida, Kelly Limi; Massunari, Loiane; Caiaffa, Karina Sampaio; Percinoto, Célio; Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Abuna, Gabriel Flores; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Duque, Cristiane

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and effect of fragments derived from three oral cationic peptides (CP): LL-37, D6-17 and D1-23 against cariogenic bacteria under planktonic and biofilm conditions. For cytotoxicity analysis, two epithelial cell lines were used. The minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimal bactericidal concentration were determined for the CP fragments and the control (chlorhexidine-CHX) against cariogenic bacteria. The fractional inhibitory concentration was obtained for the combinations of CP fragments on Streptococcus mutans. Biofilm assays were conducted with the best antimicrobial CP fragment against S. mutans. The results indicated that D6-17 was not cytotoxic. D1-23, LL-37 and CHX were not cytotoxic in low concentrations. D1-23 presented the best bactericidal activity against S. mutans, S. mitis and S. salivarius. Combinations of CP fragments did not show a synergic effect. D1-23 presented a higher activity against S. mutans biofilm than CHX. It was concluded that D1-23 showed a substantial effect against cariogenic bacteria and low cytotoxicity.

  11. Elastic stockings effect on leg volume variability in healthy workers under prolonged gravitational gradient exposure

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    Mirko Tessari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the elastic stockings effect on healthy workers (HW who are exposed to a prolonged hydrostatic pressure overload for professional reasons. The cohort was composed by 20 HW who voluntarily underwent a water plethysmography test before and after eight hour of standing up in an operating room, wearing elastic stockings. After 8 h of gravity exposure, we demonstrated the absence of leg volume increase in case of elastic stockings use. In the morning measurement we found that the lower limb volume was 1967.5 mL±224, while in the evening it was 1962.5 mL±227 (P<0.0828. The decreased volume is significantly correlated with the time that was spent under gravity forces for working purpose wearing elastic stockings (R2=0.99, P<0.0001. Our experiment demonstrates that elastic stockings may effectively counteract the increased leg volume over time in workers who are exposed to prolonged gravitational gradient. Further longitudinal studies are needed to determine if the above effect could correct one of the major risk factors for the development of chronic venous insufficiency.

  12. Analysis of environmental dispersion in a wetland flow under the effect of wind: Extended solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huilin; Huai, Wenxin

    2018-02-01

    The accurate analysis of the contaminant transport process in wetland flows is essential for environmental assessment. However, dispersivity assessment becomes complicated when the wind strength and direction are taken into consideration. Prior studies illustrating the wind effect on environmental dispersion in wetland flows simply focused on the mean longitudinal concentration distribution. Moreover, the results obtained by these analyses are not accurate when done on a smaller scale, namely, the initial stage of the contaminant transport process. By combining the concentration moments method (the Aris' method) and Gill's expansion theory, the previous researches on environmental dispersion in wetland flows with effect of wind have been extended. By adopting up to 4th-order moments, the wind effect-as illustrated by dimensionless parameters Er (wind force) and ω (wind direction)-on kurtosis and skewness is discussed, the up to 4th-order vertical concentration distribution is obtained, and the two-dimensional concentration distribution is illustrated. This work demonstrates that wind intensity and direction can significantly affect the contaminant dispersion. Moreover, the study presents a more accurate analytical solution of environmental dispersion in wetland flows under various wind conditions.

  13. An effective method to improve the robustness of small-world networks under attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zheng-Zhen; Xu Wen-Jun; Lin Jia-Ru; Zeng Shang-You

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the robustness of small-world networks to three types of attack is investigated. Global efficiency is introduced as the network coefficient to measure the robustness of a small-world network. The simulation results prove that an increase in rewiring probability or average degree can enhance the robustness of the small-world network under all three types of attack. The effectiveness of simultaneously increasing both rewiring probability and average degree is also studied, and the combined increase is found to significantly improve the robustness of the small-world network. Furthermore, the combined effect of rewiring probability and average degree on network robustness is shown to be several times greater than that of rewiring probability or average degree individually. This means that small-world networks with a relatively high rewiring probability and average degree have advantages both in network communications and in good robustness to attacks. Therefore, simultaneously increasing rewiring probability and average degree is an effective method of constructing realistic networks. Consequently, the proposed method is useful to construct efficient and robust networks in a realistic scenario. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Protective effects of bellidifolin in hypoxia-induced in pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Ying; Gao, Yang-Yang; Gao, Li; Zhang, Ming; Wang, He; Zhang, Chun-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Bellidifolin, a xanthone compound derived from plants of Gentiana species, is known to exert a variety of pharmacological activities including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory and antitumor actions as well as a protective effect on cerebral ischemic nerve injury. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effects of bellidifolin on nerve injury produced by hypoxia and possible underlying mechanisms using pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). Data showed that the viability of PC12 cells subjected to hypoxia resulted in a significant decrease; however; pretreatment with certain concentrations of bellidifolin (20 or 40 μmol/L) prior to hypoxia significantly increased the survival rate. The results of immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed that there were no marked alterations in the expression of pERK protein between all bellidifolin groups while the expression of p-p38MAPK protein was significantly enhanced by hypoxia. Pretreatment with different concentrations of bellidifolin followed by hypoxia significantly decreased the expression of p-p38MAPK protein. The results of western blot analysis showed that hypoxia induced the expression of the MAPK signaling pathway downstream of the key apoptosis factor caspase-3. Compared to hypoxia, the expression of caspase-3 in the presence of belliidifolin was significantly lower. Data suggest that bellidifolin may contribute to the protective effects associated with nerve injury initiated by hypoxia by mechanisms related to inhibition of cell apoptosis independent of the ERK pathway, but may involve blockade of p38MAPK signaling pathway activation and downstream caspase-3 expression.

  15. The role of soluble fiber intake in patients under highly effective lipid-lowering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Vinicius M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that statins can increase intestinal sterol absorption. Augments in phytosterolemia seems related to cardiovascular disease. Objective We examined the role of soluble fiber intake in endogenous cholesterol synthesis and in sterol absorption among subjects under highly effective lipid-lowering therapy. Design In an open label, randomized, parallel-design study with blinded endpoints, subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia (n = 116 were assigned to receive during 12 weeks, a daily dose of 25 g of fiber (corresponding to 6 g of soluble fibers plus rosuvastatin 40 mg (n = 28, rosuvastatin 40 mg alone (n = 30, sinvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg plus 25 g of fiber (n = 28, or sinvastatin 40 mg plus ezetimibe 10 mg (n = 30 alone. Results The four assigned therapies produced similar changes in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (p Conclusion Among subjects treated with highly effective lipid-lowering therapy, the intake of 25 g of fibers added favorable effects, mainly by reducing phytosterolemia. Additional benefits include improvement in blood glucose and anthropometric parameters.

  16. The Effect of Proanthocyanidins on Growth and Alcoholic Fermentation of Wine Yeast under Copper Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bo; Liu, Xingyan; Zhan, Jicheng; Li, Jingyuan; Huang, Weidong

    2015-06-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) derived from the grape skin, as well as from grape seeds, grape stems, are an important group of polyphenols in wine. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of PAs (0.1, 1.0 g/L) on growth and alcoholic fermentation of 2 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (commercial strain FREDDO and newly selected strain BH8) during copper-stress fermentation, using a simple model fermentation system. Our results showed that both PAs and Cu(2+) could pose significant inhibition effects on the growth of yeast cells, CO2 release, sugar consumption, and ethanol production during the initial phase of the fermentation. Compared to PAs, Cu(2+) performed more obvious inhibition on the yeast growth and fermentation. However, adding 1.0 g/L PAs increased in the vitality and metabolism activity of yeast cells at the mid-exponential phase of fermentation in the mediums with no copper and 0.1 mM Cu(2+) added, shortened the period of wine fermentation, and decreased the copper residues. It indicated that PAs could improve the ability of wine yeast to resist detrimental effects under copper-stress fermentation condition, maintaining cells metabolic activity, and fermentation could be controlled by manipulating PAs supplementation. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Different effects of sonication pretreatment on carbon nanomaterials under low hydrogen peroxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengdong; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Dispersing carbon nanomaterials with the aid of sonication has become a widely used procedure for generating homogenous solutions. A systematic study was performed to evaluate the effects of a practical sample preparation procedure that involves mild sonication with/without low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is ubiquitously present in surface water and involved in advanced oxidation processes. Significant oxidation was observed for fullerene in the liquid phase, whereas an appreciable amount of hydrogen was covalently attached to the carbon cage of solid fullerene. Under the same conditions, only the removal of oxidized amorphous carbon was detected for carbon nanotubes. The presence of a low concentration of hydrogen peroxide during sonication exacerbated the effects. The changes in physicochemical properties were characterized quantitatively using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental chemical analysis and qualitatively using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Our results highlight the effects that can occur during sample preparation step and the potential for misinterpreting the toxicity, reactivity and environmental fate of carbon nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analyzing the Kyoto Protocol under the Marrakesh Accords. Economic efficiency and environmental effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Elzen, Michel G.J.; De Moor, Andre P.G.

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates the environmental effectiveness and economic implications of the Kyoto Protocol (KP) after the Bonn agreement and the Marrakesh Accords. We will break it down into several components that correspond with major steps in the international process: pre-COP 6 version of the KP, with unrestricted international emissions trading but without sinks; withdrawal of the USA; and decisions on sinks in Bonn and Marrakesh. The Marrakesh Accords bring Annex-I emissions in 2010 without the USA at 0.5% under base-year levels; this corresponds to nearly 2% above the 1990-levels. The US withdrawal has by far the greatest impact in reducing the environmental effectiveness of the KP, whereas the impact of the decision on sinks is comparatively small. The US withdrawal also substantially reduces the permit demand and permit prices will drop dramatically. Hot air becomes increasingly dominant and may threaten the viability of the Kyoto Mechanisms (KM), especially in lower baseline (business-as-usual (BaU)) scenarios. Therefore, banking of hot air is of absolute importance to improve the environmental effectiveness of the protocol at moderately higher costs, while enhancing the development of a viable emission trading market. A strategy of curtailing and banking permit supply is also in the interest of the dominant seller, Russia

  19. Effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) on different varieties of quinoa. I. Effects on morphology under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, M.L.; Prado, F.E.; González, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of ultraviolet UV-B (UVB) on different varieties of quinoa. I. Effects on morphology under controlled conditions. The effects of UV-B radiation (RUV-B) on growth parameters: plant height (H), stem diameter (SD), length x wide (LW), leaf number (LN), specific leaf area (SLA) and specific leaf mass (SLM) of five quinoa varieties are described. RUV-B effects were different according to analyzed variety and parameter. The H was increased in CICA (P ≤ 0,04) and Robura (P ≤ 0,02) varieties, while SD was increased in CICA (P ≤ 0,0002) and Faro Roja (P ≤ 0,017) varieties. The LW changed significantly in CICA (P ≤ 0,05) variety only. The LN showed positive changes in all quinoa varieties exposed to RUV-B. Highest changes were found in Faro Roja (P ≤ 0,003), CICA (P ≤ 0,003) and Ratuqui (P ≤ 0,015) varieties. The SLM positively changed in Faro Roja, Kancolla and Robura varieties (P ≤ 0,05). The CICA variety showed significant increases in all evaluated parameters, followed by Faro Roja and Robura varieties. Less parameter changes occurred in Kancolla and Ratuqui varieties. The observed changes were discussed in terms of adaptive evolution. (authors) [es

  20. Beneficial effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament cells under normal and regenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jepsen, Søren; Jäger, Andreas; Eick, Sigrun; Deschner, James

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  1. The Effects of Social Context and Acute Stress on Decision Making Under Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Raio, Candace M; Kubota, Jennifer T; Seiler, Morgan G; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainty preferences are typically studied in neutral, nonsocial contexts. This approach, however, fails to capture the dynamic factors that influence choices under uncertainty in the real world. Our goal was twofold: to test whether uncertainty valuation is similar across social and nonsocial contexts, and to investigate the effects of acute stress on uncertainty preferences. Subjects completed matched gambling and trust games following either a control or a stress manipulation. Those who were not under stress exhibited no differences between the amount of money gambled and the amount of money entrusted to partners. In comparison, stressed subjects gambled more money but entrusted less money to partners. We further found that irrespective of stress, subjects were highly attuned to irrelevant feedback in the nonsocial, gambling context, believing that every loss led to a greater chance of winning (the gamblers' fallacy). However, when deciding to trust a stranger, control subjects behaved rationally, treating each new interaction as independent. Stress compromised this adaptive behavior, increasing sensitivity to irrelevant social feedback. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. [Effects of drip irrigation under mulching on cotton root and shoot biomass and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying-Yu; Zhao, Cheng-Yi; Sheng, Yu; Li, Ju-Yan; Peng, Dong-Mei; Li, Zi-Liang; Feng, Sheng-Li

    2009-04-01

    By using bidirectional sampling method with soil drill, the effects of different amounts of drip irrigation (2618, 2947, 3600 and 4265 m3 x hm(-2)) under mulching on the root distribution, aboveground growth, and yield of cotton was studied in field. The results indicated that irrigation amount affected the root and shoot growth significantly. In all irrigation treatments, cotton root was mainly distributed in mulched area, occupying 60.65%-73.45% of total root biomass, while only 39.35%-26.55% was distributed in bare area. Water stress increased rooting depth, root biomass, and the extent of lateral rooting. Significant differences were observed in the biological characteristics and the biomass accumulation and allocation of cotton plant among different irrigation treatments. Over-irrigation (4265 m3 x hm(-2)) increased plant height, width of inverse fourth leaf, and amounts of branch and bud, and thus, accelerated biomass accumulation rate. Over-irrigation also increased the root/shoot ratio and the proportion of biomass allocated to vegetative organs, but increased the fruit abscission rate and therefore reduced the economic yield. It was suggested that both excessive soil moisture content and water stress could affect the biomass accumulation and allocation in different cotton organs and at various life stages. Under the conditions of our experiment, 3600 m3 x hm(-2) was the optimal irrigation amount.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Adiponectin on Periodontal Ligament Cells under Normal and Regenerative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Nokhbehsaim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  4. [Effects of exogenous silicon on physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under ammonium stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Hai; Wang, Ya-Kun; Lu, Xiao-Min; Jia, Shuang-Shuang

    2014-05-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exogenous silicon on growth and physiological characteristics of hydroponically cultured cucumber seedlings under ammonium stress. The results showed that the growth, especially the aerial part growth of cucumber seedlings cultured with ammonium were significantly inhibited than those with nitrate, especially after treatment for 10 d, the aerial part fresh mass of cucumber seedlings were reduced 6.17 g per plant. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also promoted in cucumber seedlings under ammonium, and the contents of O2*- and H2O2 were significantly increased in cucumber leaves. With the exogenous silicon treatment, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were significantly improved, the ability to remove reactive oxygen species was enhanced, the contents of O2*- and H2O2 were significantly reduced in cucumber leaves, decreasing the reactive oxygen damage to the cell membrane, and the ratio of electrolyte leakage and the content of MDA in cucumber leaves. Also, with exogenous silicon treatment, the plasma membrane and activity of vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATP was significantly increased, transport capacity of intracellular proton was improved, and the level of ammonium in cucumber body was significantly reduced, thereby reducing the toxicity of ammonium. In conclusion, exogenous silicon could relieve ammonium stress, by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity, H(+)-ATP activity, and decreasing the ammonium content in cucumber seedlings.

  5. The effect of antimicrobials on verocytotoxin bacteriophage transduction under bovine rumen fluid and broth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyambe S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The verocytotoxin genes in verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC are carried by bacteriophages, incorporated into the bacterial genome (prophage. Antibiotics may promote phage replication and release to infect other cells (transduction, thus leading to the emergence of new VTEC strains. This study investigated transduction of a verocytotoxin2-encoding bacteriophage (3538(vtx2::cat under laboratory conditions, including the effect of antibiotic treatments. Luria-Bertani Miller broth and rumen fluid (raw and sterilised by irradiation were inoculated with the donor (C600φ3538(Δvtx2::cat and recipient (E. coli C600::kanamycinR strains (4 log10 cfu/mL and incubated at 38°C. Antibiotic treatments (minimal inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of ampicillin, cefquinome, oxytetracycline and sodium sulfamethazine were applied after 3 h. Samples were tested for donor, recipient, cell-free phage and transductants at times t = 0, 3, 4, 6, 27 (24 h post-antibiotic treatment and 51 h. Free phage was detected in the untreated broth and rumen samples, as were the transductants confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The antibiotic treatments did not significantly (P > 0.01 increase the concentrations of free phage or transductants detected. It was therefore concluded that, under laboratory conditions, the antibiotics tested did not induce bacteriophage lysis, release and infection of new bacterial cells beyond that constitutively found in the phage population.

  6. Disorder effects on helical edge transport in graphene under a strong tilted magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunli; Cazalilla, Miguel A.

    2015-10-01

    In a recent experiment, Young et al. [Nature (London) 505, 528 (2014), 10.1038/nature12800] observed a metal to insulator transition as well as transport through helical edge states in monolayer graphene under a strong, tilted magnetic field. Under such conditions, the bulk is a magnetic insulator which can exhibit metallic conduction through helical edges. It was found that the two-terminal conductance of the helical channels deviates from the expected quantized value (=e2/h per edge, at zero temperature). Motivated by this observation, we study the effect of disorder on the conduction through the edge channels. We show that, unlike for helical edges of topological insulators in semiconducting quantum wells, a disorder Rashba spin-orbit coupling does not lead to backscattering, at least to leading order. Instead, we find that the lack of perfect antialignment of the electron spins in the helical channels to be the most likely cause for backscattering arising from scalar (i.e., spin-independent) impurities. The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and other time-reversal symmetry-breaking and/or sublattice parity-breaking potentials also lead to (subleading) corrections to the channel conductance.

  7. Evolving spill management systems under OPA 90 could reduce response effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.L.; Lindstedt-Siva, J.; Walker, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    Compliance with the provisions of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) and several recently passed state spill laws requires major commitments of time and dollars from industry, government, and taxpayers. Most of this effort has gone into purchase of more response equipment by oil companies, cleanup cooperatives, the new Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), and government agencies. Government and industry are also committed to increased research and development programs. These efforts have placed the means at hand to improve our ability to respond to spills. It is now time to consider management systems used during spill emergencies. Systems that are evolving under OPA 90 and state spill laws may actually delay the decision-making process and the implementation of effective response during the critical emergency phase of a spill event. Legal issues associated with Natural Resource Damage Assessment could hamper the response by reducing communication and teamwork among responders. These issues should be recognized and addressed in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan and Area Contingency Plans developed under OPA 90. This paper also provides a model for making decisions concerning oil spill response

  8. Effects of Different Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Inoculates on the Growth of Pinus tabulaeformis Seedlings under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The tree species Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. (P. tabulaeformis is commonly planted in China due to its economic and ecological value. In order to identify one or more ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal species for future P. tabulaeformis afforestation, we investigated the effects of five ECM fungal species: Laccaria laccata, Boletus edulis, Gomphidius viscidus, Suillus grevillei, and Suillus luteus on the growth of P. tabulaeformis seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The growth parameters of P. tabulaeformis seedlings were evaluated 90 days following fungal colonisation. The majority of seedlings were significantly affected by ECM inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculated seedlings were taller, had more lateral roots, and a greater biomass compared with the non-mycorrhizal (CK seedlings. With the exception of G. viscidus, inoculated seedlings exhibited higher phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen content compared with the CK seedlings. In addition, ECM colonisation increased the enzymatic activity of catalase, acidic phosphatase, protease, and the urease content in the rhizosphere soil. Our study showed that Laccaria laccata, Suillus grevillei, and Suillus luteus may be useful for improving the growth and cultivation of P. tabulaeformis seedlings. Furthermore, we observed that S. luteus inoculation increased the gas exchange parameters of P. tabulaeformis seedlings under field conditions.

