WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying mortality rates

  1. Child mortality estimation: consistency of under-five mortality rate estimates using full birth histories and summary birth histories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romesh Silva

    Full Text Available Given the lack of complete vital registration data in most developing countries, for many countries it is not possible to accurately estimate under-five mortality rates from vital registration systems. Heavy reliance is often placed on direct and indirect methods for analyzing data collected from birth histories to estimate under-five mortality rates. Yet few systematic comparisons of these methods have been undertaken. This paper investigates whether analysts should use both direct and indirect estimates from full birth histories, and under what circumstances indirect estimates derived from summary birth histories should be used.Usings Demographic and Health Surveys data from West Africa, East Africa, Latin America, and South/Southeast Asia, I quantify the differences between direct and indirect estimates of under-five mortality rates, analyze data quality issues, note the relative effects of these issues, and test whether these issues explain the observed differences. I find that indirect estimates are generally consistent with direct estimates, after adjustment for fertility change and birth transference, but don't add substantial additional insight beyond direct estimates. However, choice of direct or indirect method was found to be important in terms of both the adjustment for data errors and the assumptions made about fertility.Although adjusted indirect estimates are generally consistent with adjusted direct estimates, some notable inconsistencies were observed for countries that had experienced either a political or economic crisis or stalled health transition in their recent past. This result suggests that when a population has experienced a smooth mortality decline or only short periods of excess mortality, both adjusted methods perform equally well. However, the observed inconsistencies identified suggest that the indirect method is particularly prone to bias resulting from violations of its strong assumptions about recent mortality

  2. The effect of public health spending on under-five mortality rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda's under-five mortality rate has remained high that is 68 per 1000 live birth in relation to MDGs target 56 per 1000 live birth in 2014 .The MDGs assessment report by United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) shows that the low level of public health expenditure is a major factor determining poor child health ...

  3. The impact of debt relief on under five mortality rate in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryema, John Bosco; Gyimah-Brempong, Kwabena; Picone, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative on under five mortality rate (U5MR) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The HIPC Initiative involves debt forgiveness and the redirection of funds that were meant to service external debt towards the provision of social services and poverty reduction in eligible countries. The Initiative is akin to a natural experiment since some countries benefited while some did not, and the timing of debt forgiveness varied across countries. We exploit these variations to identify the impact of HIPC Initiative on child mortality using a dynamic panel data estimator. We find that participation in HIPC Initiative is associated with statistically significant decreases in U5MR. On the other hand, the impact of actual debt cancelled is statistically insignificant.

  4. [Under-5-mortality rate and causes of death in China, 2000 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiang; Yuan, Xiu-qin; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiao-hong; Miao, Lei; He, Chun-hua; Wang, Yan-ping

    2012-06-01

    To assess the changes and the leading cause of deaths for children under 5 years old, in China, during 2000 - 2010, with the aim of evaluation on the progress in achieving the relative goal set by "National Program of Action for Child Development in China (2001 - 2010)", and understanding the related challenges. Data used in this study were collected from the population-based National Maternal and Child's Health Surveillance Network of China. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Under-5-mortality rate (U5MR) and the leading cause of deaths for under-5 children were analyzed. Nationwide IMR and U5MR in 2010 dropped by 59.3% and 58.7% respectively, compared to that in 2000. Decreases by 50.8% and 47.1% in IMR and U5MR were observed in urban areas, and 56.5% and 56.0% in rural areas during this period. Compared with data from 2000, the leading causes-specific U5MR in 2010 had significantly declined. The top 5 leading causes of death in 2010 were premature birth/low birth weight, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, congenital heart disease and accidental suffocation, but were different in urban and rural areas. In 2010, both IMR and U5MR from the rural areas were 2.8-folds than that of the urban areas. In addition, IMRs in the Middle and Western parts of China were 1.5 and 2.3-folds respectively of that in the East, and U5MR in Middle and West was 1.5 and 2.2-folds respectively of that in East. IMR, U5MR and the leading causes specific mortality rate in China declined remarkably from 2000 to 2010, and the goal set by "National Program of Action for Child Development in China (2001 - 2010)" had been successfully achieved. However, the disparity on child's health in regions and in urban or rural areas, still remained a challenge.

  5. Mortality Rate for Children under 5 Years of Age in Zhejiang Province, China from 1997 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifang; Chen, Dingwan; Xu, Yanhua; Yang, Rulai; Zhao, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    This is a population based descriptive study that examined the trends in childhood mortality among under five children and the major causes under five mortality in Zhejiang Province, China. A population-based survey was conducted through a province-level surveillance network. The mortality rate and leading causes of death for children under 5 years of age were analyzed. The trend in the mortality rate for children under five and cause-specific mortality rates were analyzed by chi-square with SPSS 13.0 software. In Zhejiang Province, during 1997-2012, mortality rates in neonates, postneonatal infants, and children under 5 years were reduced by 64.2% (from 7.85 to 2.81 per 1000 livebirths), 66.7% (from 12.73 to 4.24 per 1000 livebirths), and 63% (from 15.76 to 5.85 per 1000 livebirths), respectively. The mortality rates in children under 5 years of age decreased by 59.5% (from 11.09 to 4.49 per 1000 livebirths) and 65.8% (from 19.30 to 6.61 per 1000 livebirths) in urban and rural areas, respectively. Prematurity/low birth weight and congenital heart disease were in the top five causes of death in children under 5 years of age during 1997-2012. Zhejiang province has achieved great progress in the reduction of mortality rates in children under five-years-old during the past two decades. The future tasks on reduction of mortality rate still rely on how to improve the management of premature birth/low birth weight, reduce birth defects and prevent accidental deaths in Zhejiang Province.

  6. Impact of Health Research Systems on Under-5 Mortality Rate: A Trend Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Yazdizadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Between 1990 and 2015, under-5 mortality rate (U5MR declined by 53%, from an estimated rate of 91 deaths per 1000 live births to 43, globally. The aim of this study was to determine the share of health research systems in this decrease alongside other influential factors. Methods We used random effect regression models including the ‘random intercept’ and ‘random intercept and random slope’ models to analyze the panel data from 1990 to 2010. We selected the countries with U5MRs falling between the first and third quartiles in 1990. We used both the total articles (TA and the number of child-specific articles (CSA as a proxy of the health research system. In order to account for the impact of other factors, measles vaccination coverage (MVC (as a proxy of health system performance, gross domestic product (GDP, human development index (HDI, and corruption perception index (CPI (as proxies of development, were embedded in the model. Results Among all the models, ‘the random intercept and random slope models’ had lower residuals. The same variables of CSA, HDI, and time were significant and the coefficient of CSA was estimated at -0.17; meaning, with the addition of every 100 CSA, the rate of U5MR decreased by 17 per 1000 live births. Conclusion Although the number of CSA has contributed to the reduction of U5MR, the amount of its contribution is negligible compared to the countries’ development. We recommend entering different types of researches into the model separately in future research andincluding the variable of ‘exchange between knowledge generator and user.’

  7. Modeling and forecasting of the under-five mortality rate in Kermanshah province in Iran: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Mehran; Jalilian, Abdollah; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Laghaei, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The target of the Fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) is to reduce the rate of under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Despite substantial progress towards achieving the target of the MDG-4 in Iran at the national level, differences at the sub-national levels should be taken into consideration. The under-five mortality data available from the Deputy of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, was used in order to perform a time series analysis of the monthly under-five mortality rate (U5MR) from 2005 to 2012 in Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. After primary analysis, a seasonal auto-regressive integrated moving average model was chosen as the best fitting model based on model selection criteria. The model was assessed and proved to be adequate in describing variations in the data. However, the unexpected presence of a stochastic increasing trend and a seasonal component with a periodicity of six months in the fitted model are very likely to be consequences of poor quality of data collection and reporting systems. The present work is the first attempt at time series modeling of the U5MR in Iran, and reveals that improvement of under-five mortality data collection in health facilities and their corresponding systems is a major challenge to fully achieving the MGD-4 in Iran. Studies similar to the present work can enhance the understanding of the invisible patterns in U5MR, monitor progress towards the MGD-4, and predict the impact of future variations on the U5MR.

  8. Amniotic fluid embolism mortality rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) using population-based studies and case series. A literature search was conducted using the two key words: 'amniotic fluid embolism (AFE)' AND 'mortality rate'. Thirteen population-based studies were evaluated, as well as 36 case series including at least two patients. The mortality rate from population-based studies varied from 11% to 44%. When nine population-based studies with over 17 000 000 live births were aggregated, the maternal mortality rate was 20.4%. In contrast, the mortality rate of AFE in case series varies from 0% to 100% with numerous rates in between. The AFE mortality rate in population-based studies varied from 11% to 44% with the best available evidence supporting an overall mortality rate of 20.4%. Data from case series should no longer be used as a basis for describing the lethality of AFE. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. National and regional under-5 mortality rate by economic status for low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Fengqing; You, Danzhen; Pedersen, Jon; Hug, Lucia; Alkema, Leontine

    2018-05-01

    The progress to achieve the fourth Millennium Development Goal in reducing mortality rate in children younger than 5 years since 1990 has been remarkable. However, work remains to be done in the Sustainable Development Goal era. Estimates of under-5 mortality rates at the national level can hide disparities within countries. We assessed disparities in under-5 mortality rates by household economic status in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We estimated country-year-specific under-5 mortality rates by wealth quintile on the basis of household wealth indices for 137 LMICs from 1990 to 2016, using a Bayesian statistical model. We estimated the association between quintile-specific and national-level under-5 mortality rates. We assessed the levels and trends of absolute and relative disparity in under-5 mortality rate between the poorest and richest quintiles, and among all quintiles. In 2016, for all LMICs (excluding China), the aggregated under-5 mortality rate was 64·6 (90% uncertainty interval [UI] 61·1-70·1) deaths per 1000 livebirths in the poorest households (first quintile), 31·3 (29·5-34·2) deaths per 1000 livebirths in the richest households (fifth quintile), and in between those outcomes for the middle quintiles. Between 1990 and 2016, the largest absolute decline in under-5 mortality rate occurred in the two poorest quintiles: 77·6 (90% UI 71·2-82·6) deaths per 1000 livebirths in the poorest quintile and 77·9 (72·0-82·2) deaths per 1000 livebirths in the second poorest quintile. The difference in under-5 mortality rate between the poorest and richest quintiles decreased significantly by 38·8 (90% UI 32·9-43·8) deaths per 1000 livebirths between 1990 and 2016. The poorest to richest under-5 mortality rate ratio, however, remained similar (2·03 [90% UI 1·94-2·11] in 1990, 1·99 [1·91-2·08] in 2000, and 2·06 [1·92-2·20] in 2016). During 1990-2016, around half of the total under-5 deaths occurred in the poorest two quintiles

  10. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-05-01

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages. There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor. Individual-specific qualities come more to fruition if the starting position in life is better.

  11. Under-Five Mortality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the decade following independence, economic growth in Zambia was strong with real GDP growth rate at 2.7%, which operated to mitigate the potentially negative influence of high fertility (7 children born/woman) and rapid (3%) population growth on living standards. This economic growth was largely propelled by export ...

