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Sample records for underlying neuronal plasticity

  1. Failure of delayed nonsynaptic neuronal plasticity underlies age-associated long-term associative memory impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Shawn N

    2012-08-01

    learning and memory impairment in Lymnaea and buttress the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation-dependent depression of intrinsic excitability is a hallmark of normal neuronal aging. The data implicate both lipid peroxidation-dependent non-synaptic as well as apparently lipid peroxidation-independent synaptic mechanisms in the age-dependent decline in behavioural plasticity in this model system.

  2. Neuronal cytoskeleton in synaptic plasticity and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Weeks, Phillip R; Fournier, Alyson E

    2014-04-01

    During development, dynamic changes in the axonal growth cone and dendrite are necessary for exploratory movements underlying initial axo-dendritic contact and ultimately the formation of a functional synapse. In the adult central nervous system, an impressive degree of plasticity is retained through morphological and molecular rearrangements in the pre- and post-synaptic compartments that underlie the strengthening or weakening of synaptic pathways. Plasticity is regulated by the interplay of permissive and inhibitory extracellular cues, which signal through receptors at the synapse to regulate the closure of critical periods of developmental plasticity as well as by acute changes in plasticity in response to experience and activity in the adult. The molecular underpinnings of synaptic plasticity are actively studied and it is clear that the cytoskeleton is a key substrate for many cues that affect plasticity. Many of the cues that restrict synaptic plasticity exhibit residual activity in the injured adult CNS and restrict regenerative growth by targeting the cytoskeleton. Here, we review some of the latest insights into how cytoskeletal remodeling affects neuronal plasticity and discuss how the cytoskeleton is being targeted in an effort to promote plasticity and repair following traumatic injury in the central nervous system. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Neuron-specific chromatin remodeling: a missing link in epigenetic mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity, memory, and intellectual disability disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Wood, Marcelo A

    2014-05-01

    Long-term memory formation requires the coordinated regulation of gene expression. Until recently nucleosome remodeling, one of the major epigenetic mechanisms for controlling gene expression, had been largely unexplored in the field of neuroscience. Nucleosome remodeling is carried out by chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs) that interact with DNA and histones to physically alter chromatin structure and ultimately regulate gene expression. Human exome sequencing and gene wide association studies have linked mutations in CRC subunits to intellectual disability disorders, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. However, how mutations in CRC subunits were related to human cognitive disorders was unknown. There appears to be both developmental and adult specific roles for the neuron specific CRC nBAF (neuronal Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor). nBAF regulates gene expression required for dendritic arborization during development, and in the adult, contributes to long-term potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity, and long-term memory. We propose that the nBAF complex is a novel epigenetic mechanism for regulating transcription required for long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and memory processes and that impaired nBAF function may result in human cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Model-Driven Analysis of Eyeblink Classical Conditioning Reveals the Underlying Structure of Cerebellar Plasticity and Neuronal Activity.

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    Antonietti, Alberto; Casellato, Claudia; D'Angelo, Egidio; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    The cerebellum plays a critical role in sensorimotor control. However, how the specific circuits and plastic mechanisms of the cerebellum are engaged in closed-loop processing is still unclear. We developed an artificial sensorimotor control system embedding a detailed spiking cerebellar microcircuit with three bidirectional plasticity sites. This proved able to reproduce a cerebellar-driven associative paradigm, the eyeblink classical conditioning (EBCC), in which a precise time relationship between an unconditioned stimulus (US) and a conditioned stimulus (CS) is established. We challenged the spiking model to fit an experimental data set from human subjects. Two subsequent sessions of EBCC acquisition and extinction were recorded and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied on the cerebellum to alter circuit function and plasticity. Evolutionary algorithms were used to find the near-optimal model parameters to reproduce the behaviors of subjects in the different sessions of the protocol. The main finding is that the optimized cerebellar model was able to learn to anticipate (predict) conditioned responses with accurate timing and success rate, demonstrating fast acquisition, memory stabilization, rapid extinction, and faster reacquisition as in EBCC in humans. The firing of Purkinje cells (PCs) and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) changed during learning under the control of synaptic plasticity, which evolved at different rates, with a faster acquisition in the cerebellar cortex than in DCN synapses. Eventually, a reduced PC activity released DCN discharge just after the CS, precisely anticipating the US and causing the eyeblink. Moreover, a specific alteration in cortical plasticity explained the EBCC changes induced by cerebellar TMS in humans. In this paper, for the first time, it is shown how closed-loop simulations, using detailed cerebellar microcircuit models, can be successfully used to fit real experimental data sets. Thus, the changes of the

  5. Chromatin Regulation of Neuronal Maturation and Plasticity.

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    Gallegos, David A; Chan, Urann; Chen, Liang-Fu; West, Anne E

    2018-05-01

    Neurons are dynamic cells that respond and adapt to stimuli throughout their long postmitotic lives. The structural and functional plasticity of neurons requires the regulated transcription of new gene products, and dysregulation of transcription in either the developing or adult brain impairs cognition. We discuss how mechanisms of chromatin regulation help to orchestrate the transcriptional programs that underlie the maturation of developing neurons and the plasticity of adult neurons. We review how chromatin regulation acts locally to modulate the expression of specific genes and more broadly to coordinate gene expression programs during transitions between cellular states. These data highlight the importance of epigenetic transcriptional mechanisms in postmitotic neurons. We suggest areas where emerging methods may advance understanding in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigenetic Basis of Neuronal and Synaptic Plasticity.

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    Karpova, Nina N; Sales, Amanda J; Joca, Samia R

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal network and plasticity change as a function of experience. Altered neural connectivity leads to distinct transcriptional programs of neuronal plasticity-related genes. The environmental challenges throughout life may promote long-lasting reprogramming of gene expression and the development of brain disorders. The modifications in neuronal epigenome mediate gene-environmental interactions and are required for activity-dependent regulation of neuronal differentiation, maturation and plasticity. Here, we highlight the latest advances in understanding the role of the main players of epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation and demethylation, histone modifications, chromatin-remodeling enzymes, transposons, and non-coding RNAs) in activity-dependent and long- term neural and synaptic plasticity. The review focuses on both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression levels, including the processes of promoter activation, alternative splicing, regulation of stability of gene transcripts by natural antisense RNAs, and alternative polyadenylation. Further, we discuss the epigenetic aspects of impaired neuronal plasticity and the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental (Rett syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, genomic imprinting disorders, schizophrenia, and others), stressrelated (mood disorders) and neurodegenerative Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disorders. The review also highlights the pharmacological compounds that modulate epigenetic programming of gene expression, the potential treatment strategies of discussed brain disorders, and the questions that should be addressed during the development of effective and safe approaches for the treatment of brain disorders.

  7. Neuron Morphology Influences Axon Initial Segment Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Allan T; Bravo, Jaime J

    2016-01-01

    In most vertebrate neurons, action potentials are initiated in the axon initial segment (AIS), a specialized region of the axon containing a high density of voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. It has recently been proposed that neurons use plasticity of AIS length and/or location to regulate their intrinsic excitability. Here we quantify the impact of neuron morphology on AIS plasticity using computational models of simplified and realistic somatodendritic morphologies. In small neurons (e.g., dentate granule neurons), excitability was highest when the AIS was of intermediate length and located adjacent to the soma. Conversely, neurons having larger dendritic trees (e.g., pyramidal neurons) were most excitable when the AIS was longer and/or located away from the soma. For any given somatodendritic morphology, increasing dendritic membrane capacitance and/or conductance favored a longer and more distally located AIS. Overall, changes to AIS length, with corresponding changes in total sodium conductance, were far more effective in regulating neuron excitability than were changes in AIS location, while dendritic capacitance had a larger impact on AIS performance than did dendritic conductance. The somatodendritic influence on AIS performance reflects modest soma-to-AIS voltage attenuation combined with neuron size-dependent changes in AIS input resistance, effective membrane time constant, and isolation from somatodendritic capacitance. We conclude that the impact of AIS plasticity on neuron excitability will depend largely on somatodendritic morphology, and that, in some neurons, a shorter or more distally located AIS may promote, rather than limit, action potential generation.

  8. Diet and cognition: interplay between cell metabolism and neuronal plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Tyagi, Ethika

    2013-11-01

    To discuss studies in humans and animals revealing the ability of foods to benefit the brain: new information with regards to mechanisms of action and the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Dietary factors exert their effects on the brain by affecting molecular events related to the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity. Energy metabolism influences neuronal function, neuronal signaling, and synaptic plasticity, ultimately affecting mental health. Epigenetic regulation of neuronal plasticity appears as an important mechanism by which foods can prolong their effects on long-term neuronal plasticity. The prime focus of the discussion is to emphasize the role of cell metabolism as a mediator for the action of foods on the brain. Oxidative stress promotes damage to phospholipids present in the plasma membrane such as the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexenoic acid, disrupting neuronal signaling. Thus, dietary docosahexenoic acid seems crucial for supporting plasma membrane function, interneuronal signaling, and cognition. The dual action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuronal metabolism and synaptic plasticity is crucial for activating signaling cascades under the action of diet and other environmental factors, using mechanisms of epigenetic regulation.

  9. Neuron-glia metabolic coupling and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistretti, Pierre J

    2006-06-01

    The coupling between synaptic activity and glucose utilization (neurometabolic coupling) is a central physiological principle of brain function that has provided the basis for 2-deoxyglucose-based functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). Astrocytes play a central role in neurometabolic coupling, and the basic mechanism involves glutamate-stimulated aerobic glycolysis; the sodium-coupled reuptake of glutamate by astrocytes and the ensuing activation of the Na-K-ATPase triggers glucose uptake and processing via glycolysis, resulting in the release of lactate from astrocytes. Lactate can then contribute to the activity-dependent fuelling of the neuronal energy demands associated with synaptic transmission. An operational model, the 'astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle', is supported experimentally by a large body of evidence, which provides a molecular and cellular basis for interpreting data obtained from functional brain imaging studies. In addition, this neuron-glia metabolic coupling undergoes plastic adaptations in parallel with adaptive mechanisms that characterize synaptic plasticity. Thus, distinct subregions of the hippocampus are metabolically active at different time points during spatial learning tasks, suggesting that a type of metabolic plasticity, involving by definition neuron-glia coupling, occurs during learning. In addition, marked variations in the expression of genes involved in glial glycogen metabolism are observed during the sleep-wake cycle, with in particular a marked induction of expression of the gene encoding for protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) following sleep deprivation. These data suggest that glial metabolic plasticity is likely to be concomitant with synaptic plasticity.

  10. Neuron-glia metabolic coupling and plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Magistretti PJ

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The focus of the current research projects in my laboratory revolves around the question of metabolic plasticity of neuron glia coupling. Our hypothesis is that behavioural conditions such as for example learning or the sleep wake cycle in which synaptic plasticity is well documented or during specific pathological conditions are accompanied by changes in the regulation of energy metabolism of astrocytes. We have indeed observed that the 'metabolic profile' of astrocytes is modified...

  11. Neuron-glia metabolic coupling and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistretti, Pierre J

    2011-04-01

    The focus of the current research projects in my laboratory revolves around the question of metabolic plasticity of neuron-glia coupling. Our hypothesis is that behavioural conditions, such as for example learning or the sleep-wake cycle, in which synaptic plasticity is well documented, or during specific pathological conditions, are accompanied by changes in the regulation of energy metabolism of astrocytes. We have indeed observed that the 'metabolic profile' of astrocytes is modified during the sleep-wake cycle and during conditions mimicking neuroinflammation in the presence or absence of amyloid-β. The effect of amyloid-β on energy metabolism is dependent on its state of aggregation and on internalization of the peptide by astrocytes. Distinct patterns of metabolic activity could be observed during the learning and recall phases in a spatial learning task. Gene expression analysis in activated areas, notably hippocampous and retrosplenial cortex, demonstrated that the expression levels of several genes implicated in astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling are enhanced by learning. Regarding metabolic plasticity during the sleep-wake cycle, we have observed that the level of expression of a panel of selected genes, which we know are key for neuron-glia metabolic coupling, is modulated by sleep deprivation.

  12. Associative Memory Extinction Is Accompanied by Decayed Plasticity at Motor Cortical Neurons and Persistent Plasticity at Sensory Cortical Neurons.

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    Guo, Rui; Ge, Rongjing; Zhao, Shidi; Liu, Yulong; Zhao, Xin; Huang, Li; Guan, Sodong; Lu, Wei; Cui, Shan; Wang, Shirlene; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Associative memory is essential for cognition, in which associative memory cells and their plasticity presumably play important roles. The mechanism underlying associative memory extinction vs. maintenance remains unclear, which we have studied in a mouse model of cross-modal associative learning. Paired whisker and olfaction stimulations lead to a full establishment of odorant-induced whisker motion in training day 10, which almost disappears if paired stimulations are not given in a week, and then recovers after paired stimulation for an additional day. In mice that show associative memory, extinction and recovery, we have analyzed the dynamical plasticity of glutamatergic neurons in layers II-III of the barrel cortex and layers IV-V of the motor cortex. Compared with control mice, the rate of evoked spikes as well as the amplitude and frequency of excitatory postsynaptic currents increase, whereas the amplitude and frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSC) decrease at training day 10 in associative memory mice. Without paired training for a week, these plastic changes are persistent in the barrel cortex and decayed in the motor cortex. If paired training is given for an additional day to revoke associative memory, neuronal plasticity recovers in the motor cortex. Our study indicates persistent neuronal plasticity in the barrel cortex for cross-modal memory maintenance as well as the dynamical change of neuronal plasticity in the motor cortex for memory retrieval and extinction. In other words, the sensory cortices are essential for long-term memory while the behavior-related cortices with the inability of memory retrieval are correlated to memory extinction.

  13. Associative Memory Extinction Is Accompanied by Decayed Plasticity at Motor Cortical Neurons and Persistent Plasticity at Sensory Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Associative memory is essential for cognition, in which associative memory cells and their plasticity presumably play important roles. The mechanism underlying associative memory extinction vs. maintenance remains unclear, which we have studied in a mouse model of cross-modal associative learning. Paired whisker and olfaction stimulations lead to a full establishment of odorant-induced whisker motion in training day 10, which almost disappears if paired stimulations are not given in a week, and then recovers after paired stimulation for an additional day. In mice that show associative memory, extinction and recovery, we have analyzed the dynamical plasticity of glutamatergic neurons in layers II–III of the barrel cortex and layers IV–V of the motor cortex. Compared with control mice, the rate of evoked spikes as well as the amplitude and frequency of excitatory postsynaptic currents increase, whereas the amplitude and frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSC decrease at training day 10 in associative memory mice. Without paired training for a week, these plastic changes are persistent in the barrel cortex and decayed in the motor cortex. If paired training is given for an additional day to revoke associative memory, neuronal plasticity recovers in the motor cortex. Our study indicates persistent neuronal plasticity in the barrel cortex for cross-modal memory maintenance as well as the dynamical change of neuronal plasticity in the motor cortex for memory retrieval and extinction. In other words, the sensory cortices are essential for long-term memory while the behavior-related cortices with the inability of memory retrieval are correlated to memory extinction.

  14. Photoperiodic plasticity in circadian clock neurons in insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiko eShiga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Bünning’s observation of circadian rhythms and photoperiodism in the runner bean Phaseolus multiflorus in 1936, many studies have shown that photoperiodism is based on the circadian clock system. In insects, involvement of circadian clock genes or neurons has been recently shown in the photoperiodic control of developmental arrests, diapause. Based on molecular and neuronal studies in Drosophila melanogaster, photoperiodic changes have been reported for expression patterns of the circadian clock genes, subcellular distribution of clock proteins, fiber distribution, or the number of plausible clock neurons in different species. Photoperiod sets peaks of per or tim mRNA abundance at lights-off in Sarcophaga crassipalpis, Chymomyza costata and Protophormia terraenovae. Abundance of per and Clock mRNA changes by photoperiod in Pyrrhocoris apterus. Subcellular Per distribution in circadian clock neurons changes with photoperiod in P. terraenovae. Although photoperiodism is not known in Leucophaea maderae, under longer day length, more stomata and longer commissural fibers of circadian clock neurons have been found. These plastic changes in the circadian clock neurons could be an important constituent for photoperiodic clock mechanisms to integrate repetitive photoperiodic information and produce different outputs based on day length.

  15. Neuronal plasticity and multisensory integration in filial imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Stephen Michael; McCabe, Brian John

    2011-03-10

    Many organisms sample their environment through multiple sensory systems and the integration of multisensory information enhances learning. However, the mechanisms underlying multisensory memory formation and their similarity to unisensory mechanisms remain unclear. Filial imprinting is one example in which experience is multisensory, and the mechanisms of unisensory neuronal plasticity are well established. We investigated the storage of audiovisual information through experience by comparing the activity of neurons in the intermediate and medial mesopallium of imprinted and naïve domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) in response to an audiovisual imprinting stimulus and novel object and their auditory and visual components. We find that imprinting enhanced the mean response magnitude of neurons to unisensory but not multisensory stimuli. Furthermore, imprinting enhanced responses to incongruent audiovisual stimuli comprised of mismatched auditory and visual components. Our results suggest that the effects of imprinting on the unisensory and multisensory responsiveness of IMM neurons differ and that IMM neurons may function to detect unexpected deviations from the audiovisual imprinting stimulus.

  16. Neuronal Plasticity and Multisensory Integration in Filial Imprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, Stephen Michael; McCabe, Brian John

    2011-01-01

    Many organisms sample their environment through multiple sensory systems and the integration of multisensory information enhances learning. However, the mechanisms underlying multisensory memory formation and their similarity to unisensory mechanisms remain unclear. Filial imprinting is one example in which experience is multisensory, and the mechanisms of unisensory neuronal plasticity are well established. We investigated the storage of audiovisual information through experience by comparing the activity of neurons in the intermediate and medial mesopallium of imprinted and naïve domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) in response to an audiovisual imprinting stimulus and novel object and their auditory and visual components. We find that imprinting enhanced the mean response magnitude of neurons to unisensory but not multisensory stimuli. Furthermore, imprinting enhanced responses to incongruent audiovisual stimuli comprised of mismatched auditory and visual components. Our results suggest that the effects of imprinting on the unisensory and multisensory responsiveness of IMM neurons differ and that IMM neurons may function to detect unexpected deviations from the audiovisual imprinting stimulus. PMID:21423770

  17. Network reconfiguration and neuronal plasticity in rhythm-generating networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Henner; Garcia, Alfredo J; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2011-12-01

    Neuronal networks are highly plastic and reconfigure in a state-dependent manner. The plasticity at the network level emerges through multiple intrinsic and synaptic membrane properties that imbue neurons and their interactions with numerous nonlinear properties. These properties are continuously regulated by neuromodulators and homeostatic mechanisms that are critical to maintain not only network stability and also adapt networks in a short- and long-term manner to changes in behavioral, developmental, metabolic, and environmental conditions. This review provides concrete examples from neuronal networks in invertebrates and vertebrates, and illustrates that the concepts and rules that govern neuronal networks and behaviors are universal.

  18. Corticosterone Facilitates Fluoxetine-Induced Neuronal Plasticity in the Hippocampus

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    Kobayashi, Katsunori; Ikeda, Yumiko; Asada, Minoru; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Kawada, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus has been implicated in a neuronal basis of antidepressant action. We have recently shown a distinct form of neuronal plasticity induced by the serotonergic antidepressant fluoxetine, that is, a reversal of maturation of the dentate granule cells in adult mice. This “dematuration” is induced in a large population of dentate neurons and maintained for at least one month after withdrawal of fluoxetine, suggesting long-lasting strong influence of dematuration on brain functioning. However, reliable induction of dematuration required doses of fluoxetine higher than suggested optimal doses for mice (10 to 18 mg/kg/day), which casts doubt on the clinical relevance of this effect. Since our previous studies were performed in naive mice, in the present study, we reexamined effects of fluoxetine using mice treated with chronic corticosterone that model neuroendocrine pathophysiology associated with depression. In corticosterone-treated mice, fluoxetine at 10 mg/kg/day downregulated expression of mature granule cell markers and attenuated strong frequency facilitation at the synapse formed by the granule cell axon mossy fiber, suggesting the induction of granule cell dematuration. In addition, fluoxetine caused marked enhancement of dopaminergic modulation at the mossy fiber synapse. In vehicle-treated mice, however, fluoxetine at this dose had no significant effects. The plasma level of fluoxetine was comparable to that in patients taking chronic fluoxetine, and corticosterone did not affect it. These results indicate that corticosterone facilitates fluoxetine-induced plastic changes in the dentate granule cells. Our finding may provide insight into neuronal mechanisms underlying enhanced responsiveness to antidepressant medication in certain pathological conditions. PMID:23675498

  19. Neuroserpin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuroendocrine and neuronal plasticity. Functional studies in (transgenic) Xenopus intermediate pituitary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotteveel-de Groot, D.M. de

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity, i.e. the capacity of the brain to continuously adapt its structural organization to new situations, remain largely unknown. In this thesis, we explored functional aspects of two proteins that presumably play a role in neuronal plasticity,

  20. Neuron Morphology Influences Axon Initial Segment Plasticity123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In most vertebrate neurons, action potentials are initiated in the axon initial segment (AIS), a specialized region of the axon containing a high density of voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. It has recently been proposed that neurons use plasticity of AIS length and/or location to regulate their intrinsic excitability. Here we quantify the impact of neuron morphology on AIS plasticity using computational models of simplified and realistic somatodendritic morphologies. In small neurons (e.g., dentate granule neurons), excitability was highest when the AIS was of intermediate length and located adjacent to the soma. Conversely, neurons having larger dendritic trees (e.g., pyramidal neurons) were most excitable when the AIS was longer and/or located away from the soma. For any given somatodendritic morphology, increasing dendritic membrane capacitance and/or conductance favored a longer and more distally located AIS. Overall, changes to AIS length, with corresponding changes in total sodium conductance, were far more effective in regulating neuron excitability than were changes in AIS location, while dendritic capacitance had a larger impact on AIS performance than did dendritic conductance. The somatodendritic influence on AIS performance reflects modest soma-to-AIS voltage attenuation combined with neuron size-dependent changes in AIS input resistance, effective membrane time constant, and isolation from somatodendritic capacitance. We conclude that the impact of AIS plasticity on neuron excitability will depend largely on somatodendritic morphology, and that, in some neurons, a shorter or more distally located AIS may promote, rather than limit, action potential generation. PMID:27022619

  1. The plastic brain: neoliberalism and the neuronal self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Taylor, Victoria

    2010-11-01

    Neuroscience-based representations and practices of the brain aimed at lay populations present the brain in ways that both affirm biological determinism and also celebrate plasticity, or the brain's ability to change structure and function. Popular uses of neuroscientific theories of brain plasticity are saturated with a neoliberal vision of the subject. Against more optimistic readings of plasticity, I view the popular deployment of plasticity through the framework of governmentality. I describe how popular brain discourse on plasticity opens up the brain to personal techniques of enhancement and risk avoidance, and how it promotes a neuronal self. I situate brain plasticity in a context of biomedical neoliberalism, where the engineering and modification of biological life is positioned as essential to selfhood and citizenship.

  2. The neuronal identity bias behind neocortical GABAergic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allene, Camille; Lourenço, Joana; Bacci, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    In the neocortex, different types of excitatory and inhibitory neurons connect to one another following a detailed blueprint, defining functionally-distinct subnetworks, whose activity and modulation underlie complex cognitive functions. We review the cell-autonomous plasticity of perisomatic inhibition onto principal excitatory neurons. We propose that the tendency of different cortical layers to exhibit depression or potentiation of perisomatic inhibition is dictated by the specific identities of principal neurons (PNs). These are mainly defined by their projection targets and by their preference to be innervated by specific perisomatic-targeting basket cell types. Therefore, principal neurons responsible for relaying information to subcortical nuclei are differentially inhibited and show specific forms of plasticity compared to other PNs that are specialized in more associative functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The detector, the command neuron and plastic convergence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, E N

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with the structure of detectors, the function of commanding neurones and the problem of relationship between detectors and commanding neurons. An example of hierarchial organization of detectors is provided by the colour analyser in which a layer of receptors, a layer of opponent neurones and a layer of colour-selective detectors are singled out. The colour detector is selectively sensitive to a certain combination of excitations at the input. If the detector is selectively activated by a certain combination of excitations at the input, the selective activation of the commanding neurone through a pool of motoneurones brings about a reaction at the output, specific in its organization. The reflexogenic zone of the reaction is determined by the detectors which converge on the commanding neurone controlling the given reaction. The plasticity of the reaction results from a plastic convergence of the detectors on the commanding neurone which controls the reaction. This comprises selective switching off the detectors from the commanding neurone (habituation) and connecting the detectors to the commanding neurone (facilitation).

  4. Behavioral plasticity through the modulation of switch neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliades, Vassilis; Christodoulou, Chris

    2016-02-01

    A central question in artificial intelligence is how to design agents capable of switching between different behaviors in response to environmental changes. Taking inspiration from neuroscience, we address this problem by utilizing artificial neural networks (NNs) as agent controllers, and mechanisms such as neuromodulation and synaptic gating. The novel aspect of this work is the introduction of a type of artificial neuron we call "switch neuron". A switch neuron regulates the flow of information in NNs by selectively gating all but one of its incoming synaptic connections, effectively allowing only one signal to propagate forward. The allowed connection is determined by the switch neuron's level of modulatory activation which is affected by modulatory signals, such as signals that encode some information about the reward received by the agent. An important aspect of the switch neuron is that it can be used in appropriate "switch modules" in order to modulate other switch neurons. As we show, the introduction of the switch modules enables the creation of sequences of gating events. This is achieved through the design of a modulatory pathway capable of exploring in a principled manner all permutations of the connections arriving on the switch neurons. We test the model by presenting appropriate architectures in nonstationary binary association problems and T-maze tasks. The results show that for all tasks, the switch neuron architectures generate optimal adaptive behaviors, providing evidence that the switch neuron model could be a valuable tool in simulations where behavioral plasticity is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synaptic Plasticity and Spike Synchronisation in Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rafael R.; Borges, Fernando S.; Lameu, Ewandson L.; Protachevicz, Paulo R.; Iarosz, Kelly C.; Caldas, Iberê L.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Baptista, Murilo S.; Grebogi, Celso; Batista, Antonio M.

    2017-12-01

    Brain plasticity, also known as neuroplasticity, is a fundamental mechanism of neuronal adaptation in response to changes in the environment or due to brain injury. In this review, we show our results about the effects of synaptic plasticity on neuronal networks composed by Hodgkin-Huxley neurons. We show that the final topology of the evolved network depends crucially on the ratio between the strengths of the inhibitory and excitatory synapses. Excitation of the same order of inhibition revels an evolved network that presents the rich-club phenomenon, well known to exist in the brain. For initial networks with considerably larger inhibitory strengths, we observe the emergence of a complex evolved topology, where neurons sparsely connected to other neurons, also a typical topology of the brain. The presence of noise enhances the strength of both types of synapses, but if the initial network has synapses of both natures with similar strengths. Finally, we show how the synchronous behaviour of the evolved network will reflect its evolved topology.

  6. Neuron-glia metabolic coupling: Role in plasticity and neuroprotection

    KAUST Repository

    Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2017-12-02

    A tight metabolic coupling between astrocytes and neurons is a key feature of brain energy metabolism (Magistretti and Allaman, Neuron, 2015). Over the years we have described two basic mechanisms of neurometabolic coupling. First the glycogenolytic effect of VIP and of noradrenaline indicating a regulation of brain homeostasis by neurotransmitters acting on astrocytes, as glycogen is exclusively localized in these cells. Second, the glutamate-stimulated aerobic glycolysis in astrocytes. Both the VIP-and noradrenaline-induced glycogenolysis and the glutamate-stimulated aerobic glycolysis result in the release of lactate from astrocytes as an energy substrate for neurons (Magistretti and Allaman, Neuron, 2015). We have recently shown that lactate is necessary not only as an energy substrate but is also a signaling molecule for long-term memory consolidation and for maintenance of LTP (Suzuki et al, Cell, 2011). At the molecular level we have found that L-lactate stimulates the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes such as Arc, Zif268 and BDNF through a mechanism involving NMDA receptor activity and its downstream signaling cascade Erk1/2 (Yang et al, PNAS, 2014). L-lactate potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated currents and the ensuing increases in intracellular calcium. These results reveal a novel action of L-lactate as a signaling molecule for neuronal plasticity. We have also recently shown that peripheral administration of lactate exerts antidepressant-like effects in three animal models of depression (Carrard et al, Mol.Psy., 2016).

  7. Key Metabolic Enzymes Underlying Astrocytic Upregulation of GABAergic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław T. Kaczor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic plasticity is recognized as a key mechanism of shaping the activity of the neuronal networks. However, its description is challenging because of numerous neuron-specific mechanisms. In particular, while essential role of glial cells in the excitatory plasticity is well established, their involvement in GABAergic plasticity only starts to emerge. To address this problem, we used two models: neuronal cell culture (NC and astrocyte-neuronal co-culture (ANCC, where we chemically induced long-term potentiation at inhibitory synapses (iLTP. iLTP could be induced both in NC and ANCC but in ANCC its extent was larger. Importantly, this functional iLTP manifestation was accompanied by an increase in gephyrin puncta size. Furthermore, blocking astrocyte Krebs cycle with fluoroacetate (FA in ANCC prevented enhancement of both mIPSC amplitude and gephyrin puncta size but this effect was not observed in NC, indicating a key role in neuron-astrocyte cross-talk. Blockade of monocarboxylate transport with α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4CIN abolished iLTP both in NC and ANCC and in the latter model prevented also enlargement of gephyrin puncta. Similarly, blockade of glycogen phosphorylase with BAYU6751 prevented enlargement of gephyrin puncta upon iLTP induction. Finally, block of glutamine synthetase with methionine sulfoxide (MSO nearly abolished mIPSC increase in both NMDA stimulated cell groups but did not prevent enlargement of gephyrin puncta. In conclusion, we provide further evidence that GABAergic plasticity is strongly regulated by astrocytes and the underlying mechanisms involve key metabolic enzymes. Considering the strategic role of GABAergic interneurons, the plasticity described here indicates possible mechanism whereby metabolism regulates the network activity.

  8. Lactate promotes plasticity gene expression by potentiating NMDA signaling in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangyan

    2014-07-28

    L-lactate is a product of aerobic glycolysis that can be used by neurons as an energy substrate. Here we report that in neurons L-lactate stimulates the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes such as Arc, c-Fos, and Zif268 through a mechanism involving NMDA receptor activity and its downstream signaling cascade Erk1/2. L-lactate potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated currents and the ensuing increase in intracellular calcium. In parallel to this, L-lactate increases intracellular levels of NADH, thereby modulating the redox state of neurons. NADH mimics all of the effects of L-lactate on NMDA signaling, pointing to NADH increase as a primary mediator of L-lactate effects. The induction of plasticity genes is observed both in mouse primary neurons in culture and in vivo in the mouse sensory-motor cortex. These results provide insights for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the critical role of astrocyte-derived L-lactate in long-term memory and long-term potentiation in vivo. This set of data reveals a previously unidentified action of L-lactate as a signaling molecule for neuronal plasticity.

  9. Lactate promotes plasticity gene expression by potentiating NMDA signaling in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangyan; Ruchti, Evelyne; Petit, Jean Marie; Jourdain, Pascal; Grenningloh, Gabriele; Allaman, Igor; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    L-lactate is a product of aerobic glycolysis that can be used by neurons as an energy substrate. Here we report that in neurons L-lactate stimulates the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes such as Arc, c-Fos, and Zif268 through a mechanism involving NMDA receptor activity and its downstream signaling cascade Erk1/2. L-lactate potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated currents and the ensuing increase in intracellular calcium. In parallel to this, L-lactate increases intracellular levels of NADH, thereby modulating the redox state of neurons. NADH mimics all of the effects of L-lactate on NMDA signaling, pointing to NADH increase as a primary mediator of L-lactate effects. The induction of plasticity genes is observed both in mouse primary neurons in culture and in vivo in the mouse sensory-motor cortex. These results provide insights for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the critical role of astrocyte-derived L-lactate in long-term memory and long-term potentiation in vivo. This set of data reveals a previously unidentified action of L-lactate as a signaling molecule for neuronal plasticity.

  10. A distance constrained synaptic plasticity model of C. elegans neuronal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, Rahul; Bagler, Ganesh

    2017-03-01

    Brain research has been driven by enquiry for principles of brain structure organization and its control mechanisms. The neuronal wiring map of C. elegans, the only complete connectome available till date, presents an incredible opportunity to learn basic governing principles that drive structure and function of its neuronal architecture. Despite its apparently simple nervous system, C. elegans is known to possess complex functions. The nervous system forms an important underlying framework which specifies phenotypic features associated to sensation, movement, conditioning and memory. In this study, with the help of graph theoretical models, we investigated the C. elegans neuronal network to identify network features that are critical for its control. The 'driver neurons' are associated with important biological functions such as reproduction, signalling processes and anatomical structural development. We created 1D and 2D network models of C. elegans neuronal system to probe the role of features that confer controllability and small world nature. The simple 1D ring model is critically poised for the number of feed forward motifs, neuronal clustering and characteristic path-length in response to synaptic rewiring, indicating optimal rewiring. Using empirically observed distance constraint in the neuronal network as a guiding principle, we created a distance constrained synaptic plasticity model that simultaneously explains small world nature, saturation of feed forward motifs as well as observed number of driver neurons. The distance constrained model suggests optimum long distance synaptic connections as a key feature specifying control of the network.

  11. Metabolic regulation of neuronal plasticity by the energy sensor AMPK.

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    Wyatt B Potter

    Full Text Available Long Term Potentiation (LTP is a leading candidate mechanism for learning and memory and is also thought to play a role in the progression of seizures to intractable epilepsy. Maintenance of LTP requires RNA transcription, protein translation and signaling through the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR pathway. In peripheral tissue, the energy sensor AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK negatively regulates the mTOR cascade upon glycolytic inhibition and cellular energy stress. We recently demonstrated that the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG alters plasticity to retard epileptogenesis in the kindling model of epilepsy. Reduced kindling progression was associated with increased recruitment of the nuclear metabolic sensor CtBP to NRSF at the BDNF promoter. Given that energy metabolism controls mTOR through AMPK in peripheral tissue and the role of mTOR in LTP in neurons, we asked whether energy metabolism and AMPK control LTP. Using a combination of biochemical approaches and field-recordings in mouse hippocampal slices, we show that the master regulator of energy homeostasis, AMPK couples energy metabolism to LTP expression. Administration of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG or the mitochondrial toxin and anti-Type II Diabetes drug, metformin, or AMP mimetic AICAR results in activation of AMPK, repression of the mTOR pathway and prevents maintenance of Late-Phase LTP (L-LTP. Inhibition of AMPK by either compound-C or the ATP mimetic ara-A rescues the suppression of L-LTP by energy stress. We also show that enhanced LTP via AMPK inhibition requires mTOR signaling. These results directly link energy metabolism to plasticity in the mammalian brain and demonstrate that AMPK is a modulator of LTP. Our work opens up the possibility of using modulators of energy metabolism to control neuronal plasticity in diseases and conditions of aberrant plasticity such as epilepsy.

  12. Sustained neurochemical plasticity in central terminals of mouse DRG neurons following colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jessica R; Xu, Jiameng; Moynes, Derek M; Lapointe, Tamia K; Altier, Christophe; Vanner, Stephen J; Lomax, Alan E

    2014-05-01

    Sensitization of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons is an important mechanism underlying the expression of chronic abdominal pain caused by intestinal inflammation. Most studies have focused on changes in the peripheral terminals of DRG neurons in the inflamed intestine but recent evidence suggests that the sprouting of central nerve terminals in the dorsal horn is also important. Therefore, we examine the time course and reversibility of changes in the distribution of immunoreactivity for substance P (SP), a marker of the central terminals of DRG neurons, in the spinal cord during and following dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Acute and chronic treatment with DSS significantly increased SP immunoreactivity in thoracic and lumbosacral spinal cord segments. This increase developed over several weeks and was evident in both the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn and in lamina X. These increases persisted for 5 weeks following cessation of both the acute and chronic models. The increase in SP immunoreactivity was not observed in segments of the cervical spinal cord, which were not innervated by the axons of colonic afferent neurons. DRG neurons dissociated following acute DSS-colitis exhibited increased neurite sprouting compared with neurons dissociated from control mice. These data suggest significant colitis-induced enhancements in neuropeptide expression in DRG neuron central terminals. Such neurotransmitter plasticity persists beyond the period of active inflammation and might contribute to a sustained increase in nociceptive signaling following the resolution of inflammation.

  13. Neuronal plasticity in the hedgehog supraoptic nucleus during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Toscano, F; Caminero, A A; Machin, C; Abella, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify processes of plasticity in the receptive field of neurosecretory neurons of the supraoptic nucleus during hibernation in the hedgehog, in order to correlate them with the increased neurosecretory activity observed in this nucleus during this annual period. Using the Rapid Golgi method, a quantitative study was conducted in the receptive field of bipolar and multipolar neurons (the main components of the nucleus). Results indicate a generalized increase in the following characteristics: (1) number of dendritic spines per millimeter along the dendritic shafts; (2) degree of branching in the dendritic field; and (3) dendritic density around the neuronal soma. These data demonstrate modification of the dendritic field in the supraoptic nucleus during hibernation, a change undoubtedly related to functional conditions. Since the observed changes affect structures such as dendritic spines which are directly related to the arrival of neural afferences, the discussion is centered on the types of stimuli which may be responsible for the observed processes.

  14. Characterization of Different Types of Excitability in Large Somatosensory Neurons and Its Plastic Changes in Pathological Pain States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rou-Gang; Chu, Wen-Guang; Hu, San-Jue; Luo, Ceng

    2018-01-01

    Sensory neuron types have been distinguished by distinct morphological and transcriptional characteristics. Excitability is the most fundamental functional feature of neurons. Mathematical models described by Hodgkin have revealed three types of neuronal excitability based on the relationship between firing frequency and applied current intensity. However, whether natural sensory neurons display different functional characteristics in terms of excitability and whether this excitability type undergoes plastic changes under pathological pain states have remained elusive. Here, by utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recordings, behavioral and pharmacological assays, we demonstrated that large dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons can be classified into three classes and four subclasses based on their excitability patterns, which is similar to mathematical models raised by Hodgkin. Analysis of hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) revealed different magnitude of Ih in different excitability types of large DRG neurons, with higher Ih in Class 2-1 than that in Class 1, 2-2 and 3. This indicates a crucial role of Ih in the determination of excitability type of large DRG neurons. More importantly, this pattern of excitability displays plastic changes and transition under pathological pain states caused by peripheral nerve injury. This study sheds new light on the functional characteristics of large DRG neurons and extends functional classification of large DRG neurons by integration of transcriptomic and morphological characteristics. PMID:29303989

  15. Characterization of Different Types of Excitability in Large Somatosensory Neurons and Its Plastic Changes in Pathological Pain States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rou-Gang Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory neuron types have been distinguished by distinct morphological and transcriptional characteristics. Excitability is the most fundamental functional feature of neurons. Mathematical models described by Hodgkin have revealed three types of neuronal excitability based on the relationship between firing frequency and applied current intensity. However, whether natural sensory neurons display different functional characteristics in terms of excitability and whether this excitability type undergoes plastic changes under pathological pain states have remained elusive. Here, by utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recordings, behavioral and pharmacological assays, we demonstrated that large dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons can be classified into three classes and four subclasses based on their excitability patterns, which is similar to mathematical models raised by Hodgkin. Analysis of hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih revealed different magnitude of Ih in different excitability types of large DRG neurons, with higher Ih in Class 2-1 than that in Class 1, 2-2 and 3. This indicates a crucial role of Ih in the determination of excitability type of large DRG neurons. More importantly, this pattern of excitability displays plastic changes and transition under pathological pain states caused by peripheral nerve injury. This study sheds new light on the functional characteristics of large DRG neurons and extends functional classification of large DRG neurons by integration of transcriptomic and morphological characteristics.

  16. MIRNAS in Astrocyte-Derived Exosomes as Possible Mediators of Neuronal Plasticity

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    Carlos Lafourcade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes use gliotransmitters to modulate neuronal function and plasticity. However, the role of small extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, in astrocyte-to-neuron signaling is mostly unknown. Exosomes originate in multivesicular bodies of parent cells and are secreted by fusion of the multivesicular body limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. Their molecular cargo, consisting of RNA species, proteins, and lipids, is in part cell type and cell state specific. Among the RNA species transported by exosomes, microRNAs (miRNAs are able to modify gene expression in recipient cells. Several miRNAs present in astrocytes are regulated under pathological conditions, and this may have far-reaching consequences if they are loaded in exosomes. We propose that astrocyte-derived miRNA-loaded exosomes, such as miR-26a, are dysregulated in several central nervous system diseases; thus potentially controlling neuronal morphology and synaptic transmission through validated and predicted targets. Unraveling the contribution of this new signaling mechanism to the maintenance and plasticity of neuronal networks will impact our understanding on the physiology and pathophysiology of the central nervous system.

  17. Plasticity in neurons synthesizing wake/arousal promoting hormone hypocretin/orexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamus is a critical brain structure regulating physiological functions essential to the survival of individuals and species. One of the striking characteristics of this brain region is the abundance of nerve cells (neurons) expressing a great numbers of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, among which are hormones released into the blood stream through brain neuroendocrinological routes. The neurons in the lateral hypothalamus take part in intra- and extrahypothalamic circuits controlling basic physiological functions essential for the well being of animal bodies (such as cardiovascular function, respiratory function, immune responses, etc.), animal behaviors required for the maintenance of the survival of individuals (food foraging, flight, fight, etc.) and species (reproductive function), and higher brain functions (learning and memory, mental state, etc.). Hypocretin (also called orexin) comprises of two neuropeptides exclusively synthesized by neurons in the perifornical/lateral hypothalamus. Although hypocretin/orexin was initially found to enhance food intake, it is now clear that the functions mediated by hypocretin/orexin are well beyond what were originally proposed. Specifically, hypocretin/orexin is a crucial promoter of wakefulness; deficiency in the hypocretin/orexin system leads to diseases and disorders such as narcolepsy. It is clear that neurons synthesizing hypocretin/orexin are consistently under regulation originating from various parts of the brain and that the status of activity in hypocretin/orexin neurons is closely related with the nutritional and behavioral state of animals. Therefore, the demand to make adaptive changes in hypocretin/orexin neurons to accommodate the changes in the external environment and behavioral state of animals is expected. The latest developments in the studies of plasticity in hypocretin/orexin neurons under the challenges from environmental and behavioral factors have dramatically shaped the

  18. Neural Plasticity: Single Neuron Models for Discrimination and Generalization and AN Experimental Ensemble Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Paul Wesley

    A special form for modification of neuronal response properties is described in which the change in the synaptic state vector is parallel to the vector of afferent activity. This process is termed "parallel modification" and its theoretical and experimental implications are examined. A theoretical framework has been devised to describe the complementary functions of generalization and discrimination by single neurons. This constitutes a basis for three models each describing processes for the development of maximum selectivity (discrimination) and minimum selectivity (generalization) by neurons. Strengthening and weakening of synapses is expressed as a product of the presynaptic activity and a nonlinear modulatory function of two postsynaptic variables--namely a measure of the spatially integrated activity of the cell and a temporal integration (time-average) of that activity. Some theorems are given for low-dimensional systems and computer simulation results from more complex systems are discussed. Model neurons that achieve high selectivity mimic the development of cat visual cortex neurons in a wide variety of rearing conditions. A role for low-selectivity neurons is proposed in which they provide inhibitory input to neurons of the opposite type, thereby suppressing the common component of a pattern class and enhancing their selective properties. Such contrast-enhancing circuits are analyzed and supported by computer simulation. To enable maximum selectivity, the net inhibition to a cell must become strong enough to offset whatever excitation is produced by the non-preferred patterns. Ramifications of parallel models for certain experimental paradigms are analyzed. A methodology is outlined for testing synaptic modification hypotheses in the laboratory. A plastic projection from one neuronal population to another will attain stable equilibrium under periodic electrical stimulation of constant intensity. The perturbative effect of shifting this intensity level

  19. Species-Specific Mechanisms of Neuron Subtype Specification Reveal Evolutionary Plasticity of Amniote Brain Development

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    Tadashi Nomura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Highly ordered brain architectures in vertebrates consist of multiple neuron subtypes with specific neuronal connections. However, the origin of and evolutionary changes in neuron specification mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that regulatory mechanisms of neuron subtype specification are divergent in developing amniote brains. In the mammalian neocortex, the transcription factors (TFs Ctip2 and Satb2 are differentially expressed in layer-specific neurons. In contrast, these TFs are co-localized in reptilian and avian dorsal pallial neurons. Multi-potential progenitors that produce distinct neuronal subtypes commonly exist in the reptilian and avian dorsal pallium, whereas a cis-regulatory element of avian Ctip2 exhibits attenuated transcription suppressive activity. Furthermore, the neuronal subtypes distinguished by these TFs are not tightly associated with conserved neuronal connections among amniotes. Our findings reveal the evolutionary plasticity of regulatory gene functions that contribute to species differences in neuronal heterogeneity and connectivity in developing amniote brains. : Neuronal heterogeneity is essential for assembling intricate neuronal circuits. Nomura et al. find that species-specific transcriptional mechanisms underlie diversities of excitatory neuron subtypes in mammalian and non-mammalian brains. Species differences in neuronal subtypes and connections suggest functional plasticity of regulatory genes for neuronal specification during amniote brain evolution. Keywords: Ctip2, Satb2, multi-potential progenitors, transcriptional regulation, neuronal connectivity

  20. Application of FRET probes in the analysis of neuronal plasticity

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    Yoshibumi eUeda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Breakthroughs in imaging techniques and optical probes in recent years have revolutionized the field of life sciences in ways that traditional methods could never match. The spatial and temporal regulation of molecular events can now be studied with great precision. There have been several key discoveries that have made this possible. Since GFP was cloned in 1992, it has become the dominant tracer of proteins in living cells. Then the evolution of color variants of GFP opened the door to the application of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET, which is now widely recognized as a powerful tool to study complicated signal transduction events and interactions between molecules. Employment of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM allows the precise detection of FRET in small subcellular structures such as dendritic spines. In this review, we provide an overview of the basic and practical aspects of FRET imaging and discuss how different FRET probes have revealed insights into the molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and enabled visualization of neuronal network activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Exercise-induced neuronal plasticity in central autonomic networks: role in cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Lisete C; Stern, Javier E

    2009-09-01

    It is now well established that brain plasticity is an inherent property not only of the developing but also of the adult brain. Numerous beneficial effects of exercise, including improved memory, cognitive function and neuroprotection, have been shown to involve an important neuroplastic component. However, whether major adaptive cardiovascular adjustments during exercise, needed to ensure proper blood perfusion of peripheral tissues, also require brain neuroplasticity, is presently unknown. This review will critically evaluate current knowledge on proposed mechanisms that are likely to underlie the continuous resetting of baroreflex control of heart rate during/after exercise and following exercise training. Accumulating evidence indicates that not only somatosensory afferents (conveyed by skeletal muscle receptors, baroreceptors and/or cardiopulmonary receptors) but also projections arising from central command neurons (in particular, peptidergic hypothalamic pre-autonomic neurons) converge into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) in the dorsal brainstem, to co-ordinate complex cardiovascular adaptations during dynamic exercise. This review focuses in particular on a reciprocally interconnected network between the NTS and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is proposed to act as a pivotal anatomical and functional substrate underlying integrative feedforward and feedback cardiovascular adjustments during exercise. Recent findings supporting neuroplastic adaptive changes within the NTS-PVN reciprocal network (e.g. remodelling of afferent inputs, structural and functional neuronal plasticity and changes in neurotransmitter content) will be discussed within the context of their role as important underlying cellular mechanisms supporting the tonic activation and improved efficacy of these central pathways in response to circulatory demand at rest and during exercise, both in sedentary and in trained individuals. We hope this review will stimulate

  2. Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2011-03-01

    It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans). The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum). These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution.

  3. Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    Full Text Available It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans. The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum. These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution.

  4. Scaling of Brain Metabolism with a Fixed Energy Budget per Neuron: Implications for Neuronal Activity, Plasticity and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans). The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum). These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution. PMID:21390261

  5. The Role of CREB, SRF, and MEF2 in Activity-Dependent Neuronal Plasticity in the Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulimood, Nisha S; Rodrigues, Wandilson Dos Santos; Atkinson, Devon A; Mooney, Sandra M; Medina, Alexandre E

    2017-07-12

    The transcription factors CREB (cAMP response element binding factor), SRF (serum response factor), and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) play critical roles in the mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity. However, the role of the activation of these transcription factors in the different components of plasticity in vivo is not well known. In this study, we tested the role of CREB, SRF, and MEF2 in ocular dominance plasticity (ODP), a paradigm of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in the visual cortex. These three proteins bind to the synaptic activity response element (SARE), an enhancer sequence found upstream of many plasticity-related genes (Kawashima et al., 2009; Rodríguez-Tornos et al., 2013), and can act cooperatively to express Arc , a gene required for ODP (McCurry et al., 2010). We used viral-mediated gene transfer to block the transcription function of CREB, SRF, and MEF2 in the visual cortex, and measured visually evoked potentials in awake male and female mice before and after a 7 d monocular deprivation, which allowed us to examine both the depression component (Dc-ODP) and potentiation component (Pc-ODP) of plasticity independently. We found that CREB, SRF, and MEF2 are all required for ODP, but have differential effects on Dc-ODP and Pc-ODP. CREB is necessary for both Dc-ODP and Pc-ODP, whereas SRF and MEF2 are only needed for Dc-ODP. This finding supports previous reports implicating SRF and MEF2 in long-term depression (required for Dc-ODP), and CREB in long-term potentiation (required for Pc-ODP). SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Activity-dependent neuronal plasticity is the cellular basis for learning and memory, and it is crucial for the refinement of neuronal circuits during development. Identifying the mechanisms of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity is crucial to finding therapeutic interventions in the myriad of disorders where it is disrupted, such as Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, epilepsy, major depressive disorder, and autism

  6. Neuron-glia metabolic coupling: Role in plasticity and neuroprotection

    KAUST Repository

    Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2017-01-01

    A tight metabolic coupling between astrocytes and neurons is a key feature of brain energy metabolism (Magistretti and Allaman, Neuron, 2015). Over the years we have described two basic mechanisms of neurometabolic coupling. First the glycogenolytic

  7. Inflammation and neuronal plasticity: a link between childhood trauma and depression pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Annamaria; Macchi, Flavia; Plazzotta, Giona; Veronica, Begni; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella; Riva, Marco Andrea; Pariante, Carmine Maria

    2015-01-01

    During the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in understanding and characterizing the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder (MDD). Indeed, several are the evidences linking alterations in the inflammatory system to Major Depression, including the presence of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, together with other mediators of inflammation. However, it is still not clear whether inflammation represents a cause or whether other factors related to depression result in these immunological effects. Regardless, exposure to early life stressful events, which represent a vulnerability factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, act through the modulation of inflammatory responses, but also of neuroplastic mechanisms over the entire life span. Indeed, early life stressful events can cause, possibly through epigenetic changes that persist over time, up to adulthood. Such alterations may concur to increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies. In this review we will discuss the role of inflammation and neuronal plasticity as relevant processes underlying depression development. Moreover, we will discuss the role of epigenetics in inducing alterations in inflammation-immune systems as well as dysfunction in neuronal plasticity, thus contributing to the long-lasting negative effects of stressful life events early in life and the consequent enhanced risk for depression. Finally we will provide an overview on the potential role of inflammatory system to aid diagnosis, predict treatment response, enhance treatment matching, and prevent the onset or relapse of Major Depression.

  8. Plasticity of Neuron-Glial Transmission: Equipping Glia for Long-Term Integration of Network Activity

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    Wayne Croft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of synaptic networks to express activity-dependent changes in strength and connectivity is essential for learning and memory processes. In recent years, glial cells (most notably astrocytes have been recognized as active participants in the modulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity, implicating these electrically nonexcitable cells in information processing in the brain. While the concept of bidirectional communication between neurons and glia and the mechanisms by which gliotransmission can modulate neuronal function are well established, less attention has been focussed on the computational potential of neuron-glial transmission itself. In particular, whether neuron-glial transmission is itself subject to activity-dependent plasticity and what the computational properties of such plasticity might be has not been explored in detail. In this review, we summarize current examples of plasticity in neuron-glial transmission, in many brain regions and neurotransmitter pathways. We argue that induction of glial plasticity typically requires repetitive neuronal firing over long time periods (minutes-hours rather than the short-lived, stereotyped trigger typical of canonical long-term potentiation. We speculate that this equips glia with a mechanism for monitoring average firing rates in the synaptic network, which is suited to the longer term roles proposed for astrocytes in neurophysiology.

  9. Piriform cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons express coordinated plasticity for whisker-induced odor recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Gao, Zilong; Chen, Changfeng; Wen, Bo; Huang, Li; Ge, Rongjing; Zhao, Shidi; Fan, Ruichen; Feng, Jing; Lu, Wei; Wang, Liping; Wang, Jin-Hui

    2017-11-10

    Neural plasticity occurs in learning and memory. Coordinated plasticity at glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons during memory formation remains elusive, which we investigate in a mouse model of associative learning by cellular imaging and electrophysiology. Paired odor and whisker stimulations lead to whisker-induced olfaction response. In mice that express this cross-modal memory, the neurons in the piriform cortex are recruited to encode newly acquired whisker signal alongside innate odor signal, and their response patterns to these associated signals are different. There are emerged synaptic innervations from barrel cortical neurons to piriform cortical neurons from these mice. These results indicate the recruitment of associative memory cells in the piriform cortex after associative memory. In terms of the structural and functional plasticity at these associative memory cells in the piriform cortex, glutamatergic neurons and synapses are upregulated, GABAergic neurons and synapses are downregulated as well as their mutual innervations are refined in the coordinated manner. Therefore, the associated activations of sensory cortices triggered by their input signals induce the formation of their mutual synapse innervations, the recruitment of associative memory cells and the coordinated plasticity between the GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons, which work for associative memory cells to encode cross-modal associated signals in their integration, associative storage and distinguishable retrieval.

  10. Plasticity of marrow mesenchymal stem cells from human first-trimester fetus: from single-cell clone to neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihua; Shen, Wenzheng; Sun, Bingjie; Lv, Changrong; Dou, Zhongying

    2011-02-01

    Recent results have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from human first-trimester abortus (hfBMSCs) are closer to embryonic stem cells and perform greater telomerase activity and faster propagation than mid- and late-prophase fetal and adult BMSCs. However, no research has been done on the plasticity of hfBMSCs into neuronal cells using single-cell cloned strains without cell contamination. In this study, we isolated five single cells from hfBMSCs and obtained five single-cell cloned strains, and investigated their biological property and neuronal differentiation potential. We found that four of the five strains showed similar expression profile of surface antigen markers to hfBMSCs, and most of them differentiated into neuron-like cells expressing Nestin, Pax6, Sox1, β-III Tubulin, NF-L, and NSE under induction. One strain showed different expression profile of surface antigen markers from the four strains and hfBMSCs, and did not differentiate toward neuronal cells. We demonstrated for the first time that some of single-cell cloned strains from hfBMSCs can differentiate into nerve tissue-like cell clusters under induction in vitro, and that the plasticity of each single-cell cloned strain into neuronal cells is different.

  11. Does spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity couple or decouple neurons firing in synchrony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eKnoblauch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spike synchronization is thought to have a constructive role for feature integration, attention, associativelearning, and the formation of bidirectionally connected Hebbian cell assemblies. By contrast, theoreticalstudies on spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP report an inherently decoupling influence of spikesynchronization on synaptic connections of coactivated neurons. For example, bidirectional synapticconnections as found in cortical areas could be reproduced only by assuming realistic models of STDP andrate coding. We resolve this conflict by theoretical analysis and simulation of various simple and realisticSTDP models that provide a more complete characterization of conditions when STDP leads to eithercoupling or decoupling of neurons firing in synchrony. In particular, we show that STDP consistentlycouples synchronized neurons if key model parameters are matched to physiological data: First, synapticpotentiation must be significantly stronger than synaptic depression for small (positive or negative timelags between presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes. Second, spike synchronization must be sufficientlyimprecise, for example, within a time window of 5-10msec instead of 1msec. Third, axonal propagationdelays should not be much larger than dendritic delays. Under these assumptions synchronized neuronswill be strongly coupled leading to a dominance of bidirectional synaptic connections even for simpleSTDP models and low mean firing rates at the level of spontaneous activity.

  12. Remote memory and cortical synaptic plasticity require neuronal CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Somi; Yu, Nam-Kyung; Shim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Ji-Il; Kim, Hyopil; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Ja Eun; Lee, Seung-Woo; Choi, Dong Il; Kim, Myung Won; Lee, Dong-Sung; Lee, Kyungmin; Galjart, Niels; Lee, Yong-Seok; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2018-04-30

    The molecular mechanism of long-term memory has been extensively studied in the context of the hippocampus-dependent recent memory examined within several days. However, months-old remote memory maintained in the cortex for long-term has not been investigated much at the molecular level yet. Various epigenetic mechanisms are known to be important for long-term memory, but how the three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architecture and its regulator molecules contribute to neuronal plasticity and systems consolidation are still largely unknown. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an eleven-zinc finger protein well known for its role as a genome architecture molecule. Male conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which CTCF is lost in excitatory neurons during adulthood showed normal recent memory in the contextual fear conditioning and spatial water maze tasks. However, they showed remarkable impairments in remote memory in both tasks. Underlying the remote memory-specific phenotypes, we observed that female CTCF cKO mice exhibit disrupted cortical long-term potentiation (LTP), but not hippocampal LTP. Similarly, we observed that CTCF deletion in inhibitory neurons caused partial impairment of remote memory. Through RNA-sequencing, we observed that CTCF knockdown in cortical neuron culture caused altered expression of genes that are highly involved in cell adhesion, synaptic plasticity, and memory. These results suggest that remote memory storage in the cortex requires CTCF-mediated gene regulation in neurons while recent memory formation in the hippocampus does not. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT CTCF is a well-known 3D genome architectural protein that regulates gene expression. Here, we use two different CTCF conditional knockout mouse lines and reveal for the first time that CTCF is critically involved in the regulation of remote memory. We also show that CTCF is necessary for appropriate expression of genes, many of which we found to be involved in the learning and memory related

  13. Glucose rapidly induces different forms of excitatory synaptic plasticity in hypothalamic POMC neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic POMC neurons are required for glucose and energy homeostasis. POMC neurons have a wide synaptic connection with neurons both within and outside the hypothalamus, and their activity is controlled by a balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Brain glucose-sensing plays an essential role in the maintenance of normal body weight and metabolism; however, the effect of glucose on synaptic transmission in POMC neurons is largely unknown. Here we identified three types of POMC neurons (EPSC(+, EPSC(-, and EPSC(+/- based on their glucose-regulated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Lowering extracellular glucose decreased the frequency of sEPSCs in EPSC(+ neurons, but increased it in EPSC(- neurons. Unlike EPSC(+ and EPSC(- neurons, EPSC(+/- neurons displayed a bi-phasic sEPSC response to glucoprivation. In the first phase of glucoprivation, both the frequency and the amplitude of sEPSCs decreased, whereas in the second phase, they increased progressively to the levels above the baseline values. Accordingly, lowering glucose exerted a bi-phasic effect on spontaneous action potentials in EPSC(+/- neurons. Glucoprivation decreased firing rates in the first phase, but increased them in the second phase. These data indicate that glucose induces distinct excitatory synaptic plasticity in different subpopulations of POMC neurons. This synaptic remodeling is likely to regulate the sensitivity of the melanocortin system to neuronal and hormonal signals.

  14. Glucose Rapidly Induces Different Forms of Excitatory Synaptic Plasticity in Hypothalamic POMC Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Jiang, Lin; Low, Malcolm J.; Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    Hypothalamic POMC neurons are required for glucose and energy homeostasis. POMC neurons have a wide synaptic connection with neurons both within and outside the hypothalamus, and their activity is controlled by a balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Brain glucose-sensing plays an essential role in the maintenance of normal body weight and metabolism; however, the effect of glucose on synaptic transmission in POMC neurons is largely unknown. Here we identified three types of POMC neurons (EPSC(+), EPSC(−), and EPSC(+/−)) based on their glucose-regulated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs), using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Lowering extracellular glucose decreased the frequency of sEPSCs in EPSC(+) neurons, but increased it in EPSC(−) neurons. Unlike EPSC(+) and EPSC(−) neurons, EPSC(+/−) neurons displayed a bi-phasic sEPSC response to glucoprivation. In the first phase of glucoprivation, both the frequency and the amplitude of sEPSCs decreased, whereas in the second phase, they increased progressively to the levels above the baseline values. Accordingly, lowering glucose exerted a bi-phasic effect on spontaneous action potentials in EPSC(+/−) neurons. Glucoprivation decreased firing rates in the first phase, but increased them in the second phase. These data indicate that glucose induces distinct excitatory synaptic plasticity in different subpopulations of POMC neurons. This synaptic remodeling is likely to regulate the sensitivity of the melanocortin system to neuronal and hormonal signals. PMID:25127258

  15. Glucose rapidly induces different forms of excitatory synaptic plasticity in hypothalamic POMC neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Jiang, Lin; Low, Malcolm J; Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    Hypothalamic POMC neurons are required for glucose and energy homeostasis. POMC neurons have a wide synaptic connection with neurons both within and outside the hypothalamus, and their activity is controlled by a balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Brain glucose-sensing plays an essential role in the maintenance of normal body weight and metabolism; however, the effect of glucose on synaptic transmission in POMC neurons is largely unknown. Here we identified three types of POMC neurons (EPSC(+), EPSC(-), and EPSC(+/-)) based on their glucose-regulated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs), using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Lowering extracellular glucose decreased the frequency of sEPSCs in EPSC(+) neurons, but increased it in EPSC(-) neurons. Unlike EPSC(+) and EPSC(-) neurons, EPSC(+/-) neurons displayed a bi-phasic sEPSC response to glucoprivation. In the first phase of glucoprivation, both the frequency and the amplitude of sEPSCs decreased, whereas in the second phase, they increased progressively to the levels above the baseline values. Accordingly, lowering glucose exerted a bi-phasic effect on spontaneous action potentials in EPSC(+/-) neurons. Glucoprivation decreased firing rates in the first phase, but increased them in the second phase. These data indicate that glucose induces distinct excitatory synaptic plasticity in different subpopulations of POMC neurons. This synaptic remodeling is likely to regulate the sensitivity of the melanocortin system to neuronal and hormonal signals.