  9. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  10. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  11. Effects of silicon on Oryza sativa L. seedling roots under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Shuming; Yin, Ningning; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Cuiying; Wang, Yukun

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has an important function in reducing the damage of environmental stress on plants. Acid rain is a serious abiotic stress factor, and Si can alleviate the stress induced by acid rain on plants. Based on these assumptions, we investigated the effects of silicon on the growth, root phenotype, mineral element contents, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidative enzymes of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling roots under simulated acid rain (SAR) stress. The results showed that the combined or single effects of Si and/or SAR on rice roots depend on the concentration of Si and the pH of the SAR. The combined or single effects of a low or moderate concentration of Si (1.0 or 2.0 mM) and light SAR (pH 4.0) enhanced the growth of rice roots, and the combined effects were stronger than those of the single treatment. A high concentration of Si (4.0 mM) or severe SAR (pH 2.0) exerted deleterious effects. The incorporation of Si (1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mM) into SAR with pH 3.0 or 2.0 promoted the rice root growth, decreased the H2O2 content, increased the Si concentration and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, maintained the balance of mineral element (K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu) concentrations in the roots of rice seedlings compared with SAR alone. The alleviatory effects observed with a moderate concentration of Si (2.0 mM) were better than the effects obtained with a low or high concentration of Si (1.0 or 4.0 mM). The observed effects were due to disruptions in the absorption and utilization of mineral nutrients and impacts on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in roots, and this conclusion suggests that the degree of rice root damage caused by acid rain might be attributed to not only acid rain but also the level of Si in the soil.

  12. Effects of dietary rosemary extract on lamb spoilage under retail display conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, Sancho; Méndez, Lorena; Almela, Elisabet

    2012-03-01

    A dietary rosemary extract (RE) was tested to extend the shelf life of raw lamb meat. Lambs were supplemented with 0.6mgkg(-1) RE during fattening (from 13 to 25kg live weight). Meat spoilage (total viable counts, psycrophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, molds and yeasts), TBARS, CIE L*a*b* color and the sensory traits of lamb cuts were analyzed on days 0, 7, 14 or 21 under retail display conditions (70/30 O(2)/CO(2) atmosphere, 2°C temperature and 1600lx lighting). Supplementation of the lamb diet with RE was effective (Pretail display conditions. Dietary rosemary clearly inhibited lipid oxidation and rancidity, and was moderately efficient in preventing sensory deterioration and microbial spoilage. Although the results concerning meat preservation were limited, the dietary use of rosemary extracts in lambs seems to be promising as a nutritional strategy for improving meat quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Corrective effect of aromatherapy on indices of heart rate variability in students under exam stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamyan, H T; Minasyan, S M

    2016-01-01

    There were investigated changes in indices of the activity of regulatory mechanisms of heart rhythm in student under exam stress conditions and the possibility of their correction with aid of aromatherapy. The examination stress was established to be accompanied by pronounced shifts of integral and spectral indices of heart rhythm in students, indicating to the activation of the sympathetic circuit of Autonomic Nervous System in conditions of examination stress. A positive, relaxation impact of the essential oil of orange on the investigated indices was also recorded. The latter is expressed by weakly pronounced changes or lack of them in data of integral and spectral heart rate indices in students from the experimental group, that indicates to the stabilizing effect of used ethereal oil on the psycho-physiological state of students in conditions of exam stress

  14. A hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism underlying dietary soy-induced effects on seizure propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Jean Westmark

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous neurological disorders including fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, autism and Alzheimer’s disease are comorbid with epilepsy. We have observed elevated seizure propensity in mouse models of these disorders dependent on diet. Specifically, soy-based diets exacerbate audiogenic-induced seizures in juvenile mice. We have also found potential associations between the consumption of soy-based infant formula and seizure incidence, epilepsy comorbidity and autism diagnostic scores in autistic children by retrospective analyses of medical record data. In total, these data suggest that consumption of high levels of soy protein during postnatal development may affect neuronal excitability. Herein, we present our theory regarding the molecular mechanism underlying soy-induced effects on seizure propensity. We hypothesize that soy phytoestrogens interfere with metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, which results in elevated production of key synaptic proteins and decreased seizure threshold.

  15. GROWTH, LIQUIDITY CONSTRAINTS, CREDIBILITY AND THE EFFECTS OF SHOCKS UNDER A NON-CREDIBLE GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURMUŞ ÖZDEMİR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overlapping generations model for a small open economy. The model is calibrated to fit data for Turkey. Simulations suggest that for a fairly open economy such as Turkey, credibility and liquidity constraints matter and the choice of income taxation rate, the mix of government spending and the long-run government debt/GDP ratio can all significantly affect the economic growth. The paper also examines the effectiveness of fiscal policy under different levels of liquidity constraint in an open economy within a dynamic framework. It shows that liquidity constraints can affect the outcome of any fiscal policy. Hence fiscal policy is even more important for the less developed economies of the world.

  16. Analysis of effects of calandria tube uncovery under severe accident conditions in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.T.; Currie, T.C.; Atkinson, J.C.; Dick, R.

    1983-01-01

    A study is being undertaken for the Atomic Energy Control Board to assess the thermal and hydraulic behaviour of CANDU reactor cores under accident conditions more severe than those normally considered in the licensing process. In this paper, we consider the effects on a coolant channel of the uncovery of a calandria tube by moderator boil-off following a LOCA in a Bruce reactor unit in which emergency cooling is ineffective and the moderator heat sink is impaired by the failure of the moderator cooling system. Calandria tube uncovery and its immediate consequences, as described here, constitute only one part of the entire accident sequence. Other aspects of this sequence as well as results of the analysis of the other accident sequences studied will be described in the final report on the project and in later papers

  17. Degradation of fly ash concrete under the coupled effect of carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jun; Qiu, Qiwen; Chen, Xiaochi; Wang, Xiaodong; Xing, Feng; Han, Ningxu; He, Yijian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonation affects the chloride profile in concrete under chloride aerosol attack. • The chloride binding capacity can be reduced by the presence of carbonation. • Carbonation increases the rate of chloride diffusion for chloride aerosol ingress. • Chloride aerosol ingress reduces the carbonation depth and increases the pH value. • The use of fly ash in concrete enhances the resistance of chloride aerosol ingress. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the coupled effect of carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress on the durability performance of fly ash concrete. Test results demonstrate that carbonation significantly affects the chloride ingress profile, reduces the chloride binding capacity, and accelerates the rate of chloride ion diffusion. On the other hand, the carbonation rate of fly ash concrete is reduced by the presence of chlorides aerosol. The interaction nature between concrete carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress is also demonstrated by the microscopic analysis results obtained from scanning electron microscope and mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  18. A numerical study of the nanoribbon field-effect transistors under the ballistic and dissipative transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh; Yousefi, Reza; Saghafi, Kamyar; Aderang, Habib

    2017-08-01

    In this article, a detailed performance comparison is made between ballistic and dissipative quantum transport of metal oxide semicondutor-like graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistor, in ON and OFF-state conditions. By the self-consistent mode-space non-equilibrium Green's function approach, inter- and intraband scattering is accounted and the role of acoustic and optical phonon scattering on the performance of the devices is evaluated. We found that in this structure the dominant mechanism of scattering changes according to the ranges of voltage bias. Under large biasing conditions, the influence of optical phonon scattering becomes important. Also, the ambipolar and OFF-current are impressed by the phonon-assisted band-to-band tunneling and increased considerably compared to the ballistic conditions, although sub-threshold swing degrades due to optical phonon scattering.

  19. Structural effects and thermal decomposition kinetics of chalcones under non-isothermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manikandan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two chalcones namely, 1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylpentan-1,4-dien-3-one (BHMPD and 2,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidenecyclopentanone (BHMBC have been synthesised and characterized by microanalysis, FT-IR, mass spectra and NMR (1H and 13C techniques. The thermal decomposition of these compounds was studied by TGA and DTA under dynamic nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 K min−1. The kinetic parameters were calculated using model-fitting (Coats–Redfern, CR and model-free methods (Friedman, Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose, KAS and Flynn–Wall–Ozawa, FWO. The decomposition process of BHMPD and BHMBC followed a single step mechanism as evidenced from the data. Existence of compensation effect was noticed for the decomposition of these compounds. Invariant kinetic parameters are consistent with the average values obtained by Friedman and KAS isoconversional method in both compounds.

  20. Social Anxiety Under Load: The Effects of Perceptual Load in Processing Emotional Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Soares

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in the social anxiety arena have shown an impaired attentional control system, similar to that found in trait anxiety. However, the effect of task demands on social anxiety in socially threatening stimuli, such as angry faces, remains unseen. In the present study, fifty-four university students scoring high and low in the Social Interaction and Performance Anxiety and Avoidance Scale (SIPAAS questionnaire, participated in a target letter discrimination task while task-irrelevant face stimuli (angry, disgust, happy, and neutral were simultaneously presented. The results showed that high (compared to low socially anxious individuals were more prone to distraction by task-irrelevant stimuli, particularly under high perceptual load conditions. More importantly, for such individuals, the accuracy proportions for angry faces significantly differed between the low and high perceptual load conditions, which is discussed in light of current evolutionary models of social anxiety.

  1. Blood flow through a stenosed artery bifurcation under the effects of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yan Bin; Mustapha, Norzieha; Sarifuddin

    2014-12-01

    Circulatory system in human body is built up by network of blood vessels which includes numerous bifurcations. This study presents the influences of bifurcation geometry under the effects of gravity and an irregular stenosis. Along the studied vessel, blood is treated as an incompressible Newtonian fluid. In this paper, an unsteady two-dimensional nonlinear model is developed, where significant gravity term are added to the governing equations. The selected numerical method for the problem is the Marker and Cell (MAC) method based on finite difference approximations. The governing equations are discretized to uniform staggered grids before developing the algorithm in Matlab software. Furthermore, successive-over-relaxation (S.O.R.) method is used to solve the Poisson equation of pressure. Then, pressure-velocity corrector is implied to improve accuracy of the results obtained. The results are presented graphically.

  2. Entanglement backflow under the composite effect of two non-Markovian reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun-Gang; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The entanglement backflow of two qubits coupled to two independent reservoirs is investigated. It is found that under the collective effects of the two independent reservoirs, the entanglement backflow of the qubits does not always increase with the increase of the non-Markovianity of one of the reservoirs but demonstrates an intricate behavior. Interestingly, the action of one reservoir can affect the other reservoir's contribution to the entanglement backflow even when the two reservoirs are independent. -- Highlights: ► We study entanglement backflow of two qubits coupled to two independent reservoirs. ► We find that the entanglement backflow demonstrates an intricate behavior. ► The action of one reservoir can affect the contribution of the other reservoir.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation and packaging on conservation of toyonoka strawberries stored under refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, Danielle Marinelli

    2000-01-01

    Strawberries have short post harvest life due to the rapid spoilage caused by fungal infections, even when stored under refrigeration. The effects of gamma radiation (0.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kGy) and two kinds of packages (plastic boxes with or without PVC film wrapping) were evaluated using Toyonoka strawberries kept under refrigeration (3 to 6 deg C and relative humidity of 55%) for 1, 8, 15 and 22 days after irradiation, applied 1 day after harvesting. Deterioration progression and loss of weight occurred in the course of storage and although the content of ascorbic acid had also increased, total titratable acidity, p H and ratio remained constant during all the experimental period, independent of the samples treatments. The use of PVC film packing inhibited dehydration of the strawberries along the storage and also caused reduction in soluble solid content of the fruits stored for more than 8 days. The treatments with 2.0 and 2.5 kGy had caused significant losses of ascorbic acid the higher dose also significantly reduced the texture of the fruits. Sensorial analysis has been performed with 30 untrained judges to evaluate the acceptability of strawberries packed without the PVC wrapping and irradiated with doses of 0.0, 1.5 or 2.0 kGy. No irradiation effects were observed and the samples were acceptable with no significant difference between samples stored for 1 or 8 days after irradiation. PVC film packaging and irradiation were not efficient in delaying post harvest decay of Toyonoka strawberries in the conditions used in these experiments. (author)

  4. Effect of L-carnitine Supplementation on Nutritional Status and Physical Performance Under Calorie Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Singh, Som Nath

    2015-04-01

    L-carnitine is popular as a potential ergogenic aid because of its role in the conversion of fat into energy. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of short term supplementation of L-carnitine on metabolic markers and physical efficiency tests under short term calorie restriction. Male albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 12 in each)-control, calorie restricted (CR for 5 days, 25 % of basal food intake), L-carnitine supplemented (CAR, given orally for 5 days at a dose of 100 mg/kg), CR with L-carnitine supplementation (CR + CAR). Food intake and body weight of the rats were measured along with biochemical variables like blood glucose, tissue glycogen, plasma and muscle protein and enzymatic activities of CPT-1 (carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1) and AMP kinase. Results demonstrated that L-carnitine caused marked increase in muscle glycogen, plasma protein, CPT-1 activity and swim time of rats (P supplementation. In addition to the substantive effects caused by CR alone, L-carnitine under CR significantly affected muscle glycogen, plasma protein, CPT-1 activity and AMP kinase (P < 0.05). Short term CR along with L-carnitine also resulted in increased swim time of rats than control, CR and L-carnitine treated rats (P < 0.05). The present study was an attempt towards developing an approach for better adherence to dietary restriction regimen, with the use of L-carnitine.

  5. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: I. Microbiological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, P; Hiesberger, J; Giefing, S; Smulders, F J M

    2006-09-01

    The microflora was studied in beef stored in stainless steel containers kept under reduced pressure (20 to 30 kPa) in a modified atmosphere (70% N2 + 30% CO2 or pure CO2) at 3 to 4 degrees C and 0 to 1 degrees C at a headspace:meat volume ratio of 2:1. Samples were obtained at weekly intervals, 1 to 3 times. Total colony counts (TCC) for Pseudomonas spp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta were generally 1 to 2 log10 cfu greater than in the control group of vacuum-packaged beef cuts stored at the same temperatures. In containers with the 70% N2 + 30% CO2 atmosphere at 20 to 30 kPa and 3 to 4 degrees C, substantial growth of Pseudomonas sp. was observed (median of 6 log10 cfu/cm2 at d 21 of storage compared with 3 log10 cfu/cm2 for vacuum-packaged beef). Pseudomonas counts were lower when the container system was held at 0 to 1 degrees C, especially when combined with the pure CO2 atmosphere. As expected for CO2-enriched atmospheres, B. thermosphacta was the dominant spoilage bacterium, in the same log10 order as the TCC. Lowering the storage temperature and changing the atmosphere to pure CO2 resulted in a reduction of 1 log10 for TCC (median values after 2 wk of storage). Although pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in any sample, further studies are necessary to evaluate potential growth risks. The results demonstrate that CO2-enriched and O2-depleted atmospheres under low pressure have a limited effect on reducing bacterial growth, probably because the antibacterial activity of CO2 is proportional to the effective concentration of this gas in the headspace. At pressures of 20 to 30 kPa, a headspace with pure CO2 would still contain only approximately 20 to 30% CO2.

  6. Effects of flow scarcity on leaf-litter processing under oceanic climate conditions in calcareous streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Aingeru; Pérez, Javier; Molinero, Jon; Sagarduy, Mikel; Pozo, Jesús

    2015-01-15

    Although temporary streams represent a high proportion of the total number and length of running waters, historically the study of intermittent streams has received less attention than that of perennial ones. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of flow cessation on litter decomposition in calcareous streams under oceanic climate conditions. For this, leaf litter of alder was incubated in four streams (S1, S2, S3 and S4) with different flow regimes (S3 and S4 with zero-flow periods) from northern Spain. To distinguish the relative importance and contribution of decomposers and detritivores, fine- and coarse-mesh litter bags were used. We determined processing rates, leaf-C, -N and -P concentrations, invertebrate colonization in coarse bags and benthic invertebrates. Decomposition rates in fine bags were similar among streams. In coarse bags, only one of the intermittent streams, S4, showed a lower rate than that in the other ones as a consequence of lower invertebrate colonization. The material incubated in fine bags presented higher leaf-N and -P concentrations than those in the coarse ones, except in S4, pointing out that the decomposition in this stream was driven mainly by microorganisms. Benthic macroinvertebrate and shredder density and biomass were lower in intermittent streams than those in perennial ones. However, the bags in S3 presented a greater amount of total macroinvertebrates and shredders comparing with the benthos. The most suitable explanation is that the fauna find a food substrate in bags less affected by calcite precipitation, which is common in the streambed at this site. Decomposition rate in coarse bags was positively related to associated shredder biomass. Thus, droughts in streams under oceanic climate conditions affect mainly the macroinvertebrate detritivore activity, although macroinvertebrates may show distinct behavior imposed by the physicochemical properties of water, mainly travertine precipitation, which can

  7. Effects of tractor loads and tyre pressures on soil compaction in Tunisia under different moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemis, Chiheb; Abrougui, Khaoula; Ren, Lidong; Mutuku, Eunice Ann; Chehaibi, Sayed; Cornelis, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Vegetables in Tunisia demand frequent tractor traffic for soil tillage, cultural operations and phytosanitary treatment, resulting in soil compaction. This study evaluates the effects of four levels of compaction by using different loads and tyre pressures of tractors, i.e., load 1 (C1) = 1460 kg, load 2 (C2) = 3100 kg, tyre pressure 1 (C3) = 800 kg cm-2, tyre pressure 2 (C4) = 1500 kg cm-2 on the hydraulic and physical properties of a sandy loam (10% clay, 20% silt, 68% sand) under three natural moisture conditions H0, H1 (15 days later), H2 (30 days later). At H0 average water content between 0 and 30 cm depth varied from 0.04 to 0.06 kg kg-1, at H1 between 0.13 and 0.07 kg kg-1, and at H2 between 0.10 and 0.09 kg kg-1. Each test run was limited to one pass. Undisturbed soil cores were collected in the topsoil (0-10 cm), at 10-20 cm and in the subsoil (20-30 cm) below the trace of the wheel at sites in the Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariam, Sousse, Tunisia. Soil compaction level was determined by penetration resistance using a penetrologger. Porosity, bulk density and permeability were then determined to evaluate the impact of the four load/tyre pressure combinations at the three moisture conditions on soil compaction. Prior to the experiment (C0), bulk density was 1.4 Mg m-3. After the tractor pass, the highest degree of compaction was observed with tractor load C2 and tyre pressure C4 which significantly changed soil bulk density resulting in values of up to 1.71 Mg m-3 in the topsoil and compacted subsoil under H2, which is significantly above the critical value of 1.6 Mg m-3 for soils with clay content below 17.5%. The high degree of compaction significantly affected penetration resistance and porosity of both topsoil and subsoil layers accordingly. Permeability was significantly reduced as a result of the induced compaction. The results demonstrate that different degrees of soil compaction under different moisture levels could greatly influence

  8. Linking inbreeding effects in captive populations with fitness in the wild: Release of replicated Drosophila melanogaster lines under different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Loeschcke, Volker; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2008-01-01

    Inbreeding effects have been detected in captive populations of threatened species, but the extent to which these effects translate into fitness under field conditions is mostly unknown. We address this issue by comparing the performance of replicated noninbred and inbred Drosophila lines under...... conditions and involve traits not easily measured under laboratory conditions. More generally, inbreeding effects measured in captive populations may not necessarily predict their field performance, and programs to purge captive populations of deleterious alleles may not necessarily lead to fitness benefits...

  9. Effect of Ionizing Beta Radiation on the Mechanical Properties of Poly(ethylene under Thermal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found in this study, that ionizing beta radiation has a positive effect on the mechanical properties of poly(ethylene. In recent years, there have been increasing requirements for quality and cost effectiveness of manufactured products in all areas of industrial production. These requirements are best met with the polymeric materials, which have many advantages in comparison to traditional materials. The main advantages of polymer materials are especially in their ease of processability, availability, and price of the raw materials. Radiation crosslinking is one of the ways to give the conventional plastics mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of expensive and highly resistant construction polymers. Several types of ionizing radiation are used for crosslinking of polymers. Each of them has special characteristics. Electron beta and photon gamma radiation are used the most frequently. The great advantage is that the crosslinking occurs after the manufacturing process at normal temperature and pressure. The main purpose of this paper has been to determine the effect of ionizing beta radiation on the tensile modulus, strength and elongation of low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE. These properties were examined in dependence on the dosage of the ionizing beta radiation (non-irradiated samples and those irradiated by dosage 99 kGy were compared and on the test temperature. Radiation cross-linking of LDPE and HDPE results in increased tensile strength and modulus, and decreased of elongation. The measured results indicate that ionizing beta radiation treatment is effective tool for improvement of mechanical properties of LDPE and HDPE under thermal stress.