  12. Association between community management of pneumonia and diarrhoea in high-burden countries and the decline in under-five mortality rates: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi-Pinto, Cynthia; Dilip, Thandassery Ramachandran; Costello, Anthony

    2017-02-14

    The objective of the paper is to explore if the adoption of national policies to use community-based health providers for the management of pneumonia and diarrhoea is associated with the decline in under-five mortality, including achievement of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)4 target, in high-burden countries. This country level analysis covers 75 high-burden low-income and middle-income countries which accounted for 98% of the 5.9 million global under-five deaths in 2015. One-fourth of these deaths were due to pneumonia and diarrhoea. χ 2 tests and multiple regression analysis were used to examine the association between reduction in under-five mortality rates and community case management of pneumonia and diarrhoea by adjusting for the influence of other possible determinants. No patient or population interviewed/examined for this analysis. Countries were the unit of analysis. Community case management (CCM) of pneumonia and diarrhoea policies. Changes in under-five mortality rates over time. Countries that had adopted both CCM policies were three times more likely to achieve the MDG4 target than countries that did not have both policies in place. This association was further confirmed by the multivariate analysis (β-coefficient=10.4; 95% CI 2.4 to 18.5; p value=0.012). There is a statistically significant association between adoption of CCM policies for treatment of pneumonia and diarrhoea and the rate of decline in child mortality levels. It is important to promote CCM in countries lagging behind to achieve the new target of 25 or fewer deaths per 1000 live births by 2030. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Direct estimates of cause-specific mortality fractions and rates of under-five deaths in the northern and southern regions of Nigeria by verbal autopsy interview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyinka Adewemimo

    Full Text Available Nigeria's under-five mortality rate is the eighth highest in the world. Identifying the causes of under-five deaths is crucial to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3 by 2030 and improving child survival. National and international bodies collaborated in this study to provide the first ever direct estimates of the causes of under-five mortality in Nigeria. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted of a representative sample of 986 neonatal and 2,268 1-59 month old deaths from 2008 to 2013 identified by the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Cause of death was assigned by physician coding and computerized expert algorithms arranged in a hierarchy. National and regional estimates of age distributions, mortality rates and cause proportions, and zonal- and age-specific mortality fractions and rates for leading causes of death were evaluated. More under-fives and 1-59 month olds in the South, respectively, died as neonates (N = 24.1%, S = 32.5%, p<0.001 and at younger ages (p<0.001 than in the North. The leading causes of neonatal and 1-59 month mortality, respectively, were sepsis, birth injury/asphyxia and neonatal pneumonia, and malaria, diarrhea and pneumonia. The preterm delivery (N = 1.2%, S = 3.7%, p = 0.042, pneumonia (N = 15.0%, S = 21.6%, p = 0.004 and malaria (N = 34.7%, S = 42.2%, p = 0.009 fractions were higher in the South, with pneumonia and malaria focused in the South East and South South; while the diarrhea fraction was elevated in the North (N = 24.8%, S = 13.2%, p<0.001. However, the diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria mortality rates were all higher in the North, respectively, by 222.9% (Z = -10.9, p = 0.000, 27.6% (Z = -2.3, p = 0.020 and 50.6% (Z = -5.7, p = 0.000, with the greatest excesses in older children. The findings support that there is an epidemiological transition ongoing in southern Nigeria, suggest the way forward to a similar transition in the North, and can help guide maternal, neonatal and child health

  14. Trend analysis of mortality rates and causes of death in children under 5 years old in Beijing, China from 1992 to 2015 and forecast of mortality into the future: an entire population-based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Han; Wang, Jing; Li, Yichen; Li, Dongyang; Guo, Jin; Hu, Yifei; Meng, Kai; He, Dian; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zheng; Qi, Han; Zhang, Ling

    2017-09-18

    To analyse trends in mortality and causes of death among children aged under 5 years in Beijing, China between 1992 and 2015 and to forecast under-5 mortality rates (U5MRs) for the period 2016-2020. An entire population-based epidemiological study was conducted. Data collection was based on the Child Death Reporting Card of the Beijing Under-5 Mortality Rate Surveillance Network. Trends in mortality and leading causes of death were analysed using the χ 2 test and SPSS 19.0 software. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was fitted to forecast U5MRs between 2016 and 2020 using the EViews 8.0 software. Mortality in neonates, infants and children aged under 5 years decreased by 84.06%, 80.04% and 80.17% from 1992 to 2015, respectively. However, the U5MR increased by 7.20% from 2013 to 2015. Birth asphyxia, congenital heart disease, preterm/low birth weight and other congenital abnormalities comprised the top five causes of death. The greatest, most rapid reduction was that of pneumonia by 92.26%, with an annual average rate of reduction of 10.53%. The distribution of causes of death differed among children of different ages. Accidental asphyxia and sepsis were among the top five causes of death in children aged 28 days to 1 year and accident was among the top five causes in children aged 1-4 years. The U5MRs in Beijing are projected to be 2.88‰, 2.87‰, 2.90‰, 2.97‰ and 3.09‰ for the period 2016-2020, based on the predictive model. Beijing has made considerable progress in reducing U5MRs from 1992 to 2015. However, U5MRs could show a slight upward trend from 2016 to 2020. Future considerations for child healthcare include the management of birth asphyxia, congenital heart disease, preterm/low birth weight and other congenital abnormalities. Specific preventative measures should be implemented for children of various age groups. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  15. Inequalities in mortality: study rates, not standardised mortality ratios [Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    In their study from 1921 to 2007 Thomas and colleagues conclude on the basis of standardised mortality ratios that inequalities in mortality continue to rise and are now almost as high as in the 1930s. Relative ratios are, however, misleading when absolute rates change strongly. I calculated the

  16. Mortality Rate and Predictors in Children Under 15 Years Old Who Acquired HIV from Mother to Child Transmission in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Gloria; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Rutherford, George W; Munoz, Sergio; Hills, Nancy; Samudio, Tania; Galeano, Fernando; Kawabata, Anibal; González, Carlos Miguel Rios

    2018-02-17

    We estimated mortality rate and predictors of death in children and adolescents who acquired HIV through mother-to-child transmission in Paraguay. In 2000-2014, we conducted a cohort study among children and adolescents aged  9 g/dL (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.01-5.10). The mortality of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Paraguay is high, and anemia is associated with mortality. Improving prenatal screening to find cases earlier and improving pediatric follow-up are needed.

  17. Geographic disparities in pneumonia-specific under-five mortality rates in Mainland China from 1996 to 2015: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Leni; He, Chunhua; Miao, Lei; Liang, Juan; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Qi; Wang, Yanping

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the disparities in pneumonia-specific under-five mortality rates (U5MRs) among and within three geographic regions in Mainland China from 1996 to 2015. Data were obtained from the national Under-Five Child Mortality Surveillance System and grouped into 2-year periods. The Cochran-Armitage trend test and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test were used to assess trends and differences in the pneumonia-specific U5MRs among and within geographic regions. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The pneumonia-specific U5MR decreased by 90.6%, 89.0%, and 83.5% in East, Middle, and West China, respectively, with a larger decrease in rural areas. The pneumonia-specific U5MR was highest in West China, and was 7.2 (95% CI 5.9-8.7) times higher than that in East China in 2014-2015. In 2014-2015, the RRs were 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.5), 1.6 (95% CI 1.1-2.1), and 3.4 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) between rural and urban areas in East, Middle, and West China, respectively. Pneumonia-specific U5MRs decreased from 1996 to 2015 across China, particularly in rural areas. However, disparities remained among and within geographic regions. Additional strategies and interventions should be introduced in West China, especially the rural areas, to further reduce the pneumonia-specific U5MR. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979. Data...

  19. Size-dependent mortality rate profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa-Ureta, Ruben H

    2016-08-07

    Knowledge of mortality rates is crucial to the understanding of population dynamics in populations of free-living fish and invertebrates in marine and freshwater environments, and consequently to sustainable resource management. There is a well developed theory of population dynamics based on age distributions that allow direct estimation of mortality rates. However, for most cases the aging of individuals is difficult or age distributions are not available for other reasons. The body size distribution is a widely available alternative although the theory underlying the formation of its shape is more complicated than in the case of age distributions. A solid theory of the time evolution of a population structured by any physiological variable has been developed in 1960s and 1970s by adapting the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of classical mechanics, and equations to estimate the body size-distributed mortality profile have been derived for simple cases. Here I extend those results with regards to the size-distributed mortality profile to complex cases of non-stationary populations, individuals growing according to a generalised growth model and seasonally patterned recruitment pulses. I apply resulting methods to two cases in the marine environment, a benthic crustacean population that was growing during the period of observation and whose individuals grow with negative acceleration, and a sea urchin coastal population that is undergoing a stable cycle of two equilibrium points in population size whose individuals grow with varying acceleration that switches sign along the size range. The extension is very general and substantially widens the applicability of the theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages...

  1. Poverty Mapping Project: Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates consists of estimates of infant mortality rates for the year 2000. The infant mortality rate for a region or country is...

  2. Infant mortality rates declining, but still high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M

    1992-10-01

    Family planning can improve infant survival. Specifically, use of family planning methods can minimize family size, increase birth spacing, and reduce the likelihood of pregnancy for teenagers and women aged 40 or older. Immunizations and oral rehydration are responsible for the falling infant mortality rats since 1977 in developing countries, especially among 1-12 month old infants. Yet, neonatal mortality in developing countries had not changed. WHO intends to step up efforts to improve newborn survival. Accurate data are needed, however. Even in developed countries which keep good statistics, infant mortality bias exists. For example, in Japan, some infant deaths are called fetal deaths. In developing countries, much of the data come from hospitals, yet most birth do not occur in hospitals. Even in surveys, bias exists, such as problems with recall. Many researchers use traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to follow up on all births in an area which may eliminate some biases. Such a prospective and longitudinal study in Trairi county in northeastern Brazil shows the infant mortality rate to be less than half of the official rate (65 vs. 142). The major causes of infant death in developed countries, which tends to occur in the neonatal period, are low birth weight, prematurity, birth complications, and congenital defects; developing countries; they are vaccine preventable infectious diseases, diarrhea and dehydration, and respiratory illnesses, all complicated by malnutrition. To make further strides in reducing infant mortality, public health workers must concentrate on the neonatal period. Training TBAs in sterile techniques, appropriate technology, resuscitation of infants, and identification of potential problems is a positive step. Yet, unpredictable conditions (e.g., AIDS) exist and/or will arise which erode improvements. For example, in Nicaragua, within 1 year after the new government introduced health budget cuts which resulted in the poor paying for

  3. Underlying causes of the emerging nonmetropolitan mortality penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossman, Jeralynn S; James, Wesley L; Cosby, Arthur G; Cossman, Ronald E

    2010-08-01

    The nonmetropolitan mortality penalty results in an estimated 40 201 excessive US deaths per year, deaths that would not occur if nonmetropolitan and metropolitan residents died at the same rate. We explored the underlying causes of the nonmetropolitan mortality penalty by examining variation in cause of death. Declines in heart disease and cancer death rates in metropolitan areas drive the nonmetropolitan mortality penalty. Future work should explore why the top causes of death are higher in nonmetropolitan areas than they are in metropolitan areas.

  4. Investigation Of Obesity-Related Mortality Rates In Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Malcolm J; Wentzien, Derald E; Bautista, Riza C; Gross, Catherine C

    2017-06-01

    As Delaware's adult obesity crisis continues to be a leading public health concern, we evaluated Delaware's 1999-2014 vital records to examine the association between obesity and mortality. We used the Delaware population death records from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER database and the Delaware Health Statistics Center (DHSC). Together with the vital records, we incorporated Microsoft Excel, SAS (Statistical Analysis System) and GIS (geographic information system) tools to analyze obesity influences from county residence, economic status, education, gender, and race. Using the 15-year (1999-2014) time span with the CDC WONDER database, we observed a statistically significant 28.7% increase in the age-adjusted Delaware obesity-related mortality rates (where obesity was a contributory factor). Furthermore, obesity influenced death counts in all three Delaware counties (New Castle, Kent, and Sussex). Kent County experienced the largest increase (66.0%), followed by New Castle County (47.4%), and Sussex County (25.2%). The DHSC mortality rates for all leading causes of death from 2000 to 2011 indicated relatively stable mortality rates for Delaware. However, using CDC WONDER data, the Delaware mortality rate for obesity as a single underlying cause in 2011 was 56.9% higher than mortality rate in 2000.

  5. Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on lung cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from 60 Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows helper T-cells to activate killer cells and antibody producing cells

  6. Mortality rate in type 2 myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007. The prognostic impact of this universal definition, with particular focus on type 2 myocardial infarction, has not been studied prospectively in unselected hospital patients. METHODS: During a 1-year period......, all hospitalized patients having cardiac troponin I measured were considered. The diagnosis of a myocardial infarction was according to the universal definition, and specified criteria were used in the classification of type 2 myocardial infarction. Follow-up was at least 1 year, with mortality...... as the end point. RESULTS: A total of 3762 consecutive patients were studied, of whom 488 (13%) had a myocardial infarction. In 119 patients a type 2 myocardial infarction was diagnosed. After a median of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.6-2.5 years), 150 patients had died, with a mortality rate of 49% (58...

  7. Calculating the Rate of Senescence From Mortality Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Rozing, Maarten P; Kramer, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    , they do not fit mortality rates at young and old ages. Therefore, we developed a method to calculate senescence rates from the acceleration of mortality directly without modeling the mortality rates. We applied the different methods to age group-specific mortality data from the European Renal Association-European...

  8. Patterns and predictors of mortality among children under-five years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early childhood mortality remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Under-five mortality rate of 157 per 1000 live birth currently observed in Nigeria is one of the highest worldwide. Against the backdrop of limited childhood mortality research in Nigeria, this study identified predictors of child mortality.