  16. Neuron array with plastic synapses and programmable dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Shubha; Wunderlich, Richard; Hasler, Jennifer; George, Suma

    2013-10-01

    We describe a novel neuromorphic chip architecture that models neurons for efficient computation. Traditional architectures of neuron array chips consist of large scale systems that are interfaced with AER for implementing intra- or inter-chip connectivity. We present a chip that uses AER for inter-chip communication but uses fast, reconfigurable FPGA-style routing with local memory for intra-chip connectivity. We model neurons with biologically realistic channel models, synapses and dendrites. This chip is suitable for small-scale network simulations and can also be used for sequence detection, utilizing directional selectivity properties of dendrites, ultimately for use in word recognition.

  17. Long-term optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons to study network plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignani, Gabriele; Ferrea, Enrico; Difato, Francesco; Amarù, Jessica; Ferroni, Eleonora; Lugarà, Eleonora; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Baldelli, Pietro; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity produces changes in excitability, synaptic transmission, and network architecture in response to external stimuli. Network adaptation to environmental conditions takes place in time scales ranging from few seconds to days, and modulates the entire network dynamics. To study the network response to defined long-term experimental protocols, we setup a system that combines optical and electrophysiological tools embedded in a cell incubator. Primary hippocampal neurons transduced with lentiviruses expressing channelrhodopsin-2/H134R were subjected to various photostimulation protocols in a time window in the order of days. To monitor the effects of light-induced gating of network activity, stimulated transduced neurons were simultaneously recorded using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). The developed experimental model allows discerning short-term, long-lasting, and adaptive plasticity responses of the same neuronal network to distinct stimulation frequencies applied over different temporal windows. PMID:23970852

  18. Long-term optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons to study network plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignani, Gabriele; Ferrea, Enrico; Difato, Francesco; Amarù, Jessica; Ferroni, Eleonora; Lugarà, Eleonora; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Baldelli, Pietro; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity produces changes in excitability, synaptic transmission, and network architecture in response to external stimuli. Network adaptation to environmental conditions takes place in time scales ranging from few seconds to days, and modulates the entire network dynamics. To study the network response to defined long-term experimental protocols, we setup a system that combines optical and electrophysiological tools embedded in a cell incubator. Primary hippocampal neurons transduced with lentiviruses expressing channelrhodopsin-2/H134R were subjected to various photostimulation protocols in a time window in the order of days. To monitor the effects of light-induced gating of network activity, stimulated transduced neurons were simultaneously recorded using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). The developed experimental model allows discerning short-term, long-lasting, and adaptive plasticity responses of the same neuronal network to distinct stimulation frequencies applied over different temporal windows.

  19. The dependence of neuronal encoding efficiency on Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Synapses act as information filters by different molecular mechanisms including retrograde messenger that affect neuronal spiking activity. One of the well-known effects of retrograde messenger in presynaptic neurons is a change of the probability of neurotransmitter release. Hebbian learning describe a strengthening of a synapse between a presynaptic input onto a postsynaptic neuron when both pre- and postsynaptic neurons are coactive. In this work, a theory of homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release by retrograde messenger and Hebbian plasticity in neuronal encoding is presented. Encoding efficiency was measured for different synaptic conditions. In order to gain high encoding efficiency, the spiking pattern of a neuron should be dependent on the intensity of the input and show low levels of noise. In this work, we represent spiking trains as zeros and ones (corresponding to non-spike or spike in a time bin, respectively) as words with length equal to three. Then the frequency of each word (here eight words) is measured using spiking trains. These frequencies are used to measure neuronal efficiency in different conditions and for different parameter values. Results show that neurons that have synapses acting as band-pass filters show the highest efficiency to encode their input when both Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release exist in synapses. Specifically, the integration of homeostatic regulation of feedback inhibition with Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release in the synapses leads to even higher efficiency when high stimulus intensity is presented to the neurons. However, neurons with synapses acting as high-pass filters show no remarkable increase in encoding efficiency for all simulated synaptic plasticity mechanisms. This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation of Hebbian mechanism with regulation of neurotransmitter release induced by rapid diffused retrograde

  20. Mirror neurons in the tree of life: mosaic evolution, plasticity and exaptation of sensorimotor matching responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, Antonella; Pievani, Telmo; Ferrari, Pier F

    2017-08-01

    Considering the properties of mirror neurons (MNs) in terms of development and phylogeny, we offer a novel, unifying, and testable account of their evolution according to the available data and try to unify apparently discordant research, including the plasticity of MNs during development, their adaptive value and their phylogenetic relationships and continuity. We hypothesize that the MN system reflects a set of interrelated traits, each with an independent natural history due to unique selective pressures, and propose that there are at least three evolutionarily significant trends that gave raise to three subtypes: hand visuomotor, mouth visuomotor, and audio-vocal. Specifically, we put forward a mosaic evolution hypothesis, which posits that different types of MNs may have evolved at different rates within and among species. This evolutionary hypothesis represents an alternative to both adaptationist and associative models. Finally, the review offers a strong heuristic potential in predicting the circumstances under which specific variations and properties of MNs are expected. Such predictive value is critical to test new hypotheses about MN activity and its plastic changes, depending on the species, the neuroanatomical substrates, and the ecological niche. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. Neuronal inhibition and synaptic plasticity of basal ganglia neurons in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Luka; Kalia, Suneil K; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Fasano, Alfonso; Popovic, Milos R; Hutchison, William D

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for Parkinson’s disease symptoms. The therapeutic benefits of deep brain stimulation are frequency-dependent, but the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. To advance deep brain stimulation therapy an understanding of fundamental mechanisms is critical. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the frequency-dependent effects on cell firing in subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata; (ii) quantify frequency-dependent effects on short-term plasticity in substantia nigra pars reticulata; and (iii) investigate effects of continuous long-train high frequency stimulation (comparable to conventional deep brain stimulation) on synaptic plasticity. Two closely spaced (600 µm) microelectrodes were advanced into the subthalamic nucleus (n = 27) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (n = 14) of 22 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson’s disease. Cell firing and evoked field potentials were recorded with one microelectrode during stimulation trains from the adjacent microelectrode across a range of frequencies (1–100 Hz, 100 µA, 0.3 ms, 50–60 pulses). Subthalamic firing attenuated with ≥20 Hz (P stimulation (silenced at 100 Hz), while substantia nigra pars reticulata decreased with ≥3 Hz (P stimulation. Patients with longer silent periods after 100 Hz stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus tended to have better clinical outcome after deep brain stimulation. At ≥30 Hz the first evoked field potential of the stimulation train in substantia nigra pars reticulata was potentiated (P stimulation (P stimulation-induced inhibition than the substantia nigra pars reticulata likely due to differing ratios of GABA:glutamate terminals on the soma and/or the nature of their GABAergic inputs (pallidal versus striatal). We suggest that enhancement of inhibitory synaptic plasticity, and frequency-dependent potentiation and

  2. Plasticity-induced characteristic changes of pattern dynamics and the related phase transitions in small-world neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xu-Hui; Hu Gang

    2014-01-01

    Phase transitions widely exist in nature and occur when some control parameters are changed. In neural systems, their macroscopic states are represented by the activity states of neuron populations, and phase transitions between different activity states are closely related to corresponding functions in the brain. In particular, phase transitions to some rhythmic synchronous firing states play significant roles on diverse brain functions and disfunctions, such as encoding rhythmical external stimuli, epileptic seizure, etc. However, in previous studies, phase transitions in neuronal networks are almost driven by network parameters (e.g., external stimuli), and there has been no investigation about the transitions between typical activity states of neuronal networks in a self-organized way by applying plastic connection weights. In this paper, we discuss phase transitions in electrically coupled and lattice-based small-world neuronal networks (LBSW networks) under spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). By applying STDP on all electrical synapses, various known and novel phase transitions could emerge in LBSW networks, particularly, the phenomenon of self-organized phase transitions (SOPTs): repeated transitions between synchronous and asynchronous firing states. We further explore the mechanics generating SOPTs on the basis of synaptic weight dynamics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. Plastic limit loads for cylindrical shell intersections under combined loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopinsky, V.N.; Berkov, N.A.; Vogov, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, applied methods of nonlinear analysis and results of determining the plastic limit loads for shell intersection configurations under combined internal pressure, in-plane moment and out-plane moment loadings are presented. The numerical analysis of shell intersections is performed using the finite element method, geometrically nonlinear shell theory in quadratic approximation and plasticity theory. For determining the load parameter of proportional combined loading, the developed maximum criterion of rate of change of relative plastic work is employed. The graphical results for model of cylindrical shell intersection under different two-parameter combined loadings (as generalized plastic limit load curves) and three-parameter combined loading (as generalized plastic limit load surface) are presented on the assumption that the internal pressure, in-plane moment and out-plane moment loads were applied in a proportional manner. - Highlights: • This paper presents nonlinear two-dimensional FE analysis for shell intersections. • Determining the plastic limit loads under combined loading is considered. • Developed maximum criterion of rate of change of relative plastic work is employed. • Plastic deformation mechanism in shell intersections is discussed. • Results for generalized plastic limit load curves of branch intersection are presented

  4. AgRP neurons regulate development of dopamine neuronal plasticity and nonfood-associated behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Marcelo O; Bober, Jeremy; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Tellez, Luis A; Mineur, Yann S; Souza, Diogo O; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Picciotto, Marina R; Araújo, Ivan; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Horvath, Tamas L

    2012-01-01

    It is not known whether behaviors unrelated to feeding are affected by hypothalamic regulators of hunger. We found that impairment of Agouti-related protein (AgRP) circuitry by either Sirt1 knockdown in AgRP-expressing neurons or early postnatal ablation of these neurons increased exploratory behavior and enhanced responses to cocaine. In AgRP circuit–impaired mice, ventral tegmental dopamine neurons exhibited enhanced spike timing–dependent long-term potentiation, altered amplitude of miniature postsynaptic currents and elevated dopamine in basal forebrain. Thus, AgRP neurons determine the set point of the reward circuitry and associated behaviors. PMID:22729177

  5. Plastic Changes in the Spinal Cord in Motor Neuron Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fornai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we analyze the cell number within lamina X at the end stage of disease in a G93A mouse model of ALS; the effects induced by lithium; the stem-cell like phenotype of lamina X cells during ALS; the differentiation of these cells towards either a glial or neuronal phenotype. In summary we found that G93A mouse model of ALS produces an increase in lamina X cells which is further augmented by lithium administration. In the absence of lithium these nestin positive stem-like cells preferentially differentiate into glia (GFAP positive, while in the presence of lithium these cells differentiate towards a neuron-like phenotype (βIII-tubulin, NeuN, and calbindin-D28K positive. These effects of lithium are observed concomitantly with attenuation in disease progression and are reminiscent of neurogenetic effects induced by lithium in the subependymal ventricular zone of the hippocampus.

  6. Diversity in Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity at Inhibitory Synapses of Striatal Spiny Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Mendoza, Ernesto; Hernandez, Ricardo; Aceves, Jose J.; Ibanez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Procedural memories and habits are posited to be stored in the basal ganglia, whose intrinsic circuitries possess important inhibitory connections arising from striatal spiny neurons. However, no information about long-term plasticity at these synapses is available. Therefore, this work describes a novel postsynaptically dependent long-term…

  7. The dependence of neuronal encoding efficiency on Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz eFaghihi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Synapses act as information filters by different molecular mechanisms including retrograde messenger that affect neuronal spiking activity. One of the well-known effects of retrograde messenger in presynaptic neurons is a change of the probability of neurotransmitter release. Hebbian learning describe a strengthening of a synapse between a presynaptic input onto a postsynaptic neuron when both pre- and postsynaptic neurons are coactive. In this work, a theory of homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release by retrograde messenger and Hebbian plasticity in neuronal encoding is presented. Encoding efficiency was measured for different synaptic conditions. In order to gain high encoding efficiency, the spiking pattern of a neuron should be dependent on the intensity of the input and show low levels of noise. In this work, we represent spiking trains as zeros and ones (corresponding to non-spike or spike in a time bin, respectively as words with length equal to three. Then the frequency of each word (here eight words is measured using spiking trains. These frequencies are used to measure neuronal efficiency in different conditions and for different parameter values. Results show that neurons that have synapses acting as band-pass filters show the highest efficiency to encode their input when both Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release exist in synapses. Specifically, the integration of homeostatic regulation of feedback inhibition with Hebbian mechanism and homeostatic regulation of neurotransmitter release in the synapses leads to even higher efficiency when high stimulus intensity is presented to the neurons. However, neurons with synapses acting as high-pass filters show no remarkable increase in encoding efficiency for all simulated synaptic plasticity mechanisms.

  8. Two Aspects of ASIC Function: Synaptic Plasticity and Neuronal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Jiang, Nan; Li, Jun; Ji, Yong-Hua; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Zha, Xiang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular brain pH fluctuates in both physiological and disease conditions. The main postsynaptic proton receptor is the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). During the past decade, much progress has been made on protons, ASICs, and neurological disease. This review summarizes the recent progress on synaptic role of protons and our current understanding of how ASICs contribute to various types of neuronal injury in the brain. PMID:25582290

  9. Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors - emerging roles in neuronal memory, learning, synaptic plasticity and neural regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganai, Shabir Ahmad; Ramadoss, Mahalakshmi; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of neuronal signalling through histone acetylation dictates transcription programs that govern neuronal memory, plasticity and learning paradigms. Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are antagonistic enzymes that regulate gene expression through acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins around which DNA is wrapped inside a eukaryotic cell nucleus. The epigenetic control of HDACs and the cellular imbalance between HATs and HDACs dictate disease states and have been implicated in muscular dystrophy, loss of memory, neurodegeneration and autistic disorders. Altering gene expression profiles through inhibition of HDACs is now emerging as a powerful technique in therapy. This review presents evolving applications of HDAC inhibitors as potential drugs in neurological research and therapy. Mechanisms that govern their expression profiles in neuronal signalling, plasticity and learning will be covered. Promising and exciting possibilities of HDAC inhibitors in memory formation, fear conditioning, ischemic stroke and neural regeneration have been detailed.

  10. Two aspects of ASIC function: Synaptic plasticity and neuronal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Jiang, Nan; Li, Jun; Ji, Yong-Hua; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Zha, Xiang-ming

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular brain pH fluctuates in both physiological and disease conditions. The main postsynaptic proton receptor is the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). During the past decade, much progress has been made on protons, ASICs, and neurological disease. This review summarizes the recent progress on synaptic role of protons and our current understanding of how ASICs contribute to various types of neuronal injury in the brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in the Nervous System'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute intermittent hypoxia and rehabilitative training following cervical spinal injury alters neuronal hypoxia- and plasticity-associated protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Atiq; Arnold, Breanna M; Caine, Sally; Toosi, Behzad M; Verge, Valerie M K; Muir, Gillian D

    2018-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches to improve recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the augmentation of spontaneously occurring plasticity in uninjured neural pathways. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH, brief exposures to reduced O2 levels alternating with normal O2 levels) initiates plasticity in respiratory systems and has been shown to improve recovery in respiratory and non-respiratory spinal systems after SCI in experimental animals and humans. Although the mechanism by which AIH elicits its effects after SCI are not well understood, AIH is known to alter protein expression in spinal neurons in uninjured animals. Here, we examine hypoxia- and plasticity-related protein expression using immunofluorescence in spinal neurons in SCI rats that were treated with AIH combined with motor training, a protocol which has been demonstrated to improve recovery of forelimb function in this lesion model. Specifically, we assessed protein expression in spinal neurons from animals with incomplete cervical SCI which were exposed to AIH treatment + motor training either for 1 or 7 days. AIH treatment consisted of 10 episodes of AIH: (5 min 11% O2: 5 min 21% O2) for 7 days beginning at 4 weeks post-SCI. Both 1 or 7 days of AIH treatment + motor training resulted in significantly increased expression of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) relative to normoxia-treated controls, in neurons both proximal (cervical) and remote (lumbar) to the SCI. All other markers examined were significantly elevated in the 7 day AIH + motor training group only, at both cervical and lumbar levels. These markers included vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of the BDNF receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). In summary, AIH induces plasticity at the cellular level after SCI by altering the expression of major plasticity- and hypoxia-related proteins at spinal regions

  12. Influence of deformation rate on plasticity of metals under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churbaev, R.V.; Dobromyslov, A.V.; Kolmogorov, V.L.; Taluts, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    Change of polycrystalline molybdenum (BCC) and titanium (HCP) plasticity under pressure depeding on the deformation rate at the room temperature is studied. It is shown that the reduction of molybdenum and titanium deformation rate leads to a substantial growth of their plastic properties with the effect being increased with pressure growth. Production of several necks testifying to the transition to a superplastic state is observed at high pressures and low deformation rates. A functional dependence of plasticity change on the deformation rate under pressure is ascertained

  13. Molecular and Neuronal Plasticity Mechanisms in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Cortical Circuit: Implications for Opiate Addiction Memory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G Rosen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of associative memories linked to the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse is a core underlying feature of the addiction process. Opiate class drugs in particular, possess potent euphorigenic effects which, when linked to environmental cues, can produce drug-related ‘trigger’ memories that may persist for lengthy periods of time, even during abstinence, in both humans and other animals. Furthermore, the transitional switch from the drug-naïve, non-dependent state to states of dependence and withdrawal, represents a critical boundary between distinct neuronal and molecular substrates associated with opiate-reward memory formation. Identifying the functional molecular and neuronal mechanisms related to the acquisition, consolidation, recall and extinction phases of opiate-related reward memories is critical for understanding, and potentially reversing, addiction-related memory plasticity characteristic of compulsive drug-seeking behaviors. The mammalian prefrontal cortex (PFC and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA share important functional and anatomical connections that are involved importantly in the processing of associative memories linked to drug reward. In addition, both regions share interconnections with the mesolimbic pathway’s ventral tegmental area (VTA and nucleus accumbens (NAc and can modulate dopamine (DA transmission and neuronal activity associated with drug-related DAergic signaling dynamics. In this review, we will summarize research from both human and animal modelling studies highlighting the importance of neuronal and molecular plasticity mechanisms within this circuitry during critical phases of opiate addiction-related learning and memory processing. Specifically, we will focus on two molecular signaling pathways known to be involved in both drug-related neuroadaptations and in memory-related plasticity mechanisms; the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase system (ERK and the Ca2+/calmodulin

  14. Characterization of the time course of changes of the evoked electrical activity in a model of a chemically-induced neuronal plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruaro Maria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal plasticity is initiated by transient elevations of neuronal networks activity leading to changes of synaptic properties and providing the basis for memory and learning 1. An increase of electrical activity can be caused by electrical stimulation 2 or by pharmacological manipulations: elevation of extracellular K+ 3, blockage of inhibitory pathways 4 or by an increase of second messengers intracellular concentrations 5. Neuronal plasticity is mediated by several biochemical pathways leading to the modulation of synaptic strength, density of ionic channels and morphological changes of neuronal arborisation 6. On a time scale of a few minutes, neuronal plasticity is mediated by local protein trafficking 7 while, in order to sustain modifications beyond 2–3 h, changes of gene expression are required 8. Findings In the present manuscript we analysed the time course of changes of the evoked electrical activity during neuronal plasticity and we correlated it with a transcriptional analysis of the underlying changes of gene expression. Our investigation shows that treatment for 30 min. with the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine (GabT causes a potentiation of the evoked electrical activity occurring 2–4 hours after GabT and the concomitant up-regulation of 342 genes. Inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway reduced but did not abolish the potentiation of the evoked response caused by GabT. In fact not all the genes analysed were blocked by ERK1/2 inhibitors. Conclusion These results are in agreement with the notion that neuronal plasticity is mediated by several distinct pathways working in unison.

  15. Focal adhesion kinase regulates neuronal growth, synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Francisco J; Kim, Eun-Jung; Pollak, Daniela D; Cabatic, Maureen; Li, Lin; Baston, Arthur; Lubec, Gert

    2012-01-01

    The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase abundantly expressed in the mammalian brain and highly enriched in neuronal growth cones. Inhibitory and facilitatory activities of FAK on neuronal growth have been reported and its role in neuritic outgrowth remains controversial. Unlike other tyrosine kinases, such as the neurotrophin receptors regulating neuronal growth and plasticity, the relevance of FAK for learning and memory in vivo has not been clearly defined yet. A comprehensive study aimed at determining the role of FAK in neuronal growth, neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons and in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory was therefore undertaken using the mouse model. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments indicated that FAK is a critical regulator of hippocampal cell morphology. FAK mediated neurotrophin-induced neuritic outgrowth and FAK inhibition affected both miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials and activity-dependent hippocampal long-term potentiation prompting us to explore the possible role of FAK in spatial learning and memory in vivo. Our data indicate that FAK has a growth-promoting effect, is importantly involved in the regulation of the synaptic function and mediates in vivo hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Mirror Neurons Modeled Through Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity are Affected by Channelopathies Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Gabriela; Faria da Silva, Samuel F; Simoes de Souza, Fabio M

    2018-06-01

    Mirror neurons fire action potentials both when the agent performs a certain behavior and watches someone performing a similar action. Here, we present an original mirror neuron model based on the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) between two morpho-electrical models of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Both neurons fired spontaneously with basal firing rate that follows a Poisson distribution, and the STDP between them was modeled by the triplet algorithm. Our simulation results demonstrated that STDP is sufficient for the rise of mirror neuron function between the pairs of neocortical neurons. This is a proof of concept that pairs of neocortical neurons associating sensory inputs to motor outputs could operate like mirror neurons. In addition, we used the mirror neuron model to investigate whether channelopathies associated with autism spectrum disorder could impair the modeled mirror function. Our simulation results showed that impaired hyperpolarization-activated cationic currents (Ih) affected the mirror function between the pairs of neocortical neurons coupled by STDP.

  17. Short-term plasticity in turtle dorsal horn neurons mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1994-01-01

    Windup--the gradual increase of the response--of dorsal horn neurons to repeated activation of primary afferents is an elementary form of short-term plasticity that may mediate central sensitization to pain. In deep dorsal horn neurons of the turtle spinal cord in vitro we report windup of the re......Windup--the gradual increase of the response--of dorsal horn neurons to repeated activation of primary afferents is an elementary form of short-term plasticity that may mediate central sensitization to pain. In deep dorsal horn neurons of the turtle spinal cord in vitro we report windup...

  18. Altered neuronal architecture and plasticity in the visual cortex of adult MMP-3 deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Jeroen; Nys, Julie; Moons, Lieve; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Arckens, Lut

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are Zn2+ dependent endopeptidases considered to be essential for normal brain development and neuroplasticity by modulating extracellular matrix proteins, receptors, adhesion molecules, growth factors and cytoskeletal proteins. Specifically MMP-3 has recently been implicated in synaptic plasticity, hippocampus-dependent learning and neuronal development and migration in the cerebellum. However, the function(s) of this enzyme in the neocortex is understudied. T...

  19. Prediction of fretting fatigue behavior under elastic-plastic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ki Su

    2009-01-01

    Fretting fatigue generally leads to the degradation of the fatigue strength of a material due to cyclic micro-slip between two contacting materials. Fretting fatigue is regarded as an important issue in designing aerospace structures. While many studies have evaluated fretting fatigue behavior under elastic deformation conditions, few have focused on fretting fatigue behavior under elastic-plastic deformation conditions, especially the crack orientation and fatigue life prediction for Ti-6Al-4V. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the fretting fatigue crack initiation behavior in the presence of plasticity. Experimental tests were performed using pad configurations involving elastic-plastic deformations. To calculate stress distributions under elastic-plastic fretting fatigue conditions, FEA was also performed. Several parametric approaches were used to predict fretting fatigue life along with stress distribution resulting from FEA. However, those parameters using surface stresses were unable to establish an equivalence between elastic fretting fatigue data and elastic-plastic fretting fatigue data. Based on this observation, the critical distance methods, which are commonly used in notch analysis, were applied to the fretting fatigue problem. In conclusion, the effective strain range method when used in conjunction with the SMSSR parameter showed a good correlation of data points between the pad configurations involving elastic and elastic plastic deformations

  20. Homeostatic plasticity and STDP: keeping a neuron's cool in a fluctuating world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanna J Watt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP offers a powerful means of forming and modifying neural circuits. Experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated its potential usefulness for functions as varied as cortical map development, sharpening of sensory receptive fields, working memory, and associative learning. Even so, it is unlikely that STDP works alone. Unless changes in synaptic strength are coordinated across multiple synapses and with other neuronal properties, it is difficult to maintain the stability and functionality of neural circuits. Moreover, there are certain features of early postnatal development (e.g., rapid changes in sensory input that threaten neural circuit stability in ways that STDP may not be well placed to counter. These considerations have led researchers to investigate additional types of plasticity, complementary to STDP, that may serve to constrain synaptic weights and/or neuronal firing. These are collectively known as “homeostatic plasticity” and include schemes that control the total synaptic strength of a neuron, that modulate its intrinsic excitability as a function of average activity, or that make the ability of synapses to undergo Hebbian modification depend upon their history of use. In this article, we will review the experimental evidence for homeostatic forms of plasticity and consider how they might interact with STDP during development and learning & memory.

  1. Shp2 in Forebrain Neurons Regulates Synaptic Plasticity, Locomotion, and Memory Formation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakari, Shinya; Saitow, Fumihito; Ago, Yukio; Shibasaki, Koji; Sato-Hashimoto, Miho; Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Kotani, Takenori; Murata, Yoji; Hirai, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Toshio; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Shp2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2) regulates neural cell differentiation. It is also expressed in postmitotic neurons, however, and mutations of Shp2 are associated with clinical syndromes characterized by mental retardation. Here we show that conditional-knockout (cKO) mice lacking Shp2 specifically in postmitotic forebrain neurons manifest abnormal behavior, including hyperactivity. Novelty-induced expression of immediate-early genes and activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk) were attenuated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Shp2 cKO mice, suggestive of reduced neuronal activity. In contrast, ablation of Shp2 enhanced high-K+-induced Erk activation in both cultured cortical neurons and synaptosomes, whereas it inhibited that induced by brain-derived growth factor in cultured neurons. Posttetanic potentiation and paired-pulse facilitation were attenuated and enhanced, respectively, in hippocampal slices from Shp2 cKO mice. The mutant mice also manifested transient impairment of memory formation in the Morris water maze. Our data suggest that Shp2 contributes to regulation of Erk activation and synaptic plasticity in postmitotic forebrain neurons and thereby controls locomotor activity and memory formation. PMID:25713104

  2. Dysregulated Expression of Neuregulin-1 by Cortical Pyramidal Neurons Disrupts Synaptic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agarwal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuregulin-1 (NRG1 gene variants are associated with increased genetic risk for schizophrenia. It is unclear whether risk haplotypes cause elevated or decreased expression of NRG1 in the brains of schizophrenia patients, given that both findings have been reported from autopsy studies. To study NRG1 functions in vivo, we generated mouse mutants with reduced and elevated NRG1 levels and analyzed the impact on cortical functions. Loss of NRG1 from cortical projection neurons resulted in increased inhibitory neurotransmission, reduced synaptic plasticity, and hypoactivity. Neuronal overexpression of cysteine-rich domain (CRD-NRG1, the major brain isoform, caused unbalanced excitatory-inhibitory neurotransmission, reduced synaptic plasticity, abnormal spine growth, altered steady-state levels of synaptic plasticity-related proteins, and impaired sensorimotor gating. We conclude that an “optimal” level of NRG1 signaling balances excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the cortex. Our data provide a potential pathomechanism for impaired synaptic plasticity and suggest that human NRG1 risk haplotypes exert a gain-of-function effect.

  3. proBDNF Negatively Regulates Neuronal Remodeling, Synaptic Transmission, and Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent plasticity shapes postnatal development of neural circuits, but the mechanisms that refine dendritic arbors, remodel spines, and impair synaptic activity are poorly understood. Mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF modulates neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP via TrkB activation. BDNF is initially translated as proBDNF, which binds p75NTR. In vitro, recombinant proBDNF modulates neuronal structure and alters hippocampal long-term plasticity, but the actions of endogenously expressed proBDNF are unclear. Therefore, we generated a cleavage-resistant probdnf knockin mouse. Our results demonstrate that proBDNF negatively regulates hippocampal dendritic complexity and spine density through p75NTR. Hippocampal slices from probdnf mice exhibit depressed synaptic transmission, impaired LTP, and enhanced long-term depression (LTD in area CA1. These results suggest that proBDNF acts in vivo as a biologically active factor that regulates hippocampal structure, synaptic transmission, and plasticity, effects that are distinct from those of mature BDNF.

  4. Dysregulated expression of neuregulin-1 by cortical pyramidal neurons disrupts synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit; Zhang, Mingyue; Trembak-Duff, Irina; Unterbarnscheidt, Tilmann; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Dibaj, Payam; Martins de Souza, Daniel; Boretius, Susann; Brzózka, Magdalena M; Steffens, Heinz; Berning, Sebastian; Teng, Zenghui; Gummert, Maike N; Tantra, Martesa; Guest, Peter C; Willig, Katrin I; Frahm, Jens; Hell, Stefan W; Bahn, Sabine; Rossner, Moritz J; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Zhang, Weiqi; Schwab, Markus H

    2014-08-21

    Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) gene variants are associated with increased genetic risk for schizophrenia. It is unclear whether risk haplotypes cause elevated or decreased expression of NRG1 in the brains of schizophrenia patients, given that both findings have been reported from autopsy studies. To study NRG1 functions in vivo, we generated mouse mutants with reduced and elevated NRG1 levels and analyzed the impact on cortical functions. Loss of NRG1 from cortical projection neurons resulted in increased inhibitory neurotransmission, reduced synaptic plasticity, and hypoactivity. Neuronal overexpression of cysteine-rich domain (CRD)-NRG1, the major brain isoform, caused unbalanced excitatory-inhibitory neurotransmission, reduced synaptic plasticity, abnormal spine growth, altered steady-state levels of synaptic plasticity-related proteins, and impaired sensorimotor gating. We conclude that an "optimal" level of NRG1 signaling balances excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the cortex. Our data provide a potential pathomechanism for impaired synaptic plasticity and suggest that human NRG1 risk haplotypes exert a gain-of-function effect. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Proteolytic Remodeling of Perineuronal Nets: Effects on Synaptic Plasticity and Neuronal Population Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lorenzo Bozzelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The perineuronal net (PNN represents a lattice-like structure that is prominently expressed along the soma and proximal dendrites of parvalbumin- (PV- positive interneurons in varied brain regions including the cortex and hippocampus. It is thus apposed to sites at which PV neurons receive synaptic input. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in PNN integrity may affect glutamatergic input to PV interneurons, a population that is critical for the expression of synchronous neuronal population discharges that occur with gamma oscillations and sharp-wave ripples. The present review is focused on the composition of PNNs, posttranslation modulation of PNN components by sulfation and proteolysis, PNN alterations in disease, and potential effects of PNN remodeling on neuronal plasticity at the single-cell and population level.

  6. Neuronal Adaptive Mechanisms Underlying Intelligent Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    event in contrast with PSP or spike production, per se, resulting from natural auditory stimuli which serve as CS’s in Pavlovian blink conditioning...types of neurons responding to ACh or cGHP were conducted using aceclidine, a chol incmimetic drug . Similar effects on membrane resistance were...obtained with this drug , and the effects could be blocked by atropine (a muscarinic receptor blocker), A cell responding to aceclidine with an

  7. Resistance to small plastic strains during martensite tempering under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabil' skij, V.V.; Sarrak, V.I. (AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Fiziki Metallov)

    1982-11-01

    The mechanism of plastic deformation of martensite of a series of hardened steels (N18, 20KhG, 50KhFA and others) during tempering under tension and the role of residual internal microstresses and phase transformations are studied. It is shown that martensite low resistance to small plastic deformations during tempering under tension which is usually associated with phase transformations depends as well on the level of residual internal microstresses in the martensite structure. The decrease of resistance to deformation in the course of the decomposition of a solid solution is due to weakening of martensitic matrix because of carbon departure from the solid solution and carbide coarsening. An assumption is made that martensite plastic deformation during tempering under tension is realized at the expense of the directed microplastic deformation in the regions of higher concentration of internal stresses.

  8. Self-Organization of Microcircuits in Networks of Spiking Neurons with Plastic Synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Koch Ocker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The synaptic connectivity of cortical networks features an overrepresentation of certain wiring motifs compared to simple random-network models. This structure is shaped, in part, by synaptic plasticity that promotes or suppresses connections between neurons depending on their joint spiking activity. Frequently, theoretical studies focus on how feedforward inputs drive plasticity to create this network structure. We study the complementary scenario of self-organized structure in a recurrent network, with spike timing-dependent plasticity driven by spontaneous dynamics. We develop a self-consistent theory for the evolution of network structure by combining fast spiking covariance with a slow evolution of synaptic weights. Through a finite-size expansion of network dynamics we obtain a low-dimensional set of nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of two-synapse connectivity motifs. With this theory in hand, we explore how the form of the plasticity rule drives the evolution of microcircuits in cortical networks. When potentiation and depression are in approximate balance, synaptic dynamics depend on weighted divergent, convergent, and chain motifs. For additive, Hebbian STDP these motif interactions create instabilities in synaptic dynamics that either promote or suppress the initial network structure. Our work provides a consistent theoretical framework for studying how spiking activity in recurrent networks interacts with synaptic plasticity to determine network structure.

  9. Self-Organization of Microcircuits in Networks of Spiking Neurons with Plastic Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocker, Gabriel Koch; Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Doiron, Brent

    2015-08-01

    The synaptic connectivity of cortical networks features an overrepresentation of certain wiring motifs compared to simple random-network models. This structure is shaped, in part, by synaptic plasticity that promotes or suppresses connections between neurons depending on their joint spiking activity. Frequently, theoretical studies focus on how feedforward inputs drive plasticity to create this network structure. We study the complementary scenario of self-organized structure in a recurrent network, with spike timing-dependent plasticity driven by spontaneous dynamics. We develop a self-consistent theory for the evolution of network structure by combining fast spiking covariance with a slow evolution of synaptic weights. Through a finite-size expansion of network dynamics we obtain a low-dimensional set of nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of two-synapse connectivity motifs. With this theory in hand, we explore how the form of the plasticity rule drives the evolution of microcircuits in cortical networks. When potentiation and depression are in approximate balance, synaptic dynamics depend on weighted divergent, convergent, and chain motifs. For additive, Hebbian STDP these motif interactions create instabilities in synaptic dynamics that either promote or suppress the initial network structure. Our work provides a consistent theoretical framework for studying how spiking activity in recurrent networks interacts with synaptic plasticity to determine network structure.

  10. Long-Term Plasticity of Astrocytic Metabotropic Neurotransmitter Receptors Driven by Changes in Neuronal Activity in Hippocampal Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xiaoqiao

    2011-01-01

    In addition to synaptic communication between neurons, there is now strong evidence for neuron-to-astrocyte receptor signaling in the brain. During trains of action potentials or repetitive stimulation, neurotransmitter spills out of the synapse to activate astrocytic Gq protein-coupled receptors (Gq GPCRs). To date, very little is known about the ability of astrocytic receptors to exhibit plasticity as a result of long-term changes in neuronal firing rates. Here we describe for the first tim...

  11. Hypocretin/orexin neurons contribute to hippocampus-dependent social memory and synaptic plasticity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liya; Zou, Bende; Xiong, Xiaoxing; Pascual, Conrado; Xie, James; Malik, Adam; Xie, Julian; Sakurai, Takeshi; Xie, Xinmin Simon

    2013-03-20

    Hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus project throughout the brain, including to the hippocampus, where Hcrt receptors are widely expressed. Hcrt neurons activate these targets to orchestrate global arousal state, wake-sleep architecture, energy homeostasis, stress adaptation, and reward behaviors. Recently, Hcrt has been implicated in cognitive functions and social interaction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Hcrt neurons are critical to social interaction, particularly social memory, using neurobehavioral assessment and electrophysiological approaches. The validated "two-enclosure homecage test" devices and procedure were used to test sociability, preference for social novelty (social novelty), and recognition memory. A conventional direct contact social test was conducted to corroborate the findings. We found that adult orexin/ataxin-3-transgenic (AT) mice, in which Hcrt neurons degenerate by 3 months of age, displayed normal sociability and social novelty with respect to their wild-type littermates. However, AT mice displayed deficits in long-term social memory. Nasal administration of exogenous Hcrt-1 restored social memory to an extent in AT mice. Hippocampal slices taken from AT mice exhibited decreases in degree of paired-pulse facilitation and magnitude of long-term potentiation, despite displaying normal basal synaptic neurotransmission in the CA1 area compared to wild-type hippocampal slices. AT hippocampi had lower levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB), an activity-dependent transcription factor important for synaptic plasticity and long-term memory storage. Our studies demonstrate that Hcrt neurons play an important role in the consolidation of social recognition memory, at least in part through enhancements of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation.

  12. GABAA receptor drugs and neuronal plasticity in reward and aversion: focus on the ventral tegmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eVashchinkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors are the main fast inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain, and targets for many clinically important drugs widely used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia and in anesthesia. Nonetheless, there are significant risks associated with the long-term use of these drugs particularly related to development of tolerance and addiction. Addictive mechanisms of GABAA receptor drugs are poorly known, but recent findings suggest that those drugs may induce aberrant neuroadaptations in the brain reward circuitry. Recently, benzodiazepines, acting on synaptic GABAA receptors, and modulators of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (THIP and neurosteroids have been found to induce plasticity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA dopamine neurons and their main target projections. Furthermore, depending whether synaptic or extrasynaptic GABAA receptor populations are activated, the behavioral outcome of repeated administration seems to correlate with rewarding or aversive behavioral responses, respectively. The VTA dopamine neurons project to forebrain centers such as the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, and receive afferent projections from these brain regions and especially from the extended amygdala and lateral habenula, forming the major part of the reward and aversion circuitry. Both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA drugs inhibit the VTA GABAergic interneurons, thus activating the VTA DA neurons by disinhibition and this way inducing glutamatergic synaptic plasticity. However, the GABAA drugs failed to alter synaptic spine numbers as studied from Golgi-Cox-stained VTA dendrites. Since the GABAergic drugs are known to depress the brain metabolism and gene expression, their likely way of inducing neuroplasticity in mature neurons is by disinhibiting the principal neurons, which remains to be rigorously tested for a number of clinically important anxiolytics, sedatives and anesthetics in different parts of

  13. Delay selection by spike-timing-dependent plasticity in recurrent networks of spiking neurons receiving oscillatory inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Kerr

    Full Text Available Learning rules, such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP, change the structure of networks of neurons based on the firing activity. A network level understanding of these mechanisms can help infer how the brain learns patterns and processes information. Previous studies have shown that STDP selectively potentiates feed-forward connections that have specific axonal delays, and that this underlies behavioral functions such as sound localization in the auditory brainstem of the barn owl. In this study, we investigate how STDP leads to the selective potentiation of recurrent connections with different axonal and dendritic delays during oscillatory activity. We develop analytical models of learning with additive STDP in recurrent networks driven by oscillatory inputs, and support the results using simulations with leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. Our results show selective potentiation of connections with specific axonal delays, which depended on the input frequency. In addition, we demonstrate how this can lead to a network becoming selective in the amplitude of its oscillatory response to this frequency. We extend this model of axonal delay selection within a single recurrent network in two ways. First, we show the selective potentiation of connections with a range of both axonal and dendritic delays. Second, we show axonal delay selection between multiple groups receiving out-of-phase, oscillatory inputs. We discuss the application of these models to the formation and activation of neuronal ensembles or cell assemblies in the cortex, and also to missing fundamental pitch perception in the auditory brainstem.

  14. The Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor has a dual role in neuronal and vascular plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eWallner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF is a growth factor that has originally been identified several decades ago as a hematopoietic factor required mainly for the generation of neutrophilic granulocytes, and is in clinical use for that. More recently, it has been discovered that G-CSF also plays a role in the brain as a growth factor for neurons and neural stem cells, and as a factor involved in the plasticity of the vasculature. We review and discuss these dual properties in view of the neuroregenerative potential of this growth factor.

  15. DCC Expression by Neurons Regulates Synaptic Plasticity in the Adult Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Horn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmembrane protein deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC and its ligand, netrin-1, regulate synaptogenesis during development, but their function in the mature central nervous system is unknown. Given that DCC promotes cell-cell adhesion, is expressed by neurons, and activates proteins that signal at synapses, we hypothesized that DCC expression by neurons regulates synaptic function and plasticity in the adult brain. We report that DCC is enriched in dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice, and we demonstrate that selective deletion of DCC from neurons in the adult forebrain results in the loss of long-term potentiation (LTP, intact long-term depression, shorter dendritic spines, and impaired spatial and recognition memory. LTP induction requires Src activation of NMDA receptor (NMDAR function. DCC deletion severely reduced Src activation. We demonstrate that enhancing NMDAR function or activating Src rescues LTP in the absence of DCC. We conclude that DCC activation of Src is required for NMDAR-dependent LTP and certain forms of learning and memory.

  16. Neuronal plasticity in hibernation and the proposed role of the microtubule-associated protein tau as a "master switch" regulating synaptic gain in neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Thomas; Bullmann, Torsten

    2013-09-01

    The present paper provides an overview of adaptive changes in brain structure and learning abilities during hibernation as a behavioral strategy used by several mammalian species to minimize energy expenditure under current or anticipated inhospitable environmental conditions. One cellular mechanism that contributes to the regulated suppression of metabolism and thermogenesis during hibernation is reversible phosphorylation of enzymes and proteins, which limits rates of flux through metabolic pathways. Reversible phosphorylation during hibernation also affects synaptic membrane proteins, a process known to be involved in synaptic plasticity. This mechanism of reversible protein phosphorylation also affects the microtubule-associated protein tau, thereby generating a condition that in the adult human brain is associated with aggregation of tau protein to paired helical filaments (PHFs), as observed in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we put forward the concept that phosphorylation of tau is a neuroprotective mechanism to escape NMDA-mediated hyperexcitability of neurons that would otherwise occur during slow gradual cooling of the brain. Phosphorylation of tau and its subsequent targeting to subsynaptic sites might, thus, work as a kind of "master switch," regulating NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic gain in a wide array of neuronal networks, thereby enabling entry into torpor. If this condition lasts too long, however, it may eventually turn into a pathological trigger, driving a cascade of events leading to neurodegeneration, as in Alzheimer's disease or other "tauopathies".

  17. Migration of DEHP from plastic to food simulants under microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Li, F.; Qiu, Z. Z.; Huang, J. W.

    2017-05-01

    The migration of plasticizer DEHP from the plastic products (4 kinds of commonly used plastic food containers under microwave heating: plastic wrap, food bags, ordinary plastic boxes, microwave special plastic boxes) through food contact materials to food simulants (isooctane, 10% ethanol-water solution (v/v), 3% acetic acid-water solution (w/w) and distilled water) was studied under microwave heating (power levels of 400 W). The results shows that the DEHP mobility increases with the increase of microwave heating time, DEHP mobility in isooctane and 3% acetic acid-water solution (w/w) is significantly greater than in 10% ethanol-water solution (v/v) and distilled water; the order of DEHP mobility in isooctane is plastic wrap>food bag>common plastic box>microwave-safe plastic box, while in 3% acetic acid (w/w), the order is food bag>common plastic box>microwave-safe plastic box>plastic wrap.

  18. Fear extinction induces mGluR5-mediated synaptic and intrinsic plasticity in infralimbic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda-Orengo, Marian T; Lopez, Ana V; Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Porter, James T

    2013-04-24

    Studies suggest that plasticity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) in rodents and its homolog in humans is necessary for inhibition of fear during the recall of fear extinction. The recall of extinction is impaired by locally blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) activation in IL during extinction training. This finding suggests that mGluR5 stimulation may lead to IL plasticity needed for fear extinction. To test this hypothesis, we recorded AMPA and NMDA currents, AMPA receptor (AMPAR) rectification, and intrinsic excitability in IL pyramidal neurons in slices from trained rats using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We observed that fear extinction increases the AMPA/NMDA ratio, consistent with insertion of AMPARs into IL synapses. In addition, extinction training increased inward rectification, suggesting that extinction induces the insertion of calcium-permeable (GluA2-lacking) AMPARs into IL synapses. Consistent with this, selectively blocking calcium-permeable AMPARs with Naspm reduced the AMPA EPSCs in IL neurons to a larger degree after extinction. Extinction-induced changes in AMPA/NMDA ratio, rectification, and intrinsic excitability were blocked with an mGluR5 antagonist. These findings suggest that mGluR5 activation leads to consolidation of fear extinction by regulating the intrinsic excitability of IL neurons and modifying the composition of AMPARs in IL synapses. Therefore, impaired mGluR5 activity in IL synapses could be one factor that causes inappropriate modulation of fear expression leading to anxiety disorders.

  19. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  20. Unsteady exergy destruction of the neuron under dynamic stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genc, S.; Sorguven, E.; Ozilgen, M.; Aksan Kurnaz, I.

    2013-01-01

    Just like all physical systems, biological systems also obey laws of thermodynamics, and as such the useful work potential of a biological system is its exergy. In some studies, exergy of living systems is considered with respect to work performance of humans in offices or buildings; however the exergy analysis of biochemical reactions in a cell as a closed system goes largely untouched. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to glucose metabolism of a model neuron, and dynamic exergy destructions were calculated for four different conditions, namely normoxia, hypoxia, glucose starvation and excess glucose. Our results showed that neuronal metabolism achieved a new steady state under each condition within 5 min. This dynamic model predicts that, both exergy destruction and work potential rates increase with increasing blood glucose concentration. The ratio of exergy destruction rate to work potential rate increases logarithmically with increasing blood glucose concentration. The neuronal metabolism is thus found to function in an efficient way and switches to lower exergy destruction under stress conditions such as glucose starvation. This behavior seen in this exergy analysis study confirms the assumption of minimum entropy production in living systems. - Highlights: • Unsteady exergy analysis of glucose metabolism of a model neuron is performed. • Dynamic exergy losses were calculated for four different conditions: normoxia, hypoxia, glucose starvation and excess glucose. • Neuronal metabolism achieved a new steady state under each condition within 5 min. • Both exergy loss and work potential rates increase with increasing blood glucose concentration. • Neuronal metabolism functions in an efficient way and switches to lower exergy loss under stress conditions

  1. Mice lacking the transcriptional regulator Bhlhe40 have enhanced neuronal excitability and impaired synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Hamilton

    Full Text Available Bhlhe40 is a transcription factor that is highly expressed in the hippocampus; however, its role in neuronal function is not well understood. Here, we used Bhlhe40 null mice on a congenic C57Bl6/J background (Bhlhe40 KO to investigate the impact of Bhlhe40 on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Bhlhe40 KO CA1 neurons had increased miniature excitatory post-synaptic current amplitude and decreased inhibitory post-synaptic current amplitude, indicating CA1 neuronal hyperexcitability. Increased CA1 neuronal excitability was not associated with increased seizure severity as Bhlhe40 KO relative to +/+ (WT control mice injected with the convulsant kainic acid. However, significant reductions in long term potentiation and long term depression at CA1 synapses were observed in Bhlhe40 KO mice, indicating impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Behavioral testing for spatial learning and memory on the Morris Water Maze (MWM revealed that while Bhlhe40 KO mice performed similarly to WT controls initially, when the hidden platform was moved to the opposite quadrant Bhlhe40 KO mice showed impairments in relearning, consistent with decreased hippocampal synaptic plasticity. To investigate possible mechanisms for increased neuronal excitability and decreased synaptic plasticity, a whole genome mRNA expression profile of Bhlhe40 KO hippocampus was performed followed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq screen of the validated candidate genes for Bhlhe40 protein-DNA interactions consistent with transcriptional regulation. Of the validated genes identified from mRNA expression analysis, insulin degrading enzyme (Ide had the most significantly altered expression in hippocampus and was significantly downregulated on the RNA and protein levels; although Bhlhe40 did not occupy the Ide gene by ChIP-Seq. Together, these findings support a role for Bhlhe40 in regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in

  2. Spine formation pattern of adult-born neurons is differentially modulated by the induction timing and location of hippocampal plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Ohkawa

    Full Text Available In the adult hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG, newly born neurons are functionally integrated into existing circuits and play important roles in hippocampus-dependent memory. However, it remains unclear how neural plasticity regulates the integration pattern of new neurons into preexisting circuits. Because dendritic spines are major postsynaptic sites for excitatory inputs, spines of new neurons were visualized by retrovirus-mediated labeling to evaluate integration. Long-term potentiation (LTP was induced at 12, 16, or 21 days postinfection (dpi, at which time new neurons have no, few, or many spines, respectively. The spine expression patterns were investigated at one or two weeks after LTP induction. Induction at 12 dpi increased later spinogenesis, although the new neurons at 12 dpi didn't respond to the stimulus for LTP induction. Induction at 21 dpi transiently mediated spine enlargement. Surprisingly, LTP induction at 16 dpi reduced the spine density of new neurons. All LTP-mediated changes specifically appeared within the LTP-induced layer. Therefore, neural plasticity differentially regulates the integration of new neurons into the activated circuit, dependent on their developmental stage. Consequently, new neurons at different developmental stages may play distinct roles in processing the acquired information by modulating the connectivity of activated circuits via their integration.

  3. Elasto-plastic frame under horizontal and vertical Gaussian excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Randrup-Thomsen, S.

    1999-01-01

    Taking geometric non-linearity into account anoscillator of the form as aportal frame with a rigid traverse and with ideal-elastic ideal-plasticclamped-in columns behaves under horizontalexcitation as an ideal-elastic hardening / softening-plastic oscilator given that the columns carry atension....../compression axial force. Assuming that the horizontal excitationof the traverse is Gaussian white noise, statistics related to the plastic displacement response are determinedby use of simulation based on the Slepian modelprocess method combined with envelope excursion properties. Besidesgiving physical insight...... the method givesgood approximations to results obtained by slow direct simulation of thetotal response. Moreover, the influence of a randomly varying axial column force isinvestigated by direct response simulation. This case corresponds to parametric excitation as generated by the vertical acceleration...

  4. Adaptive behavior of neighboring neurons during adaptation-induced plasticity of orientation tuning in V1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumikhina Svetlana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensory neurons display transient changes of their response properties following prolonged exposure to an appropriate stimulus (adaptation. In adult cat primary visual cortex, orientation-selective neurons shift their preferred orientation after being adapted to a non-preferred orientation. The direction of those shifts, towards (attractive or away (repulsive from the adapter depends mostly on adaptation duration. How the adaptive behavior of a neuron is related to that of its neighbors remains unclear. Results Here we show that in most cases (75%, cells shift their preferred orientation in the same direction as their neighbors. We also found that cells shifting preferred orientation differently from their neighbors (25% display three interesting properties: (i larger variance of absolute shift amplitude, (ii wider tuning bandwidth and (iii larger range of preferred orientations among the cluster of cells. Several response properties of V1 neurons depend on their location within the cortical orientation map. Our results suggest that recording sites with both attractive and repulsive shifts following adaptation may be located in close proximity to iso-orientation domain boundaries or pinwheel centers. Indeed, those regions have a more diverse orientation distribution of local inputs that could account for the three properties above. On the other hand, sites with all cells shifting their preferred orientation in the same direction could be located within iso-orientation domains. Conclusions Our results suggest that the direction and amplitude of orientation preference shifts in V1 depend on location within the orientation map. This anisotropy of adaptation-induced plasticity, comparable to that of the visual cortex itself, could have important implications for our understanding of visual adaptation at the psychophysical level.

  5. Dual nitrergic/cholinergic control of short-term plasticity of corticostriatal inputs to striatal projection neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Peter Blomeley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of nitric oxide and acetylcholine to modulate the short-term plasticity of corticostriatal inputs was investigated using current-clamp recordings in BAC mouse brain slices. Glutamatergic responses were evoked by stimulation of corpus callosum in D1 and D2 dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs and D2-MSN, respectively. Paired-pulse stimulation (50 ms intervals evoked depressing or facilitating responses in subgroups of both D1-MSNs and D2 MSNs. In both neuronal types, glutamatergic responses of cells that displayed paired-pulse depression were not significantly affected by the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 100 µM. Conversely, in D1-MSNs and D2-MSNs that displayed paired-pulse facilitation, SNAP did not affect the first evoked response, but significantly reduced the amplitude of the second evoked EPSP, converting paired-pulse facilitation into paired-pulse depression. SNAP also strongly excited cholinergic interneurons and increased their cortical glutamatergic responses acting through a presynaptic mechanism. The effects of SNAP on glutamatergic response of D1-MSNs and D2-MSN were mediated by acetylcholine. The broad-spectrum muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (25 µM did not affect paired-pulse ratios and did not prevent the effects of SNAP. Conversely, the broad-spectrum nicotinic receptor antagonist tubocurarine (10 µM fully mimicked and occluded the effects of SNAP. We concluded that phasic acetylcholine release mediates feedforward facilitation in MSNs through activation of nicotinic receptors on glutamatergic terminals and that nitric oxide, while increasing cholinergic interneurons’ firing, functionally impairs their ability to modulate glutamatergic inputs of MSNs. These results show that nitrergic and cholinergic transmission control the short-term plasticity of glutamatergic inputs in the striatum and reveal a novel cellular mechanism underlying paired

  6. Myenteric neuronal plasticity induced by Toxoplasma gondii (genotype III on the duodenum of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Papazian-Cabanas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute and chronic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii on duodenal myenteric neurons were analyzed. Eighteen rats were assigned into four groups: Acute Control Group (ACG, n=4; Acute Experimental Group (AEG, n=4; Chronic Control Group (CCG, n=5; and Chronic Experimental Group (CEG, n=5. Rats from the AEG and CEG were inoculated orally with 105 genotype III (BTU-II strain tachyzoites of T. gondii isolated from a dog with neurological signs. Acute groups were killed after 24 hours after the inoculation and the chronic groups after 30 days. Whole-mount from the duodenum were stained with Giemsa. The population density of myenteric neurons, as well the body cell, nuclear and cytoplasmic area were analyzed. Both acute and chronic toxoplasmic infection did not provoke neuronal loss. On the other hand, plastic alterations were observed: decreasing of the nuclear and cytoplasmic area during the acute phase and neuronal hypertrophy during the chronic phase.Foram analisados os efeitos da infecção aguda e crônica provocada pelo Toxoplasma gondii sobre os neurônios mientéricos do duodeno. Dezoito ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: Grupo Controle Agudo (GCA, n= 4, Grupo Experimental Agudo (GEA, n=4, Grupo Controle Crônico (GCC, n=5 e Grupo Experimental Crônico (GEC, n=5. Os animais do GEA e GEC receberam por via oral 10 5 taquizoítos de Toxoplasma gondii da cepa BTUII (genótipo III isolada de um cão com sintomatologia neurológica. Os grupos agudos foram submetidos à eutanásia após 24 horas e os crônicos após 30 dias da inoculação. Preparados totais do duodeno foram corados com Giemsa. A densidade populacional dos neurônios mientéricos, bem como a área do corpo celular, núcleo e citoplasma foram analisados. Ambas, as infecções toxoplásmicas aguda e crônica não provocaram a perda neuronal. Por outro lado, alterações plásticas foram observadas: diminuição da área nuclear e citoplasmática durante a fase

  7. Downregulation of immediate-early genes linking to suppression of neuronal plasticity in rats after 28-day exposure to glycidol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akane, Hirotoshi; Saito, Fumiyo; Shiraki, Ayako; Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Itahashi, Megu; Murakami, Tomoaki; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We previously found that the 28-day oral toxicity study of glycidol at 200 mg/kg/day in rats resulted in axonopathy in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and aberrations in the late-stage of hippocampal neurogenesis targeting the process of neurite extension. To capture the neuronal parameters in response to glycidol toxicity, these animals were subjected to region-specific global gene expression profiling in four regions of cerebral and cerebellar architectures, followed by immunohistochemical analysis of selected gene products. Expression changes of genes related to axonogenesis and synaptic transmission were observed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis at 200 mg/kg showing downregulation in most genes. In the corpus callosum, genes related to growth, survival and functions of glial cells fluctuated their expression. Immunohistochemically, neurons expressing gene products of immediate-early genes, i.e., Arc, Fos and Jun, decreased in their number in the dentate granule cell layer, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis. We also applied immunohistochemical analysis in rat offspring after developmental exposure to glycidol through maternal drinking water. The results revealed increases of Arc + neurons at 1000 ppm and Fos + neurons at ≥ 300 ppm in the dentate granule cell layer of offspring only at the adult stage. These results suggest that glycidol suppressed neuronal plasticity in the brain after 28-day exposure to young adult animals, in contrast to the operation of restoration mechanism to increase neuronal plasticity at the adult stage in response to aberrations in neurogenesis after developmental exposure. - Highlights: • Neuronal toxicity parameters after 28-day glycidol treatment were examined in rats. • Region-specific global gene expression profiling was conducted in brain regions. • Cortical tissues downregulated genes on axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. • Cortical tissues decreased

  8. Downregulation of immediate-early genes linking to suppression of neuronal plasticity in rats after 28-day exposure to glycidol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akane, Hirotoshi [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Shiraki, Ayako [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Imatanaka, Nobuya [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Itahashi, Megu [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Murakami, Tomoaki [Laboratory of Veterinary Toxicology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    We previously found that the 28-day oral toxicity study of glycidol at 200 mg/kg/day in rats resulted in axonopathy in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and aberrations in the late-stage of hippocampal neurogenesis targeting the process of neurite extension. To capture the neuronal parameters in response to glycidol toxicity, these animals were subjected to region-specific global gene expression profiling in four regions of cerebral and cerebellar architectures, followed by immunohistochemical analysis of selected gene products. Expression changes of genes related to axonogenesis and synaptic transmission were observed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis at 200 mg/kg showing downregulation in most genes. In the corpus callosum, genes related to growth, survival and functions of glial cells fluctuated their expression. Immunohistochemically, neurons expressing gene products of immediate-early genes, i.e., Arc, Fos and Jun, decreased in their number in the dentate granule cell layer, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis. We also applied immunohistochemical analysis in rat offspring after developmental exposure to glycidol through maternal drinking water. The results revealed increases of Arc{sup +} neurons at 1000 ppm and Fos{sup +} neurons at ≥ 300 ppm in the dentate granule cell layer of offspring only at the adult stage. These results suggest that glycidol suppressed neuronal plasticity in the brain after 28-day exposure to young adult animals, in contrast to the operation of restoration mechanism to increase neuronal plasticity at the adult stage in response to aberrations in neurogenesis after developmental exposure. - Highlights: • Neuronal toxicity parameters after 28-day glycidol treatment were examined in rats. • Region-specific global gene expression profiling was conducted in brain regions. • Cortical tissues downregulated genes on axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. • Cortical tissues

  9. Steady-state dynamics and experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines of layer 4/5a pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Miquelajauregui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steady state dynamics and experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines of layer (L 2/3 and L5B cortical pyramidal neurons have recently been assessed using in vivo two-photon microscopy (Trachtenberg et al., 2002; Zuo et al., 2005; Holtmaat et al., 2006. In contrast, not much is known about spine dynamics in L4/5a neurons, regarded as direct recipients of thalamocortical input (Constantinople and Bruno, 2013. In the adult mouse somatosensory cortex (SCx, the transcription factor Ebf2 is enriched in excitatory neurons of L4/5a, including pyramidal neurons. We assessed the molecular and electrophysiological properties of these neurons as well as the morphology of their apical tufts (Scholl analysis and cortical outputs (optogenetics within the SCx. To test the hypothesis that L4/5a pyramidal neurons play an important role in sensory processing (given their key laminar position; soma depth ~450-480 µm, we successfully labeled them in Ebf2-Cre mice with EGFP by expressing recombinant rAAV vectors in utero. Using longitudinal in vivo two-photon microscopy through a craniotomy (Mostany and Portera-Cailliau, 2008, we repeatedly imaged spines in apical dendritic tufts of L4/5a neurons under basal conditions and after sensory deprivation. Under steady-state conditions in adults, the morphology of the apical tufts and the mean spine density were stable at 0.39 ± 0.05 spines/μm (comparable to L5B, Mostany et al., 2011. Interestingly, spine elimination increases 4-8 days after sensory deprivation, probably due to input loss. This suggests that Ebf2+ L4/5a neurons could be involved in early steps of processing of thalamocortical information.