  10. Effects of Chitosan Spraying on Physiological Characteristics of Ferula flabelliloba (Apiaceae Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Taheri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ferula flabelliloba Rech. F. & Aell., (Apiaceae, a perennial plant with medicinal value, is one of important soil protective grown in Binalood mountains. Decreased precipitation in the previous years caused plants subjected to drought stress condition. Drought stress limits the growth and productivity of plants more than any other environmental factors. Drought stress can alter plant light absorption and consumption processes and increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS is responsible for lipid peroxidation and associated injury to membranes, nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes. To detoxify ROS, plants develop different types of antioxidants to reduce oxidative damage and confer drought tolerance. ROS scavengers are either non- enzymatic (ascorbate, glutathione, flavonoids, alkaloids, carotenoids and phenolic compound or enzymatic containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The activity of these antioxidants and enzymes allows short-term acclimation to temporary water deficit, but these biochemicals cannot overcome the effects of extreme or prolonged drought. Chitosan is a natural biopolymer formed by low alkaline deacetylation of chitin, an important component of the exoskeletons of crustaceans such as crab, crawfish and shrimp. Chitosan can affect plant physiology and gene expression, hence these materials can increase the plant resistant to many unfavorable environmental condition. The biological properties of chitosan have led to use it for various purposes. Chitosan has been used as plant protectant against fungi, bacteria and viruses, to improve soil fertility and to stimulate plant defense system. Thus, it seems that chitosan is a promising material for improving plant growth, especially under drought stress conditions where water deficit limits plant growth and establishment. In the present study, the effects of chitosan as foliar spraying of F. flabelliloba

  11. The effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six North American tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Geibe, C.; Holmstrom, S.; Lundstrom, U.S.; Breemen, van N.

    2001-01-01

    Organic acidity and its degree of neutralization in the forest floor can have large consequences for base cation leaching under different tree species. We investigated the effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six common North American tree species. Forest floor

  12. 42 CFR 412.125 - Effect of change of ownership on payments under the prospective payment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of change of ownership on payments under the... ownership on payments under the prospective payment systems. When a hospital's ownership changes, as... § 412.113 and payments for bad debts as described in § 412.115(a), are made to each owner or operator of...

  13. Cross-seasonal effects on waterfowl productivity: Implications under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnas, Erik; Zhao, Qing; Runge, Michael C.; Boomer, G Scott

    2016-01-01

    estimates in the sign of an interaction effect between population size and precipitation, suggesting that wintering-ground precipitation has a larger effect in years of high population size, especially for pintail. When we used the estimated effects in a population model to derive a sustainable harvest and population size projection (i.e., a yield curve), there was considerable uncertainty in the effect of increased or decreased wintering-ground precipitation on sustainable harvest potential and population size. These results suggest that the mechanism of cross-seasonal effects between winter habitat and reproduction in ducks occurs through a reduction in the strength of density dependence in years of above-average wintering-ground precipitation. We suggest additional investigation of the underlying mechanisms and that habitat managers and decision-makers consider the level of uncertainty in these estimates when attempting to integrate habitat management and harvest management decisions. Collection of annual data on the status of wintering-ground habitat in a rigorous sampling framework would likely be the most direct way to improve understanding of mechanisms and inform management.

  14. Effects of heat treatments of coal on coke destruction under blast furnace conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-09-01

    This paper discusses results of investigations on effects of chemical reactions in a blast furnace on coke disintegration and destruction. The investigations were carried out by the VUKhIN Institute branch in Kuznetsk. Effects of silicates and carbonates of sodium, potassium and zinc on mechanical coke properties were investigated under laboratory conditions. Coke samples were placed in a reactor and were treated by vapors of metal compounds. Coke produced from a coal mixture with conventional moisture content and from preheated coal mixture was used. Coal properties are given in a table. Design of laboratory equipment used for tests is shown in 2 schemes. Heat treatments influenced coke porosity and its structural strength. Proportion of large pores accessible to sodium and potassium in coke from preheated coal was 4.5 times lower than in coke from a conventional mixture. Adsorption of sodium and potassium on coke from preheated charge was lower (from 0.22% to 0.24%) than on coke from a conventional mixture (from 2.5% to 2.9%). Adsorption of alkali metals on coke reduced its structural strength and increased coke oxidation rate by carbon dioxide. Use of heat treatments of coal for coking reduced adsorption of alkali metals on coke in a blast furnace, increased coke structural strength and reduced coke oxidation rate by carbon dioxide. (16 refs.) (In Russian)

  15. Nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in a composite ferromagnetic-piezoelectric structure under harmonic and noise magnetic pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdin, D. A.; Chashin, D. V.; Ekonomov, N. A.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Stashkevich, A.

    2018-03-01

    Low-frequency nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in a composite structure comprised of a piezoelectric langatate slab sandwiched between two Metglas amorphous alloy magnetostrictive layers under simultaneous harmonic and noise magnetic pumping have been investigated. It is shown that the frequency fp of harmonic pumping is linearly reproduced in the piezoelectric voltage spectrum accompanied by its higher harmonics. Similarly, narrow-band magnetic noise with a central frequency fN is present in the output piezoelectric voltage along with two noise peaks in the vicinity of a double 2fN and zero frequency. Simultaneous application of harmonic and noise magnetic fields produces a noticeably more complex output voltage spectrum containing additional noise satellite lines at frequencies fp ±fN , 2fp ±fN etc. as well as a noise "pedestal". Amplitudes of voltage spectral components depend on the applied constant bias magnetic field, scaling as magnetostriction derivatives with respect to this field. The effects observed are well described by the theory of magnetic field mixing in magnetoelectric composites with nonlinear dependence of magnetostriction on applied fields.

  16. Dynamic investigation of a locomotive with effect of gear transmissions under tractive conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zaigang; Zhai, Wanming; Wang, Kaiyun

    2017-11-01

    Locomotive is used to drag trailers to move or supply the braking forces to slow the running speed of a train. The electromagnetic torque of the motor is always transmitted by the gear transmission system to the wheelset for generation of the tractive or braking forces at the wheel-rail contact interface. Consequently, gear transmission system is significant for power delivery of a locomotive. This paper develops a comprehensive locomotive-track vertical-longitudinal coupled dynamics model with dynamic effect of gear transmissions. This dynamics model enables considering the coupling interactions between the gear transmission motion, the vertical and the longitudinal motions of the vehicle, and the vertical vibration of the track structure. In this study, some complicated dynamic excitations, such as the gear time-varying mesh stiffness, nonlinear gear tooth backlash, the nonlinear wheel-rail normal contact force and creep force, and the rail vertical geometrical irregularity, are considered. Then, the dynamic responses of the locomotive under the tractive conditions are demonstrated by numerical simulations based on the established dynamics model and by experimental test. The developed dynamics model is validated by the good agreement between the experimental and the theoretical results. The calculated results reveal that the gear transmission system has strong dynamic interactions with the wheel-rail contact interface including both the vertical and the longitudinal motions, and it has negligible effect on the vibrations of the bogie frame and carbody.

  17. The impact of electricity market design upon investment under uncertainty: The effectiveness of capacity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, Laurens de; Heijnen, Petra

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of different market designs under uncertainty about the future growth rate of demand. Markets for electricity generation appear to be prone to an investment cycle due to their capital-intensiveness and the long lead time of new generation facilities. We tested the stability of different capacity mechanisms in the presence of uncertainty regarding the demand growth rate with a stochastic dynamic model. Investment decisions were assumed to maximize profit, based on an assumed growth rate of demand that was equal to the rolling average of the previous five years. All capacity mechanisms proved effective in reducing the tendency towards an investment cycle, but to different degrees. Interestingly, an oligopoly that is able to raise average prices by 10% would also be able to substantially reduce price volatility and decrease the risk of shortages by increasing the reserve margin. Benefits of such a strategy for the generating companies could be that it would deter new market entrants and stave off the political attention that shortages and price spikes would bring about. However, the benefits to consumers are compromised by the lack of economic efficiency and distributional effects of an oligopoly, while the stability of such an oligopolistic strategy can be questioned. The most attractive solution is a system of reliability contracts, which can be used to stabilize both investment and prices, while reducing market power and providing more efficient operational incentives to generating companies. (author)

  18. Cross-cultural differences and similarities underlying other-race effects for facial identity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Jenkins, Rob; Young, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual advantages for own-race compared to other-race faces have been demonstrated for the recognition of facial identity and expression. However, these effects have not been investigated in the same study with measures that can determine the extent of cross-cultural agreement as well as differences. To address this issue, we used a photo sorting task in which Chinese and Caucasian participants were asked to sort photographs of Chinese or Caucasian faces by identity or by expression. This paradigm matched the task demands of identity and expression recognition and avoided constrained forced-choice or verbal labelling requirements. Other-race effects of comparable magnitude were found across the identity and expression tasks. Caucasian participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Chinese than Caucasian faces, while Chinese participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Caucasian than Chinese faces. However, analyses of the patterns of responses across groups of participants revealed a considerable amount of underlying cross-cultural agreement. These findings suggest that widely repeated claims that members of other cultures "all look the same" overstate the cultural differences.

  19. Acoustic and mechanical response of reservoir rocks under variable saturation and effective pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravazzoli, C L; Santos, J E; Carcione, J M

    2003-04-01

    We investigate the acoustic and mechanical properties of a reservoir sandstone saturated by two immiscible hydrocarbon fluids, under different saturations and pressure conditions. The modeling of static and dynamic deformation processes in porous rocks saturated by immiscible fluids depends on many parameters such as, for instance, porosity, permeability, pore fluid, fluid saturation, fluid pressures, capillary pressure, and effective stress. We use a formulation based on an extension of Biot's theory, which allows us to compute the coefficients of the stress-strain relations and the equations of motion in terms of the properties of the single phases at the in situ conditions. The dry-rock moduli are obtained from laboratory measurements for variable confining pressures. We obtain the bulk compressibilities, the effective pressure, and the ultrasonic phase velocities and quality factors for different saturations and pore-fluid pressures ranging from normal to abnormally high values. The objective is to relate the seismic and ultrasonic velocity and attenuation to the microstructural properties and pressure conditions of the reservoir. The problem has an application in the field of seismic exploration for predicting pore-fluid pressures and saturation regimes.

  20. Metal extraction from alum shale ashes under the effect of ammonium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maremaee, E.; Taal, H.

    1991-01-01

    The present study is a part of complex research about alum shale ashes carried out in the Institute of Chemistry of the Estonian Academy of Sciences during the period 1960-1975. In this paper the results of a research into decomposition of alum shale ashes under the effect of ammonium sulphate are presented. The following parameters of decomposition process were studied: temperature, time, quantity of ammonium sulphate needed for decomposition of ashes, In addition the effect of ammonium sulphate on the process of alum shale ashes thermal decomposition was studied using thermal methods. The optimum conditions determined for decomposition of ashes with ammonium sulphate were the following: temperature - 440 degrees by Celsius, duration -30 min., weight ratio of ammonium sulphate and ashes in reaction mixture -1.75 : 1. These data are confirmed by the results of thermal analysis. The above-mentioned process conditions guarantee the extraction of Ti, Mo, V, U and Fe about 70-85%, Al - up to 50%. 7 refs., 2 figs

  1. Geometric effects of an inhomogeneous sea ice cover on the under ice light field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eKatlein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Light measurements in the ocean provide crucial information about the energy fluxes in the climate and ecosystem. Currently radiative transfer problems are usually considered in horizontally homogeneous layers although it is known to be a crude assumption in many cases. In this paper, we examine the effects of a horizontally inhomogeneous sea ice layer on the light field in the water underneath. We implemented a three dimensional model, capable to simulate the light field underneath arbitrary surface geometries using ray optics. The results show clear effects of the measurement geometry on measured fluxes obtained with different sensor types, which need to be taken into account for the correct interpretation of the data. Radiance sensors are able to better sense the spatial variability of ice optical properties as compared to irradiance sensors. Furthermore we show that the determination of the light extinction coefficient of water from vertical profiles is complicated under a horizontally inhomogeneous ice cover. This uncertainty in optical properties of the water, as well as the measurement geometry also limits the possibility to correct light measurements taken at depth for the influence of water in between the sea ice and the sensor.

  2. Effect of Overhead Ground Wire Installing under Distribution Lines on Surge Arrester Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi

    Distribution surge arresters are often damaged by lightning strokes, in particular, winter lightning. An overhead ground wire (OGW) is one of effective measures against surge arrester failures. However, adding the conventional OGW to existing overhead power distribution lines needs the power interruption for construction as well as high costs because of installing them above phase conductors. Experimental results show that a covered conductor for distribution lines is more difficult to attract lightning than a bare conductor. Moreover, lightning strokes to distribution pole heads occupied over 90% of all lightning strokes in the observation result of lightning strokes to actual distribution lines without the conventional OGW, and lightning strokes to power lines were hardly observed. These results indicate that the pole heads shield the power lines from direct lightning strokes. Therefore the author studies the application of an OGW under the distribution lines (UGW) for reducing surge arrester failures. The lightning performance of the UGW is estimated by the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP) and its effectiveness is demonstrated. The measure is expected to cut costs of construction and maintenance for lightning protection.

  3. Winter effect on soil microorganisms under different tillage and phosphorus management practices in eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yichao; Lalande, Roger; Hamel, Chantal; Ziadi, Noura

    2015-05-01

    Determining how soil microorganisms respond to crop management systems during winter could further our understanding of soil phosphorus (P) transformations. This study assessed the effects of tillage (moldboard plowing or no-till) and P fertilization (0, 17.5, or 35 kg P·ha(-1)) on soil microbial biomass, enzymatic activity, and microbial community structure in winter, in a long-term (18 years) corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation established in 1992 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Soil samples were collected at 2 depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm) in February 2010 and 2011 after the soybean and the corn growing seasons, respectively. Winter conditions increased the amounts of soil microbial biomasses but reduced the overall enzymatic activity of the soil, as compared with fall levels after corn. P fertilization had a quadratic effect on the amounts of total, bacterial, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi phospholipid fatty acid markers after corn but not after soybean. The soil microbial community following the soybean and the corn crops in winter had a different structure. These findings suggest that winter conditions and crop-year could be important factors affecting the characteristics of the soil microbial community under different tillage and mineral P fertilization.

  4. Modelling accidental hypothermia effects on a human body under different pathophysiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Boileau, Etienne; Parthimos, Dimitris; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2017-12-01

    Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their temperature high for a substantial amount of time, even under the most extreme environmental conditions. We also considered two disease states that highlight the spectrum of possible pathologies implicated in thermal regulation of the human body. These states are (i) cardiomyopathy, which affects the operating capacity of the heart, and (ii) malnutrition, which directly impairs the body's ability to regulate heat exchange with the environment. We have found that cardiomyopathy has little influence on the thermal balance of the human body, whereas malnutrition has a profound negative effect on the thermal balance and leads to dramatic reduction in core temperature.

  5. Exploring DC-Kerr effect of impurity doped quantum dots under the aegis of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sk. Md.; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Anuja; Ghosh, Manas

    2018-02-01

    Present study performs an extensive exploration of the profiles of DC-Kerr effect (DCKE) of doped GaAs quantum dot (QD) under the control of Gaussian white noise. A large number of important physical parameters have been varied over a range and the resultant changes in the DCKE profiles have been thoroughly analyzed. The said physical parameters comprise of electric field, magnetic field, confinement potential, dopant location, dopant potential, noise strength, aluminium concentration (only for Alx Ga1 - x As alloy QD), carrier density, relaxation time, position-dependent effective mass (PDEM), position-dependent dielectric screening function (PDDSF), anisotropy, hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature. The particular physical quantity being varied, presence of noise and its pathway of application, in combination, lead to emergence of diverse features in the DCKE profiles. As a technologically significant aspect we often find maximization of DCKE for some typical combinations as mentioned above. Presence of multiplicative noise, in general, causes greater shift and greater augmentation of DCKE profiles from a noise-free condition than its additive counterpart. The outcomes of the study indicate ample scope of tailoring DCKE of doped QD systems in presence of noise by minute adjustment of several control parameters.

  6. Effects of trawl selectivity and genetic parameters on fish body length under long-term trawling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Sun, Peng; Cui, He; Sheng, Huaxiang; Zhao, Fenfang; Tang, Yanli; Chen, Zelin

    2015-10-01

    Long-term fishing pressure affects the biological characteristics of exploited fish stocks. The biological characteristics of hairtail ( Trichiurus lepturus) in the East China Sea are unable to recover because of long-term trawling. Fishing induces evolutionary effects on the fish's biological characteristics. Evidence of these changes includes small size at age, a shift to earlier age structure, and early maturation. Natural and artificial selection usually affect the fish's life history. Selection can induce different chances of reproduction, and individual fish can give a different genetic contribution to the next generation. In this study, analysis of time-dependent probability of significance and test of sensitivity were used to explore the effects of fish exploitation rate, mesh size, and heritability with long-term trawling. Results showed that fishing parameters were important drivers to exploited fish population. However, genetic traits altered by fishing were slow, and the changes in biological characteristics were weaker than those caused by fishing selection. Exploitation rate and mesh size exhibited similar evolutionary trend tendency under long-term fishing. The time-dependent probability of significance trend showed a gradual growth and tended to be stable. Therefore, the direction of fishing-induced evolution and successful management of fish species require considerable attention to contribute to sustainable fisheries in China.

  7. The propagation of the nerve impulse under the effect of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; El-Sayed, E.M.; Wang, X.Y.

    1988-09-01

    The recent significant advance in superconductivity at high temperatures has raised an important problem in biophysics, in view of the underlying interest that has arisen in experiments in which very high magnetic fields are needed (in the multi-tesla range). This is occurring against a theoretical background in which there is no reliable way of estimating the effect of magnetic fields on the central nervous system. This has led us to discuss the problem of the coupling of magnetic fields with the coherent propagation of the polarization of the plasma membrane along the axon. Our work lies within the context of the phenomenological model of nerve impulse propagation due to Hodgkin and Huxley. Using the concept of gauge invariance we find that the magnetic field has a non negligible effect on the velocity of propagation of the action potential in the limit of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation without recovery, but more realistic cases do not change the main conclusions of this work. (author). 26 refs

  8. The influence of spatial effects on wind power revenues under direct marketing rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grothe, Oliver; Müsgens, Felix

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, investments in renewable technologies have been accelerated by fixed feed-in tariffs for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES). While fixed tariffs accomplish this purpose, they lack incentives to align the RES production with price signals. Today, the intermittency of most RES increases the volatility of electricity prices and makes balancing supply and demand more complicated. Therefore, support schemes for RES have to be modified. Recently, Germany launched a scheme which gives wind power operators the monthly choice to either receive a fixed tariff or to risk a – subsidized – access to the wholesale electricity market. This paper quantifies revenues of wind turbines under this new subsidy and analyzes whether, when and where producers may profit. We find that the position of the wind turbine within the country significantly influences revenues in terms of EUR/MWh. The results are important for wind farm operators deciding whether electricity should be sold in the fixed feed-in tariff or in the wholesale market. However, no location is persistently, i.e., in every calendar month of the year, above the average. This limits the effect of the new subsidy scheme on investment locations and long term improvements in the aggregated wind feed-in profile. - Highlights: • Germany couples feed-in tariff for renewable energies to hourly market prices. • Analysis of position of wind turbines on relative revenues in EUR/MW. • Quantification of locational effect for policy makers and investors

  9. K Coverage Probability of 5G Wireless Cognitive Radio Network under Shadow Fading Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur S. Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Land mobile communication is burdened with typical propagation constraints due to the channel characteristics in radio systems.Also,the propagation characteristics vary form place to place and also as the mobile unit moves,from time to time.Hence,the tramsmission path between transmitter and receiver varies from simple direct LOS to the one which is severely obstructed by buildings,foliage and terrain.Multipath propagation and shadow fading effects affect the signal strength of an arbitrary Transmitter-Receiver due to the rapid fluctuations in the phase and amplitude of signal which also determines the average power over an area of tens or hundreds of meters.Shadowing introduces additional fluctuations,so the received local mean power varies around the area –mean.The present section deals with the performance analysis of fifth generation wireless cognitive radio network on the basis of signal and interference level based k coverage probability under the shadow fading effects.