  9. NCHS - Infant and neonatal mortality rates: United States, 1915-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Rates are infants (under 1 year) and neonatal (under 28 days) deaths per 1,000 live births. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data-visualization/mortality-trends/

  10. Aspirin plus dipyridamole has the highest surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) values in terms of mortality, intracranial hemorrhage, and adverse event rate among 7 drug therapies in the treatment of cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Xin

    2018-03-01

    The standardization for the clinical use of drug therapy for cerebral infarction (CI) has not yet determined in some aspects. In this paper, we discussed the efficacies of different drug therapies (aspirin, aspirin plus dipyridamole, aspirin plus clopidogrel, aspirin plus warfarin, cilostazol, warfarin, and ticlopidine) for CI. We searched databases of PubMed and Cochrane Library from the inception to April, 2017, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. The network meta-analysis integrated evidences of direct and indirect comparisons to assess odd ratios (OR) and surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) value. Thirteen eligible RCTs including 7 drug therapies were included into this network meta-analysis. The network meta-analysis results showed that CI patients who received aspirin plus dipyridamole presented lower mortality when compared with those received aspirin plus clopidogrel (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.18-0.99), indicating aspirin plus dipyridamole therapy had better efficacy for CI. As for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), stroke recurrence, and adverse event (AE) rate, there were no significant differences of efficacy among 7 drug therapies. Besides, SUCRA values demonstrated that in the 7 drug therapies, aspirin plus dipyridamole therapy was more effective than others (mortality: 80.67%; ICH: 76.6%; AE rate: 90.2%). Our findings revealed that aspirin plus dipyridamole therapy might be the optimum one for patients with CI, which could help to improve the survival of CI patients.

  11. Effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongkuk Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To verify the effect of hyperglycemia on mortality rates in critically ill children and to identify the blood glucose level that influences prognosis. Methods : From July 2006 to June 2008, a total of 206 patients who were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU at Asan Medical Center and who survived for more than 7 days were retrospectively reviewed. We analyzed the maximum glucose value within 7 days in PICU, PRISM-III score and SOFA score within 24 hours, and mortality. We did not perform an adjustment analysis of drugs affecting glucose level. Results : The maximum glucose level within 7 days in PICU was higher in the nonsurvival group than in the survival group. Using 4 cutoff values (125, 150, 175, and 200 mg/dL, the mortality of patients with hyperglycemia was found to be 13.0 %, 14.4%, 19.8%, and 21.1%, respectively, and the cutoff values of 175 and 200 mg/dL revealed significant differences in mortalities between the hyperglycemic and normoglycemic groups. The PRISM-III score was not significantly different between the hyperglycemic and normoglycemic groups under a glucose cutoff value of 175 mg/dL, but the SOFA score was higher in the hyperglycemic group. Under a glucose cutoff value of 200 mg/dL, the PRISM-III score was higher in the hyperglycemic group, and the SOFA score did not differ between the 2 groups. Conclusion : Hyperglycemia with a maximal glucose value ?#241;75 mg/dL during the first 7 days after PICU admission was associated with increased mortality in critically ill children.

  12. Studies of the mortality rate of Culicoides imicola in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, M; Touti, J; Bouayoune, H; Moudni, L; Taoufiq, B; el Hasnaoui, H

    1998-01-01

    Daily mortality rates of female Culicoides imicola were found for eight sites in Morocco in 1994 and for six sites in 1995. The mortality rates were found by operating Pirbright-type light traps for a number of consecutive nights in late summer or autumn and finding the parous rate assuming a feeding interval of 3 to 5 days. The mortality rates were calculated according to established methods. In Morocco the daily mortality rates were found to vary from about 5% per day (Arbaoua, 1994, 1995 and Sidi Moussa 1995) up to 20-25% per day (Berkane, Marrakech, Tangier). In general, estimates of daily mortality rate were consistent between the two years of study. Among sites, daily mortality rate was significantly correlated with the average night-time minimum wind speed but not mean or maximum night-time wind speeds, or with temperature, humidity or saturation deficit. The observed mortality rates suggest that at Arbaoua, were 1,000 flies to become infected with African horse sickness virus, at least 330 would live long enough to take 3 or more infective blood meals on hosts. At Berkane, the survival rate per 1,000 is less than 10. In general, the pattern observed for daily mortality rate, combined with the relative population sizes of C. imicola in Morocco, agree well with the observed distribution of African horse sickness in the country during the 1989-1991 epizootic.

  13. CDC WONDER: Compressed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979...

  14. CDC WONDER: Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are...

  15. High mortality of Red Sea zooplankton under ambient solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M O; Satheesh, Sathianeson; Mantha, Gopikrishna; Agustī, Susana; Carreja, Beatriz; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    High solar radiation along with extreme transparency leads to high penetration of solar radiation in the Red Sea, potentially harmful to biota inhabiting the upper water column, including zooplankton. Here we show, based on experimental assessments of solar radiation dose-mortality curves on eight common taxa, the mortality of zooplankton in the oligotrophic waters of the Red Sea to increase steeply with ambient levels of solar radiation in the Red Sea. Responses curves linking solar radiation doses with zooplankton mortality were evaluated by exposing organisms, enclosed in quartz bottles, allowing all the wavelengths of solar radiation to penetrate, to five different levels of ambient solar radiation (100%, 21.6%, 7.2%, 3.2% and 0% of solar radiation). The maximum mortality rates under ambient solar radiation levels averaged (±standard error of the mean, SEM) 18.4±5.8% h(-1), five-fold greater than the average mortality in the dark for the eight taxa tested. The UV-B radiation required for mortality rates to reach ½ of maximum values averaged (±SEM) 12±5.6 h(-1)% of incident UVB radiation, equivalent to the UV-B dose at 19.2±2.7 m depth in open coastal Red Sea waters. These results confirm that Red Sea zooplankton are highly vulnerable to ambient solar radiation, as a consequence of the combination of high incident radiation and high water transparency allowing deep penetration of damaging UV-B radiation. These results provide evidence of the significance of ambient solar radiation levels as a stressor of marine zooplankton communities in tropical, oligotrophic waters. Because the oligotrophic ocean extends across 70% of the ocean surface, solar radiation can be a globally-significant stressor for the ocean ecosystem, by constraining zooplankton use of the upper levels of the water column and, therefore, the efficiency of food transfer up the food web in the oligotrophic ocean.

  16. Mortality of marine planktonic copepods : global rates and patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirst, A.G.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Using life history theory we make predictions of mortality rates in marine epi-pelagic copepods from field estimates of adult fecundity, development times and adult sex ratios. Predicted mortality increases with temperature in both broadcast and sac spawning copepods, and declines with body weight...... in broadcast spawners, while mortality in sac spawners is invariant with body size. Although the magnitude of copepod mortality does lie close to the overall general pattern for pelagic animals, copepod mortality scaling is much weaker, implying that small copepods are avoiding some mortality agent....../s that other pelagic animals of a similar size do not, We compile direct in situ estimates of copepod mortality and compare these with our indirect predictions; we find the predictions generally match the field measurements well with respect to average rates and patterns. Finally, by comparing in situ adult...

  17. Causes and rates of mortality of swift foxes in western Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, M.A.; Roy, C.C.; Bright, J.B.; Gillis, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of mortality factors is important for developing strategies to conserve the swift fox (Vulpes velox), a species being considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act, but available information about swift fox mortality is inadequate. We used radiotelemetry techniques to examine the magnitude and causes of mortality of swift fox populations in 2 study areas in western Kansas. One study area was predominantly cropland, the other rangeland. Mortality rates, calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimation techniques in a staggered entry design, were 0.55 ?? 0.08 (5 ?? SE) for adult and 0.67 ?? 0.08 for juvenile swift foxes. We did not detect differences between study areas in mortality rates for adults or juveniles. Predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) was the major cause of mortality for adult and juvenile swift foxes in both study areas, and vehicle collision was an important mortality factor for juveniles in the cropland study area. No mortality was attributed to starvation or disease.

  18. Using historical vital statistics to predict the distribution of under-five mortality by cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chalapati; Adair, Timothy; Kinfu, Yohannes

    2011-06-01

    Cause-specific mortality data is essential for planning intervention programs to reduce mortality in the under age five years population (under-five). However, there is a critical paucity of such information for most of the developing world, particularly where progress towards the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) has been slow. This paper presents a predictive cause of death model for under-five mortality based on historical vital statistics and discusses the utility of the model in generating information that could accelerate progress towards MDG 4. Over 1400 country years of vital statistics from 34 countries collected over a period of nearly a century were analyzed to develop relationships between levels of under-five mortality, related mortality ratios, and proportionate mortality from four cause groups: perinatal conditions; diarrhea and lower respiratory infections; congenital anomalies; and all other causes of death. A system of multiple equations with cross-equation parameter restrictions and correlated error terms was developed to predict proportionate mortality by cause based on given measures of under-five mortality. The strength of the predictive model was tested through internal and external cross-validation techniques. Modeled cause-specific mortality estimates for major regions in Africa, Asia, Central America, and South America are presented to illustrate its application across a range of under-five mortality rates. Consistent and plausible trends and relationships are observed from historical data. High mortality rates are associated with increased proportions of deaths from diarrhea and lower respiratory infections. Perinatal conditions assume importance as a proportionate cause at under-five mortality rates below 60 per 1000 live births. Internal and external validation confirms strength and consistency of the predictive model. Model application at regional level demonstrates heterogeneity and non-linearity in cause

  19. Rising under-5 mortality in Africa: who bears the brunt?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Kunst, Anton E.; Moser, Kath; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the socioeconomic and geographical groups in which the recent under-5 mortality increase observed in several African countries was most pronounced, and to explore the contribution of a number of proximate determinants of under-5 mortality. METHODS: Time trends in under-5

  20. Does raking basal duff affect tree growth rates or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Sharon M. Hood; Danny R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and reduced growth rates due to raking accumulated basal duff were evaluated for old, large-diameter ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees on the Lassen National Forest, California. No fire treatments were included to isolate the effect of raking from fire. Trees were monitored annually for 5 years after the raking treatment for mortality and then cored to measure...

  1. Rising under-5 mortality in Africa: Who bears the brunt?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Houweling (Tanja); A.E. Kunst (Anton); K. Moser (Kath); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To identify the socioeconomic and geographical groups in which the recent under-5 mortality increase observed in several African countries was most pronounced, and to explore the contribution of a number of proximate determinants of under-5 mortality. METHODS: Time trends in

  2. Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Katsuji

    2013-02-01

    Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Calculating the Rate of Senescence From Mortality Data: An Analysis of Data From the ERA-EDTA Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Jacob J. E.; Rozing, Maarten P.; Kramer, Anneke; Abad, José M.; Finne, Patrik; Heaf, James G.; Hoitsma, Andries J.; de Meester, Johan M. J.; Palsson, Runolfur; Postorino, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of senescence can be inferred from the acceleration by which mortality rates increase over age. Such a senescence rate is generally estimated from parameters of a mathematical model fitted to these mortality rates. However, such models have limitations and underlying assumptions. Notably,

  4. High mortality rates after non-elective colon cancer resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, I S; Snijders, H S; Grossmann, Irene

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Colon cancer resection in a non-elective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on non-elective resection. METHOD: Data were...... obtained from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Patients undergoing colon cancer resection in the Netherlands between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. Patient, treatment and tumour factors were analyzed in relation to the urgency of surgery. The primary outcome was the thirty day...... postoperative mortality. RESULTS: The study included 30,907 patients. In 5934 (19.2%) of patients, a non-elective colon cancer resection was performed. There was a 4.4% overall mortality rate, with significantly more deaths after non-elective surgery (8.5% vs 3.4%, P

  5. Intrinsic religiosity reduces intergroup hostility under mortality salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zavala, Agnieszka Golec; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Orehek, Edward; Abdollahi, Abdolhossein

    Results of three studies indicate that intrinsic religiosity and mortality salience interact to predict intergroup hostility. Study 1, conducted among 200 American Christians and Jews, reveals that under mortality salience, intrinsic (but not extrinsic or quest) religiosity is related to decreased

  6. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  7. Temperature-dependent rate models of vascular cambium cell mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Edward A. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    We use two rate-process models to describe cell mortality at elevated temperatures as a means of understanding vascular cambium cell death during surface fires. In the models, cell death is caused by irreversible damage to cellular molecules that occurs at rates that increase exponentially with temperature. The models differ in whether cells show cumulative effects of...

  8. Improving estimates of tree mortality probability using potential growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth rate is frequently used to estimate mortality probability. Yet, growth metrics can vary in form, and the justification for using one over another is rarely clear. We tested whether a growth index (GI) that scales the realized diameter growth rate against the potential diameter growth rate (PDGR) would give better estimates of mortality probability than other measures. We also tested whether PDGR, being a function of tree size, might better correlate with the baseline mortality probability than direct measurements of size such as diameter or basal area. Using a long-term dataset from the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., as well as existing species-specific estimates of PDGR, we developed growth–mortality models for four common species. For three of the four species, models that included GI, PDGR, or a combination of GI and PDGR were substantially better than models without them. For the fourth species, the models including GI and PDGR performed roughly as well as a model that included only the diameter growth rate. Our results suggest that using PDGR can improve our ability to estimate tree survival probability. However, in the absence of PDGR estimates, the diameter growth rate was the best empirical predictor of mortality, in contrast to assumptions often made in the literature.