  10. Diffraction analysis of materials under strong plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzalla, A.

    2001-01-01

    The applicability of X-ray diffraction in analyses of the microstructure texture and intrinsic stresses of materials under strong plastic deformation is illustrated by examples and discussed. The experimental methods and findings are supplemented by numeric calculations. It is shown how the microstructure, texture and intrinsic stresses can thus be optimized already in the production process. Analyses of changes in materials during operation of a component provide information on loads and material response to loads which can then be used for optimization of the component, e.g. by constructional modifications or selective heat treatment [de

  11. Structural plasticity in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons produced by drugs of abuse: critical role of BDNF and dopamine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginetta eCollo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons were suggested to be a critical physiopathology substrate for addiction disorders. Among neuroadaptive processes to addictive drugs, structural plasticity has attracted attention. While structural plasticity occurs at both pre- and post-synaptic levels in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, the present review focuses only on dopaminergic neurons. Exposures to addictive drugs determine two opposite structural responses, hypothrophic plasticity produced by opioids and cannabinoids (in particular during the early withdrawal phase and hypertrophic plasticity, mostly driven by psychostimulants and nicotine. In vitro and in vivo studies indentified BDNF and extracellular dopamine as two critical factors in determining structural plasticity, the two molecules sharing similar intracellular pathways involved in cell soma and dendrite growth, the MEK-ERK1/2 and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR, via preferential activation of TrkB and dopamine D3 receptors, respectively. At present information regarding specific structural changes associated to the various stages of the addiction cycle is incomplete. Encouraging neuroimaging data in humans indirectly support the preclinical evidence of hypotrophic and hypertrophic effects, suggesting a possible differential engagement of dopamine neurons in parallel and partially converging circuits controlling motivation, stress and emotions.

  12. Scaling of Brain Metabolism with a Fixed Energy Budget per Neuron: Implications for Neuronal Activity, Plasticity and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodent...

  13. Integration of Plasticity Mechanisms within a Single Sensory Neuron of C. elegans Actuates a Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Josh D; Calvo, Ana C; Liu, Ping; Almoril-Porras, Agustin; Aljobeh, Ahmad; Torruella-Suárez, María Luisa; Ren, Ivy; Cook, Nathan; Greenwood, Joel; Luo, Linjiao; Wang, Zhao-Wen; Samuel, Aravinthan D T; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A

    2018-01-17

    Neural plasticity, the ability of neurons to change their properties in response to experiences, underpins the nervous system's capacity to form memories and actuate behaviors. How different plasticity mechanisms act together in vivo and at a cellular level to transform sensory information into behavior is not well understood. We show that in Caenorhabditis elegans two plasticity mechanisms-sensory adaptation and presynaptic plasticity-act within a single cell to encode thermosensory information and actuate a temperature preference memory. Sensory adaptation adjusts the temperature range of the sensory neuron (called AFD) to optimize detection of temperature fluctuations associated with migration. Presynaptic plasticity in AFD is regulated by the conserved kinase nPKCε and transforms thermosensory information into a behavioral preference. Bypassing AFD presynaptic plasticity predictably changes learned behavioral preferences without affecting sensory responses. Our findings indicate that two distinct neuroplasticity mechanisms function together through a single-cell logic system to enact thermotactic behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plastic loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kuk Hee; Kim, Yun Jae; Park, Chi Yong; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2007-01-01

    Based on three-Dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit and TES(Twice- Elastic-Slope) loads for pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic.perfectly-plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide TES plastic loads. A wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and TES plastic load solutions for pipe bends under out-of-plane bending are proposed

  15. Activity of gypsy moth dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons under increased rearing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrdaković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymantria dispar caterpillars were reared under two different rearing densities for the first three days of the 4th larval instar: 5 larvae that were kept in a Petri dish (V = 80 ml belonged to the intense stress (D1 group; 5 larvae that were kept in a plastic cup (V = 300ml belonged to the group exposed to less intense stress (D2 group. In the control group, single larvae were reared in a Petri dish. Morphometric changes in L1, L2 and L2’ dorsolateral neurosecretory neurons (nsn were analyzed. After keeping 5 larvae in a Petri dish, the size of L2 neurosecretory neurons (nsn significantly increased. Rearing 5 larvae in a plastic cup significantly increased the size of L1 nsn nuclei and the number of L2’nsn. A decrease in relative band densities in the region of molecular masses (11-15 kD that correspond to prothoracicotropic hormones in the gypsy moth was observed in the electrophoretic profiles that were obtained after both treatments in comparison to the control group. [Acknowledgments. This study was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science (Grant No. 173027.

  16. Vegetative and reproductive evaluation of hot peppers under different plastic mulches in poly/plastic tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Q.; Amjad, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of civilization, the man has developed technologies to increase the efficiency of food production. The use of plastic mulch in commercial vegetable production is one of these traditional techniques that have been used for centuries. Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of plastic mulch on growth and yield of two hot pepper hybrids, viz. Sky Red and Maha in poly/plastic tunnel. The treatments were black plastic mulch, clear plastic mulch and bare soil as control. Both hot pepper hybrids mulched with black plastic showed significantly better vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area etc) and fruit yield. Clear plastic mulch significantly increased soil temperature and reduced the number of days to first flower than black plastic mulch and bare soil. However, fruit yield was higher by 39.56 and 36.49% respectively in both hybrids when they were grown on black and clear plastic mulch as compared to bare soil. Overall results indicated that the use of plastic mulch is an ideal option to maximize hot pepper productivity as well as to extend their production season in poly/plastic tunnels. (author)

  17. Oxytocin Neurons Exhibit Extensive Functional Plasticity Due To Offspring Age in Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aubrey M; Hiura, Lisa C; Saunders, Alexander G; Ophir, Alexander G

    2017-09-01

    The needs of offspring change as they develop. Thus, parents should concomitantly change their investment based on the age-related needs of the offspring as they mature. Due to the high costs of parental care, it is optimal for parents to exhibit a shift from intense caregiving of young offspring to promoting independence in older offspring. Yet, the neural mechanisms that underlie shifts in parental behavior are poorly understood, and little is known about how the parental brain responds to offspring of different ages. To elucidate mechanisms that relate to shifts in parental behavior as offspring develop, we examined behavioral and neural responses of male and female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), a biparental rodent, to interactions with offspring at different stages of development (ranging from neonatal to weaning age). Importantly, in biparental species, males and females may adjust their behavior differentially as offspring develop. Because the nonapeptides, vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT), are well known for modulating aspects of parental care, we focused on functional activity of distinct VP and OT cell groups within the maternal and paternal brain in response to separation from, reunion (after a brief period of separation) with, or no separation from offspring of different ages. We found several differences in the neural responses of individual VP and OT cell groups that varied based on the age of pups and sex of the parent. Hypothalamic VP neurons exhibit similar functional responses in both mothers and fathers. However, hypothalamic and amygdalar OT neurons exhibit differential functional responses to being separated from pups based on the sex of the parent. Our results also reveal that the developmental stage of offspring significantly impacts neural function within OT, but not VP, cell groups of both mothers and fathers. These findings provide insight into the functional plastic capabilities of the nonapeptide system, specifically in relation

  18. Evaluation of indigenous tomato hybrids under plastic tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, M.; Ullah, H.; Nawab, N.N.; Qureshi, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of indigenous tomato hybrids under plastic tunnel Seventeen locally developed indeterminate tomato hybrids were evaluated along with 'Sahel' as check under plastic tunnel for yield and yield components at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Maximum yield of 71.58 tha/sup -1/ was recorded in NTT-12-08 while minimum yield (34.75 tha/sup -1/) was observed in NTT-16-08. Sahel used as check bore maximum number of fruits plant/sup -1/(30.26) and followed by NTT-04-08 and NTT-03-08 bearing 28.68 and 24.16 fruits plant/sup -1/, respectively. The highest mean fruit weight of 170.63 g was recorded in NTT-05-08 while minimum fruit weight (80.90 g) was observed in Sahel (check). Maximum fruit length of 7.89 cm was recorded in Sahel which is oblong in shape while minimum (5.70 cm) in NTT-14-08. Similarly a significant difference was observed among hybrids for fruit diameter. Fruits having more diameter are round to roundish in shape. Fruit diameter ranged from 8.85 to 5.49 cm. Fruit firmness also varied significantly ranging from 3.54 to 1.67 kg m/sup -3/ in Sahel and NTT-07-08, respectively. Maximum pericarp thickness (0.90 cm) was recorded in NTT-10-08 while minimum pericarp thickness of 0.58 cm was observed in NTT-16-08. NTT-01-08 exhibits the highest number of locules (5.22). It was followed by NTT-02-08 having 4.55 locules while minimum (2.0) locules were observed in NTT-09-08. (author)

  19. Automatic Generation of Connectivity for Large-Scale Neuronal Network Models through Structural Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Pier, Sandra; Naveau, Mikaël; Butz-Ostendorf, Markus; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of new high performance computation technology in the last decade, the simulation of large scale neural networks which are able to reproduce the behavior and structure of the brain has finally become an achievable target of neuroscience. Due to the number of synaptic connections between neurons and the complexity of biological networks, most contemporary models have manually defined or static connectivity. However, it is expected that modeling the dynamic generation and deletion of the links among neurons, locally and between different regions of the brain, is crucial to unravel important mechanisms associated with learning, memory and healing. Moreover, for many neural circuits that could potentially be modeled, activity data is more readily and reliably available than connectivity data. Thus, a framework that enables networks to wire themselves on the basis of specified activity targets can be of great value in specifying network models where connectivity data is incomplete or has large error margins. To address these issues, in the present work we present an implementation of a model of structural plasticity in the neural network simulator NEST. In this model, synapses consist of two parts, a pre- and a post-synaptic element. Synapses are created and deleted during the execution of the simulation following local homeostatic rules until a mean level of electrical activity is reached in the network. We assess the scalability of the implementation in order to evaluate its potential usage in the self generation of connectivity of large scale networks. We show and discuss the results of simulations on simple two population networks and more complex models of the cortical microcircuit involving 8 populations and 4 layers using the new framework.

  20. Supervised spike-timing-dependent plasticity: a spatiotemporal neuronal learning rule for function approximation and decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franosch, Jan-Moritz P; Urban, Sebastian; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2013-12-01

    How can an animal learn from experience? How can it train sensors, such as the auditory or tactile system, based on other sensory input such as the visual system? Supervised spike-timing-dependent plasticity (supervised STDP) is a possible answer. Supervised STDP trains one modality using input from another one as "supervisor." Quite complex time-dependent relationships between the senses can be learned. Here we prove that under very general conditions, supervised STDP converges to a stable configuration of synaptic weights leading to a reconstruction of primary sensory input.

  1. Neuronal Kmt2a/Mll1 histone methyltransferase is essential for prefrontal synaptic plasticity and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovcevski, Mira; Ruan, Hongyu; Shen, Erica Y; Dincer, Aslihan; Javidfar, Behnam; Ma, Qi; Peter, Cyril J; Cheung, Iris; Mitchell, Amanda C; Jiang, Yan; Lin, Cong L; Pothula, Venu; Stewart, A Francis; Ernst, Patricia; Yao, Wei-Dong; Akbarian, Schahram

    2015-04-01

    Neuronal histone H3-lysine 4 methylation landscapes are defined by sharp peaks at gene promoters and other cis-regulatory sequences, but molecular and cellular phenotypes after neuron-specific deletion of H3K4 methyl-regulators remain largely unexplored. We report that neuronal ablation of the H3K4-specific methyltransferase, Kmt2a/Mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (Mll1), in mouse postnatal forebrain and adult prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with increased anxiety and robust cognitive deficits without locomotor dysfunction. In contrast, only mild behavioral phenotypes were observed after ablation of the Mll1 ortholog Kmt2b/Mll2 in PFC. Impaired working memory after Kmt2a/Mll1 ablation in PFC neurons was associated with loss of training-induced transient waves of Arc immediate early gene expression critical for synaptic plasticity. Medial prefrontal layer V pyramidal neurons, a major output relay of the cortex, demonstrated severely impaired synaptic facilitation and temporal summation, two forms of short-term plasticity essential for working memory. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing in Mll1-deficient cortical neurons revealed downregulated expression and loss of the transcriptional mark, trimethyl-H3K4, at <50 loci, including the homeodomain transcription factor Meis2. Small RNA-mediated Meis2 knockdown in PFC was associated with working memory defects similar to those elicited by Mll1 deletion. Therefore, mature prefrontal neurons critically depend on maintenance of Mll1-regulated H3K4 methylation at a subset of genes with an essential role in cognition and emotion. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355097-12$15.00/0.

  2. The interplay between neurons and glia in synapse development and plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Stogsdill, Jeff A; Eroglu, Cagla

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, the formation of complex neuronal networks amenable to experience-dependent remodeling is complicated by the diversity of neurons and synapse types. The establishment of a functional brain depends not only on neurons, but also non-neuronal glial cells. Glia are in continuous bi-directional communication with neurons to direct the formation and refinement of synaptic connectivity. This article reviews important findings, which uncovered cellular and molecular aspects of the neuro...

  3. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smekens, Marret; Van Tienderen, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions.

  4. Biphasic somatic A-type K channel downregulation mediates intrinsic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Cherl Jung

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Since its original description, the induction of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP has been known to be accompanied by a lasting increase in the intrinsic excitability (intrinsic plasticity of hippocampal neurons. Recent evidence shows that dendritic excitability can be enhanced by an activity-dependent decrease in the activity of A-type K(+ channels. In the present manuscript, we examined the role of A-type K(+ channels in regulating intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus after synapse-specific LTP induction. In electrophysiological recordings we found that LTP induced a potentiation of excitability which was accompanied by a two-phased change in A-type K(+ channel activity recorded in nucleated patches from organotypic slices of rat hippocampus. Induction of LTP resulted in an immediate but short lasting hyperpolarization of the voltage-dependence of steady-state A-type K(+ channel inactivation along with a progressive, long-lasting decrease in peak A-current density. Blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis prevented the A-current decrease and most measures of intrinsic plasticity. These results suggest that two temporally distinct but overlapping mechanisms of A-channel downregulation together contribute to the plasticity of intrinsic excitability. Finally we show that intrinsic plasticity resulted in a global enhancement of EPSP-spike coupling.

  5. Notch is required in adult Drosophila sensory neurons for morphological and functional plasticity of the olfactory circuit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kidd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs convey odor information to the central brain, but like other sensory neurons were thought to play a passive role in memory formation and storage. Here we show that Notch, part of an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signaling pathway, is required in adult Drosophila ORNs for the structural and functional plasticity of olfactory glomeruli that is induced by chronic odor exposure. Specifically, we show that Notch activity in ORNs is necessary for the odor specific increase in the volume of glomeruli that occurs as a consequence of prolonged odor exposure. Calcium imaging experiments indicate that Notch in ORNs is also required for the chronic odor induced changes in the physiology of ORNs and the ensuing changes in the physiological response of their second order projection neurons (PNs. We further show that Notch in ORNs acts by both canonical cleavage-dependent and non-canonical cleavage-independent pathways. The Notch ligand Delta (Dl in PNs switches the balance between the pathways. These data define a circuit whereby, in conjunction with odor, N activity in the periphery regulates the activity of neurons in the central brain and Dl in the central brain regulates N activity in the periphery. Our work highlights the importance of experience dependent plasticity at the first olfactory synapse.

  6. Age-related deficits in synaptic plasticity rescued by activating PKA or PKC in sensory neurons of Aplysia californica

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    Andrew T Kempsell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging is associated with declines in synaptic function that contribute to memory loss, including reduced postsynaptic response to neurotransmitters and decreased neuronal excitability. To understand how aging affects memory in a simple neural circuit, we studied neuronal proxies of memory for sensitization in mature versus advanced age Aplysia. Glutamate- (L-Glu- evoked excitatory currents were facilitated by the neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT in sensory neurons (SN isolated from mature but not aged animals. Activation of PKA and PKC signaling rescued facilitation of L-Glu currents in aged SN. Similarly, PKA and PKC activators restored increased excitability in aged tail SN. These results suggest that altered synaptic plasticity during aging involves defects in second messenger systems

  7. Age-related deficits in synaptic plasticity rescued by activating PKA or PKC in sensory neurons of Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempsell, Andrew T; Fieber, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    Brain aging is associated with declines in synaptic function that contribute to memory loss, including reduced postsynaptic response to neurotransmitters and decreased neuronal excitability. To understand how aging affects memory in a simple neural circuit, we studied neuronal proxies of memory for sensitization in mature vs. advanced age Aplysia californica (Aplysia). L-Glutamate- (L-Glu-) evoked excitatory currents were facilitated by the neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT) in sensory neurons (SN) isolated from mature but not aged animals. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling rescued facilitation of L-Glu currents in aged SN. Similarly, PKA and PKC activators restored increased excitability in aged tail SN. These results suggest that altered synaptic plasticity during aging involves defects in second messenger systems.

  8. Vorinostat positively regulates synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in HIV infected neurons: role of nicotine in progression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occurs in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. In the United States, the prevalence of cigarette smoking ranges from 35-70% in HIV-infected individuals compared to 20% in general population. Cognitive impairment in heavy cigarette smokers has been well reported. However, the synergistic effects of nicotine and HIV infection and the underlying mechanisms in the development of HAND are unknown. Results In this study, we explored the role of nicotine in the progression of HAND using SK-N-MC, a neuronal cell line. SK-N-MC cells were infected with HIV-1 in the presence or absence of nicotine for 7 days. We observed significant increase in HIV infectivity in SK-N-MC treated with nicotine compared to untreated HIV-infected neuronal cells. HIV and nicotine synergize to significantly dysregulate the expression of synaptic plasticity genes and spine density; with a concomitant increase of HDAC2 levels in SK-N-MC cells. In addition, inhibition of HDAC2 up-regulation with the use of vorinostat resulted in HIV latency breakdown and recovery of synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in nicotine/HIV alone and in co-treated SK-N-MC cells. Furthermore, increased eIF2 alpha phosphorylation, which negatively regulates eukaryotic translational process, was observed in HIV alone and in co-treatment with nicotine compared to untreated control and nicotine alone treated SK-N-MC cells. Conclusions These results suggest that nicotine and HIV synergize to negatively regulate the synaptic plasticity gene expression and spine density and this may contribute to the increased risk of HAND in HIV infected smokers. Apart from disrupting latency, vorinostat may be a useful therapeutic to inhibit the negative regulatory effects on synaptic plasticity in HIV infected nicotine abusers. PMID:24886748

  9. Response of tomato to radiation intensity and air temperature under plastic-house ultraviolet protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syakur, A.

    2002-01-01

    Enhance of ultraviolet radiation intensity on the earth surface affected by ozon depletion on stratospheric layer cause changing on the response of plant to radiation quality. One technique for reducing photo destructive UV radiation is micro climate modification by using mulch and plastic-cover UV protection. So that, growth and yield of plant can be optimalized. This research designed an experiment to find out the effect of two kinds of plastic-cover, UV plastic and conventional plastic, on microclimate condition and tomato performance under plastic-house. The result of this research described that mulch and plastic cover can modify radiation and air temperature under plastics-house, but it can not improve growth and yield of the tomato [in

  10. The interplay between neurons and glia in synapse development and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogsdill, Jeff A; Eroglu, Cagla

    2017-02-01

    In the brain, the formation of complex neuronal networks amenable to experience-dependent remodeling is complicated by the diversity of neurons and synapse types. The establishment of a functional brain depends not only on neurons, but also non-neuronal glial cells. Glia are in continuous bi-directional communication with neurons to direct the formation and refinement of synaptic connectivity. This article reviews important findings, which uncovered cellular and molecular aspects of the neuron-glia cross-talk that govern the formation and remodeling of synapses and circuits. In vivo evidence demonstrating the critical interplay between neurons and glia will be the major focus. Additional attention will be given to how aberrant communication between neurons and glia may contribute to neural pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Computational Model of the SC Multisensory Neurons: Integrative Capabilities, Maturation, and Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Cuppini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Different cortical and subcortical structures present neurons able to integrate stimuli of different sensory modalities. Among the others, one of the most investigated integrative regions is the Superior Colliculus (SC, a midbrain structure whose aim is to guide attentive behaviour and motor responses toward external events. Despite the large amount of experimental data in the literature, the neural mechanisms underlying the SC response are not completely understood. Moreover, recent data indicate that multisensory integration ability is the result of maturation after birth, depending on sensory experience. Mathematical models and computer simulations can be of value to investigate and clarify these phenomena. In the last few years, several models have been implemented to shed light on these mechanisms and to gain a deeper comprehension of the SC capabilities. Here, a neural network model (Cuppini et al., 2010 is extensively discussed. The model considers visual-auditory interaction, and is able to reproduce and explain the main physiological features of multisensory integration in SC neurons, and their acquisition during postnatal life. To reproduce a neonatal condition, the model assumes that during early life: 1 cortical-SC synapses are present but not active; 2 in this phase, responses are driven by non-cortical inputs with very large receptive fields (RFs and little spatial tuning; 3 a slight spatial preference for the visual inputs is present. Sensory experience is modeled by a “training phase” in which the network is repeatedly exposed to modality-specific and cross-modal stimuli at different locations. As results, Cortical-SC synapses are crafted during this period thanks to the Hebbian rules of potentiation and depression, RFs are reduced in size, and neurons exhibit integrative capabilities to cross-modal stimuli, such as multisensory enhancement, inverse effectiveness, and multisensory depression. The utility of the modelling

  12. Boron effect on stainless steel plasticity under hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, S.I.; Kardonov, B.A.; Sorokina, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of boron on plasticity of stainless steels at temperatures of hot deformation has been studied at three levels of alloying, i.e. 0-0.01% (micro-alloying or modifying), 0.01-0.02% (low alloying) and 0.02-2.0% (high alloying). Introduction of 0.001-0.005% of boron increases hot plasticity of both low and high carbon stainless steels due to decrease in grain size and strengthening of grain boundaries. Microalloying by boron has a positive effect at temperatures below 1200-1220 deg C. At higher temperatures, particularly when its content exceeds 0.008%, boron deteriorates plasticity by increasing the size of grains and weakening their boundaries. 0.1-2% boron strengthen the stainless steel and dectease its plasticity

  13. A VLSI recurrent network of integrate-and-fire neurons connected by plastic synapses with long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicca, E; Badoni, D; Dante, V; D'Andreagiovanni, M; Salina, G; Carota, L; Fusi, S; Del Giudice, P

    2003-01-01

    Electronic neuromorphic devices with on-chip, on-line learning should be able to modify quickly the synaptic couplings to acquire information about new patterns to be stored (synaptic plasticity) and, at the same time, preserve this information on very long time scales (synaptic stability). Here, we illustrate the electronic implementation of a simple solution to this stability-plasticity problem, recently proposed and studied in various contexts. It is based on the observation that reducing the analog depth of the synapses to the extreme (bistable synapses) does not necessarily disrupt the performance of the device as an associative memory, provided that 1) the number of neurons is large enough; 2) the transitions between stable synaptic states are stochastic; and 3) learning is slow. The drastic reduction of the analog depth of the synaptic variable also makes this solution appealing from the point of view of electronic implementation and offers a simple methodological alternative to the technological solution based on floating gates. We describe the full custom analog very large-scale integration (VLSI) realization of a small network of integrate-and-fire neurons connected by bistable deterministic plastic synapses which can implement the idea of stochastic learning. In the absence of stimuli, the memory is preserved indefinitely. During the stimulation the synapse undergoes quick temporary changes through the activities of the pre- and postsynaptic neurons; those changes stochastically result in a long-term modification of the synaptic efficacy. The intentionally disordered pattern of connectivity allows the system to generate a randomness suited to drive the stochastic selection mechanism. We check by a suitable stimulation protocol that the stochastic synaptic plasticity produces the expected pattern of potentiation and depression in the electronic network.

  14. Neuronal Plasticity Associated with Burn Injury and Its Relevance for Perception and Management of Pain in Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence J Coderre

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the introduction of the gate control theory and various subsequent works, Ronald Melzack has inspired many investigators worldwide to realize two important facts about pain. First, incoming pain messages are subject to both negative and positive modulation, which significantly affect its perception. Second, the progression of knowledge about the basic mechanisms underlying persistent and chronic pain is critically dependent on the increased understanding of the complexity of the symptoms experienced by pain patients. The present paper examines these two very important issues in an effort to understand better the mechanisms that underlie the pain suffered by burn patients. The physiological responses to burn injury involve many different mediators and mechanisms, all of which contribute to pain perception and development of neuronal plasticity underlying short and long term changes in pain sensitivity. While experimental burn injuries in humans and animals are typically well controlled and mild, in burn victims, the severity is much more variable, and clinical care involves repeated traumas and manipulations of the injured sites. Recurrent inputs from damaged and redamaged tissue impinge on a nervous system that becomes an active participant in the initiation of changes in sensory perception and maintenance of long term sensory disturbances. Recently acquired experimental evidence on postburn hyperalgesia, central hyperexcitability and changes in opioid sensitivity provides strong support that burn patients need an analgesic approach aimed at preventing or reducing the 'neural' memory of pain, including the use of more than one treatment modality. Burn injuries offer a unique opportunity to combine experimental and clinical research to understand pain mechanisms better. Over the years, Ronald Melzack has insisted that one of the most laudable enterprises in research is to span the gap between these two often separate worlds.

  15. Neural plasticity in hypocretin neurons: the basis of hypocretinergic regulation of physiological and behavioral functions in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal system that resides in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus (Pf/LH and synthesizes the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin participates in critical brain functions across species from fish to human. The hypocretin system regulates neural activity responsible for daily functions (such as sleep/wake homeostasis, energy balance, appetite, etc and long-term behavioral changes (such as reward seeking and addiction, stress response, etc in animals. The most recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system undergoes substantial plastic changes in response to both daily fluctuations (such as food intake and sleep-wake regulation and long-term changes (such as cocaine seeking in neuronal activity in the brain. The understanding of these changes in the hypocretin system is essential in addressing the role of the hypocretin system in normal physiological functions and pathological conditions in animals and humans. In this review, the evidence demonstrating that neural plasticity occurs in hypocretin-containing neurons in the Pf/LH will be presented and possible physiological behavioral, and mental health implications of these findings will be discussed.

  16. Neural plasticity in hypocretin neurons: the basis of hypocretinergic regulation of physiological and behavioral functions in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Bing; Hermes, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal system that resides in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus (Pf/LH) and synthesizes the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin participates in critical brain functions across species from fish to human. The hypocretin system regulates neural activity responsible for daily functions (such as sleep/wake homeostasis, energy balance, appetite, etc.) and long-term behavioral changes (such as reward seeking and addiction, stress response, etc.) in animals. The most recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system undergoes substantial plastic changes in response to both daily fluctuations (such as food intake and sleep-wake regulation) and long-term changes (such as cocaine seeking) in neuronal activity in the brain. The understanding of these changes in the hypocretin system is essential in addressing the role of the hypocretin system in normal physiological functions and pathological conditions in animals and humans. In this review, the evidence demonstrating that neural plasticity occurs in hypocretin-containing neurons in the Pf/LH will be presented and possible physiological, behavioral, and mental health implications of these findings will be discussed. PMID:26539086

  17. Artificial neuron operations and spike-timing-dependent plasticity using memristive devices for brain-inspired computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marukame, Takao; Nishi, Yoshifumi; Yasuda, Shin-ichi; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi

    2018-04-01

    The use of memristive devices for creating artificial neurons is promising for brain-inspired computing from the viewpoints of computation architecture and learning protocol. We present an energy-efficient multiplier accumulator based on a memristive array architecture incorporating both analog and digital circuitries. The analog circuitry is used to full advantage for neural networks, as demonstrated by the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) in fabricated AlO x /TiO x -based metal-oxide memristive devices. STDP protocols for controlling periodic analog resistance with long-range stability were experimentally verified using a variety of voltage amplitudes and spike timings.

  18. Effects of spike-time-dependent plasticity on the stochastic resonance of small-world neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haitao; Guo, Xinmeng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks is investigated when the strength of synaptic connections between neurons is adaptively adjusted by spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP). It is shown that irrespective of the synaptic connectivity is fixed or adaptive, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. The efficiency of network stochastic resonance can be largely enhanced by STDP in the coupling process. Particularly, the resonance for adaptive coupling can reach a much larger value than that for fixed one when the noise intensity is small or intermediate. STDP with dominant depression and small temporal window ratio is more efficient for the transmission of weak external signal in small-world neuronal networks. In addition, we demonstrate that the effect of stochastic resonance can be further improved via fine-tuning of the average coupling strength of the adaptive network. Furthermore, the small-world topology can significantly affect stochastic resonance of excitable neuronal networks. It is found that there exists an optimal probability of adding links by which the noise-induced transmission of weak periodic signal peaks

  19. Effects of spike-time-dependent plasticity on the stochastic resonance of small-world neuronal networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haitao; Guo, Xinmeng; Wang, Jiang, E-mail: jiangwang@tju.edu.cn; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of stochastic resonance in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks is investigated when the strength of synaptic connections between neurons is adaptively adjusted by spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP). It is shown that irrespective of the synaptic connectivity is fixed or adaptive, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. The efficiency of network stochastic resonance can be largely enhanced by STDP in the coupling process. Particularly, the resonance for adaptive coupling can reach a much larger value than that for fixed one when the noise intensity is small or intermediate. STDP with dominant depression and small temporal window ratio is more efficient for the transmission of weak external signal in small-world neuronal networks. In addition, we demonstrate that the effect of stochastic resonance can be further improved via fine-tuning of the average coupling strength of the adaptive network. Furthermore, the small-world topology can significantly affect stochastic resonance of excitable neuronal networks. It is found that there exists an optimal probability of adding links by which the noise-induced transmission of weak periodic signal peaks.

  20. Visualization of Plasticity in Fear-Evoked Calcium Signals in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Bryan B.; Soden, Marta E.; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is broadly implicated in fear-related processes, yet we know very little about signaling dynamics in these neurons during active fear conditioning. We describe the direct imaging of calcium signals of dopamine neurons during Pavlovian fear conditioning using fiber-optic confocal microscopy coupled with the genetically encoded calcium…

  1. ELASTIC-PLASTIC AND RESIDUAL STRESS ANALYSIS OF AN ALUMINUM DISC UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numan Behlül BEKTAŞ

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with elastic-plastic stress analysis of a thin aluminum disc under internal pressures. An analytical solution is performed for satisfying elastic-plastic stress-strain relations and boundary conditions for small plastic deformations. The Von-Mises Criterion is used as a yield criterion, and elastic perfectly plastic material is assumed. Elastic-plastic and residual stress distributions are obtained from inner radius to outer radius, and they are presented in tables and figures. All radial stress components, ?r, are compressive, and they are highest at the inner radius. All tangential stress components, ??, are tensile, and they are highest where the plastic deformation begins. Magnitude of the tangential residual stresses is higher than those the radial residual stresses.

  2. Plastic deformation of aluminium under continuous electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Kushnir, V.A.; Khodak, I.V.; Mitrochenko, V.V.; Lebedev, V.P.; Krylovskij, V.S.; Lebedev, S.V.; Klepikov, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Plastic deformation of polycrystalline aluminum (99.5%) was investigated in the absence and presence of a high-energy electron beam (E = 0.5 MeV, φ = (0.5...5)·10 13 cm -2 ·c -1 ). Reduction of the yield stress and hardening coefficient was determined as a function of deformation, the sample thickness and the beam density. The increase of plasticity of the metal due to the impact of the electron beam has been established. The temperature in the deformation process was measured, which allowed separating the contribution of radiation-induced effects on the mechanical characteristics of aluminum. Possible mechanisms of the phenomenon are discussed.

  3. Plastic deformation and fracture behavior of zircaloy-2 fuel cladding tubes under biaxial stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Hideo; Ooyama, Masatosi

    1975-01-01

    Various combinations of biaxial stress were applied on five batches of recrystallized zircaloy-2 fuel cladding tubes with different textures; elongation in both axial and circumferential directions of the specimen was measured continuously up to 5% plastic deformation. The anisotropic theory of plasticity proposed by Hill was applied to the resulting data, and anisotropy constants were obtained through the two media of plastic strain loci and plastic strain ratios. Comparison of the results obtained with the two methods proved that the plastic strain loci provide data that are more effective in predicting quantitatively the plastic deformation behavior of the zircaloy-2 tubes. The anisotropy constants change their value with progress of plastic deformation, and judicious application of the effective stress and effective strain obtained on anisotropic materials will permit the relationship between stress and strain under various biaxialities of stresses to be approximated by the work hardening law. The test specimens used in the plastic deformation experiments were then stressed to fracture under the same combination of biaxial stress as in the proceeding experiments, and the deformation in the fractured part was measured. The result proved that the tilt angle of the c-axis which serves as the index of texture is related to fracture ductility under biaxial stress. Based on this relationship, it was concluded that material with a tilt angle ranging from 10 0 to 15 0 is the most suitable for fuel cladding tubes, from the viewpoint of fracture ductility, at least in the case of unirradiated material. (auth.)

  4. Xinnao Shutong Modulates the Neuronal Plasticity Through Regulation of Microglia/Macrophage Polarization Following Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xinnao shutong (XNST capsules have been clinically used in China to treat cerebrovascular diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that XNST has significant neuroprotective effects against acute cerebral ischemic stroke. The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of XNST treatment following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with XNST or vehicle following permanent bilateral common carotid artery (BCCA ligation. Body weight was recorded on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 post-surgery. The Morris water maze (MWM test was used to assess cognitive function in rats. Immunofluorescent staining and western blot were used to assess the severity of neuronal plasticity, white matter injury, and the numbers and/or phenotypic changes incurred to microglia. Protein levels of p-AKT (Thr308 and p-ERK (Thr202/Tyr204 were detected 42 days after BCCA ligation was performed. The results indicate that XNST treatment significantly reduced escape latency, decreased the frequency of platform crossing compared to the vehicle group. Synaptophysin, protein levels improved and white matter injury ameliorated following XNST treatment. Meanwhile, XNST reduced the number of M1 microglia and increased the number of M2 microglia. Furthermore, p-AKT (Thr308 and p-ERK (Thr202/Tyr204 levels were increased 42 days following BCCA ligation. In summary, our results suggest that XNST mitigates memory impairments by restoration of neuronal plasticity and by modulation of microglial polarization following chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

  5. Postischemic steroid modulation : Effects on hippocampal neuronal integrity and synaptic plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krugers, HJ; Maslam, S; Van Vuuren, SM; Korf, J; Joëls, M

    1999-01-01

    Elimination of corticosteroids after ischemia, by removal of the adrenals, has been reported to preserve neuronal integrity later. To establish the therapeutic potential of this observation, the authors address two questions: first, whether clinically more relevant steroid manipulations after

  6. Plasticity of calcium-permeable AMPA glutamate receptors in Pro-opiomelanocortin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Ralevski, Alexandra; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Yada, Toshihiko; Simonds, Stephanie E; Cowley, Michael A; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Diano, Sabrina; Horvath, Tamas L

    2017-08-01

    POMC neurons integrate metabolic signals from the periphery. Here, we show in mice that food deprivation induces a linear current-voltage relationship of AMPAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in POMC neurons. Inhibition of EPSCs by IEM-1460, an antagonist of calcium-permeable (Cp) AMPARs, diminished EPSC amplitude in the fed but not in the fasted state, suggesting entry of GluR2 subunits into the AMPA receptor complex during food deprivation. Accordingly, removal of extracellular calcium from ACSF decreased the amplitude of mEPSCs in the fed but not the fasted state. Ten days of high-fat diet exposure, which was accompanied by elevated leptin levels and increased POMC neuronal activity, resulted in increased expression of Cp-AMPARs on POMC neurons. Altogether, our results show that entry of calcium via Cp-AMPARs is inherent to activation of POMC neurons, which may underlie a vulnerability of these neurons to calcium overload while activated in a sustained manner during over-nutrition.

  7. Linear luminescence for thin plastic scintillator under intense soft X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Jiamin; Jiang Shilun; Xu Rongkun; Guo Cun

    2006-01-01

    The basic principle of soft X-ray power meter is introduced in the paper and the experimental process and the result of thin plastic scintillator linear luminescence under intense soft X-ray irradiation are described. A range of flux density of energy for thin plastic scintillator linear luminescence under intense soft X-ray irradiation is included. The upper limit of the flux density is 1.47 x 10 5 W/cm 2 . (authors)

  8. Bidirectional Hebbian Plasticity Induced by Low-Frequency Stimulation in Basal Dendrites of Rat Barrel Cortex Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-García, Andrea; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Núñez, Ángel; Buño, Washington; Fernández de Sevilla, David

    2017-01-01

    According to Hebb's original hypothesis (Hebb, 1949), synapses are reinforced when presynaptic activity triggers postsynaptic firing, resulting in long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy. Long-term depression (LTD) is a use-dependent decrease in synaptic strength that is thought to be due to synaptic input causing a weak postsynaptic effect. Although the mechanisms that mediate long-term synaptic plasticity have been investigated for at least three decades not all question have as yet been answered. Therefore, we aimed at determining the mechanisms that generate LTP or LTD with the simplest possible protocol. Low-frequency stimulation of basal dendrite inputs in Layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the rat barrel cortex induces LTP. This stimulation triggered an EPSP, an action potential (AP) burst, and a Ca 2+ spike. The same stimulation induced LTD following manipulations that reduced the Ca 2+ spike and Ca 2+ signal or the AP burst. Low-frequency whisker deflections induced similar bidirectional plasticity of action potential evoked responses in anesthetized rats. These results suggest that both in vitro and in vivo similar mechanisms regulate the balance between LTP and LTD. This simple induction form of bidirectional hebbian plasticity could be present in the natural conditions to regulate the detection, flow, and storage of sensorimotor information.

  9. Bidirectional Hebbian Plasticity Induced by Low-Frequency Stimulation in Basal Dendrites of Rat Barrel Cortex Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-García, Andrea; Barros-Zulaica, Natali; Núñez, Ángel; Buño, Washington; Fernández de Sevilla, David

    2017-01-01

    According to Hebb's original hypothesis (Hebb, 1949), synapses are reinforced when presynaptic activity triggers postsynaptic firing, resulting in long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy. Long-term depression (LTD) is a use-dependent decrease in synaptic strength that is thought to be due to synaptic input causing a weak postsynaptic effect. Although the mechanisms that mediate long-term synaptic plasticity have been investigated for at least three decades not all question have as yet been answered. Therefore, we aimed at determining the mechanisms that generate LTP or LTD with the simplest possible protocol. Low-frequency stimulation of basal dendrite inputs in Layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the rat barrel cortex induces LTP. This stimulation triggered an EPSP, an action potential (AP) burst, and a Ca2+ spike. The same stimulation induced LTD following manipulations that reduced the Ca2+ spike and Ca2+ signal or the AP burst. Low-frequency whisker deflections induced similar bidirectional plasticity of action potential evoked responses in anesthetized rats. These results suggest that both in vitro and in vivo similar mechanisms regulate the balance between LTP and LTD. This simple induction form of bidirectional hebbian plasticity could be present in the natural conditions to regulate the detection, flow, and storage of sensorimotor information. PMID:28203145

  10. Motor Training Promotes Both Synaptic and Intrinsic Plasticity of Layer II/III Pyramidal Neurons in the Primary Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Hiroyuki; Tsuda, Yasumasa; Ito, Nana; Yamamoto, Yui; Owada, Yuji; Kamiya, Yoshinori; Mitsushima, Dai

    2016-08-01

    Motor skill training induces structural plasticity at dendritic spines in the primary motor cortex (M1). To further analyze both synaptic and intrinsic plasticity in the layer II/III area of M1, we subjected rats to a rotor rod test and then prepared acute brain slices. Motor skill consistently improved within 2 days of training. Voltage clamp analysis showed significantly higher α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/N-methyl-d-aspartate (AMPA/NMDA) ratios and miniature EPSC amplitudes in 1-day trained rats compared with untrained rats, suggesting increased postsynaptic AMPA receptors in the early phase of motor learning. Compared with untrained controls, 2-days trained rats showed significantly higher miniature EPSC amplitude and frequency. Paired-pulse analysis further demonstrated lower rates in 2-days trained rats, suggesting increased presynaptic glutamate release during the late phase of learning. One-day trained rats showed decreased miniature IPSC frequency and increased paired-pulse analysis of evoked IPSC, suggesting a transient decrease in presynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release. Moreover, current clamp analysis revealed lower resting membrane potential, higher spike threshold, and deeper afterhyperpolarization in 1-day trained rats-while 2-days trained rats showed higher membrane potential, suggesting dynamic changes in intrinsic properties. Our present results indicate dynamic changes in glutamatergic, GABAergic, and intrinsic plasticity in M1 layer II/III neurons after the motor training. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Dynamic Neuron-Glia Interactions in an Oscillatory Network Controlling Behavioral Plasticity in the Weakly Electric Fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Günther K H

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of glial cells in the regulation of physiological functions is being increasingly recognized, yet their role in plasticity of neural oscillators has remained largely elusive. An excellent model system to address the latter function is the pacemaker nucleus of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus . This brainstem oscillator drives the fish's electric organ discharge in a one-to-one fashion, with median frequencies of 880 Hz in males and 740 Hz in females. Morphometric analysis of the pacemaker nucleus has shown that astrocytes outnumber mature neurons seven-fold, and oscillator neurons even 200-fold. A similar dominance of astrocytes occurs among the adult-born cells that differentiate into glia and neurons. The astrocytes form a dense meshwork of cells interconnected by gap junctions. The degree of association of astrocytic fibers with the neural oscillator cells, and the gap-junction coupling between individual astrocytes, exhibit a sexual dimorphism, which parallels the sexual dimorphisms in the output frequency of the pacemaker nucleus, and ultimately in the electric organ discharge of the fish. It is hypothesized that the dynamics in astroglial structure mediate differences in the capacity to buffer potassium, which increases during the generation of action potentials. These differences, in turn, affect the excitability of the neural oscillator cells, and thus the output frequency of the pacemaker nucleus. Comparison of the pacemaker nucleus with other brain oscillators suggests that modulation of the output activity is one of the chief functions of the interaction of glia with the neural oscillator cells.

  12. PRENATAL HYPOXIA IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF EMBRYOGENESIS DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTS CELL MIGRATION, NEURONAL PLASTICITY AND RAT BEHAVIOR IN POSTNATAL ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii S Vasilev

    2016-03-01

    , affects formation of cortical cytoarchitecture, neuronal plasticity and behavior in postnatal ontogenesis which testify to cortical dysfunction. Hypoxia on E18 does not significantly affect cortical structure and parietal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks.

  13. Spike timing rigidity is maintained in bursting neurons under pentobarbital-induced anesthetic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Kato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pentobarbital potentiates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission by prolonging the open time of GABAA receptors. However, it is unknown how pentobarbital regulates cortical neuronal activities via local circuits in vivo. To examine this question, we performed extracellular unit recording in rat insular cortex under awake and anesthetic conditions. Not a few studies apply time-rescaling theorem to detect the features of repetitive spike firing. Similar to these methods, we define an average spike interval locally in time using random matrix theory (RMT, which enables us to compare different activity states on a universal scale. Neurons with high spontaneous firing frequency (> 5 Hz and bursting were classified as HFB neurons (n = 10, and those with low spontaneous firing frequency (< 10 Hz and without bursting were classified as non-HFB neurons (n = 48. Pentobarbital injection (30 mg/kg reduced firing frequency in all HFB neurons and in 78% of non-HFB neurons. RMT analysis demonstrated that pentobarbital increased in the number of neurons with repulsion in both HFB and non-HFB neurons, suggesting that there is a correlation between spikes within a short interspike interval. Under awake conditions, in 50% of HFB and 40% of non-HFB neurons, the decay phase of normalized histograms of spontaneous firing were fitted to an exponential function, which indicated that the first spike had no correlation with subsequent spikes. In contrast, under pentobarbital-induced anesthesia conditions, the number of non-HFB neurons that were fitted to an exponential function increased to 80%, but almost no change in HFB neurons was observed. These results suggest that under both awake and pentobarbital-induced anesthetized conditions, spike firing in HFB neurons is more robustly regulated by preceding spikes than by non-HFB neurons, which may reflect the GABAA receptor-mediated regulation of cortical activities. Whole-cell patch

  14. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cell Death, Neuronal Plasticity and Functional Loading in the Development of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Research on the precise timing and regulation of neuron production and maturation in the vestibular and visual systems of Wistar rats and several inbred strains of mice (C57B16 and Pallid mutant) concentrated upon establishing a timing baseline for mitotic development of the neurons of the vestibular nuclei and the peripheral vestibular sensory structures (maculae, cristae). This involved studies of the timing and site of neuronal cell birth and preliminary studies of neuronal cell death in both central and peripheral elements of the mammalian vestibular system. Studies on neuronal generation and maturation in the retina were recently added to provide a mechanism for more properly defining the in utero' developmental age of the individual fetal subject and to closely monitor potential transplacental effects of environmentally stressed maternal systems. Information is given on current efforts concentrating upon the (1) perinatal period of development (E18 thru P14) and (2) the role of cell death in response to variation in the functional loading of the vestibular and proprioreceptive systems in developing mammalian organisms.

  16. Degradation behaviour of fiber reinforced plastic under electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Various mechanical properties of four kinds of glass fiber-reinforced plastics irradiated with electron beams were examined at three temperatures; room temperature, 123 K and 77 K. Dynamic viscoelastic properties were measured, and fractography by means of scanning electron microscopy was observed in order to clarify degradation behaviour. A considerable decrease in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) at room temperature was observed above 60 MGy. On the other hand, the three-point bending strength at 77 K and the ILSS at 123 K decreased with increasing irradiation. Fractography reveals that the degradation of the interface layer between matrix resin and fiber plays an important role in the strength reduction at 123 K and 77 K. These findings suggest that the interface between matrix resin and fiber loses its bondability at 123 K arid 77 K after electron beam irradiation. (author)

  17. Clay behaviour under thermal gradients elastic and plastic strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintado, Xavier; Autio, Jorma; Punkkinen, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The nuclear waste repositories will generate strong temperature gradients at the clay barrier. The heat and water transport generate volume change in the clay. An experimental work is proposed here. The clay reference is the MX-80. The test device imposes a fixed heat flow in one side of the sample and maintains constant the temperature on the other side. Two samples are tested for symmetry. The samples are unconfined and the total mass of water remains constant. This situation creates a strong thermal gradient in the samples. The final radial strains in some places of the sample, the total vertical strain and the water content distribution will be measured just at the end of the test and some weeks later in order to distinguish the elastic strains from the plastic strains. The test period mustn't be longer than two weeks because a large quantity of water loses through the rubber membrane and the heads of the sample. The maximum temperature reached in the cooper is 90 degrees because with higher temperature, the rubber membrane is damaged. This test is already simulated by a numerical code. Thermal, thermo-hydraulic and thermo-hydro-mechanical analyses are being done. These analyses allow studying the different fluxes inside the sample and its quantification. Water content distribution is compared with the water content calculated from the reference parameters in the clay. The water distribution and the change of diameter after the test will also be studied. This experimental work will allow to know what is the percentage of the strains elastic or plastic and check the mechanical model. The experimental diameter change is compared with the diameter change calculated from the reference parameters of the clay. (authors)

  18. Reproductive efficiency and shade avoidance plasticity under simulated competition

    OpenAIRE

    Fazlioglu, Fatih; Al?Namazi, Ali; Bonser, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Plant strategy and life?history theories make different predictions about reproductive efficiency under competition. While strategy theory suggests under intense competition iteroparous perennial plants delay reproduction and semelparous annuals reproduce quickly, life?history theory predicts both annual and perennial plants increase resource allocation to reproduction under intense competition. We tested (1) how simulated competition influences reproductive efficiency and competitiv...

  19. Mechanisms underlying prorenin actions on hypothalamic neurons implicated in cardiometabolic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Pitra

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: We identified novel neuronal targets and cellular mechanisms underlying PR/PRR actions in critical hypothalamic neurons involved in cardiometabolic regulation. This fundamental mechanistic information regarding central PR/PRR actions is essential for the development of novel RAS-based therapeutic targets for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders in obesity and hypertension.

  20. Plasticity-modulated seizure dynamics for seizure termination in realistic neuronal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppert, M.M.J.; Kalitzin, S.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Viergever, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies we showed that autonomous absence seizure generation and termination can be explained by realistic neuronal models eliciting bi-stable dynamics. In these models epileptic seizures are triggered either by external stimuli (reflex epilepsies) or by internal fluctuations. This

  1. Maresin 1 Inhibits TRPV1 in Temporomandibular Joint-Related Trigeminal Nociceptive Neurons and TMJ Inflammation-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in the Trigeminal Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Kyu Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the trigeminal system, disruption of acute resolution processing may lead to uncontrolled inflammation and chronic pain associated with the temporomandibular joint (TMJ. Currently, there are no effective treatments for TMJ pain. Recently, it has been recognized that maresin 1, a newly identified macrophage-derived mediator of inflammation resolution, is a potent analgesic for somatic inflammatory pain without noticeable side effects in mice and a potent endogenous inhibitor of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 in the somatic system. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the analgesic actions of maresin 1 on TMJ pain are unclear in the trigeminal system. Here, by performing TMJ injection of a retrograde labeling tracer DiI (a fluorescent dye, I showed that maresin 1 potently inhibits capsaicin-induced TRPV1 currents and neuronal activity via Gαi-coupled G-protein coupled receptors in DiI-labeled trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Further, maresin 1 blocked TRPV1 agonist-evoked increases in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency and abolished TMJ inflammation-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal nucleus. These results demonstrate the potent actions of maresin 1 in regulating TRPV1 in the trigeminal system. Thus, maresin 1 may serve as a novel endogenous inhibitor for treating TMJ-inflammatory pain in the orofacial region.

  2. Experimental and FE Analysis of Exterior Plastic Components of Cars under Static and Dynamic Loading Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is composed by an experimental part and numerical part, aimed at contributing to a better knowledge of the behavior of plastic parts under different loading conditions. The study is intended to validate a FE model for simulating exterior plastic components of car especially the A-decor and plastic clips in the context of thermal and static load analysis. From the comparison of numerical and experimental results in the terms of thermal and static deformation of the A-decor, it is c...

  3. Mode-locking behavior of Izhikevich neurons under periodic external forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhniaee, AmirAli; Large, Edward W.

    2017-06-01

    Many neurons in the auditory system of the brain must encode periodic signals. These neurons under periodic stimulation display rich dynamical states including mode locking and chaotic responses. Periodic stimuli such as sinusoidal waves and amplitude modulated sounds can lead to various forms of n :m mode-locked states, in which a neuron fires n action potentials per m cycles of the stimulus. Here, we study mode-locking in the Izhikevich neurons, a reduced model of the Hodgkin-Huxley neurons. The Izhikevich model is much simpler in terms of the dimension of the coupled nonlinear differential equations compared with other existing models, but excellent for generating the complex spiking patterns observed in real neurons. We obtained the regions of existence of the various mode-locked states on the frequency-amplitude plane, called Arnold tongues, for the Izhikevich neurons. Arnold tongue analysis provides useful insight into the organization of mode-locking behavior of neurons under periodic forcing. We find these tongues for both class-1 and class-2 excitable neurons in both deterministic and noisy regimes.

  4. Plasticity of regulatory T cells under cytokine pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Carmen C; Neagu, Ana I; Lungu, Răzvan; Tardei, Graţiela; Alexiu, Irina; Bleotu, Coralia; Economescu, Mihaela Chivu; Bumbăcea, Roxana S; Pele, Irina; Bumbăcea, Dragoş

    2010-01-01

    CD4+ T helper (Th) cells have been divided into different subsets as defined by their cytokine products and functions after their activation. CD4+ T cell subsets are continuously discovered and until now Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells have been almost unanimously recognized but yet not completely characterized. The selective production of cytokines by each of the subsets is probably the master key of the mechanisms of immune regulation. The cytokine milieu is extremely important on deciding the fate of T cells. Generally, more than one cytokine is needed for differentiating to a particular lineage and just recently it was shown that this status quo of commitment could be challenged. It is well known that cytokines bind to Type I/II cytokine receptors signaling via Janus kinases (JAKs) followed by activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT). STAT molecules work together with other transcription factors (Foxp3, RORgammat and RORalpha, T-bet, GATA3, Runx 1, NFAT, etc.) also controlled by cytokines, in modulating the Th phenotype and functions. In this review, we analyze the plasticity of Treg population focusing on the most recent discoveries on how microenvironmental cytokines refine/modify Treg phenotype and function, thus changing their fate.

  5. An Inquiry into the Neural Plasticity Underlying Everyday Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Tisdale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain change with respect to how we live our daily lives? Modern studies on how specific actions affect the anatomy of the brain have shown that different actions shape the way the brain is oriented. While individual studies might point towards these effects occurring in daily actions, the concept that morphological changes occur throughout the numerous fields of neuroplasticity based on daily actions has yet to become a well established and discussed phenomena. It is the goal of this article to view a few fields of neuroplasticity to answer this overarching question and review brain imaging studies indicating such morphological changes associated with the fields of neuroplasticity and everyday actions. To achieve this goal, a systematic approach revolving around scholarly search engines was used to briefly explore each studied field of interest. In this article, the activities of music production, video game play, and sleep are analyzed indicating such morphological change. These activities show changes to the respective areas of the brain in which the tasks are processed with a trend arising from the amount of time spent performing each action. It is shown from these fields of study that this classification of relating everyday actions to morphological change through neural plasticity does hold validity with respect to experimental studies.

  6. Leaf life span plasticity in tropical seedlings grown under contrasting light regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Grégoire

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims The phenotypic plasticity of leaf life span in response to low resource conditions has a potentially large impact on the plant carbon budget, notably in evergreen species not subject to seasonal leaf shedding, but has rarely been well documented. This study evaluates the plasticity of leaf longevity, in terms of its quantitative importance to the plant carbon balance under limiting light. Methods Seedlings of four tropical tree species with contrasting light requirements (...

  7. Leaf life span plasticity in tropical seedlings grown under contrasting light regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gregoire

    2006-02-01

    The phenotypic plasticity of leaf life span in response to low resource conditions has a potentially large impact on the plant carbon budget, notably in evergreen species not subject to seasonal leaf shedding, but has rarely been well documented. This study evaluates the plasticity of leaf longevity, in terms of its quantitative importance to the plant carbon balance under limiting light. Seedlings of four tropical tree species with contrasting light requirements (Alstonia scholaris, Hevea brasiliensis, Durio zibethinus and Lansium domesticum) were grown under three light regimes (full sunlight, 45 % sunlight and 12 % sunlight). Their leaf dynamics were monitored over 18 months. All species showed a considerable level of plasticity with regard to leaf life span: over the range of light levels explored, the ratio of the range to the mean value of life span varied from 29 %, for the least plastic species, to 84 %, for the most. The common trend was for leaf life span to increase with decreasing light intensity. The plasticity apparent in leaf life span was similar in magnitude to the plasticity observed in specific leaf area and photosynthetic rate, implying that it has a significant impact on carbon gain efficiency when plants acclimate to different light regimes. In all species, median survival time was negatively correlated with leaf photosynthetic capacity (or its proxy, the nitrogen content per unit area) and leaf emergence rate. Longer leaf life spans under low light are likely to be a consequence of slower ageing as a result of a slower photosynthetic metabolism.

  8. Utilizing intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity to bolster agricultural and forest productivity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; Loik, Michael E; Resco de Dios, Victor; Tjoelker, Mark G; Payton, Paxton R; Tissue, David T

    2015-09-01

    Climate change threatens the ability of agriculture and forestry to meet growing global demands for food, fibre and wood products. Information gathered from genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E), which demonstrate intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity (the ability of a genotype to alter its phenotype in response to environmental change), may prove important for bolstering agricultural and forest productivity under climate change. Nonetheless, very few studies have explicitly quantified genotype plasticity-productivity relationships in agriculture or forestry. Here, we conceptualize the importance of intraspecific variation in agricultural and forest species plasticity, and discuss the physiological and genetic factors contributing to intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity. Our discussion highlights the need for an integrated understanding of the mechanisms of G × E, more extensive assessments of genotypic responses to climate change under field conditions, and explicit testing of genotype plasticity-productivity relationships. Ultimately, further investigation of intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity in agriculture and forestry may prove important for identifying genotypes capable of increasing or sustaining productivity under more extreme climatic conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Is the human mirror neuron system plastic? Evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Waghmare, Avinash V; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2015-10-01

    Virtual lesions in the mirror neuron network using inhibitory low-frequency (1Hz) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been employed to understand its spatio-functional properties. However, no studies have examined the influence of neuro-enhancement by using excitatory high-frequency (20Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) on these networks. We used three forms of TMS stimulation (HF-rTMS, single and paired pulse) to investigate whether the mirror neuron system facilitates the motor system during goal-directed action observation relative to inanimate motion (motor resonance), a marker of putative mirror neuron activity. 31 healthy individuals were randomized to receive single-sessions of true or sham HF-rTMS delivered to the left inferior frontal gyrus - a component of the human mirror system. Motor resonance was assessed before and after HF-rTMS using three TMS cortical reactivity paradigms: (a) 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), (b) stimulus intensity set to evoke motor evoked potential of 1-millivolt amplitude (SI1mV) and (c) a short latency paired pulse paradigm. Two-way RMANOVA showed a significant group (true versus sham) X occasion (pre- and post-HF-rTMS motor resonance) interaction effect for SI1mV [F(df)=6.26 (1, 29), p=0.018] and 120% RMT stimuli [F(df)=7.01 (1, 29), p=0.013] indicating greater enhancement of motor resonance in the true HF-rTMS group than the sham-group. This suggests that HF-rTMS could adaptively modulate properties of the mirror neuron system. This neuro-enhancement effect is a preliminary step that can open translational avenues for novel brain stimulation therapeutics targeting social-cognition deficits in schizophrenia and autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystal plasticity study of monocrystalline stochastic honeycombs under in-plane compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Duancheng; Eisenlohr, Philip; Epler, Eike; Volkert, Cynthia A.; Shanthraj, Pratheek; Diehl, Martin; Roters, Franz; Raabe, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    We present a study on the plastic deformation of single crystalline stochastic honeycombs under in-plane compression using a crystal plasticity constitutive description for face-centered cubic (fcc) materials, focusing on the very early stage of plastic deformation, and identifying the interplay between the crystallographic orientation and the cellular structure during plastic deformation. We observe that despite the stochastic structure, surprisingly, the slip system activations in the honeycombs are almost identical to their corresponding bulk single crystals at the early stage of the plastic deformation. On the other hand, however, the yield stresses of the honeycombs are nearly independent of their crystallographic orientations. Similar mechanical response is found in compression testing of nanoporous gold micro-pillars aligned with various crystallographic orientations. The macroscopic stress tensors of the honeycombs show the same anisotropy as their respective bulk single crystals. Locally, however, there is an appreciable fluctuation in the local stresses, which are even larger than for polycrystals. This explains why the Taylor/Schmid factor associated with the crystallographic orientation is less useful to estimate the yield stresses of the honeycombs than the bulk single crystals and polycrystals, and why the plastic deformation occurs at smaller strains in the honeycombs than their corresponding bulk single crystals. Besides these findings, the observations of the crystallographic reorientation suggest that conventional orientation analysis tools, such as inverse pole figure and related tools, would in general fail to study the plastic deformation mechanism of monocrystalline cellular materials.

  11. The mirror neuron system as revealed through neonatal imitation: presence from birth, predictive power and evidence of plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Murray, Lynne; Paukner, Annika; Ferrari, Pier F

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that neonates imitate previously unseen behaviours. These behaviours are predominantly used in social interactions, demonstrating neonates' ability and motivation to engage with others. Research on neonatal imitation can provide a wealth of information about the early mirror neuron system (MNS), namely its functional characteristics, its plasticity from birth and its relation to skills later in development. Although numerous studies document the existence of neonatal imitation in the laboratory, little is known about its natural occurrence during parent-infant interactions and its plasticity as a consequence of experience. We review these critical aspects of imitation, which we argue are necessary for understanding the early action-perception system. We address common criticisms and misunderstandings about neonatal imitation and discuss methodological differences among studies. Recent work reveals that individual differences in neonatal imitation positively correlate with later social, cognitive and motor development. We propose that such variation in neonatal imitation could reflect important individual differences of the MNS. Although postnatal experience is not necessary for imitation, we present evidence that neonatal imitation is influenced by experience in the first week of life.

  12. Persistent Associative Plasticity at an Identified Synapse Underlying Classical Conditioning Becomes Labile with Short-Term Homosynaptic Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangyuan; Schacher, Samuel

    2015-12-09

    Synapses express different forms of plasticity that contribute to different forms of memory, and both memory and plasticity can become labile after reactivation. We previously reported that a persistent form of nonassociative long-term facilitation (PNA-LTF) of the sensorimotor synapses in Aplysia californica, a cellular analog of long-term sensitization, became labile with short-term heterosynaptic reactivation and reversed when the reactivation was followed by incubation with the protein synthesis inhibitor rapamycin. Here we examined the reciprocal impact of different forms of short-term plasticity (reactivations) on a persistent form of associative long-term facilitation (PA-LTF), a cellular analog of classical conditioning, which was expressed at Aplysia sensorimotor synapses when a tetanic stimulation of the sensory neurons was paired with a brief application of serotonin on 2 consecutive days. The expression of short-term homosynaptic plasticity [post-tetanic potentiation or homosynaptic depression (HSD)], or short-term heterosynaptic plasticity [serotonin-induced facilitation or neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFa)-induced depression], at synapses expressing PA-LTF did not affect the maintenance of PA-LTF. The kinetics of HSD was attenuated at synapses expressing PA-LTF, which required activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Both PA-LTF and the attenuated kinetics of HSD were reversed by either a transient blockade of PKC activity or a homosynaptic, but not heterosynaptic, reactivation when paired with rapamycin. These results indicate that two different forms of persistent synaptic plasticity, PA-LTF and PNA-LTF, expressed at the same synapse become labile when reactivated by different stimuli. Activity-dependent changes in neural circuits mediate long-term memories. Some forms of long-term memories become labile and can be reversed with specific types of reactivations, but the mechanism is complex. At the cellular level, reactivations that induce a

  13. A model explaining synchronization of neuron bioelectric frequency under weak alternating low frequency magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moral, A. del; Azanza, María J.