  10. Effects of social support on children's eyewitness reports: a test of the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Suzanne L; Bottoms, Bette L

    2002-04-01

    Research on children's eyewitness testimony demonstrates that interviewer-provided social support given during a mock forensic interview helps children resist an interviewer's misleading suggestions about past events. We proposed and tested 1 potential mechanism underlying support effects: "Resistance Efficacy," or children's perceived self-efficacy for resisting an interviewer's suggestions. Eighty-one 6- and 7-year-old children experienced a play event, then were interviewed about the event with misleading and specific questions. Consistent with prior research, children interviewed by a supportive person were more resistant to misleading suggestions than were those interviewed by a nonsupportive person. Although Resistance Efficacy did not mediate the effects of interviewer support in the full sample, additional analyses revealed that Resistance Efficacy may be a mediator for older, but not younger, children. Contrary to predictions, children's preexisting social support reserves were not related to children's interview accuracy nor to perceived Resistance Efficacy. Implications for psychological theory are discussed, as well as implications for understanding and improving children's eyewitness reports.

  11. [Spectrometric characteristics and underlying mechanisms of protective effects of selenium on Spirulina platensis against oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua-lian; Chen, Tian-feng; Yin, Xi; Zheng, Wen-jie

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the possibility and the underlying mechanisms of sodium selenite as antagonist for oxidative stress, the authors examined the effects of pretreatment with selenium on the growth, morphology, spectrometric characteristics and content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) exposed to H2O2 stress for 24 h in the present study. The results showed that H2O2 induced obvious inhibition of growth and serious morphological damage. The intensity of absorbance peak at 440 nm increased, whereas the peaks at 620 and 680 nm decreased after exposed to H2O2. The emission and excitation spectrum of S. platensis decreased dramatically after H2O2 treatment, and the emission peak from phycocyanin exhibited blue-shift from 660 to 650 nm. The results of FTIR analysis showed that the positions of transmission peaks had no shift, but the relative intensity of characteristic bands from protein and polypeptides including amide I and amide II decreased. Furthermore, the intracellular ROS generation in S. platensis increased significantly in response to H2O2 treatment. In contrast, pretreatments of the cells with selenium for 24 h significantly prevented the H2O2-induced oxidative damages in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that pretreatments with selenium could prevent ROS overproduction in S. platensis and improve its antioxidant ability. Moreover, selenium could also reduce the effects of free radicals on energy harvest and energy transfer in S. platensis that play vital roles in its photosynthesis.

  12. Effect of speed on local dynamic stability of locomotion under different task constraints in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Sina; Arshi, Ahmed Reza; Davids, Keith

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated effects of speed on local dynamic stability of walking, although this relationship has been rarely investigated under changing task constraints, such as during forward and backward running. To rectify this gap in the literature, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of running speed on local dynamic stability of forward and backward running on a treadmill. Fifteen healthy male participants took part in this study. Participants ran in forward and backward directions at speeds of 80%, 100% and 120% of their preferred running speed. The three-dimensional motion of a C7 marker was recorded using a motion capture system. Local dynamic stability of the marker was quantified using short- and long-term largest finite-time Lyapunov exponents (LyE). Results showed that short-term largest finite-time LyE values increased with participant speed meaning that local dynamic stability decreased with increasing speed. Long-term largest finite-time LyEs, however, remained unaffected as speed increased. Results of this study indicated that, as in walking, slow running is more stable than fast running. These findings improve understanding of how stability is regulated when constraints on the speed of movements is altered. Implications for the design of rehabilitation or sport practice programmes suggest how task constraints could be manipulated to facilitate adaptations in locomotion stability during athletic training.

  13. Effect of cementitious permanent formwork on moisture field of internal-cured concrete under drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahe; Zhang, Jun; Ding, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jiajia

    2018-02-01

    Drying shrinkage of concrete may still be the main source of cracking in concrete structures, even though the autogenous shrinkage of concrete can be effectively reduced by using internal curing. In the present paper, the effect of internal curing with pre-soaked lightweight aggregate and engineered cementitious composite permanent formwork (ECC-PF) on a moisture distribution in three kinds of concrete in a drying environment are investigated from both aspects of experiments and theoretical modeling. The test results show that the combination use of ECC-PF and internal curing can well maintain the humidity at a relatively high level not only at a place far from drying surface, but also at a place close to the drying surfaces. The developed model can well catch the characteristics of the moisture distribution in concrete under drying and the impacts of internal curing and ECC-PF can well be reflected as well. The model can be used for the design of concrete structures with combination use of internal curing and permanent formwork.

  14. Magnetic Configuration Effects Under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of NBI absorption and losses, done for the Reference configuration of TJ-II, has been extended to other magnetic configurations of the flexibility diagram. The main results obtained are the following: Fast ion losses. mainly direct ones, are the determinant factor the absorption behaviour. In the absence of radial electric field, the contribution of the delayed fast ion losses in minimal, as well with CX as without, and corresponds, almost exclusively, to low energy trapped ions (1 to t KeV). There is a strong difference between the direct los behaviour corresponding to both injection directions CO and COUNTER. The first one gives always higher losses in TJ-II. For the extreme configurations the direct losses are very high and are originated by resonant effects, that can be observed even for null electric field, and are due to the 0 and-2 resonances. The intermediate configurations are equally separated from both resonances, in consequence the loss level is lower, producing absorption ratios very, acceptable, higher than 60% of the power entering torus at high density and 40 keV. This corresponds to about 1.2 MW absorbed in plasma under balanced injection. In conclusion, the possible presence of resonant effects on the direct losses is the key element to explain the absorption behaviour for the different magnetic configurations. In addition all the configurations placed inside a wide region around the Reference case in the flexibility diagram seem equally convenient for NBI in TJ-II. (Author) 18 refs

  15. The Effect of Subcutaneous Ketamine Infiltration on Postoperative Pain in Elective Cesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Manouchehrian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Appropriate analgesia after cesarean section helps women feel more comfortable and increase the mobility of the mother's and also their ability to take better care of their newborns. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine on postoperative pain reduction and hemodynamic status of patients after elective cesarean section. Materials & Methods: This study was designed as a double blinded prospective, randomized clinical trial and 60 cases of women undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anes-thesia were randomly assigned into two groups. For 30 cases in the ketamine group, infiltra-tion of subcutaneous ketamine 0.5 mg / kg was administered after closure of surgical inci-sion. 30 patients in the placebo group received subcutaneous infiltration of saline. During the patient's recovery time and after transferring to the ward, the VAS of pain and vital signs were continuously assessed. if VAS ? 3, 100 mg diclofenac suppository was administered and if there were no response, 30 mg intravenous pethidine was also administered. Prescribed number of suppositories and pethidine dosage were compared. The complications, such as hallucination, nystagmus, nausea, vomiting and drowsiness in patients were also recorded and compared. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS16 software and ?2 and t-test. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant in all of the cases. Results: In the course of systolic blood pressure, heart rate and arterial blood oxygen satura-tion during the first 24 hours, no significant differences were mentioned between the two groups. At the time of arrival to the recovery room and 30 minutes later, the mean VAS was not significantly different in the groups. However, the mean VAS at 1, 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 and 12 hours after surgery were significantly lower in the ketamine group (0.61±059 than in the sa-line group (3.37±096 (P<0.001. The mean

  16. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  17. Effects of Space Weathering on Thermal Infrared Emissivity Spectra of Bulk Lunar Soils Measured Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Pieters, C. M.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.

    2015-11-01

    In this initial study, TIR emissivity spectral measurements are made under lunar-like conditions of two highland soil samples that are similar in composition, but differing maturities to understand the effects of space weathering on TIR spectra.

  18. Statistical efficiency and optimal design for stepped cluster studies under linear mixed effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Alan J; Hemming, Karla

    2016-06-15

    In stepped cluster designs the intervention is introduced into some (or all) clusters at different times and persists until the end of the study. Instances include traditional parallel cluster designs and the more recent stepped-wedge designs. We consider the precision offered by such designs under mixed-effects models with fixed time and random subject and cluster effects (including interactions with time), and explore the optimal choice of uptake times. The results apply both to cross-sectional studies where new subjects are observed at each time-point, and longitudinal studies with repeat observations on the same subjects. The efficiency of the design is expressed in terms of a 'cluster-mean correlation' which carries information about the dependency-structure of the data, and two design coefficients which reflect the pattern of uptake-times. In cross-sectional studies the cluster-mean correlation combines information about the cluster-size and the intra-cluster correlation coefficient. A formula is given for the 'design effect' in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. An algorithm for optimising the choice of uptake times is described and specific results obtained for the best balanced stepped designs. In large studies we show that the best design is a hybrid mixture of parallel and stepped-wedge components, with the proportion of stepped wedge clusters equal to the cluster-mean correlation. The impact of prior uncertainty in the cluster-mean correlation is considered by simulation. Some specific hybrid designs are proposed for consideration when the cluster-mean correlation cannot be reliably estimated, using a minimax principle to ensure acceptable performance across the whole range of unknown values. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of milk composition and coagulation traits on Grana Padano cheese yield under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, Denis; De Marchi, Massimo; Penasa, Mauro; Cassandro, Martino

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chemical composition, coagulation properties, pH, and titratable acidity (TA, SH°/50 ml) of vat milk on Grana Padano cheese yield (CY) under field conditions. Twelve cheese-making sessions were carried out from February to December 2009 in a dairy cooperative of Grana Padano Consortium (Italy), for a total of 96 vats of milk processed. For each vat, samples of raw milk were collected and analysed for quality traits (fat, protein, and casein contents), pH, TA, and milk coagulation properties (MCP), measured as rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd-firming time (k(20), min), and curd firmness (a(30), mm). Cheese yield was expressed as kilograms of cheese per 100 kg milk transformed, and was measured after 2 d of drainage. Fat, protein, and casein contents were positively and strongly correlated with CY (coefficients of correlation, r = 0.72, 0.88, and 0.84, respectively; P Coagulation properties were moderately and significantly (P milk that coagulated earlier and had stronger a(30) was associated to greater CY. Cheese yield was analysed with a model that accounted for fixed effects of cheese-making day, fat and protein content, TA, and a(30). Significance was found for all the effects (P Milk characterised by high values of a(30) resulted in higher CY than milk with low values of a 30, indicating that MCP could be used as indicators of cheese-making efficiency. Future research should investigate the relationships between MCP and quality of cheese, and explore the feasibility of including MCP in multiple component milk pricing system for Grana Padano cheese production.

  20. Effects of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy on hospitals competition under non-price regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chan; Nie, Pu-Yan

    2016-11-15

    Poor medical care and high fees are two major problems in the world health care system. As a result, health care insurance system reform is a major issue in developing countries, such as China. Governments should take the effect of health care insurance system reform on the competition of hospitals into account when they practice a reform. This article aims to capture the influences of asymmetric medical insurance subsidy and the importance of medical quality to patients on hospitals competition under non-price regulation. We establish a three-stage duopoly model with quantity and quality competition. In the model, qualitative difference and asymmetric medical insurance subsidy among hospitals are considered. The government decides subsidy (or reimbursement) ratios in the first stage. Hospitals choose the quality in the second stage and then support the quantity in the third stage. We obtain our conclusions by mathematical model analyses and all the results are achieved by backward induction. The importance of medical quality to patients has stronger influence on the small hospital, while subsidy has greater effect on the large hospital. Meanwhile, the importance of medical quality to patients strengthens competition, but subsidy effect weakens it. Besides, subsidy ratios difference affects the relationship between subsidy and hospital competition. Furthermore, we capture the optimal reimbursement ratio based on social welfare maximization. More importantly, this paper finds that the higher management efficiency of the medical insurance investment funds is, the higher the best subsidy ratio is. This paper states that subsidy is a two-edged sword. On one hand, subsidy stimulates medical demand. On the other hand, subsidy raises price and inhibits hospital competition. Therefore, government must set an appropriate subsidy ratio difference between large and small hospitals to maximize the total social welfare. For a developing country with limited medical resources

  1. Effects of hydrogen and acetate on benzene mineralisation under sulphate-reducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Müller, Nicolai; Richnow, Hans H; Vogt, Carsten

    2011-08-01

    Syntrophic mineralisation of benzene, as recently proposed for a sulphate-reducing enrichment culture, was tested in product inhibition experiments with acetate and hydrogen, both putative intermediates of anaerobic benzene fermentation. Using [(13)C(6)]-benzene enabled tracking the inhibition of benzene mineralisation sensitively by analysis of (13)CO(2). In noninhibited cultures, hydrogen was detected at partial pressures of 2.4 × 10(-6) ± 1.5 × 10(-6) atm. Acetate was detected at concentrations of 17 ± 2 μM. Spiking with 0.1 atm hydrogen produced a transient inhibitory effect on (13)CO(2) formation. In cultures spiked with higher amounts of hydrogen, benzene mineralisation did not restart after hydrogen consumption, possibly due to the toxic effects of the sulphide produced. An inhibitory effect was also observed when acetate was added to the cultures (0.3, 3.5 and 30 mM). Benzene mineralisation resumed after acetate was degraded to concentrations found in noninhibited cultures, indicating that acetate is another key intermediate in anaerobic benzene mineralisation. Although benzene mineralisation by a single sulphate reducer cannot be ruled out, our results strongly point to an involvement of syntrophic interactions in the process. Thermodynamic calculations revealed that, under in situ conditions, benzene fermentation to hydrogen and acetate yielded a free energy change of ΔG'=-83.1 ± 5.6 kJ mol(-1). Benzene mineralisation ceased when ΔG' values declined below -61.3 ± 5.3 kJ mol(-1) in the presence of acetate, indicating that ATP-consuming reactions are involved in the pathway. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Interannual Climate Variability in Secondary Forests and Crops Under Traditional and Alternative Shifting Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, T. D.; Guild, L. S.; Carvalho, C. J.; Potter, C. S.; Wickel, A. J.; Brienza, S.; Kato, M. A.; Kato, O.

    2002-12-01

    Regenerating forests play an important role in long-term carbon sequestration and sustainable landuse as they act as potentially important carbon and nutrient sinks during the shifting agriculture fallow period. The long-term functioning of secondary forests (capoeira) is increasingly threatened by a shortening fallow period during shifting cultivation due to demographic pressures and associated increased vulnerability to severe climatic events. Declining productivity and functioning of fallow forests of shifting cultivation combined with progressive loss of nutrients by successive burning and cropping activities has resulted in declining agricultural productivity. In addition to the effects of intense land use practices, droughts associated with El Ni¤o events are becoming more frequent and severe in moist tropical forests and negative effects on capoeira productivity could be considerable. In Igarape-Acu (near Belem, Para), we hypothesize that experimental alternative landuse/clearing practices (mulching and fallow vegetation improvement by planting with fast-growing leguminous tree species) may make capoeira and crops more resilient to the effects of agricultural pressures and drought through 1) increased biomass, soil organic matter and associated increase in soil water storage, and nutrient retention and 2) greater rooting depth of trees planted for fallow improvement. This experimental practice (mechanized chop-and-mulch with fallow improvement) has resulted in increased soil moisture during the cropping phase, reduced loss of nutrients and organic matter, and higher rates of secondary-forest biomass accumulation. We present preliminary data on water relations during the dry season of 2001 in capoeira and crops for both traditional slash-and-burn and alternative chop-and-mulch practices. These data will be used to test IKONOS data for the detection of moisture status differences. The principal goal of the research is to determine the extent to which capoeira

  3. Effects of Nutrients Foliar Application on Agrophysiological Characteristics of Maize under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Ali SAJEDI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate effects of nutrients foliar application on agrophysiological characteristics of maize hybrid KSC 704 water deficit stress conditions, an experiment was arranged in a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications to the Research Station of Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch, Iran in 2007-2008. Main factors studied were four irrigation levels including irrigation equal to crop water requirement, water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage (V8, blister stage (R2 and filling grain stage (R4 in the main plot. Combined levels of selenium treatment (without and with application 20 gha-1 and micronutrients (without and with application 2 lha-1 were situated in sub plots. Results showed that water deficit stress decreased grain yield 19.7% in blister stage as compared with control. Using selenium increased relative content water at R2 and R4 stages significantly. Using selenium in water deficit stress condition increased measured traits except plant height as compared with treatment without selenium. A negative antagonistic interaction was found between selenium and micronutrients on some measured traits. Between treatments of water deficit stress, highest grain yield equal 6799.52 and 6736.97 kgha-1 was obtained from combined treatments of water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage+without selenium+without micronutrients and water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage+selenium+without micronutrients respectively which compared with treatment of irrigation equal to crop water requirement+selenium+microelements did not differ significant. According to the results of experiment, it is concluded that with micronutrients fertilizer spray under optimum irrigation and selenium spray under water deficit obtain optimum yield.

  4. Effects of Nutrients Foliar Application on Agrophysiological Characteristics of Maize under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Ali SAJEDI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate effects of nutrients foliar application on agrophysiological characteristics of maize hybrid �KSC 704� water deficit stress conditions, an experiment was arranged in a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications to the Research Station of Islamic Azad University-Arak Branch, Iran in 2007-2008. Main factors studied were four irrigation levels including irrigation equal to crop water requirement, water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage (V8, blister stage (R2 and filling grain stage (R4 in the main plot. Combined levels of selenium treatment (without and with application 20 gha-1 and micronutrients (without and with application 2 lha-1 were situated in sub plots. Results showed that water deficit stress decreased grain yield 19.7% in blister stage as compared with control. Using selenium increased relative content water at R2 and R4 stages significantly. Using selenium in water deficit stress condition increased measured traits except plant height as compared with treatment without selenium. A negative antagonistic interaction was found between selenium and micronutrients on some measured traits. Between treatments of water deficit stress, highest grain yield equal 6799.52 and 6736.97 kgha-1 was obtained from combined treatments of water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage+without selenium+without micronutrients and water deficit stress at eight-leaf stage+selenium+without micronutrients respectively which compared with treatment of irrigation equal to crop water requirement+selenium+microelements did not differ significant. According to the results of experiment, it is concluded that with micronutrients fertilizer spray under optimum irrigation and selenium spray under water deficit obtain optimum yield.