  9. Contribution of Congenital Anomalies to Neonatal Mortality Rates in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Miriam; England, Kathleen; Grech, Victor; Calleja, Neville

    2015-09-01

    Neonatal mortality is a public health concern, and congenital anomalies contribute significantly to this mortality. This paper describes trends in neonatal mortality in Malta separately for congenital anomaly and non-congenital anomaly causes. Data for neonatal deaths of 22-week gestation onwards registered between 1994-2013 were obtained from the National Mortality Register. Chi-square tests were used to analyse 5-year time trends and differences in proportions of causes of neonatal deaths. Neonatal mortality was compared with other European countries. Between 1994 and 2013, 441 neonatal deaths and 84 821 livebirths were registered, giving a neonatal mortality of 5.2 per 1000 livebirths. Congenital anomalies accounted for 36.7% (n = 162) of the neonatal deaths, while the remaining 63.3% (n = 279) were attributed to non-congenital causes. During the 20-year period, neonatal mortality due to non-congenital causes decreased from 4.6 per 1000 livebirths in 1994-98 to 2.5 per 1000 in 2009-13, while that due to congenital anomalies remained stable (2.0 per 1000 livebirths in 1994-98 and 2.2 per 1000 in 2009-13). This has resulted in comparatively higher proportions of neonatal deaths attributed to congenital anomalies in recent years (45.9% in 2009-13 vs. 29.9% in 1994-98). Comparing neonatal mortality reported from European countries, Malta has a high rate most marked for deaths due to congenital anomalies. During 1994-2013, neonatal mortality has decreased due to a decline of non-congenital causes of death, possibly related to improved health care. The proportionate neonatal mortality attributed to congenital anomalies has increased and is the highest reported from Europe. This may be explained by the fact that termination of pregnancy is illegal in Malta. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquero, Francisco J; Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-03-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1-35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported.

  12. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P.; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1–35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported. PMID:26886511

  13. Urban area disadvantage and under-5 mortality in Nigeria: the effect of rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, Diddy; Moradi, Tahereh

    2010-06-01

    Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children urban population growth and urban under-5 mortality between 1983 and 2003 in Nigeria. We assessed whether urban area socioeconomic dis-advantage has an impact on under-5 mortality. Urban under-5 mortality rates were directly estimated from the 1990, 1999, and 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed on data for 2,118 children nested within data for 1,350 mothers, who were in turn nested within data for 165 communities. Urban under-5 mortality increased as urban population steadily increased between 1983 and 2003. Urban area disadvantage was significantly associated with under-5 mortality after adjusting for individual child- and mother-level demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Significant relative risks of under-5 deaths at both individual and community levels underscore the need for interventions tailored toward community- and individual-level interventions. We stress the need for further studies on community-level determinants of under-5 mortality in disadvantaged urban areas.

  14. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ismail, Ibtisam; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Ahmad, Faizah; Wan Khazim, Wan Khamizar; Othman, Zabedah; Mat Said, Rosaida; Tan, Wei Leong; Mohammed, Siti Rahmah Noor Syahireen; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Nik Mustapha, Nik Raihan

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  15. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence and deaths (mortality from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35, followed by the Malay (18.95, and Indian (17.55 ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively. The 2011 (44.7% CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46 than females (8.05. CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate.

  16. Maternal mortality in Campinas: evolution, under-registration and avoidanc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme Cecatti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Up until a few years ago, maternal mortality did not merit much attention as a worldwide public health issue. The health and social development indicator almost exclusively used was infant death. OBJECTIVE: To study the number, characteristics, basic causes and avoidance of maternal mortality (MM among women living in the city of Campinas, which occurred between 1985 and 1991, identified from all death certificates of women aged 10 through 49 years. DESIGN: Retrospective and descriptive population-based study. SETTING: University Referal Center. SAMPLES: All eligible death certificates classified as declared and presumed maternal deaths according to the Laurenti criteria for the cause of death were selected and complementary studies of the clinical records were performed. MAIN MEASURES: Day of the week and place of occurrence of death; period of occurrence; transfer from another hospital; number of days from delivery/abortion to death; blood transfusion; opportunity for transfusion; complications; autopsy; basic cause of death. RESULTS: Initially 39 declared maternal deaths were identified and a total of 62 were confirmed by the end of the study. This corresponds to an under-registration rate of 37.1% and to an MM ratio of 45.5 per 100,000 live births. Around three-fourths of these maternal deaths were due to a direct obstetrical cause and were considered avoidable. CONCLUSION: Maternal mortality still is high in the municipality of Campinas, although lower than the mean estimated for Brazil. The predominance of direct obstetric causes and avoidable deaths reinforces the need for public health interventions directed towards avoiding them

  17. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  18. Production constraints and mortality rate in poultry farms in Esan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that farmers faced severe production limitations particularly disease infestation with a mean value of 4.64, high feed cost (x = 3.98), prevalence of ineffective drugs (x = 3.74) and seasonal glut (x = 3.70). Mortality rate in the poultry farms was high with a percentage of 47%, largely caused by disease infection (x ...

  19. Avian mortality rates on a power line near Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian mortality rates on a power line near Kampala, Uganda. Among the most spectacular birds in Uganda is the Marabou Stork Leptoptilos cru- meniferus, which nests very conspicuously in Kampala, and the Grey Crowned. Crane Balearica regulorum, the national bird and also globally red-listed by IUCN as. Endangered ...

  20. Socioeconomic and geographical disparities in under-five and neonatal mortality in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettrick, Zoe; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    As a part of the Millennium Development Goals, India seeks to substantially reduce its burden of childhood mortality. The success or failure of this goal may depend on outcomes within India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh. This study examines the level of disparities in under-five and neonatal mortality across a range of equity markers within the state. Estimates of under-five and neonatal mortality rates were computed using five datasets, from three available sources: sample registration system, summary birth histories in surveys, and complete birth histories. Disparities were evaluated via comparisons of mortality rates by rural-urban location, ethnicity, wealth, and districts. While Uttar Pradesh has experienced declines in both rates of under-five (162-108 per 1,000 live births) and neonatal (76-49 per 1,000 live births) mortality, the rate of decline has been slow (averaging 2 % per annum). Mortality trends in rural and urban areas are showing signs of convergence, largely due to the much slower rate of change in urban areas. While the gap between rich and poor households has decreased in both urban and rural areas, trends suggest that differences in mortality will remain. Caste-related disparities remain high and show no signs of diminishing. Of concern are also the signs of stagnation in mortality amongst groups with greater ability to access services, such as the urban middle class. Notwithstanding the slow but steady reduction of absolute levels of childhood mortality within Uttar Pradesh, the distribution of the mortality by sub-state populations remains unequal. Future progress may require significant investment in quality of care provided to all sections of the community.

  1. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders: Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Smink, Frédérique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increas...

  2. Comparison of under-five mortality for 2000, 2005 and 2011 surveys in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawit G. Ayele

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though the socio-economic situation of the Ethiopian household is improving along with the decrease in under-five child mortality. But, under-five mortality is still one of the major problems. Identification of the risk factors change over time which mismatches with the diminishing rate of under-five mortality is important to address the problems. Methods The survey data used for this research was taken from three different Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (2000, 2005 and 2011. This data was used to identify the effect of time varying under-five mortality risk factors. The Cox proportional hazard model was adapted for the analysis. Results The effect of respondent’s current age, age at first birth and educational level on the under-five mortality rate significantly diminishes in the recent surveys. On the other hand, the effect of the number of births in the last 5 years increases more in 2011 than in the earlier two surveys. Similarly, number of household members in the house and the number of under-five children in the house demonstrated a difference through years. Regarding total children ever born, child death is more for the year 2000 followed by 2005 and 2011. Conclusion Based on the study, our findings confirmed that under-five mortality is a serious problem in the country. The analysis displayed that the hazard of under-five mortality has a decreasing pattern in years. The result for regions showed that there was an increase in years for some of the regions. This research work gives necessary information to device improved teaching for family planning and children health care to change the child mortality circumstance in the country. Our study suggests that the impact of demographic characteristics and socio-economic factors on child mortality should account for their integral changes over time.

  3. A hypothetical study of populations under constant mortality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R B

    1976-03-01

    28 countries with different characteristics have been selected in order to observe the amount of time it takes for these different countries to reach stable age distributions. The individual populations by sex and age were projected for 150 years in 5-year intervals with the present constant mortality and fertility schedules by component method. Observations have been made by considering the following characteristics of population when it has acquired stability: age distribution; the rate of growth, birthrate, and mortality rate; the population change; the intrinsic rate of growth, birthrate and mortality rate; and approximate time taken to stabilize the population. The initial age distribution has a significant part in the amount of time it takes for a population to acquire stability, and its intrinsic rate of growth is mostly dependent upon the existing age distribution of that population. The time taken for a country's population to become stable depends upon the age distribution, fertility and mortality schedules at the beginning. It has been observed that countries having a higher intrinsic rate of growth take comparatively less time in acquiring stability than the countries having a lower intrinsic rate of growth. The mortality and fertility schedules of a country is another important phenomenon. The populations of the different countries at the point of stability were growing according to their rates of growth. No specific trend of population growth could be found among the groups of countries. Time taken for stabilizing the population is completely based upon age distributions, fertility and mortality schedules a particular country was having at the beginning. The range of time taken for different countries to acquire stability generally ranged from 100 to 135 years. Among the different countries the relationship for the time it takes to acquire stability has not been established. This is a hypothetical approach in order to obtain some idea as to how a

  4. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

    Full Text Available Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  5. Ethnic differences in all-cause mortality rates in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davletov, K; McKee, M; Berkinbayev, S; Battakova, Z; Zhussupov, B; Amirov, B; Junusbekova, G; Rechel, B

    2016-04-01

    This article explores mortality rates in Kazakhstan by ethnic group and some of the potential lifestyle factors that might help to explain the observed differences on a population level. Repeated cross-sectional data analysis. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates from all causes by ethnic group, gender and age for 2009-2012. We analysed data on self-reported alcohol and tobacco consumption and other lifestyle factors from the nationally representative 5th National Behavior Study, conducted in 2012. Age-standardized all-cause mortality rates are generally much higher among ethnic Russians than among ethnic Kazakhs, both among women and men and in rural as well as urban areas. These differences are most pronounced in the age group 20-59 years. Information on self-reported alcohol consumption and smoking by ethnic group, gender and age shows major differences between ethnic groups, with consistently higher rates of alcohol consumption and smoking among ethnic Russians, both in women and men and across all adult age groups. Policies to improve the health of the population of Kazakhstan must take account of ethnic differences. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiology of eating disorders: incidence, prevalence and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W

    2012-08-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms relating to eating disorders and epidemiology. Anorexia nervosa is relatively common among young women. While the overall incidence rate remained stable over the past decades, there has been an increase in the high risk-group of 15-19 year old girls. It is unclear whether this reflects earlier detection of anorexia nervosa cases or an earlier age at onset. The occurrence of bulimia nervosa might have decreased since the early nineties of the last century. All eating disorders have an elevated mortality risk; anorexia nervosa the most striking. Compared with the other eating disorders, binge eating disorder is more common among males and older individuals.

  7. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%. Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries.

  8. A method for projecting age-specific mortality rates for certain causes of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.; Crawford, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for projecting mortality rates for certain causes on the basis of observed rates during past years. This method arose from a study of trends in age-specific mortality rates for respiratory cancers, and for heuristic purposes it is shown how the method can be developed from certain theories of cancer induction. However, the method is applicable in the more common situation in which the underlying physical processes cannot be modeled with any confidence but the mortality rates are approximable over short time intervals by functions of the form a exp(bt), where b may vary in a continuous, predictable fashion as the time interval is varied. It appears from applications to historical data that this projection method is in some cases a substantial improvement over conventional curve-fitting methods and often uncovers trends which are not from observed data

  9. Exchange rate policy under sovereign default risk

    OpenAIRE

    Schabert, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We examine monetary policy options for a small open economy where sovereign default might occur due to intertemporal insolvency. Under interest rate policy and floating exchange rates the equilibrium is indetermined. Under a fixed exchange rate the equilibrium is uniquely determined and independent of sovereign default.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Population Based Study of Premature Mortality Rates in the Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W.; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers’ death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44–7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09–0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment. PMID:21710184

  11. Global determinants of mortality in under 5s: 10 year worldwide longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Matthieu; Nacher, Mathieu; Guihenneuc, Chantal; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Chavance, Michel

    2013-11-08

    To assess at country level the association of mortality in under 5s with a large set of determinants. Longitudinal study. 193 United Nations member countries, 2000-09. Yearly data between 2000 and 2009 based on 12 world development indicators were used in a multivariable general additive mixed model allowing for non-linear relations and lag effects. National rate of deaths in under 5s per 1000 live births The model retained the variables: gross domestic product per capita; percentage of the population having access to improved water sources, having access to improved sanitation facilities, and living in urban areas; adolescent fertility rate; public health expenditure per capita; prevalence of HIV; perceived level of corruption and of violence; and mean number of years in school for women of reproductive age. Most of these variables exhibited non-linear behaviours and lag effects. By providing a unified framework for mortality in under 5s, encompassing both high and low income countries this study showed non-linear behaviours and lag effects of known or suspected determinants of mortality in this age group. Although some of the determinants presented a linear action on log mortality indicating that whatever the context, acting on them would be a pertinent strategy to effectively reduce mortality, others had a threshold based relation potentially mediated by lag effects. These findings could help designing efficient strategies to achieve maximum progress towards millennium development goal 4, which aims to reduce mortality in under 5s by two thirds between 1990 and 2015.