    2015-01-01

    A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate (“frequency”), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca 2+ Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD–CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD–CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B 0 ≅0.2–15 mT) AC-MF of frequency f M =50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation. - Highlights: • Neuron pair synchronization under low frequency alternating (AC) magnetic field (MF). • Superdiamagnetism and Ca 2+ Coulomb explosion for AC MF effect in synchronized frequency. • Membrane lipid electrical quadrupolar pair interaction as synchronization mechamism. • Good agreement of model with electrophysiological experiments on mollusc Helix neurons

  14. A model explaining synchronization of neuron bioelectric frequency under weak alternating low frequency magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral, A. del, E-mail: delmoral@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Física de Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Magnetobiología, Departamento de Anatomía e Histología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid (Spain); Azanza, María J., E-mail: mjazanza@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Magnetobiología, Departamento de Anatomía e Histología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    A biomagnetic-electrical model is presented that explains rather well the experimentally observed synchronization of the bioelectric potential firing rate (“frequency”), f, of single unit neurons of Helix aspersa mollusc under the application of extremely low frequency (ELF) weak alternating (AC) magnetic fields (MF). The proposed model incorporates to our widely experimentally tested model of superdiamagnetism (SD) and Ca{sup 2+} Coulomb explosion (CE) from lipid (LP) bilayer membrane (SD–CE model), the electrical quadrupolar long range interaction between the bilayer LP membranes of synchronized neuron pairs, not considered before. The quadrupolar interaction is capable of explaining well the observed synchronization. Actual extension of our SD–CE-model shows that the neuron firing frequency field, B, dependence becomes not modified, but the bioelectric frequency is decreased and its spontaneous temperature, T, dependence is modified. A comparison of the model with synchronization experimental results of pair of neurons under weak (B{sub 0}≅0.2–15 mT) AC-MF of frequency f{sub M}=50 Hz is reported. From the deduced size of synchronized LP clusters under B, is suggested the formation of small neuron networks via the membrane lipid correlation. - Highlights: • Neuron pair synchronization under low frequency alternating (AC) magnetic field (MF). • Superdiamagnetism and Ca{sup 2+} Coulomb explosion for AC MF effect in synchronized frequency. • Membrane lipid electrical quadrupolar pair interaction as synchronization mechamism. • Good agreement of model with electrophysiological experiments on mollusc Helix neurons.

  15. Activity-Dependent NPAS4 Expression and the Regulation of Gene Programs Underlying Plasticity in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of the brain to change functionally in response to sensory experience is most active during early stages of development but it decreases later in life when major alterations of neuronal network structures no longer take place in response to experience. This view has been recently challenged by experimental strategies based on the enhancement of environmental stimulation levels, genetic manipulations, and pharmacological treatments, which all have demonstrated that the adult brain retains a degree of plasticity that allows for a rewiring of neuronal circuitries over the entire life course. A hot spot in the field of neuronal plasticity centres on gene programs that underlie plastic phenomena in adulthood. Here, I discuss the role of the recently discovered neuronal-specific and activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 as a critical mediator of plasticity in the nervous system. A better understanding of how modifications in the connectivity of neuronal networks occur may shed light on the treatment of pathological conditions such as brain damage or disease in adult life, some of which were once considered untreatable.

  16. Bi-directionally protective communication between neurons and astrocytes under ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Mei Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensive existing knowledge on bi-directional communication between astrocytes and neurons led us to hypothesize that not only ischemia-preconditioned (IP astrocytes can protect neurons but also IP neurons protect astrocytes from lethal ischemic injury. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that neurons have a significant role in protecting astrocytes from ischemic injury. The cultured medium from IP neurons (IPcNCM induced a remarkable reduction in LDH and an increase in cell viability in ischemic astrocytes in vitro. Selective neuronal loss by kainic acid injection induced a significant increase in apoptotic astrocyte numbers in the brain of ischemic rats in vivo. Furthermore, TUNEL analysis, DNA ladder assay, and the measurements of ROS, GSH, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidant enzymes and signal molecules in vitro and/or in vivo demonstrated that IP neurons protect astrocytes by an EPO-mediated inhibition of pro-apoptotic signals, activation of anti-apoptotic proteins via the P13K/ERK/STAT5 pathways and activation of anti-oxidant proteins via up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes. We demonstrated the existence of astro-protection by IP neurons under ischemia and proposed that the bi-directionally protective communications between cells might be a common activity in the brain or peripheral organs under most if not all pathological conditions.

  17. Bi-directionally protective communication between neurons and astrocytes under ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Mei; Qian, Christopher; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Yan, Yick-Chun; Luo, Qian-Qian; Yung, Wing-Ho; Zhang, Fa-Li; Jiang, Li-Rong; Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2017-10-01

    The extensive existing knowledge on bi-directional communication between astrocytes and neurons led us to hypothesize that not only ischemia-preconditioned (IP) astrocytes can protect neurons but also IP neurons protect astrocytes from lethal ischemic injury. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that neurons have a significant role in protecting astrocytes from ischemic injury. The cultured medium from IP neurons (IPcNCM) induced a remarkable reduction in LDH and an increase in cell viability in ischemic astrocytes in vitro. Selective neuronal loss by kainic acid injection induced a significant increase in apoptotic astrocyte numbers in the brain of ischemic rats in vivo. Furthermore, TUNEL analysis, DNA ladder assay, and the measurements of ROS, GSH, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidant enzymes and signal molecules in vitro and/or in vivo demonstrated that IP neurons protect astrocytes by an EPO-mediated inhibition of pro-apoptotic signals, activation of anti-apoptotic proteins via the P13K/ERK/STAT5 pathways and activation of anti-oxidant proteins via up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes. We demonstrated the existence of astro-protection by IP neurons under ischemia and proposed that the bi-directionally protective communications between cells might be a common activity in the brain or peripheral organs under most if not all pathological conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A fiber bundle-plastic chain model for quasi-brittle materials under uniaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Zhi; Yu, Zhiwu

    2015-01-01

    A fiber bundle-plastic chain model for quasi-brittle materials under both uniaxial compression and tension conditions is developed. By introducing a plastic chain model into the fiber bundle model, a bundle-chain model for quasi-brittle materials is proposed with physical considerations. The model achieves a novel and convenient approach to describe the stochastic effective stress-driven plasticity. It is found that the numerical solutions obtained with this model agree with experimental results when subjected to both monotonic and cyclic uniaxial loading. The model generates a numerical solution with higher accuracy than the present models, when compared with the experimental results on certain problems. An example is shown which utilizes this model to describe the stochastic properties of a constitutive model given as standard. Furthermore, the difference between the existing plastic fiber bundle models in the literature and this model is also obtained in this work. (paper)

  19. Neuronal substrates underlying stress resilience and susceptibility in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Febbraro, Fabia; Svenningsen, Katrine; Thao Phuong Tran

    2017-01-01

    attention has been devoted to understand resiliency to stress. The aim of the present study was to identify changes in neuronal activity, associated with stress-resilient and stress-susceptible chronic mild stress endophenotypes, by examining c-Fos expression in 13 different brain areas. Changes in c...... responses was done by semi-automated profile counting procedures and design-based stereology. RESULTS: Exposure to chronic mild stress significantly altered c-Fos expression in a total of 6 out of 13 investigated areas. Chronic mild stress was found to suppress the c-Fos response within the magnocellular...

  20. Persistent changes in neuronal structure and synaptic plasticity caused by proton irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Vipan K; Pasha, Junaid; Tran, Katherine K; Craver, Brianna M; Acharya, Munjal M; Limoli, Charles L

    2015-03-01

    Cranial radiotherapy is used routinely to control the growth of primary and secondary brain tumors, but often results in serious and debilitating cognitive dysfunction. In part due to the beneficial dose depth distributions that may spare normal tissue damage, the use of protons to treat CNS and other tumor types is rapidly gaining popularity. Astronauts exposed to lower doses of protons in the space radiation environment are also at risk for developing adverse CNS complications. To explore the consequences of whole body proton irradiation, mice were subjected to 0.1 and 1 Gy and analyzed for morphometric changes in hippocampal neurons 10 and 30 days following exposure. Significant dose-dependent reductions (~33 %) in dendritic complexity were found, when dendritic length, branching and area were analyzed 30 days after exposure. At equivalent doses and times, significant reductions in the number (~30 %) and density (50-75 %) of dendritic spines along hippocampal neurons of the dentate gyrus were also observed. Immature spines (filopodia, long) exhibited the greatest sensitivity (1.5- to 3-fold) to irradiation, while more mature spines (mushroom) were more resistant to changes over a 1-month post-irradiation timeframe. Irradiated granule cell neurons spanning the subfields of the dentate gyrus showed significant and dose-responsive reductions in synaptophysin expression, while the expression of postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95) was increased significantly. These findings corroborate our past work using photon irradiation, and demonstrate for the first time, dose-responsive changes in dendritic complexity, spine density and morphology and synaptic protein levels following exposure to low-dose whole body proton irradiation.

  1. Neuronal plasticity and astrocytic reaction in Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole Steen; Brooksbank, B W; Balázs, R

    1990-01-01

    Proteins relatively enriched in neurons (neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and D3-protein) or in glia (glutamine synthetase, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100) were measured by quantitative immunochemical methods in autopsy samples of the cerebral cortex of subjects with Alzheimer...... disease (AD) and adults with Down syndrome (DS), the latter also presenting manifest signs of Alzheimer type of neuropathology. The trend of changes was similar in AD and DS, but more marked in the latter. The biochemical make-up of astrocytes was differentially affected: in both the frontal and DS...

  2. Digest: Plants adapt under attack: genotypic selection and phenotypic plasticity under herbivore pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Nichola J

    2018-03-31

    Plant species adapt to changing environmental conditions through phenotypic plasticity and natural selection. Agrawal et al. (2018) found that dandelions responded to the presence of insect pests by producing higher levels of defensive compounds. This defensive response resulted both from phenotypic plasticity, with individual plants' defenses triggered by insect attack, and from evolution by natural selection acting on genetic variation in the plant population. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Durability and plasticity of a material under different trajectories cycle loading in dependence on the loading prehistory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozharovskij, N.S.; Bobyr', N.I.

    1979-01-01

    Results of investigations into the durability and plasticity of a material under combined proportional cyclic loading over different trajectories depending upon the values of intensity of preliminary plastic deformation obtained by different loading methods are presented. The effect of loading prehistory type on material plastic properties and its durability are shown

  4. Durability and plasticity of a material under different trajectories cycle loading in dependence on the loading prehistory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozharovskii, N S; Bobyr, N I [Kievskij Politekhnicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1979-12-01

    Results of investigations into the durability and plasticity of a material under combined proportional cyclic loading over different trajectories depending upon the values of intensity of preliminary plastic deformation obtained by different loading methods are presented. The effect of loading prehistory type on material plastic properties and its durability are shown.

  5. Triatominae as a model of morphological plasticity under ecological pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujardin JP

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biochemical and genetic characters to explore species or population relationships has been applied to taxonomic questions since the 60s. In responding to the central question of the evolutionary history of Triatominae, i.e. their monophyletic or polyphyletic origin, two important questions arise (i to what extent is the morphologically-based classification valid for assessing phylogenetic relationships? and (ii what are the main mechanisms underlying speciation in Triatominae? Phenetic and genetic studies so far developed suggest that speciation in Triatominae may be a rapid process mainly driven by ecological factors.

  6. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Parkinson’s Disease: Impact on Neuronal Survival and Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Regensburger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease (PD and other synucleinopathies, chronic neurodegeneration occurs within different areas of the central nervous system leading to progressive motor and nonmotor symptoms. The symptomatic treatment options that are currently available do not slow or halt disease progression. This highlights the need of a better understanding of disease mechanisms and disease models. The generation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus and in the subventricular zone/olfactory bulb system is affected by many different regulators and possibly involved in memory processing, depression, and olfaction, symptoms which commonly occur in PD. The pathology of the adult neurogenic niches in human PD patients is still mostly elusive, but different preclinical models have shown profound alterations of adult neurogenesis. Alterations in stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival as well as neurite outgrowth and spine formation have been related to different aspects in PD pathogenesis. Therefore, neurogenesis in the adult brain provides an ideal model to study disease mechanisms and compounds. In addition, adult newborn neurons have been proposed as a source of endogenous repair. Herein, we review current knowledge about the adult neurogenic niches in PD and highlight areas of future research.

  7. Operant behavior to obtain palatable food modifies neuronal plasticity in the brain reward circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guegan, Thomas; Cutando, Laura; Ayuso, Eduard; Santini, Emanuela; Fisone, Gilberto; Bosch, Fatima; Martinez, Albert; Valjent, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Martin, Miquel

    2013-02-01

    Palatability enhances food intake by hedonic mechanisms that prevail over caloric necessities. Different studies have demonstrated the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the mesocorticolimbic system in controlling food hedonic value and consumption. We hypothesize that the endogenous cannabinoid system could also be involved in the development of food-induced behavioral alterations, such as food-seeking and binge-eating, by a mechanism that requires neuroplastic changes in the brain reward pathway. For this purpose, we evaluated the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R) in the behavioral and neuroplastic changes induced by operant training for standard, highly caloric or highly palatable isocaloric food using different genetics, viral and pharmacological approaches. Neuroplasticity was evaluated by measuring changes in dendritic spine density in neurons previously labeled with the dye DiI. Only operant training to obtain highly palatable isocaloric food induced neuroplastic changes in neurons of the nucleus accumbens shell and prefrontal cortex that were associated to changes in food-seeking behavior. These behavioral and neuroplastic modifications induced by highly palatable isocaloric food were dependent on the activity of the CB1-R. Neuroplastic changes induced by highly palatable isocaloric food are similar to those produced by some drugs of abuse and may be crucial in the alteration of food-seeking behavior leading to overweight and obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. The Cholinergic System Modulates Memory and Hippocampal Plasticity via Its Interactions with Non-Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara V. Maurer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Degeneration of central cholinergic neurons impairs memory, and enhancement of cholinergic synapses improves cognitive processes. Cholinergic signaling is also anti-inflammatory, and neuroinflammation is increasingly linked to adverse memory, especially in Alzheimer’s disease. Much of the evidence surrounding cholinergic impacts on the neuroimmune system focuses on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh receptor, as stimulation of this receptor prevents many of the effects of immune activation. Microglia and astrocytes both express this receptor, so it is possible that some cholinergic effects may be via these non-neuronal cells. Though the presence of microglia is required for memory, overactivated microglia due to an immune challenge overproduce inflammatory cytokines, which is adverse for memory. Blocking these exaggerated effects, specifically by decreasing the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β, and interleukin 6 (IL-6, has been shown to prevent inflammation-induced memory impairment. While there is considerable evidence that cholinergic signaling improves memory, fewer studies have linked the “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” to memory processes. This review will summarize the current understanding of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway as it relates to memory and will argue that one mechanism by which the cholinergic system modulates hippocampal memory processes is its influence on neuroimmune function via the α7 nicotinic ACh receptor.

  9. Fatigue crack propagation under elastic plastic medium at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Y.; Yuuki, R.; Sakon, T.; Sunamoto, D.; Tokimasa, K.; Makino, Y.; Kitagawa, M; Shingai, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purposes of the present study are to establish the testing method to obtain compatible data on the low cycle fatigue crack propagation at elevated temperature, and to investigate the parameter controlling the crack propagation rate. In the present study, the preliminary experiments have been carried out on low cycle fatigue crack propagation behaviour in type 304 stainless steel in air at 550 0 C, using two types of specimen with a through thickness notch. Both strain controlled and stress controlled fatigue tests have been done under a fully reversed strain or stress cycling. The data obtained are correlated with some fracture mechanics parameters and are discussed with the appropriate parameter for evaluating the low cycle fatigue crack propagation behaviour at elevated temperature. (author)

  10. Computer simulation of model cohesive powders: Plastic consolidation, structural changes and elasticity under isotropic loads

    OpenAIRE

    Gilabert, Francisco; Roux, Jean-Noël; Castellanos, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The quasistatic behavior of a simple 2D model of a cohesive powder under isotropic loads is investigated by Discrete Element simulations. The loose packing states, as studied in a previous paper, undergo important structural changes under growing confining pressure P, while solid fraction \\Phi irreversibly increases by large amounts. The system state goes through three stages, with different forms of the plastic consolidation curve \\Phi(P*), under growing reduced press...

  11. Bistable dynamics underlying excitability of ion homeostasis in neuron models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hübel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When neurons fire action potentials, dissipation of free energy is usually not directly considered, because the change in free energy is often negligible compared to the immense reservoir stored in neural transmembrane ion gradients and the long-term energy requirements are met through chemical energy, i.e., metabolism. However, these gradients can temporarily nearly vanish in neurological diseases, such as migraine and stroke, and in traumatic brain injury from concussions to severe injuries. We study biophysical neuron models based on the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH formalism extended to include time-dependent ion concentrations inside and outside the cell and metabolic energy-driven pumps. We reveal the basic mechanism of a state of free energy-starvation (FES with bifurcation analyses showing that ion dynamics is for a large range of pump rates bistable without contact to an ion bath. This is interpreted as a threshold reduction of a new fundamental mechanism of ionic excitability that causes a long-lasting but transient FES as observed in pathological states. We can in particular conclude that a coupling of extracellular ion concentrations to a large glial-vascular bath can take a role as an inhibitory mechanism crucial in ion homeostasis, while the Na⁺/K⁺ pumps alone are insufficient to recover from FES. Our results provide the missing link between the HH formalism and activator-inhibitor models that have been successfully used for modeling migraine phenotypes, and therefore will allow us to validate the hypothesis that migraine symptoms are explained by disturbed function in ion channel subunits, Na⁺/K⁺ pumps, and other proteins that regulate ion homeostasis.

  12. Interplay of two signals in a neuron with heterogeneous synaptic short-term plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eDroste

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Signals from different sensory modalities may converge on a single neuron. We study theoretically a setup in which one signal is transmitted via facilitating synapses (F signal and another via depressing synapses (D signal. When both signals are present, the postsynaptic cell preferentially encodes information about slow components of the F signal and fast components of the D signal, whereas for a single signal, transmission is broadband. We also show that, in the fluctuation-driven regime, the rate of information transmission may be increased through stochastic resonance. Remarkably, the role of the beneficial noise is played by another signal, which is itself represented in the spike train of the postsynaptic cell.

  13. Gene Expression Patterns Underlying the Reinstatement of Plasticity in the Adult Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Tiraboschi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is highly sensitive to experience during early postnatal life, but this phase of heightened plasticity decreases with age. Recent studies have demonstrated that developmental-like plasticity can be reactivated in the visual cortex of adult animals through environmental or pharmacological manipulations. These findings provide a unique opportunity to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of adult plasticity. Here we used the monocular deprivation paradigm to investigate large-scale gene expression patterns underlying the reinstatement of plasticity produced by fluoxetine in the adult rat visual cortex. We found changes, confirmed with RT-PCRs, in gene expression in different biological themes, such as chromatin structure remodelling, transcription factors, molecules involved in synaptic plasticity, extracellular matrix, and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Our findings reveal a key role for several molecules such as the metalloproteases Mmp2 and Mmp9 or the glycoprotein Reelin and open up new insights into the mechanisms underlying the reopening of the critical periods in the adult brain.

  14. Translating neuronal activity at the synapse: presynaptic calcium sensors in short-term plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur P.H. De Jong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex manner in which patterns of presynaptic neural activity are translated into short-term plasticity (STP suggests the existence of multiple presynaptic calcium (Ca2+ sensors, which regulate the amplitude and time-course of STP and are the focus of this review. We describe two canonical Ca2+-binding protein domains (C2 domains and EF-hands and define criteria that need to be met for a protein to qualify as a Ca2+ sensor mediating STP. With these criteria in mind, we discuss various forms of STP and identify established and putative Ca2+ sensors. We find that despite the multitude of proposed sensors, only three are well established in STP: Munc13, protein kinase C and synaptotagmin-7. For putative sensors, we pinpoint open questions and potential pitfalls. Finally, we discuss how the molecular properties and modes of action of Ca2+ sensors can explain their differential involvement in STP and shape net synaptic output.

  15. Ratcheting deformation of advanced 316 steel under creep-plasticity condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Fumiko; Ishikawa, Akiyoshi; Asada, Yasuhide [Tokai Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Tension-torsion biaxial ratcheting tests have been conducted with Advanced 316 Steel (316FR Steel) at 650 C under a cyclic strain rate of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5} s{sup -1}. Accumulation of ratcheting strain has been measured. Accumulated ratchet strain has shown to be much larger than predicted based on a usual method of the linear superposition of strains due to creep and plasticity. The result shows there observed the creep-plasticity interaction in the observation. (orig.)

  16. Thermally induced processes in mixtures of aluminum with organic acids after plastic deformations under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhorin, V. A.; Kiselev, M. R.; Roldugin, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    DSC is used to measure the thermal effects of processes in mixtures of solid organic dibasic acids with powdered aluminum, subjected to plastic deformation under pressures in the range of 0.5-4.0 GPa using an anvil-type high-pressure setup. Analysis of thermograms obtained for the samples after plastic deformation suggests a correlation between the exothermal peaks observed around the temperatures of degradation of the acids and the thermally induced chemical reactions between products of acid degradation and freshly formed surfaces of aluminum particles. The release of heat in the mixtures begins at 30-40°C. The thermal effects in the mixtures of different acids change according to the order of acid reactivity in solutions. The extreme baric dependences of enthalpies of thermal effects are associated with the rearrangement of the electron subsystem of aluminum upon plastic deformation at high pressures.

  17. Bearing capacity and rigidity of short plastic-concrete-tubal vertical columns under transverse load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzhenko, A. V.; Naumov, A. E.; Shevchenko, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    The results of mathematical modeling in determining strain-stress distribution parameters of a short plastic-concrete-tubal vertical column under horizontal load as those in vertical constructions are described. Quantitative parameters of strain-stress distribution during vertical and horizontal loads and horizontal stiffness were determined by finite element modeling. The internal stress in the concrete column core was analyzed according to equivalent stress in Mohr theory of failure. It was determined that the bearing capacity of a short plastic- concrete-tubal vertical column is 25% higher in resistibility and 15% higher in rigidness than those of the caseless concrete columns equal in size. Cracks formation in the core of a short plastic-concrete-tubal vertical column happens under significantly bigger horizontal loads with less amount of concrete spent than that in caseless concrete columns. The significant increase of bearing capacity and cracking resistance of a short plastic-concrete-tubal vertical column under vertical and horizontal loads allows recommending them as highly effective and highly reliable structural wall elements in civil engineering.

  18. The hyaluronan and proteoglycan link proteins: Organizers of the brain extracellular matrix and key molecules for neuronal function and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oohashi, Toshitaka; Edamatsu, Midori; Bekku, Yoko; Carulli, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The hyaluronan and proteoglycanbinding link protein (Hapln) is a key molecule in the formation and control of hyaluronan-based condensed perineuronal matrix in the adult brain. This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the role of Haplns in the formation and control of two distinct types of perineuronal matrices, one for "classical" PNN and the other for the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) at the node of Ranvier in the central nervous system (CNS). We introduce the structural components of each ECM organization including the basic concept of supramolecular structure named "HLT model". We furthermore summarize the developmental and physiological role of perineuronal ECMs from the studies of Haplns and related molecules. Finally, we also discuss the potential mechanism modulating PNNs in the adult CNS. This layer of organized matrices may exert a direct effect via core protein or sugar moiety from the structure or by acting as a binding site for biologically active molecules, which are important for neuronal plasticity and saltatory conduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Temporal entrainment of cognitive functions: musical mnemonics induce brain plasticity and oscillatory synchrony in neural networks underlying memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H; Peterson, David A; McIntosh, Gerald C

    2005-12-01

    In a series of experiments, we have begun to investigate the effect of music as a mnemonic device on learning and memory and the underlying plasticity of oscillatory neural networks. We used verbal learning and memory tests (standardized word lists, AVLT) in conjunction with electroencephalographic analysis to determine differences between verbal learning in either a spoken or musical (verbal materials as song lyrics) modality. In healthy adults, learning in both the spoken and music condition was associated with significant increases in oscillatory synchrony across all frequency bands. A significant difference between the spoken and music condition emerged in the cortical topography of the learning-related synchronization. When using EEG measures as predictors during learning for subsequent successful memory recall, significantly increased coherence (phase-locked synchronization) within and between oscillatory brain networks emerged for music in alpha and gamma bands. In a similar study with multiple sclerosis patients, superior learning and memory was shown in the music condition when controlled for word order recall, and subjects were instructed to sing back the word lists. Also, the music condition was associated with a significant power increase in the low-alpha band in bilateral frontal networks, indicating increased neuronal synchronization. Musical learning may access compensatory pathways for memory functions during compromised PFC functions associated with learning and recall. Music learning may also confer a neurophysiological advantage through the stronger synchronization of the neuronal cell assemblies underlying verbal learning and memory. Collectively our data provide evidence that melodic-rhythmic templates as temporal structures in music may drive internal rhythm formation in recurrent cortical networks involved in learning and memory.

  20. Effect of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid supplementation on bio-plastic production under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S K; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt

    2013-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are intracellular reserve material stored by gram-negative bacteria under nutrient-limited condition. PHAs are utilized in biodegradable plastics (bio-plastics) synthesis due to their similarity with conventional synthetic plastic. In the present study, the effect of addition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid) on the production of PHAs by the soil bacterium Alcaligenes sp. NCIM 5085 was studied. Fatty acid supplementation in basal media produced saturated and unsaturated PHAs of medium and short chain length. Gas chromatography analysis of palmitic acid-supplemented media showed the presence of short chain length (scl) PHAs which could potentially serve as precursors for bio-plastic production. The scl PHA was subsequently characterized as PHB by NMR and FTIR. On the other hand, oleic acid and linoleic acid addition showed both saturated and unsaturated PHAs of different chain lengths. Palmitic acid showed maximum PHB content of 70.8 % at concentration of 15 g l -1 under shake flask cultivation. When shake flask cultivation was scaled up in a 7.5-l bioreactor (working volume 3 l), 7.6 g l -1 PHA was produced with a PHB yield (Y P/X ) and productivity of 75.89 % and 0.14 g l -1  h, respectively.

  1. Gustatory Habituation in "Drosophila" Relies on "Rutabaga" (Adenylate Cyclase)-Dependent Plasticity of GABAergic Inhibitory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Pushkar; Rodrigues, Veronica; VijayRaghavan, K.; Ramaswami, Mani

    2012-01-01

    In some situations, animals seem to ignore stimuli which in other contexts elicit a robust response. This attenuation in behavior, which enables animals to ignore a familiar, unreinforced stimulus, is called habituation. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, it is generally poorly understood in terms of the underlying neural circuitry. Hungry…

  2. Cdk7 Is Required for Activity-Dependent Neuronal Gene Expression, Long-Lasting Synaptic Plasticity and Long-Term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiqin He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, de novo gene expression driven by learning-associated neuronal activities is critical for the formation of long-term memories. However, the signaling machinery mediating neuronal activity-induced gene expression, especially the rapid transcription of immediate-early genes (IEGs remains unclear. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks are a family of serine/threonine kinases that have been firmly established as key regulators of transcription processes underling coordinated cell cycle entry and sequential progression in nearly all types of proliferative cells. Cdk7 is a subunit of transcriptional initiation factor II-H (TFIIH and the only known Cdk-activating kinase (CAK in metazoans. Recent studies using a novel Cdk7 specific covalent inhibitor, THZ1, revealed important roles of Cdk7 in transcription regulation in cancer cells. However, whether Cdk7 plays a role in the regulation of transcription in neurons remains unknown. In this study, we present evidence demonstrating that, in post-mitotic neurons, Cdk7 activity is positively correlated with neuronal activities in cultured primary neurons, acute hippocampal slices and in the brain. Cdk7 inhibition by THZ1 significantly suppressed mRNA levels of IEGs, selectively impaired long-lasting synaptic plasticity induced by 4 trains of high frequency stimulation (HFS and prevented the formation of long-term memories.

  3. Robust Synchronization of Delayed Chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo Neurons under External Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rehan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization of chaotic neurons under external electrical stimulation (EES is studied in order to understand information processing in the brain and to improve the methodologies employed in the treatment of cognitive diseases. This paper investigates the dynamics of uncertain coupled chaotic delayed FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neurons under EES for incorporated parametric variations. A global nonlinear control law for synchronization of delayed neurons with known parameters is developed. Based on local and global Lipschitz conditions, knowledge of the bounds on the neuronal states, the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, and the L2 gain reduction, a less conservative local robust nonlinear control law is formulated to address the problem of robust asymptotic synchronization of delayed FHN neurons under parametric uncertainties. The proposed local control law guarantees both robust stability and robust performance and provides the L2 bound for uncertainty rejection in the synchronization error dynamics. Separate conditions for single-input and multiple-input control schemes for synchronization of a wide class of FHN systems are provided. The results of the proposed techniques are verified through numerical simulations.

  4. Different patterns of motor activity induce differential plastic changes in pyramidal neurons in the motor cortex of rats: A Golgi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Hernández, Nallely; González-Tapia, Diana C; Martínez-Torres, Nestor I; González-Tapia, David; González-Burgos, Ignacio

    2017-09-14

    Rehabilitation is a process which favors recovery after brain damage involving motor systems, and neural plasticity is the only real resource the brain has for inducing neurobiological events in order to bring about re-adaptation. Rats were placed on a treadmill and made to walk, in different groups, at different velocities and with varying degrees of inclination. Plastic changes in the spines of the apical and basal dendrites of fifth-layer pyramidal neurons in the motor cortices of the rats were detected after study with the Golgi method. Numbers of dendritic spines increased in the three experimental groups, and thin, mushroom, stubby, wide, and branched spines increased or decreased in proportion depending on the motor demands made of each group. Along with the numerical increase of spines, the present findings provide evidence that dendritic spines' geometrical plasticity is involved in the differential performance of motor activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic strength of cylindrical fiber-glass shells and basalt plastic shells under multiple explosive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrunin, M. A.; Fedorenko, A. G.

    2006-08-01

    We have shown experimentally that, for cylindrical shells made of oriented fiberglass platic and basalt plastic there exists a critical level of deformations, at which a structure sustains a given number of explosions from the inside. The magnitude of critical deformation for cylindrical fiberglass shells depends linearly on the logarithm of the number of loads that cause failure. For a given type of fiberglass, there is a limiting level of explosive action, at which the number of loads that do not lead to failure can be sufficiently large (more than ˜ 102). This level is attained under loads, which are an order of magnitude lower than the limiting loads under a single explosive action. Basalt plastic shells can be repeatedly used even at the loads, which cause deformation by ˜ 30-50% lower than the safe value ˜ 3.3.5% at single loading.

  6. Separation of plastic waste via the hydraulic separator Multidune under different geometric configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Floriana; Moroni, Monica; Cherubini, Lorenzo; Lupo, Emanuela; Cenedese, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    The recovery of high-quality plastic materials is becoming an increasingly challenging issue for the recycling sector. Technologies for plastic recycling have to guarantee high-quality secondary raw material, complying with specific standards, for use in industrial applications. The variability in waste plastics does not always correspond to evident differences in physical characteristics, making traditional methodologies ineffective for plastic separation. The Multidune separator is a hydraulic channel allowing the sorting of solid particles on the basis of differential transport mechanisms by generating particular fluid dynamic conditions due to its geometric configuration and operational settings. In this paper, the fluid dynamic conditions were investigated by an image analysis technique, allowing the reconstruction of velocity fields generated inside the Multidune, considering two different geometric configurations of the device, Configuration A and Configuration B. Furthermore, tests on mono- and bi-material samples were completed with varying operational conditions under both configurations. In both series of experiments, the bi-material samples were composed of differing proportions (85% vs. 15%) to simulate real conditions in an industrial plant for the purifying of a useful fraction from a contaminating fraction. The separation results were evaluated in terms of grade and recovery of the useful fraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Computer Modeling of the Dynamic Strength of Metal-Plastic Cylindrical Shells Under Explosive Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrosimov, N. A.; Novosel'tseva, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    A technique for numerically analyzing the dynamic strength of two-layer metal-plastic cylindrical shells under an axisymmetric internal explosive loading is developed. The kinematic deformation model of the layered package is based on a nonclassical theory of shells. The geometric relations are constructed using relations of the simplest quadratic version of the nonlinear elasticity theory. The stress and strain tensors in the composite macrolayer are related by Hooke's law for an orthotropic body with account of degradation of the stiffness characteristics of the multilayer package due to local failure of some its elementary layers. The physical relations in the metal layer are formulated in terms of a differential theory of plasticity. An energy-correlated resolving system of dynamic equations for the metal-plastic cylindrical shells is derived by minimizing the functional of total energy of the shells as three-dimensional bodies. The numerical method for solving the initial boundary-value problem formulated is based on an explicit variational-difference scheme. The reliability of the technique considered is verified by comparing numerical results with experimental data. An analysis of the ultimate strains and strength of one-layer basalt-and glass-fiber-reinforced plastic and two-layer metalplastic cylindrical shells is carried out.

  8. BDNF and Schizophrenia: from Neurodevelopment to Neuronal Plasticity, Learning and Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eNieto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF is a neurotrophin that has been related not only to neurodevelopment and neuroprotection, but also to synapse regulation, learning and memory. Research focused on the neurobiology of schizophrenia has emphasized the relevance of neurodevelompental and neurotoxicity-related elements in the pathogenesis of this disease. Research focused on the clinical features of schizophrenia in the past decades has emphasized the relevance of cognitive deficits of this illness, considered a core manifestation and an important predictor for functional outcome. Variations in neurotrophins such as BDNF may have a role as part of the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, from the neurodevelopmental alterations to the molecular mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Investigating the molecular pathway through which L-Lactate interacts with synaptic NMDAR to modulate neuronal plasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Engy

    2016-12-01

    In the brain, glycogen, the storage form of glucose, is exclusively localized in astrocytes (Magistretti and Allaman, 2015). Glycogenolysis leads to the production of L-lactate, which is shuttled to neurons for ATP production. Interestingly, L-lactate was recently shown to be not only a source of energy, but also a signaling molecule to neurons. This was demonstrated through the inhibition of L-lactate production or transport in an inhibitory avoidance paradigm, where the rodents developed amnesia. This inhibition of memory consolidation was rescued by L-lactate and not by equicaloric glucose emphasizing that L-lactate acts as a signaling molecule as well (Suzuki et al., 2011). A recent study in our laboratory suggests that the action of L-lactate takes place through a cascade of molecular events via the modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity (Yang et al., 2014). Since NADH produced similar results to those seen with L-lactate, it was hypothesized that the action of the latter is based on altering the redox state of the cell, in particular in view of the fact that redox-sensitive sites are present on the NMDAR. However, the precise molecular mechanism underlying the apparent change in the NMDAR activity is not fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to explore those mechanisms.

  10. Microtubule Abnormalities Underlying Gulf War Illness in Neurons from Human-Induced Pluripotent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), originating from GW...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0433 TITLE: Microtubule Abnormalities Underlying Gulf War Illness in Neurons from Human- Induced Pluripotent Cells ...A simple blood sample is taken from the soldier, and then transduced, using reliable established methods , to make the cells pluripotent .

  11. INFLAMMATION AND NEURONAL PLASTICITY: A LINK BETWEEN CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND DEPRESSION PATHOGENESIS

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    Annamaria eCattaneo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in understanding and characterizing the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder. Several evidences linked inflammation to major depression, including the presence of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, together with other mediators of inflammation both in the blood and in the brain of depressed patients.However, whether depression itself acts in an immunomodulatory fashion or whether other factors related to depression result in these immunological effects remains an open question. Regardless, major depression is often the result of the exposure to stressful events early in life, which may also act through the modulation of inflammatory responses. Indeed, subjects with a history of childhood trauma show high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increased risk to develop psychopathologies later in life. Moreover, depressed patients with a history of childhood trauma are also less responsive to antidepressant therapies, suggesting that increased inflammation or altered activation of the immune system may also be relevant for the response to antidepressant therapies. This review will provide an overview on the potential role of the inflammatory/immune system and stress related biomarkers to aid diagnosis, predict treatment response, enhance treatment matching, and prevent the onset or relapse of major depression. We will also discuss the role of early life adverse events in increasing the vulnerability to depression development by acting on the inflammatory and stress-related system. Finally, we will discuss the putative biological mechanisms underlying the transmission, from one generation to the next, of the stress signatures and thus, of the increased vulnerability for psychopathologies induced by childhood trauma events.

  12. Molecular Ecological Basis of Grasshopper (Oedaleus asiaticus) Phenotypic Plasticity under Environmental Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xinghu; Hao, Kun; Ma, Jingchuan; Huang, Xunbing; Tu, Xiongbing; Ali, Md. Panna; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Whitman, Douglas W.; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-01-01

    While ecological adaptation in insects can be reflected by plasticity of phenotype, determining the causes and molecular mechanisms for phenotypic plasticity (PP) remains a crucial and still difficult question in ecology, especially where control of insect pests is involved. Oedaleus asiaticus is one of the most dominant pests in the Inner Mongolia steppe and represents an excellent system to study phenotypic plasticity. To better understand ecological factors affecting grasshopper phenotypic plasticity and its molecular control, we conducted a full transcriptional screening of O. asiaticus grasshoppers reared in four different grassland patches in Inner Mongolia. Grasshoppers showed different degrees of PP associated with unique gene expressions and different habitat plant community compositions. Grasshopper performance variables were susceptible to habitat environment conditions and closely associated with plant architectures. Intriguingly, eco-transcriptome analysis revealed five potential candidate genes playing important roles in grasshopper performance, with gene expression closely relating to PP and plant community factors. By linking the grasshopper performances to gene profiles and ecological factors using canonical regression, we first demonstrated the eco-transcriptomic architecture (ETA) of grasshopper phenotypic traits (ETAGPTs). ETAGPTs revealed plant food type, plant density, coverage, and height were the main ecological factors influencing PP, while insect cuticle protein (ICP), negative elongation factor A (NELFA), and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT) were the key genes associated with PP. Our study gives a clear picture of gene-environment interaction in the formation and maintenance of PP and enriches our understanding of the transcriptional events underlying molecular control of rapid phenotypic plasticity associated with environmental variability. The findings of this study may also provide new targets for pest control and highlight the

  13. Molecular Ecological Basis of Grasshopper (Oedaleus asiaticus Phenotypic Plasticity under Environmental Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghu Qin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While ecological adaptation in insects can be reflected by plasticity of phenotype, determining the causes and molecular mechanisms for phenotypic plasticity (PP remains a crucial and still difficult question in ecology, especially where control of insect pests is involved. Oedaleus asiaticus is one of the most dominant pests in the Inner Mongolia steppe and represents an excellent system to study phenotypic plasticity. To better understand ecological factors affecting grasshopper phenotypic plasticity and its molecular control, we conducted a full transcriptional screening of O. asiaticus grasshoppers reared in four different grassland patches in Inner Mongolia. Grasshoppers showed different degrees of PP associated with unique gene expressions and different habitat plant community compositions. Grasshopper performance variables were susceptible to habitat environment conditions and closely associated with plant architectures. Intriguingly, eco-transcriptome analysis revealed five potential candidate genes playing important roles in grasshopper performance, with gene expression closely relating to PP and plant community factors. By linking the grasshopper performances to gene profiles and ecological factors using canonical regression, we first demonstrated the eco-transcriptomic architecture (ETA of grasshopper phenotypic traits (ETAGPTs. ETAGPTs revealed plant food type, plant density, coverage, and height were the main ecological factors influencing PP, while insect cuticle protein (ICP, negative elongation factor A (NELFA, and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT were the key genes associated with PP. Our study gives a clear picture of gene-environment interaction in the formation and maintenance of PP and enriches our understanding of the transcriptional events underlying molecular control of rapid phenotypic plasticity associated with environmental variability. The findings of this study may also provide new targets for pest control and

  14. Reduced Slc6a15 in Nucleus Accumbens D2-Neurons Underlies Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Francis, T Chase; Nam, Hyungwoo; Riggs, Lace M; Engeln, Michel; Rudzinskas, Sarah; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Russo, Scott J; Turecki, Gustavo; Iniguez, Sergio D; Lobo, Mary Kay

    2017-07-05

    Previous research demonstrates that Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, is associated with depression susceptibility. However, no study examined Slc6a15 in the ventral striatum [nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in depression. Given our previous characterization of Slc6a15 as a striatal dopamine receptor 2 (D2)-neuron-enriched gene, we examined the role of Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons in mediating susceptibility to stress in male mice. First, we showed that Slc6a15 mRNA was reduced in NAc of mice susceptible to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a paradigm that produces behavioral and molecular adaptations that resemble clinical depression. Consistent with our preclinical data, we observed Slc6a15 mRNA reduction in NAc of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). The Slc6a15 reduction in NAc occurred selectively in D2-neurons. Next, we used Cre-inducible viruses combined with D2-Cre mice to reduce or overexpress Slc6a15 in NAc D2-neurons. Slc6a15 reduction in D2-neurons caused enhanced susceptibility to a subthreshold social defeat stress (SSDS) as observed by reduced social interaction, while a reduction in social interaction following CSDS was not observed when Slc6a15 expression in D2-neurons was restored. Finally, since both D2-medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and D2-expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) interneurons express Slc6a15, we examined Slc6a15 protein in these interneurons after CSDS. Slc6a15 protein was unaltered in ChAT interneurons. Consistent with this, reducing Slc5a15 selectively in NAc D2-MSNs, using A2A-Cre mice that express Cre selectively in D2-MSNs, caused enhanced susceptibility to SSDS. Collectively, our data demonstrate that reduced Slc6a15 in NAc occurs in MDD individuals and that Slc6a15 reduction in NAc D2-neurons underlies stress susceptibility. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our study demonstrates a role for reduced Slc6a15, a neutral amino acid transporter, in nucleus accumbens (NAc) in depression and stress susceptibility. The

  15. The free radical scavenger Trolox dampens neuronal hyperexcitability, reinstates synaptic plasticity, and improves hypoxia tolerance in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

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    Oliwia Alicja Janc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RS causes severe cognitive impairment, loss of speech, epilepsy, and breathing disturbances with intermittent hypoxia. Also mitochondria are affected; a subunit of respiratory complex III is dysregulated, the inner mitochondrial membrane is leaking protons, and brain ATP levels seem reduced. Our recent assessment of mitochondrial function in MeCP2-deficient mouse (Mecp2-/y hippocampus, confirmed early metabolic alterations, an increased oxidative burden, and a more vulnerable cellular redox balance. As these changes may contribute to the manifestation of symptoms and disease progression, we now evaluated whether free radical scavengers are capable of improving neuronal and mitochondrial function in RS. Acute hippocampal slices of adult mice were incubated with the vitamin E derivative Trolox for 3-5 h. In Mecp2-/y slices this treatment dampened neuronal hyperexcitability, improved short-term plasticity, and fully restored synaptic long-term potentiation. Furthermore, Trolox specifically attenuated the increased hypoxia susceptibility of Mecp2-/y slices. Also, the anticonvulsive effects of Trolox were assessed, but the severity of 4-aminopyridine provoked seizure-like discharges was not significantly affected. Adverse side effects of Trolox on mitochondria can be excluded, but clear indications for an improvement of mitochondrial function were not found. Since several ion-channels and neurotransmitter receptors are redox modulated, the mitochondrial alterations and the associated oxidative burden may contribute to the neuronal dysfunction in RS. We confirmed in Mecp2-/y hippocampus that Trolox dampens neuronal hyperexcitability, reinstates synaptic plasticity, and improves hypoxia tolerance. Therefore, radical scavengers are promising compounds for the treatment of neuronal dysfunction in RS and deserve further detailed evaluation.

  16. Calculation of recovery plasticity in multistage hot forging under isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhbankov, Iaroslav G; Perig, Alexander V; Aliieva, Leila I

    2016-01-01

    A widely used method for hot forming steels and alloys, especially heavy forging, is the process of multistage forging with pauses between stages. The well-known effect which accompanies multistage hot forging is metal plasticity recovery in comparison with monotonic deformation. A method which takes into consideration the recovery of plasticity in pauses between hot deformations of a billet under isothermal conditions is proposed. This method allows the prediction of billet forming limits as a function of deformation during the forging stage and the duration of the pause between the stages. This method takes into account the duration of pauses between deformations and the magnitude of subdivided deformations. A hot isothermal upsetting process with pauses was calculated by the proposed method. Results of the calculations have been confirmed with experimental data.

  17. Singular solutions for the rigid plastic double slip and rotation model under plane strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, S.; Lyamina, E.

    2018-02-01

    In the mechanics of granular and other materials the system of equations comprising the rigid plastic double slip and rotation model together with the stress equilibrium equations under plane strain conditions forms a hyperbolic system. Boundary value problems for this system of equations can involve a frictional interface. An envelope of characteristics may coincide with this interface. In this case, the solution is singular. In particular, some components of the strain rate tensor approach infinity in the vicinity of the frictional interface. Such behavior of solutions is in qualitative agreement with experimental data that show that a narrow layer of localized plastic deformation is often generated near frictional interfaces. The present paper deals with asymptotic analysis of the aforementioned system of equations in the vicinity of an envelope of characteristics. It is shown that the shear strain rate and the spin component in a local coordinate system connected to the envelope follow an inverse square root rule in its vicinity.

  18. Stable Density and Dynamics of Dendritic Spines of Cortical Neurons Across the Estrous Cycle While Expressing Differential Levels of Sensory-Evoked Plasticity

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    Bailin H. Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodic oscillations of gonadal hormone levels during the estrous cycle exert effects on the female brain, impacting cognition and behavior. While previous research suggests that changes in hormone levels across the cycle affect dendritic spine dynamics in the hippocampus, little is known about the effects on cortical dendritic spines and previous studies showed contradictory results. In this in vivo imaging study, we investigated the impact of the estrous cycle on the density and dynamics of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex of mice. We also examined if the induction of synaptic plasticity during proestrus, estrus, and metestrus/diestrus had differential effects on the degree of remodeling of synapses in this brain area. We used chronic two-photon excitation (2PE microscopy during steady-state conditions and after evoking synaptic plasticity by whisker stimulation at the different stages of the cycle. We imaged apical dendritic tufts of layer 5 pyramidal neurons of naturally cycling virgin young female mice. Spine density, turnover rate (TOR, survival fraction, morphology, and volume of mushroom spines remained unaltered across the estrous cycle, and the values of these parameters were comparable with those of young male mice. However, while whisker stimulation of female mice during proestrus and estrus resulted in increases in the TOR of spines (74.2 ± 14.9% and 75.1 ± 12.7% vs. baseline, respectively, sensory-evoked plasticity was significantly lower during metestrus/diestrus (32.3 ± 12.8%. In males, whisker stimulation produced 46.5 ± 20% increase in TOR compared with baseline—not significantly different from female mice at any stage of the cycle. These results indicate that, while steady-state density and dynamics of dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex of female mice are constant during the estrous cycle, the susceptibility of these neurons to

  19. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibition Increases Reduction Potential in Neuronal Cells under Hypoxia

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    Stephen A Brose

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we have reported a novel neuronal specific pathway for adaptation to hypoxia through increased fatty acid (FA biosynthesis (FAS followed by esterification into lipids. However, the biological role of this pathway under hypoxia remains to be elucidated. In the presented study, we have tested our hypothesis that activation of FAS maintains reduction potential and reduces lactoacidosis in neuronal cells under hypoxia. To address this hypothesis, we measured the effect of FAS inhibition on NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios, and lactic acid levels in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to normoxic and hypoxic conditions. FAS inhibitors, TOFA (inhibits Acetyl-CoA carboxylase and cerulenin (inhibits FA synthase, increased NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios under hypoxia. Further, FAS inhibition increased lactic acid under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and caused cytotoxicity under hypoxia but not normoxia. These results indicate that FA may serve as hydrogen acceptors under hypoxia, thus supporting oxidation reactions including anaerobic glycolysis. These findings may help to identify a radically different approach to attenuate hypoxia related pathophysiology in the nervous system including stroke.

  20. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibition Increases Reduction Potential in Neuronal Cells under Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Stephen A; Golovko, Svetlana A; Golovko, Mikhail Y

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have reported a novel neuronal specific pathway for adaptation to hypoxia through increased fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis followed by esterification into lipids. However, the biological role of this pathway under hypoxia remains to be elucidated. In the presented study, we have tested our hypothesis that activation of FA synthesis maintains reduction potential and reduces lactoacidosis in neuronal cells under hypoxia. To address this hypothesis, we measured the effect of FA synthesis inhibition on [Formula: see text]/NAD + and [Formula: see text]/NADP + ratios, and lactic acid levels in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to normoxic and hypoxic conditions. FA synthesis inhibitors, TOFA (inhibits Acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and cerulenin (inhibits FA synthase), increased [Formula: see text]/NAD + and [Formula: see text]/NADP + ratios under hypoxia. Further, FA synthesis inhibition increased lactic acid under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and caused cytotoxicity under hypoxia but not normoxia. These results indicate that FA may serve as hydrogen acceptors under hypoxia, thus supporting oxidation reactions including anaerobic glycolysis. These findings may help to identify a radically different approach to attenuate hypoxia related pathophysiology in the nervous system including stroke.

  1. Ropinirole and Pramipexole Promote Structural Plasticity in Human iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons via BDNF and mTOR Signaling

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    Ginetta Collo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiparkinsonian ropinirole and pramipexole are D3 receptor- (D3R- preferring dopaminergic (DA agonists used as adjunctive therapeutics for the treatment resistant depression (TRD. While the exact antidepressant mechanism of action remains uncertain, a role for D3R in the restoration of impaired neuroplasticity occurring in TRD has been proposed. Since D3R agonists are highly expressed on DA neurons in humans, we studied the effect of ropinirole and pramipexole on structural plasticity using a translational model of human-inducible pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs. Two hiPSC clones from healthy donors were differentiated into midbrain DA neurons. Ropinirole and pramipexole produced dose-dependent increases of dendritic arborization and soma size after 3 days of culture, effects antagonized by the selective D3R antagonists SB277011-A and S33084 and by the mTOR pathway kinase inhibitors LY294002 and rapamycin. All treatments were also effective in attenuating the D3R-dependent increase of p70S6-kinase phosphorylation. Immunoneutralisation of BDNF, inhibition of TrkB receptors, and blockade of MEK-ERK signaling likewise prevented ropinirole-induced structural plasticity, suggesting a critical interaction between BDNF and D3R signaling pathways. The highly similar profiles of data acquired with DA neurons derived from two hiPSC clones underpin their reliability for characterization of pharmacological agents acting via dopaminergic mechanisms.

  2. Nod-like receptor protein 1 inflammasome mediates neuron injury under high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Lan; Tian, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Chu, Guang-Pin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Man; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Chun

    2014-04-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Inflammatory events during diabetes may be an important mechanism of diabetic encephalopathy. Inflammasome is a multiprotein complex consisting of Nod-like receptor proteins (NLRPs), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase 1 or 5, which functions to switch on the inflammatory process and the release of inflammatory factors. The present study hypothesized that the formation and activation of NLRP1 inflammasome turns on neuroinflammation and neuron injury during hyperglycemia. The results demonstrated that the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) were increased in the cortex of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The levels of mature IL-1β and IL-18 were also elevated in culture medium of neurons treated with high glucose (50 mM). The expression of three essential components of the NLRP1 inflammasome complex, namely, NLRP1, ASC, and caspase 1, was also upregulated in vivo and in vitro under high glucose. Silencing the ASC gene prevented the caspase-1 activation, and inhibiting caspase 1 activity blocked hyperglycemia-induced release of inflammatory factors and neuron injury. Moreover, we found that pannexin 1 mediated the actvitation of NLRP1 inflammasome under high glucose. These results suggest that hyperglycemia induces neuroinflammation through activation of NLRP1 inflammasome, which represents a novel mechanism of diabetes-associated neuron injury.

  3. Closed-form plastic collapse loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2006-01-01

    Based on three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit, collapse and instability load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide plastic collapse loads (using the twice-elastic-slope method) and instability loads. For the bending mode, both closing bending and opening bending are considered, and a wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and collapse load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and bending are proposed

  4. Pathological Plasticity in Fragile X Syndrome

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    Brandon S. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in neuronal plasticity are common hallmarks of many neurodevelopmental disorders. In the case of fragile-X syndrome (FXS, disruption in the function of a single gene, FMR1, results in a variety of neurological consequences directly related to problems with the development, maintenance, and capacity of plastic neuronal networks. In this paper, we discuss current research illustrating the mechanisms underlying plasticity deficits in FXS. These processes include synaptic, cell intrinsic, and homeostatic mechanisms both dependent on and independent of abnormal metabotropic glutamate receptor transmission. We place particular emphasis on how identified deficits may play a role in developmental critical periods to produce neuronal networks with permanently decreased capacity to dynamically respond to changes in activity central to learning, memory, and cognition in patients with FXS. Characterizing early developmental deficits in plasticity is fundamental to develop therapies that not only treat symptoms but also minimize the developmental pathology of the disease.

  5. Plasticity in variation of xylem and phloem cell characteristics of Norway spruce under different local conditions

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    Jozica eGricar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on intra-annual plasticity of secondary tissues of tree species growing under different environmental conditions. To increase the knowledge about the plasticity of secondary growth, which allows trees to adapt to specific local climatic regimes, we examined climate–radial growth relationships of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. from three contrasting locations in the temperate climatic zone by analyzing tree-ring widths for the period 1932–2010, and cell characteristics in xylem and phloem increments formed in the years 2009–2011. Variation in the structure of xylem and phloem increments clearly shows that plasticity in seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production and cell differentiation exists on xylem and phloem sides. Anatomical characteristics of xylem and phloem cells are predominantly site-specific characteristics, because they varied among sites but were fairly uniform among years in trees from the same site. Xylem and phloem tissues formed in the first part of the growing season seemed to be more stable in structure, indicating their priority over latewood and late phloem for tree performance. Long-term climate and radial growth analyses revealed that growth was in general less dependent on precipitation than on temperature; however, growth sensitivity to local conditions differed among the sites. Only partial dependence of radial growth of spruce on climatic factors on the selected sites confirms its strategy to adapt the structure of wood and phloem increments to function optimally in local conditions.

  6. Roles and regulation of ketogenesis in cultured astroglia and neurons under hypoxia and hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shinichi; Iizumi, Takuya; Mashima, Kyoko; Abe, Takato; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2014-09-11

    Exogenous ketone bodies (KBs), acetoacetate (AA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) act as alternative energy substrates in neural cells under starvation. The present study examined the endogenous ketogenic capacity of astroglia under hypoxia with/without glucose and the possible roles of KBs in neuronal energy metabolism. Cultured neurons and astroglia were prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats. Palmitic acid (PAL) and l-carnitine (LC) were added to the assay medium. The 4- to 24-hr production of AA and BHB was measured using the cyclic thio-NADH method. (14)C-labeled acid-soluble products (KBs) and (14)CO2 produced from [1-(14)C]PAL were also measured. l-[U-(14)C]lactic acid ([(14)C]LAC), [1-(14)C]pyruvic acid ([(14)C]PYR), or β-[1-(14)C]hydroxybutyric acid ([(14)C]BHB) was used to compare the oxidative metabolism of the glycolysis end products with that of the KBs. Some cells were placed in a hypoxic chamber (1% O2). PAL and LC induced a higher production of KBs in astroglia than in neurons, while the CO2 production from PAL was less than 5% of the KB production in both astroglia and neurons. KB production in astroglia was augmented by the AMP-activated protein kinase activators, AICAR and metformin, as well as hypoxia with/without glucose. Neuronal KB production increased under hypoxia in the absence of PAL and LC. In neurons, [(14)C]LAC and [(14)C]PYR oxidation decreased after 24 hr of hypoxia, while [(14)C]BHB oxidation was preserved. Astroglia responds to ischemia in vitro by enhancing KB production, and astroglia-produced KBs derived from fatty acid might serve as a neuronal energy substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle instead of lactate, as pyruvate dehydrogenase is susceptible to ischemia. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Post-cyclic behavior of low plasticity silt under full and limited liquefaction using triaxial compression testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    During an earthquake, liquefaction does not happen all the time. It depends on the duration and magnitude of the earthquake and the properties (with relationship to resistance of liquefaction) of the low plasticity silt. Under low duration or magnitu...

  8. Melatonin Modulates Neuronal Cell Death Induced by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress under Insulin Resistance Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhyun; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2017-06-10

    Insulin resistance (IR) is an important stress factor in the central nervous system, thereby aggravating neuropathogenesis and triggering cognitive decline. Melatonin, which is an antioxidant phytochemical and synthesized by the pineal gland, has multiple functions in cellular responses such as apoptosis and survival against stress. This study investigated whether melatonin modulates the signaling of neuronal cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress under IR condition using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Apoptosis cell death signaling markers (cleaved Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP), p53, and Bax) and ER stress markers (phosphorylated eIF2α (p-eIF2α), ATF4, CHOP, p-IRE1 , and spliced XBP1 (sXBP1)) were measured using reverse transcription-PCR, quantitative PCR, and western blottings. Immunofluorescence staining was also performed for p-ASK1 and p-IRE1 . The mRNA or protein expressions of cell death signaling markers and ER stress markers were increased under IR condition, but significantly attenuated by melatonin treatment. Insulin-induced activation of ASK1 ( p-ASK1 ) was also dose dependently attenuated by melatonin treatment. The regulatory effect of melatonin on neuronal cells under IR condition was associated with ASK1 signaling. In conclusion, the result suggested that melatonin may alleviate ER stress under IR condition, thereby regulating neuronal cell death signaling.

  9. Fatigue Crack Propagation Under Variable Amplitude Loading Analyses Based on Plastic Energy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Maachou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity effects at the crack tip had been recognized as “motor” of crack propagation, the growth of cracks is related to the existence of a crack tip plastic zone, whose formation and intensification is accompanied by energy dissipation. In the actual state of knowledge fatigue crack propagation is modeled using crack closure concept. The fatigue crack growth behavior under constant amplitude and variable amplitude loading of the aluminum alloy 2024 T351 are analyzed using in terms energy parameters. In the case of VAL (variable amplitude loading tests, the evolution of the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is shown similar with that observed under constant amplitude loading. A linear relationship between the crack growth rate and the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is obtained at high growth rates. For lower growth rates values, the relationship between crack growth rate and hysteretic energy dissipated per block can represented by a power law. In this paper, an analysis of fatigue crack propagation under variable amplitude loading based on energetic approach is proposed.

  10. A Bingham-plastic model for fluid mud transport under waves and currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-rong; Wu, Bo; Huhe, Ao-de

    2014-04-01

    Simplified equations of fluid mud motion, which is described as Bingham-Plastic model under waves and currents, are presented by order analysis. The simplified equations are non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by hybrid numerical-analytical technique. As the computational cost is very low, the effects of wave current parameters and fluid mud properties on the transportation velocity of the fluid mud are studied systematically. It is found that the fluid mud can move toward one direction even if the shear stress acting on the fluid mud bed is much smaller than the fluid mud yield stress under the condition of wave and current coexistence. Experiments of the fluid mud motion under current with fluctuation water surface are carried out. The fluid mud transportation velocity predicted by the presented mathematical model can roughly match that measured in experiments.

  11. Mitochondrial mislocalization underlies Abeta42-induced neuronal dysfunction in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Kanae Iijima-Ando

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid-beta 42 (Abeta42 is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Abeta42 induces neuronal dysfunction and degeneration remain elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunctions are implicated in AD brains. Whether mitochondrial dysfunctions are merely a consequence of AD pathology, or are early seminal events in AD pathogenesis remains to be determined. Here, we show that Abeta42 induces mitochondrial mislocalization, which contributes to Abeta42-induced neuronal dysfunction in a transgenic Drosophila model. In the Abeta42 fly brain, mitochondria were reduced in axons and dendrites, and accumulated in the somata without severe mitochondrial damage or neurodegeneration. In contrast, organization of microtubule or global axonal transport was not significantly altered at this stage. Abeta42-induced behavioral defects were exacerbated by genetic reductions in mitochondrial transport, and were modulated by cAMP levels and PKA activity. Levels of putative PKA substrate phosphoproteins were reduced in the Abeta42 fly brains. Importantly, perturbations in mitochondrial transport in neurons were sufficient to disrupt PKA signaling and induce late-onset behavioral deficits, suggesting a mechanism whereby mitochondrial mislocalization contributes to Abeta42-induced neuronal dysfunction. These results demonstrate that mislocalization of mitochondria underlies the pathogenic effects of Abeta42 in vivo.