  5. Effect of micromorphology of cortical bone tissue on crack propagation under dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mayao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural integrity of bone tissue plays an important role in daily activities of humans. However, traumatic incidents such as sports injuries, collisions and falls can cause bone fracture, servere pain and mobility loss. In addition, ageing and degenerative bone diseases such as osteoporosis can increase the risk of fracture [1]. As a composite-like material, a cortical bone tissue is capable of tolerating moderate fracture/cracks without complete failure. The key to this is its heterogeneously distributed microstructural constituents providing both intrinsic and extrinsic toughening mechanisms. At micro-scale level, cortical bone can be considered as a four-phase composite material consisting of osteons, Haversian canals, cement lines and interstitial matrix. These microstructural constituents can directly affect local distributions of stresses and strains, and, hence, crack initiation and propagation. Therefore, understanding the effect of micromorphology of cortical bone on crack initiation and propagation, especially under dynamic loading regimes is of great importance for fracture risk evaluation. In this study, random microstructures of a cortical bone tissue were modelled with finite elements for four groups: healthy (control, young age, osteoporosis and bisphosphonate-treated, based on osteonal morphometric parameters measured from microscopic images for these groups. The developed models were loaded under the same dynamic loading conditions, representing a direct impact incident, resulting in progressive crack propagation. An extended finite-element method (X-FEM was implemented to realize solution-dependent crack propagation within the microstructured cortical bone tissues. The obtained simulation results demonstrate significant differences due to micromorphology of cortical bone, in terms of crack propagation characteristics for different groups, with the young group showing highest fracture resistance and the senior group the

  6. Rotation effect and anatomic landmark accuracy for midline placement of lumbar artificial disc under fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhael, Mark; Brooks, Jaysson T; Akpolat, Yusuf T; Cheng, Wayne K

    2017-03-01

    Total disc arthroplasty can be a viable alternative to fusion for degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. The correct placement of the prosthesis within 3 mm from midline is critical for optimal function. Intra-operative radiographic error could lead to malposition of the prosthesis. The objective of this study was first to measure the effect of fluoroscopy angle on the placement of prosthesis under fluoroscopy. Secondly, determine the visual accuracy of the placement of artificial discs using different anatomical landmarks (pedicle, waist, endplate, spinous process) under fluoroscopy. Artificial discs were implanted into three cadaver specimens at L2-3, L3-4, and L4-L5. Fluoroscopic images were obtained at 0°, 2.5°, 5°, 7.5°, 10°, and 15° from the mid axis. Computerized tomography (CT) scans were obtained after the procedure. Distances were measured from each of the anatomic landmarks to the center of the implant on both fluoroscopy and CT. The difference between fluoroscopy and CT scans was compared to evaluate the position of prosthesis to each anatomic landmark at different angles. The differences between the fluoroscopy to CT measurements from the implant to pedicle was 1.31 mm, p fluoroscopy angle was greater than 7.5°, the difference between fluoroscopy and CT measurements was greater than 3 mm for all landmarks. A fluoroscopy angle of 7.5° or more can lead to implant malposition greater than 3 mm. The pedicle is the most accurate of the anatomic landmarks studied for placement of total artificial discs in the lumbar spine.

  7. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  8. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado Pitombo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The large volume of sewage sludge (SS generated with high carbon (C and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L. was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer, 1SS (recommended rate and 2SS (double rate. Carbon stocks (0-40 cm were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha–1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha–1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

  9. Oxygen-containing compounds as activators of cyclopentene polymerization under the effect of catalytic system WCl/sub 6/-tetraallylsilane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakuro, N.I.; Makovetskij, K.L.; Uantmakher, A.R.; Dolgoplosk, B.A. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Fiziko-Khimicheskij Inst., Moscow (USSR))

    1982-03-01

    Kinetics of cyclopentene polymerization in toluene medium at -30 deg under the effect of certain tungsten halides in the presence of tetraallylsilane is studied. Catalytic system WCl/sub 6/-tetra-allylsilane under conditions of thorough purification from traces of moisture and oxygen is not active in cyclopentene polymerization with the cycle opening. Compounds resulting in the appearance of oxoligand near W atom (water, oxygen, epichlorohydrin) produce activating effect on the above mentioned system.

  10. Effect of management systems and cover crops on organic matter dynamics of soil under vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandes de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable production in conservation tillage has increased in Brazil, with positive effects on the soil quality. Since management systems alter the quantity and quality of organic matter, this study evaluated the influence of different management systems and cover crops on the organic matter dynamics of a dystrophic Red Latosol under vegetables. The treatments consisted of the combination of three soil tillage systems: no-tillage (NT, reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT and of two cover crops: maize monoculture and maize-mucuna intercrop. Vegetables were grown in the winter and the cover crops in the summer for straw production. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Soil samples were collected between the crop rows in three layers (0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m twice: in October, before planting cover crops for straw, and in July, during vegetable cultivation. The total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, oxidizable fractions, and the carbon fractions fulvic acid (C FA, humic acid (C HA and humin (C HUM were determined. The main changes in these properties occurred in the upper layers (0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m where, in general, TOC levels were highest in NT with maize straw. The MBC levels were lowest in CT systems, indicating sensitivity to soil disturbance. Under mucuna, the levels of C HA were lower in RT than NT systems, while the C FA levels were lower in RT than CT. For vegetable production, the C HUM values were lowest in the 0.05-0.10 m layer under CT. With regard to the oxidizable fractions, the tillage systems differed only in the most labile C fractions, with higher levels in NT than CT in the 0.0-0.05 m layer in both summer and winter, with no differences between these systems in the other layers. The cabbage yield was not influenced by the soil management system, but benefited from the mulch production of the preceding maize-mucuna intercrop as cover

  11. Effect of Seed Priming on Sugar Beet Root Yield under Low Irrigation and Presence of Weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali absalan

    2017-09-01

    that priming improved root yield under condition of reduction of irrigation water and the presence of weeds in both areas. The results showed that priming methods caused reducing yield losing of the roots in the presence of weeds. In this regard, treatment of running water for 48 hours + Seed-start did better in both areas. Conclusions In the end, due to the positive effects of priming, such as running water 48 hours and Seed-start on quantitative yield of sugar beet these methods are recommended. Materials and Methods: In the spring of 1393, a field trial was conducted simultaneously in two regions of the Jovain and Jajarm.The experimental was conducted as split plot (split-split plot in randomized complete block design with three replications.The main factor was irrigation with four levels of 100, 90, 80 and 70% water,sub-plots are including different methods of priming: control, priming with running water for 48 hours, priming with running water for 48 hours + Humic acid, priming with running water for 48 hours + Seed-start and priming with running water for 48 hours + Humic acid + Fulzym, sub-sub plots are including weeds competition with (absence and presence of weeds. Results and Discussion: The results for two regions showed that by reducing the amount of irrigation water sugar beet tuber yield significantly reduced. Results show that the effect of priming treatment of running water for 48 hours + Seed-start and running water for 48 hours + Humic acid + Fulzym to have achieved the highest sugar beet tuber yield for two areas. The result of the interaction effect showed that priming improved tuber yield under condition of reduction of irrigation water and the presence of weeds in both areas. The results showed that priming methods caused reducing yield losing of the tubers in the presence of weeds. In this regard, treatment of running water for 48 hours + Seed-start did better in both areas. Conclusions: In the end, due to the positive effects of priming, such as

  12. Effects of voids on delamination behavior under static and fatigue mode I and mode II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelal, Nisrin Rizek

    Composite materials have become materials of choice for wind turbine blade manufacturing due to their high specific stiffness, strength and fatigue life. Glass fiber composites are used extensively in light-weight structural components for wind turbines, aircrafts, marine craft and high performance automobile because glass fiber is inexpensive and usually provides high strength to weight ratio and good in-plane mechanical properties. The high cycle fatigue resistance of composite materials used in wind turbine blades has been recognized as a major uncertainty in predicting the reliability of wind turbines over their design lifetime. Blades are expected to experience 108 to 109 fatigue cycles over a 20 to 30 year lifetime. Delamination or interlaminar failure is a serious failure mode observed in composite structures. Even partial delamination will lead to a loss of local stiffness, which can preclude buckling failure. Manufacturing process defects such as voids and fiber waviness degrade the fatigue life and delamination resistance of the blade's composite. This research describes the effect of voids on static and fatigue interlaminar fracture behavior under mode I and mode II loading of wind turbine glass fiber composites. Samples with different void volume fractions in the 0.5%-7% range were successfully obtained by varying the vacuum in the hand layup vacuum bagging manufacturing process. Void content was characterized using four different methods; ultrasonic scanning, epoxy burn off, serial sectioning and X-Ray computed tomography. The effect of voids on both mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness under static and fatigue loading was investigated. Finally, fractographic analysis (using optical and scanning electron microscopy) was conducted. The results showed that voids leads to slight reduction in static modes I and II interlaminar fracture toughness. In addition, voids lead to a decrease in modes I and II maximum cyclic strain energy release

  13. The effect of natural disturbances on the risk from hydrogeomorphic hazards under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidl, Christian; Thaler, Thomas; Seidl, Rupert; Rammer, Werner; Kohl, Bernhard; Markart, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    forestry actors will be performed to assess forest managers concern and willingness to engage in natural hazards management in contrast to the roles of their social network and the roles of political/administrative representatives. We will compare these perceived roles along the dimensions efficacy, attribution of responsibility and trust. This theory-driven approach highlights the motivational structure underlying the willingness to participate in natural hazards initiatives, and allows to tailor policy implications to the needs and capacities of distinct target groups. The outcomes of the investigations shall contribute to the development of adaptive management strategies for forestry administrations at all political levels to mitigate negative effects of climate change in protection forests.

  14. Long-Term Evolution Studies of E. Coli under Combined Effects of Simulated Microgravity and Antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Ott, Mark C.; Pierson, Duane L.; Fox, George E.; Tran, Quyen

    2016-07-01

    Multiple spaceflight and simulated microgravity experiments have shown changes in phenotypic microbial characteristics such as microbial growth, morphology, metabolism, genetic transfer, antibiotic and stress susceptibility, and an increase in virulence factors. However, while these studies have contributed to expand our understanding of the short-term effects of spaceflight or simulated microgravity on biological systems, it remains unclear the type of responses subsequent to long-term exposure to space environment and microgravity in particular. As such, organisms exposed to the space environment for extended periods of time may evolve in unanticipated ways thereby negatively impacting long duration space missions. We report here for the first time, an experimental study of microbial evolution in which the effect of long-term exposure to Low Shear Modeled MicroGravity (LSMMG) on microbial gene expression and physiology in Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655 was examined using functional genomics, and molecular techniques with and without simultaneous exposure to broad spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol. E. coli cells were grown under simulated microgravity for 1000 generations in High Aspect Ratio Vessels (HARVs) that were either heat-sterilized (115 deg C, 15 min) or by using/rinsing the HARVs with a saturated solution of the broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol. In the case of the cells evolved using the antibiotic sterilized HARVs, the expression levels of 357 genes were significantly changed. In particular, fimbriae encoding genes were significantly up-regulated whereas genes encoding the flagellar motor complex were down-regulated. Re-sequencing of the genome revealed that a number of the flagellar genes were actually deleted. The antibiotic resistance levels of the evolved strains were analyzed using VITEK analyzer. The evolved strain was consistently resistant to the antibiotics used (viz., Ampicillin, Cefalotin, Cefurox-ime, Cefuroxime Axetil

  15. Effect of soil properties on Hydraulic characteristics under subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wangtao; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is a technique that has a high potential in application because of its high efficiency in water-saving. The hydraulic characteristics of SDI sub-unit pipe network can be affected by soil physical properties as the emitters are buried in soils. The related research, however, is not fully explored. The laboratory tests were carried out in the present study to determine the effects of hydraulic factors including operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density on flow rate and its sensitivity to each hydraulic factor for two types of SDI emitters (PLASSIM emitter and Heping emitter). For this purpose, three soils with contrasting textures (i.e., light sand, silt loam, and light clay) were repacked with two soil bulk density (1.25 and1.40 g cm-3) with two initial soil water content (12% and 18%) in plexiglass columns with 40 cm in diameter and 40 cm in height. Drip emitters were buried at depth of 20 cm to measure the flow rates under seven operating pressures (60, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 370 kPa). We found that the operating pressure was the dominating factor of flow rate of the SDI emitter, and flow rate increased with the increase of operating pressure. The initial soil water content and bulk density also affected the flow rate, and their effects were the most notable in the light sand soil. The sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor was dependent on soil texture, and followed a descending order of light sand>silt loam>light clay for both types of emitters. Further, the sensitivity of flow rate to each hydraulic factor decreased with the increase of operating pressure, initial soil water content, and bulk density. This study may be used to guide the soil specific-design of SDI emitters for optimal water use and management.

  16. Utility of atropine in patients under beta-blocker effect during exercise stress echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munera, Ana G; Restrepo, Gustavo; Aristizabal, Dagnovar; Cubides, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to assess the usefulness of adding atropine 0.5 to 1.0 mg by intravenous injection during peak exercise in patients under beta-blocker effect that are subjected to exercise stress echocardiography. Population: exercise stress echocardiography was performed in 73 patients receiving beta-blocking agents with basal heart rate below 60 beats per minute (BPM). Two groups were established at random: group I (18 patients that did not receive atropine during maximal exercise) and group II (50 patients from whom 28 received 0.5 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before concluding the exercise and 22 patients who received 1.0 mg atropine IV 30 seconds to one minute before its conclusion). From a demographic point of view, there were no differences between the two groups. Mean age was 59 ± 10.8 years (57% male). Most of the patients received metoprolol (87%) and no significant statistical differences in relation with the doses were found in these two groups. At the end of the exercise, the patients had a mean heart rate of 84% from their maximal heart rate (MHR). The values post-exercise were 76% at 30 seconds, 68% at 60 sec., 62% at 90 sec., and 59% of the maximal heart rate at 120 sec. When comparing the percentage of the maximal heart rate achieved in maximal exercise and the one observed during the first 120 sec. after exercise, no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: during the performance of stress exercise echocardiography, the administration of intravenous atropine was of no use for incrementing the peak heart rate post-exercise in patients with significant beta-blocker effect (basal heart rate < 60 BPM)

  17. Effects of feeding Beta vulgaris saccharifera bulb for fattening desert lambs under tropical conditions of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of introducing Sugar Beet bulb as a cheap substitute for grains in rations formulated for sheep fattening. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Experimental unit of Rural Development and extension center, Faculty of animal production, University of Gezira. Twenty four Sudanese desert lambs (Ashgur ecotype were purchased from local markets to assess the effects of replacing grain with Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris saccharifera Bulb on feed lot performance, carcass traits under tropical conditions of Sudan. Sugar Beet bulb was incorporated in three rations with a control ration (A: control, B, C, D at percentages of 0, 11, 22, and 33. Results: The results showed that total weight gain and daily feed intake in group D were significantly different at (P<0.05 where values of 5.59±1.73 and 0.94± 0.13 kg were recorded. Total weight gain, daily dry matter intake, daily energy intake and feed conversion ratio were in the range of 10.67- 5.59, 1.03-0.83, 0.33-0.27and 11.77- 7.70 kg respectively. Treatments showed no significant differences at (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, empty body weight, dressing % on slaughter weight basis and dressing % on empty weight basis, the obtained results for these traits were 27.78-25.37, 24.76- 22.22, 45.80- 43.45% and 51.41- 49.65%. Carcass cuts (Leg, Loin, Rack, Plate and Neck & shoulder weight and percentages showed no significant differences among treatments. Conclusion: It is concluded that replacing expensive grains with Beta vulgaris bulb can be practiced in sheep fattening project up to 22% with excellent results. [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 330-334

  18. Performance Based Evaluation of Concrete Strength under Various Curing Conditions to Investigate Climate Change Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Kyun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the manifestation of global warming-induced climate change has been observed through super typhoons, heavy snowfalls, torrential rains, and extended heat waves. These climate changes have been occurring all over the world and natural disasters have caused severe damage and deterioration of concrete structures and infrastructure. In an effort to deal with these problems due to extreme and abnormal climate changes, studies have been conducted to develop construction technologies and design guidelines. Nevertheless, study results applicable to construction sites continue to be ineffective and insufficient. Therefore, this study proposes ways to cope with climate change by considering the effect of concrete curing condition variations on concrete material performance. More specifically, the 3-, 7- and 28-day compressive and split tensile strength properties of concrete mix cured under various climatic factors including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunlight exposure time were evaluated to determine whether the concrete meets the current design requirements. Thereafter, a performance based evaluation (PBE was performed using satisfaction probabilities based on the test values to understand the problems associated with the current mix proportion design practice and to identify countermeasures to deal with climate change-induced curing conditions.

  19. Scientific conception on mechanisms of calcium homeostasis disorders under low dose effect of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylaev, Zh.A.; Dospolova, Zh.G.

    1997-01-01

    Scientific conception of probable consequences of calcium homeostasis disorders in personals, exposed to low dose effect of ionizing radiation has been developed. Principle positions of the conception is that pathologic processes development have different ways of conducting. During predominance of low doses of external gamma-radiation there is leading pathologic mechanism (mechanism 1) of disorder neuroendocrine regulation of both the calcium and the phosphor. In this case sicks have disorders of both the vegetative tonus and the endocrine status. Under internal irradiation (mechanism 2) there is disfunction of organs and systems (bore changes and disorders of hormone status). These changes are considered as consequence of negative action on organism of incorporated long-living radionuclides. Radio-toxic factors action (mechanism 3) provokes the excess of hormones, which acting on bone tissue and could be cause of steroid osteoporosis. Influence of chronic stress factor (mechanism 4) enlarges and burden action on organism of low radiation doses. It is emphasized, that decisive role in development of pathologic processes has mechanism of disturbance of neuroendocrine regulation of calcium exchange

  20. Adverse effects from clenbuterol and ractopamine on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziheng; Zhao, Yunli; Wu, Qiuli; Li, Min; Liu, Haicui; Sun, Lingmei; Gao, Wei; Wang, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo toxicity from clentuberol and ractopamine and the possible underlying mechanism. Both acute and prolonged exposures to clentuberol or ractopamine decreased brood size and locomotion behavior, and induced intestinal autofluorescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although acute exposure to the examined concentrations of clentuberol or ractopamine did not induce lethality, prolonged exposure to 10 µg/L of clentuberol and ractopamine reduced lifespan. At relatively high concentrations, ractopamine exhibited more severe toxicity than clentuberol on nematodes. Overexpression of sod-2 gene encoding a Mn-SOD to prevent induction of oxidative stress effectively inhibited toxicity from clentuberol or ractopamine. Besides oxidative stress, we found that clentuberol might reduce lifespan through influencing insulin/IGF signaling pathway; however, ractopamine might reduce lifespan through affecting both insulin/IGF signaling pathway and TOR signaling pathway. Ractopamine more severely decreased expression levels of daf-16, sgk-1, skn-1, and aak-2 genes than clentuberol, and increased expression levels of daf-2 and age-1 genes at the examined concentration. Therefore, the C. elegans assay system may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity from weight loss agents, and clentuberol and ractopamine may induce toxicity through different molecular mechanisms.

  1. Adverse effects from clenbuterol and ractopamine on nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the underlying mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziheng Zhuang

    Full Text Available In the present study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo toxicity from clentuberol and ractopamine and the possible underlying mechanism. Both acute and prolonged exposures to clentuberol or ractopamine decreased brood size and locomotion behavior, and induced intestinal autofluorescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Although acute exposure to the examined concentrations of clentuberol or ractopamine did not induce lethality, prolonged exposure to 10 µg/L of clentuberol and ractopamine reduced lifespan. At relatively high concentrations, ractopamine exhibited more severe toxicity than clentuberol on nematodes. Overexpression of sod-2 gene encoding a Mn-SOD to prevent induction of oxidative stress effectively inhibited toxicity from clentuberol or ractopamine. Besides oxidative stress, we found that clentuberol might reduce lifespan through influencing insulin/IGF signaling pathway; however, ractopamine might reduce lifespan through affecting both insulin/IGF signaling pathway and TOR signaling pathway. Ractopamine more severely decreased expression levels of daf-16, sgk-1, skn-1, and aak-2 genes than clentuberol, and increased expression levels of daf-2 and age-1 genes at the examined concentration. Therefore, the C. elegans assay system may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity from weight loss agents, and clentuberol and ractopamine may induce toxicity through different molecular mechanisms.

  2. Corrosion behaviour of zinc deposits obtained under pulse current electrodeposition: Effects of coumarin as additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouanga, M.; Ricq, L.; Douglade, J.; Bercot, P.