  12. Morbidity and mortality rates after emergency abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Mai-Britt; Watt, Sara Kehlet; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    acute abdominal surgery over a 4-year period. METHODS: This observational study was conducted between 2009 and 2013 at Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark. All patients scheduled for emergency laparotomy or laparoscopy were included. Pre-, intra-, and post-operative data were collected from......PURPOSE: Emergency abdominal surgery results in a high rate of post-operative complications and death. There are limited data describing the emergency surgical population in details. We aimed to give a detailed analyses of complications and mortality in a consecutive group of patients undergoing...... medical records. Complications were registered according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: A total of 4,346 patients underwent emergency surgery, of whom 14 % had surgical complications and 23 % medical complications...

  13. Effect of Governance Indicators on Under-Five Mortality in OECD Nations: Generalized Method of Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamgholipour, Sara; Asemane, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Today, it is recognized that factors other than health services are involved in health improvement and decreased inequality so identifying them is the main concern of policy makers and health authorities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of governance indicators on health outcomes. A panel data study was conducted to investigate the effect of governance indicators on child mortality rate in 27 OECD countries from 1996 to 2012 using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) model and EVIEWS.8 software. According to the results obtained, under-five mortality rate was significantly related to all of the research variables (p corruption and rule of law indicators decreased child mortality rate by 0.05 and 0.08%, respectively. Furthermore, 1% increase in public health expenditure per capita resulted in a 0.03% decrease in under-five mortality rate. The results of the study suggest that considering control variables, including GDP per capita, public health expenditure per capita, total fertility rate, and improvement of governance indicators (control of corruption and rule of law) would decrease the child mortality rate.

  14. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers

  15. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990-2013 : findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribe, Kebede; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Lakew, Yihunie; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Abera, Semaw F.; Mohammed, Mesoud; Hiruye, Abiy; Teklay, Efrem; Misganaw, Awoke; Kassebaum, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of

  16. Under-5 mortality in 2851 Chinese counties, 1996-2012: a subnational assessment of achieving MDG 4 goals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanping; Li, Xiaohong; Zhou, Maigeng; Luo, Shusheng; Liang, Juan; Liddell, Chelsea A; Coates, Matthew M; Gao, Yanqiu; Wang, Linhong; He, Chunhua; Kang, Chuyun; Liu, Shiwei; Dai, Li; Schumacher, Austin E; Fraser, Maya S; Wolock, Timothy M; Pain, Amanda; Levitz, Carly E; Singh, Lavanya; Coggeshall, Megan; Lind, Margaret; Li, Yichong; Li, Qi; Deng, Kui; Mu, Yi; Deng, Changfei; Yi, Ling; Liu, Zheng; Ma, Xia; Li, Hongtian; Mu, Dezhi; Zhu, Jun; Murray, Christopher J L; Wang, Haidong

    2016-01-16

    In the past two decades, the under-5 mortality rate in China has fallen substantially, but progress with regards to the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 at the subnational level has not been quantified. We aimed to estimate under-5 mortality rates in mainland China for the years 1970 to 2012. We estimated the under-5 mortality rate for 31 provinces in mainland China between 1970 and 2013 with data from censuses, surveys, surveillance sites, and disease surveillance points. We estimated under-5 mortality rates for 2851 counties in China from 1996 to 2012 with the reported child mortality numbers from the Annual Report System on Maternal and Child Health. We used a small area mortality estimation model, spatiotemporal smoothing, and Gaussian process regression to synthesise data and generate consistent provincial and county-level estimates. We compared progress at the county level with what was expected on the basis of income and educational attainment using an econometric model. We computed Gini coefficients to study the inequality of under-5 mortality rates across counties. In 2012, the lowest provincial level under-5 mortality rate in China was about five per 1000 livebirths, lower than in Canada, New Zealand, and the USA. The highest provincial level under-5 mortality rate in China was higher than that of Bangladesh. 29 provinces achieved a decrease in under-5 mortality rates twice as fast as the MDG 4 target rate; only two provinces will not achieve MDG 4 by 2015. Although some counties in China have under-5 mortality rates similar to those in the most developed nations in 2012, some have similar rates to those recorded in Burkina Faso and Cameroon. Despite wide differences, the inter-county Gini coefficient has been decreasing. Improvement in maternal education and the economic boom have contributed to the fall in child mortality; more than 60% of the counties in China had rates of decline in under-5 mortality rates significantly faster than expected. Fast

  17. Mortality Rate and Predictive Factors for Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Experience in Siriraj Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premyot Ngaotepprutaram, M.D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the mortality rate and prognostic factors in patients with invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in Siriraj Hospital. Methods: Thirty-nine patients with a definitive diagnosis of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis were recruited from October 2003 to September 2014. The mortality rate was retrieved, and the impacts of underlying diseases, clinical presentation, disease extension, fungal types, antifungal drugs, and time to treatment were statistically analyzed. Results: The overall mortality rate was 23.1%. All patients except one were immunocompromised. Cranial nerve involvement was the most common symptom. The ethmoid sinus was the most commonly affected intranasal site (46.2%, and the majority of extranasal lesions were located in the orbit (17.9%. Most patients were affected by Aspergillus spp. (64.1%. Alteration of consciousness and periorbital pain were significant negative prognostic factors [adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 10.37 (1.31–82.07 and 8.67 (1.30–57.88, respectively]. Other factors such as time to treatment, age, and central nervous system involvement had no effect on mortality. Conclusion: The mortality rate of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in this study was 23.1%. Negative prognostic factors were alteration of consciousness and periorbital pain. Clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, and aggressive treatment should be considered.

  18. Elevated infant mortality rate among Dutch oral cleft cases: a retrospective analysis from 1997 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan Pieter Frederik Van Nunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: First, to determine the infant mortality rate for Dutch patients with isolated oral clefts as well as for patients with clefts seen in association with other malformations. Second, to conduct a similar analysis per cleft type: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate (including Robin sequence. Third, to examine the underlying causes of death. Material and methods: A retrospective review of the charts of patients with oral clefts born in the period 1997-2011 and treated in three regional cleft centers in the Netherlands. Results: 1530 patients with oral clefts were born during the study period and treated in the cleft centers. The overall infant mortality rate for all clefts was 2.09%, significantly higher than the general Dutch infant mortality rate of 0.45%. In a subanalysis per cleft type the infant mortality rates were 1.22%, 1.38%, 2.45% and 3.62% for cleft lip, cleft lip with cleft palate, cleft palate and Robin sequence. The mortality rates for isolated oral clefts did not differ significantly from the general Dutch rate. Causes of death were congenital malformations of the heart in 40.6%, airway / lungs in 15.6%, nervous system in 15.6%, infectious disease in 12.5% and other or unknown in 15.6%. Conclusion: The elevated infant mortality rate observed in Dutch patients with oral clefts is almost exclusively caused by associated congenital malformations. After diagnosis of an oral cleft an in-depth medical examination and a consult by the pediatrician and clinical geneticist is imperative to instigate the appropriate medical management.

  19. Successes and challenges of under-five child mortality reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Under-five mortality rate is an important index for assessing achievements by countries and thus its targeted reduction is adopted as benchmark towards realizing the Millennium Development Goal number 4 by 2015. With less than 24 months to the deadline, West Africa still contributes significantly to the global ...

  20. Trends in under-five mortality in Uganda 1954-2000: can Millennium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The under five mortality rate (U5MR) is measure of wellbeing and decreasing the U5MR by two thirds is the target towards the achievement of the millennium development goal number four (MDG4). Objective: To describe the changes in U5MR in Uganda from 1954 to 2000 and use them to project future trends ...

  1. High Mortality Rate of Stomach Cancer Caused Not by High Incidence but Delays in Diagnosis in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuzaka, Masashi; Tanaka, Rina; Sasaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are substantial differences in the mortality rates of stomach cancer among the 47 prefectures in Japan, and Aomori prefecture is one of the most severely impacted. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and mortality rates of stomach cancer in Aomori prefecture in comparison with Japan as a whole and cast light on reasons underlying variation. Methods: Data on stomach cancer cases were extracted from the Aomori Cancer Registry Database. Incidence rates for sp...

  2. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David John; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fenton, Alan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in ten European regions. DESIGN: Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a one year period (seven months......) a standardised rate of very preterm delivery and b) the existing death rate for babies born at this gestation in the individual region. This produced much greater homogeneity in terms of neonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in the rate of very preterm delivery has a major influence on reported neonatal...

  3. Motor neuron disease mortality rates in New Zealand 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maize C; Chancellor, Andrew; Charleston, Alison; Dragunow, Mike; Scotter, Emma L

    2018-05-01

    We determined the mortality rates of motor neuron disease (MND) in New Zealand over 22 years from 1992 to 2013. Previous studies have found an unusually high and/or increasing incidence of MND in certain regions of New Zealand; however, no studies have examined MND rates nationwide to corroborate this. Death certificate data coded G12.2 by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 coding, or 335.2 by ICD-9 coding were obtained. These codes specify amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive bulbar palsy, or other motor neuron diseases as the underlying cause of death. Mortality rates for MND deaths in New Zealand were age-standardized to the European Standard Population and compared with rates from international studies that also examined death certificate data and were age-standardized to the same standard population. The age-standardized mortality from MND in New Zealand was 2.3 per 100,000 per year from 1992-2007 and 2.8 per 100,000 per year from 2008-2013. These rates were 3.3 and 4.0 per 100,000 per year, respectively, for the population 20 years and older. The increase in rate between these two time periods was likely due to changes in MND death coding from 2008. Contrary to a previous regional study of MND incidence, nationwide mortality rates did not increase steadily over this time period once aging was accounted for. However, New Zealand MND mortality rate was higher than comparable studies we examined internationally (mean 1.67 per 100,000 per year), suggesting that further analysis of MND burden in New Zealand is warranted.

  4. Temporal and spatial evolution of maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Brazil, 1997–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristina Pinheiro Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Brazil's neonatal mortality rate has improved in recent times, but maternal mortality rates have stagnated, failing to meet the Millennium Development Goals. Public policies and intersectoral efforts may contribute to improvements in these health indicators.

  5. Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Infant Mortality Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mortality rates for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), congenital malformations, and unintentional injuries were also substantially higher for ... infant mortality rate. SIDS accounted for 6 percent, congenital malformations 5 percent, and unintentional injuries 4 percent of ...

  6. Estimation of mortality rates in stage-structured population

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Simon N

    1991-01-01

    The stated aims of the Lecture Notes in Biomathematics allow for work that is "unfinished or tentative". This volume is offered in that spirit. The problem addressed is one of the classics of statistical ecology, the estimation of mortality rates from stage-frequency data, but in tackling it we found ourselves making use of ideas and techniques very different from those we expected to use, and in which we had no previous experience. Specifically we drifted towards consideration of some rather specific curve and surface fitting and smoothing techniques. We think we have made some progress (otherwise why publish?), but are acutely aware of the conceptual and statistical clumsiness of parts of the work. Readers with sufficient expertise to be offended should regard the monograph as a challenge to do better. The central theme in this book is a somewhat complex algorithm for mortality estimation (detailed at the end of Chapter 4). Because of its complexity, the job of implementing the method is intimidating. Any r...