  12. RAGE mediates the inactivation of nAChRs in sympathetic neurons under high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Andrew R; Nair, Manoj; Chang, Christine; Pennington, Paul R; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Mousseau, Darrell D; Campanucci, Verónica A

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is a serious complication of diabetes and can lead to cardiovascular abnormalities and premature death. It was recently proposed that autonomic dysfunction is triggered by oxidation-mediated inactivation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), impairing synaptic transmission in sympathetic ganglia and resulting in autonomic failure. We investigated whether the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its role in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be contributing to the events that initiate sympathetic malfunction under high glucose conditions. Using biochemical, live imaging and electrophysiological tools we demonstrated that exposure of sympathetic neurons to high glucose increases RAGE expression and oxidative markers, and that incubation with RAGE ligands (e.g. AGEs, S100 and HMGB1) mimics both ROS elevation and nAChR inactivation. In contrast, co-treatment with either antioxidants or an anti-RAGE IgG prevented the inactivation of nAChRs. Lastly, a role for RAGE in this context was corroborated by the lack of sensitivity of sympathetic neurons from RAGE knock-out mice to high glucose. These data define a pivotal role for RAGE in initiating the events associated with exposure of sympathetic neurons to high glucose, and strongly support RAGE signaling as a potential therapeutic target in the autonomic complications associated with diabetes. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Conditional Lyapunov exponents and transfer entropy in coupled bursting neurons under excitation and coupling mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Diogo C.; Santos, Odair V. dos; Suyama, Ricardo; Fazanaro, Filipe I.; Attux, Romis

    2018-03-01

    This work has a twofold aim: (a) to analyze an alternative approach for computing the conditional Lyapunov exponent (λcmax) aiming to evaluate the synchronization stability between nonlinear oscillators without solving the classical variational equations for the synchronization error dynamical system. In this first framework, an analytic reference value for λcmax is also provided in the context of Duffing master-slave scenario and precisely evaluated by the proposed numerical approach; (b) to apply this technique to the study of synchronization stability in chaotic Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neuronal models under uni- and bi-directional resistive coupling and different excitation bias, which also considered the root mean square synchronization error, information theoretic measures and asymmetric transfer entropy in order to offer a better insight of the synchronization phenomenon. In particular, statistical and information theoretical measures were able to capture similarity increase between the neuronal oscillators just after a critical coupling value in accordance to the largest conditional Lyapunov exponent behavior. On the other hand, transfer entropy was able to detect neuronal emitter influence even in a weak coupling condition, i.e. under the increase of conditional Lyapunov exponent and apparently desynchronization tendency. In the performed set of numerical simulations, the synchronization measures were also evaluated for a two-dimensional parameter space defined by the neuronal coupling (emitter to a receiver neuron) and the (receiver) excitation current. Such analysis is repeated for different feedback couplings as well for different (emitter) excitation currents, revealing interesting characteristics of the attained synchronization region and conditions that facilitate the emergence of the synchronous behavior. These results provide a more detailed numerical insight of the underlying behavior of a HR in the excitation and coupling space, being in accordance

  14. Dynamic analysis of the conditional oscillator underlying slow waves in thalamocortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eDavid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During non-REM sleep the EEG shows characteristics waves that are generated by the dynamic interactions between cortical and thalamic oscillators. In thalamic neurons, low-threshold T-type Ca2+ channels play a pivotal role in almost every type of neuronal oscillations, including slow (<1 Hz waves, sleep spindles and delta waves. The transient opening of T channels gives rise to the low threshold spikes (LTSs, and associated high frequency bursts of action potentials, that are characteristically present during sleep spindles and delta waves, whereas the persistent opening of a small fraction of T channels, (i.e. ITwindow is responsible for the membrane potential bistability underlying sleep slow oscillations. Surprisingly thalamocortical (TC neurons express a very high density of T channels that largely exceed the amount required to generate LTSs and therefore, to support certain, if not all, sleep oscillations. Here, to clarify the relationship between T current density and sleep oscillations, we systematically investigated the impact of the T conductance level on the intrinsic rhythmic activities generated in TC neurons, combining in vitro experiments and TC neuron simulation. Using bifurcation analysis, we provide insights into the dynamical processes taking place at the transition between slow and delta oscillations. Our results show that although stable delta oscillations can be evoked with minimal T conductance, the full range of slow oscillation patterns, including groups of delta oscillations separated by Up states (grouped-delta slow waves requires a high density of T channels. Moreover, high levels of T conductance ensure the robustness of different types of slow oscillations.

  15. Leaching of plasticizers from polyvinylchloride perfusion lines by different lipid emulsions for premature infants under clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faessler, David; McCombie, Gregor; Biedermann, Maurus; Felder, Florian; Subotic, Ulrike

    2017-03-30

    Plasticizers migrate from polyvinylchloride (PVC) infusion systems into lipid emulsions. The aim of this study was to investigate the leaching of different plasticizers from PVC perfusion lines by a selection of lipid emulsions under clinical conditions. Seven PVC perfusion lines with an equal length of 150cm and three internal diameters were perfused with three lipid emulsions: Intralipid ® 20%, ClinOleic ® 20% and SMOFlipid ® 20%, mimicking clinical conditions. The concentrations of the plasticizers were measured directly in the emulsions by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Of the four plasticizers examined in this study, di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) leached the most and was found, on average, at 46.5μg/ml in the emulsions - around one order of magnitude higher than the other plasticizers. This study demonstrates that the leaching of DEHP by lipid emulsions in conditions of total parenteral nutrition is many times higher than should be accepted and higher when compared to the other plasticizers. There was no significant difference in leaching of plasticizers in relation to the type of lipid emulsion. The influence of tube diameter on the leaching rate of plasticizers should be taken into account especially in particular exposed patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethanol up-regulates nucleus accumbens neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp): implications for alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ary, Alexis W; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C; Dehoff, Marlin H; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp) interacts with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors to facilitate excitatory synapse formation by aggregating them at established synapses. Alcohol is well-characterized to influence central glutamatergic transmission, including AMPA receptor function. Herein, we examined the influence of injected and ingested alcohol upon Narp protein expression, as well as basal Narp expression in mouse lines selectively bred for high blood alcohol concentrations under limited access conditions. Alcohol up-regulated accumbens Narp levels, concomitant with increases in levels of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit. However, accumbens Narp or GluR1 levels did not vary as a function of selectively bred genotype. We next employed a Narp knock-out (KO) strategy to begin to understand the behavioral relevance of alcohol-induced changes in protein expression in several assays of alcohol reward. Compared to wild-type mice, Narp KO animals: fail to escalate daily intake of high alcohol concentrations under free-access conditions; shift their preference away from high alcohol concentrations with repeated alcohol experience; exhibit a conditioned place-aversion in response to the repeated pairing of 3 g/kg alcohol with a distinct environment and fail to exhibit alcohol-induced locomotor hyperactivity following repeated alcohol treatment. Narp deletion did not influence the daily intake of either food or water, nor did it alter any aspect of spontaneous or alcohol-induced motor activity, including the development of tolerance to its motor-impairing effects with repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that Narp induction, and presumably subsequent aggregation of AMPA receptors, may be important for neuroplasticity within limbic subcircuits mediating or maintaining the rewarding properties of alcohol. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Neutron scattering experiments of the ionic crystal deformed plastically with uniaxial compression under high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Minakawa, Nobuaki; Aizawa, Kazuya; Ozawa, Kunio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-04-01

    As an aim of huge growth of alkali halide (AH) single crystal, a mosaic structure of small size AH single crystal deformed plastically with uniaxial compression under high temperature was evaluated due to its neutron irradiation experiment. Using TAS-2 installed at JRR-3M guide hole of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, locking curve at a representative face factor of the specimen was measured to observe the mosaic structure accompanied with expansion of the crystal due to compression. As a result, though the specimen before compression could be supposed to be divided to some parts already, the locking curve under 10 sec. of compression time showed already some fracture to divisions to suppose finer degradation of the crystal, and division of the locking curve at 600 sec. of compression time could be observed onto its 220 face. And, every compressed specimens showed some changes of crystallization method from standard sample. (G.K.)

  18. THC alters alters morphology of neurons in medial prefrontal cortex, orbital prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens and alters the ability of later experience to promote structural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Bryan; Li, Yilin; Robinson, Terry; Parker, Linda A

    2018-03-01

    Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). To determine if drugs other than psychomotor stimulants will also interfere with later experience-dependent structural plasticity we gave Long-Evans rats THC (0.5 mg/kg) or saline for 11 days before placing them in complex environments or standard laboratory caging for 90 days. Brains were subsequently processed for Golgi-Cox staining and analysis of dendritic morphology and spine density mPFC, orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and NAcc. THC altered both dendritic arborization and spine density in all three regions, and, like psychomotor stimulants, THC influenced the effect of later experience in complex environments to shape the structure of neurons in these three regions. We conclude that THC may therefore contribute to persistent behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with prolonged use of the drug. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Erythropoietin Restores Long-Term Neurocognitive Function Involving Mechanisms of Neuronal Plasticity in a Model of Hyperoxia-Induced Preterm Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Hoeber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral white and grey matter injury is the leading cause of an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in prematurely born infants. High oxygen concentrations have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of neonatal brain damage. Here, we focused on motor-cognitive outcome up to the adolescent and adult age in an experimental model of preterm brain injury. In search of the putative mechanisms of action we evaluated oligodendrocyte degeneration, myelination, and modulation of synaptic plasticity-related molecules. A single dose of erythropoietin (20,000 IU/kg at the onset of hyperoxia (24 hours, 80% oxygen in 6-day-old Wistar rats improved long-lasting neurocognitive development up to the adolescent and adult stage. Analysis of white matter structures revealed a reduction of acute oligodendrocyte degeneration. However, erythropoietin did not influence hypomyelination occurring a few days after injury or long-term microstructural white matter abnormalities detected in adult animals. Erythropoietin administration reverted hyperoxia-induced reduction of neuronal plasticity-related mRNA expression up to four months after injury. Thus, our findings highlight the importance of erythropoietin as a neuroregenerative treatment option in neonatal brain injury, leading to improved memory function in adolescent and adult rats which may be linked to increased neuronal network connectivity.

  20. Cyclic plasticity of an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel under biaxial non proportional loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, V.

    2001-11-01

    Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels are supplied since about 30 years only, so they are yet not well-known. Their behaviour in cyclic plasticity was studied under uniaxial loading but not under multiaxial loading, whereas only a thorough knowledge of the phenomena influencing the mechanical behaviour of a material enables to simulate and predict accurately its behaviour in a structure. This work aims to study and model the behaviour of a duplex stainless steel under cyclic biaxial loading. A three step method was adopted. A set of tension-torsion tests on tubular specimen was first defined. We studied the equivalence between loading directions, and then the influence of loading path and loading history on the stress response of the material. Results showed that duplex stainless steel shows an extra-hardening under non proportional loading and that its behaviour depends on previous loading. Then, in order to analyse the results obtained during this first experimental stage, the yield surface was measured at different times during cyclic loading of the same kind. A very small plastic strain offset (2*10 -5 ) was used in order not to disturb the yield surface measured. The alteration of isotropic and kinematic hardening variables were deduced from these measures. Finally, three phenomenological constitutive laws were identified with the experimental set. We focused our interest on the simulation of stabilized stress levels and on the simulation of the cyclic hardening/softening behaviour. The comparison between experimental and numerical results enabled the testing of the relevance of these models. (authors)

  1. Investigating the molecular pathway through which L-Lactate interacts with synaptic NMDAR to modulate neuronal plasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Engy

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, glycogen, the storage form of glucose, is exclusively localized in astrocytes (Magistretti and Allaman, 2015). Glycogenolysis leads to the production of L-lactate, which is shuttled to neurons for ATP production. Interestingly, L

  2. Procedure to predict the storey where plastic drift dominates in two-storey building under strong ground motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hibino, Y.; Ichinose, T.; Costa, J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure is presented to predict the storey where plastic drift dominates in two-storey buildings under strong ground motion. The procedure utilizes the yield strength and the mass of each storey as well as the peak ground acceleration. The procedure is based on two different assumptions: (1....... The efficiency of the procedure is verified by dynamic response analyses using elasto-plastic model....

  3. Influence of Localized Plasticity on IASCC Sensitivity of Austenitic Stainless Steels under PWR Primary Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Sarata; Tanguy, Benoit; Laffont, Lydia; Lafont, Marie-Christine; Guerre, Catherine; Andrieu, Eric

    The sensibility of precipitation-strengthened A286 austenitic stainless steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) is studied by means of Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT). First, alloy cold working by Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) is investigated. Fatigue tests under plastic strain control are performed at different strain levels (Δ ɛp/2=0.2%, 0.5% and 0.8%) in order to establish correlation between stress softening and deformation microstructure resulting from LCF tests. Deformed microstructures have been identified through TEM investigations. Three states of cyclic behaviour for precipitation-strengthened A286 have been identified: hardening, cyclic softening and finally saturation of softening. It is shown that the A286 alloy cyclic softening is due to microstructural features such as defects — free deformation bands resulting from dislocations motion along family plans , that swept defects or γ' precipitates and lead to deformation localization. In order to quantify effects of plastic localized deformation on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the A286 alloy in PWR primary water, slow strain rate tests are conducted. For each cycling conditions, two specimens at a similar stress level are tested: the first containing free precipitate deformation bands, the other not significant of a localized deformation state. SSRT tests are still in progress.

  4. Astrocyte - neuron lactate shuttle may boost more ATP supply to the neuron under hypoxic conditions - in silico study supported by in vitro expression data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuro-glial interactions are important for normal functioning of the brain as well as brain energy metabolism. There are two major working models - in the classical view, both neurons and astrocytes can utilize glucose as the energy source through oxidative metabolism, whereas in the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis (ANLSH) it is the astrocyte which can consume glucose through anaerobic glycolysis to pyruvate and then to lactate, and this lactate is secreted to the extracellular space to be taken up by the neuron for further oxidative degradation. Results In this computational study, we have included hypoxia-induced genetic regulation of these enzymes and transporters, and analyzed whether the ANLSH model can provide an advantage to either cell type in terms of supplying the energy demand. We have based this module on our own experimental analysis of hypoxia-dependent regulation of transcription of key metabolic enzymes. Using this experimentation-supported in silico modeling, we show that under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions in a given time period ANLSH model does indeed provide the neuron with more ATP than in the classical view. Conclusions Although the ANLSH is energetically more favorable for the neuron, it is not the case for the astrocyte in the long term. Considering the fact that astrocytes are more resilient to hypoxia, we would propose that there is likely a switch between the two models, based on the energy demand of the neuron, so as to maintain the survival of the neuron under hypoxic or glucose-and-oxygen-deprived conditions. PMID:21995951

  5. Astrocyte - neuron lactate shuttle may boost more ATP supply to the neuron under hypoxic conditions - in silico study supported by in vitro expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnaz Isil A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuro-glial interactions are important for normal functioning of the brain as well as brain energy metabolism. There are two major working models - in the classical view, both neurons and astrocytes can utilize glucose as the energy source through oxidative metabolism, whereas in the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis (ANLSH it is the astrocyte which can consume glucose through anaerobic glycolysis to pyruvate and then to lactate, and this lactate is secreted to the extracellular space to be taken up by the neuron for further oxidative degradation. Results In this computational study, we have included hypoxia-induced genetic regulation of these enzymes and transporters, and analyzed whether the ANLSH model can provide an advantage to either cell type in terms of supplying the energy demand. We have based this module on our own experimental analysis of hypoxia-dependent regulation of transcription of key metabolic enzymes. Using this experimentation-supported in silico modeling, we show that under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions in a given time period ANLSH model does indeed provide the neuron with more ATP than in the classical view. Conclusions Although the ANLSH is energetically more favorable for the neuron, it is not the case for the astrocyte in the long term. Considering the fact that astrocytes are more resilient to hypoxia, we would propose that there is likely a switch between the two models, based on the energy demand of the neuron, so as to maintain the survival of the neuron under hypoxic or glucose-and-oxygen-deprived conditions.

  6. Mechanisms Underlying Serotonergic Excitation of Callosal Projection Neurons in the Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Stephens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT selectively excites subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex via activation of 5-HT2A (2A receptors coupled to Gq subtype G-protein alpha subunits. Gq-mediated excitatory responses have been attributed primarily to suppression of potassium conductances, including those mediated by KV7 potassium channels (i.e., the M-current, or activation of non-specific cation conductances that underlie calcium-dependent afterdepolarizations (ADPs. However, 2A-dependent excitation of cortical neurons has not been extensively studied, and no consensus exists regarding the underlying ionic effector(s involved. In layer 5 of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex, we tested potential mechanisms of serotonergic excitation in commissural/callosal (COM projection neurons, a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons that exhibits 2A-dependent excitation in response to 5-HT. In baseline conditions, 5-HT enhanced the rate of action potential generation in COM neurons experiencing suprathreshold somatic current injection. This serotonergic excitation was occluded by activation of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh receptors, confirming that 5-HT acts via the same Gq-signaling cascades engaged by ACh. Like ACh, 5-HT promoted the generation of calcium-dependent ADPs following spike trains. However, calcium was not necessary for serotonergic excitation, as responses to 5-HT were enhanced (by >100%, rather than reduced, by chelation of intracellular calcium with 10 mM BAPTA. This suggests intracellular calcium negatively regulates additional ionic conductances gated by 2A receptors. Removal of extracellular calcium had no effect when intracellular calcium signaling was intact, but suppressed 5-HT response amplitudes, by about 50%, when BAPTA was included in patch pipettes. This suggests that 2A excitation involves activation of a non-specific cation conductance that is both calcium-sensitive and calcium-permeable. M-current suppression was found to be a third

  7. Impairments in Motor Neurons, Interneurons and Astrocytes Contribute to Hyperexcitability in ALS: Underlying Mechanisms and Paths to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do-Ha, Dzung; Buskila, Yossi; Ooi, Lezanne

    2018-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by the loss of motor neurons leading to progressive paralysis and death. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and nerve excitability tests, several clinical studies have identified that cortical and peripheral hyperexcitability are among the earliest pathologies observed in ALS patients. The changes in the electrophysiological properties of motor neurons have been identified in both sporadic and familial ALS patients, despite the diverse etiology of the disease. The mechanisms behind the change in neuronal signalling are not well understood, though current findings implicate intrinsic changes in motor neurons and dysfunction of cells critical in regulating motor neuronal excitability, such as astrocytes and interneurons. Alterations in ion channel expression and/or function in motor neurons has been associated with changes in cortical and peripheral nerve excitability. In addition to these intrinsic changes in motor neurons, inhibitory signalling through GABAergic interneurons is also impaired in ALS, likely contributing to increased neuronal excitability. Astrocytes have also recently been implicated in increasing neuronal excitability in ALS by failing to adequately regulate glutamate levels and extracellular K + concentration at the synaptic cleft. As hyperexcitability is a common and early feature of ALS, it offers a therapeutic and diagnostic target. Thus, understanding the underlying pathways and mechanisms leading to hyperexcitability in ALS offers crucial insight for future development of ALS treatments.

  8. iPSC-Based Models to Unravel Key Pathogenetic Processes Underlying Motor Neuron Disease Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Faravelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases (MNDs are neuromuscular disorders affecting rather exclusively upper motor neurons (UMNs and/or lower motor neurons (LMNs. The clinical phenotype is characterized by muscular weakness and atrophy leading to paralysis and almost invariably death due to respiratory failure. Adult MNDs include sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS-fALS, while the most common infantile MND is represented by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. No effective treatment is ccurrently available for MNDs, as for the vast majority of neurodegenerative disorders, and cures are limited to supportive care and symptom relief. The lack of a deep understanding of MND pathogenesis accounts for the difficulties in finding a cure, together with the scarcity of reliable in vitro models. Recent progresses in stem cell field, in particular in the generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs has made possible for the first time obtaining substantial amounts of human cells to recapitulate in vitro some of the key pathogenetic processes underlying MNDs. In the present review, recently published studies involving the use of iPSCs to unravel aspects of ALS and SMA pathogenesis are discussed with an overview of their implications in the process of finding a cure for these still orphan disorders.

  9. Calcineurin Dysregulation Underlies Spinal Cord Injury-Induced K+ Channel Dysfunction in DRG Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemel, Benjamin M; Muqeem, Tanziyah; Brown, Eric V; Goulão, Miguel; Urban, Mark W; Tymanskyj, Stephen R; Lepore, Angelo C; Covarrubias, Manuel

    2017-08-23

    Dysfunction of the fast-inactivating Kv3.4 potassium current in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons contributes to the hyperexcitability associated with persistent pain induced by spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the underlying mechanism is not known. In light of our previous work demonstrating modulation of the Kv3.4 channel by phosphorylation, we investigated the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) using electrophysiological, molecular, and imaging approaches in adult female Sprague Dawley rats. Pharmacological inhibition of CaN in small-diameter DRG neurons slowed repolarization of the somatic action potential (AP) and attenuated the Kv3.4 current. Attenuated Kv3.4 currents also exhibited slowed inactivation. We observed similar effects on the recombinant Kv3.4 channel heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, supporting our findings in DRG neurons. Elucidating the molecular basis of these effects, mutation of four previously characterized serines within the Kv3.4 N-terminal inactivation domain eliminated the effects of CaN inhibition on the Kv3.4 current. SCI similarly induced concurrent Kv3.4 current attenuation and slowing of inactivation. Although there was little change in CaN expression and localization after injury, SCI induced upregulation of the native regulator of CaN 1 (RCAN1) in the DRG at the transcript and protein levels. Consistent with CaN inhibition resulting from RCAN1 upregulation, overexpression of RCAN1 in naive DRG neurons recapitulated the effects of pharmacological CaN inhibition on the Kv3.4 current and the AP. Overall, these results demonstrate a novel regulatory pathway that links CaN, RCAN1, and Kv3.4 in DRG neurons. Dysregulation of this pathway might underlie a peripheral mechanism of pain sensitization induced by SCI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Pain sensitization associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) involves poorly understood maladaptive modulation of neuronal excitability. Although central mechanisms have

  10. Parameter Identification of Piecewise Linear Plasticity Metal Models Used in Numerical Modeling of Structures Under Plastic Deformation and Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shmeliov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the models of metallic materials used in the calculation of deformation and destruction of engineering structures. The reliability of material models can adequately assess the strength characteristics of the designs of new technology in its designing and certification.The article deals with contingencies and true mechanical properties of materials and presents equations of their relationship. It notes that in the software systems mechanical characteristics of materials are given in the true sense.The paper considers the linear and exponential models of materials, their characteristics, and methods to implement them. It considers the models of Johnson-Cook Steinberg-Guinan, Zerilli-Armstrong, Cowper-Symonds, Gurson-Tvergaard that take into account the strain rate and temperature of the material. Describes their applications, advantages and disadvantages. Considers single- and multi-parameter criteria of materials fracture, the prospects for their use. Gives a rational justification for using a piecewise linear plasticity material model *MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY (024, LS-DYNA software package for the engineering industry, and presents its main parameters.A technique to identify parameters of piecewise linear plasticity metal material models has been developed. The technique consists of the stages, based on the equations of transition from the conventional stress and strain values to the true ones. Taking into consideration the stressstrain state in the neck of the sample is a distinctive feature of the technique.Tensile tests of the round material samples have been conducted. To test the developed technique in the software package ANSYS LS-DYNA PC have been made tensile sample modeling and results comparison to show high convergence.Further improvement of the technique can be achieved through the development of a statistical approach to the analysis of the results of a series of tests. This will allow a kind of

  11. MD simulation of plastic deformation nucleation in stressed crystallites under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korchuganov, A. V., E-mail: avkor@ispms.tsc.ru; Zolnikov, K. P., E-mail: kost@ispms.tsc.ru; Kryzhevich, D. S., E-mail: kryzhev@ispms.tsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Chernov, V. M., E-mail: VMChernov@bochvar.ru [National Research Tomsk State University (Russian Federation); Psakhie, S. G., E-mail: sp@ispms.tsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The investigation of plastic deformation nucleation in metals and alloys under irradiation and mechanical loading is one of the topical issues of materials science. Specific features of nucleation and evolution of the defect system in stressed and irradiated iron, vanadium, and copper crystallites were studied by molecular dynamics simulation. Mechanical loading was performed in such a way that the modeled crystallite volume remained unchanged. The energy of the primary knock-on atom initiating a cascade of atomic displacements in a stressed crystallite was varied from 0.05 to 50 keV. It was found that atomic displacement cascades might cause global structural transformations in a region far larger than the radiation-damaged area. These changes are similar to the ones occurring in the process of mechanical loading of samples. They are implemented by twinning (in iron and vanadium) or through the formation of partial dislocation loops (in copper).

  12. Photosynthetic capacity of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes grown under transparent plastic covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Corrêa da Silva de Deus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: New techniques in tropical regions such as use of transparent plastic covering (TPC, have been employed in grapes to avoid the wetting leaves and fruits, which can reduce the occurrence of fungal diseases, reduce the use of sprays, and reduce damage caused by hail and high winds. TPC may significantly affect the photosynthetic rates of grapevines cultivated in tropical regions, and thus have strong effects on plant productivity and improve fruit quality. However, in the North of Rio de Janeiro region there are lacks of studies related to TPC effects on photosynthetic capacity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic capacity in 'Niagara Rosada' vines grown under TPC and without transparent plastic covering (WTPC. The experiment was conducted between April and June 2013, on Tabuinha farm, located in the 3rd district of São Fidélis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A completely randomized block design was used with two treatments (TPC and WTPC and twelve replications. Evaluations consisted of climatological variables, gas exchange and maximum quantum efficiency of open photosystem II centers-quantum yield (Fv/Fm It was possible to observe that under TPC maximum temperature increase of 2.3°C, relative humidity reduced 1.5%, vapor pressure deficit increase 0.4kPa, and light intensity reduced 47.7%. These changes did not cause photochemical damage to the leaves. The TPC promoted higher net photosynthetic rate at 800h, which was associated with higher stomatal conductance. Thus, the TPC used in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State did not impair the photosynthetic capacity of 'Niagara Rosada' vines.

  13. Characteristics and influencing factors of crop coefficient for drip-irrigated cotton under plastic mulch conditions in arid environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Zhipin; Yang, Yonghui; Wang, Qinxue

    2017-01-01

    agronomy practice such as plastic mulching and drip irrigation in arid environments. This study calculated and analyzed Kc of a drip-irrigated and plastic-mulched cotton field in Aksu Oasis of the arid Tarim River Basin, China, and its relationships with several crop-, soil- and management variables......-mulched condition already published, the Kc of mulched cotton for the entire growth season decreased by 16 to 39%. The largest reductions in Kc due to plastic mulch were found in the initial and developmental growth stage. Kc could be calculated by a third-degree polynomial model in relation to RGD, which...... significantly increased Kc, i.e., 29% on average, partly due to arid advection. This study provided up-to-date and detailed information on cotton crop coefficient under plastic mulching and drip irrigation conditions in arid environment, and it is useful for improved management of agricultural water resources....

  14. The coincident activation of lemniscal and paralemniscal inputs can drive synaptic plasticity in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of the mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Kehayas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural plasticity in the somatosensory cortex is maintained throughout life. In adult animals structural changes occur at the level of dendritic spines and axonal boutons in response to alterations in sensory experience. The causal relationship between synaptic activity and structural changes, however, is not clear. Hebbian-plasticity models predict that synapses will be stabilized at the nodes of neuronal networks that display high levels of coincident activity. Here, we aim at studying the effects of a targeted increase in coincident activity between segregated inputs on pyramidal cell synapses of the mouse somatosensory barrel cortex in vivo. Supragranular layers of the barrel cortex receive anatomically distinct inputs from two thalamic pathways: the ‘lemniscal’ pathway that originates in the ventral posteromedial (VPM nucleus and projects in a whisker-specific fashion to the barrel columns, and the ‘paralemniscal’ pathway that originates in the posteromedial (POm nucleus and projects to the cortex in a non-specific manner. Previous work from our lab shows that rhythmic (8Hz whisker stimulation-evoked LTP (RWS-LTP in layer (L 2/3 pyramidal cells relies on the combined activity of lemniscal and paralemniscal pathways. Here, we targeted ChR2 expression to POm neurons using AAV-mediated gene transfer in order to optically control the activity of those inputs. As a first step, we show that photostimulation of the POm nucleus induces NMDA-dependent, sub-threshold responses in L2/3 pyramidal cells similar to those that are required for the induction of RWS-LTP. In addition, simultaneous photostimulation of POm neurons together with whisker stimulation at low frequencies (1Hz can also elicit LTP, suggesting that coincident lemniscal and paralemniscal input can drive LTP induction. Next, we combined the ChR2-tdTomato expression in POm neurons with sparse AAV-mediated eGFP expression in L2/3 pyramidal cells in order to study the effects

  15. Dysfunction in endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria crosstalk underlies SIGMAR1 loss of function mediated motor neuron degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Marissal, Nathalie; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Azzedine, Hamid; Chrast, Roman

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in Sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) have been previously identified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and disruption of Sigmar1 in mouse leads to locomotor deficits. However, cellular mechanisms underlying motor phenotypes in human and mouse with disturbed SIGMAR1 function have not been described so far. Here we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches to investigate the role of SIGMAR1 in motor neuron biology. Characterization of Sigmar1(-/-) mice revealed that affected animals display locomotor deficits associated with muscle weakness, axonal degeneration and motor neuron loss. Using primary motor neuron cultures, we observed that pharmacological or genetic inactivation of SIGMAR1 led to motor neuron axonal degeneration followed by cell death. Disruption of SIGMAR1 function in motor neurons disturbed endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contacts, affected intracellular calcium signalling and was accompanied by activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and defects in mitochondrial dynamics and transport. These defects were not observed in cultured sensory neurons, highlighting the exacerbated sensitivity of motor neurons to SIGMAR1 function. Interestingly, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission was sufficient to induce mitochondria axonal transport defects as well as axonal degeneration similar to the changes observed after SIGMAR1 inactivation or loss. Intracellular calcium scavenging and endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition were able to restore mitochondrial function and consequently prevent motor neuron degeneration. These results uncover the cellular mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration mediated by loss of SIGMAR1 function and provide therapeutically relevant insight into motor neuronal diseases. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Neuromodulation, development and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foehring, R C; Lorenzon, N M

    1999-03-01

    We discuss parallels in the mechanisms underlying use-dependent synaptic plasticity during development and long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in neocortical synapses. Neuromodulators, such as norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine have also been implicated in regulating both developmental plasticity and LTP/LTD. There are many potential levels of interaction between neuromodulators and plasticity. Ion channels are substrates for modulation in many cell types. We discuss examples of modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels and the consequences for neocortical pyramidal cell firing behaviour. At the time when developmental plasticity is most evident in rat cortex, the substrate for modulation is changing as the densities and relative proportions of various ion channels types are altered during ontogeny. We discuss examples of changes in K+ and Ca2+ channels and the consequence for modulation of neuronal activity.

  17. Synchronization of Coupled Different Chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo Neurons with Unknown Parameters under Communication-Direction-Dependent Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the chaotic behavior and synchronization of two different coupled chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neurons with unknown parameters under external electrical stimulation (EES. The coupled FHN neurons of different parameters admit unidirectional and bidirectional gap junctions in the medium between them. Dynamical properties, such as the increase in synchronization error as a consequence of the deviation of neuronal parameters for unlike neurons, the effect of difference in coupling strengths caused by the unidirectional gap junctions, and the impact of large time-delay due to separation of neurons, are studied in exploring the behavior of the coupled system. A novel integral-based nonlinear adaptive control scheme, to cope with the infeasibility of the recovery variable, for synchronization of two coupled delayed chaotic FHN neurons of different and unknown parameters under uncertain EES is derived. Further, to guarantee robust synchronization of different neurons against disturbances, the proposed control methodology is modified to achieve the uniformly ultimately bounded synchronization. The parametric estimation errors can be reduced by selecting suitable control parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is illustrated via numerical simulations.

  18. Synchronization of coupled different chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons with unknown parameters under communication-direction-dependent coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Khaliq, Abdul; Saeed-ur-Rehman; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the chaotic behavior and synchronization of two different coupled chaotic FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neurons with unknown parameters under external electrical stimulation (EES). The coupled FHN neurons of different parameters admit unidirectional and bidirectional gap junctions in the medium between them. Dynamical properties, such as the increase in synchronization error as a consequence of the deviation of neuronal parameters for unlike neurons, the effect of difference in coupling strengths caused by the unidirectional gap junctions, and the impact of large time-delay due to separation of neurons, are studied in exploring the behavior of the coupled system. A novel integral-based nonlinear adaptive control scheme, to cope with the infeasibility of the recovery variable, for synchronization of two coupled delayed chaotic FHN neurons of different and unknown parameters under uncertain EES is derived. Further, to guarantee robust synchronization of different neurons against disturbances, the proposed control methodology is modified to achieve the uniformly ultimately bounded synchronization. The parametric estimation errors can be reduced by selecting suitable control parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is illustrated via numerical simulations.

  19. Plasticity of Streptomyces coelicolor membrane composition under different growth conditions and during development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eSandoval-Calderón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces coelicolor is a model actinomycete that is well known for the diversity of its secondary metabolism and its complex life cycle. As a soil inhabitant, it is exposed to heterogeneous and frequently changing environmental circumstances. In the present work, we studied the effect of diverse growth conditions and phosphate depletion on its lipid profile and the relationship between membrane lipid composition and development in S. coelicolor. The lipid profile from cultures grown on solid media, which is closer to the natural habitat of this microorganism, does not resemble the previously reported lipid composition from liquid grown cultures of S. coelicolor. Wide variations were also observed across different media, growth phases, and developmental stages indicating active membrane remodeling. Ornithine lipids (OL are phosphorus-free polar lipids that were accumulated mainly during sporulation stages, but were also major components of the membrane under phosphorus limitation. In contrast, phosphatidylethanolamine, which had been reported as one of the major polar lipids in the genus Streptomyces, is almost absent under these conditions. We identified one of the genes responsible for the synthesis of OL (SCO0921 and found that its inactivation causes the absence of OL, precocious morphological development and actinorhodin production. Our observations indicate a remarkable plasticity of the membrane composition in this bacterial species, reveal a higher metabolic complexity than expected, and suggest a relationship between cytoplasmic membrane components and the differentiation programs in S. coelicolor.

  20. Experimental Evidence Shows the Importance of Behavioural Plasticity and Body Size under Competition in Waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Versluijs, Martijn; Wessels, Rick; Cao, Lei; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2016-01-01

    When differently sized species feed on the same resources, interference competition may occur, which may negatively affect their food intake rate. It is expected that competition between species also alters behaviour and feeding patch selection. To assess these changes in behaviour and patch selection, we applied an experimental approach using captive birds of three differently sized Anatidae species: wigeon (Anas penelope) (~600 g), swan goose (Anser cygnoides) (~2700 g) and bean goose (Anser fabalis) (~3200 g). We quantified the functional response for each species and then recorded their behaviour and patch selection with and without potential competitors, using different species combinations. Our results showed that all three species acquired the highest nitrogen intake at relatively tall swards (6, 9 cm) when foraging in single species flocks in the functional response experiment. Goose species were offered foraging patches differing in sward height with and without competitors, and we tested for the effect of competition on foraging behaviour. The mean percentage of time spent feeding and being vigilant did not change under competition for all species. However, all species utilized strategies that increased their peck rate on patches across different sward heights, resulting in the same instantaneous and nitrogen intake rate. Our results suggest that variation in peck rate over different swards height permits Anatidae herbivores to compensate for the loss of intake under competition, illustrating the importance of behavioural plasticity in heterogeneous environments when competing with other species for resources. PMID:27727315

  1. Studies on the seismic buckling design guideline of FBR main vessels. 9. Buckling evaluation under elastic-plastic seismic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kohsuke; Kawamoto, Yoji; Nakagawa, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Plastic shear-bending buckling under seismic loadings is one of the major problems in the structural design of FBR main vessels. Pseudo-dynamic and dynamic buckling tests of cylinders were performed in order to study the effects of nonlinear seismic response on buckling strength, ductility, and plastic response reduction. The buckling strength formulae and the rule for ductility factors both derived from static tests were confirmed to be valid for the tests under dynamic loads. The displacement-constant rule for response reduction effect was modified by acceleration amplification factor in order to maintain applicability for various spectral profiles of seismic excitations. The response reduction estimated by the proposed rule was reasonably conservative for all cases of the pseudo-dynamic and the dynamic tests. Finally, a seismic safety assessment rule was proposed for plastic shear-bending buckling of cylinders, which include the proposed response reduction rule. (author)

  2. Estimates of plastic loads for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a method to estimate plastic loads (defined by twice-elastic-slope) for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment, based on detailed 3-D FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Because closing bending moment is always lower than opening bending moment, the combination of in-plane closing bending and out-of-plane bending moment becomes the most significant case. Due to conservatism of each bending moments, the resultant moment provided by ASME B and PV code is unduly conservative. However, the concept of the resultant moment is still valid. In this paper, FE results show that the accurate solutions of bending moments provide better estimates of plastic loads of pipe bend under combined in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending moment

  3. Impact of plastic mulching on nitrous oxide emissions in China's arid agricultural region under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongxiang; Tao, Hui; Jia, Hongtao; Zhao, Chengyi

    2017-06-01

    The denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model is a useful tool for integrating the effects of agricultural practices and climate change on soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from agricultural ecosystems. In this study, the DNDC model was evaluated against observations and used to simulate the effect of plastic mulching on soil N2O emissions and crop growth. The DNDC model performed well in simulating temporal variations in N2O emissions and plant growth during the observation period, although it slightly underestimated the cumulative N2O emissions, and was able to simulate the effects of plastic mulching on N2O emissions and crop yield. Both the observations and simulations demonstrated that the application of plastic film increased cumulative N2O emissions and cotton lint yield compared with the non-mulched treatment. The sensitivity test showed that the N2O emissions and lint yield were sensitive to changes in climate and management practices, and the application of plastic film made the N2O emissions and lint yield less sensitive to changes in temperature and irrigation. Although the simulations showed that the beneficial impacts of plastic mulching on N2O emissions were not gained under high fertilizer and irrigation scenarios, our simulations suggest that the application of plastic film effectively reduced soil N2O emissions while promoting yields under suitable fertilizer rates and irrigation. Compared with the baseline scenario, future climate change significantly increased N2O emissions by 15-17% without significantly influencing the lint yields in the non-mulched treatment; in the mulched treatment, climate change significantly promoted the lint yield by 5-6% and significantly reduced N2O emissions by 14% in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Overall, our results demonstrate that the application of plastic film is an efficient way to address increased N2O emissions and simultaneously enhance crop yield in the future.

  4. Estradiol pretreatment ameliorates impaired synaptic plasticity at synapses of insulted CA1 neurons after transient global ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Yang, Yupeng; Takayasu, Yukihiro; Gertner, Michael; Hwang, Jee-Yeon; Aromolaran, Kelly; Bennett, Michael V.L.; Zukin, R. Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Global ischemia in humans or induced experimentally in animals causes selective and delayed neuronal death in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal CA1. The ovarian hormone estradiol administered before or immediately after insult affords histological protection in experimental models of focal and global ischemia and ameliorates the cognitive deficits associated with ischemic cell death. However, the impact of estradiol on the functional integrity of Schaffer collateral to CA1 (Sch-CA1) pyramidal cell synapses following global ischemia is not clear. Here we show that long term estradiol treatment initiated 14 days prior to global ischemia in ovariectomized female rats acts via the IGF-1 receptor to protect the functional integrity of CA1 neurons. Global ischemia impairs basal synaptic transmission, assessed by the input/output relation at Sch-CA1 synapses, and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long term potentiation (LTP), assessed at 3 days after surgery. Presynaptic function, assessed by fiber volley and paired pulse facilitation, is unchanged. To our knowledge, our results are the first to demonstrate that estradiol at near physiological concentrations enhances basal excitatory synaptic transmission and ameliorates deficits in LTP at synapses onto CA1 neurons in a clinically-relevant model of global ischemia. Estradiol-induced rescue of LTP requires the IGF-1 receptor, but not the classical estrogen receptors (ER)-α or β. These findings support a model whereby estradiol acts via the IGF-1 receptor to maintain the functional integrity of hippocampal CA1 synapses in the face of global ischemia. PMID:25463028

  5. Multiple coherence resonances and synchronization transitions by time delay in adaptive scale-free neuronal networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Huijuan; Gong, Yubing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically study the effect of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) on multiple coherence resonances (MCR) and synchronization transitions (ST) induced by time delay in adaptive scale-free Hodgkin–Huxley neuronal networks. It is found that STDP has a big influence on MCR and ST induced by time delay and on the effect of network average degree on the MCR and ST. MCR is enhanced or suppressed as the adjusting rate A p of STDP decreases or increases, and there is optimal A p by which ST becomes strongest. As network average degree 〈k〉 increases, ST is enhanced and there is optimal 〈k〉 at which MCR becomes strongest. Moreover, for a larger A p value, ST is enhanced more rapidly with increasing 〈k〉 and the optimal 〈k〉 for MCR increases. These results show that STDP can either enhance or suppress MCR, and there is optimal STDP that can most strongly enhance ST induced by time delay in the adaptive neuronal networks. These findings could find potential implication for the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  6. Robust Adaptive Synchronization of Ring Configured Uncertain Chaotic FitzHugh–Nagumo Neurons under Direction-Dependent Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper exploits the dynamical modeling, behavior analysis, and synchronization of a network of four different FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN neurons with unknown parameters linked in a ring configuration under direction-dependent coupling. The main purpose is to investigate a robust adaptive control law for the synchronization of uncertain and perturbed neurons, communicating in a medium of bidirectional coupling. The neurons are assumed to be different and interconnected in a ring structure. The strength of the gap junctions is taken to be different for each link in the network, owing to the inter-neuronal coupling medium properties. Robust adaptive control mechanism based on Lyapunov stability analysis is employed and theoretical criteria are derived to realize the synchronization of the network of four FHN neurons in a ring form with unknown parameters under direction-dependent coupling and disturbances. The proposed scheme for synchronization of dissimilar neurons, under external electrical stimuli, coupled in a ring communication topology, having all parameters unknown, and subject to directional coupling medium and perturbations, is addressed for the first time as per our knowledge. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy, simulation results are provided.

  7. Robust Adaptive Synchronization of Ring Configured Uncertain Chaotic FitzHugh–Nagumo Neurons under Direction-Dependent Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2018-01-01

    This paper exploits the dynamical modeling, behavior analysis, and synchronization of a network of four different FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN) neurons with unknown parameters linked in a ring configuration under direction-dependent coupling. The main purpose is to investigate a robust adaptive control law for the synchronization of uncertain and perturbed neurons, communicating in a medium of bidirectional coupling. The neurons are assumed to be different and interconnected in a ring structure. The strength of the gap junctions is taken to be different for each link in the network, owing to the inter-neuronal coupling medium properties. Robust adaptive control mechanism based on Lyapunov stability analysis is employed and theoretical criteria are derived to realize the synchronization of the network of four FHN neurons in a ring form with unknown parameters under direction-dependent coupling and disturbances. The proposed scheme for synchronization of dissimilar neurons, under external electrical stimuli, coupled in a ring communication topology, having all parameters unknown, and subject to directional coupling medium and perturbations, is addressed for the first time as per our knowledge. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy, simulation results are provided. PMID:29535622

  8. Electrical Activity in a Time-Delay Four-Variable Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of electromagnetic induction on the electrical activity of neuron, the variable for magnetic flow is used to improve Hindmarsh–Rose neuron model. Simultaneously, due to the existence of time-delay when signals are propagated between neurons or even in one neuron, it is important to study the role of time-delay in regulating the electrical activity of the neuron. For this end, a four-variable neuron model is proposed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic induction and time-delay. Simulation results suggest that the proposed neuron model can show multiple modes of electrical activity, which is dependent on the time-delay and external forcing current. It means that suitable discharge mode can be obtained by selecting the time-delay or external forcing current, which could be helpful for further investigation of electromagnetic radiation on biological neuronal system.

  9. Differential regulation of microtubule severing by APC underlies distinct patterns of projection neuron and interneuron migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae-Yeon; Stanco, Amelia; Guo, Jiami; Wilkins, Gary; Deslauriers, Danielle; Yan, Jessica; Monckton, Chase; Blair, Josh; Oon, Eesim; Perez, Abby; Salas, Eduardo; Oh, Adrianna; Ghukasyan, Vladimir; Snider, William D.; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Anton, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated migration of distinct classes of neurons to appropriate positions leads to the formation of functional neuronal circuitry in the cerebral cortex. Two major classes of cortical neurons, interneurons and projection neurons, utilize distinctly different modes (radial vs. tangential) and routes of migration to arrive at their final positions in the cerebral cortex. Here, we show that adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) modulates microtubule (MT) severing in interneurons to facilitate tangential mode of interneuron migration, but not the glial-guided, radial migration of projection neurons. APC regulates the stability and activity of the MT severing protein p60-katanin in interneurons to promote the rapid remodeling of neuronal processes necessary for interneuron migration. These findings reveal how severing and restructuring of MTs facilitate distinct modes of neuronal migration necessary for laminar organization of neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. PMID:25535916

  10. Modeling of plastic localization in aluminum and Al–Cu alloys under shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnikov, V.S.; Mayer, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modeling of plastic deformation localization in pure aluminum and aluminum–copper alloys during the propagation of a plane shock wave. Modeling is carried out with the use of continual dislocation plasticity model in 2-D geometry. It is shown that the formation of localization bands occurs at an angle of 45° to the direction of propagation of the shock front. Effective initiators for plastic localization in pure aluminum are the perturbations of the initial dislocation density, in the alloys – perturbations of the dislocation density and the concentration of copper atoms. Perturbations of temperature field in a range of tens of kelvins are not so effective for plastic localization. In the alloy plastic localization intensity decreases with an increase of strain rate due to the thermally activated nature of the dislocation motion

  11. Effects of age, experience and inter-alpha inhibitor proteins on working memory and neuronal plasticity after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Cynthia M; Lim, Yow-Pin; Stonestreet, Barbara S; Threlkeld, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    cognitive task, beyond that of a single intervention strategy, and appears to facilitate neuronal plasticity following neonatal brain injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Robustness, Death of Spiral Wave in the Network of Neurons under Partial Ion Channel Block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Ma; Long, Huang; Chun-Ni, Wang; Zhong-Sheng, Pu

    2013-01-01

    The development of spiral wave in a two-dimensional square array due to partial ion channel block (Potassium, Sodium) is investigated, the dynamics of the node is described by Hodgkin—Huxley neuron and these neurons are coupled with nearest neighbor connection. The parameter ratio x Na (and x K ), which defines the ratio of working ion channel number of sodium (potassium) to the total ion channel number of sodium (and potassium), is used to measure the shift conductance induced by channel block. The distribution of statistical variable R in the two-parameter phase space (parameter ratio vs. poisoning area) is extensively calculated to mark the parameter region for transition of spiral wave induced by partial ion channel block, the area with smaller factors of synchronization R is associated the parameter region that spiral wave keeps alive and robust to the channel poisoning. Spiral wave keeps alive when the poisoned area (potassium or sodium) and degree of intoxication are small, distinct transition (death, several spiral waves coexist or multi-arm spiral wave emergence) occurs under moderate ratio x Na (and x K ) when the size of blocked area exceeds certain thresholds. Breakup of spiral wave occurs and multi-arm of spiral waves are observed when the channel noise is considered. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. The neuronal mechanisms underlying improvement of impulsivity in ADHD by theta/beta neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluschke, Annet; Broschwitz, Felicia; Kohl, Simon; Roessner, Veit; Beste, Christian

    2016-08-12

    Neurofeedback is increasingly recognized as an intervention to treat core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the large number of studies having been carried out to evaluate its effectiveness, it is widely elusive what neuronal mechanisms related to the core symptoms of ADHD are modulated by neurofeedback. 19 children with ADHD undergoing 8 weeks of theta/beta neurofeedback and 17 waiting list controls performed a Go/Nogo task in a pre-post design. We used neurophysiological measures combining high-density EEG recording with source localization analyses using sLORETA. Compared to the waiting list ADHD control group, impulsive behaviour measured was reduced after neurofeedback treatment. The effects of neurofeedback were very specific for situations requiring inhibitory control over responses. The neurophysiological data shows that processes of perceptual gating, attentional selection and resource allocation processes were not affected by neurofeedback. Rather, neurofeedback effects seem to be based on the modulation of response inhibition processes in medial frontal cortices. The study shows that specific neuronal mechanisms underlying impulsivity are modulated by theta/beta neurofeedback in ADHD. The applied neurofeedback protocol could be particularly suitable to address inhibitory control. The study validates assumed functional neuroanatomical target regions of an established neurofeedback protocol on a neurophysiological level.

  14. Phenotypic plasticity of Neonotonia wightii and Pueraria phaseoloidesgrown under different light intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO D.T. SANTOS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have the ability to undergo morphophysiological changes based on availability of light. The present study evaluated biomass accumulation, leaf morphoanatomy and physiology of Neonotonia wightii andPueraria phaseoloides grown in full sunlight, as well as in 30% and 50% shade. Two assays were performed, one for each species, using a randomized block design with 10 replicates. A higher accumulation of fresh mass in the shoot of the plants was observed for both species under cultivation in 50% shade, while no differences were detected between the full sunlight and 30% shade. N. wightii and P. phaseoloides showed increase in area and reduction in thickness leaf when cultivated in 50% shade. There were no changes in photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of P. phaseoloidesplants because growth environment. However, the shade treatments caused alterations in physiological parameters of N. wightii. In both species, structural changes in the mesophyll occurred depending on the availability of light; however, the amount of leaf blade tissue remained unaltered. Despite the influence of light intensity variation on the morphophysiological plasticity ofN. wightiiand P. phaseoloides, no effects on biomass accumulation were observed in response to light.

  15. Optimal decoding and information transmission in Hodgkin-Huxley neurons under metabolic cost constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Lubomir; Kobayashi, Ryota

    2015-10-01

    Information theory quantifies the ultimate limits on reliable information transfer by means of the channel capacity. However, the channel capacity is known to be an asymptotic quantity, assuming unlimited metabolic cost and computational power. We investigate a single-compartment Hodgkin-Huxley type neuronal model under the spike-rate coding scheme and address how the metabolic cost and the decoding complexity affects the optimal information transmission. We find that the sub-threshold stimulation regime, although attaining the smallest capacity, allows for the most efficient balance between the information transmission and the metabolic cost. Furthermore, we determine post-synaptic firing rate histograms that are optimal from the information-theoretic point of view, which enables the comparison of our results with experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hückesfeld

    Full Text Available Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands, the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ. Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system.

  17. Sonic hedgehog promotes neurite outgrowth of cortical neurons under oxidative stress: Involving of mitochondria and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiliang; Cui, Lili; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Xiangjian; He, Junna; Xie, Yanzhao; Chen, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be involved in the etiology of several neurobiological disorders. Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a secreted glycoprotein factor, has been implicated in promoting several aspects of brain remodeling process. Mitochondria may play an important role in controlling fundamental processes in neuroplasticity. However, little evidence is available about the effect and the potential mechanism of Shh on neurite outgrowth in primary cortical neurons under oxidative stress. Here, we revealed that Shh treatment significantly increased the viability of cortical neurons in a dose-dependent manner, which was damaged by hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Shh alleviated the apoptosis rate of H 2 O 2 -induced neurons. Shh also increased neuritogenesis injuried by H 2 O 2 in primary cortical neurons. Moreover, Shh reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased the activities of SOD and and decreased the productions of MDA. In addition, Shh protected mitochondrial functions, elevated the cellular ATP levels and amelioratesd the impairment of mitochondrial complex II activities of cortical neurons induced by H 2 O 2 . In conclusion, all these results suggest that Shh acts as a prosurvival factor playing an essential role to neurite outgrowth of cortical neuron under H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress, possibly through counteracting ROS release and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction and ATP as well as mitochondrial complex II activities against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermo-elastic-plastic analysis for elastic component under high temperature fatigue crack growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed Ali Nasser

    The research project presents a fundamental understanding of the fatigue crack growth mechanisms of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, based on the comparison analysis between the theoretical and numerical modelling, incorporating research findings under isothermal fatigue loading for solid cylindrical specimen and the theoretical modelling with the numerical simulation for tubular specimen when subjected to cyclic mechanical loading superimposed by cyclic thermal shock.The experimental part of this research programme studied the fatigue stress-life data for three types of surface conditions specimen and the isothermal stress-controlled fatigue testing at 300 °C - 600 °C temperature range. It is observed that the highest strength is obtained for the polished specimen, while the machined specimen shows lower strength, and the lowest strength is the notched specimen due to the high effect of the stress concentration. The material behaviour at room and high temperatures shows an initial hardening, followed by slow extension until fully plastic saturation then followed by crack initiation and growth eventually reaching the failure of the specimen, resulting from the dynamic strain ageing occurred from the transformation of austenitic microstructure to martensite and also, the nucleation of precipitation at grain boundaries and the incremental temperature increase the fatigue crack growth rate with stress intensity factor however, the crack growth rate at 600 °C test temperature is less than 500 °C because of the creep-fatigue taking place.The theoretical modelling presents the crack growth analysis and stress and strain intensity factor approaches analysed in two case studies based on the addition of thermo-elastic-plastic stresses to the experimental fatigue applied loading. Case study one estimates the thermal stresses superimposed sinusoidal cyclic mechanical stress results in solid cylinder under isothermal fatigue simulation. Case study two estimates the

  19. Using neuronal populations to study the mechanisms underlying spatial and feature attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marlene R.; Maunsell, John H.R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Visual attention affects both perception and neuronal responses. Whether the same neuronal mechanisms mediate spatial attention, which improves perception of attended locations, and non-spatial forms of attention has been a subject of considerable debate. Spatial and feature attention have similar effects on individual neurons. Because visual cortex is retinotopically organized, however, spatial attention can co-modulate local neuronal populations, while feature attention generally requires more selective modulation. We compared the effects of feature and spatial attention on local and spatially separated populations by recording simultaneously from dozens of neurons in both hemispheres of V4. Feature and spatial attention affect the activity of local populations similarly, modulating both firing rates and correlations between pairs of nearby neurons. However, while spatial attention appears to act on local populations, feature attention is coordinated across hemispheres. Our results are consistent with a unified attentional mechanism that can modulate the responses of arbitrary subgroups of neurons. PMID:21689604

  20. Closed-form critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures on compliant ground under near-fault ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro eKojima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The double impulse is introduced as a substitute of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. A closed-form solution of the elastic-plastic response of a structure on compliant (flexible ground by the ‘critical double impulse’ is derived for the first time based on the solution for the corresponding structure with fixed base. As in the case of fixed-base model, only the free-vibration appears under such double impulse and the energy approach plays an important role in the derivation of the closed-form solution of a complicated elastic-plastic response on compliant ground. It is remarkable that no iteration is needed in the derivation of the critical elastic-plastic response. It is shown via the closed-form expression that, in the case of a smaller input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes larger, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. On the other hand, in the case of a larger input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes smaller, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. The criticality and validity of the proposed theory are investigated through the comparison with the response analysis to the corresponding one-cycle sinusoidal input as a representative of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. The applicability of the proposed theory to actual recorded pulse-type ground motions is also discussed.

  1. Integrated cannabinoid CB1 receptor transmission within the amygdala-prefrontal cortical pathway modulates neuronal plasticity and emotional memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huibing; Lauzon, Nicole M; Bishop, Stephanie F; Bechard, Melanie A; Laviolette, Steven R

    2010-06-01

    The cannabinoid CB1 receptor system is functionally involved in the processing and encoding of emotionally salient sensory information, learning and memory. The CB1 receptor is found in high concentrations in brain structures that are critical for emotional processing, including the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP) within the BLA > mPFC pathway is an established correlate of exposure to emotionally salient events. We performed a series of in vivo LTP studies by applying tetanic stimulation to the BLA combined with recordings of local field potentials within prelimbic cortical (PLC) region of the rat mPFC. Systemic pretreatment with AM-251 dose dependently blocked LTP along the BLA-PLC pathway and also the behavioral acquisition of conditioned fear memories. We next performed a series of microinfusion experiments wherein CB1 receptor transmission within the BLA > PLC circuit was pharmacologically blocked. Asymmetrical, interhemispheric blockade of CB1 receptor transmission along the BLA > PLC pathway prevented the acquisition of emotionally salient associative memory. Our results indicate that coordinated CB1 receptor transmission within the BLA > PLC pathway is critically involved in the encoding of emotional fear memories and modulates neural plasticity related to the encoding of emotionally salient associative learning.

  2. Elastic-plastic creep response of structures under composite time history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zudans, Z [Franklin Inst. Research Labs., Philadelphia, Pa. (USA)

    1975-12-01

    High temperature nuclear reactor components are subject to a complex history of thermal and mechanical loading cycles. To evaluate the adequacy of such components, detailed information on the accumulated inelastic strains and strain cycling is required. This paper presents the theory, describes efficient numerical techniques accounting for plasticity, creep and overall equilibrium, describes the overall structure of the resulting computer program, and demonstrates the capability of the analysis method on a real three-dimensional structure. The new results of this work are the efficient handling of an arbitrary load history, introduction of the 'plastic stress' concept for inelastic computation, novel implementation of classical plasticity with recognition of incrementation conditions for the kinematic hardening, use of the load incrementation algorithm based on the 'plastic stress' concept, and development of a computer code capable of solving practical three-dimensional problems.

  3. Elastic-plastic creep response of structures under composite time history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zudans, Z.

    1975-01-01

    High temperature nuclear reactor components are subject to a complex history of thermal and mechanical loading cycles. To evaluate the adequacy of such components, detailed information on the accumulated inelastic strains and strain cycling is required. This paper presents the theory, describes efficient numerical techniques accounting for plasticity, creep and overall equilibrium, describes the overall structure of the resulting computer program, and demonstrates the capability of the analysis method on a real three-dimensional structure. The new results of this work are the efficient handling of an arbitrary load history, introduction of the 'plastic stress' concept for inelastic computation, novel implementation of classical plasticity with recognition of incrementation conditions for the kinematic hardening, use of the load incrementation algorithm based on the 'plastic stress' concept, and development of a computer code capable of solving practical three-dimensional problems. (Auth.)

  4. Elasto/visco-plastic analysis of moderately thick shells of revolution under asymmetrical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, K.; Takezono, S.

    1987-01-01

    In the present paper the analytical formulation for the elasto/visco-plastic problems of general, moderately thick shells of revolution subjected to asymmetrical loads is developed in consideration of the effect of shear deformation. The equations of equilibrium and the relations between the strains and displacements are derived by extending the Reissner-Naghdi theory (1941, 1957) for elastic shells with given consideration to the effect of shear deformation. As the constitutive relation, Hooke's law is used in the liner elastic range, and the elasto/visco-plastic equations by Perzyna (1966) are employed in the plastic range. The fundamental equations on the elasto/visco-plastic problems derived for incremental values are numerically solved by a finite difference method and the solutions are obtained by summation of the incremental values. (orig./GL)

  5. CYCLIC PLASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF UFG COPPER UNDER CONTROLLED STRESS AND STRAIN LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Navrátilová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of stress- and strain-controlled loading on microstructure and cyclic plastic behaviour of ultrafine-grained copper prepared by equal channel angular pressing was examined. The stability of microstructure is a characteristic feature for stress-controlled test whereas grain coarsening and development of bimodal structure was observed after plastic strain-controlled tests. An attempt to explain the observed behaviour was made.

  6. Hysteresis Behaviour of Mass Concrete Mixed with Plastic Fibre under Compression

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Okeola; T. I. Sijuade

    2016-01-01

    Unreinforced concrete is a comparatively brittle substance when exposed to tensile stresses, the required tensile strength is provided by the introduction of steel which is used as reinforcement. The strength of concrete may be improved tremendously by the addition of fibre. This study focused on investigating the compressive strength of mass concrete mixed with different percentage of plastic fibre. Twelve samples of concrete cubes with varied percentage of plastic fibre at 7, 14 and 28 days...

  7. Elasto/visco-plastic analysis of orthotropic moderately thick shells of revolution under asymmetrical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, K.; Takezono, S.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical method for the elasto/visco-plastic problems of general, orthotropic moderately thick shells of revolution subjected to asymmetrical loads is developed in consideration of the effect of shear deformations. The Reissner-Naghdi theory for elastic moderately thick shells is extended in this analysis. As the constitutive equation, Hooke's law for orthotropic materials is used in the elastic region, and equations based on the orthotropic visco-plastic theory derived from the orthotropic plastic theory by Hill are employed in the plastic range. The visco-plastic strain rates are related to the stresses by Perzyna's equation. The fundamental equations for the increment are numerically solved by a finite difference method and the solutions are obtained by summation of the incremental values. In order to check the adequacy of the numerical analysis, experiments are performed on the elasto/visco-plastic deformation of a titanium cylindrical shell subjected to locally distributed loads. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental results and analytical solutions

  8. Deficient Rab11 activity underlies glucose hypometabolism in primary neurons of Huntington’s disease mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xueyi; Valencia, Antonio; McClory, Hollis; Sapp, Ellen; Kegel, Kimberly B.; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Primary Huntington’s disease neurons are impaired in taking up glucose. ► Rab11 modulates glucose uptake in neurons. ► Increasing Rab11 activity attenuates the glucose uptake defect in disease neurons. ► We provide a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in Huntington’s disease. -- Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. Positron emission tomography studies have revealed a decline in glucose metabolism in the brain of patients with HD by a mechanism that has not been established. We examined glucose utilization in embryonic primary cortical neurons of wild-type (WT) and HD knock-in mice, which have 140 CAG repeats inserted in the endogenous mouse huntingtin gene (HD 140Q/140Q ). Primary HD 140Q/140Q cortical neurons took up significantly less glucose than did WT neurons. Expression of permanently inactive and permanently active forms of Rab11 correspondingly altered glucose uptake in WT neurons, suggesting that normal activity of Rab11 is needed for neuronal uptake of glucose. It is known that Rab11 activity is diminished in HD 140Q/140Q neurons. Expression of dominant active Rab11 to enhance the activity of Rab11 normalized glucose uptake in HD 140Q/140Q neurons. These results suggest that deficient activity of Rab11 is a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in HD.