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of zinc deposits obtained under pulsed current electrodeposition from an acidic chloride bath in the presence and absence of coumarin has been investigated. The effects of pulse peak current density (J p ) on the morphology of zinc deposits were studied by scanning electron microscopy. An increase in J p from 40 to 280 A dm -2 yields deposits with a finer grain size. The refinement of the grain size was more considerable in the presence of coumarin (J p = 280 A dm -2 ). The preferred orientation of zinc deposits was studied by X-ray diffraction. At J p = 40 A dm -2 , the preferred orientation of zinc deposits was (1 0 3) and changed to (0 0 2) at J p = 80 A dm -2 . An increase in J p to 280 A dm -2 did not change the preferred crystallographic orientations except for an increase in the peak intensity of the (0 0 2) plane. In the presence of coumarin, the preferred crystallographic orientations changed at J p = 280 A dm -2 from the (0 0 2) plane to the (1 0 3) plane. The corrosion behaviour was investigated in an aerated 3.5% NaCl solution; the anodic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy curves were performed. The corrosion resistance of zinc deposits was improved by increasing the pulse peak current density (J p ); whereas, the presence of coumarin did not improve the corrosion resistance

  3. Radiological changes under effect of mebendazole on univesicular hydatid cysts in the liver and lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhti, A.; Liege Univ.; Nizet, M.

    1986-01-01

    Mebendazole was given to a patient who had developed four univesicular hydatid cysts in 16 months following initial infection (two in the liver and two in the lungs). The size of the cysts varied from five to ten centimeters in diameter. The therapeutic effect of the drug was assessed by ultrasound, computed tomography and chest X-ray examination. A completely split wall was only observed in the smallest hepatic cyst after a three-month period with a dose of 2.4 g per day (50 mg/kg/day). Peak serum level of mebendazole was 45.2 ng/ml. Thereafter, the intake was increased to 4.5 g per day (86.5 mg/kg/day) during one year. Peak drug serum level was 67.7 ng/ml. Dramatic radiological changes were subsequently noted in the other cysts. These radiological changes precisely mimicked those changes observed during the natural course of healthy cysts when they become complicated by ageing. We have found that ultrasound and chest X-ray proved to be the best method for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of medical treatment for univesicular cysts in the liver and lung. The asynchronous evolution observed in these lesions under such different drug schedules seems to depend on the size and location of the cyst, and on serum mebendazole levels as well as length of treatment. (orig.)

  4. Effect of seeding rate on lentil (lens culinaris medik) seed yield under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.; Zahid, M.A.; Javed, H.I.; Ansar, A.; Saleem, N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various sowing rates on seed yield of lentil. Field experiments were conducted for three consecutive years (2001-02 to 2003-04) at the National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during the lentil growing season. An improved medium-grain size (1000-grain weight. around 25 g) variety Masoor 93 (18-12 x ILLP 4400) was used in these experiments. Eleven seeding rates i.e., 14.0, 21.25, 28.50, 35.75, 43.0, 50.25, 57.50, 64.75, 72.0, 79.25 and 86.50 kgha were evaluated in the study. Results of the three-year study showed that grain yield kept on increasing up to a seed rate of 43 kgha and remained static thereafter with a non-significant difference for any further increase in seed sown. The existing seed rate of 20 kgha in lentil is seemingly not sufficient to obtain optimum yield. On average, about 2-2.5-fold increase in seed rate of lentil under rainfed conditions can be safely recommended. (author)

  5. Effect of oxygen enrichment in air on acid gas combustion under Claus conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Salisu

    2013-09-01

    Results are presented to examine the combustion of acid gas (H2S and CO2) in hydrogen-fueled flames using a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen under Claus conditions (Φ = 3). Specifically the effect of oxygen enrichment in the above flames is examined. The compositions of acid gas examined are100% H2S and 50% H2S/50% CO2 with different percentages of oxygen enrichment (0%, 19.3% and 69.3%) in the oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The results revealed that combustion of acid gas formed SO2 wherein the mole fraction of SO2 increased to an asymptotic value at all the oxygen concentrations examined. In addition, increase in oxygen enrichment of the air resulted in increased amounts of SO2 rather than the formation of more desirable elemental sulfur. In case of 50% H2S/50% CO2 acid gas, carbon monoxide mole fraction increased with oxygen enrichment which is an indicator to the availability of additional amounts of oxygen into the reaction pool. This gas mixture resulted in the formation of other sulfurous–carbonaceous compounds (COS and CS2) due to the presence of carbon monoxide. The results showed that the rate of COS formation increased with oxygen enrichment due to the availability of higher amounts of CO while that of CS2 reduced. The global reactions responsible for this observed phenomenon are presented.

  6. The effect of nitrate addition on efficient use of ammonium sulfate fertilizer under saline soil condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, KH.; Zedan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of addition of nitrate fertilizers on the efficient use of ammonium fertilizers was studied using N sub 1 sub 5 method. In pot experiment using salt affected alluvial soil, the objective of this study was to determine the ideal ratio of NO sub 3/NH sub 4 which enhance the efficiency of ammonium fertilizers. The results showed that the fresh and dry weights of maize (variety LG11) responded significantly to each type of fertilizer alone. Furthermore, the N-NO sub 3 fertilizer showed superiority over N-NH sup 4 fertilizer. Wherever, the highest yield was obtained with a mixture of both (N-NO sub 3 and N-NH sub 4) with NO sub 3/NH sub 4 ratio 1/8, in spite of the fact that the equivalent amounts of N were employed in all treatments. Under the given circumstances it has been recommended in salt affected soil in dry area, to use the above mentioned ratio for nitrogen fertilizer to obtain optimum yield. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  7. COST-EFFECTIVE BANDWIDTH PROVISIONING IN MICROWAVE WIRELESS NETWORKS UNDER UNRELIABLE CHANNEL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Jaumard

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cost-effective planning and dimensioning of backhaul microwave networks under unreliable channel conditions remains a relatively underexplored area in the literature. In particular, bandwidth assignment requires special attention as the transport capacity of microwave links is prone to variations due to, e.g., weather conditions. In this paper, we formulate an optimization model that determines the minimum cost bandwidth assignment of the links in the network for which traffic requirements can be fulfilled with high probability. This model also aims to increase network reliability by adjusting dynamically traffic routes in response to variations of link capacities induced by channel conditions. Experimental results show that 45% of the bandwidth cost can be saved compared to the case where a bandwidth over-provisioning policy is uniformly applied to all links in the network planning. Comparisons with previous work also show that our solution approach, based on column generation technique, is able to solve much larger instances in significantly shorter computing times (i.e., few minutes for medium-size networks, and up to 2 hours for very large networks, unsolved so far by previous models/algorithms, with a comparable level of reliability.

  8. Effect of hydrogen uptake on the electrochemical corrosion of N18 zircaloy under gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Z.Y. [Lab of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ling, Y.H., E-mail: yhling@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Lab of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bai, Y.K.; Zeng, C.; Wang, S. [Lab of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Clara, J.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 5B7, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen permeation can promote the corrosion rate of N18 zircaloy. • Gamma irradiation can further accelerate the corrosion process. • A novel mechanism based on point defects was proposed to explain the relevant phenomena. - Abstract: It has been well recognized that dramatic hydrogen uptake occurred in zircaloy after kinetic transition and porous structure was observed subsequently due to phase transformation of tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia. Therefore, how hydrogen solute and gamma-induced capillary-embedded hydrolysis influence the corrosion of zircaloy is an intriguing issue. In this work, the effect of hydrogen uptake and gamma irradiation on corrosion of N18 zircaloy was studied. Raman spectra and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to analyse phase structure and surface morphology. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were utilized to qualitatively evaluate the electron transfer properties of the oxide film formed on the zircaloy surface after corrosion. The depth profile and surface chemical states of involving elements were analysed by auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. It was found that hydrogen permeation can decline the integrity and impedance semicircle of the oxide films, the more the hydrogen uptake is; the smaller magnitude of impedance will be. In view of the gamma irradiation, it is demonstrated that it promotes the corrosion rate slightly. Based on the irradiation theory and existing phenomena, the underlying mechanism is proposed.

  9. Rotating ferro-nanofluid over stretching plate under the effect of hall current and joule heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahed, Mohamed S., E-mail: eng_moh_sayed@live.com

    2017-05-01

    The behavior of boundary layer over a stretching plate filled with ferromagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and subjected to magnetic field with hall current, joule heating and nonlinear thermal radiation has been investigated. The modeling based on nonlinear partial differential equations due to continuity, momentum and heat equations, these equations transformed to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation technique then solved numerically. The effect of hall current, joule heating and thermal radiation on the physical quantities such as surface shear stress and heat flux have been investigated and discussed. Moreover, the velocities and temperature profiles of the boundary layer under the influence of the presented external forces plotted and discussed. - Highlights: • The existence of the hall current increases the transverse velocity, as well as has a limited impact on the longitudinal velocity. • Boundary layer temperature exposed to nonlinear thermal radiation is higher than that exposed to linear thermal radiation. • Joule heating increases the boundary layer temperature near the surface especially in the linear model of thermal radiation. • Magnetic field with hall current increases the x-direction skin friction and reduces it in the y-direction.

  10. Effects of curcumin on growth of human cervical cancer xenograft in nude mice and underlying mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixue LIU

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the effects of curcumin (Cur on growth of human cervical cancer xenograft in nude mice and underlying mechanism. The nude mice modeled with human cervical cancer HeLa cell xenograft were treated with normal saline (control, 3 mg/kg Cisplatin, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur, respectively. The animal body weight and growth of tumor were measured. The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, p21, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue were determined. Results showed that, after treatment for 20 days, the tumor mass and tumor volume in 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05. The expressions of Bax, p53 and p21 protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05, and the expressions of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05. Cur can inhibit the growth of HeLa cell xenograft in nude mice. The possible mechanism may be related to its up-regulation of Bax, p53 and p21 protein expression in tumor tissue, and down-regulation of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein expression.

  11. Effects of Soil Management Practices on Water Erosion under Natural Rainfall Conditions on a Humic Dystrudept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ferreira Chaves de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation and is influenced by rainfall, soil, topography, land use, soil cover and management, and conservation practices. The objective of this study was to quantify water erosion in a Humic Dystrudept in two experiments. In experiment I, treatments consisted of different rates of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage conditions. In experiment II, treatments consisted of a no-tillage in natural rangeland, burned natural rangeland and natural rangeland. Forage turnip, black beans, common vetch, and corn were used in rotation in the treatments with crops in the no-tillage during study period. The treatments with crops and the burned rangeland and natural rangeland were compared to a bare soil control, without cultivation and without fertilization. Increasing fertilization rates increased organic carbon content, soil resistance to disintegration, and the macropore volume of the soil, due to the increase in the dry mass of the crops, resulting in an important reduction in water erosion. The exponential model of the ŷ = ae-bx type satisfactorily described the reduction in water and soil losses in accordance with the increase in fertilization rate and also described the decrease in soil losses in accordance with the increase in dry mass of the crops. Water erosion occurred in the following increasing intensity: in natural rangeland, in cultivated natural rangeland, and in burned natural rangeland. Water erosion had less effect on water losses than on soil losses, regardless of the soil management practices.

  12. Effect of storage time under home refrigeration conditions on the quality of opened drinking milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Brodziak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the duration of storage of opened drinking milk (pasteurized, micro-filtered and UHT under home refrigeration conditions on indicators of its freshness (acidity and TBC, nutritional value (contents of fat, protein, lactose, dry matter, nondenatured whey proteins and free fatty acids and organoleptic characteristics. Refrigeration was found to ensure that opened micro-filtered and pasteurized milk was suitable for consumption for 4 days and UHT milk for at least 7 days. Significant changes in the quality characteristics of protein and fat fractions were not observed until the 7th day of storage. The greatest changes in the content of whey proteins were observed in micro-filtered milk, expressed as decrease of individual proteins of about 20 % each. Pasteurized milk was the most susceptible to lipolysis that resulted in the greatest quantity of saturated free fatty acids. Lipolytic changes affected the acidity of product and thereby led to slight changes in its odor and flavor.

  13. Effects of Nitroxin Fertilizer on Physiological Characters Forage Millet under Irrigation Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Darbani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in the split plot factorial design using the randomized complete block design was conducted in Damghan, Semnan Province, Iran in the cropping year 2012-2013 to study the effects of irrigation cessation (based on the phenological stages of the plants on physiological characteristics of forage millet cultivars. The treatments included three irrigation levels (the control with full irrigation, irrigation cessation when flowering started, and irrigation cessation when flowering ended in the main plots, and applying nitroxinbiofertilizer (+ and not applying nitroxinbiofertilizer (control and forage millet cultivars (Bastan, Pishahang, and Isfahan in the subplots. The maximum water-soluble carbohydrates contents were observed in the cultivar Bastan (8.91%, respectively, the highest contents of fiber and water (74.17 and 48.83%, respectively in the treatment of irrigation cessation when flowering started, and the largest proline concentration (1.90 mol/g-1ww-1 in the treatment of irrigation cessation when flowering started. Millet tolerated high levels of drought under conditions of irrigation cessation and Nitroxin, as a biological fertilizer, was useful in producing a good quality crop. The very rapid growth of millet, its short growing season, drought tolerance, unique feature with regard to harvest time, and its response to nitroxinbiofertilizer can help to expand its cultivation in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran.

  14. Effect of co-existing plant specie on soil microbial activity under heavy metal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwuche, C. O.; Ugoji, E. O.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of plant primary compounds on the activity of soil microbial communities under heavy metal stress was studied in a pot-culture field experiment conducted in a green house. Amaranthus spinosus was cultivated in an agricultural soil previously amended in the laboratory with solutions of different trace elements in two separate treatment modes: singly and in combination. Culture-independent metabolism based indices such as the rate of carbon and nitrogen mineralization, microbial biomass carbon and soil basal respiration were monitored fortnightly over a period of six weeks. Result shows that plant detritus have significant modifying effect on soil microbe-metal interactions. Data on microbial and biochemical processes in the respective mesocosms did not vary from control; not even in mesocosms containing very high concentrations of copper, zinc and nickel. The soil microbial biomass carbon and the rate of carbon and nitrogen cycling were not impeded by the respective metal treatment while the respiration responses increased as a result of increase in metabolic activity of the soil microbes. The plant based substrates enabled the soil microflora to resist high metal contamination because of its tendency to absorb large amounts of inorganic cations.

  15. EFFECT OF REFLECTOR APPLICATION ON PV PANEL PERFORMANCE UNDER EGYPTIAN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas HELMY

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed approach in the present study is to employ a mirror augmented PV solar panel to track the sun and reflect rays on to the PV panel. Its performance was compared with same PV module without reflector under the same environmental conditions. The mirror augmented solar PV panel tracked sun from East to West along the daytime in Winter 2011 with tilt angle0.523 rad (30 deg for panel and 0.122 rad (7deg for mirror which are estimated by experiment. The average energy output values of 1.11 and 0.95 kWh/day were recorded for panel with and without mirror, respectively. The average daily .panel values of 12.6 and 11.02 % were recorded for panel with and without mirror, respectively. The increase percentages in the output of panel and discharge differs with the solar radiation along daytime. The application of mirror is an efficient and an effective way to enhance the performance of solar photovoltaic pumping system with the same panel area.

  16. Effect of impurities on the growth of {113} interstitial clusters in silicon under electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, K.; Hamada, K.; Satoh, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and shrinkage of interstitial clusters on {113} planes were investigated in electron irradiated Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si), floating-zone silicon (Fz-Si), and impurity-doped Fz-Si (HT-Fz-Si) using a high voltage electron microscope. In Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters were formed only near the beam incident surface after a long incubation period, and shrank on subsequent irradiation from the backside of the specimen. In Cz-Si and HT-Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters nucleated uniformly throughout the specimen without incubation, and began to shrink under prolonged irradiation at higher electron beam intensity. At lower beam intensity, however, the {113} interstitial cluster grew stably. These results demonstrate that the {113} interstitial cluster cannot grow without a continuous supply of impurities during electron irradiation. Detailed kinetics of {113} interstitial cluster growth and shrinkage in silicon, including the effects of impurities, are proposed. Then, experimental results are analyzed using rate equations based on these kinetics.

  17. Change of plans: an evaluation of the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of successful talent transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rosie; Collins, Dave; MacNamara, Aine; Jones, Martin Ian

    2014-01-01

    Talent transfer (TT) is a recently formalised process used to identify and develop talented athletes by selecting individuals who have already succeeded in one sport and transferring them to another. Despite the increasing popularity of TT amongst national organisations and sport governing body professionals, however, there is little empirical evidence as to its efficacy or how it may be most efficiently employed. Accordingly, this investigation was designed to gain a deeper understanding of the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of TT, achieved through a two-part study. Stage 1 provided a quantitative analysis of the incidence and distribution or, in this respect, epidemiology of TT, finding the most popular transfer to be sprinting to bobsleigh, with an average transfer age of 19 years. Stage 2 scrutinised the TT process and explored the specific cases revealed in stage 1 by examining the perceptions of four sport science support specialists who had worked in TT settings, finding several emergent themes which, they felt, could explain the TT processes. The most prominent theme was the psychosocial mechanism of TT, an aspect currently missing from TT initiatives, suggesting that current TT systems are poorly structured and should redress their approach to develop a more integrated scheme that encompasses all potential mechanisms of transfer.

  18. Nitrogen effects on growth and development of sunflower hybrids under agro-climatic conditions of malonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasim, W.; Ahmad, A.; Wajid, A.; Muhammad, D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) on growth, development, yield and yield components of different sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids was evaluated under agro-climatic conditions of Multan during spring 2008 and 2009. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications, keeping cultivars in the main plots and N levels in the subplots. The net plot size was 4.2 m x 5 m. The results showed that, with increasing N rates, there was increment in the biomass, yield and yield components while the oil contents were adversely affected. However, there was high seed yield in 2008 as compared to 2009. Among sunflower hybrids, Hysun-38 gave more yield as compared to other sunflower hybrids (Hysun-33, Pioneer 64A93), while in case of N levels, 180 kg ha/sup -1/ provided higher yield than other N rates (0, 60, 120, 240 kg ha/sup -1/) in both years of study especially during 2008. (author)

  19. Categorization of Brazil nut effect and its reverse under less-convective conditions for microgravity geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Toshihiro; Mori, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Yano, Hajime

    2018-03-01

    Due to its important role in the sorting of particles on microgravity bodies by size, Brazil nut effect (BNE) is a major subject of study for understanding the evolution of planetesimals. Recent studies have revealed that the mechanism for the BNE on microgravity bodies is the percolation of particles or void-filling, rather than granular convection. This study also considers the mechanism for the BNE under `less-convective' conditions and introduces three categories of behaviour for particles that mainly depend on the dimensionless acceleration of vibration Γ (ratio of maximum acceleration to gravitational acceleration), using a simplified analytical model. The conditions for Γ proposed by the model for each category are verified by both numerical simulations and laboratory experiments. `Less-convective' conditions are realized by reducing the friction force between particles and the wall. We found three distinct behaviours of the particles when Γ > 1: the (i) `slow BNE', (ii) `fast BNE', and (iii) `fluid motion' (the reverse BNE may be induced), and the thresholds for Γ correspond well with those proposed by the simple model. We also applied this categorization to low-gravity environments and found that the categorization scales with gravity level. These results imply that laboratory experiments can provide knowledge of granular mobility on the surface of microgravity bodies.

  20. Flow rate dynamics of pressure-compensating drippers under clogging effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinaldo F. Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The clogging dynamics of pressure-compensating drippers is still poorly addressed, and its understanding is quite important to control clogging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the flow performance of pressure-compensating drippers under clogging effect. Eight pressure-compensating emitters, model J-SC Jain PC-PLUS with nominal flow rate of 2.2 L h-1 were evaluated. The tests were run for 8 h d-1 for 4 weeks, a total of 160 h. Every 40 h, the concentration and granulometry of suspended particles were increased, by adding 125 mg L-1 of solids, composed of sand. The flow rate of the emitters was determined using a weight measurement system. Flow rate variations of the emitters did not follow a defined pattern. Clogging seems to occur randomly and abruptly. Sometimes the flow rate exceeded the nominal value (maximum relative flow rate of 182% and other times it was lower than the nominal value (minimum relative flow rate of 0%.