  7. The Relationship Between Child Mortality Rates and Prevalence of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Raiteri, Alberto; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Klersy, Catherine; Corazza, Gino R

    2018-02-01

    Some evidence suggests that prevalence of celiac disease in the general population is increasing over time. Because the prognosis of celiac disease was a dismal one before discovering the role of gluten, our aim was to investigate a possible relationship between children under-5 mortality rates and prevalence rates of celiac disease. Thanks to a literature review, we found 27 studies performed in 17 different countries describing the prevalence of celiac disease in schoolchildren; between 1995 and 2011, 4 studies were performed in Italy. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed. Prevalence was compared between specific country under-5 mortality groups, publication year, and age. In the last decades, under-5 mortality rates have been decreasing all over the world. This reduction is paralleled by an increase of the prevalence of celiac disease. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -63%, 95% confidence interval -82% to -33% (P celiac disease in the general population. In the near future, the number of patients with celiac disease will increase, thanks to the better environmental conditions that nowadays allow a better survival of children with celiac disease.

  8. Neonatal, 1-59 month, and under-5 mortality in 597 Indian districts, 2001 to 2012: estimates from national demographic and mortality surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Usha; Jha, Prabhat; Ram, Faujdar; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Awasthi, Shally; Shet, Anita; Pader, Joy; Nansukusa, Stella; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-10-01

    India has the largest number of child deaths of any country in the world, and has wide local variation in under-5 mortality. Worldwide achievement of the UN 2015 Millennium Development Goal for under-5 mortality (MDG 4) will depend on progress in the subregions of India. We aimed to estimate neonatal, 1-59 months, and overall under-5 mortality by sex for 597 Indian districts and to assess whether India is on track to achieve MDG 4. We divided the 2012 UN sex-specific birth and mortality totals for India into state totals using relative birth rates and mortality from recent demographic surveys of 24 million people, and divided state totals into totals for the 597 districts using 3 million birth histories. We then split the results into neonatal mortality and 1-59 month mortality using data for 109,000 deaths in children younger than 5 years from six national surveys. We compared results with the 2001 census for each district. Under-5 mortality fell at a mean rate of 3·7% (IQR 3·2-4·9) per year between 2001 and 2012. 222 (37%) of 597 districts are on track to achieve the MDG 4 of 38 deaths in children younger than 5 years per 1000 livebirths by 2015, but an equal number (222 [37%]) will achieve MDG 4 only after 2020. These 222 lagging districts are home to 41% of India's livebirths and 56% of all deaths in children younger than 5 years. More districts lag behind the relevant goal for neonatal mortality (251 [42%]) than for 1-59 month mortality (197 [33%]). Just 81 (14%) districts account for 37% of deaths in children younger than 5 years nationally. Female mortality at ages 1-59 months exceeded male mortality by 25% in 303 districts in nearly all states of India, totalling about 74,000 excess deaths in girls. At current rates of progress, MDG 4 will be met by India around 2020-by the richer states around 2015 and by the poorer states around 2023. Accelerated progress to reduce mortality during the neonatal period and at ages 1-59 months is needed in most Indian

  9. Gender bias in under-five mortality in low/middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Janaína Calu; da Silva, Inacio Crochemore Mohnsam; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Due to biological reasons, boys are more likely to die than girls. The detection of gender bias requires knowing the expected relation between male and female mortality rates at different levels of overall mortality, in the absence of discrimination. Our objective was to compare two approaches aimed at assessing excess female under-five mortality rate (U5MR) in low/middle-income countries. We compared the two approaches using data from 60 Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2014). The prescriptive approach compares observed mortality rates with historical patterns in Western societies where gender discrimination was assumed to be low or absent. The descriptive approach is derived from global estimates of all countries with available data, including those affected by gender bias. The prescriptive approach showed significant excess female U5MR in 20 countries, compared with only one country according to the descriptive approach. Nevertheless, both models showed similar country rankings. The 13 countries with the highest and the 10 countries with the lowest rankings were the same according to both approaches. Differences in excess female mortality among world regions were significant, but not among country income groups. Both methods are useful for monitoring time trends, detecting gender-based inequalities and identifying and addressing its causes. The prescriptive approach seems to be more sensitive in the identification of gender bias, but needs to be updated using data from populations with current-day structures of causes of death.

  10. Cohort-specific trends in stroke mortality in seven European countries were related to infant mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, M.; Kunst, A. E.; Janssen, F.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To assess, in a population-based study, whether secular trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in seven European countries were correlated with past trends in infant mortality rate (IMR) in these countries. Study Design and Setting: Data on ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke

  11. Determinants of under-five mortality in rural and urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettarh, R R; Kimani, J

    2012-01-01

    The disparity in under-five year-old mortality rates between rural and urban areas in Kenya (also reported in other in sub-Saharan African countries), is a critical national concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location and maternal factors on the likelihood of mortality among under-five children in rural and urban areas in Kenya. Data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to determine mortality among under-five children (n=16,162) in rural and urban areas in the 5 years preceding the survey. Multivariate analysis was used to compare the influence of key risk factors in rural and urban areas. Overall, the likelihood of death among under-five children in the rural areas was significantly higher than that in the urban areas (pdeterminants of under-five mortality differ in rural and urban areas in Kenya. Innovative and targeted strategies are required to address rural poverty and province-specific sociocultural factors in order to improve child survival in rural Kenya.

  12. A comparison of mortality rates in three prospective studies from Copenhagen with mortality rates in the central part of the city, and the entire country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Vestbo, Jørgen; Juel, Knud

    1998-01-01

    % in the three programmes. Standardized mortality rates (SMR) were calculated in relation to mortality rates in the municipality of Copenhagen and in the whole country in three age groups and the two genders. SMR values in the whole sample including non-participants were similar to rates for Copenhagen...... of Copenhagen. In two of the studies, subjects were randomly selected, using the Danish Central Population Registry, within certain age groups and area-restricted sectors of the Greater Copenhagen. In the third study, men employed in 14 companies participated. Participation rates were between 78% and 87...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, whereas mortality rates in the Glostrup Population Studies were similar to rates for the whole country. The mortality rates among participants were lower than in the whole sample, and differences existed in relation to region and selection criteria of the cohorts. The Copenhagen...

  13. Wheat genotypes under different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís César Vieira Tavares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wheat tillering capacity defines yield and yield components, being affected by seeding rate. This study aimed at evaluating wheat genotypes under different seeding rates, in Londrina and Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, in 2009 and 2010. A completely randomized blocks design, in a factorial scheme, with four replications, was used. The agronomic traits of three wheat genotypes (PF 014384, BRS Tangará and BRS Pardela were evaluated under the seeding rates of 150 pl m-2, 250 pl m-2, 350 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. In Londrina, the maximum yield was observed at densities close to 270 pl m-2, while in Ponta Grossa (2009 there was a linear fit. There was no adjustment for plant height, concerning seeding rate. The number of ears per area (ears m-2 was higher in Ponta Grossa (2009 and did not differ between the locations, in 2010. In Ponta Grossa (2010, the highest one thousand seeds weight was estimated at the density of 341 pl m-2, while in Londrina (2010 it was estimated at 150 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. The seeding rate affected grain yield, depending on place and year. In Londrina, there was a limit for yield, concerning seeding rate. The one thousand seeds weight was influenced by seeding rate, depending on year and location. Plant height was affected by genotype and growing area.

  14. Under-five mortality among mothers employed in agriculture: findings from a nationally representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. India accounts for 24% to all under-five mortality in the world. Residence in rural area, poverty and low levels of mother’s education are known confounders of under-five mortality. Since two-thirds of India’s population lives in rural areas, mothers employed in agriculture present a particularly vulnerable population in the Indian context and it is imperative that concerns of this sizeable population are addressed in order to achieve MDG4 targets of reducing U5MR to fewer than 41 per 1,000 by 2015. This study was conducted to examine factors associated with under-five mortality among mothers employed in agriculture.Methods. Data was retrieved from National Family Household Survey-3 in India (2008. The study population is comprised of a national representative sample of single children aged 0 to 59 months and born to mothers aged 15 to 49 years employed in agriculture from all 29 states of India. Univariate and Multivariate Cox PH regression analysis was used to analyse the Hazard Rates of mortality. The predictive power of child mortality among mothers employed in agriculture was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve.Results. An increase in mothers’ ages corresponds with a decrease in child mortality. Breastfeeding reduces child mortality by 70% (HR 0.30, 0.25–0.35, p = 0.001. Standard of Living reduces child mortality by 32% with high standard of living (HR 0.68, 0.52–0.89, 0.001 in comparison to low standard of living. Prenatal care (HR 0.40, 0.34–0.48, p = 0.001 and breastfeeding health nutrition education (HR 0.45, 0.31–0.66, p = 0.001 are associated significant factors for child mortality. Birth Order five is a risk factor for mortality (HR 1.49, 1.05–2.10, p = 0.04 in comparison to Birth Order one among women engaged in agriculture while the household size (6–10 members and ≥ 11 members is significant in reducing child mortality in comparison to ≤5 members

  15. ANALYSIS OF MORTALITY FROM MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES AS UNDERLYING AND MULTIPLE CAUSES IN THE RESIDENTS OF THE TULA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Vaysman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs are a topical medical, social, and economic problem. According to the 2015 data, MSDs in the structure of primary morbidity were 3.9% and those in the structure of mortality were 0.2% in the Russian Federation. Official mortality statistics is formed only by one (underlying cause of death. The study of multiple causes of death will enable the understanding of its mechanisms, the necessity of making changes in the management tactics for patients and in the standards of medical care, as well as the possibility of correcting the mortality reduction plans. Objective: to investigate the reliability of statistics on MSD mortality and the ways of its reduction, by analyzing the underlying and multiple causes of death. Materials and methods. This investigation used a database on medical death certificates of the residents of the Tula Region in 2015. Mortality rates were calculated by conventional statistical methods. Death rates for the Russian Federation and the Tula Region were taken from the book «Medico-demographic indicators of the Russian Federation in 2015» by the Ministry of Health of Russia and C52 tables by the Federal State Statistics Service. The 2012–2014 European mortality databases were used for international comparisons. Results and discussion. The mortality rates were analyzed using the underlying and multiple causes of death. Expert evaluation showed that the 2015 mortality rates from MSDs were underestimated by approximately 11%. The MSD mortality rates in the Tula Region were 2.4 and 2.7 times higher than those in the entire Russian Federation and in Europe, respectively. Defects were found in drawing up medical death certificates. The reliability of mortality statistics was shown to be related to monitoring, physician training, and introduction of an automated system. Emphasis is laid on the correction of treatment tactics for patients with MSD. 

  16. Smoking attributable mortality for Taiwan and its projection to 2020 under different smoking scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C P; Tsai, S P; Chen, C-J; Cheng, T Y; Tsai, M-C; Levy, D T

    2005-06-01

    To estimate smoking attributable mortality (SAM) in Taiwan for the years 2001 through 2020 under scenarios of reductions in smoking rates by 0%, 2%, 4%, and 10% per year. The smoking attributable fraction (SAF) was used to calculate SAM from the risk experience in following up a large cohort (86 580 people) in Taiwan. Smoking rates were based on the 2001 National Health Interview Survey and other national surveys. An average 10 year lag was assumed between smoking rates and subsequent mortality. In 2001, 18 803 deaths, or 1 out of 4 deaths (27%), in middle aged men (35-69 years old) were attributable to smoking. SAM has been increasing and will continue to increase if smoking rates remain constant or even if reduced annually by 2%. SAM would begin to decrease only if rates were to be reduced by at least 4% a year. The projected SAM in this study illustrates the seriousness of smoking caused mortality. Current efforts in tobacco control would lead to a progressive increase in SAM, unless efforts were doubled and smoking rates reduced by more than 4% a year. The urgency in requiring stronger tobacco control programmes to attenuate the staggering death tolls is compelling.

  17. Contribution of climate and air pollution to variation in coronary heart disease mortality rates in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Allender, Steven; Rayner, Mike; Goldacre, Michael

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial geographic variations in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates in England that may in part be due to differences in climate and air pollution. An ecological cross-sectional multi-level analysis of male and female CHD mortality rates in all wards in England (1999-2004) was conducted to estimate the relative strength of the association between CHD mortality rates and three aspects of the physical environment--temperature, hours of sunshine and air quality. Models were adjusted for deprivation, an index measuring the healthiness of the lifestyle of populations, and urbanicity. In the fully adjusted model, air quality was not significantly associated with CHD mortality rates, but temperature and sunshine were both significantly negatively associated (pclimate variables explained at least 15% of large scale variation in CHD mortality rates. The results suggest that the climate has a small but significant independent association with CHD mortality rates in England.

  18. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970–2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Background Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify exem...... levels, could provide insight into the means to accelerate progress in nations where progress has stalled. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health....

  19. Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haidong; Liddell, Chelsea A; Coates, Matthew M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of redu...... levels of under-5 mortality in 2030. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, US Agency for International Development....