  9. eGFP expression under the Uchl1 promoter labels corticospinal motor neurons and a subpopulation of degeneration resistant spinal motor neurons in ALS mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasvoina, Marina V.

    Current understanding of basic cellular and molecular mechanisms for motor neuron vulnerability during motor neuron disease initiation and progression is incomplete. The complex cytoarchitecture and cellular heterogeneity of the cortex and spinal cord greatly impedes our ability to visualize, isolate, and study specific neuron populations in both healthy and diseased states. We generated a novel reporter line, the Uchl1-eGFP mouse, in which cortical and spinal components of motor neuron circuitry are genetically labeled with eGFP under the Uchl1 promoter. A series of cellular and anatomical analyses combined with retrograde labeling, molecular marker expression, and electrophysiology were employed to determine identity of eGFP expressing cells in the motor cortex and the spinal cord of novel Uchl1-eGFP reporter mice. We conclude that eGFP is expressed in corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN) in the motor cortex and a subset of S-type alpha and gamma spinal motor neurons (SMN) in the spinal cord. hSOD1G93A and Alsin-/- mice, mouse models for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), were bred to Uchl1-eGFP reporter mouse line to investigate the pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms of CSMN degeneration in vivo. Evidence suggests early and progressive degeneration of CSMN and SMN in the hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. We show an early increase of autophagosome formation in the apical dendrites of vulnerable CSMN in hSOD1G93A-UeGFP mice, which is localized to the apical dendrites. In addition, labeling S-type alpha and gamma SMN in the hSOD1G93A-UeGFP mice provide a unique opportunity to study basis of their resistance to degeneration. Mice lacking alsin show moderate clinical phenotype and mild CSMN axon degeneration in the spinal cord, which suggests vulnerability of CSMN. Therefore, we investigated the CSMN cellular and axon defects in aged Alsin-/- mice bred to Uchl1-eGFP reporter mouse line. We show that while CSMN are preserved and lack signs of degeneration, CSMN axons

  10. Decreased synaptic plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex underlies short-term memory deficits in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Filipe C; Rial, Daniel; Real, Joana I; Lemos, Cristina; Ben, Juliana; Guaita, Gisele O; Pita, Inês R; Sequeira, Ana C; Pereira, Frederico C; Walz, Roger; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Bertoglio, Leandro J; Da Cunha, Cláudio; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Prediger, Rui D

    2016-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor dysfunction associated with dopaminergic degeneration in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). However, motor symptoms in PD are often preceded by short-term memory deficits, which have been argued to involve deregulation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We now used a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat PD model to explore if alterations of synaptic plasticity in DLS and mPFC underlie short-term memory impairments in PD prodrome. The bilateral injection of 6-OHDA (20μg/hemisphere) in the DLS caused a marked loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (>80%) and decreased monoamine levels in the striatum and PFC, accompanied by motor deficits evaluated after 21 days in the open field and accelerated rotarod. A lower dose of 6-OHDA (10μg/hemisphere) only induced a partial degeneration (about 60%) of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra with no gross motor impairments, thus mimicking an early premotor stage of PD. Notably, 6-OHDA (10μg)-lesioned rats displayed decreased monoamine levels in the PFC as well as short-term memory deficits evaluated in the novel object discrimination and in the modified Y-maze tasks; this was accompanied by a selective decrease in the amplitude of long-term potentiation in the mPFC, but not in DLS, without changes of synaptic transmission in either brain regions. These results indicate that the short-term memory dysfunction predating the motor alterations in the 6-OHDA model of PD is associated with selective changes of information processing in PFC circuits, typified by persistent changes of synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  12. Drug adsorption to plastic containers and retention of drugs in cultured cells under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmgrén, Joni J; Mönkkönen, Jukka; Korjamo, Timo; Hassinen, Anssi; Auriola, Seppo

    2006-11-01

    Loss of drug content during cell culture transport experiment can lead to misinterpretations in permeability analysis. This study analyses drug adsorption to various plastic containers and drug retention in cultured cells under in vitro conditions. The loss of various drugs to polystyrene tubes and well plates was compared to polypropylene and glass tubes both in deionised water and buffer solution. In cellular uptake experiments, administered drugs were obtained from cultured cells by liquid extraction. Samples were collected at various time points and drug concentrations were measured by a new HPLC-MS/MS method. Acidic drugs (hydrochlorothiazide, naproxen, probenicid, and indomethacin) showed little if any sorption to all tested materials in either water or buffer. In the case of basic drugs, substantial loss to polystyrene tubes and well plates was observed. After 4.5 h, the relative amount remaining in aqueous test solution stored in polystyrene tubes was 64.7 +/- 6.8%, 38.4 +/- 9.1%, 31.9 +/- 6.7%, and 23.5 +/- 6.1% for metoprolol, medetomidine, propranolol, and midazolam, respectively. Interestingly, there was no significant loss of drugs dissolved in buffer to any of the tested materials indicating that buffer reduced surficial interaction. The effect of drug concentration to sorption was also tested. Results indicated that the higher the concentration in the test solution the lower the proportional drug loss, suggesting that the polystyrene contained a limited amount of binding sites. Cellular uptake studies showed considerable retention of drugs in cultured cells. The amounts of absorbed drugs in cellular structures were 0.45%, 4.88%, 13.15%, 43.80%, 23.57% and 11.22% for atenolol, metoprolol, medetomidine, propranolol, midazolam, and diazepam, respectively. Overall, these findings will benefit development and validation of further in vitro drug permeation experiments.

  13. Associative and sensorimotor learning for parenting involves mirror neurons under the influence of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S Shaun; Macdonald, Adam; Swain, James E

    2014-04-01

    Mirror neuron-based associative learning may be understood according to associative learning theories, in addition to sensorimotor learning theories. This is important for a comprehensive understanding of the role of mirror neurons and related hormone modulators, such as oxytocin, in complex social interactions such as among parent-infant dyads and in examples of mirror neuron function that involve abnormal motor systems such as depression.

  14. Ambient but not local lactate underlies neuronal tolerance to prolonged glucose deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieski, Courtney; Shu, Hong-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Neurons require a nearly constant supply of ATP. Glucose is the predominant source of brain ATP, but the direct effects of prolonged glucose deprivation on neuronal viability and function remain unclear. In sparse rat hippocampal microcultures, neurons were surprisingly resilient to 16 h glucose removal in the absence of secondary excitotoxicity. Neuronal survival and synaptic transmission were unaffected by prolonged removal of exogenous glucose. Inhibition of lactate transport decreased microculture neuronal survival during concurrent glucose deprivation, suggesting that endogenously released lactate is important for tolerance to glucose deprivation. Tandem depolarization and glucose deprivation also reduced neuronal survival, and trace glucose concentrations afforded neuroprotection. Mass cultures, in contrast to microcultures, were insensitive to depolarizing glucose deprivation, a difference attributable to increased extracellular lactate levels. Removal of local astrocyte support did not reduce survival in response to glucose deprivation or alter evoked excitatory transmission, suggesting that on-demand, local lactate shuttling is not necessary for neuronal tolerance to prolonged glucose removal. Taken together, these data suggest that endogenously produced lactate available globally in the extracellular milieu sustains neurons in the absence of glucose. A better understanding of resilience mechanisms in reduced preparations could lead to therapeutic strategies aimed to bolster these mechanisms in vulnerable neuronal populations. PMID:29617444

  15. Plastic deformation and failure mechanisms in nano-scale notched metallic glass specimens under tensile loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tanmay; Chauniyal, Ashish; Singh, I.; Narasimhan, R.; Thamburaja, P.; Ramamurty, U.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, numerical simulations using molecular dynamics and non-local plasticity based finite element analysis are carried out on tensile loading of nano-scale double edge notched metallic glass specimens. The effect of acuteness of notches as well as the metallic glass chemical composition or internal material length scale on the plastic deformation response of the specimens are studied. Both MD and FE simulations, in spite of the fundamental differences in their nature, indicate near-identical deformation features. Results show two distinct transitions in the notch tip deformation behavior as the acuity is increased, first from single shear band dominant plastic flow localization to ligament necking, and then to double shear banding in notches that are very sharp. Specimens with moderately blunt notches and composition showing wider shear bands or higher material length scale characterizing the interaction stress associated with flow defects display profuse plastic deformation and failure by ligament necking. These results are rationalized from the role of the interaction stress and development of the notch root plastic zones.

  16. Birefringence and incipient plastic deformation in elastically overdriven [100] CaF2 under shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, X. M.; Cai, Y.; Liu, C. L.; Luo, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    [100] CaF2 single crystals are shock-compressed via symmetric planar impact, and the flyer plate-target interface velocity histories are measured with a laser displacement interferometry. The shock loading is slightly above the Hugoniot elastic limit to investigate incipient plasticity and its kinetics, and its effects on optical properties and deformation inhomogeneity. Fringe patterns demonstrate different features in modulation of fringe amplitude, including birefringence and complicated modulations. The birefringence is attributed to local lattice rotation accompanying incipient plasticity. Spatially resolved measurements show inhomogeneity in deformation, birefringence, and fringe pattern evolutions, most likely caused by the inhomogeneity associated with lattice rotation and dislocation slip. Transiently overdriven elastic states are observed, and the incubation time for incipient plasticity decreases inversely with increasing overdrive by the elastic shock.

  17. Selective alterations of NMDAR function and plasticity in D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Maier, Esther Y; Buske, Tavanna R; Morrisett, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    A major mouse model widely adopted in recent years to induce pronounced ethanol intake is the ethanol vapor model known as "CIE" or "Chronic Intermittent Ethanol." One critical question concerning this model is whether the rapid induction of high blood ethanol levels for such short time periods is sufficient to induce alterations in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function which may contribute to excessive ethanol intake. In this study, we determined whether such short term intermittent ethanol exposure modulates NMDAR function as well as other prominent electrophysiological properties and the expression of plasticity in both D1 (D1+) and D2 (D1-) dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. To distinguish between the two subtypes of MSNs in the NAc we treated Drd1a-TdTomato transgenic mice with CIE vapor and electrophysiological recordings were conducted 24 h after the last vapor exposure. To investigate CIE induced alterations in plasticity, long-term depression (LTD) was induced by pairing low frequency stimulation (LFS) with post synaptic depolarization. In ethanol naïve mice, LFS induced synaptic depression (LTD) was apparent exclusively in D1+ MSNs. Whereas in slices prepared from CIE treated mice, LFS induced synaptic potentiation (LTP) in D1+ MSNs. Furthermore, following CIE exposure, LFS now produced LTD in D1- MSNs. We found that CIE exposure induced an increase in excitability in D1+ MSNs with no change in D1- MSNs. After CIE, we found a significant increase in spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) frequency in D1+ but not D1- MSNs suggesting alterations in baseline α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) mediated signaling. CIE induced changes in NMDAR function were measured using the NMDA/AMPA ratio and input-output curves of isolated NMDAR currents. We observed a significant increase in NMDAR function in D1+ MSNs and a decrease in D1- MSNs after ethanol vapor exposure. The

  18. The effects of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation on forecasts of species range shifts under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Fernando; Matesanz, Silvia; Guilhaumon, François; Araújo, Miguel B; Balaguer, Luis; Benito-Garzón, Marta; Cornwell, Will; Gianoli, Ernesto; van Kleunen, Mark; Naya, Daniel E; Nicotra, Adrienne B; Poorter, Hendrik; Zavala, Miguel A

    2014-11-01

    Species are the unit of analysis in many global change and conservation biology studies; however, species are not uniform entities but are composed of different, sometimes locally adapted, populations differing in plasticity. We examined how intraspecific variation in thermal niches and phenotypic plasticity will affect species distributions in a warming climate. We first developed a conceptual model linking plasticity and niche breadth, providing five alternative intraspecific scenarios that are consistent with existing literature. Secondly, we used ecological niche-modeling techniques to quantify the impact of each intraspecific scenario on the distribution of a virtual species across a geographically realistic setting. Finally, we performed an analogous modeling exercise using real data on the climatic niches of different tree provenances. We show that when population differentiation is accounted for and dispersal is restricted, forecasts of species range shifts under climate change are even more pessimistic than those using the conventional assumption of homogeneously high plasticity across a species' range. Suitable population-level data are not available for most species so identifying general patterns of population differentiation could fill this gap. However, the literature review revealed contrasting patterns among species, urging greater levels of integration among empirical, modeling and theoretical research on intraspecific phenotypic variation. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  19. On the application of the dynamic plasticity theory for the treatment of reinforced concrete structures under transient loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, W.

    1983-01-01

    After a short introduction of the theory of dynamic plasticity, the possible applications of this theory on reinforced concrete structures under transient loading are discussed. Estimates can be obtained by relations giving lower and upper limits for dynamically loaded supporting beams. A procedure similar for the mode approximation method is described for the calculation of beams after a sudden failure of a support. (orig.) [de

  20. On Loosening Plastic Composite under Active Load and Its Influence on the Deformation and Strength Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Komkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing the test results of the composite, which is a mechanical mixture of metal particles with a plastic polymer binder, has shown that its deformation and strength properties are substantially different from those of stable plastic material. The specimen tests for tensile and compression with measuring transverse deformations, as well as torsion tests of tubular samples have revealed that the process of its deformation is accompanied by a change in the original structure.The composite instability is caused by the fact that during this process, it acquires considerable loosening that depends on the type of the stress-state. Hard metal particles are hardly deformed at any stress-state, but they form a layer of bonds that affect the mixture behavior under force action. The total deformation is the plastic flow of the binder on which deformation, caused both by sliding and by loss of the surface layer bonds, is superimposed.The analysis shows that with destruction at tensile test the non-linear part of the bulk deformation (dilatancy is 6 times more than "conditionally" elastic (3.5 times compressed. The objective of this work is to develop a technique for determining a dilatancy, define its influence on deformation and strength properties of the composite, and improve the mathematical model of the material. The proposed model based on the tensor-nonlinear equations describes loosening, as an additional component of the mean deformation and as a mean stress component, hereinafter referred to as: the first - by the deformation, the second – by the stress. A ratio value of the nonlinear part of deformation with the quadratic tensor argument to the linear part, which reaches 0.3, shows the need for such equations. It also shows the influence of deformation on the relationship between the deviators.To enhance capabilities of mathematical model is possible after including therein the equations for the spherical part of the tensor of deformation

  1. Temporal phases of activity-dependent plasticity and memory are mediated by compartmentalized routing of MAPK signaling in aplysia sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Justin L; Zhao, Yali; Stough, Shara; Ye, Xiaojing; Hsuan, Vickie; Martin, Kelsey C; Carew, Thomas J

    2009-01-15

    An activity-dependent form of intermediate memory (AD-ITM) for sensitization is induced in Aplysia by a single tail shock that gives rise to plastic changes (AD-ITF) in tail sensory neurons (SNs) via the interaction of action potential firing in the SN coupled with the release of serotonin in the CNS. Activity-dependent long-term facilitation (AD-LTF, lasting >24hr) requires protein synthesis dependent persistent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and translocation to the SN nucleus. We now show that the induction of the earlier temporal phase (AD-ITM and AD-ITF), which is translation and transcription independent, requires the activation of a compartmentally distinct novel signaling cascade that links second messengers, MAPK and PKC into a unified pathway within tail SNs. Since both AD-ITM and AD-LTM require MAPK activity, these collective findings suggest that presynaptic SNs route the flow of molecular information to distinct subcellular compartments during the induction of activity-dependent long-lasting memories.

  2. Development of north sea coastal plankton communities in separate plastic bags under identical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.

    1977-01-01

    In two experiments lasting 4 to 6 weeks, communities of North Sea coastal plankton kept in separate plastic bags (of about 1400 l) and exposed to the same environmental conditions showed very similar patterns of growth and decline. This result means that the method is suitable for the evaluation of

  3. Developmental Pathway Genes and Neural Plasticity Underlying Emotional Learning and Stress-Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheau, Marissa E.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2017-01-01

    The manipulation of neural plasticity as a means of intervening in the onset and progression of stress-related disorders retains its appeal for many researchers, despite our limited success in translating such interventions from the laboratory to the clinic. Given the challenges of identifying individual genetic variants that confer increased risk…

  4. Mechanisms operating during plastic deformation of metals under concurrent production of cascades and dislocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinkaus, H. [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Singh, B.N. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Materials Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-04-15

    Recent in-reactor tensile tests (IRTs) on pure copper have revealed a deformation behaviour which is significantly different from that observed in post-irradiation tensile tests (PITs). In IRTs, the material deforms uniformly and homogeneously without yield drop and plastic instability as commonly observed in PITs. An increase in the pre-yield dose results in an increase in the level of hardening over the whole test periods and a decrease in the uniform elongation suggesting that the materials 'remember' the impact of the pre-yield damage level. These features are modelled in terms of the decoration of dislocations with glissile dislocation loops. During pre-yield irradiation, dislocation decoration is due to the one-dimensional (1D) diffusion of cascade induced self-interstitial (SIA) clusters and their trapping in the stress field of the static grown-in dislocations. During post-yield irradiation and deformation, moving dislocations are decorated by the sweeping of matrix loops. The interaction of dislocations with loops and between loops is discussed as a function of the relevant parameters. On this basis, the kinetics of decoration is treated in terms of fluxes of loops to and reactions with each other in a conceived 2D space of decoration. In this space, loop coalescence, alignment and mutual blocking reactions are characterised by appropriate reaction cross sections. In the kinetic equations for 'dynamic decoration' under deformation, the evolution of the dislocation density is taken into account. Simple solutions of the kinetic equations are discussed. The apparent memory of the system for the pre-yield dose is identified as the result of simultaneous and closely parallel transient evolutions of the cascade damage and the dislocations up to the end of the IRTs. The contributions of dislocation decoration to yield and flow stresses are attributed to the interaction of dislocations with aligned loops temporarily or permanently immobilized

  5. Mechanisms operating during plastic deformation of metals under concurrent production of cascades and dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, B.N.

    2008-04-01

    Recent in-reactor tensile tests (IRTs) on pure copper have revealed a deformation behaviour which is significantly different from that observed in post-irradiation tensile tests (PITs). In IRTs, the material deforms uniformly and homogeneously without yield drop and plastic instability as commonly observed in PITs. An increase in the pre-yield dose results in an increase in the level of hardening over the whole test periods and a decrease in the uniform elongation suggesting that the materials 'remember' the impact of the pre-yield damage level. These features are modelled in terms of the decoration of dislocations with glissile dislocation loops. During pre-yield irradiation, dislocation decoration is due to the one-dimensional (1D) diffusion of cascade induced self-interstitial (SIA) clusters and their trapping in the stress field of the static grown-in dislocations. During post-yield irradiation and deformation, moving dislocations are decorated by the sweeping of matrix loops. The interaction of dislocations with loops and between loops is discussed as a function of the relevant parameters. On this basis, the kinetics of decoration is treated in terms of fluxes of loops to and reactions with each other in a conceived 2D space of decoration. In this space, loop coalescence, alignment and mutual blocking reactions are characterised by appropriate reaction cross sections. In the kinetic equations for 'dynamic decoration' under deformation, the evolution of the dislocation density is taken into account. Simple solutions of the kinetic equations are discussed. The apparent memory of the system for the pre-yield dose is identified as the result of simultaneous and closely parallel transient evolutions of the cascade damage and the dislocations up to the end of the IRTs. The contributions of dislocation decoration to yield and flow stresses are attributed to the interaction of dislocations with aligned loops temporarily or permanently immobilized by other loops or

  6. EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE BLACK PLASTIC MULCH ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS UNDER RAIN-FED CONDITIONS UNDER SEMI-ARID REGION CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Atif Y. Mahadeen

    2014-01-01

    Water use efficiency in agriculture can be enhanced by several strategies mainly by reducing evaporation from the soil surface. The mulching techniques were being used widely in irrigated crop production worldwide. The mulching techniques can be also implemented in summer vegetables production under rain-fed conditions. The current study aimed at evaluating the effect of polyethylene black plastic mulch on growth and yield of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus and summer squash, ...

  7. On the number of neurons and time scale of integration underlying the formation of percepts in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohrer, Adrien; Machens, Christian K

    2015-03-01

    All of our perceptual experiences arise from the activity of neural populations. Here we study the formation of such percepts under the assumption that they emerge from a linear readout, i.e., a weighted sum of the neurons' firing rates. We show that this assumption constrains the trial-to-trial covariance structure of neural activities and animal behavior. The predicted covariance structure depends on the readout parameters, and in particular on the temporal integration window w and typical number of neurons K used in the formation of the percept. Using these predictions, we show how to infer the readout parameters from joint measurements of a subject's behavior and neural activities. We consider three such scenarios: (1) recordings from the complete neural population, (2) recordings of neuronal sub-ensembles whose size exceeds K, and (3) recordings of neuronal sub-ensembles that are smaller than K. Using theoretical arguments and artificially generated data, we show that the first two scenarios allow us to recover the typical spatial and temporal scales of the readout. In the third scenario, we show that the readout parameters can only be recovered by making additional assumptions about the structure of the full population activity. Our work provides the first thorough interpretation of (feed-forward) percept formation from a population of sensory neurons. We discuss applications to experimental recordings in classic sensory decision-making tasks, which will hopefully provide new insights into the nature of perceptual integration.

  8. Nitric oxide signalling and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the heart under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin Hua

    2017-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an imperative regulator of the cardiovascular system and is a critical mechanism in preventing the pathogenesis and progression of the diseased heart. The scenario of bioavailable NO in the myocardium is complex: 1) NO is derived from both endogenous NO synthases (endothelial, neuronal, and/or inducible NOSs [eNOS, nNOS, and/or iNOS]) and exogenous sources (entero-salivary NO pathway) and the amount of NO from exogenous sources varies significantly; 2) NOSs are located at discrete compartments of cardiac myocytes and are regulated by distinctive mechanisms under stress; 3) NO regulates diverse target proteins through different modes of post-transcriptional modification (soluble guanylate cyclase [sGC]/cyclic guanosine monophosphate [cGMP]/protein kinase G [PKG]-dependent phosphorylation, S -nitrosylation, and transnitrosylation); 4) the downstream effectors of NO are multidimensional and vary from ion channels in the plasma membrane to signalling proteins and enzymes in the mitochondria, cytosol, nucleus, and myofilament; 5) NOS produces several radicals in addition to NO (e.g. superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, and different NO-related derivatives) and triggers redox-dependent responses. However, nNOS inhibits cardiac oxidases to reduce the sources of oxidative stress in diseased hearts. Recent consensus indicates the importance of nNOS protein in cardiac protection under pathological stress. In addition, a dietary regime with high nitrate intake from fruit and vegetables together with unsaturated fatty acids is strongly associated with reduced cardiovascular events. Collectively, NO-dependent mechanisms in healthy and diseased hearts are better understood and shed light on the therapeutic prospects for NO and NOSs in clinical applications for fatal human heart diseases.

  9. Experimental and numerical study of plastic shear instability under high-speed loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokovikov, Mikhail; Chudinov, Vasiliy; Bilalov, Dmitry; Oborin, Vladimir; Uvarov, Sergey; Plekhov, Oleg; Terekhina, Alena; Naimark, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of specimens dynamically loaded during the split Hopkinson (Kolsky) bar tests in a regime close to simple shear conditions was studied. The lateral surface of the specimens was investigated in a real-time mode with the aid of a high-speed infra-red camera CEDIP Silver 450M. The temperature field distribution obtained at different time made it possible to trace the evolution of plastic strain localization. The process of target perforation involving plug formation and ejection was examined using a high-speed infra-red camera and a VISAR velocity measurement system. The microstructure of tested specimens was analyzed using an optical interferometer-profilometer and a scanning electron microscope. The development of plastic shear instability regions has been simulated numerically

  10. Determination of plasticity and strength under long-term rupture of refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunin, I.I.

    1981-01-01

    A possibility to obtain the equations of temperature- strength dependence of high-heat characteristics on the basis of previously obtained mechanical equation of state is studied, taking account of the accumulation of creep plastic strain. The calculation method of the resource of the material safe work with an account of fracture resistance and deformability at long-term rupture is considered. The 03Kh16N9M2 type steel used in power engeneering industry is examined [ru

  11. Elastic-plastic-creep response of structures under composite time history of loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zudans, Z.

    1975-01-01

    High temperature nuclear reactor components are subject to a complex history of thermal and mechanical loading cycles. To evaluate the adequacy of such components, detailed information on the accumulated inelastic strains and strain cycling is required. This work derives the theory, develops efficient numerical techniques accounting for plasticity, creep and overall equilibrium, describes the overall structure of the resulting computer program, and demonstrates the capability of this analysis on a real structure. (Auth.)

  12. Elastic-plastic-creep response of structures under composite time history of loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zudans, Z.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to derive the theory, to develop efficient numerical techniques accounting for plasticity, creep and overall equilibrium, to describe the overall structure of the resulting computer program, and to demonstrate the capability of this analysis on a real structure. Classical plasticity theory is used to develop a novel method based on the concept of 'plastic stress' for consideration of inelastic behavior. It is shown that materials stres-strain curves can be followed to any desired degree of accuracy both for isotropic and kinematic hardening. It is further shown that for kinematic hardening it is necessary to base the incremental change on the state corresponding to the mean of the initial and the final states in order to satisfy the yield condition at the final state. The equation of state and strain hardening is used to describe the creep behavior. A novel numerical technique to describe a complex load history is developed by using time as a parameter, history breakpoint determination by scanning of various load vectors and by linear interpolation between any two breakpoints in the load history. The 'plastic stress' load vector concept is utilized with iteration and extrapolation to converge to the equilibrium states with simultaneous satisfaction of the stress-strain relations for each of the iterated states. The essential features of the computer program DYPLAS-FSH, based on the theory and techniques described above, and a postprocessor program POR-FSH, based on RDT F9-5T for ratcheting and fatigue evaluation, are identified and discussed. These computer programs are used to analyse the ellipsoidal pressure vessel head of the intermediate heat exchanger of EBR-II, penetrated by two closely spaced non-radial nozzles, subjected to four consecutive composite cycles of complex mechanical and thermal loads

  13. Numerical estimate of fracture parameters under elastic and elastic-plastic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soba, Alejandro; Denis, Alicia C.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the stress intensity factor K in the elastic fracture analysis is well known. In this work three methods are developed to estimate the parameter K I , corresponding to the normal loading mode, employing the finite elements method. The elastic-plastic condition is also analyzed, where the line integral J is the relevant parameter. Two cases of interest are studied: sample with a crack in its center and tubes with internal pressure. (author)

  14. Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Under a Loading Simulating Operation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Slovikov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of unidirectional composites based on basalt fibers and different marks of epoxy resins are presented. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out using a specimen fixation technique simulating the operation conditions of structures. The mechanical properties of the basalt-fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) were determined. The diagrams of loading and deformation of BFRP specimens were obtain. The formulations of the composites with the highest mechanical properties were revealed.

  15. Associative and sensorimotor learning for parenting involves mirror neurons under the influence of oxytocin

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, S. Shaun; MacDonald, Adam; Swain, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neuron–based associative learning may be understood according to associative learning theories, in addition to sensorimotor learning theories. This is important for a comprehensive understanding of the role of mirror neurons and related hormone modulators, such as oxytocin, in complex social interactions such as among parent–infant dyads and in examples of mirror neuron function that involve abnormal motor systems such as depression.

  16. Plasticity of parental care under the risk of predation: how much should parents reduce care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Predation can be an important agent of natural selection shaping parental care behaviours, and can also favour behavioural plasticity. Parent birds often decrease the rate that they visit the nest to provision offspring when perceived risk is high. Yet, the plasticity of such responses may differ among species as a function of either their relative risk of predation, or the mean rate of provisioning. Here, we report parental provisioning responses to experimental increases in the perceived risk of predation. We tested responses of 10 species of bird in north temperate Arizona and subtropical Argentina that differed in their ambient risk of predation. All species decreased provisioning rates in response to the nest predator but not to a control. However, provisioning rates decreased more in species that had greater ambient risk of predation on natural nests. These results support theoretical predictions that the extent of plasticity of a trait that is sensitive to nest predation risk should vary among species in accordance with predation risk.

  17. Developmental pathway genes and neural plasticity underlying emotional learning and stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Marissa E; Ressler, Kerry J

    2017-09-01

    The manipulation of neural plasticity as a means of intervening in the onset and progression of stress-related disorders retains its appeal for many researchers, despite our limited success in translating such interventions from the laboratory to the clinic. Given the challenges of identifying individual genetic variants that confer increased risk for illnesses like depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, some have turned their attention instead to focusing on so-called "master regulators" of plasticity that may provide a means of controlling these potentially impaired processes in psychiatric illnesses. The mammalian homolog of Tailless (TLX), Wnt, and the homeoprotein Otx2 have all been proposed to constitute master regulators of different forms of plasticity which have, in turn, each been implicated in learning and stress-related disorders. In the present review, we provide an overview of the changing distribution of these genes and their roles both during development and in the adult brain. We further discuss how their distinct expression profiles provide clues as to their function, and may inform their suitability as candidate drug targets in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. © 2017 Maheu and Ressler; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Feibiao; Liu, Shenquan

    2017-01-01

    Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L) model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI) and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  19. Response of Electrical Activity in an Improved Neuron Model under Electromagnetic Radiation and Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feibiao Zhan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical activities are ubiquitous neuronal bioelectric phenomena, which have many different modes to encode the expression of biological information, and constitute the whole process of signal propagation between neurons. Therefore, we focus on the electrical activities of neurons, which is also causing widespread concern among neuroscientists. In this paper, we mainly investigate the electrical activities of the Morris-Lecar (M-L model with electromagnetic radiation or Gaussian white noise, which can restore the authenticity of neurons in realistic neural network. First, we explore dynamical response of the whole system with electromagnetic induction (EMI and Gaussian white noise. We find that there are slight differences in the discharge behaviors via comparing the response of original system with that of improved system, and electromagnetic induction can transform bursting or spiking state to quiescent state and vice versa. Furthermore, we research bursting transition mode and the corresponding periodic solution mechanism for the isolated neuron model with electromagnetic induction by using one-parameter and bi-parameters bifurcation analysis. Finally, we analyze the effects of Gaussian white noise on the original system and coupled system, which is conducive to understand the actual discharge properties of realistic neurons.

  20. Analysis of temperature profiles and the mechanism of silicon substrate plastic deformation under epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkurbanov, H.A.; Sazhnev, S.V.; Timofeev, V.N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Thermal treatment of silicon wafers holds one of the major place in the manufacturing of semi-conductor devices. Thermal treatment includes wafer annealing, thermal oxidation, epitaxial growing etc. Quality of wafers in the high-temperature processes (900-1200 deg C) is estimated by the density of structural defects, including areas of plastic deformation, which are shown as the slip lines appearance. Such areas amount to 50-60 % of total wafer surface. The plastic deformation is caused by the thermal stresses. Experimental and theoretical researches allowed to determine thermal balance and to construct a temperature profiles throughout the plate surface. Thermal stresses are caused by temperature drop along the radius of a wafer and at the basic peripheral ring. The threshold temperature drop between center f a wafer and its peripherals (ΔT) for slip lines appearance, amounts to 15-17 deg. C. At the operating temperature of 900-1200 deg. C and ΔT>20 deg. C, the stresses reach the silicon yield point. According to the results of the researches of structure and stress profiles in a wafer, the mechanism of slip lines formation has been constructed. A source of dislocations is the rear broken layer of thickness 8-10 microns, formed after polishing. The micro-fissures with a density 10 5 -10 6 cm -2 are the sources of dislocations. Dislocations move on a surface of a wafer into a slip plane (111). On a wafer surface with orientation (111) it is possible to allocate zones where the tangential stress vector is most favorably directed with respect to a slip plane leaving on a surface, i.e. the shift stresses are maximal in the slip plane. The way to eliminate plastic deformation is to lower the temperature drop to a level of <15 deg. C and elimination of the broken layer in wafer

  1. Postnatal growth velocity modulates alterations of proteins involved in metabolism and neuronal plasticity in neonatal hypothalamus in rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile F; Bailly, Emilie; Moyon, Thomas L; Grit, Isabelle C; Coupé, Bérengère; Le Drean, Gwenola; Rogniaux, Hélène J; Parnet, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to maternal protein restriction is associated in rats with an alteration in hypothalamic centers involved in feeding behaviour. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of perinatal maternal undernutrition in the brain, we used proteomics approach to identify hypothalamic proteins that are altered in their expression following protein restriction in utero. We used an animal model in which restriction of the protein intake of pregnant rats (8% vs. 20%) produces IUGR pups which were randomized to a nursing regimen leading to either rapid or slow catch-up growth. We identified several proteins which allowed, by multivariate analysis, a very good discrimination of the three groups according to their perinatal nutrition. These proteins were related to energy-sensing pathways (Eno 1, E(2)PDH, Acot 1 and Fabp5), redox status (Bcs 1L, PrdX3 and 14-3-3 protein) or amino acid pathway (Acy1) as well as neurodevelopment (DRPs, MAP2, Snca). In addition, the differential expressions of several key proteins suggested possible shunts towards ketone-body metabolism and lipid oxidation, providing the energy and carbon skeletons necessary to lipogenesis. Our results show that maternal protein deprivation during pregnancy only (IUGR with rapid catch-up growth) or pregnancy and lactation (IUGR with slow postnatal growth) modulates numerous metabolic pathways resulting in alterations of hypothalamic energy supply. As several of these pathways are involved in signalling, it remains to be determined whether hypothalamic proteome adaptation of IUGR rats in response to different postnatal growth rates could also interfere with cerebral plasticity or neuronal maturation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transformations of N from the fertilizer applied to dark plastic soil under flooding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachataignerais B, E.; Aguilera, R.M.; Romero, R.M.; Sosa, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of flooding in dark plastic soil on the dynamics of amonification, nitrification of the contents of organic nitrogen, of the volatilization of the ammonia and other losses of nitrogen applied as enriched urea at 10 at of 15N , by means of laboratory experiments, using isotopic techniques have been studied. It has been observed that the interchangeable nitrogen from the fertilizer reached approximately a 75% of the one applied a week later, thus diminishing quickly up to values below the 20% seven weeks later

  3. Cyclic plastic material behavior leading to crack initiation in stainless steel under complex fatigue loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facheris, G.

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of the reliability and of the safety in the design of components belonging to the primary cooling circuit of a light water nuclear reactor is nowadays one of the most important research topics in nuclear industry. One of the most important damage mechanisms leading the crack initiation in this class of components is the low cycle fatigue (LCF) driven by thermal strain fluctuations caused by the complex thermo-mechanical loading conditions typical for the primary circuit (e.g. operating thermal transients, thermal stratification, turbulent mixing of cold and hot water flows, etc.). The cyclic application of the resulting plastic deformation to the steel grades commonly used for the fabrication of piping parts (e.g. austenitic stainless steels) is associated with a continuous evolution of the mechanical response of the material. As an additional complication, the cyclic behavior of stainless steels is influenced by temperature, strain amplitude and cyclic accumulation of inelastic strain (i.e. ratcheting). The accurate prediction of the structural response of components belonging to the primary cooling circuit requires the development of a reliable constitutive model that must be characterized by a reduced complexity to allow its application in an industrial context. In this framework, the main goal of the current dissertation is to formulate, calibrate and implement in a commercial Finite Element code, a constitutive model that is suitable for the stainless stain grade 316L subjected to complex loading conditions. As a first task, a characterization of the mechanical behavior of 316L subjected to uniaxial and multiaxial strain-controlled conditions (including LCF and ratcheting) is carried out performing several tests in the laboratories of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) and of Politecnico di Milano (Italy). The uniaxial experiments demonstrate that, prescribing a strain-controlled ratcheting path, a harder material response

  4. Cyclic plastic material behavior leading to crack initiation in stainless steel under complex fatigue loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facheris, G.

    2014-07-01

    The improvement of the reliability and of the safety in the design of components belonging to the primary cooling circuit of a light water nuclear reactor is nowadays one of the most important research topics in nuclear industry. One of the most important damage mechanisms leading the crack initiation in this class of components is the low cycle fatigue (LCF) driven by thermal strain fluctuations caused by the complex thermo-mechanical loading conditions typical for the primary circuit (e.g. operating thermal transients, thermal stratification, turbulent mixing of cold and hot water flows, etc.). The cyclic application of the resulting plastic deformation to the steel grades commonly used for the fabrication of piping parts (e.g. austenitic stainless steels) is associated with a continuous evolution of the mechanical response of the material. As an additional complication, the cyclic behavior of stainless steels is influenced by temperature, strain amplitude and cyclic accumulation of inelastic strain (i.e. ratcheting). The accurate prediction of the structural response of components belonging to the primary cooling circuit requires the development of a reliable constitutive model that must be characterized by a reduced complexity to allow its application in an industrial context. In this framework, the main goal of the current dissertation is to formulate, calibrate and implement in a commercial Finite Element code, a constitutive model that is suitable for the stainless stain grade 316L subjected to complex loading conditions. As a first task, a characterization of the mechanical behavior of 316L subjected to uniaxial and multiaxial strain-controlled conditions (including LCF and ratcheting) is carried out performing several tests in the laboratories of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) and of Politecnico di Milano (Italy). The uniaxial experiments demonstrate that, prescribing a strain-controlled ratcheting path, a harder material response

  5. Mechanisms underlying odorant-induced and spontaneous calcium signals in olfactory receptor neurons of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tizeta; Derby, Charles D; Schmidt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We determined if a newly developed antennule slice preparation allows studying chemosensory properties of spiny lobster olfactory receptor neurons under in situ conditions with Ca(2+) imaging. We show that chemical stimuli reach the dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons but not their somata, and that odorant-induced Ca(2+) signals in the somata are sufficiently stable over time to allow stimulation with a substantial number of odorants. Pharmacological manipulations served to elucidate the source of odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons. Both Ca(2+) signals are primarily mediated by an influx of extracellular Ca(2+) through voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels that can be blocked by CoCl2 and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil. Intracellular Ca(2+) stores contribute little to odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations. The odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients as well as the spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations depend on action potentials mediated by Na(+) channels that are largely TTX-insensitive but blocked by the local anesthetics tetracaine and lidocaine. Collectively, these results corroborate the conclusion that odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons closely reflect action potential activity associated with odorant-induced phasic-tonic responses and spontaneous bursting, respectively. Therefore, both types of Ca(2+) signals represent experimentally accessible proxies of spiking.

  6. Dislocation-Disclination Substructures Formed in FCC Polycrystals Under Large Plastic Deformations: Evolution and Association with Flow Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, É. V.; Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of dislocation substructures formed in polycrystalline Cu-Al and Cu-Mn alloys undergoing large plastic deformations is studied, using transmission electron microscopy. Microband and fragmented substructures are examined. The Al and Mn alloying element concentrations for which the substructures are formed have been found. The mechanisms involved in the formation of the substructures during the substructural evolution in the alloys subjected to deformation have been revealed. Parameters describing the substructures under study have been measured. The dependence of the parameters on the flow stress has been established.

  7. Nitrogen utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and eventually to identify the best N fertilizer rate greenhouse experiments were conducted for two years. Yazgi F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be the suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. Five N treatments [N 0 =0, N 1 =150, N 2 =300, and N 3 =450 kg/ha; also, soil N application treatment (N soil ) equivalent to the fertigation treatment of 300 kg/ha was included for tomato and pepper, however N rates for cucumber was 131, 266 and 339 kg N/ha; N soil being 266 kg N/ha] were investigated using 15 N labeled urea fertilizer. Significantly higher marketable fresh fruit and total dry matter yields and N uptakes values were obtained from N 3 treatments for tomato and cucumber, but from N 2 treatment for pepper. Also, significantly higher yields, N uptakes and % NUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. (author)

  8. Experiment-based modelling of hardening and localized plasticity in metals irradiated under cascade damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Trinkaus, H.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the available experimental observations shows that the occurrence of a sudden yield drop and the associated plastic flow localization are the major concerns regarding the performance and lifetime of materials exposed to fission or fusion neutrons. In the light of the known mechanical properties and microstructures of the as-irradiated and irradiated and deformed materials, it has been argued that the increase in the upper yield stress, the sudden yield drop and the initiation of plastic flow localization, can be rationalized in terms of the cascade induced source hardening (CISH) model. Various aspects of the model (main assumptions and predictions) have been investigated using analytical calculations, 3-D dislocation dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations. The main results and conclusions are briefly summarized. Finally, it is pointed out that even though the formation of cleared channels may be rationalized in terms of climb-controlled glide of the source dislocation, a number of problems regarding the initiation and the evolution of these channels remain unsolved

  9. Experiment-based modelling of hardening and localized plasticity in metals irradiated under cascade damage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N. E-mail: bachu.singh@risoe.dk; Ghoniem, N.M.; Trinkaus, H

    2002-12-01

    The analysis of the available experimental observations shows that the occurrence of a sudden yield drop and the associated plastic flow localization are the major concerns regarding the performance and lifetime of materials exposed to fission or fusion neutrons. In the light of the known mechanical properties and microstructures of the as-irradiated and irradiated and deformed materials, it has been argued that the increase in the upper yield stress, the sudden yield drop and the initiation of plastic flow localization, can be rationalized in terms of the cascade induced source hardening (CISH) model. Various aspects of the model (main assumptions and predictions) have been investigated using analytical calculations, 3-D dislocation dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations. The main results and conclusions are briefly summarized. Finally, it is pointed out that even though the formation of cleared channels may be rationalized in terms of climb-controlled glide of the source dislocation, a number of problems regarding the initiation and the evolution of these channels remain unsolved.

  10. Elastic-Plastic Behavior of U6Nb Under Ramp Wave Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, D. B.; Hall, C.; Hixson, R. S.

    2005-07-01

    Prior shock experiments on the alloy uranium-niobium-6 wt.% (U6Nb) were absent an elastic precursor when one was expected (A. K. Zurek, et. al., Journal de Physique IV, 10 (#9) p677-682). This was later explained as a consequence of shear stress relaxation from time-dependent twinning that prevented sufficient shear stress for plastic yielding. (D. B. Hayes, et. al., Shock Compression of Condensed Matter-2003, p1177, American Institute of Physics 2004) Pressure was ramped to 13 GPa in 150-ns on eight U6Nb specimens with thicknesses from 0.5 -- 1.1-mm and the back surface velocities were measured with laser interferometry. This pressure load produces a stress wave with sufficiently fast rise time so that, according to the prior work, twins do not have time to form. Four of the U6Nb specimens had been cold-rolled which increased the yield stress. Each velocity history was analyzed with a backward integration analysis to give the stress-strain response of the U6Nb. Comparison of these results with prior Hugoniot measurements shows that the U6Nb in the present experiments responds as an elastic-plastic material and the deduced yield strength of the baseline and of the cold-rolled material agree with static results.

  11. Elastic-Plastic Behavior of U6Nb under Ramp Wave Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D. B.; Gray, G. T. III; Hixson, R. S.; Hall, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    When uranium-niobium (6 wt.%) alloy is shock loaded, the expected elastic precursor is absent. A prior model attributed this absence to shear-induced twinning and the concomitant shear stress reduction that prevented the shocked material from reaching the plastic yield point. In the present study, carefully prepared U6Nb was subjected to shock loading to verify the adequacy of the prior model. Other samples were loaded with a ramp pressure pulse with strain rate large enough so that significant twinning would not occur during the experiment. Backward integration analyses of these latter experiments' back surface motion give stress-strain loading paths in U6Nb that suggest ordinary elastic-plastic flow. Some of the U6Nb was pre-strained by cold rolling in an effort to further ensure that twinning did not affect wave propagation. Shock and ramp loadings yielded similar results to the baseline material except, as expected, they are consistent with a higher yield stress and twinning shear stress threshold

  12. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertilization system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm soil depth

  13. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertiligation system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm

  14. Neuronal Activity in the Subthalamic Cerebrovasodilator Area under Partial-Gravity Conditions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeredo L Zeredo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reduced-gravity environment in space is known to cause an upward shift in body fluids and thus require cardiovascular adaptations in astronauts. In this study, we recorded in rats the neuronal activity in the subthalamic cerebrovasodilator area (SVA, a key area that controls cerebral blood flow (CBF, in response to partial gravity. “Partial gravity” is the term that defines the reduced-gravity levels between 1 g (the unit gravity acceleration on Earth and 0 g (complete weightlessness in space. Neuronal activity was recorded telemetrically through chronically implanted microelectrodes in freely moving rats. Graded levels of partial gravity from 0.4 g to 0.01 g were generated by customized parabolic-flight maneuvers. Electrophysiological signals in each partial-gravity phase were compared to those of the preceding 1 g level-flight. As a result, SVA neuronal activity was significantly inhibited by the partial-gravity levels of 0.15 g and lower, but not by 0.2 g and higher. Gravity levels between 0.2–0.15 g could represent a critical threshold for the inhibition of neurons in the rat SVA. The lunar gravity (0.16 g might thus trigger neurogenic mechanisms of CBF control. This is the first study to examine brain electrophysiology with partial gravity as an experimental parameter.

  15. Optimal decoding and information transmission in Hodgkin–Huxley neurons under metabolic cost constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Lubomír; Kobayashi, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 136, Oct 2015 (2015), s. 3-10 ISSN 0303-2647 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : neuronal coding * information transfer * optimal decoding Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2015

  16. Mechanisms operating during plastic deformation of metals under concurrent production of cascades and dislocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, Bachu Narain

    Recent in-reactor tensile tests (IRTs) on pure copper have revealed a deformation behaviour which is significantly different from that observed in post-irradiation tensile tests (PITs). In IRTs, the material deforms uniformly and homogeneously without yield drop and plastic instability as commonly...... observed in PITs. An increase in the pre-yield dose results in an increase in the level of hardening over the whole test periods and a decrease in the uniform elongation suggesting that the materials “remember” the impact of the pre-yield damage level. These features are modelled in terms of the decoration...... and deformation, moving dislocations are decorated by the sweeping of matrix loops. The interaction of dislocations with loops and between loops is discussed as a function of the relevant parameters. On this basis, the kinetics of decoration is treated in terms of fluxes of loops to and reactions with each other...

  17. Elasto/visco-plastic deformation of moderately thick shells of revolution under thermal loading due to fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezono, S.; Tao, K.; Aoki, T.; Inamura, E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an analytical formulation and a numerical solution of the thermo-elasto/visco-plastic deformation of general, moderately thick shells of revolution subjected to thermal loads due to fluid. At first the temperature distribution through the thickness is supposed to be curves of second order, and the temperature field in the shell under the appropriate initial and boundary conditions is determined by using the equations of heat conduction and heat transfer. Secondly the stresses and deformations are derived from the thermal stress equations. The equations of equilibrium and the relations between the strains and displacements are developed by extending the Reissner-Naghdi theory for elastic shells. For the constitutive relations, the Perzyna elasto/visco-plastic equations including the temperature effect are employed. The fundamental equations derived are numerically solved by the finite difference method. As a numerical example, the simply supported cylindrical shell made of mild steel under thermal loading due to fluid is analyzed, and the results are compared with those from classical theory which neglects the effect of shear deformations. (author)

  18. CNS development under altered gravity: cerebellar glial and neuronal protein expression in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Li, G.-H.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    The future of space exploration depends on a solid understanding of the developmental process under microgravity, specifically in relation to the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously employed a hypergravity paradigm to assess the impact of altered gravity on the developing rat cerebellum [Exp. Biol. Med. 226 (2000) 790]. The present study addresses the molecular mechanisms involved in the cerebellar response to hypergravity. Specifically, the study focuses on the expression of selected glial and neuronal cerebellar proteins in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity (1.5 G) from embryonic day (E)11 to postnatal day (P)6 or P9 (the time of maximal cerebellar changes) comparing them against their expression in rat neonates developing under normal gravity. Proteins were analyzed by quantitative Western blots of cerebellar homogenates; RNA analysis was performed in the same samples using quantitative PCR. Densitometric analysis of Western blots suggested a reduction in glial (glial acidic protein, GFAP) and neuronal (neuronal cell adhesion moiecule, NCAM-L1, synaptophysin) proteins, but the changes in individual cerebellar proteins in hypergravity-exposed neonates appeared both age- and gender-specific. RNA analysis suggested a reduction in GFAP and synaptophysin mRNAs on P6. These data suggest that exposure to hypergravity may interfere with the expression of selected cerebellar proteins. These changes in protein expression may be involved in mediating the effect of hypergravity on the developing rat cerebellum.

  19. Subcritical Hopf Bifurcation and Stochastic Resonance of Electrical Activities in Neuron under Electromagnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xuan Fu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The FitzHugh–Nagumo model is improved to consider the effect of the electromagnetic induction on single neuron. On the basis of investigating the Hopf bifurcation behavior of the improved model, stochastic resonance in the stochastic version is captured near the bifurcation point. It is revealed that a weak harmonic oscillation in the electromagnetic disturbance can be amplified through stochastic resonance, and it is the cooperative effect of random transition between the resting state and the large amplitude oscillating state that results in the resonant phenomenon. Using the noise dependence of the mean of interburst intervals, we essentially suggest a biologically feasible clue for detecting weak signal by means of neuron model with subcritical Hopf bifurcation. These observations should be helpful in understanding the influence of the magnetic field to neural electrical activity.

  20. Oligo cyclic plastic fatigue of Zircaloy-4 under vacuum and in iodinated methanol; Fatigue plastique oligocyclique du Zircaloy-4 sous vide et dans le methanol iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beloucif, A.

    1995-01-01

    Our study was bound to the Zircaloy-4 fuel can damage in PWR type reactors. The topic was the damage mechanisms of Zircaloy-4 by oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue in inert atmosphere and in iodinated methanol. The oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue tests, under vacuum, were performed with steady plastic deformation and deformation speed. The corrosion fatigue tests in iodinated methanol put to the fore one obvious harmful part of iodine on Zircaloy-4 resistance to cyclic solicitations. The observations proved the existence of a very strong synergic effect between cyclic mechanical damage and corrosion. (MML). 84 refs., 117 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Mechanisms of strain accommodation in plastically-deformed zircon under simple shear deformation conditions during amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs; Wheeler, John; Habler, Gerlinde

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the strain accommodation mechanisms in zircon under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions in simple shear. Microstructural data from undeformed, fractured and crystal-plastically deformed zircon crystals are described in the context of the host shear zone, and evaluated in the light of zircon elastic anisotropy. Our work challenges the existing model of zircon evolution and shows previously undescribed rheological characteristics for this important accessory mineral. Crystal-plastically deformed zircon grains have axis oriented parallel to the foliation plane, with the majority of deformed grains having axis parallel to the lineation. Zircon accommodates strain by a network of stepped low-angle boundaries, formed by switching between tilt dislocations with the slip systems {010} and {110} and rotation axis [001], twist dislocations with the rotation axis [001], and tilt dislocations with the slip system {001} and rotation axis [010]. The slip system {110} is newly described for zircon. Most misorientation axes in plastically-deformed zircon grains are parallel to the XY plane of the sample and have [001] crystallographic direction. Such behaviour of strained zircon lattice is caused by elastic anisotropy that has a direct geometric control on the rheology, deformation mechanisms and dominant slip systems in zircon. Young's modulus and P wave velocity have highest values parallel to zircon [001] axis, indicating that zircon is elastically strong along this direction. Poisson ratio and Shear modulus demonstrate that zircon is also most resistant to shearing along [001]. Thus, [001] axis is the most common rotation axis in zircon. The described zircon behaviour is important to take into account during structural and geochronological investigations of (poly)metamorphic terrains. Geometry of dislocations in zircon may help reconstructing the geometry of the host shear zone(s), large-scale stresses in the crust, and, possibly, the timing of

  2. Prediction of plastic deformation under contact condition by quasi-static and dynamic simulations using explicit finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siswanto, W. A.; Nagentrau, M.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd; Tamin, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the quasi-static and dynamic simulation responses on elastic-plastic deformation of advanced alloys using Finite element (FE) method with an explicit numerical algorithm. A geometrical model consisting of a cylinder-on-flat surface contact under a normal load and sliding motion was examined. Two aeroengine materials, Ti-6Al-4V and Super CMV (Cr-Mo-V) alloy, were employed in the FE analysis. The FE model was validated by comparative magnitudes of the FE-predicted maximum contact pressure variation along the contact half-width length with the theoretical Hertzian contact solution. Results show that the (compressive) displacement of the initial contact surface steadily increases for the quasi-static load case, but accumulates at an increasing rate to the maximum level for the dynamic loading. However, the relatively higher stiffness and yield strength of the Super CMV alloy resulted in limited deformation and low plastic strain when compared to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The accumulated equivalent plastic strain of the material point at the initial contact position was nearly a thousand times higher for the dynamic load case (for example, 6.592 for Ti-6Al-4V, 1.0 kN) when compared to the quasi-static loading (only 0.0072). During the loading step, the von Mises stress increased with a decreasing and increasing rate for the quasi-static and dynamic load case, respectively. A sudden increase in the stress magnitude to the respective peak value was registered due to the additional constraint to overcome the static friction of the mating surfaces during the sliding step

  3. Prediction of plastic deformation under contact condition by quasi-static and dynamic simulations using explicit finite element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siswanto, W. A.; Nagentrau, M.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Tamin, M. N. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2016-11-15

    We compared the quasi-static and dynamic simulation responses on elastic-plastic deformation of advanced alloys using Finite element (FE) method with an explicit numerical algorithm. A geometrical model consisting of a cylinder-on-flat surface contact under a normal load and sliding motion was examined. Two aeroengine materials, Ti-6Al-4V and Super CMV (Cr-Mo-V) alloy, were employed in the FE analysis. The FE model was validated by comparative magnitudes of the FE-predicted maximum contact pressure variation along the contact half-width length with the theoretical Hertzian contact solution. Results show that the (compressive) displacement of the initial contact surface steadily increases for the quasi-static load case, but accumulates at an increasing rate to the maximum level for the dynamic loading. However, the relatively higher stiffness and yield strength of the Super CMV alloy resulted in limited deformation and low plastic strain when compared to the Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The accumulated equivalent plastic strain of the material point at the initial contact position was nearly a thousand times higher for the dynamic load case (for example, 6.592 for Ti-6Al-4V, 1.0 kN) when compared to the quasi-static loading (only 0.0072). During the loading step, the von Mises stress increased with a decreasing and increasing rate for the quasi-static and dynamic load case, respectively. A sudden increase in the stress magnitude to the respective peak value was registered due to the additional constraint to overcome the static friction of the mating surfaces during the sliding step.

  4. [Pulse flows of populations of cortical neurons under low-intensity pulsed microwave: interspike intervals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhenkova, R A

    2014-01-01

    Pulse flows of populations of cortical neurons were investigated on unanesthetized nonimmobilized rabbits prior, during, and after 1-min microwave irradiation (wavelength 37.5 cm, power density 0.5-1.0 mW/cm2) in continuous and pulse-modulated modes with a frequency of 5, 20 and 100 Hz. The changes in the characteristics of interspike intervals resulted from these exposures. The peculiarity of rearrangements of pulse flows and their dynamics was determined by modes of irradiation.

  5. Lévy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Xu, Yong; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    As the fluctuations of the internal bioelectricity of nervous system is various and complex, the external electromagnetic radiation induced by magnet flux on membrane can be described by the non-Gaussian type distribution of Lévy noise. Thus, the electrical activities in an improved Hindmarsh-Rose model excited by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise are investigated and some interesting modes of the electrical activities are exhibited. The external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise leads to the mode transition of the electrical activities and spatial phase, such as from the rest state to the firing state, from the spiking state to the spiking state with more spikes, and from the spiking state to the bursting state. Then the time points of the firing state versus Lévy noise intensity are depicted. The increasing of Lévy noise intensity heightens the neuron firing. Also the stationary probability distribution functions of the membrane potential of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise with different intensity, stability index and skewness papremeters are analyzed. Moreover, through the positive largest Lyapunov exponent, the parameter regions of chaotic electrical mode of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise distribution are detected.

  6. Lévy noise improves the electrical activity in a neuron under electromagnetic radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    Full Text Available As the fluctuations of the internal bioelectricity of nervous system is various and complex, the external electromagnetic radiation induced by magnet flux on membrane can be described by the non-Gaussian type distribution of Lévy noise. Thus, the electrical activities in an improved Hindmarsh-Rose model excited by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise are investigated and some interesting modes of the electrical activities are exhibited. The external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise leads to the mode transition of the electrical activities and spatial phase, such as from the rest state to the firing state, from the spiking state to the spiking state with more spikes, and from the spiking state to the bursting state. Then the time points of the firing state versus Lévy noise intensity are depicted. The increasing of Lévy noise intensity heightens the neuron firing. Also the stationary probability distribution functions of the membrane potential of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise with different intensity, stability index and skewness papremeters are analyzed. Moreover, through the positive largest Lyapunov exponent, the parameter regions of chaotic electrical mode of the neuron induced by the external electromagnetic radiation of Lévy noise distribution are detected.

  7. Exendin-4 improved rat cortical neuron survival under oxygen/glucose deprivation through PKA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M-D; Huang, Y; Zhang, G-P; Mao, L; Xia, Y-P; Mei, Y-W; Hu, B

    2012-12-13

    Previous studies demonstrated that exendin-4 (Ex-4) may possess neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions in ischemia insults, but its mechanism remained unknown. Here, by using real-time PCR and ELISA, we identified the distribution of active GLP-1Rs in the rat primary cortical neurons. After establishment of an in vitro ischemia model by oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), neurons were treated with various dosages of Ex-4. The MTT assay showed that the relative survival rate increased with the dosage of Ex-4 ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 μg/ml (Pglucose-regulated proteins 78 (GRP78) and reduced C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP). Western blot analysis demonstrated that, after neurons were treated with Ex-4, GRP78 was up-regulated over time (Pneurons, down-regulated the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and up-regulated the Bax expression 3h after ODG (Pneurons against OGD by modulating the unfolded protein response (UPR) through the PKA pathway and may serve as a novel therapeutic agent for stroke. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The computational power of astrocyte mediated synaptic plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier eMin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in the last two decades has made clear that astrocytes play a crucial role in the brain beyond their functions in energy metabolism and homeostasis. Many studies have shown that astrocytes can dynamically modulate neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and might participate in higher brain functions like learning and memory. With the plethora of astrocyte-mediated signaling processes described in the literature today, the current challenge is to identify which of these processes happen under what physiological condition, and how this shapes information processing and, ultimately, behavior. To answer these questions will require a combination of advanced physiological, genetical and behavioral experiments. Additionally, mathematical modeling will prove crucial for testing predictions on the possible functions of astrocytes in neuronal networks, and to generate novel ideas as to how astrocytes can contribute to the complexity of the brain. Here, we aim to provide an outline of how astrocytes can interact with neurons. We do this by reviewing recent experimental literature on astrocyte-neuron interactions, discussing the dynamic effects of astrocytes on neuronal excitability and short- and long-term synaptic plasticity. Finally, we will outline the potential computational functions that astrocyte-neuron interactions can serve in the brain. We will discuss how astrocytes could govern metaplasticity in the brain, how they might organize the clustering of synaptic inputs, and how they could function as memory elements for neuronal activity. We conclude that astrocytes can enhance the computational power of neuronal networks in previously unexpected ways.

  9. Hygienic effects and gas production of plastic bio-digesters under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen-Phi, Vo Thi; Clemens, Joachim; Rechenburg, Andrea; Vinneras, Björn; Lenssen, Christina; Kistemann, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Plastic plug-flow bio-digesters have been promoted as a good option for improved treatment of manure and wastewater in developing countries although minimal information has been published on their hygienic status. This bench-scale study replicates bio-digester conditions to evaluate the reduction of pathogen and indicator microorganisms at three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) in the anaerobic treatment of pig manures at 30 degrees C for 50 days. Results showed that physicochemical values differed between HRTs. Gas production efficiency was better for longer HRTS. The accumulated sludge at the reactor's base increased with longer HRT. Phages and bacteria examined were reduced, but none was completely eliminated. Log10 reduction of bacteria ranged from 0.54 to 2.47. Phages ranged from 1.60 to 3.42. The reduction of organisms at HRT = 30 days was about one log10 unit higher than HRT = 15 days and about two log10 units higher than HRT = 3 days. The results indicate that the reduction of tested organisms increases with HRT. However the hygienic quality of the liquid effluent does not meet required quality values for surface and irrigation water. Longer HRTs are recommended to increase gas yield and achieve higher pathogen reduction. More barriers should be applied while handling bio-digester outputs to minimise risks to environmental and human health.