  1. Partial phase transition and quantum effects in helimagnetic films under an applied magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hog, Sahbi, E-mail: sahbi.el-hog@u-cergy.fr; Diep, H.T., E-mail: diep@u-cergy.fr

    2017-05-01

    We study the phase transition in a helimagnetic film with Heisenberg spins under an applied magnetic field in the c direction perpendicular to the film. The helical structure is due to the antiferromagnetic interaction between next-nearest neighbors in the c direction. Helimagnetic films in zero field are known to have a strong modification of the in-plane helical angle near the film surfaces. We show that spins react to a moderate applied magnetic field by creating a particular spin configuration along the c axis. With increasing temperature (T), using Monte Carlo simulations we show that the system undergoes a phase transition triggered by the destruction of the ordering of a number of layers. This partial phase transition is shown to be intimately related to the ground-state spin structure. We show why some layers undergo a phase transition while others do not. The Green's function method for non collinear magnets is also carried out to investigate effects of quantum fluctuations. Non-uniform zero-point spin contractions and a crossover of layer magnetizations at low T are shown and discussed. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to study a helimagnetic film in a field. • Partial phase transition is found in some layers of the film. • Mechanism leading to the partial disordering is analyzed using the ground state symmetry. • Quantum fluctuations at surface are calculated using the Green's function.

  2. Effects of MeJA on Arabidopsis metabolome under endogenous JA deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jingjing; Li, Mengya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Pei; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) play important roles in plant growth, development and defense. Comprehensive metabolomics profiling of plants under JA treatment provides insights into the interaction and regulation network of plant hormones. Here we applied high resolution mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach on Arabidopsis wild type and JA synthesis deficiency mutant opr3. The effects of exogenous MeJA treatment on the metabolites of opr3 were investigated. More than 10000 ion signals were detected and more than 2000 signals showed significant variation in different genotypes and treatment groups. Multivariate statistic analyses (PCA and PLS-DA) were performed and a differential compound library containing 174 metabolites with high resolution precursor ion-product ions pairs was obtained. Classification and pathway analysis of 109 identified compounds in this library showed that glucosinolates and tryptophan metabolism, amino acids and small peptides metabolism, lipid metabolism, especially fatty acyls metabolism, were impacted by endogenous JA deficiency and exogenous MeJA treatment. These results were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of 21 related genes involved in the metabolism of glucosinolates, tryptophan and α-linolenic acid pathways. The results would greatly enhance our understanding of the biological functions of JA.

  3. Adverse Effects from Clenbuterol and Ractopamine on Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the Underlying Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haicui; Sun, Lingmei; Gao, Wei; Wang, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo toxicity from clentuberol and ractopamine and the possible underlying mechanism. Both acute and prolonged exposures to clentuberol or ractopamine decreased brood size and locomotion behavior, and induced intestinal autofluorescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although acute exposure to the examined concentrations of clentuberol or ractopamine did not induce lethality, prolonged exposure to 10 µg/L of clentuberol and ractopamine reduced lifespan. At relatively high concentrations, ractopamine exhibited more severe toxicity than clentuberol on nematodes. Overexpression of sod-2 gene encoding a Mn-SOD to prevent induction of oxidative stress effectively inhibited toxicity from clentuberol or ractopamine. Besides oxidative stress, we found that clentuberol might reduce lifespan through influencing insulin/IGF signaling pathway; however, ractopamine might reduce lifespan through affecting both insulin/IGF signaling pathway and TOR signaling pathway. Ractopamine more severely decreased expression levels of daf-16, sgk-1, skn-1, and aak-2 genes than clentuberol, and increased expression levels of daf-2 and age-1 genes at the examined concentration. Therefore, the C. elegans assay system may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity from weight loss agents, and clentuberol and ractopamine may induce toxicity through different molecular mechanisms. PMID:24465573

  4. The effect of gamma radiation on yield of Arabic Abiad barley under different nitrogen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.

    1994-03-01

    A field experiment was carried out at ACSAD research station in Deir-Ezzor district during two seasons 1987/88 and 1988/89 on medium-heavy textured soil. Arabic Abiad barley variety was used under irrigated conditions. The aim was to study the effect of five doses of gamma rays 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Gray and four levels of nitrogen 0, 50, 80, and 100 Kg N/ha, and their interactions on yield. The results showed that the irradiation doses and nitrogen rates significantly increased barley's grain and straw yield compared to control. All doses of gamma radiation significantly increased grain and straw yield. While nitrogen levels 50, 80 and 100 Kg N/ha lead to grain yield increases by 24.8, 32.0, and 29.9% and straw yield increases 19.2, 17.0 and 3.1% respectively. The highest positive interaction was observed between 5-20 Gy dose and 50 Kg N/Ha nitrogen levels. In general, the rate of yield increase was reduced as the irradiation doses and nitrogen levels were increased. (author). 34 refs., 19 tabs

  5. Preliminary Study on the Damping Effect of a Lateral Damping Buffer under a Debris Flow Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the impact of debris flows on structures and exploring the feasibility of applying energy dissipation devices or shock isolators to reduce the damage caused by debris flows can make great contribution to the design of disaster prevention structures. In this paper, we propose a new type of device, a lateral damping buffer, to reduce the vulnerability of building structures to debris flows. This lateral damping buffer has two mechanisms of damage mitigation: when debris flows impact on a building, it acts as a buffer, and when the structure vibrates due to the impact, it acts as a shock absorber, which can reduce the maximum acceleration response and subsequent vibration respectively. To study the effectiveness of such a lateral damping buffer, an impact test is conducted, which mainly involves a lateral damping buffer attached to a two-degree-of-freedom structure under a simulated debris flow load. To enable the numerical study, the equation of motion of the structure along with the lateral damping buffer is derived. A subsequent parametric study is performed to optimize the lateral damping buffer. Finally, a practical design procedure is also provided.

  6. Effects of Tribulus terrestris saponins on exercise performance in overtraining rats and the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Xiaohui; Song, Liang-Nian

    2016-06-22

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) saponins on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms. A rat overtraining model was established and animals were treated with TT extracts (120 mg/kg body mass) 30 min before each training session. Serum levels of testosterone and corticosterone and levels of androgen receptor (AR) and insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in the liver, gastrocnemius, and soleus were determined by ELISA and Western blot. Treatment of rats with TT saponins significantly improved the performance of the overtraining rats, reflected by the extension of time to exhaustion, with a concomitant increase in body mass, relative mass, and protein levels of gastrocnemius. Overtraining alone induced a significant decrease in the serum level of testosterone. In contrast, treatment with TT saponins dramatically increased the serum level of testosterone in overtraining rats to about 150% of control and 216% of overtraining groups, respectively. In addition, TT saponins resulted in a further significant increase in AR in gastrocnemius and significantly suppressed the overtraining-induced increase in IGF-1R in the liver. These results indicated that TT saponins increased performance, body mass, and gastrocnemius mass of rats undergoing overtraining, which might be attributed to the changes in androgen-AR axis and IGF-1R signaling.

  7. Protective effects of arginine on fetal brain under maternal immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Enanat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Arginine by regulating the biological activity of the brain plays an important role in reducing stress. Today's, stress is one of the century disease that created many problem.  This study conducted to determine the protective effect of arginine on nitric oxide levels in maternal fetal brain tissue under stress. Methods: Twenty pregnant Wistar rats (200-250 gr were randomly divided into four groups. With and without stress groups received arginine (200 mg/kg intraperitoneal from 5 – 20 days of pregnancies. Control with and sham without stress received 2 ml of normal saline. The pregnant rats were anesthetized by ketamine (100 mg/kg on the day 20 then the fetuses removed and weighed. Twenty five brain of fetal brain rat from each group were chosen for measuring of forebrain thickness and brain volume. Another 25 brain were chosen for measuring of nitric oxide. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Results: Nitric oxide Levels reduced in stress rats treated with arginine compared to control group (P<0.05. The mean thickness of forebrain and hippicampal formation decreased in stress rats versus unstressed, but was not significant. The mean weight decreased significantly in stress group compared to the unstressed group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Arginine could protect the brain tissue and fetal weight by reducing the level of oxidative stress in the pregnant rats.

  8. Microscopic Driving Parameters-Based Energy-Saving Effect Analysis under Different Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid motorization over the recent years, China's transportation sector has been facing an increasing environmental pressure. Compared with gasoline vehicle (GV, electric vehicle (EV is expected to play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 and other pollution emissions, and urban air quality improvement, for its zero emission during use and higher energy efficiency. This paper aims to estimate the energy saving efficiency of EV, especially under different EV penetration and road traffic conditions. First, based on the emission and electricity consumption data collected by a light-duty EV and a light duty GV, a set of electricity consumption rate models and gasoline consumption rate models are established. Then, according to the conversion formula of coal equivalent, these models are transformed into coal equivalent consumption models, which make gasoline consumption and electricity consumption comparable. Finally, the relationship between the EV penetration and the reduction of energy consumption is explored based on the simulation undertaken on the North Second Ring Road in Beijing. The results show that the coal equivalent consumption will decrease by about 5% with the increases of EV penetration by 10% and the maximum energy-saving effect can be achieved when the traffic volume is about 4000 pcu/h.

  9. Effect of Epidural Block under General Anesthesia on Pulse Transit Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byeong Cheol; Kim, Seong Min; Jung, Dong Keun; Kim, Gi Ryon; Lee, He Jeong; Jeon, Gye Rock

    2005-01-01

    Epidural block under general anesthesia has been widely used to control postoperative pain. In this anesthetic state many hemodynamic parameters are changed. Moreover pulse transit time is influenced by this memodynamic change. PPT change in the finger and the toe due to relaxation of arterial wall muscle after general anesthesia and epidural block under general anesthesia. This study, in the both general anesthesia and epidural block under general anesthesia, ΔPTT of the toe and of the finger are measured. In addition, ΔPTT(toe-finger) of the epidural block under general anesthesia and of the general anesthesia were compared

  10. Effects of wind speed on the accumulation rate of pollution on outdoor insulators under winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravelomanantsoa, N.; Farzaneh, M.; Chisolm, W.A.

    2005-01-01

    A numerical model was used to show that wind speed has an important effect on pollution accumulation rates on outdoor insulator surfaces. Predictions from the model were then compared against an event in which winter flashovers occurred in Toronto, Canada. For the 24 hours prior to the flashovers, median wind speed was 56 km/h from the east, and a major overhead expressway interchange was located south and east of the station. Measurements of the substation showed that the insulator contamination levels reached 90 μg/cm 2 after exposure. The disk of a standard Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers (IEEE) porcelain suspension insulator was subdivided in 10 cylinders. The mean value of the air temperature was equal to -15 degrees C. Total suspended particles (TSP) represented the mass of particles of road salt contained in 1 unit of volume of air sample, ranging from 0.1 and 100 microns. Four simulations were run in order to analyze the wind speed effect, where (1) wind speed was the independent variable; (2) the median volume diameter of the particles was varied; (3) pollution accumulation rate was compiled varying the TSP, where the variation was linear, and a combination of high particles content and a high wind speed increased the risk of pollution accumulation; and (4) the effect of exposure duration was explored, showing that the mass of the pollution accumulation increased linearly with time. The simulations determined that even when the mass of accumulation was in the order of some milligrams, the consequences can be disastrous for insulators, because the accumulation can have an equivalent salt deposit density. Under winter conditions characterized by a gale force wind, road salting constitutes a potential and practical threat for high voltage line insulators. It was concluded that further theoretical studies are needed to determine the correct volume mean diameter of salt aerosol in winter conditions, and more advanced models should be extended

  11. Microbial utilization of litter carbon under the effect of extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Steffen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to not only lead to an increase of average annual temperature but also to increase the frequency of extreme meteorological events. For example, extreme summer-droughts followed by heavy rainfall events are likely to increase. This may change SOM quality, composition, microbial community functioning and thus C turnover in temperate forest ecosystems. Therefore, we performed a tracer experiment in the "Fichtelgebirge" (Northern Bavaria) to verify the influence of strong drying followed by intensive rewetting on the microbial community structure and decomposition of litter-derived 13C by individual microbial groups. In 2010, sheltered plots with artificially simulated drought, those with additional irrigation and control sites under natural conditions were established at a Norway spruce forest. At each plot, we added 13C enriched spruce litter to simulate annual litter fall. Thereafter, we assessed the effect of extreme weather events on microbial community structure by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. In addition, we analyzed the 13C incorporation into bulk soil, microbial biomass and PLFA of the organic horizon and the mineral soil up to 10 cm. Additionally respired CO2 was quantified by closed chambers. Drought reduced the microbial biomass only in the organic horizon, while in the mineral soil the microbial abundance did not decrease compared to the control and irrigated plots. The decrease in microbial biomass in the organic horizon of the drought plots resulted also in a strongly reduced incorporation of litter derived C: Incorporation of litter 13C was a magnitude of three lower in the drought plots compared to the control and irrigation plots. Furthermore, after the drought period of 90 days the proportion of 13C in CO2 from soil respiration was reduced by about 95% on the drought plots compared to the control and irrigated plots. This is in agreement with the reduced degradation of litter derived C and thus a reduced C

  12. Dissecting genetic effects with imprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M eÁlvarez-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Models of genetic effects are mathematical representations of a genotype-to-phenotype (GP map that, rather than accounting for a raw map assigning phenotypes to genotypes, rely on parameters with deliberate evolutionary meaning—additive and interaction effects. In this article, the conceptual particularities of genetic imprinting and their implications on models of genetic effects are analyzed. The molecular mechanisms by which imprinted loci affect the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes are known to be singular. Despite its epigenetic nature, the (parent-of-origin-dependent way in which the alleles of imprinted genes are modified and segregate in each generation is precisely determined, and thus amenable to be represented through conventional models of genetic effects. The Natural and Orthogonal Interactions (NOIA model framework is here extended to account for imprinting as a tool for a more thorough analysis of the evolutionary implications of this phenomenon. The resulting theory improves and generalizes previous proposals for modelling imprinting.

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of peony total glucosides and the underlying mechanisms in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ling-Ling; Zhu, Qi-Jin; Wu, Yong-Gui

    2017-12-01

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), compounds extracted from the dried roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, have been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities. However, the protective effect of TGP on liver injury and the underlying mechanisms remains unknown in diabetic rats. Current study investigates prevention of liver injury by TGP in diabetic rats and its mechanism was related to the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Fifty adult male rats were randomly divided into: Normal group, diabetic group, TGP (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) treatment groups (n = 10 per group). At the end of the 8th week, the liver was removed for biochemical and histological examinations. Compared with the diabetic group, administration of TGP at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly prevented the increase of hepatic fibrosis score (ED 50 139.4 mg/kg). Compared with diabetic group, TGP at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg showed an inhibition on the increased macrophage infiltration. MCP-1 and TNF-α mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased in diabetic group compared with normal group; TGP administration caused significant reduction of high levels of MCP-1 and TNF-α mRNA as well as protein levels. Also, TGP at all doses showed an inhibition on the increased GRP78 levels, p-Perk levels and p-Eif2α levels in liver from diabetic group. Our results indicate that TGP has potential as a treatment for diabetic liver injury attenuating liver lipid accumulation and inflammation as well as ERS induced by diabetic condition.

  14. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  15. Effects of freezing stress on electrolyte leakage of Persian shallot (Allium altissimum Regel. under controlled condition

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    Shahram Rezvan beydokhti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of freezing stress on electrolyte leakage of three Mooseers’ (Allium altissimum Regel. ecotypes (Shirvan, Kalat and Tandoureh, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under the controlled conditions in the Faculty of Agricultural, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2009. Plants were grown in natural conditions to acclimate with the growth condition, and then at two growth stages of emergence and seedling were transferred to the thermogradiant freezer with the six freezing temperatures (0,-4, -8,-12, -16 and -20 oC. Cell membrane integrity was measured by electrolyte leakage (EL index and the lethal temperature 50% (LT50 of samples were determined based on this index. The results showed that electrolyte leakage percentage and LT50el were significantly affected by experimental treatments. As the temperature decreased, EL (% of leaf, bulb and root of all ecotypes was significantly increased. In the all freezing temperatures, the highest and the lowest electrolyte leakage was observed in the root and leaf in the emergence stage. Shirvan ecotype at two growth stage (emergence and seedling showed the highest root electrolyte leakage and hence showed the lowest freezing tolerance in comparison with Kalat and Tandoreh ecotypes. The lowest and highest LT50el due to freezing were observed in Kalat, Tandoureh ecotype and Shirvan ecotype, respectively. At seedling stage, Shirvan ecotype’s root showed the highest LT50el which was more sensitive to freezing temperatures in comparison with leaf and bulb. Among all ecotypes, Kalat and Tandoreh ecotypes showed the lowest electrolyte leakage percentage, the lowest LT50el and the most tolerance to the freezing stress.

  16. Antinociceptive effects, metabolism and disposition of ketamine in ponies under target-controlled drug infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, M.; Portier, C.J.; Levionnois, O.L.; Theurillat, R.; Thormann, W.; Spadavecchia, C.; Mevissen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic in a variety of drug combinations in human and veterinary medicine. Recently, it gained new interest for use in long-term pain therapy administered in sub-anesthetic doses in humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPk) model for ketamine in ponies and to investigate the effect of low-dose ketamine infusion on the amplitude and the duration of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR). A target-controlled infusion (TCI) of ketamine with a target plasma level of 1 μg/ml S-ketamine over 120 min under isoflurane anesthesia was performed in Shetland ponies. A quantitative electromyographic assessment of the NWR was done before, during and after the TCI. Plasma levels of R-/S-ketamine and R-/S-norketamine were determined by enantioselective capillary electrophoresis. These data and two additional data sets from bolus studies were used to build a PBPk model for ketamine in ponies. The peak-to-peak amplitude and the duration of the NWR decreased significantly during TCI and returned slowly toward baseline values after the end of TCI. The PBPk model provides reliable prediction of plasma and tissue levels of R- and S-ketamine and R- and S-norketamine. Furthermore, biotransformation of ketamine takes place in the liver and in the lung via first-pass metabolism. Plasma concentrations of S-norketamine were higher compared to R-norketamine during TCI at all time points. Analysis of the data suggested identical biotransformation rates from the parent compounds to the principle metabolites (R- and S-norketamine) but different downstream metabolism to further metabolites. The PBPk model can provide predictions of R- and S-ketamine and norketamine concentrations in other clinical settings (e.g. horses)

  17. Effects of the Bering Strait closure on AMOC and global climate under different background climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A.; Han, Weiqing; Otto-Bliestner, Bette; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Rosenbloom, Nan

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the status of the Bering Strait may have a significant influence on global climate variability on centennial, millennial, and even longer time scales. Here we use multiple versions of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM, versions 2 and 3) to investigate the influence of the Bering Strait closure/opening on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and global mean climate under present-day, 15 thousand-year before present (kyr BP), and 112 kyr BP climate boundary conditions. Our results show that regardless of the version of the model used or the widely different background climates, the Bering Strait's closure produces a robust result of a strengthening of the AMOC, and an increase in the northward meridional heat transport in the Atlantic. As a consequence, the climate becomes warmer in the North Atlantic and the surrounding regions, but cooler in the North Pacific, leading to a seesaw-like climate change between these two basins. For the first time it is noted that the absence of the Bering Strait throughflow causes a slower motion of Arctic sea ice, a reduced upper ocean water exchange between the Arctic and North Atlantic, reduced sea ice export and less fresh water in the North Atlantic. These changes contribute positively to the increased upper ocean density there, thus strengthening the AMOC. Potentially these changes in the North Atlantic could have a significant effect on the ice sheets both upstream and downstream in ice age climate, and further influence global sea level changes.