  20. Long-term mortality rates and spatial patterns in an old-growth forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily J. Silver; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Tuomas Aakala; Brian J. Palik

    2013-01-01

    Understanding natural mortality patterns and processes of forest tree species is increasingly important given projected changes in mortality owing to global change. With this need in mind, the rate and spatial pattern of mortality was assessed over an 89-year period in a natural-origin Pinus resinosa (Aiton)-dominated system to assess these processes...

  1. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  2. Did the Great Recession affect mortality rates in the metropolitan United States? Effects on mortality by age, gender and cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, Erin C; Charters, Thomas J; Harper, Sam; Nandi, Arijit

    2017-09-01

    Mortality rates generally decline during economic recessions in high-income countries, however gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. This study estimates the impacts of increases in unemployment rates on both all-cause and cause-specific mortality across U.S. metropolitan regions during the Great Recession. We estimate the effects of economic conditions during the recent and severe recessionary period on mortality, including differences by age and gender subgroups, using fixed effects regression models. We identify a plausibly causal effect by isolating the impacts of within-metropolitan area changes in unemployment rates and controlling for common temporal trends. We aggregated vital statistics, population, and unemployment data at the area-month-year-age-gender-race level, yielding 527,040 observations across 366 metropolitan areas, 2005-2010. We estimate that a one percentage point increase in the metropolitan area unemployment rate was associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality of 3.95 deaths per 100,000 person years (95%CI -6.80 to -1.10), or 0.5%. Estimated reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality contributed 60% of the overall effect and were more pronounced among women. Motor vehicle accident mortality declined with unemployment increases, especially for men and those under age 65, as did legal intervention and homicide mortality, particularly for men and adults ages 25-64. We find suggestive evidence that increases in metropolitan area unemployment increased accidental drug poisoning deaths for both men and women ages 25-64. Our finding that all-cause mortality decreased during the Great Recession is consistent with previous studies. Some categories of cause-specific mortality, notably cardiovascular disease, also follow this pattern, and are more pronounced for certain gender and age groups. Our study also suggests that the recent recession contributed to the growth in deaths from overdoses of prescription drugs in

  3. Mortality rate and years of life lost from unintentional injury and suicide in South India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anuradha; Konradsen, Flemming; John, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    We calculated mortality rates and years of life lost because of unintentional injuries and suicides using community based information obtained prospectively over a 7-year period, from 1998 to 2004, among a rural and peri-urban population of 108,000 in South India. Per 100,000 population the total...... over the study period while 18.9% of all deaths in the population were attributable to unintentional injuries and suicides in the same period. The high burden is particularly notable in the 15-29 age group, where up to 70% of years of life lost are due to injury. The burden of injuries reported...... in this study is significantly higher than the figures reflected in available reports for India and is likely due to the under reporting in routine mortality statistics, particularly of suicides....

  4. Rate and Time Trend of Perinatal, Infant, Maternal Mortality, Natality and Natural Population Growth in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work has been the presentation of the rate and time trends of some indicators of the heath condition of mothers and children in Kosovo: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. Methods: The data were taken from: register of the patients tr...

  5. Urban Area Disadvantage and Under-5 Mortality in Nigeria: The Effect of Rapid Urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Antai, D.; Moradi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children < 5 years of age (under-5 mortality). Objective: In this study we examined the trends in urban population growth and urban under-5 mortal...

  6. Rates and predictors of three-year mortality in older people in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William K; Dewhurst, Felicity; Dewhurst, Matthew J; Orega, Golda; Kissima, John; Chaote, Paul; Walker, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on mortality rates in the general elderly living in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to detail three-year mortality rates in a population of rural community-dwelling older adults in northern Tanzania. We performed a community-based study of 2232 people aged 70 years and over living in Hai district, Tanzania. At baseline, participants underwent clinical assessment for disability, neurological disorders, hypertension, atrial fibrillation and memory problems. At three-year follow-up mortality data were collected. Mortality rates were compared to UK estimates. At follow-up, data were available for 1873 subjects (83.9%). Of those, 208 (11.1%, 95% CI 9.7-12.5) had died. The age-standardised mortality rate was 10.2% (95% CI 8.8-11.6). Age-standardised mortality rates were lower than estimated for the UK (13.9%). In Cox regression analysis, greater age, higher levels of functional disability, use of a walking aid, subjective report of memory problems, being severely underweight and being normotensive were significant predictors of mortality. Those who survive to old age in Tanzania appear to have relatively low mortality rates. Physical and cognitive disabilities were strongly associated with mortality risk in this elderly community-dwelling population. The association between blood pressure and mortality merits further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Avian mortality rates on a power line near Kampala, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    power line carried on tall metal pylons, and a smaller 33-kV line, with three conduc- tors supported on wooden poles, ... able literature on bird mortality associated with power lines (e.g. Lehman et al. 2005,. Jenkins et al. 2010, Edison .... the conductor wires would have been hard to see. Residents reported that other birds.

  8. Gumboro Disease Outbreaks Cause High Mortality Rates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infectious bursal disease is a disease of economic importance which affects all types of chickens and causes variable mortality. ... Thirty nine outbreak farms (5 keeping broilers, 19 keeping layers and 15 keeping indigenous flock) were visited; vaccination history collected, clinical signs observed, flock size and number of ...

  9. Determinants of self-rated health: could health status explain the association between self-rated health and mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Chiyoe; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to self-rated health and to mortality among 2490 community-living elderly. Respondents were followed for 7.3 years for all-cause mortality. To compare the relative impact of each variable, we employed logistic regression analysis for self-rated health and Cox hazard analysis for mortality. Cox analysis stratified by gender, follow-up periods, age group, and functional status was also employed. Series of analysis found that factors associated with self-rated health and with mortality were not identical. Psychological factors such as perceived isolation at home or 'ikigai (one aspect of psychological well-being)' were associated with self-rated health only. Age, functional status, and social relations were associated both with self-rated health and mortality after controlling for possible confounders. Illnesses and functional status accounted for 35-40% of variances in the fair/poor self-rated health. Differences by gender and functional status were observed in the factors related to self-rated health. Overall, self-rated health effect on mortality was stronger for people with no functional impairment, for shorter follow-up period, and for young-old age group. Although, illnesses and functional status were major determinants of self-rated health, economical, psychological, and social factors were also related to self-rated health.

  10. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Byrne, J.C.; Daniels, L.D.; Franklin, J.F.; Fule, P.Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Larson, A.J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Taylor, A.H.; Veblen, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  11. Mortality rate and relative strain index in Buenos Aires city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Garín, Alicia; Bejarán, Rubén

    2003-09-01

    Thermal stress may seriously affect human health to the extent of provoking death in those human groups at high risk such as little children and elderly persons. This research studies the climatology of the relative strain index (RSI) in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina). It is observed that the conditions at 1400 hours local time on more than 75% of summer days cause discomfort, though only on 25% of days are physiological failure levels reached. The nocturnal RSI values show 75% of nights to be comfortable, bringing relief and allowing physiological recuperation. Comparison between the RSI frequency distributions of different decades by the application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows a possible urban heat-island effect that increases nocturnal RSI values. The relationship between the RSI and the daily number of interments is also analysed. Because of the large number of different causes of mortality, only about 10% of the variance of the daily number of interments can be explained by the RSI value at 1400 hours local time 1 or 2 days before. Comparison of mortality figures with these RSI values shows deaths to be at a minimum for the interval 0.0-0.1 (the RSI comfort range), slightly increasing for negative values that could represent unexpected Summer cold waves. For values of RSI over 0.2 the increment is more abrupt, indicating an impact of a thermal strain on mortality. The relationship between the joint occurrence of the 1400 hour and 0200 hour (local time) RSI values and mortality shows a clear impact of prolonged exposure to uncomfortable conditions.

  12. Disparities in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil between 1980 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffo Freitas-Junior

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trends in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil in its macro-regions and states between 1980 and 2009. METHODS: This was an ecological time-series study using data on breast cancer deaths registered in the Mortality Data System (SIM/WHO and census data on the resident population collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE/WHO. Joinpoint regression analyses were used to identify the significant changes in trends and to estimate the annual percentage change (APC in mortality rates. RESULTS: Female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil tended to stabilize from 1994 onward (APC = 0.4%. Considering the Brazilian macro-regions, the annual mortality rates decreased in the Southeast, stabilized in the South and increased in the Northeast, North, and Midwest. Only the states of Sao Paulo (APC = -1.9%, Rio Grande do Sul (APC = -0.8% and Rio de Janeiro (APC = -0.6% presented a significant decline in mortality rates. The greatest increases were found in Maranhao (APC=12%, Paraiba (APC=11.9%, and Piaui (APC=10.9%. CONCLUSION: Although there has been a trend toward stabilization in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil, when the mortality rate of each macro-region and state is analyzed individually, considerable inequalities are found, with rate decline or stabilization in states with higher socioeconomic levels and a substantial increase in those with lower socioeconomic levels.

  13. Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max).......To examine whether elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is an independent risk factor for mortality or a mere marker of physical fitness (VO2Max)....

  14. Women's Education and Health Inequalities in Under-Five Mortality in Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries, 1990–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado, Aristide Romaric; Sathiya Susuman, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to analyse trends in the relationship between mother’s educational level and mortality of children under the year of five in Sub-Saharan Africa, from 1990 to 2015. Data and Methods Data used in this study came from different waves of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Sub-Saharan countries. Logistic regression and Buis’s decomposition method were used to explore the effect of mother’s educational level on the mortality of children under five years. Results Although the results of our study in the selected countries show that under-five mortality rates of children born to mothers without formal education are higher than the mortality rates of children of educated mothers, it appears that differences in mortality were reduced over the past two decades. In selected countries for our study, we noticed a significant decline in mortality among children of non-educated mothers compared to the decrease in mortality rates among children of educated mothers during the period of 1990–2010. The results show that the decline in mortality of children under five years was much higher among the children born to mothers who have never received formal education—112 points drop in Malawi, over 80 in Zambia and Zimbabwe, 65 points in Burkina Faso, 56 in Congo, 43 in Namibia, 27 in Guinea, Cameroon, and 22 to 15 in Niger. However, we noted a variation in results among the countries selected for the study—in Burkina Faso (OR = 0.7), in Cameroon (OR = 0.8), in Guinea (OR = 0.8) and Niger (OR = 0.8). It is normally observed that children of mothers with 0–6 years of education are about 20% more likely to survive until their fifth year compared to children of mothers who have not been to school. Conversely, the results did not reveal significant differences between the under-five deaths of children born to non-educated mothers and children of low-level educated mothers in Congo, Malawi and Namibia. Conclusion The decline in under

  15. Aggregate level beverage specific effect of alcohol sale on myocardial infarction mortality rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury Evgeny

    2009-01-01

    The pronounced fluctuations in cardiovascular mortality in the countries of the former Soviet Union over the past decades have attracted considerable interest. The mounting evidence suggests that binge drinking pattern is a potentially important contributor to higher cardiovascular mortality rate in the former Soviet republics. There is assumption that if occasional heavy drinking of strong spirits increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality, countries where this is predominant drinking pattern should display positive association between spirits consumption and cardiovascular mortality at the aggregate level. To estimate the aggregate level beverage specific effect of alcohol sale on myocardial infarction mortality rate in drinking culture, which combine a higher level of spirits consumption per capita with the explosive drinking pattern. Trends in beverage specific alcohol sale per capita and myocardial infarction mortality rate from 1970 to 2005 in Belarus were analyzed employing ARIMA time series analysis. The results of time series analysis suggest positive relation between strong spirits (vodka) sale per capita and myocardial infarction mortality rate. The analysis suggests that a 1 liter increase in vodka sale per capita would result in a 7.2% increase in myocardial infarction mortality rate (8.2% increase in male mortality and 6.8% increase in female mortality). the results of the present study suggest a positive relation between vodka sale and myocardial infarction mortality rate at aggregate level and support the hypothesis that binge drinking of strong spirits is a risk factor of myocardial infarction at the individual level. Thus, from a public policy point of view, the outcome of this study suggests that cardiovascularrelated mortality prevention programs should put more focus on addressing alcohol consumption structure.