  10. Proteomic plasticity of two Eucalyptus genotypes under contrasted water regimes in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedon, Frank; Villar, Emilie; Vincent, Delphine; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Mabialangoma, André; Chaumeil, Philippe; Barré, Aurélien; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2012-04-01

    Water deficit affects tree growth and limits wood production. In an attempt to identify the molecular triggers of adaptation mechanisms to water deficit in Eucalyptus, we investigated protein expression patterns of two ecophysiologically contrasted Eucalyptus genotypes. They were grown in the field in either natural conditions or irrigated for 7 weeks during the dry season in the Republic of Congo. At the phenotypic level, genotype (G), treatment (T) and/or G × T interaction effects were observed for above- and below-ground biomass-related traits. At the molecular level, changes in protein abundance were recorded in leaves (acidic pH 4-7, and basic pH 7-11, proteomes) and stems (acidic proteome) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). One third of the detected protein spots displayed significant G, T and/or G × T effects, and 158 of them were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Thus, several proteins whose molecular plasticity was genetically controlled (i.e. G × T effect) were revealed, highlighting adaptive mechanisms to water deficit specific to each genotype, namely cell wall modification, cell detoxification and osmoregulation. Transcript abundances corresponding to G × T proteins were also investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. These proteins represent relevant targets to improve drought resistance in this ecologically and economically important forest tree genus. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Plastic deformation behavior of Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb–Cr bulk metallic glasses under nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.T.; Hong, S.H.; Lee, C.H.; Park, J.M.; Kim, T.W.; Lee, W.H.; Yim, H.I.; Kim, K.B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Additional Cr modulation of atomic structure of Fe-Co-B-Si-Nb BMGs. • An amount of free volume characterized by a combination of nanoindentation and AFM. • Free volume determined by height measurement of AFM after nanoindentation. -- Abstract: In this work, we investigate the effect of Cr addition on thermal properties and indentation behavior of Fe 52 Co 20−x B 20 Si 4 Nb 4 Cr x alloys with x = 0, 1, 3 and 5 at.%, respectively. Among all studied alloys, the Fe 52 Co 17 B 20 Si 4 Nb 4 Cr 3 bulk metallic glass (BMG) exhibits the highest thermal stability with large supercooled liquid region of 40 K and the pronounced plastic deformation features which is serrated flow (pop-in event) and significant pile-up of materials around indents. This demonstrates that the appropriate addition of Cr in Fe-based BMG can induce the internal atomic structure modulation and promote the mechanical softening, which are discussed in terms of free volume concept

  12. Plastic deformation behavior of Fe–Co–B–Si–Nb–Cr bulk metallic glasses under nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.T.; Hong, S.H.; Lee, C.H. [HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.M., E-mail: jinman_park@hotmail.com [Materials Research Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), San 14-1, Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.W.; Lee, W.H. [HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, H.I. [Department of Physics, Sookmyung Women’s University, Hyochangwongil 52, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.B., E-mail: kbkim@sejong.ac.kr [HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • Additional Cr modulation of atomic structure of Fe-Co-B-Si-Nb BMGs. • An amount of free volume characterized by a combination of nanoindentation and AFM. • Free volume determined by height measurement of AFM after nanoindentation. -- Abstract: In this work, we investigate the effect of Cr addition on thermal properties and indentation behavior of Fe{sub 52}Co{sub 20−x}B{sub 20}Si{sub 4}Nb{sub 4}Cr{sub x} alloys with x = 0, 1, 3 and 5 at.%, respectively. Among all studied alloys, the Fe{sub 52}Co{sub 17}B{sub 20}Si{sub 4}Nb{sub 4}Cr{sub 3} bulk metallic glass (BMG) exhibits the highest thermal stability with large supercooled liquid region of 40 K and the pronounced plastic deformation features which is serrated flow (pop-in event) and significant pile-up of materials around indents. This demonstrates that the appropriate addition of Cr in Fe-based BMG can induce the internal atomic structure modulation and promote the mechanical softening, which are discussed in terms of free volume concept.

  13. Plastic collapse and energy absorption of circular filled tubes under quasi-static loads by computational analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beng, Yeo Kiam; Tzeng, Woo Wen [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2017-02-15

    This study presents the finite element analysis of plastic collapse and energy absorption of polyurethane-filled aluminium circular tubes under quasi-static transverse loading. Increasing focuses were given to impact damage of structures where energy absorbed during impact could be controlled to avoid total structure collapse of energy absorbers and devices designed to dissipate energy. ABAQUS finite element analysis application was utilized for modelling and simulating the polyurethane-filled aluminium tubes, different set of diameterto- thickness ratios and span lengths, subjected to transverse three-point-bending load. Different sets of polyurethane-filled aluminium tubes subjected to the transverse loading were modelled and simulated. The failure modes and mechanisms of filled tubes and its capabilities as energy absorbers to further improve and strengthening of empty tube were also identified. The results showed that plastic deformation response was affected by the geometric constraints and parameters of the specimens. The diameter-to-thickness ratio and span lengths had shown to play crucial role in optimizing the PU-filled tube as energy absorber.

  14. Mechanism Governing Human Kappa-Opioid Receptor Expression under Desferrioxamine-Induced Hypoxic Mimic Condition in Neuronal NMB Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Babcock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular adaptation to hypoxia is a protective mechanism for neurons and relevant to cancer. Treatment with desferrioxamine (DFO to induce hypoxia reduced the viability of human neuronal NMB cells. Surviving/attached cells exhibited profound increases of expression of the human kappa-opioid receptor (hKOR and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α. The functional relationship between hKOR and HIF-1α was investigated using RT-PCR, Western blot, luciferase reporter, mutagenesis, siRNA and receptor-ligand binding assays. In surviving neurons, DFO increased HIF-1α expression and its amount in the nucleus. DFO also dramatically increased hKOR expression. Two (designated as HIFC and D out of four potential HIF response elements of the hKOR gene (HIFA–D synergistically mediated the DFO response. Mutation of both elements completely abolished the DFO-induced effect. The CD11 plasmid (containing HIFC and D with an 11 bp spacing produced greater augmentation than that of the CD17 plasmid (HIFC and D with a 17 bp-spacing, suggesting that a proper topological interaction of these elements synergistically enhanced the promoter activity. HIF-1α siRNA knocked down the increase of endogenous HIF-1α messages and diminished the DFO-induced increase of hKOR expression. Increased hKOR expression resulted in the up-regulation of hKOR protein. In conclusion, the adaptation of neuronal hKOR under hypoxia was governed by HIF-1, revealing a new mechanism of hKOR regulation.

  15. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  16. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein and Dendritic Local Translation of the Alpha Subunit of the Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase II Messenger RNA Are Required for the Structural Plasticity Underlying Olfactory Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroles, Laura; Gribaudo, Simona; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Scotto-Lomassese, Sophie; Dubacq, Caroline; Mandairon, Nathalie; Greer, Charles August; Didier, Anne; Trembleau, Alain; Caillé, Isabelle

    2016-07-15

    In the adult brain, structural plasticity allowing gain or loss of synapses remodels circuits to support learning. In fragile X syndrome, the absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) leads to defects in plasticity and learning deficits. FMRP is a master regulator of local translation but its implication in learning-induced structural plasticity is unknown. Using an olfactory learning task requiring adult-born olfactory bulb neurons and cell-specific ablation of FMRP, we investigated whether learning shapes adult-born neuron morphology during their synaptic integration and its dependence on FMRP. We used alpha subunit of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (αCaMKII) mutant mice with altered dendritic localization of αCaMKII messenger RNA, as well as a reporter of αCaMKII local translation to investigate the role of this FMRP messenger RNA target in learning-dependent structural plasticity. Learning induces profound changes in dendritic architecture and spine morphology of adult-born neurons that are prevented by ablation of FMRP in adult-born neurons and rescued by an metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist. Moreover, dendritically translated αCaMKII is necessary for learning and associated structural modifications and learning triggers an FMRP-dependent increase of αCaMKII dendritic translation in adult-born neurons. Our results strongly suggest that FMRP mediates structural plasticity of olfactory bulb adult-born neurons to support olfactory learning through αCaMKII local translation. This reveals a new role for FMRP-regulated dendritic local translation in learning-induced structural plasticity. This might be of clinical relevance for the understanding of critical periods disruption in autism spectrum disorder patients, among which fragile X syndrome is the primary monogenic cause. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An evaluation on the effect of reversed plastic zone on the fatigue crack opening behavior under 2-D plane stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeon Chang

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between fatigue crack opening behavior and the reversed plastic zone sizes is studied. An elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is performed to examine the opening behavior of fatigue crack, where the contact elements are used in the mesh of the crack tip area. The smaller element size than reversed plastic zone size is used for evaluating the distribution of reversed plastic zone. In the author's previous results the FEA could predict the crack opening level, which crack tip elements were in proportion to the theoretical reversed plastic zone size. It is found that the calculated reversed plastic zone size is related to the theoretical reversed plastic zone size and crack opening level. The calculated reversed plastic zone sizes are almost equal to the reversed plastic zone considering crack opening level obtained by experimental results. It can be possible to predict the crack opening level from the reversed plastic zone size calculated by finite element method. We find that the experimental crack opening levels correspond with the opening values of contact nodes on the calculated reversed plastic zone of finite element simulation

  18. Spatial Attention and Temporal Expectation Under Timed Uncertainty Predictably Modulate Neuronal Responses in Monkey V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra; Sugihara, Hiroki; Katz, Yarden; Schummers, James; Tenenbaum, Joshua; Sur, Mriganka

    2015-01-01

    The brain uses attention and expectation as flexible devices for optimizing behavioral responses associated with expected but unpredictably timed events. The neural bases of attention and expectation are thought to engage higher cognitive loci; however, their influence at the level of primary visual cortex (V1) remains unknown. Here, we asked whether single-neuron responses in monkey V1 were influenced by an attention task of unpredictable duration. Monkeys covertly attended to a spot that remained unchanged for a fixed period and then abruptly disappeared at variable times, prompting a lever release for reward. We show that monkeys responded progressively faster and performed better as the trial duration increased. Neural responses also followed monkey's task engagement—there was an early, but short duration, response facilitation, followed by a late but sustained increase during the time monkeys expected the attention spot to disappear. This late attentional modulation was significantly and negatively correlated with the reaction time and was well explained by a modified hazard function. Such bimodal, time-dependent changes were, however, absent in a task that did not require explicit attentional engagement. Thus, V1 neurons carry reliable signals of attention and temporal expectation that correlate with predictable influences on monkeys' behavioral responses. PMID:24836689

  19. Collective behaviors of suprachiasm nucleus neurons under different light—dark cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Chang-Gui; Liu Zong-Hua; Zhang Xin-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The principal circadian clock in the suprachiasm nucleus (SCN) regulates the circadian rhythm of physiological and behavioral activities of mammals. Except for the normal function of the circadian rhythm, the ensemble of SCN neurons may show two collective behaviors, i.e., a free running period in the absence of a light—dark cycle and an entrainment ability to an external T cycle. Experiments show that both the free running periods and the entrainment ranges may vary from one species to another and can be seriously influenced by the coupling among the SCN neurons. We here review the recent progress on how the heterogeneous couplings influence these two collective behaviors. We will show that in the case of homogeneous coupling, the free running period increases monotonically while the entrainment range decreases monotonically with the increase of the coupling strength. While in the case of heterogenous coupling, the dispersion of the coupling strength plays a crucial role. It has been found that the free running period decreases with the increase of the dispersion while the entrainment ability is enhanced by the dispersion. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of the circadian clock in the SCN. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)

  20. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  1. Enhancement of photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene plastic with CuPc modified TiO2 photocatalyst under solar light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xu; Li Zongwei; Chen Yi; Shi Liyi; Zhu Yongfa

    2008-01-01

    Solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene (PE) plastic, one of the most common commercial plastic, over copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) modified TiO 2 (TiO 2 /CuPc) photocatalyst was investigated in the ambient air under solar light irradiation. Higher PE weight loss rate, greater texture change; more amount of generated CO 2 , which is the main product of the photocatalytic degradation of the composite PEC plastic can be achieved in the system of PE-(TiO 2 /CuPc) in comparison with PE-TiO 2 system. The CuPc promoted charge separation of TiO 2 and enhanced the photocatalytic degradation of PE based on the analysis of surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). During the photodegradation of PE plastic, the reactive oxygen species generated on TiO 2 or TiO 2 /CuPc particle surfaces play important roles. The present study demonstrates that the combination of polymer plastic with TiO 2 /CuPc composite photocatalyst in the form of thin film is a practical and useful way to photodegrade plastic contaminants under solar light irradiation

  2. Repeated in vivo exposure of cocaine induces long-lasting synaptic plasticity in hypocretin/orexin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yan; Mineur, Yann S; Gan, Geliang; Wang, Alex Hanxiang; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Wu, Xinyuan; Suyama, Shigetomo; de Lecea, Luis; Horvath, Tamas L; Picciotto, Marina R; Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2013-04-01

    Hypocretin (orexin), a neuropeptide synthesized exclusively in the perifornical/lateral hypothalamus, is critical for drug seeking and relapse, but it is not clear how the circuitry centred on hypocretin-producing neurons (hypocretin neurons) is modified by drugs of abuse and how changes in this circuit might alter behaviours related to drug addiction. In this study, we show that repeated, but not single, in vivo cocaine administration leads to a long-lasting, experience-dependent potentiation of glutamatergic synapses on hypocretin neurons in mice following a cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) protocol. The synaptic potentiation occurs postsynaptically and probably involves up-regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors on hypocretin neurons. Phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is also significantly increased in hypocretin neurons in cocaine-treated animals, suggesting that CREB-mediated pathways may contribute to synaptic potentiation in these cells. Furthermore, the potentiation of synaptic efficacy in hypocretin neurons persists during cocaine withdrawal, but reverses to baseline levels after prolonged abstinence. Finally, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) triggered by a high-frequency stimulation is facilitated in hypocretin neurons in cocaine-treated mice, suggesting that long-lasting changes in synapses onto hypocretin neurons would probably be further potentiated by other stimuli (such as concurrent environmental cues) paired with the drug. In summary, we show here that hypocretin neurons undergo experience-dependent synaptic potentiation that is distinct from that reported in other reward systems, such as the ventral tegmental area, following exposure to cocaine. These findings support the idea that the hypocretin system is important for behavioural changes associated with cocaine administration in animals and humans.

  3. Plasticity in stomatal size and density of potato leaves under different irrigation and phosphorus regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanqi; Yan, Fei; Cui, Xiaoyong; Liu, Fulai

    2014-09-01

    The morphological features of stomata including their size and density could be modulated by environmental cues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, the effect of different irrigation and phosphorus (P) regimes on stomatal size (SS) and stomatal density (SD) of potato leaves was investigated. The plants were grown in split-root pots under two P fertilization rates (viz., 0 and 100mgkg(-1) soil, denoted as P0 and P1, respectively) and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation regimes. Results showed that SS and SD were unresponsive to P but significantly affected by the irrigation treatment. FI plants had the largest SS, followed by DI, and PRD the smallest; and the reverse was the case for SD. Compared to FI and DI, PRD plants had significantly lower values of specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C) under P0. Midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and stomatal conductance (gs) was similar for DI and PRD, which was significantly lower than that of FI. Leaf contents of C, N, K, Ca and Mg were higher in PRD than in DI plants, particularly under P0. When analyzed across the three irrigation regimes, it was found that the P1 plants had significantly higher leaf contents of P and Mg, but significantly lower leaf K content compared to the P0 plants. Linear correlation analyses revealed that SS was positively correlated with Ψleaf and Δ(13)C; whereas SD was negatively correlated with Ψleaf, Δ(13)C and SLA, and positively correlated with leaf C, N and Ca contents. And gs was positively correlated with SS but negatively correlated with SD. Collectively, under low P level, the smaller and denser stomata in PRD plants may bring about a more efficient stomatal control over gas exchange, hereby potentially enhance water-use efficiency as exemplified by the lowered leaf Δ(13)C under fluctuating soil moisture conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The functional upregulation of piriform cortex is associated with cross-modal plasticity in loss of whisker tactile inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Ye

    Full Text Available Cross-modal plasticity is characterized as the hypersensitivity of remaining modalities after a sensory function is lost in rodents, which ensures their awareness to environmental changes. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cross-modal sensory plasticity remain unclear. We aim to study the role of different types of neurons in cross-modal plasticity.In addition to behavioral tasks in mice, whole-cell recordings at the excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and their two-photon imaging, were conducted in piriform cortex. We produced a mouse model of cross-modal sensory plasticity that olfactory function was upregulated by trimming whiskers to deprive their sensory inputs. In the meantime of olfactory hypersensitivity, pyramidal neurons and excitatory synapses were functionally upregulated, as well as GABAergic cells and inhibitory synapses were downregulated in piriform cortex from the mice of cross-modal sensory plasticity, compared with controls. A crosswire connection between barrel cortex and piriform cortex was established in cross-modal plasticity.An upregulation of pyramidal neurons and a downregulation of GABAergic neurons strengthen the activities of neuronal networks in piriform cortex, which may be responsible for olfactory hypersensitivity after a loss of whisker tactile input. This finding provides the clues for developing therapeutic strategies to promote sensory recovery and substitution.

  5. Excitation of lateral habenula neurons as a neural mechanism underlying ethanol‐induced conditioned taste aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Kristen A.; Taha, Sharif A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The lateral habenula (LHb) has been implicated in regulation of drug‐seeking behaviours through aversion‐mediated learning.In this study, we recorded neuronal activity in the LHb of rats during an operant task before and after ethanol‐induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin.Ethanol‐induced CTA caused significantly higher baseline firing rates in LHb neurons, as well as elevated firing rates in response to cue presentation, lever press and saccharin taste.In a separate cohort of rats, we found that bilateral LHb lesions blocked ethanol‐induced CTA.Our results strongly suggest that excitation of LHb neurons is required for ethanol‐induced CTA, and point towards a mechanism through which LHb firing may regulate voluntary ethanol consumption. Abstract Ethanol, like other drugs of abuse, has both rewarding and aversive properties. Previous work suggests that sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects negatively modulates voluntary alcohol intake and thus may be important in vulnerability to developing alcohol use disorders. We previously found that rats with lesions of the lateral habenula (LHb), which is implicated in aversion‐mediated learning, show accelerated escalation of voluntary ethanol consumption. To understand neural encoding in the LHb contributing to ethanol‐induced aversion, we recorded neural firing in the LHb of freely behaving, water‐deprived rats before and after an ethanol‐induced (1.5 g kg−1 20% ethanol, i.p.) conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin taste. Ethanol‐induced CTA strongly decreased motivation for saccharin in an operant task to obtain the tastant. Comparison of LHb neural firing before and after CTA induction revealed four main differences in firing properties. First, baseline firing after CTA induction was significantly higher. Second, firing evoked by cues signalling saccharin availability shifted from a pattern of primarily inhibition before CTA to primarily excitation after CTA

  6. Excitation of lateral habenula neurons as a neural mechanism underlying ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shashank; Keefe, Kristen A; Taha, Sharif A

    2017-02-15

    The lateral habenula (LHb) has been implicated in regulation of drug-seeking behaviours through aversion-mediated learning. In this study, we recorded neuronal activity in the LHb of rats during an operant task before and after ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin. Ethanol-induced CTA caused significantly higher baseline firing rates in LHb neurons, as well as elevated firing rates in response to cue presentation, lever press and saccharin taste. In a separate cohort of rats, we found that bilateral LHb lesions blocked ethanol-induced CTA. Our results strongly suggest that excitation of LHb neurons is required for ethanol-induced CTA, and point towards a mechanism through which LHb firing may regulate voluntary ethanol consumption. Ethanol, like other drugs of abuse, has both rewarding and aversive properties. Previous work suggests that sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects negatively modulates voluntary alcohol intake and thus may be important in vulnerability to developing alcohol use disorders. We previously found that rats with lesions of the lateral habenula (LHb), which is implicated in aversion-mediated learning, show accelerated escalation of voluntary ethanol consumption. To understand neural encoding in the LHb contributing to ethanol-induced aversion, we recorded neural firing in the LHb of freely behaving, water-deprived rats before and after an ethanol-induced (1.5 g kg -1 20% ethanol, i.p.) conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to saccharin taste. Ethanol-induced CTA strongly decreased motivation for saccharin in an operant task to obtain the tastant. Comparison of LHb neural firing before and after CTA induction revealed four main differences in firing properties. First, baseline firing after CTA induction was significantly higher. Second, firing evoked by cues signalling saccharin availability shifted from a pattern of primarily inhibition before CTA to primarily excitation after CTA induction. Third, CTA induction reduced

  7. Factors influencing success of metal to plastic conversion programs for under-hood applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Male, L.J. [Amoco Chemicals Polymers Business Group, Alpharetta, GA (United States); Desai, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares high performance engineering polymers available today for under-hood applications. It includes an example of an end cap showing value-added capabilities such as design for machining and assembly (DFMA), team approach and computer aided engineering being used for a most cost-effective custom molding solution. These techniques should be part of standard design procedure for conversion programs to cope with the challenges of today and tomorrow. (orig./HW)

  8. Plasticity in stomatal size and density of potato leaves under different irrigation and phosphorus regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yanqi; Yan, Fei; Cui, Xiaoyong

    2014-01-01

    The morphological features of stomata including their size and density could be modulated by environmental cues; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, the effect of different irrigation and phosphorus (P) regimes on stomatal size (SS) and stomatal density (SD) of potato...... potentially enhance water-use efficiency as exemplified by the lowered leaf δ13C under fluctuating soil moisture conditions....... leaves was investigated. The plants were grown in split-root pots under two P fertilization rates (viz., 0 and 100mgkg-1 soil, denoted as P0 and P1, respectively) and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation regimes. Results showed that SS and SD were...... unresponsive to P but significantly affected by the irrigation treatment. FI plants had the largest SS, followed by DI, and PRD the smallest; and the reverse was the case for SD. Compared to FI and DI, PRD plants had significantly lower values of specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf carbon isotope discrimination...

  9. Ischemic long-term-potentiation (iLTP: perspectives to set the threshold of neural plasticity toward therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Lenz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise role of neural plasticity under pathological conditions remains not well understood. It appears to be well accepted, however, that changes in the ability of neurons to express plasticity accompany neurological diseases. Here, we discuss recent experimental evidence, which suggests that synaptic plasticity induced by a pathological stimulus, i.e., ischemic long-term-potentiation (iLTP of excitatory synapses, could play an important role for post-stroke recovery by influencing the post-lesional reorganization of surviving neuronal networks.

  10. Housing under the pyramid reduces susceptibility of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons to prenatal stress in the developing rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Krishna Dilip; George, Mitchel Constance; Ramasamy, Perumal; Mustapha, Zainal Arifin

    2013-12-01

    Mother-offspring interaction begins before birth. The foetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental insults and stress. The body responds by releasing excess of the stress hormone cortisol, which acts on glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampus in the brain is rich in glucocorticoid receptors and therefore susceptible to stress. The stress effects are reduced when the animals are placed under a model wooden pyramid. The present study was to first explore the effects of prenatal restraint-stress on the plasma corticosterone levels and the dendritic arborisation of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the offspring. Further, to test whether the pyramid environment would alter these effects, as housing under a pyramid is known to reduce the stress effects, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were restrained for 9 h per day from gestation day 7 until parturition in a wire-mesh restrainer. Plasma corticosterone levels were found to be significantly increased. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the apical and the basal total dendritic branching points and intersections of the CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The results thus suggest that, housing in the pyramid dramatically reduces prenatal stress effects in rats.

  11. Altered neuronal excitability underlies impaired hippocampal function in an animal model of psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGrüter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosis is accompanied by severe attentional deficits, and impairments in associational-memory processing and sensory information processing that are ascribed to dysfunctions in prefrontal and hippocampal function. Disruptions of glutamatergic signalling may underlie these alterations: Antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR results in similar molecular, cellular, cognitive and behavioural changes in rodents and/or humans as those that occur in psychosis, raising the question as to whether changes in glutamatergic transmission may be intrinsic to the pathophysiology of the disease. In an animal model of psychosis that comprises treatment with the irreversible NMDAR-antagonist, MK801, we explored the cellular mechanisms that may underlie hippocampal dysfunction in psychosis. MK801-treatment resulted in a profound loss of hippocampal LTP that was evident 4 weeks after treatment. Whereas neuronal expression of the immediate early gene, Arc, was enhanced in the hippocampus by spatial learning in controls, MK801-treated animals failed to show activity-dependent increases in Arc expression. By contrast, a significant increase in basal Arc expression in the absence of learning was evident compared to controls. Paired-pulse facilitation was increased at the 40 ms interval indicating that NMDAR and/or fast GABAergic-mediated neurotransmission was disrupted. In line with this, MK801-treatment resulted in a significant decrease in GABA(A, and increase in GABA(B-receptor-expression in PFC, along with a significant increase of GABA(B- and NMDAR-GluN2B expression in the dentate gyrus. NMDAR-GluN1 or GluN2A subunit expression was unchanged. These data suggest that in psychosis, deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory may be caused by a loss of hippocampal LTP that arises through enhanced hippocampal neuronal excitability, altered GluN2B and GABA receptor expression and an uncoupling of the hippocampus-prefrontal cortex circuitry.

  12. Astrocyte - neuron lactate shuttle may boost more ATP supply to the neuron under hypoxic conditions - in silico study supported by in vitro expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Genc, Seda; Kurnaz, Isil A; Ozilgen, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuro-glial interactions are important for normal functioning of the brain as well as brain energy metabolism. There are two major working models - in the classical view, both neurons and astrocytes can utilize glucose as the energy source through oxidative metabolism, whereas in the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis (ANLSH) it is the astrocyte which can consume glucose through anaerobic glycolysis to pyruvate and then to lactate, and this lactate is secreted to ...

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophin 3 regulate axon initial segment location and affect neuronal excitability in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Su, Zi-Jun; Chen, Yi-Kun; Chai, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    Plasticity of the axon initial segment (AIS) has aroused great interest in recent years because it regulates action potential initiation and neuronal excitability. AIS plasticity manifests as modulation of ion channels or variation in AIS structure. However, the mechanisms underlying structural plasticity of the AIS are not well understood. Here, we combined immunofluorescence, patch-clamp recordings, and pharmacological methods in cultured hippocampal neurons to investigate the factors participating in AIS structural plasticity during development. With lowered neuronal density, the distance between the AIS and the soma increased, while neuronal excitability decreased, as shown by the increased action potential threshold and current threshold for firing an action potential. This variation in the location of the AIS was associated with cellular secretory substances, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT3). Indeed, blocking BDNF and NT3 with TrkB-Fc eliminated the effect of conditioned medium collected from high-density cultures on AIS relocation. Elevating the extracellular concentration of BDNF or NT3 promoted movement of the AIS proximally to the soma and increased neuronal excitability. Furthermore, knockdown of neurotrophin receptors TrkB and TrkC caused distal movement of the AIS. Our results demonstrate that BDNF and NT3 regulate AIS location and neuronal excitability. These regulatory functions of neurotrophic factors provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying AIS biology. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Differences in motor evoked potentials induced in rats by transcranial magnetic stimulation under two separate anesthetics: implications for plasticity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sykes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however results are variable between participants and across studies. In addition, the mechanisms underlying any change and its locus are poorly understood. In order to better understand these effects, MEPs have been investigated in vivo in animal models, primarily in rats. One major difference in protocols between rats and humans is the use of general anesthesia in animal experiments. Anesthetics are known to affect plasticity-like mechanisms and so may contaminate the effects of an rTMS protocol. In the present study, we explored the effect of anesthetic on MEP amplitude, recorded before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned rTMS protocol with reported facilitatory effects. MEPs were assessed in the brachioradialis muscle of the upper forelimb under two anesthetics: a xylazine/zoletil combination and urethane. We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. However, MEPs were highly variable between animals under both anesthetics, with the xylazine/zoletil combination showing higher variability and most prominently a rise in amplitude across the baseline recording period. Interestingly, application of iTBS did not facilitate MEP amplitude under either anesthetic condition. Although it is important to underpin human application of TMS with mechanistic examination of effects in animals, caution must be taken when

  15. Differences in Motor Evoked Potentials Induced in Rats by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation under Two Separate Anesthetics: Implications for Plasticity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Matthew; Matheson, Natalie A; Brownjohn, Philip W; Tang, Alexander D; Rodger, Jennifer; Shemmell, Jonathan B H; Reynolds, John N J

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however, results are variable between participants and across studies. In addition, the mechanisms underlying any change and its locus are poorly understood. In order to better understand these effects, MEPs have been investigated in vivo in animal models, primarily in rats. One major difference in protocols between rats and humans is the use of general anesthesia in animal experiments. Anesthetics are known to affect plasticity-like mechanisms and so may contaminate the effects of an rTMS protocol. In the present study, we explored the effect of anesthetic on MEP amplitude, recorded before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a patterned rTMS protocol with reported facilitatory effects. MEPs were assessed in the brachioradialis muscle of the upper forelimb under two anesthetics: a xylazine/zoletil combination and urethane. We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. However, MEPs were highly variable between animals under both anesthetics, with the xylazine/zoletil combination showing higher variability and most prominently a rise in amplitude across the baseline recording period. Interestingly, application of iTBS did not facilitate MEP amplitude under either anesthetic condition. Although it is important to underpin human application of TMS with mechanistic examination of effects in animals, caution must be taken when selecting an

  16. Phenotypic stability and plasticity in GMP-derived cells as determined by their underlying regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Carlos; Mendoza, Luis

    2018-04-01

    Blood cell formation has been recognized as a suitable system to study celular differentiation mainly because of its experimental accessibility, and because it shows characteristics such as hierarchical and gradual bifurcated patterns of commitment, which are present in several developmental processes. Although hematopoiesis has been extensively studied and there is a wealth of molecular and cellular data about it, it is not clear how the underlying molecular regulatory networks define or restrict cellular differentiation processes. Here, we infer the molecular regulatory network that controls the differentiation of a blood cell subpopulation derived from the granulocyte-monocyte precursor (GMP), comprising monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and mast cells. We integrate published qualitative experimental data into a model to describe temporal expression patterns observed in GMP-derived cells. The model is implemented as a Boolean network, and its dynamical behavior is studied. Steady states of the network can be clearly identified with the expression profiles of monocytes, mast cells, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils, under wild-type and mutant backgrounds. All scripts are publicly available at https://github.com/caramirezal/RegulatoryNetworkGMPModel. lmendoza@biomedicas.unam.mx. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Bioenergetic reprogramming plasticity under nitrogen depletion by the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Korelidou, Anna; Andronis, Efthimios; Parasyri, Athina; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2018-03-01

    Simultaneous nitrogen depletion and 3,4-dichlorophenol addition induce a bioenergetic microalgal reprogramming, through strong Cyt b 6 f synthesis, that quench excess electrons from dichlorophenol's biodegradation to an overactivated photosynthetic electron flow and H 2 -productivity. Cellular energy management includes "rational" planning and operation of energy production and energy consumption units. Microalgae seem to have the ability to calculate their energy reserves and select the most profitable bioenergetic pathways. Under oxygenic mixotrophic conditions, microalgae invest the exogenously supplied carbon source (glucose) to biomass increase. If 3,4-dichlorophenol is added in the culture medium, then glucose is invested more to biodegradation rather than to growth. The biodegradation yield is enhanced in nitrogen-depleted conditions, because of an increase in the starch accumulation and a delay in the establishment of oxygen-depleted conditions in a closed system. In nitrogen-depleted conditions, starch cannot be invested in PSII-dependent and PSII-independent pathways for H 2 -production, mainly because of a strong decrease of the cytochrome b 6 f complex of the photosynthetic electron flow. For this reason, it seems more profitable for the microalga under these conditions to direct the metabolism to the synthesis of lipids as cellular energy reserves. Nitrogen-depleted conditions with exogenously supplied 3,4-dichlorophenol induce reprogramming of the microalgal bioenergetic strategy. Cytochrome b 6 f is strongly synthesized (mainly through catabolism of polyamines) to manage the electron bypass from the dichlorophenol biodegradation procedure to the photosynthetic electron flow (at the level of PQ pool) and consequently through cytochrome b 6 f and PSI to hydrogenase and H 2 -production. All the above showed that the selection of the appropriate cultivation conditions is the key for the manipulation of microalgal bioenergetic strategy that leads to

  18. Structural Analysis of Shipping Casks, Vol. 9. Energy Absorption Capabilities of Plastically Deformed Struts Under Specified Impact Loading Conditions (Thesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, F.C.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the energy absorption characteristics of plastically deformed inclined struts under impact loading. This information is needed to provide a usable method by which designers and analysts of shipping casks for radioactive or fissile materials can determine the energy absorption capabilities of external longitudinal fins on cylindrical casks under specified impact conditions. A survey of technical literature related to experimental determination of the dynamic plastic behavior of struts revealed no information directly applicable to the immediate problem, especially in the impact velocity ranges desired, and an experimental program was conducted to obtain the needed data. Mild-steel struts with rectangular cross sections were impacted by free-falling weights dropped from known heights. These struts or fin specimens were inclined at five different angles to simulate different angles of impact that fins on a shipping cask could experience under certain accident conditions. The resisting force of the deforming strut was measured and recorded as a function of time by using load cells instrumented with resistance strain gage bridges, signal conditioning equipment, an oscilloscope, and a Polaroid camera. The acceleration of the impacting weight was measured and recorded as a function of time during the latter portion of the testing program by using an accelerometer attached to the drop hammer, appropriate signal conditioning equipment, the oscilloscope, and the camera. A digital computer program was prepared to numerically integrate the force-time and acceleration-time data recorded during the tests to obtain deformation-time data. The force-displacement relationships were then integrated to obtain values of absorbed energy with respect to deformation or time. The results for various fin specimen geometries and impact angles are presented graphically, and these curves may be used to compute the energy absorption capacity of

  19. SynDIG4/Prrt1 Is Required for Excitatory Synapse Development and Plasticity Underlying Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Matt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Altering AMPA receptor (AMPAR content at synapses is a key mechanism underlying the regulation of synaptic strength during learning and memory. Previous work demonstrated that SynDIG1 (synapse differentiation-induced gene 1 encodes a transmembrane AMPAR-associated protein that regulates excitatory synapse strength and number. Here we show that the related protein SynDIG4 (also known as Prrt1 modifies AMPAR gating properties in a subunit-dependent manner. Young SynDIG4 knockout (KO mice have weaker excitatory synapses, as evaluated by immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology. Adult SynDIG4 KO mice show complete loss of tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP, while mEPSC amplitude is reduced by only 25%. Furthermore, SynDIG4 KO mice exhibit deficits in two independent cognitive assays. Given that SynDIG4 colocalizes with the AMPAR subunit GluA1 at non-synaptic sites, we propose that SynDIG4 maintains a pool of extrasynaptic AMPARs necessary for synapse development and function underlying higher-order cognitive plasticity.

  20. Anomalous plastic flow of cerium near the isomorphic phase transformations under high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witczak, Z.; Goncharova, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    Compression tests have been carried out on cerium specimens at room temperature (0.27 T m ) under high hydrostatic pressures up to 1.2 GPa. A strong increase of the yield strength was observed for both isomorphic γ and α phases at pressures approaching the γ ↔ α isomorphic phase transformations. That increase was in good agreement with the theory of dislocations when the dependence of elastic properties and a lattice parameter of cerium on pressure was applied to calculate the effect of pressure on the yield stress controlled by the edge dislocations. An anomalous strong decrease of the yield stress was observed in both γ and α phases in the vicinity of both γ ↔ α phase transformations. That phenomenon was explained as an effect of pressure induced new phase atoms through spreading the cores of edge dislocations. A complete disappearance of work hardening in both γ and α phases was also observed in the wide range of pressures. The influence of hydrostatic pressure on the energy of grain boundaries of both phases was considered to be responsible for that property. The ratio of the grain boundary energy to the Peierls energy is suggested to be a criterion of the work hardening ability of f.c.c. polycrystals

  1. Analytical functions used for description of the plastic deformation process in Zirconium alloys WWER type fuel rod cladding under designed accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the RAPTA-5 code as applied to the analysis of the thermomechanical behavior of the fuel rod cladding under designed accident conditions. The irreversible process thermodynamics methods were proposed to be used for the description of the plastic deformation process in zirconium alloys under accident conditions. Functions, which describe yielding stress dependence on plastic strain, strain rate and temperature may be successfully used in calculations. On the basis of the experiments made and the existent experimental data the dependence of yielding stress on plastic strain, strain rate, temperature and heating rate for E110 alloy was determined. In future the following research work shall be made: research of dynamic strain ageing in E635 alloy under different strain rates; research of strain rate influence on plastic strain in E635 alloy under test temperature higher than 873 K; research of deformation strengthening of E635 alloy under high temperatures; research of heating rate influence n phase transformation in E110 and E635 alloys

  2. Upregulation of Ih expressed in IB4-negative Aδ nociceptive DRG neurons contributes to mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Da-Lu Liu; Na Lu; Wen-Juan Han; Rong-Gui Chen; Rui Cong; Rou-Gang Xie; Yu-Fei Zhang; Wei-Wei Kong; San-Jue Hu; Ceng Luo

    2015-01-01

    Cervical radiculopathy represents aberrant mechanical hypersensitivity. Primary sensory neuron?s ability to sense mechanical force forms mechanotransduction. However, whether this property undergoes activity-dependent plastic changes and underlies mechanical hypersensitivity associated with cervical radiculopathic pain (CRP) is not clear. Here we show a new CRP model producing stable mechanical compression of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which induces dramatic behavioral mechanical hypersensit...

  3. Plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells under microgravity: from cytoskeletal reorganization to commitment shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravkova, Ludmila

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used to examine osteogenesis of uncommitted cells maintaining the bone differentiation potential such as osteogenic gene expression, osteogenic markers, matrix maturation and mineralization. MSCs are therefore a good model for studying osteogenesis in the space environment. Recent investigations have demonstrated that MSCs change in response to microgravity and, consequently, can be involved in the development of osteopenia detected in space travelers. This is a factor that can limit human space missions due to potential risks of osteoporosis and its aftereffects during and after flight. Simulated microgravity inhibited MSC differentiation towards osteoblasts and accelerated adipocyte development due to cytoskeleton modifications, including its structure and regulation associated with signal transduction cascades. We identified transient changes in the actin cytoskeleton of non-committed human bone marrow MSCs in short-term RPM experiments. In addition, we detected transient changes in the expression of genes encoding actin cytoskeleton proteins and associated elements (ACTA1, ACTG, RHOA, CFL1, VCL). When discussing the microgravity effects on MSC osteogenic differentiation, it should be mentioned the inhibition of Runx2 and ALPL and stimulation of PPARg2 in the MSCs induced for osteogenesis. It is probable that the reciprocal regulation of the two transcription factors is a molecular mechanism underlying progenitor cell response to microgravity. It is very likely that these genes are involved in the universal circuits within which mechanical (or gravity ) signals are sensed by MSCs. Recently, the list of osteogenic markers was extended to include several new proteins as microgravity targets (proteoglycans, osteomodulin, osteoglycin). It can be believed that exposure to microgravity produces similar effects on mature bone cells (osteoblasts) and non-committed osteogenic cells (MSCs). This finds a support in the fact that

  4. Changes in Ionic Conductance Signature of Nociceptive Neurons Underlying Fabry Disease Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namer, Barbara; Ørstavik, Kirstin; Schmidt, Roland; Mair, Norbert; Kleggetveit, Inge Petter; Zeidler, Maximillian; Martha, Theresa; Jorum, Ellen; Schmelz, Martin; Kalpachidou, Theodora; Kress, Michaela; Langeslag, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    The first symptom arising in many Fabry patients is neuropathic pain due to changes in small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in the periphery, which is subsequently followed by a loss of sensory perception. Here we studied changes in the peripheral nervous system of Fabry patients and a Fabry mouse model induced by deletion of α-galactosidase A (Gla−/0). The skin innervation of Gla−/0 mice resembles that of the human Fabry patients. In Fabry diseased humans and Gla−/0 mice, we observed similar sensory abnormalities, which were also observed in nerve fiber recordings in both patients and mice. Electrophysiological recordings of cultured Gla−/0 nociceptors revealed that the conductance of voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ currents was decreased in Gla−/0 nociceptors, whereas the activation of voltage-gated K+ currents was at more depolarized potentials. Conclusively, we have observed that reduced sensory perception due to small-fiber degeneration coincides with altered electrophysiological properties of sensory neurons. PMID:28769867

  5. Changes in Ionic Conductance Signature of Nociceptive Neurons Underlying Fabry Disease Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Namer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The first symptom arising in many Fabry patients is neuropathic pain due to changes in small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in the periphery, which is subsequently followed by a loss of sensory perception. Here we studied changes in the peripheral nervous system of Fabry patients and a Fabry mouse model induced by deletion of α-galactosidase A (Gla−/0. The skin innervation of Gla−/0 mice resembles that of the human Fabry patients. In Fabry diseased humans and Gla−/0 mice, we observed similar sensory abnormalities, which were also observed in nerve fiber recordings in both patients and mice. Electrophysiological recordings of cultured Gla−/0 nociceptors revealed that the conductance of voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ currents was decreased in Gla−/0 nociceptors, whereas the activation of voltage-gated K+ currents was at more depolarized potentials. Conclusively, we have observed that reduced sensory perception due to small-fiber degeneration coincides with altered electrophysiological properties of sensory neurons.

  6. Investigation of the quenched surfaces of visibly luminescent macro/nanoporous silicon under the exposure of typical neuron culture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this research paper, the quenching effects of visible photoluminescence of porous silicon relevant to doping types under an exposure of culture media such as Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and Phosphate-Buffered Saline have been studied extensively in order to realize the application of a cell culture growth technique for porous silicon, in which biocompatibility is directly based on its size-dependent structures and morphologies. This could restrain the combination of either macro or micro-/nano-dimensional silicon morphologies by stain-etching single crystalline Si surfaces. The dopant-related quenching effect of well-known neuron culture media over visible photoluminescent porous silicon surface is found to be quite obvious for the two culture media mentioned above. Scanning electron microscope images of the cultured neuron cells over porous Si show how they have been linked to, and communicated with, each other, and directed along porous channels, fabricated by a photo lithographic technique. (authors)

  7. Experimental study and numerical modeling of the plastic behavior of zirconium alloys under and after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, Julie

    2014-01-01

    , and the result of the simulation is consistent with the experimental observations considering both length scale and time scale. This reveals the ability of the DD codes to mimic in situ TEM experiments with a good agreement at time and space scale, when parameters are fitted on data extracted directly from TEM experiments. A preliminary study of microscopic mechanisms responsible for irradiation creep of zirconium alloys observed in reactor has also been carried out. Combined in situ and post mortem TEM observations of pre strained samples under irradiation at room temperature have not yet revealed evidence of climb of dislocations. This study has to be continued at higher temperatures in order to allow activation of diffusion mechanisms. (author) [fr

  8. Quality changes of 'Sanguinello' oranges wrapped with different plastic films under simulated marketing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, S; Malinconico, M; Avella, M; Di Lorenzo, M L; Mura; Palma, A

    2013-01-01

    significant. No decay was detected in fruit treated with IMZ. 'Sanguinello' oranges can be stored under retail conditions for a month by the only means of film wrapping without important changes in chemical, eating and marketing quality provided fruit are treated with an effective fungicide to prevent decay and that in-package gas composition is not markedly changed with respect to air.

  9. Evaluation of inelastic constitutive models under plasticity-creep interaction for 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel: Results of joint work (A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Ohno, N.; Suzuki, A.; Igari, T.

    1987-01-01

    The authorization of constitutive models under plasticity-creep condition and life estimation methods in fatigue-creep regime is expected to be achieved from the viewpoint of design purposes of high temperature components of reactor structures. The present Subcommittee has performed the cooperative project consisting of the following two parts: (A) To review and evaluate inelastic constitutive models relevant to the material response under plasticity-creep interaction and (B) to recommend some adequate methods to estimate material life under fatigue-creep interaction by taking account of the effect of plasticity-creep interaction on the stress-strain hysteresis loops. The material treated is normalized and tempered 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel at 600 0 C. The part (A) plays a preliminary role for the part (B), since the constitutive models examined in the part (A) were used to describe the stress-strain hysteresis loops necessary to predict analytically the lives under fatigue-creep interaction. In the part (A), thererfore, it is important to check how accurately the constitutive models simulate the stress-strain hysteresis loops especially by taking account of the effect of plasticity-creep interaction. (orig./GL)

  10. Development of plastic deformations in 12Kh18N10T steel under cyclic symmetrical bending of specimens of various length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarenko, G.S.; Leonets, V.A.; Bega, N.D. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Problem Prochnosti)

    1983-08-01

    Effect of specimen length on intensity of plastic deformation development and cyclic strength is studied for annealed 12Kh18N10T steel under cyclic symmetrical bending. The intensity of microplastic deformations and cyclic strength of annealed 12Kh18N10T steel in the considered case is due to self-heating.

  11. Stiffness plasticity degradation of masonry mortar under compression: preliminary results : Perda de rigidez da argamassa de assentamento da alvenaria comprimida: resultados preliminares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, G.; Fonseca, F.S.; Vermeltfoort, A.T.; Lubeck, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to determine the mechanical properties of bedding mortar by assessing the mortar damage onset, the stiff ness plasticity degradation and the apparent Poisson´s ratio under compression. Two mortar types, 1:0.5:4 and 1:1:6 (cement:lime:sand ratio), were used and

  12. The signaling mechanisms of hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum stress affecting neuronal plasticity-related protein levels in high fat diet-induced obese rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ming; Wang, Hong; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Yun-Li; Xin, Lei; Li, Feng; Lou, Shu-Jie

    2016-10-01

    High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has been shown to reduce the levels of neuronal plasticity-related proteins, specifically brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptophysin (SYN), in the hippocampus. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully clear. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been reported to play a key role in regulating gene expression and protein production by affecting stress signaling pathways and ER functions of protein folding and post-translational modification in peripheral tissues of obese rodent models. Additionally, HFD that is associated with hyperglycemia could induce hippocampal ERS, thus impairing insulin signaling and cognitive health in HFD mice. One goal of this study was to determine whether hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia could cause hippocampal ERS in HFD-induced obese SD rats, and explore the potential mechanisms of ERS regulating hippocampal BDNF and SYN proteins production. Additionally, although regular aerobic exercise could reduce central inflammation and elevate hippocampal BDNF and SYN levels in obese rats, the regulated mechanisms are poorly understood. Nrf2-HO-1 pathways play roles in anti-ERS, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis in peripheral tissues. Therefore, the other goal of this study was to determine whether aerobic exercise could activate Nrf2-HO-1 in hippocampus to alleviate obesity-induced hippocampal ERS, which would lead to increased BDNF and SYN levels. Male SD rats were fed on HFD for 8weeks to establish the obese model. Then, 8weeks of aerobic exercise treadmill intervention was arranged for the obese rats. Results showed that HFD-induced obesity caused hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, and significantly promoted hippocampal glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) and fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) protein expression. These results were associated with the activation of hippocampal ERS and ERS-mediated apoptosis. At the same time, we found that excessive hippocampal ERS not only

  13. Strain-based plastic instability acceptance criteria for ferritic steel safety class 1 nuclear components under level D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Su; Lee, Han Sang; Kim, Yun Jae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Won [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    This paper proposes strain-based acceptance criteria for assessing plastic instability of the safety class 1 nuclear components made of ferritic steel during level D service loads. The strain-based criteria were proposed with two approaches: (1) a section average approach and (2) a critical location approach. Both approaches were based on the damage initiation point corresponding to the maximum load-carrying capability point instead of the fracture point via tensile tests and finite element analysis (FEA) for the notched specimen under uni-axial tensile loading. The two proposed criteria were reviewed from the viewpoint of design practice and philosophy to select a more appropriate criterion. As a result of the review, it was found that the section average approach is more appropriate than the critical location approach from the viewpoint of design practice and philosophy. Finally, the criterion based on the section average approach was applied to a simplified reactor pressure vessel (RPV) outlet nozzle subject to SSE loads. The application shows that the strain-based acceptance criteria can consider cumulative damages caused by the sequential loads unlike the stress-based acceptance criteria and can reduce the over conservatism of the stress-based acceptance criteria, which often occurs for level D service loads.

  14. Strain-based plastic instability acceptance criteria for ferritic steel safety class 1 nuclear components under level D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Su; Lee, Han Sang; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Jin Won

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes strain-based acceptance criteria for assessing plastic instability of the safety class 1 nuclear components made of ferritic steel during level D service loads. The strain-based criteria were proposed with two approaches: (1) a section average approach and (2) a critical location approach. Both approaches were based on the damage initiation point corresponding to the maximum load-carrying capability point instead of the fracture point via tensile tests and finite element analysis (FEA) for the notched specimen under uni-axial tensile loading. The two proposed criteria were reviewed from the viewpoint of design practice and philosophy to select a more appropriate criterion. As a result of the review, it was found that the section average approach is more appropriate than the critical location approach from the viewpoint of design practice and philosophy. Finally, the criterion based on the section average approach was applied to a simplified reactor pressure vessel (RPV) outlet nozzle subject to SSE loads. The application shows that the strain-based acceptance criteria can consider cumulative damages caused by the sequential loads unlike the stress-based acceptance criteria and can reduce the over conservatism of the stress-based acceptance criteria, which often occurs for level D service loads.

  15. Spring maize yield, soil water use and water use efficiency under plastic film and straw mulches in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen; Liu, Wenzhao; Xue, Qingwu

    2016-12-01

    To compare the soil water balance, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring maize under different mulching types in the Loess Plateau, a 7-year field experiment was conducted in the Changwu region of the Loess Plateau. Three treatments were used in this experiment: straw mulch (SM), plastic film mulch (PM) and conventional covering without mulch (CK). Results show that the soil water change of dryland spring maize was as deep as 300 cm depth and hence 300 cm is recommended as the minimum depth when measure the soil water in this region. Water use (ET) did not differ significantly among the treatments. However, grain yield was significantly higher in PM compared with CK. WUE was significantly higher in PM than in CK for most years of the experiment. Although ET tended to be higher in PM than in the other treatments (without significance), the evaporation of water in the fallow period also decreased. Thus, PM is sustainable with respect to soil water balance. The 7-year experiment and the supplemental experiment thus confirmed that straw mulching at the seedling stage may lead to yield reduction and this effect can be mitigated by delaying the straw application to three-leaf stage.

  16. Numerical Analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP Shear Walls and Steel Strips under Cyclic Loads Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Askarizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete shear walls are the main elements of resistance against lateral loads in reinforced concrete structures. These walls should not only provide sufficient resistance but also provide sufficient ductility in order to avoid brittle fracture, particularly under strong seismic loads. However, many reinforced concrete shear walls need to be stabilized and reinforced due to various reasons such as changes in requirements of seismic regulations, weaknesses in design and execution, passage of time, damaging environmental factors, patch of rebar in plastic hinges and in some cases failures and weaknesses caused by previous earthquakes or explosion loads. Recently, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP components have been extensively and successfully used in seismic improvement. This study reinforces FRP reinforced concrete shear walls and steel strips. CFRP and steel strips are evaluated by different yield and ultimate strength. Numerical and experimental studies are done on walls with scale 1/2. These walls are exposed to cyclic loading. Hysteresis curves of force, drift and strain of FRP strips are reviewed in order to compare results of numerical work and laboratory results. Both numerical and laboratory results show that CFRP and steel strips increase resistance, capacity and ductility of the structure.

  17. Noise-induced plasticity of KCNQ2/3 and HCN channels underlies vulnerability and resilience to tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Kalappa, Bopanna I; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability to noise-induced tinnitus is associated with increased spontaneous firing rate in dorsal cochlear nucleus principal neurons, fusiform cells. This hyperactivity is caused, at least in part, by decreased Kv7.2/3 (KCNQ2/3) potassium currents. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying resilience to tinnitus, which is observed in noise-exposed mice that do not develop tinnitus (non-tinnitus mice), remain unknown. Our results show that noise exposure induces, on average, a reduction in KCNQ2/3 channel activity in fusiform cells in noise-exposed mice by 4 days after exposure. Tinnitus is developed in mice that do not compensate for this reduction within the next 3 days. Resilience to tinnitus is developed in mice that show a re-emergence of KCNQ2/3 channel activity and a reduction in HCN channel activity. Our results highlight KCNQ2/3 and HCN channels as potential targets for designing novel therapeutics that may promote resilience to tinnitus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07242.001 PMID:26312501

  18. Phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation in leaf ecophysiological traits of 13 contrasting cork oak populations under different water availabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Valiente, Jose Alberto; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Aranda, Ismael; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    years. Overall, the study supports the adaptive value of SLA and LS for cork oak under a Mediterranean climate and their potentially important role for dealing with varying temperature and rainfall regimes through both local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity.

  19. Phenology of pea crop (Pisum sativum L. var. Santa Isabel) in the Bogotá plateau at open field and under plastic cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo Pacheco, J.R.; Clavijo Porras, J.

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of environment effects on plant development is important to identify suitable zones and schedule crop production. In this research, plant development of pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Santa Isabel) was evaluated under Bogotá flat highland, Colombia, environmental conditions (2640 m over sea level, 14°C, 80% R.H., rainfall of 800 mm/year). Two experiments were done under plastic cover [es

  20. Elevated temperature is more effective than elevated [CO2 ] in exposing genotypic variation in Telopea speciosissima growth plasticity: implications for woody plant populations under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guomin; Rymer, Paul D; Duan, Honglang; Smith, Renee A; Tissue, David T

    2015-10-01

    Intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity is a critical determinant of plant species capacity to cope with climate change. A long-standing hypothesis states that greater levels of environmental variability will select for genotypes with greater phenotypic plasticity. However, few studies have examined how genotypes of woody species originating from contrasting environments respond to multiple climate change factors. Here, we investigated the main and interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] (CE ) and elevated temperature (TE ) on growth and physiology of Coastal (warmer, less variable temperature environment) and Upland (cooler, more variable temperature environment) genotypes of an Australian woody species Telopea speciosissima. Both genotypes were positively responsive to CE (35% and 29% increase in whole-plant dry mass and leaf area, respectively), but only the Coastal genotype exhibited positive growth responses to TE . We found that the Coastal genotype exhibited greater growth response to TE (47% and 85% increase in whole-plant dry mass and leaf area, respectively) when compared with the Upland genotype (no change in dry mass or leaf area). No intraspecific variation in physiological plasticity was detected under CE or TE , and the interactive effects of CE and TE on intraspecific variation in phenotypic plasticity were also largely absent. Overall, TE was a more effective climate factor than CE in exposing genotypic variation in our woody species. Our results contradict the paradigm that genotypes from more variable climates will exhibit greater phenotypic plasticity in future climate regimes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  2. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de

    2011-01-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  3. Information processing by neuronal populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hölscher, Christian; Munk, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    ... simultaneously recorded spike trains 120 Mark Laubach, Nandakumar S. Narayanan, and Eyal Y. Kimchi Part III Neuronal population information coding and plasticity in specific brain areas 149 7 F...

  4. A comparison of plastic collapse and limit loads for single mitred pipe bends under in-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.; Wood, J.; Hamilton, R.; Li, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the plastic collapse loads from experimental in-plane bending tests on three 90 o single un-reinforced mitred pipe bends, with the results from various 3D solid finite element models. The bending load applied reduced the bend angle and in turn, the resulting cross-sectional ovalisation led to a recognised weakening mechanism. In addition, at maximum load there was a reversal in stiffness, characteristic of buckling. This reversal in stiffness was accompanied by significant ovalisation and plasticity at the mitre intersection. Both the weakening mechanism and the post-buckling behaviour are only observable by testing or by including large displacement effects in the plastic finite element solution. A small displacement limit solution with an elastic-perfectly plastic material model overestimated the collapse load by more than 40% and could not reproduce the buckling behaviour. The plastic collapse finite element solution, with large displacements, produced excellent agreement with the experiment. Sufficient experimental detail is presented for these results to be used as a benchmark for analysts in this area. Given the robustness of non-linear solutions in commercial finite element codes and the ready availability of computing resources, it is argued that pressure vessel code developers should now be recommending large displacement analysis as the default position for limit and plastic collapse analyses, rather than expecting engineers to anticipate weakening mechanisms and related non-linear phenomena.

  5. Deficient plasticity in the primary visual cortex of alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J A; Cioffi, D; Silva, A J; Stryker, M P

    1996-09-01

    The recent characterization of plasticity in the mouse visual cortex permits the use of mutant mice to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent development. As calcium-dependent signaling pathways have been implicated in neuronal plasticity, we examined visual cortical plasticity in mice lacking the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha CaMKII). In wild-type mice, brief occlusion of vision in one eye during a critical period reduces responses in the visual cortex. In half of the alpha CaMKII-deficient mice, visual cortical responses developed normally, but visual cortical plasticity was greatly diminished. After intensive training, spatial learning in the Morris water maze was severely impaired in a similar fraction of mutant animals. These data indicate that loss of alpha CaMKII results in a severe but variable defect in neuronal plasticity.

  6. Modeling the cellular mechanisms and olfactory input underlying the triphasic response of moth pheromone-sensitive projection neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Gu

    Full Text Available In the antennal lobe of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon, most pheromone-sensitive projection neurons (PNs exhibit a triphasic firing pattern of excitation (E1-inhibition (I-excitation (E2 in response to a pulse of the sex pheromone. To understand the mechanisms underlying this stereotypical discharge, we developed a biophysical model of a PN receiving inputs from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs via nicotinic cholinergic synapses. The ORN is modeled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process whose firing rate is a function of time and is fitted to extracellular data recorded in response to pheromone stimulations at various concentrations and durations. The PN model is based on the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism with realistic ionic currents whose parameters were derived from previous studies. Simulations revealed that the inhibitory phase I can be produced by a SK current (Ca2+-gated small conductance K+ current and that the excitatory phase E2 can result from the long-lasting response of the ORNs. Parameter analysis further revealed that the ending time of E1 depends on some parameters of SK, Ca2+, nACh and Na+ currents; I duration mainly depends on the time constant of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics, conductance of Ca2+ currents and some parameters of nACh currents; The mean firing frequency of E1 and E2 depends differentially on the interaction of various currents. Thus it is likely that the interplay between PN intrinsic currents and feedforward synaptic currents are sufficient to generate the triphasic firing patterns observed in the noctuid moth A. ipsilon.

  7. Dynamic Strength and Accumulated Plastic Strain Development Laws and Models of the Remolded Red Clay under Long-Term Cyclic Loads: Laboratory Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are two important parameters for evaluating the dynamic response of soil. As a special clay, the remolded red clay is often used as the high speed railway subgrade filling, but studies on its dynamic characteristics are few. For a thorough analysis of the suitability of the remolded red clay as the subgrade filling, a series of long-term cyclic load triaxial test under different load histories are carried out. Considering the influence of compactness, confining pressure, consolidation ratio, vibration frequency and dynamic load to the remolded red clay dynamic property, the tests obtain the development curves of the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain under different test conditions. Then, through curve fitting method, two different hyperbolic models respectively for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain are built, which can match the test datum well. By applying the dynamic strength model, the critical dynamic strength of the remolded red clay are gained. Meanwhile, for providing basic datum and reference for relevant projects, all key parameters for the dynamic strength and accumulated plastic strain of the remolded red clay are given in the paper.

  8. The functional genome of CA1 and CA3 neurons under native conditions and in response to ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossner Moritz

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The different physiological repertoire of CA3 and CA1 neurons in the hippocampus, as well as their differing behaviour after noxious stimuli are ultimately based upon differences in the expressed genome. We have compared CA3 and CA1 gene expression in the uninjured brain, and after cerebral ischemia using laser microdissection (LMD, RNA amplification, and array hybridization. Results Profiling in CA1 vs. CA3 under normoxic conditions detected more than 1000 differentially expressed genes that belong to different, physiologically relevant gene ontology groups in both cell types. The comparison of each region under normoxic and ischemic conditions revealed more than 5000 ischemia-regulated genes for each individual cell type. Surprisingly, there was a high co-regulation in both regions. In the ischemic state, only about 100 genes were found to be differentially expressed in CA3 and CA1. The majority of these genes were also different in the native state. A minority of interesting genes (e.g. inhibinbetaA displayed divergent expression preference under native and ischemic conditions with partially opposing directions of regulation in both cell types. Conclusion The differences found in two morphologically very similar cell types situated next to each other in the CNS are large providing a rational basis for physiological differences. Unexpectedly, the genomic response to ischemia is highly similar in these two neuron types, leading to a substantial attenuation of functional genomic differences in these two cell types. Also, the majority of changes that exist in the ischemic state are not generated de novo by the ischemic stimulus, but are preexistant from the genomic repertoire in the native situation. This unexpected influence of a strong noxious stimulus on cell-specific gene expression differences can be explained by the activation of a cell-type independent conserved gene-expression program. Our data generate both novel

  9. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhang, Yulong; Sun, Zhanxiang; Zheng, Jiaming; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yang; Feng, Liangshan; Feng, Chen; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Ning; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen

    2017-08-01

    A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root / shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season) and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  10. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Cai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L. production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU and water use efficiency (WUE. Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root ∕ shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  11. Plasticity and innovation of regulatory mechanisms underlying seed oil content mediated by duplicated genes in the palaeopolyploid soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dajian; Zhao, Meixia; Li, Shuai; Sun, Lianjun; Wang, Weidong; Cai, Chunmei; Dierking, Emily C; Ma, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    Many plants have undergone whole genome duplication (WGD). However, how regulatory networks underlying a particular trait are reshaped in polyploids has not been experimentally investigated. Here we show that the regulatory pathways modulating seed oil content, which involve WRINKLED1 (WRI1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), and LEC2 in Arabidopsis, have been modified in the palaeopolyploid soybean. Such modifications include functional reduction of GmWRI1b of the GmWRI1a/GmWRI1b homoeologous pair relevant to WRI1, complementary non-allelic dosage effects of the GmLEC1a/GmLEC1b homoeologous pair relevant to LEC1, pseudogenization of the singleton GmLEC2 relevant to LEC2, and the rise of the LEC2-like function of GmABI3b, contrasting to its homoeolog GmABI3a, which maintains the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3)-like function in modulating seed maturation and dormancy. The function of GmABI3b in modulating seed oil biosynthesis was fulfilled by direct binding to a RY (CATGCA) cis-regulatory element in the GmWRI1a promoter, which was absent in the GmWRI1b promoter, resulting in reduction of the GmWRI1b expression. Nevertheless, the three regulators each exhibited similar intensities of purifying selection to their respective duplicates since these pairs were formed by a WGD event that is proposed to have occurred approximately 13 million years ago (mya), suggesting that the differentiation in spatiotemporal expression between the duplicated genes is more likely to be the outcome of neutral variation in regulatory sequences. This study thus exemplifies the plasticity, dynamics, and novelty of regulatory networks mediated by WGD. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A new plastic correction for the stress intensity factor of an under-clad defect in a PWR vessel subjected to a pressurised thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, S.; Nedelec, M.