  18. REVIEWMolecular mechanisms underlying physiological and receptor pleiotropic effects mediated by GLP-1R activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabreja, K; Mohd, M A; Koole, C; Wootten, D; Furness, S G B

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes in developed countries is increasing yearly with a significant negative impact on patient quality of life and an enormous burden on the healthcare system. Current biguanide and thiazolidinedione treatments for type 2 diabetes have a number of clinical limitations, the most serious long-term limitation being the eventual need for insulin replacement therapy (Table 1). Since 2007, drugs targeting the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor have been marketed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. These drugs have enjoyed a great deal of success even though our underlying understanding of the mechanisms for their pleiotropic effects remain poorly characterized even while major pharmaceutical companies actively pursue small molecule alternatives. Coupling of the GLP-1 receptor to more than one signalling pathway (pleiotropic signalling) can result in ligand-dependent signalling bias and for a peptide receptor such as the GLP-1 receptor this can be exaggerated with the use of small molecule agonists. Better consideration of receptor signalling pleiotropy will be necessary for future drug development. This is particularly important given the recent failure of taspoglutide, the report of increased risk of pancreatitis associated with GLP-1 mimetics and the observed clinical differences between liraglutide, exenatide and the newly developed long-acting exenatide long acting release, albiglutide and dulaglutide. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of GPCRs. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-5 PMID:23889512

  19. [Underlying Mechanisms of Methamphetamine-Induced Self-Injurious Behavior and Lethal Effects in Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomohisa; Sawaguchi, Toshiko

    2018-01-01

    Relatively high doses of psychostimulants induce neurotoxicity on the dopaminergic system and self-injurious behavior (SIB) in rodents. However the underlying neuronal mechanisms of SIB remains unclear. Dopamine receptor antagonists, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists, Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) inhibitors and free radical scavengers significantly attenuate methamphetamine-induced SIB. These findings indicate that activation of dopamine as well as NMDA receptors followed by radical formation and oxidative stress, especially when mediated by NOS activation, is associated with methamphetamine-induced SIB. On the other hand, an increase in the incidence of polydrug abuse is a major problem worldwide. Coadministered methamphetamine and morphine induced lethality in more than 80% in mice, accompanied by an increase in the number of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-immunoreactive cells in the heart, kidney and liver. The lethal effect and the increase in the incidence of rupture or PARP-immunoreactive cells induced by the coadministration of methamphetamine and morphine were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with a phospholipase A2 inhibitor or a radical scavenger, or by cooling of body from 30 to 90 min after drug administration. These results suggest that free radicals play an important role in the increased lethality induced by the coadministration of methamphetamine and morphine. Therefore, free radical scavengers and cooling are beneficial for preventing death that is induced by the coadministration of methamphetamine and morphine. These findings may help us better understand for masochistic behavior, which is a clinical phenomenon on SIB, as well as polydrug-abuse-induced acute toxicity.

  20. Effect of Limited Drip Irrigation Regime on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame under Mediterranean Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayiota PAPASTYLIANOU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sesame is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Irrigation is of great importance to sesame production due to its positive effect on growth parameters. Although sesame has good drought tolerance compared with many other crops, it is particularly susceptible to drought damage during the seedling, flowering and seed filling stages and this can lead to yield loss. The aim of this study was to determine the response of sesame landraces to different irrigation applications during the 2015 growing season. The experiment was set up as a split plot design with three replicates, four main plots (irrigation treatments, designated as 100%, 75% 50% and 0 of the daily crop evapotranspiration and two sub-plots (sesame landraces, Limnos and Evros. Different characteristics such as plant height, number of seeds per capsule, and number of capsules per plant, seed yield, 1000-seed weight and % capsules without seeds, were recorded. The results indicated that all traits except 1000-seed weight were significantly affected by irrigation regimes. Plant height, shattering losses and number of capsules per plant decreased with increasing water shortage. Seed yield and number of seeds per capsule were less affected by irrigation level and showed higher values in the 50% of the daily crop evapotranspiration treatment. Limnos produced higher seed yield and number of seeds per capsule under all irrigation regimes. Evros showed higher plant height and shattering losses than Limnos. The results of this study suggest that sesame landraces can use water efficiently, are locally adapted and associated with traditional farming systems.

  1. Effect of Three Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Species of Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Hernández, R A; Ruíz-Toledo, J; Toledo, J; Sánchez, D

    2016-05-04

    Development of alternative strategies for pest control with reduced effect on beneficial organisms is a priority given the increasing global loss of biodiversity. Biological control with entomopathogenic fungi arises as a viable option to control insect pests. However, few studies have focused on the consequences of using these organisms on pollinators other than the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) or bumble bees (Bombus spp). We evaluated the pathogenicity of commercial formulations of three widely used entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin, and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize), to three species of stingless bees: Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin-Meneville, and Melipona beecheii Bennett. Bioassays consisted of exposing groups of bees to the recommended field concentration of each fungus using a microspray tower under laboratory conditions. Susceptibility to fungi varied greatly among species. Isaria fumosorosea (strain Ifu-lu 01) and the two formulations of B. bassiana (Bea-TNK and BotanicGard) caused <30.3% mortality in all bee species. Metarhizium anisopliae (Meta-TNK and strain Ma-lu 01) was highly active against T. angustula (94.2% mortality) and moderately active against M. beecheii (53.0% mortality) and S. mexicana (38.9% mortality). Though our laboratory-derived results suggest a moderate to high impact of these entomopathogenic fungi on stingless bees, further field studies are required to support this finding. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Rescuer fatigue under the 2010 ERC guidelines, and its effect on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine H; Heggie, James; Jones, Christopher M; Thorne, Christopher J; Hulme, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    Updated life-support guidelines were published by the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in 2010, increasing the required depth and rate of chest compression delivery. This study sought to determine the impact of these guidelines on rescuer fatigue and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. 62 Health science students performed 5 min of conventional CPR in accordance with the 2010 ERC guidelines. A SkillReporter manikin was used to objectively assess temporal change in determinants of CPR quality. Participants subjectively reported their end-fatigue levels, using a visual analogue scale, and the point at which they believed fatigue was affecting CPR delivery. 49 (79%) participants reported that fatigue affected their CPR performance, at an average of 167 s. End fatigue averaged 49.5/100 (range 0-95). The proportion of chest compressions delivered correctly decreased from 52% in min 1 to 39% in min 5, approaching significance (p=0.071). A significant decline in chest compressions reaching the recommended depth occurred between the first (53%) and fifth (38%) min (p=0.012). Almost half this decline (6%) was between the first and second minutes of CPR. Neither chest compression rate, nor rescue breath volume, were affected by rescuer fatigue. Fatigue affects chest compression delivery within the second minute of CPR under the 2010 ERC guidelines, and is poorly judged by rescuers. Rescuers should, therefore, be encouraged to interchange after 2 min of CPR delivery. Team leaders should be advised to not rely on rescuers to self-report fatigue, and should, instead, monitor for its effects.

  3. Beneficial effects of dark chocolate on exercise capacity in sedentary subjects: Underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Pam R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Patel, Minal; Higginbotham, Erin; Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Román-Pintos, Luis Miguel; Phillips, Paul; Perkins, Guy; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In heart failure patients the consumption of (-)-epicatechin ((-)-Epi)-rich cocoa can restore skeletal muscle (SkM) mitochondrial structure and decrease biomarkers of oxidative stress. However, nothing is known about its effects on exercise capacity and underlying mechanisms in normal, sedentary subjects. Twenty normal, sedentary subjects (∼50 years old) were randomized to placebo or dark chocolate (DC) groups and consumed 20 g of the products for 3 months. Subjects underwent before and after treatment, bicycle ergometry to assess VO2 max and work, SkM biopsy to assess changes in mitochondrial density, function and oxidative stress and blood sampling to assess metabolic endpoints. Seventeen subjects completed the trial. In the DC group (n=9), VO2 max increased (17% increase, p=0.056) as well as maximum work (watts) achieved (p=0.026) with no changes with placebo (n=8). The DC group evidenced increases in HDL levels (p=0.005) and decreased triglycerides (p=0.07). With DC, SkM evidenced significant increases in protein levels for LKB1, AMPK and PGC1α and in their active forms (phosphorylated AMPK and LKB1) as well as in citrate synthase activity while no changes were observed in mitochondrial density. With DC, significant increases in SkM reduced glutathione levels and decreases in protein carbonylation were observed. Improvements in maximum work achieved and VO2 max may be due to DC activation of upstream control systems and enhancement of SkM mitochondria efficiency. Larger clinical studies are warranted to confirm these observations. PMID:27491778

  4. Short communication. Effect of deficit irrigation on curly lettuce grown under semiarid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuslu, Y.; Dursun, A.; Sahin, U.; Kiziloglu, F. M.; Turan, M.

    2008-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of deficit irrigation on curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Crispa cv. Bohemia) evapotranspiration, water use efficiency, marketable yield, yield components and mineral contents. The experiments were performed under semiarid climatic conditions in Erzurum province (east of Turkey) in the summer periods of 2005 and 2006. Irrigation water levels were selected to be 100% of usable soil water in full irrigation treatment (control) (T-100) and 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of usable soil water in deficit irrigation treatments (T-80, T-60, T-40 and T- 20, respectively). Average seasonal evapotranspiration was 232 mm in T-100 and 121 mm in T-20. Average marketable yield was 39.49 Mg ha{sup -}1 in T-100 and 14.57 Mg ha{sup -}1 in T-20. A linear relationship (y=0.23x-13.97; R{sup 2}0.94) was found between seasonal evapotranspiration (x) and marketable plant yield (y). According to the regression equation, the yield response factor (k{sub y}) was found to be 1.39, and the coefficient of determination 0.91. Average water use efficiency was 168.88 kg ha{sup -}1 mm{sup -}1 in T-100 and 117.39 kg ha{sup -}1 mm{sup -}1 in T-20. The lowest plant length, width, steam diameter, leaf number, macro and micro element content values were obtained for T-20 in both years. (Author) 21 refs.

  5. Effect of growing media and fertilization on sugarcane flowering under artificial photoperiod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Hale

    Full Text Available The USDA-ARS Sugarcane Variety Development Program in Houma, LA aims to maximize the number of panicles available for crossing through artificial manipulation of the environment. In a three-year study, the effect of growing media, fertilizer treatment, and their interaction on sugarcane flowering (% of panicles emerged, and number of days to flowering (DTF under an artificial photoperiod treatment were assessed. The commercially-available sugarcane cultivar, 'HoCP 96-540' was planted in 2.8-L pots and subjected to the standard local photoperiod treatment. The cultivar was planted in four growing media (RediEarth Seedling and Germination Mix, Fafard, Metro-Mix®902, and Metro-Mix®900 and subjected to three different fertilizer applications. In the control treatment, fertilizer application was stopped prior to the commencement of the photoperiod treatment as practiced in some sugarcane breeding programs. The continuous treatment consisted of an application of a 10 ml solution of a NPK three times a week between June and October. The partial treatment consisted of applications of the same NPK solution applied post-initiation between September and October. Nitrogen starvation prior to the commencement of the photoperiod treatment is generally accepted to improve flower initiation; thus the standard practice is to cease nitrogen application two weeks prior to beginning a photoperiod regime. The growing media used in this study did not have a significant effect on days to flowering or percent panicle emergence. In our study, the control fertilizer treatment showed a flowering percentage across all growing media types of 21.2% less than a continuous fertilization regime. Furthermore, a significant trend was observed between fertilization treatments and days to flowering, with the continuous treatment producing panicles, on average across growing media, four days earlier than the control treatment, and six days earlier than the partial treatment

  6. Effects of psychological training on the serum protein expression in soldiers under mental stress

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    Rong ZHANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the changes of serum protein expression in soldiers under mental stress,who have undergone different psychological trainings,and to evaluate the effect of the psychological training.Methods Ninety-six male commando soldiers were randomly assigned into the common psychological training group,the circulation psychological training group,and the control group(each group comprising 32 soldiers.After four weeks of training,the soldiers in the three groups attended a high-intensity simulated anti-riot exercise.The changes in their serum protein expression were then determined using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry(SELDI-TOF-MS combined with ProteinChip technology.Results The variance analysis showed that significant differences existed among the three groups(P < 0.05 in the relative contents of proteins,with M/Z values of 6417.8,9134.2,15171.9,and 14972.7 Da.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 9134.2 and 15171.9 Da increased in the common psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of all four proteins increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the control group(P < 0.05.The expression of proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da increased in the circulation psychological training group compared with the common psychological training group(P < 0.05.The classification tree formed by proteins with M/Z values 6417.8 and 14972.7 Da classified the 96 soldiers correctly,both in the learning mode and in the test mode.Conclusion Psychological training may upregulate the expression of proteins that are downregulated after stress and may improve the adaptability of soldiers to psychological stress.The effect of circulation psychological training is better than that of common psychological training.

  7. Soluble carbon in oxisol under the effect of organic residue rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lúcia Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of organic residues to the soil can increase soluble organic carbon (SOC and affect the pH and electrolytic conductivity (EC of the soil. However, the magnitude of these changes depends on the type of residue and the applied dose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing C rates contained in organic residue on the pH, EC, water-extractable total carbon (WETC, water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC, and water-extractable inorganic carbon (WEIC in soil treated with manure (chicken, swine, and quail, sawdust, coffee husk, and sewage sludge. The levels of total C (TC- KH2PO4, organic carbon (OC- KH2PO4, and inorganic C (IC- KH2PO4 extractable by a 0.1 mol L-1 KH2PO4 solution were also quantified in soil under the effect of increasing rates of chicken and quail manures. The following rates of organic residue C were applied to a dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol sample: 0, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 mg kg-1. The addition of organic residues to the soil increased pH, except in the case of sewage sludge, which acidified the soil. The acidity correction potential of chicken and quail manure was highest, dependent on the manure rate applied; regardless of the dose used, sawdust barely alters the soil pH. At all tested rates, the EC of the soil treated with swine manure, coffee husk, and sawdust remained below 2.0 dS m-1, which is a critical level for salinity-sensitive crops. However, the application of chicken or quail manure and sewage sludge at certain rates increased the EC to values above this threshold level. Highest levels of WETC, WEOC, and WEIC were obtained when chicken and quail manure and coffee husk were applied to the Oxisol. The quantities of SOC extracted by KH2PO4 were higher than the quantities extracted by water, demonstrating the ability of soil to adsorb C into its colloids.

  8. Urban area disadvantage and under-5 mortality in Nigeria: the effect of rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, Diddy; Moradi, Tahereh

    2010-06-01

    Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children urban population growth and urban under-5 mortality between 1983 and 2003 in Nigeria. We assessed whether urban area socioeconomic dis-advantage has an impact on under-5 mortality. Urban under-5 mortality rates were directly estimated from the 1990, 1999, and 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed on data for 2,118 children nested within data for 1,350 mothers, who were in turn nested within data for 165 communities. Urban under-5 mortality increased as urban population steadily increased between 1983 and 2003. Urban area disadvantage was significantly associated with under-5 mortality after adjusting for individual child- and mother-level demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Significant relative risks of under-5 deaths at both individual and community levels underscore the need for interventions tailored toward community- and individual-level interventions. We stress the need for further studies on community-level determinants of under-5 mortality in disadvantaged urban areas.

  9. Effect of thyroid hormone on myocardial and cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Qing-Bin Wei; Fei Xie; Shi-Li Wang; Gang Li

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of thyroid hormone (euthyrox) on myocardial and cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: A total of 76 patients who received valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass in our hospital between January 2013 and December 2016 were collected and divided into control group (n=38) and observation group (n=38) according to random number table. Observation group took euthyrox orally 1 week before...

  10. WATER DEFICIT EFFECT ON YIELD AND FORAGE QUALITY OF MEDICAGO SATIVA POPULATIONS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS IN MARRAKESH AREA (MOROCCO)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed FARISSI; Cherki GHOULAM; Abdelaziz BOUIZGAREN

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused the effect of water deficit on agronomic potential and some traits related to forage quality in plants of Moroccan Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) populations (Taf 1, Taf 2, Dem and Tata) originated from Oasis and High Atlas of Morocco and an introduced variety from Australia (Siriver). The experiment was conducted under field conditions in experimental station of INRA-Marrakech and under two irrigation treatments. The first treatment was normal irrigation, providing an...

  11. The Effect of Chlormequat Chloride on Yield and Yield Components of Three Wheat Cultivars under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH. Rokhafrooz

    2016-07-01

    to 5 g L-1. The positive effect of CCC was greater under control and light stress compared to under severe stress conditions. In the greenhouse study where Marvdasht, Shiraz, and Chamran cultivars were evaluated, Chamran cultivar produced the highest grain yield under both normal and drought conditions; although Shiraz cultivar was found more responsive to CCC. Overall; drought stress reduced growth and grain yield of wheat crop; however, CCC could compensate, at least in part (i.e. 30% to 60% for the latter reductions.

  12. [Comparison of long-term dental treatment effects of children treated under general anesthesia and passive restraint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, F; Xia, B; Zhang, S; Ma, W L; Xiao, Y M; Ge, L H

    2017-02-09

    Objective: To compare the long-term dental treatment effects, oral health habits and oral-health-related qualities of life of children treated under general anesthesia (GA) and passive restraint (PR), respectively. Methods: Twenty seven 2 to 4-year-old children treated under GA and thirty four children treated under PR were recruited in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. Up to 2 years after the treatment, a follow up assessment was conducted. The data of general information, dental plaque level and the unplanned treatments were recorded and analyzed. The questionnaire of oral health habits and early childhood oral health impact scale (ECOHIS) for each child was also completed and analyzed. The survival rate and median survival time of the deciduous teeth were calculated. Multivariate analysis was performed by using Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Twenty-five children under GA and 32 under PR were finally included, with a total of 1 098 deciduous teeth. The postoperative dental plaque indicesin both GA and PR groups had significantly improved than that of before the treatments ( P= 0.019, Pbehavior management techniques. Conclusions: The long-term dental treatment effects of children treated under GA was significantly better than that of PR group. Continuous reinforcement of proper dietary and oral hygiene habits might help in maintaining the long-term treatment effect.

  13. Interaction between two subducting plates under Tokyo and its possible effects on seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Francis; Okaya, David; Sato, Hiroshi; Hirata, Naoshi

    2007-09-01

    Underneath metropolitan Tokyo the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts to the north on top of the westward subducting Pacific plate (PAC). New, relatively high-resolution tomography images the PHS as a well-defined subduction zone under western Kanto Plain. As PAC shoals under eastern Kanto, the PHS lithosphere is being thrusted into an increasingly tighter space of the PAC-Eurasian mantle wedge. As a result, zones of enhanced seismicity appear under eastern Kanto at the top of PHS, internal to PHS and also at its contact with PAC. These zones are located at depths greater than the causative fault of the disastrous 1923 Great Tokyo ``megathrust'' earthquake, in the vicinity of several well-located historical, damaging (M6 and M7) earthquakes. Thus a rather unique interaction between subducting plates under Tokyo may account for additional seismic hazards in metropolitan Tokyo.

  14. Effect of superhydrophobicity on flashover characteristics of silicone rubber under wet conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Yufeng Li; Haiyun Jin; Shichao Nie; Cheng Tong; Naikui Gao

    2018-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surface has aroused much interest among researchers due to the low adhesion between water and a substrate surface. This study focuses on the influence of the low adhesion of superhydrophobic surface on flashover characteristics under wet conditions. The flashover experiments were conducted under two different wet conditions. One was placing a constant volume droplet on the silicone rubber. The other one was that silicone rubber was wetted by salt fog. It was found that the ad...

  15. Urban Area Disadvantage and Under-5 Mortality in Nigeria: The Effect of Rapid Urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Antai, D.; Moradi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children < 5 years of age (under-5 mortality). Objective: In this study we examined the trends in urban population growth and urban under-5 mortal...

  16. Press Freedom Under Siege: Effects of Market Forces, Government Controls and Journalism Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Sonia Ambrosio de

    2007-01-01

    The right to freedom of information and responsible journalism are fundamental to economic and human development. However these concepts are applied diff erently from country to country. It can be implied that press freedom is continuously under siege through either subtle or more emphatic means of pressure. The media also function as gatekeepers. The very fi rst underlying cause of this siege is rooted in the process of news production in which we fi nd concepts that determine how the news is “...