    2007-01-01

    For the assessment of an under-clad defect in a vessel subjected to a cold pressurised thermal shock, plasticity is considered through the amplification β of the elastic stress intensity factor K I in the ferritic part of the vessel. An important effort has been made recently by CEA to improve the analytical tools in the frame of R and D activities funded by IRSN. The current solution in the French RSE-M code has been developed from fitted F.E. calculation results. A more physical solution is proposed in this paper. This takes into account two phenomena: the amplification of the elastic K I due to plasticity in the cladding and a plastic zone size correction in the ferritic part. The first correction has been established by representing the cladding plasticity by an imposed displacement on the crack faces at the interface between the cladding and the ferritic vessel. The corresponding elastic stress intensity factor is determined from the elastic plane strain asymptotic solution for the opening displacement. Plasticity in the ferritic steel is considered through a classical plastic zone size correction. The application of the solution to axisymmetric defects is first checked. The case of semi-elliptical defects is also investigated. For the correction determined at the interface between the cladding and the ferritic vessel, an amplification of the correction proposed for the deepest point is determined from a fitting of the 3D F.E. calculation results. It is also shown that the proposition of RSE-M, which consists in applying the same β correction at the deepest point and the interface point is not suitable. The applicability to a thermal shock, eventually combined with an internal pressure has been verified. For the deepest point, the proposed correction leads to similar results to the RSE-M method, but presents an extended domain of validity (no limits on the crack length are imposed)

  13. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Plastic Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Plastic Surgery What's in ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  14. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  15. Neuronal Substrates Underlying Performance Variability in Well-Trained Skillful Motor Task in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Uehara, Shintaro; Hirose, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Naito, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Motor performance fluctuates trial by trial even in a well-trained motor skill. Here we show neural substrates underlying such behavioral fluctuation in humans. We first scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants repeatedly performed a 10 s skillful sequential finger-tapping task. Before starting the experiment, the participants had completed intensive training. We evaluated task performance per trial (number of correct sequences in 10 s) and depicted brain regions where the activity changes in association with the fluctuation of the task performance across trials. We found that the activity in a broader range of frontoparietocerebellar network, including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices, and left cerebellar hemisphere, was negatively correlated with the task performance. We further showed in another transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) experiment that task performance deteriorated, when we applied anodal tDCS to the right DLPFC. These results indicate that fluctuation of brain activity in the nonmotor frontoparietocerebellar network may underlie trial-by-trial performance variability even in a well-trained motor skill, and its neuromodulation with tDCS may affect the task performance.

  16. Interaction of heat production, strain rate and stress power in a plastically deforming body under tensile test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglietti, A.

    1982-01-01

    At high strain rates the heat produced by plastic deformation can give rise to a rate dependent response even if the material has rate independent constitutive equations. This effect has to be evaluated when interpreting a material test, or else it could erroneously be ascribed to viscosity. A general thermodynamic theory of tensile testing of elastic-plastic materials is given in this paper; it is valid for large strain at finite strain rates. It enables discovery of the parameters governing the thermodynamic strain rate effect, provides a method for proper interpretation of the results of the tests of dynamic plasticity, and suggests a way of planning experiments in order to detect the real contribution of viscosity.

  17. Elasto-plastic bond mechanics of embedded fiber optic sensors in concrete under uniaxial tension with strain localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbin; Li, Guang; Wang, Guanglun

    2003-12-01

    Brittleness of the glass core inside fiber optic sensors limits their practical usage, and therefore they are coated with low-modulus softer protective materials. Protective coatings absorb a portion of the strain, and hence part of the structural strain is sensed. The study reported here corrects for this error through development of a theoretical model to account for the loss of strain in the protective coating of optical fibers. The model considers the coating as an elasto-plastic material and formulates strain transfer coefficients for elastic, elasto-plastic and strain localization phases of coating deformations in strain localization in concrete. The theoretical findings were verified through laboratory experimentation. The experimental program involved fabrication of interferometric optical fiber sensors, embedding within mortar samples and tensile tests in a closed-loop servo-hydraulic testing machine. The elasto-plastic strain transfer coefficients were employed for correction of optical fiber sensor data and results were compared with those of conventional extensometers.

  18. Synaptic network activity induces neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal precursor cells through BDNF signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Babu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated by activity. But how do neural precursor cells in the hippocampus respond to surrounding network activity and translate increased neural activity into a developmental program? Here we show that long-term potential (LTP-like synaptic activity within a cellular network of mature hippocampal neurons promotes neuronal differentiation of newly generated cells. In co-cultures of precursor cells with primary hippocampal neurons, LTP-like synaptic plasticity induced by addition of glycine in Mg2+-free media for 5 min, produced synchronous network activity and subsequently increased synaptic strength between neurons. Furthermore, this synchronous network activity led to a significant increase in neuronal differentiation from the co-cultured neural precursor cells. When applied directly to precursor cells, glycine and Mg2+-free solution did not induce neuronal differentiation. Synaptic plasticity-induced neuronal differentiation of precursor cells was observed in the presence of GABAergic neurotransmission blockers but was dependent on NMDA-mediated Ca2+ influx. Most importantly, neuronal differentiation required the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF from the underlying substrate hippocampal neurons as well as TrkB receptor phosphorylation in precursor cells. This suggests that activity-dependent stem cell differentiation within the hippocampal network is mediated via synaptically evoked BDNF signaling.

  19. Deficient Rab11 activity underlies glucose hypometabolism in primary neurons of Huntington's disease mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xueyi, E-mail: xli12@partners.org [Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Valencia, Antonio; McClory, Hollis; Sapp, Ellen; Kegel, Kimberly B. [Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); DiFiglia, Marian, E-mail: difiglia@helix.mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primary Huntington's disease neurons are impaired in taking up glucose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rab11 modulates glucose uptake in neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing Rab11 activity attenuates the glucose uptake defect in disease neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in Huntington's disease. -- Abstract: Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. Positron emission tomography studies have revealed a decline in glucose metabolism in the brain of patients with HD by a mechanism that has not been established. We examined glucose utilization in embryonic primary cortical neurons of wild-type (WT) and HD knock-in mice, which have 140 CAG repeats inserted in the endogenous mouse huntingtin gene (HD{sup 140Q/140Q}). Primary HD{sup 140Q/140Q} cortical neurons took up significantly less glucose than did WT neurons. Expression of permanently inactive and permanently active forms of Rab11 correspondingly altered glucose uptake in WT neurons, suggesting that normal activity of Rab11 is needed for neuronal uptake of glucose. It is known that Rab11 activity is diminished in HD{sup 140Q/140Q} neurons. Expression of dominant active Rab11 to enhance the activity of Rab11 normalized glucose uptake in HD{sup 140Q/140Q} neurons. These results suggest that deficient activity of Rab11 is a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in HD.

  20. Female-biased dimorphism underlies a female-specific role for post-embryonic Ilp7 neurons in Drosophila fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Monica C.; Tang, Jonathan C. Y.; Allan, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, much of our understanding of sexually dimorphic neuronal development and function comes from the study of male behavior, leaving female behavior less well understood. Here, we identify a post-embryonic population of Insulin-like peptide 7 (Ilp7)-expressing neurons in the posterior ventral nerve cord that innervate the reproductive tracts and exhibit a female bias in their function. They form two distinct dorsal and ventral subsets in females, but only a single dorsal subset in males, signifying a rare example of a female-specific neuronal subset. Female post-embryonic Ilp7 neurons are glutamatergic motoneurons innervating the oviduct and are required for female fertility. In males, they are serotonergic/glutamatergic neuromodulatory neurons innervating the seminal vesicle but are not required for male fertility. In both sexes, these neurons express the sex-differentially spliced fruitless-P1 transcript but not doublesex. The male fruitless-P1 isoform (fruM) was necessary and sufficient for serotonin expression in the shared dorsal Ilp7 subset, but although it was necessary for eliminating female-specific Ilp7 neurons in males, it was not sufficient for their elimination in females. By contrast, sex-specific RNA-splicing by female-specific transformer is necessary for female-type Ilp7 neurons in females and is sufficient for their induction in males. Thus, the emergence of female-biased post-embryonic Ilp7 neurons is mediated in a subset-specific manner by a tra- and fru-dependent mechanism in the shared dorsal subset, and a tra-dependent, fru-independent mechanism in the female-specific subset. These studies provide an important counterpoint to studies of the development and function of male-biased neuronal dimorphism in Drosophila. PMID:23981656

  1. Plastic changes to dendritic spines on layer V pyramidal neurons are involved in the rectifying role of the prefrontal cortex during the fast period of motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tapia, David; Martínez-Torres, Nestor I; Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; González-Burgos, Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    The prefrontal cortex participates in the rectification of information related to motor activity that favors motor learning. Dendritic spine plasticity is involved in the modifications of motor patterns that underlie both motor activity and motor learning. To study this association in more detail, adult male rats were trained over six days in an acrobatic motor learning paradigm and they were subjected to a behavioral evaluation on each day of training. Also, a Golgi-based morphological study was carried out to determine the spine density and the proportion of the different spine types. In the learning paradigm, the number of errors diminished as motor training progressed. Concomitantly, spine density increased on days 1 and 3 of training, particularly reflecting an increase in the proportion of thin (day 1), stubby (day 1) and branched (days 1, 2 and 5) spines. Conversely, mushroom spines were less prevalent than in the control rats on days 5 and 6, as were stubby spines on day 6, together suggesting that this plasticity might enhance motor learning. The increase in stubby spines on day 1 suggests a regulation of excitability related to the changes in synaptic input to the prefrontal cortex. The plasticity to thin spines observed during the first 3 days of training could be related to the active rectification induced by the information relayed to the prefrontal cortex -as the behavioral findings indeed showed-, which in turn could be linked to the lower proportion of mushroom and stubby spines seen in the last days of training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elastic-plastic stresses in a thin rotating disk with shafthaving density variation parameter under steady-state temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady thermal stresses in a rotating disc with shaft having density variation parameter subjected to thermal load have been derived by using Seth's transition theory. Neither the yields criterion nor the associated flow rule is assumed here. Results are depicted graphically. It has been seen that compressible material required higher percentage increased angular speed to become fully-plastic as compare to rotating disc made of incompressible material. Circumferential stresses are maximal at the outer surface of the rotating disc. With the introduction of thermal effect it decreases the value of radial and circumferential stresses at inner and outer surface for fully-plastic state.

  3. Ablation of kappa-opioid receptors from brain dopamine neurons has anxiolytic-like effects and enhances cocaine-induced plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Veer, Ashlee; Bechtholt, Anita J; Onvani, Sara; Potter, David; Wang, Yujun; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Schütz, Günther; Chartoff, Elena H; Rudolph, Uwe; Cohen, Bruce M; Carlezon, William A

    2013-07-01

    Brain kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) are implicated in states of motivation and emotion. Activation of KORs negatively regulates mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons, and KOR agonists produce depressive-like behavioral effects. To further evaluate how KOR function affects behavior, we developed mutant mice in which exon 3 of the KOR gene (Oprk1) was flanked with Cre-lox recombination (loxP) sites. By breeding these mice with lines that express Cre-recombinase (Cre) in early embryogenesis (EIIa-Cre) or only in DA neurons (dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre), we developed constitutive KOR knockouts (KOR(-/-)) and conditional knockouts that lack KORs in DA-containing neurons (DAT-KOR(lox/lox)). Autoradiography demonstrated complete ablation of KOR binding in the KOR(-/-) mutants, and reduced binding in the DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mutants. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) studies confirmed that KOR mRNA is undetectable in the constitutive mutants and reduced in the midbrain DA systems of the conditional mutants. Behavioral characterization demonstrated that these mutant lines do not differ from controls in metrics, including hearing, vision, weight, and locomotor activity. Whereas KOR(-/-) mice appeared normal in the open field and light/dark box tests, DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mice showed reduced anxiety-like behavior, an effect that is broadly consistent with previously reported effects of KOR antagonists. Sensitization to the locomotor-stimulating effects of cocaine appeared normal in KOR(-/-) mutants, but was exaggerated in DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mutants. Increased sensitivity to cocaine in the DAT-KOR(lox/lox) mutants is consistent with a role for KORs in negative regulation of DA function, whereas the lack of differences in the KOR(-/-) mutants suggests compensatory adaptations after constitutive receptor ablation. These mouse lines may be useful in future studies of KOR function.

  4. Conformational Plasticity of the Influenza A M2 Transmembrane Helix in Lipid Bilayers Under Varying pH, Drug Binding and Membrane Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fanghao; Luo, Wenbin; Cady, Sarah D.; Hong, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins change their conformations to respond to environmental cues, thus conformational plasticity is important for function. The influenza A M2 protein forms an acid-activated proton channel important for the virus lifecycle. Here we have used solid-state NMR spectroscopy to examine the conformational plasticity of membrane-bound transmembrane domain of M2 (M2TM). 13C and 15N chemical shifts indicate coupled conformational changes of several pore-facing residues due to changes in bilayer thickness, drug binding and pH. The structural changes are attributed to the formation of a well-defined helical kink at G34 in the drug-bound state and in thick lipid bilayers, non-ideal backbone conformation of the secondary-gate residue V27 in the presence of drug, and non-ideal conformation of the proton-sensing residue H37 at high pH. The chemical shifts constrained the (ϕ, ψ) torsion angles for three basis states, the equilibrium among which explains the multiple resonances per site in the NMR spectra under different combinations of bilayer thickness, drug binding and pH conditions. Thus, conformational plasticity is important for the proton conduction and inhibition of M2TM. The study illustrates the utility of NMR chemical shifts for probing the structural plasticity and folding of membrane proteins. PMID:20883664

  5. Mechanisms of GABAergic Homeostatic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wenner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic plasticity ensures that appropriate levels of activity are maintained through compensatory adjustments in synaptic strength and cellular excitability. For instance, excitatory glutamatergic synapses are strengthened following activity blockade and weakened following increases in spiking activity. This form of plasticity has been described in a wide array of networks at several different stages of development, but most work and reviews have focussed on the excitatory inputs of excitatory neurons. Here we review homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic neurons and their synaptic connections. We propose a simplistic model for homeostatic plasticity of GABAergic components of the circuitry (GABAergic synapses onto excitatory neurons, excitatory connections onto GABAergic neurons, cellular excitability of GABAergic neurons: following chronic activity blockade there is a weakening of GABAergic inhibition, and following chronic increases in network activity there is a strengthening of GABAergic inhibition. Previous work on GABAergic homeostatic plasticity supports certain aspects of the model, but it is clear that the model cannot fully account for some results which do not appear to fit any simplistic rule. We consider potential reasons for these discrepancies.

  6. Biohydrogen production from glucose in upflow biofilm reactors with plastic carriers under extreme thermophilic conditions (70(degree)C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, H.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Biohydrogen could efficiently be produced in glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers and operated at 70°C. Batch experiments were, in addition, conducted to enrich and cultivate glucose-fed extremethermophilic hydrogen producing microorganisms from a biohydrogen CSTR reactor fed...

  7. The effects of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation on forecasts of species range shifts under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valladares, F.; Matesanz, S.; Guilhaumon, F.; Araujo, M.; Balaguer, L.; Benito-Garzon, M.; Cornwell, W.K.; Gianoli, E.; van Kleunen, M.; Naya, D.E.; Nicotra, A.B.; Poorter, H.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Species are the unit of analysis in many global change and conservation biology studies; however, species are not uniform entities but are composed of different, sometimes locally adapted, populations differing in plasticity. We examined how intraspecific variation in thermal niches and phenotypic

  8. Evaluation of Spring Sweet Corn (Zea mays var saccharata Production in Different Planting Date under Plastic Cover in Gachsaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Naraki,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance of spring sweet corn (Zea mays var saccharata at different planting dates under plastic cover, a split plot experiment based on RCBD with three replications was conducted in Gachsaran, in southwest of Iran, during 2009-2010 growing season. Four sweet corn hybrids (Merit, Challenger, Chase and Basin were used as main factor and five sowing date (15th and 25th Jan, 4th, 14th and 24th Feb as sub factor. The results showed that hybrid effect was significant on the days to tassel and ear emergence, days to harvest, ear harvest index, ear length, number of row per each ear, wet biological yield and 1000 grains weight, at 1%, and ear wet yield and grain yield harvest index at 5% probability levels. Also the effect of sowing date was significant on the days to tassel and ear emergence, days to harvest, ear wet yield, ear harvest index, ear diameter, ear length, biological yield, and 1000 grains weight at the 1% probability level. 'Basin' and 'Chase' hybrids were determined to have highest and lowest ear wet yield (17.09 and 15.13 t.ha-1 respectively. The highest and the lowest wet ear yield (16.81 and 15.06 t.ha-1 belonged to 15th Jan. and 24th Feb. respectively. 'Basin' hybrid and 'Challenger' with 8.39 and 7.59 t.ha-1 grain yield were found to be highest and lowest yields. The highest and the lowest grain yield (8.41 t.ha-1 7.45 t.ha-1 were recorded for 15th Jan. and 24th Feb. respectively.' Merit' and 'Chase' hybrids were determined to have longest and shortest days to ear harvest (94.3 and 86.2 days. Longest and shortest days to ear harvest (101.5 and 82 days were recorded in 4th Jan. and 24th Feb. Sowing date and hybrids interaction effects showed that the longest and shortest days to ear harvest (104.7 and 78.3 days were calculated in 4th Jan. of Merit and in 24th Feb. for Chase. Based on these results, it can be concluded that 'Basin' hybrid Feb. 24 is the most suitable cultivar to be produced in Gachsaran.

  9. Effect of plastic mulching and nitrapyrin on N2O concentration and emissions in China under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Zhu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Fertilized agricultural soils are the main source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). In this study, both soil N2O concentration in the profile and N2O emission were measured to quantify the effect of plastic mulching and nitrapyrin on N2O dynamic in an oasis cotton field. During the observation period, both N2O concentration and N2O emissions rapidly increased following fertigation, and soil temperature, moisture and mineral N content were the main factors influencing N2O. Temporal variation in N2O emission coincided with changes in N2O content in all soil layers, indicating that the accumulation of N2O likely drives the release of N2O into the atmosphere. The crop yields, N2O content (the sum of aqueous and gaseous phases) in the soil and N2O emissions increased linearly as the application of N fertilizer increased from 80 to 400 kg N ha-1. Plastic mulching increased the crop yields by 16-21%, increased the N2O contents by 88-99%, and reduced the cumulative N2O emissions by 19-28%, indicating that the application of plastic film reduced N2O emission probably through restricted the N2O diffusion process, and limited the N2O production through enhanced the N uptake of cotton. The addition of nitrapyrin to the N fertilizer significantly reduced the levels of N2O without influencing crop yield, with N2O content in the soil profile and cumulative N2O emissions decreasing by 25-32% and 23-42%, respectively. Overall, our result suggested the combined use of plastic film and nitrapyrin could be an efficient practice to reduce N2O emission in the oasis cotton field. Keywords: N2O emissions; plastic film mulching; nitrapyrin; climate change

  10. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  11. Evidence that OGG1 glycosylase protects neurons against oxidative DNA damage and cell death under ischemic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Croteau, Deborah L; Souza-Pinto, Nadja

    2011-01-01

    to ischemic and oxidative stress. After exposure of cultured neurons to oxidative and metabolic stress levels of OGG1 in the nucleus were elevated and mitochondria exhibited fragmentation and increased levels of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and reduced membrane potential......7,8-Dihydro-8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) is a major DNA glycosylase involved in base-excision repair (BER) of oxidative DNA damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We used OGG1-deficient (OGG1(-/-)) mice to examine the possible roles of OGG1 in the vulnerability of neurons....... Cortical neurons isolated from OGG1(-/-) mice were more vulnerable to oxidative insults than were OGG1(+/+) neurons, and OGG1(-/-) mice developed larger cortical infarcts and behavioral deficits after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion compared with OGG1(+/+) mice. Accumulations of oxidative DNA...

  12. Novel cell separation method for molecular analysis of neuron-astrocyte cocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGoudriaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the importance of astrocyte-neuron communication in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity has become increasingly clear. Since neuron-astrocyte interactions represent highly dynamic and reciprocal processes, we hypothesized that many astrocyte genes may be regulated as a consequence of their interactions with maturing neurons. In order to identify such neuron-responsive astrocyte genes in vitro, we sought to establish an expedite technique for separation of neurons from co-cultured astrocytes. Our newly established method makes use of cold jet, which exploits different adhesion characteristics of subpopulations of cells (Jirsova et al., 1997, and is rapid, performed under ice-cold conditions and avoids protease-mediated isolation of astrocytes or time-consuming centrifugation, yielding intact astrocyte mRNA with approximately 90% of neuronal RNA removed. Using this purification method, we executed genome-wide profiling in which RNA derived from astrocyte-only cultures was compared with astrocyte RNA derived from differentiating neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. Data analysis determined that many astrocytic mRNAs and biological processes are regulated by neuronal interaction. Our results validate the cold jet as an efficient method to separate astrocytes from neurons in co-culture, and reveals that neurons induce robust gene-expression changes in co-cultured astrocytes.

  13. Afferent neuronal control of type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eHrabovszky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation of the human menstrual cycle represents an important ultimate challenge of reproductive neuroendocrine research. However, direct translation of information from laboratory animal experiments to the human is often complicated by strikingly different and unique reproductive strategies and central regulatory mechanisms that can be present in even closely related animal species. In all mammals studied so far, type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH synthesizing neurons form the final common output way from the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine control of the adenohypophysis. Under various physiological and pathological conditions, hormonal and metabolic signals either regulate GnRH neurons directly or act on upstream neuronal circuitries to influence the pattern of pulsatile GnRH secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation. Neuronal afferents to GnRH cells convey important metabolic-, stress-, sex steroid-, lactational- and circadian signals to the reproductive axis, among other effects. This article gives an overview of the available neuroanatomical literature that described the afferent regulation of human GnRH neurons by peptidergic, monoaminergic and amino acidergic neuronal systems. Recent studies of human genetics provided evidence that central peptidergic signaling by kisspeptins and neurokinin B play particularly important roles in puberty onset and later, in the sex steroid-dependent feedback regulation of GnRH neurons. This review article places special emphasis on the topographic distribution, sexual dimorphism, aging-dependent neuroanatomical changes and plastic connectivity to GnRH neurons of the critically important human hypothalamic kisspeptin and neurokinin B systems.

  14. Microstructural and superficial modification in a Cu-Al-Be shape memory alloy due to superficial severe plastic deformation under sliding wear conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, C. G.; Garcia-Castillo, F. N.; Jacobo, V. H.; Cortés-Pérez, J.; Schouwenaars, R.

    2017-05-01

    Stress induced martensitic transformation in copper-based shape memory alloys has been studied mainly in monocrystals. This limits the use of such results for practical applications as most engineering applications use polycristals. In the present work, a coaxial tribometer developed by the authors was used to characterise the tribological behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-11.5%Al-0.5%Be shape memory alloy in contact with AISI 9840 steel under sliding wear conditions. The surface and microstructure characterization of the worn material was conducted by conventional scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, while the mechanical properties along the transversal section were measured by means of micro-hardness testing. The tribological behaviour of Cu-Al-Be showed to be optimal under sliding wear conditions since the surface only presented a slight damage consisting in some elongated flakes produced by strong plastic deformation. The combination of the plastically modified surface and the effects of mechanically induced martensitic transformation is well-suited for sliding wear conditions since the modified surface provides the necessary strength to avoid superficial damage while superelasticity associated to martensitic transformation is an additional mechanism which allows absorbing mechanical energy associated to wear phenomena as opposed to conventional ductile alloys where severe plastic deformation affects several tens of micrometres below the surface.

  15. Stochastic synaptic plasticity with memristor crossbar arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan

    2016-11-01

    Memristive devices have been shown to exhibit slow and stochastic resistive switching behavior under low-voltage, low-current operating conditions. Here we explore such mechanisms to emulate stochastic plasticity in memristor crossbar synapse arrays. Interfaced with integrate-and-fire spiking neurons, the memristive synapse arrays are capable of implementing stochastic forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity which parallel mean-rate models of stochastic learning with binary synapses. We present theory and experiments with spike-based stochastic learning in memristor crossbar arrays, including simplified modeling as well as detailed physical simulation of memristor stochastic resistive switching characteristics due to voltage and current induced filament formation and collapse. © 2016 IEEE.

  16. Stochastic synaptic plasticity with memristor crossbar arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan; Al-Shedivat, Maruan; Neftci, Emre; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    Memristive devices have been shown to exhibit slow and stochastic resistive switching behavior under low-voltage, low-current operating conditions. Here we explore such mechanisms to emulate stochastic plasticity in memristor crossbar synapse arrays. Interfaced with integrate-and-fire spiking neurons, the memristive synapse arrays are capable of implementing stochastic forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity which parallel mean-rate models of stochastic learning with binary synapses. We present theory and experiments with spike-based stochastic learning in memristor crossbar arrays, including simplified modeling as well as detailed physical simulation of memristor stochastic resistive switching characteristics due to voltage and current induced filament formation and collapse. © 2016 IEEE.

  17. Change in the structure and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic with a polysulfone matrix under the effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.A.; Korkhov, V.P.; Pudnik, V.V.; Rodin, Yu.P.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents the results of studying the change in the structure and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic with a thermoplastic matrix -- aromatic polysulfone -- as a function of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation. In view of the presence in the polysulfone macromolecules and in carbon fibers of a large number of aromatic rings and double bonds providing high radiation resistance of the composite, irradiation was carried out up to large values of absorbed doses (10 9 rad). Specimens of orthogonally reinforced composite KTMU-1 with a thickness of 1.3 mm made from aromatic polysulfone PSF-150 and carbon ribbon that absorbed various gamma radiation dosages were used. It was found that structural transformations under the effect of gamma radiation did not have a substantial effect on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Experimental study and simulation of transformation induced plasticity, and multiphase behaviour of the 16MND5 vessel steel under aniso-thermal multiaxial loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coret, M.

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the aniso-thermal multiphase behaviour of the French vessel steel and more specially about the transformation plasticity in the cases of multiaxial non-proportional loadings paths. The first part of this report is devoted to the presentation of a high temperature tension-torsion experimental device enable of obtaining a large range of cooling rate. This experimental set-up is used to explore the transformation plasticity under proportional or non-proportional loading paths, during austenitic, bainitic and martensitic transformations. The results of the tests are compared to the Leblond's model. In the last part, we propose a two-scale behaviour model in which the type of each phase behaviour can be different. This meso-model is finally used to simulate two real tests on structures. (author) [fr

  19. Changes in the flavonoid and phenolic acid contents and antioxidant activity of red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) due to cultivation under plastic films varying in ultraviolet transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Macías, Paulina; Ordidge, Matthew; Vysini, Eleni; Waroonphan, Saran; Battey, Nicholas H; Gordon, Michael H; Hadley, Paul; John, Philip; Lovegrove, Julie A; Wagstaffe, Alexandra

    2007-12-12

    Red leaf lettuce (Lollo Rosso) was grown under three types of plastic films that varied in transparency to UV radiation (designated as UV block, UV low, and UV window). Flavonoid composition was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Exposure to increased levels of UV radiation during cultivation caused the leaves to redden and increased concentrations of total phenols and the main flavonoids, quercetin and cyanidin glycosides, as well as luteolin conjugates and phenolic acids. The total phenol content increased from 1.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight (FW) for lettuce grown under UV block film to 2.9 and 3.5 mg of GAE/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV low and UV window films. The antioxidant activity was also higher in lettuce exposed to higher levels of UV radiation with ORAC values of 25.4 and 55.1 micromol of Trolox equivalents/g of FW for lettuce grown under the UV block and UV window films, respectively. The content of phenolic acids, quantified as caffeic acid, was also different, ranging from 6.2 to 11.1 micromol/g of FW for lettuce cultivated under the lowest and highest UV exposure plastic films, respectively. Higher concentrations of the flavonoid glycosides were observed with increased exposure to UV radiation, as demonstrated by the concentrations of aglycones after hydrolysis, which were cyanidin (ranging from 165 to 793 microg/g), quercetin (ranging from 196 to 880 microg/g), and luteolin (ranging from 19 to 152 microg/g). The results demonstrate the potential of the use of UV-transparent plastic as a means of increasing beneficial flavonoid content of red leaf lettuce when the crop is grown in polytunnels.

  20. Short-term synaptic plasticity and heterogeneity in neural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, J. F.; Kappen, H. J.; Longtin, A.; Torres, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We review some recent results on neural dynamics and information processing which arise when considering several biophysical factors of interest, in particular, short-term synaptic plasticity and neural heterogeneity. The inclusion of short-term synaptic plasticity leads to enhanced long-term memory capacities, a higher robustness of memory to noise, and irregularity in the duration of the so-called up cortical states. On the other hand, considering some level of neural heterogeneity in neuron models allows neural systems to optimize information transmission in rate coding and temporal coding, two strategies commonly used by neurons to codify information in many brain areas. In all these studies, analytical approximations can be made to explain the underlying dynamics of these neural systems.

  1. β-Hydroxybutyrate Boosts Mitochondrial and Neuronal Metabolism but is not Preferred Over Glucose Under Activated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achanta, Lavanya B; Rowlands, Benjamin D; Thomas, Donald S; Housley, Gary D; Rae, Caroline D

    2017-06-01

    The ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), is metabolised by the brain alongside the mandatory brain fuel glucose. To examine the extent and circumstances by which βOHB can supplement glucose metabolism, we studied guinea pig cortical brain slices using increasing concentrations of [U- 13 C]D-βOHB in conjunction with [1- 13 C]D-glucose under conditions of normo- and hypoglycaemia, as well as under high potassium (40 mmol/L K + ) depolarization in normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. The contribution of βOHB to synthesis of GABA was also probed by inhibiting the synthesis of glutamine, a GABA precursor, with methionine sulfoximine (MSO). [U- 13 C]D-βOHB at lower concentrations (0.25 and 1.25 mmol/L) stimulated mitochondrial metabolism, producing greater total incorporation of label into glutamate and GABA but did not have a similar effect in the cytosolic compartment where labelling of glutamine was reduced at 1.25 mmol/L [U- 13 C]D-βOHB. At higher concentrations (2.5 mmol/L) [U- 13 C]D-βOHB inhibited metabolism of [1- 13 C]D-glucose, and reduced total label incorporation and total metabolite pools. When glucose levels were reduced, βOHB was able to partially restore the loss of glutamate and GABA caused by hypoglycaemia, but was not able to supplement levels of lactate, glutamine or alanine or to prevent the increase in aspartate. Under depolarizing conditions glucose was the preferred substrate over βOHB, even in hypoglycaemic conditions where comparatively less βOHB was incorporated except into aspartate isotopomers. Inhibition of glutamine synthesis with MSO had no significant effect on incorporation of label from [U- 13 C]D-βOHB into GABA C2,1 indicating that the majority of this GABA was synthesized in GABAergic neurons from [U- 13 C]D-βOHB rather than from Gln C4,5 imported from astrocytes.

  2. Mechanisms of translation control underlying long-lasting synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Emanuela; Huynh, Thu N; Klann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of memory formation and its persistence is a phenomenon that has been studied intensely for centuries. Memory exists in many forms and is stored in various brain regions. Generally speaking, memories are reorganized into broadly distributed cortical networks over time through systems level consolidation. At the cellular level, storage of information is believed to initially occur via altered synaptic strength by processes such as long-term potentiation. New protein synthesis is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical regulator of cap-dependent protein synthesis and is required for numerous forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. As such, the study of mTORC1 and protein factors that control translation initiation and elongation has enhanced our understanding of how the process of protein synthesis is regulated during memory formation. Herein we discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate protein synthesis as well as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that demonstrate the requirement for proper translational control in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Elastic-plastic cyclic deformation of the TEXTOR 94 modified liner under conditions of heating and plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, F.H.; Czymek, G.; Giesen, B.; Bondarchuk, E.; Doinikov, N.; Kozhukhovskaja, N.; Panin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present liner of the TEXTOR 94 tokamak installed inside the vacuum vessel represents the thin toroidal shell that is rested on the vessel inner surface. In order to integrate the dynamic ergodic divertor into the tokamak the liner design has been drastically changed. The 120 deg. sector of the liner shell facing the ergodic coils system is removed and some additional holes in the liner are provisioned. This demands a new liner supporting system allowing for the liner thermal expansion and taking the electromagnetic load occurring in the liner during plasma disruption. The cyclic elasto-plastic deformations of the liner caused by the electromagnetic forces and temperature rise have been studied. It is shown that the local plastic deformations occur in the liner elements after the first heating and electromagnetic loading. The most thermal stresses take place in the reinforcing structures around the holes because of the thermal expansion difference of the inconel shell and the steel reinforcements. These stresses are coupled with the bending stress due to the electromagnetic loading. Subsequent repetitive loading does not lead to any significant increment of the plastic deformation. After the materials' hardening the structure cyclically works mostly in the elastic range

  4. Underlying mechanism of regulatory actions of diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, on neuronal potassium channels and firing: an experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C W; Hung, T Y; Liao, Y K; Hsu, M C; Wu, S N

    2013-06-01

    Diclofenac (DIC), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is known to exert anti-nociceptive and anti-convulsant actions; however, its effects on ion currents, in neurons remain debatable. We aimed to investigate (1) potential effects of diclofenac on membrane potential and potassium currents in differentiated NSC-34 neuronal cells and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with whole-cell patch-clamp technology, and (2) firing of action potentials (APs), using a simulation model from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons based on diclofenac's effects on potassium currents. In the NSC-34 cells, diclofenac exerted an inhibitory effect on delayed-rectifier K⁺ current (I(KDR)) with an IC₅₀ value of 73 μM. Diclofenac not merely inhibited the I(KDR) amplitude in response to membrane depolarization, but also accelerated the process of current inactivation. The inhibition by diclofenac of IK(DR) was not reversed by subsequent application of either naloxone. Importantly, diclofenac (300 μM) increased the amplitude of M-type K⁺ current (I)(KM)), while flupirtine (10 μM) or meclofenamic acid (10 μM) enhanced it effectively. Consistently, diclofenac (100 μM) increased the amplitude of I(KM) and diminished the I(KDR) amplitude, with a shortening of inactivation time constant in DRG neurons. Furthermore, by using the simulation modeling, we demonstrated the potential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying changes in AP firing caused by diclofenac. During the exposure to diclofenac, the actions on both I(KM) and I(KDR) could be potential mechanism through which it influences the excitability of fast-spiking neurons. Caution needs to be made in attributing the effects of diclofenac primarily to those produced by the activation of I(KM).

  5. TrpA1 activation in peripheral sensory neurons underlies the ionic basis of pain hypersensitivity in response to vinca alkaloids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Boiko

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN, a side effect of many anti-cancer drugs including the vinca alkaloids, is characterized by a severe pain syndrome that compromises treatment in many patients. Currently there are no effective treatments for this pain syndrome except for the reduction of anti-cancer drug dose. Existing data supports the model that the pain associated with CIPN is the result of anti-cancer drugs augmenting the function of the peripheral sensory nociceptors but the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of anti-cancer drugs on sensory neuron function are not well described. Studies from animal models have suggested a number of disease etiologies including mitotoxicity, axonal degeneration, immune signaling, and reduced sensory innervations but these outcomes are the result of prolonged treatment paradigms and do not necessarily represent the early formative events associated with CIPN. Here we show that acute exposure to vinca alkaloids results in an immediate pain syndrome in both flies and mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that exposure of isolated sensory neurons to vinca alkaloids results in the generation of an inward sodium current capable of depolarizing these neurons to threshold resulting in neuronal firing. These neuronal effects of vinca alkaloids require the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TrpA1 channel, and the hypersensitization to painful stimuli in response to the acute exposure to vinca alkaloids is reduced in TrpA1 mutant flies and mice. These findings demonstrate the direct excitation of sensory neurons by CIPN-causing chemotherapy drugs, and identify TrpA1 as an important target during the pathogenesis of CIPN.

  6. The neuronal substrate of risky choice: an insight into the contributions of neuroimaging to the understanding of theories on decision making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorhold, Verena

    2008-04-01

    This chapter provides an overview of studies in the field of neuroscience that investigate some of the processes and concepts of risk perception, risky choice, and decision making under risk. First, early studies in the field of neuroscience addressing the diminished decision-making abilities in lesion patients are presented. A classical task in this research field is described along with its neural implications. After this, the underlying model, its hypotheses, and neuronal implications are discussed. Different aspects within risky decision making, such as the influence of memory, inhibition, motivation, and personality, on risky choice and the respective underlying neuronal substrate are described. After this, studies of risky decision making in healthy subjects are reviewed. A selection of studies shows that theories focusing on cognitive aspects only have to be enriched in order to allow for additional aspects within risky decision making (e.g., emotion). Next, the classical economic approaches and the development of theories incorporating further aspects within economical decision making and the underlying neuronal substrate will be presented. Finally, research in the field of neuroeconomics, focusing on the role of social decision making and evaluative judgment within risky decision making, is reviewed.

  7. Phrenic long-term facilitation requires PKCθ activity within phrenic motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, Michael J; Fields, Daryl P; Huxtable, Adrianne G; Peterson, Timothy J; Dale, Erica A; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2015-05-27

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces a form of spinal motor plasticity known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF); pLTF is a prolonged increase in phrenic motor output after AIH has ended. In anesthetized rats, we demonstrate that pLTF requires activity of the novel PKC isoform, PKCθ, and that the relevant PKCθ is within phrenic motor neurons. Whereas spinal PKCθ inhibitors block pLTF, inhibitors targeting other PKC isoforms do not. PKCθ is highly expressed in phrenic motor neurons, and PKCθ knockdown with intrapleural siRNAs abolishes pLTF. Intrapleural siRNAs targeting PKCζ, an atypical PKC isoform expressed in phrenic motor neurons that underlies a distinct form of phrenic motor plasticity, does not affect pLTF. Thus, PKCθ plays a critical role in spinal AIH-induced respiratory motor plasticity, and the relevant PKCθ is localized within phrenic motor neurons. Intrapleural siRNA delivery has considerable potential as a therapeutic tool to selectively manipulate plasticity in vital respiratory motor neurons. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358107-11$15.00/0.

  8. Generation of Regionally Specified Neural Progenitors and Functional Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells under Defined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnete Kirkeby

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To model human neural-cell-fate specification and to provide cells for regenerative therapies, we have developed a method to generate human neural progenitors and neurons from human embryonic stem cells, which recapitulates human fetal brain development. Through the addition of a small molecule that activates canonical WNT signaling, we induced rapid and efficient dose-dependent specification of regionally defined neural progenitors ranging from telencephalic forebrain to posterior hindbrain fates. Ten days after initiation of differentiation, the progenitors could be transplanted to the adult rat striatum, where they formed neuron-rich and tumor-free grafts with maintained regional specification. Cells patterned toward a ventral midbrain (VM identity generated a high proportion of authentic dopaminergic neurons after transplantation. The dopamine neurons showed morphology, projection pattern, and protein expression identical to that of human fetal VM cells grafted in parallel. VM-patterned but not forebrain-patterned neurons released dopamine and reversed motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

  9. Assessment of stability and plasticity of new hybrids of maize (Zea mays L. under the conditions of Polissia and Steppe zones of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Присяжнюк

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To select promising high productive maize hyb­rids of middle-early maturity group in terms of stability and plasticity of main economic characters. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, analytical procedure and statistical evaluation. Results. 14 maize hybrids recorded in the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine in 2015 were studied for plasticity and stability of such traits as productivity, protein and starch content. Intensive highly-plastic hybrid ‘SI Tiptop’ was selected among the studied ones for productivity trait that can respond properly to changes of growing conditions. It was defined that for the starch content such hybrids as ‘SI Tiptop’, ‘SI Enigma’, ‘SI Arioso’, ‘Svich 38’, ‘Svich 35’, ‘HU 8653’, ‘Zdobutok’ and ‘SI Contrakt’ belonged to the intensive type and combined rather high values and the stability of the studied trait under variable conditions. The following hybrids as ‘NS 2642’, ‘DK S3016’, ‘Svich 38’, ‘NS 2632’ were qualified as intensive for protein content and appeared to be highly-plastic but stability values of this trait were low. ‘Svich 38’ hybrid was intensive simultaneously for two traits such as protein and starch content and showed rather high values of plasticity. ‘SI Tiptop’, ‘SI Enigma’ and ‘Svich 35’ were defined as hybrids of extensive type that provided stable protein content in adverse cultivation conditions. Conclusions. On the condition that intensive crop growing technologies should be used, for obtaining stable yields it is advisable to sow only highly-plastic hybrids that can adapt to unfavorable environmental factors, including ‘SI Tiptop’ – for productivity trait, ‘Zdobutok’ and ‘SI Kontrakt’ – for starch content, ‘MAC 24N‘, ‘NA 2642‘ and ‘Danubio’ – for protein content.

  10. CNF1 improves astrocytic ability to support neuronal growth and differentiation in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Malchiodi-Albedi

    Full Text Available Modulation of cerebral Rho GTPases activity in mice brain by intracerebral administration of Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1 leads to enhanced neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity and improves learning and memory. To gain more insight into the interactions between CNF1 and neuronal cells, we used primary neuronal and astrocytic cultures from rat embryonic brain to study CNF1 effects on neuronal differentiation, focusing on dendritic tree growth and synapse formation, which are strictly modulated by Rho GTPases. CNF1 profoundly remodeled the cytoskeleton of hippocampal and cortical neurons, which showed philopodia-like, actin-positive projections, thickened and poorly branched dendrites, and a decrease in synapse number. CNF1 removal, however, restored dendritic tree development and synapse formation, suggesting that the toxin can reversibly block neuronal differentiation. On differentiated neurons, CNF1 had a similar effacing effect on synapses. Therefore, a direct interaction with CNF1 is apparently deleterious for neurons. Since astrocytes play a pivotal role in neuronal differentiation and synaptic regulation, we wondered if the beneficial in vivo effect could be mediated by astrocytes. Primary astrocytes from embryonic cortex were treated with CNF1 for 48 hours and used as a substrate for growing hippocampal neurons. Such neurons showed an increased development of neurites, in respect to age-matched controls, with a wider dendritic tree and a richer content in synapses. In CNF1-exposed astrocytes, the production of interleukin 1β, known to reduce dendrite development and complexity in neuronal cultures, was decreased. These results demonstrate that astrocytes, under the influence of CNF1, increase their supporting activity on neuronal growth and differentiation, possibly related to the diminished levels of interleukin 1β. These observations suggest that the enhanced synaptic plasticity and improved learning and memory described

  11. CNF1 Improves Astrocytic Ability to Support Neuronal Growth and Differentiation In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Paradisi, Silvia; Di Nottia, Michela; Simone, Daiana; Travaglione, Sara; Falzano, Loredana; Guidotti, Marco; Frank, Claudio; Cutarelli, Alessandro; Fabbri, Alessia; Fiorentini, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of cerebral Rho GTPases activity in mice brain by intracerebral administration of Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) leads to enhanced neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity and improves learning and memory. To gain more insight into the interactions between CNF1 and neuronal cells, we used primary neuronal and astrocytic cultures from rat embryonic brain to study CNF1 effects on neuronal differentiation, focusing on dendritic tree growth and synapse formation, which are strictly modulated by Rho GTPases. CNF1 profoundly remodeled the cytoskeleton of hippocampal and cortical neurons, which showed philopodia-like, actin-positive projections, thickened and poorly branched dendrites, and a decrease in synapse number. CNF1 removal, however, restored dendritic tree development and synapse formation, suggesting that the toxin can reversibly block neuronal differentiation. On differentiated neurons, CNF1 had a similar effacing effect on synapses. Therefore, a direct interaction with CNF1 is apparently deleterious for neurons. Since astrocytes play a pivotal role in neuronal differentiation and synaptic regulation, we wondered if the beneficial in vivo effect could be mediated by astrocytes. Primary astrocytes from embryonic cortex were treated with CNF1 for 48 hours and used as a substrate for growing hippocampal neurons. Such neurons showed an increased development of neurites, in respect to age-matched controls, with a wider dendritic tree and a richer content in synapses. In CNF1-exposed astrocytes, the production of interleukin 1β, known to reduce dendrite development and complexity in neuronal cultures, was decreased. These results demonstrate that astrocytes, under the influence of CNF1, increase their supporting activity on neuronal growth and differentiation, possibly related to the diminished levels of interleukin 1β. These observations suggest that the enhanced synaptic plasticity and improved learning and memory described in CNF1-injected

  12. Eigenvalue distributions for a class of covariance matrices with application to Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro neurons under noisy conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzani, Armando; Castellani, Gastone C; Cooper, Leon N

    2010-05-01

    We analyze the effects of noise correlations in the input to, or among, Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro neurons using the Wigner semicircular law to construct random, positive-definite symmetric correlation matrices and compute their eigenvalue distributions. In the finite dimensional case, we compare our analytic results with numerical simulations and show the effects of correlations on the lifetimes of synaptic strengths in various visual environments. These correlations can be due either to correlations in the noise from the input lateral geniculate nucleus neurons, or correlations in the variability of lateral connections in a network of neurons. In particular, we find that for fixed dimensionality, a large noise variance can give rise to long lifetimes of synaptic strengths. This may be of physiological significance.

  13. Physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of the cerebral cortex in relation to musical instrument performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramo, Mark Jude

    2004-05-01

    The acquisition and maintenance of fine-motor skills underlying musical instrument performance rely on the development, integration, and plasticity of neural systems localized within specific subregions of the cerebral cortex. Cortical representations of a motor sequence, such as a sequence of finger movements along the keys of a saxophone, take shape before the figure sequence occurs. The temporal pattern and spatial coordinates are computed by networks of neurons before and during the movements. When a finger sequence is practiced over and over, performance gets faster and more accurate, probably because cortical neurons generating the sequence increase in spatial extent, their electrical discharges become more synchronous, or both. By combining experimental methods such as single- and multi-neuron recordings, focal stimulation, microanatomical tracers, gross morphometry, evoked potentials, and functional imaging in humans and nonhuman primates, neuroscientists are gaining insights into the cortical physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of musical instrument performance.

  14. Synchrony detection and amplification by silicon neurons with STDP synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofill-i-petit, Adria; Murray, Alan F

    2004-09-01

    Spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) is a form of plasticity driven by precise spike-timing differences between presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes. Thus, the learning rules underlying STDP are suitable for learning neuronal temporal phenomena such as spike-timing synchrony. It is well known that weight-independent STDP creates unstable learning processes resulting in balanced bimodal weight distributions. In this paper, we present a neuromorphic analog very large scale integration (VLSI) circuit that contains a feedforward network of silicon neurons with STDP synapses. The learning rule implemented can be tuned to have a moderate level of weight dependence. This helps stabilise the learning process and still generates binary weight distributions. From on-chip learning experiments we show that the chip can detect and amplify hierarchical spike-timing synchrony structures embedded in noisy spike trains. The weight distributions of the network emerging from learning are bimodal.

  15. Potencial produtivo de videiras cultivadas sob cobertura de plástico Yield potential of grapevine cultivated under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do uso de cobertura de plástico sobre os componentes do rendimento da videira (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. O experimento foi realizado nas safras 2005/2006 e 2006/2007, em Flores da Cunha, RS, em duas áreas de vinhedo, uma com cobertura de plástico impermeável e outra sem cobertura (controle. O microclima foi avaliado quanto à temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e velocidade do vento próximo ao dossel vegetativo e a os cachos. A avaliação dos componentes de rendimento ocorreu em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, e foram identificadas dez plantas marcadas aleatoriamente em cada área. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta e por hectare, o número de cachos por planta e por metro quadrado, o número de sarmentos por metro quadrado, a massa e comprimento de cacho, a massa de engaço, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro transversal de bagas e a relação entre massa de película e massa de polpa. Acobertura de plástico possibilita aumento na produtividade, não afeta a relação entre massa de casca e massa de polpa das bagas e favorece a estabilidade de produção, independentemente das condições meteorológicas no ciclo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of plastic cover on the yield components of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. The experiment was carried out in 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons, in Flores da Cunha, RS, Brazil, in two vineyard areas, one covered with an impermeable plastic film and other without covering (control. The microclimate was evaluated in terms of air temperature, air relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation and wind speed above canopy and close to clusters. The yield components were evaluated in a completely randomized design, in ten plants randomly selected in each area. Measures were made for production per plant, yield per

  16. Shakedown Analysis of Composite Steel-Concrete Frame Systems with Plastic and Brittle Elements Under Seismic Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawdin Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the earthquake analysis of composite steel-concrete frames is performed by finding solution of the optimization problem of shakedown analysis, which takes into account the nonlinear properties of materials. The constructions are equipped with systems bearing structures of various elastic-plastic and brittle elements absorbing energy of seismic actions. A mathematical model of this problem is presented on the base of limit analysis theory with partial redistribution of self-stressed internal forces. It is assumed that the load varies randomly within the specified limits. These limits are determined by the possible direction and magnitude of seismic loads. The illustrative example of such analysis of system is introduced. Some attention has been paid to the practical application of the proposed mathematical model.

  17. Shakedown Analysis of Composite Steel-Concrete Frame Systems with Plastic and Brittle Elements Under Seismic Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawdin, Piotr; Bulanov, George

    2017-06-01

    In this paper the earthquake analysis of composite steel-concrete frames is performed by finding solution of the optimization problem of shakedown analysis, which takes into account the nonlinear properties of materials. The constructions are equipped with systems bearing structures of various elastic-plastic and brittle elements absorbing energy of seismic actions. A mathematical model of this problem is presented on the base of limit analysis theory with partial redistribution of self-stressed internal forces. It is assumed that the load varies randomly within the specified limits. These limits are determined by the possible direction and magnitude of seismic loads. The illustrative example of such analysis of system is introduced. Some attention has been paid to the practical application of the proposed mathematical model.

  18. Evaluation of inelastic constitutive models under plasticity-creep interaction for 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel: Results of joint work (A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Ohno, N.; Suzuki, A.; Igari, T.

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate the validity of existing inelastic constitutive models under the condition of plasticity-creep interaction, ten kinds of constitutive models were applied to sixteen bench mark problems of four categories, and the calculated results were compared with the experiments of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel at 600 0 C. The present bench mark project provides the following remarks: (1) The strain rate effect on the stress-strain relation can be represented, in some degree, even by a simple superposition model of classical type, and some of unified models describe the saturation of increase in flow stress with higher strain rate. (2) The characteristics of the plasticity-creep interaction were predicted by the modified superposition model as well as by unified ones in the actual calculations for the propounded problems. (3) Although the sophisticated unified constitutive models tend to give qualitatively better results, the complicated procedures in determining material parameters from the data of conventional tests need some improvements. The subcommittee has been reorganized to focus her attention in applying thus developed results under uniaxial stress state to multiaxial one, and the out-put will be expected to report in a couple of years

  19. Learning of Precise Spike Times with Homeostatic Membrane Potential Dependent Synaptic Plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Albers

    Full Text Available Precise spatio-temporal patterns of neuronal action potentials underly e.g. sensory representations and control of muscle activities. However, it is not known how the synaptic efficacies in the neuronal networks of the brain adapt such that they can reliably generate spikes at specific points in time. Existing activity-dependent plasticity rules like Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity are agnostic to the goal of learning spike times. On the other hand, the existing formal and supervised learning algorithms perform a temporally precise comparison of projected activity with the target, but there is no known biologically plausible implementation of this comparison. Here, we propose a simple and local unsupervised synaptic plasticity mechanism that is derived from the requirement of a balanced membrane potential. Since the relevant signal for synaptic change is the postsynaptic voltage rather than spike times, we call the plasticity rule Membrane Potential Dependent Plasticity (MPDP. Combining our plasticity mechanism with spike after-hyperpolarization causes a sensitivity of synaptic change to pre- and postsynaptic spike times which can reproduce Hebbian spike timing dependent plasticity for inhibitory synapses as was found in experiments. In addition, the sensitivity of MPDP to the time course of the voltage when generating a spike allows MPDP to distinguish between weak (spurious and strong (teacher spikes, which therefore provides a neuronal basis for the comparison of actual and target activity. For spatio-temporal input spike patterns our conceptually simple plasticity rule achieves a surprisingly high storage capacity for spike associations. The sensitivity of the MPDP to the subthreshold membrane potential during training allows robust memory retrieval after learning even in the presence of activity corrupted by noise. We propose that MPDP represents a biophysically plausible mechanism to learn temporal target activity patterns.

  20. Learning of Precise Spike Times with Homeostatic Membrane Potential Dependent Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Christian; Westkott, Maren; Pawelzik, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Precise spatio-temporal patterns of neuronal action potentials underly e.g. sensory representations and control of muscle activities. However, it is not known how the synaptic efficacies in the neuronal networks of the brain adapt such that they can reliably generate spikes at specific points in time. Existing activity-dependent plasticity rules like Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity are agnostic to the goal of learning spike times. On the other hand, the existing formal and supervised learning algorithms perform a temporally precise comparison of projected activity with the target, but there is no known biologically plausible implementation of this comparison. Here, we propose a simple and local unsupervised synaptic plasticity mechanism that is derived from the requirement of a balanced membrane potential. Since the relevant signal for synaptic change is the postsynaptic voltage rather than spike times, we call the plasticity rule Membrane Potential Dependent Plasticity (MPDP). Combining our plasticity mechanism with spike after-hyperpolarization causes a sensitivity of synaptic change to pre- and postsynaptic spike times which can reproduce Hebbian spike timing dependent plasticity for inhibitory synapses as was found in experiments. In addition, the sensitivity of MPDP to the time course of the voltage when generating a spike allows MPDP to distinguish between weak (spurious) and strong (teacher) spikes, which therefore provides a neuronal basis for the comparison of actual and target activity. For spatio-temporal input spike patterns our conceptually simple plasticity rule achieves a surprisingly high storage capacity for spike associations. The sensitivity of the MPDP to the subthreshold membrane potential during training allows robust memory retrieval after learning even in the presence of activity corrupted by noise. We propose that MPDP represents a biophysically plausible mechanism to learn temporal target activity patterns.

  1. Environment and brain plasticity: towards an endogenous pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Alessandro; Berardi, Nicoletta; Maffei, Lamberto

    2014-01-01

    Brain plasticity refers to the remarkable property of cerebral neurons to change their structure and function in response to experience, a fundamental theoretical theme in the field of basic research and a major focus for neural rehabilitation following brain disease. While much of the early work on this topic was based on deprivation approaches relying on sensory experience reduction procedures, major advances have been recently obtained using the conceptually opposite paradigm of environmental enrichment, whereby an enhanced stimulation is provided at multiple cognitive, sensory, social, and motor levels. In this survey, we aim to review past and recent work concerning the influence exerted by the environment on brain plasticity processes, with special emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms and starting from experimental work on animal models to move to highly relevant work performed in humans. We will initiate introducing the concept of brain plasticity and describing classic paradigmatic examples to illustrate how changes at the level of neuronal properties can ultimately affect and direct key perceptual and behavioral outputs. Then, we describe the remarkable effects elicited by early stressful conditions, maternal care, and preweaning enrichment on central nervous system development, with a separate section focusing on neurodevelopmental disorders. A specific section is dedicated to the striking ability of environmental enrichment and physical exercise to empower adult brain plasticity. Finally, we analyze in the last section the ever-increasing available knowledge on the effects elicited by enriched living conditions on physiological and pathological aging brain processes.

  2. Activation of neuron generator of luciola mingrelica luminescence flashes under the effect of pulse X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol'shakov, V.Yu.; Drobchenko, E.A.; Landa, S.B.; Pejmer, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of low-level pulse X-radiation on spontaneous photoactivity and luminous communicative behaviour of Luciola mingrelica has been investigated. It was shown that X-radiation doses of as low as 5x10 -5 Gy increased endogenous flashing activity and disinhibited the reaction of insects to light flashes imitating signals of mating partners. Powerful radiation pulses may influence significantly an instinctive behaviour and its neuronal organization

  3. Neuronal synchrony: peculiarity and generality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Thomas; Huerta, Ramon; Rabinovich, Mikhail I

    2008-09-01

    Synchronization in neuronal systems is a new and intriguing application of dynamical systems theory. Why are neuronal systems different as a subject for synchronization? (1) Neurons in themselves are multidimensional nonlinear systems that are able to exhibit a wide variety of different activity patterns. Their "dynamical repertoire" includes regular or chaotic spiking, regular or chaotic bursting, multistability, and complex transient regimes. (2) Usually, neuronal oscillations are the result of the cooperative activity of many synaptically connected neurons (a neuronal circuit). Thus, it is necessary to consider synchronization between different neuronal circuits as well. (3) The synapses that implement the coupling between neurons are also dynamical elements and their intrinsic dynamics influences the process of synchronization or entrainment significantly. In this review we will focus on four new problems: (i) the synchronization in minimal neuronal networks with plastic synapses (synchronization with activity dependent coupling), (ii) synchronization of bursts that are generated by a group of nonsymmetrically coupled inhibitory neurons (heteroclinic synchronization), (iii) the coordination of activities of two coupled neuronal networks (partial synchronization of small composite structures), and (iv) coarse grained synchronization in larger systems (synchronization on a mesoscopic scale). (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Study the Cyclic Plasticity Behavior of 508 LAS under Constant, Variable and Grid-Load-Following Loading Cycles for Fatigue Evaluation of PWR Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Barua, Bipul [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report provides an update of an earlier assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for components in light water reactors. This report is a deliverable in September 2016 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2016 report, we presented a detailed thermal-mechanical stress analysis model for simulating the stress-strain state of a reactor pressure vessel and its nozzles under grid-load-following conditions. In this report, we provide stress-controlled fatigue test data for 508 LAS base metal alloy under different loading amplitudes (constant, variable, and random grid-load-following) and environmental conditions (in air or pressurized water reactor coolant water at 300°C). Also presented is a cyclic plasticity-based analytical model that can simultaneously capture the amplitude and time dependency of the component behavior under fatigue loading. Results related to both amplitude-dependent and amplitude-independent parameters are presented. The validation results for the analytical/mechanistic model are discussed. This report provides guidance for estimating time-dependent, amplitude-independent parameters related to material behavior under different service conditions. The developed mechanistic models and the reported material parameters can be used to conduct more accurate fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components.

  5. Recovery and deformation substructures of zircaloy-4 in high temperature plasticity under stationary or non-stationary stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocek, M.; Armas, I.

    1982-01-01

    It was the aim of the present investigation to examine how the recovery rate in creep is influenced by a non-stationary stress. For purposes of phenomenological analysis it is postulated that, irrespective of whether the applied stress is stationary or not, for large strains the mean internal stress sigmasub(i) approaches a stationary value sigmasub(i,s). The stationary recovery rate Rsub(s) for constant load creep turns out be governed by the applied stress indicating that the recovery mechanism is dynamic in nature. For sigma-ramp loading, Rsub(s) is dependent on the stress rate sigma. In tensional stress cycling, Rsub(s) is governed by the maximum stress sigmasub(M) and is also dependent on the ratio of sigmasub(M) to the minimum stress sigma 0 . TEM examination of Zircaloy-4 specimens crept at 800 0 C at constant and cycling load respectively could not reveal any differences in the deformation substructure for the two loading types. Subgrain formation did not appear, individual dislocations were observed only rarely. However, typical networks were formed as well as pileups which perhaps are responsible for the back stress in high temperature plasticity (HTP). (orig.)

  6. Quantifying the Mechanical Properties of Materials and the Process of Elastic-Plastic Deformation under External Stress on Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Valíček

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper solves the problem of the nonexistence of a new method for calculation of dynamics of stress-deformation states of deformation tool-material systems including the construction of stress-strain diagrams. The presented solution focuses on explaining the mechanical behavior of materials after cutting by abrasive waterjet technology (AWJ, especially from the point of view of generated surface topography. AWJ is a flexible tool accurately responding to the mechanical resistance of the material according to the accurately determined shape and roughness of machined surfaces. From the surface topography, it is possible to resolve the transition from ideally elastic to quasi-elastic and plastic stress-strain states. For detecting the surface structure, an optical profilometer was used. Based on the analysis of experimental measurements and the results of analytical studies, a mathematical-physical model was created and an exact method of acquiring the equivalents of mechanical parameters from the topography of surfaces generated by abrasive waterjet cutting and external stress in general was determined. The results of the new approach to the construction of stress-strain diagrams are presented. The calculated values agreed very well with those obtained by a certified laboratory VÚHŽ.

  7. Quantifying the Mechanical Properties of Materials and the Process of Elastic-Plastic Deformation under External Stress on Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valíček, Jan; Harničárová, Marta; Öchsner, Andreas; Hutyrová, Zuzana; Kušnerová, Milena; Tozan, Hakan; Michenka, Vít; Šepelák, Vladimír; Mitaľ, Dušan; Zajac, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The paper solves the problem of the nonexistence of a new method for calculation of dynamics of stress-deformation states of deformation tool-material systems including the construction of stress-strain diagrams. The presented solution focuses on explaining the mechanical behavior of materials after cutting by abrasive waterjet technology (AWJ), especially from the point of view of generated surface topography. AWJ is a flexible tool accurately responding to the mechanical resistance of the material according to the accurately determined shape and roughness of machined surfaces. From the surface topography, it is possible to resolve the transition from ideally elastic to quasi-elastic and plastic stress-strain states. For detecting the surface structure, an optical profilometer was used. Based on the analysis of experimental measurements and the results of analytical studies, a mathematical-physical model was created and an exact method of acquiring the equivalents of mechanical parameters from the topography of surfaces generated by abrasive waterjet cutting and external stress in general was determined. The results