  16. Impacto de los servicios de salud, el saneamiento y la alfabetización en la mortalidad de menores de cinco años Impact of health care services, sanitation and education on mortality rates of children under five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Gutiérrez

    1999-10-01

    . CONCLUSIONES: En el periodo estudiado se redujo el diferencial en las tasas de mortalidad de menores de cinco años entre Chiapas y Nuevo León; para mantener o acelerar tal descenso es necesario continuar con los programas analizados y, en Chiapas o estados similares, ampliar en forma más acelerada la infraestructura en salud.OBJECTIVE: To analyze differences of the impact of health care services, sanitation and literacy on the mortality rates of children under five years of age, in two Mexican states with marked socioeconomic differences: Chiapas and Nuevo Leon. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study design was ecologic, based on a retrospective analysis of data published by the Health Ministry (Secretaría de Salud, National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática and the National Population Council (Consejo Nacional de Población, on the tendencies of mortality among children under five years and on the changes of selected indicators corresponding to the period 1990-1997. Study design: ecologic study. This was based on a retrospective analysis of data published by Secretaría de Salud, Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática and Consejo Nacional de Población, about the tendencies of mortality among children under five years, and about the changes of selected indicators. The analysis was carried out in the period comprised between 1990-1997. For both states the registered variations were calculated and the trends were determined through analysis of simple linear regression; the independent variable corresponded to the study years. Partial correlation analysis between the various mortality trends studies and between and the selected indicators, were calculated. RESULTS: During the studied period there was a steady decline of children mortality, which was more marked in Chiapas. In both entities, this decrease was closely related to the decline in mortality due to acute diarrhea, and also

  17. A population-based analysis of increasing rates of suicide mortality in Japan and South Korea, 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sun Y; Reither, Eric N; Masters, Ryan K

    2016-04-23

    In the past two decades, rates of suicide mortality have declined among most OECD member states. Two notable exceptions are Japan and South Korea, where suicide mortality has increased by 20 % and 280 %, respectively. Population and suicide mortality data were collected through national statistics organizations in Japan and South Korea for the period 1985 to 2010. Age, period of observation, and birth cohort membership were divided into five-year increments. We fitted a series of intrinsic estimator age-period-cohort models to estimate the effects of age-related processes, secular changes, and birth cohort dynamics on the rising rates of suicide mortality in the two neighboring countries. In Japan, elevated suicide rates are primarily driven by period effects, initiated during the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. In South Korea, multiple factors appear to be responsible for the stark increase in suicide mortality, including recent secular changes, elevated suicide risks at older ages in the context of an aging society, and strong cohort effects for those born between the Great Depression and the aftermath of the Korean War. In spite of cultural, demographic and geographic similarities in Japan and South Korea, the underlying causes of increased suicide mortality differ across these societies-suggesting that public health responses should be tailored to fit each country's unique situation.

  18. A population-based analysis of increasing rates of suicide mortality in Japan and South Korea, 1985–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Y. Jeon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past two decades, rates of suicide mortality have declined among most OECD member states. Two notable exceptions are Japan and South Korea, where suicide mortality has increased by 20 % and 280 %, respectively. Methods Population and suicide mortality data were collected through national statistics organizations in Japan and South Korea for the period 1985 to 2010. Age, period of observation, and birth cohort membership were divided into five-year increments. We fitted a series of intrinsic estimator age-period-cohort models to estimate the effects of age-related processes, secular changes, and birth cohort dynamics on the rising rates of suicide mortality in the two neighboring countries. Results In Japan, elevated suicide rates are primarily driven by period effects, initiated during the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. In South Korea, multiple factors appear to be responsible for the stark increase in suicide mortality, including recent secular changes, elevated suicide risks at older ages in the context of an aging society, and strong cohort effects for those born between the Great Depression and the aftermath of the Korean War. Conclusion In spite of cultural, demographic and geographic similarities in Japan and South Korea, the underlying causes of increased suicide mortality differ across these societies—suggesting that public health responses should be tailored to fit each country’s unique situation.

  19. A comprehensive hip fracture program reduces complication rates and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Moltke, Finn Borgbjerg; Schousboe, B.

    2008-01-01

    to nutrition, fluid and oxygen therapy, and urinary retention. RESULTS: In the intervention group, the rate of any in-hospital postoperative complication Was reduced from 33% to 20% (odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.9; P = .002). Rates of confusion (P = .02), pneumonia (P = .03), and urinary...

  20. Factors Underlying the Temporal Increase in Maternal Mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Lisonkova, Sarka; Muraca, Giulia M; Razaz, Neda; Sabr, Yasser; Mehrabadi, Azar; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2017-01-01

    To identify the factors underlying the recent increase in maternal mortality ratios (maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) in the United States. We carried out a retrospective study with data on maternal deaths and live births in the United States from 1993 to 2014 obtained from the birth and death files of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Underlying causes of death were examined between 1999 and 2014 using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes. Poisson regression was used to estimate maternal mortality rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for the introduction of a separate pregnancy question and the standard pregnancy checkbox on death certificates and adoption of ICD-10. Maternal mortality ratios increased from 7.55 in 1993, to 9.88 in 1999, and to 21.5 per 100,000 live births in 2014 (RR 2014 compared with 1993 2.84, 95% CI 2.49-3.24; RR 2014 compared with 1999 2.17, 95% CI 1.93-2.45). The increase in maternal deaths from 1999 to 2014 was mainly the result of increases in maternal deaths associated with two new ICD-10 codes (O26.8, ie, primarily renal disease; and O99, ie, other maternal diseases classifiable elsewhere); exclusion of such deaths abolished the increase in mortality (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.94-1.27). Regression adjustment for improvements in surveillance also abolished the temporal increase in maternal mortality ratios (adjusted maternal mortality ratios 7.55 in 1993, 8.00 per 100,000 live births in 2013; adjusted RR 2013 compared with 1993 1.06, 95% CI 0.90-1.25). Recent increases in maternal mortality ratios in the United States are likely an artifact of improvements in surveillance and highlight past underestimation of maternal death. Complete ascertainment of maternal death in populations remains a challenge even in countries with good systems for civil registration and vital statistics.

  1. Self-rated versus Caregiver-rated Health for Patients with Mild Dementia as Predictors of Patient Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Siersma, Volkert; Vogel, Asmus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Self-assessment of health is a strong and independent predictor of mortality for cognitively intact people. Because the ability of patients with dementia to rate their own health is questionable, caregiver-rated health for patients may serve as a proxy. The authors aimed to validate...... and compare self- and caregiver-rated health for patients with dementia as independent predictors of patient mortality. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of data from The Danish Alzheimer's Disease Intervention Study, a randomized controlled trial of psychosocial intervention for 330 patients with mild...... dementia and their caregivers with a 36-month follow-up. Patients and caregivers rated patients' health on the Euro Quality of Life Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The ability of self- and caregiver-rated health for the patient to predict patient mortality was analyzed as hazard...

  2. High infant mortality rate, high total fertility rate and very low female literacy in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuman, A Sathiya; Chialepeh, Wilson N; Bado, Aristide; Lailulo, Yishak

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the top 10 selected African countries with key interventions such as high infant mortality rate, high total fertility rate and female literacy rate. The World Bank's 2013 data were used. Descriptive analyses were performed. Findings show that Sierra Leone (107.2), Angola (102) and Central Africa Republic (96.1) reported the highest infant mortality rate per 1000 live births. The total fertility rates in Niger (7.6), Mali (6.8) and Somalia (6.6) were higher than other comparable countries. Health care service providers need to pay more attention during pregnancy periods, improve number of field visits, identify pregnant women and promote 100% antenatal care if this is done practically, these countries will reduce and ultimately eliminate infant mortality. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Resting heart rate is a predictor of mortality in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter; Vestbo, Jørgen; Schnohr, Peter; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Jensen, Jan Skov; Jensen, Gorm B

    2013-08-01

    The clinical significance of high heart rate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unexplored. We investigated the association between resting heart rate, pulmonary function, and prognosis in subjects with COPD. 16 696 subjects aged ≥40 years from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective study of the general population, were followed for 35.3 years, 10 986 deaths occurred. Analyses were performed using time-dependent Cox-models and net reclassification index (NRI). Resting heart rate increased with severity of COPD (p85 bpm was 5.5 years without COPD, 9.8 years in mild (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage I), 6.7 years in moderate (GOLD stage II) and 5.9 years in severe/very severe COPD (GOLD stage III/IV), (pNRI 4.9%, p = 0.01; category less NRI 23.0%, pNRI 7.8%, p = 0.002; category less NRI 24.1%, p<0.0001). Resting heart rate increases with severity of COPD. Resting heart rate is a readily available clinical variable that improves risk prediction in patients with COPD above and beyond that of pulmonary function alone. Resting heart rate may be a potential target for intervention in COPD.

  4. Bleaching and mortality of a photosymbiotic bioeroding sponge under future carbon dioxide emission scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, James K H; Schönberg, Christine H L; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Achlatis, Michelle; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2018-03-24

    The bioeroding sponge Cliona orientalis is photosymbiotic with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and is pervasive on the Great Barrier Reef. We investigated how C. orientalis responded to past and future ocean conditions in a simulated community setting. The experiment lasted over an Austral summer under four carbon dioxide emission scenarios: a pre-industrial scenario (PI), a present-day scenario (PD; control), and two future scenarios of combined ocean acidification and ocean warming, i.e., B1 (intermediate) and A1FI (extreme). The four scenarios also simulated natural variability of carbon dioxide partial pressure and temperature in seawater. Responses of C. orientalis generally remained similar between the PI and PD treatments. C. orientalis under B1 displayed a dramatic increase in lateral tissue extension, but bleached and displayed reduced rates of respiration and photosynthesis. Some B1 sponge replicates died by the end of the experiment. Under A1FI, strong bleaching and subsequent mortality of all C. orientalis replicates occurred at an early stage of the experiment. Mortality arrested bioerosion by C. orientalis under B1 and A1FI. Overall, the absolute amount of calcium carbonate eroded by C. orientalis under B1 or A1FI was similar to that under PI or PD at the end of the experiment. Although bioerosion rates were raised by short-term experimental acidification in previous studies, our findings from the photosymbiotic C. orientalis imply that the effects of bioerosion on reef carbonate budgets may only be temporary if the bioeroders cannot survive long-term in the future oceans.

  5. Geographic Variability in Liver Disease Related Mortality Rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Archita P; Mohan, Prashanthinie; Roubal, Anne M; Bettencourt, Ricki; Loomba, Rohit

    2018-02-26

    Liver disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States (US). Geographic variations in the burden of chronic liver disease may have significant impact on public health policies but have not been explored at the national level. The objective of this study is to examine inter-state variability in liver disease mortality in the US. We compared liver disease mortality from the 2010 National Vital Statistics Report on a state level. States in each quartile of liver disease mortality were compared with regard to viral hepatitis death rates, alcohol consumption, obesity, ethnic and racial composition, and household income. Race, ethnicity, and median household income data was derived from the 2010 US Census. Alcohol consumption and obesity data was obtained from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. We found significant inter-state variability in liver disease mortality, ranging from 6.4 to 17.0 per 100,000. The South and Mid-West carry the highest rates of liver disease mortality. In addition to viral hepatitis death rates, there is a strong correlation between higher percent Hispanic population and a state's liver disease mortality rate (r = 0.538, p< 0.001). Greater racial diversity (p < 0.001) and lower household income (r = 0.405, p=0.003) was associated with the higher liver disease mortality. While there was a trend between higher obesity rates and higher liver disease mortality, the correlation was not strong and there was no clear association between alcohol consumption and liver disease mortality rates. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. High mortality rates after nonelective colon cancer resection : results of a national audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I. S.; Snijders, H. S.; Grossmann, I.; Karsten, T. M.; Havenga, K.; Wiggers, T.

    AimColon cancer resection in a nonelective setting is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this retrospective study is to identify risk factors for overall mortality after colon cancer resection with a special focus on nonelective resection. MethodData were obtained from

  7. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lump Sum Mortality Rates A Appendix A to Part 4022 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Pt. 4022, App. A Appendix A to Part 4022—Lump Sum Mortality...

  8. Gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates for assisted reproductive technology (ART) and other births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Abrar A; Wang, Alex Y; Hilder, Lisa; Li, Zhuoyang; Lui, Kei; Farquhar, Cindy; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2018-02-01

    Is perinatal mortality rate higher among births born following assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared to non-ART births? Overall perinatal mortality rates in ART births was higher compared to non-ART births, but gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births was lower for very preterm and moderate to late preterm births. Births born following ART are reported to have higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to non-ART births. This population-based retrospective cohort study included 407 368 babies (391 952 non-ART and 15 416 ART)-393 491 singletons and 10 877 twins or high order multiples. All births (≥20 weeks of gestation and/or ≥400 g of birthweight) in five states and territories in Australia during the period 2007-2009 were included in the study, using National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC). Primary outcome measures were rates of stillbirth, neonatal and perinatal deaths. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the likelihood of perinatal death. Rates of multiple birth and low birthweight were significantly higher in ART group compared to the non-ART group (P ART births (16.5 per 1000 births, 95% CI 14.5-18.6), compared to non-ART births (11.3 per 1000 births, 95% CI 11.0-11.6) (AOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.26-1.68). However, gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births (including both singletons and multiples) was lower for very preterm (ART births. Congenital abnormality and spontaneous preterm were the most common causes of neonatal deaths in both ART and non-ART group. Due to different cut-off limit for perinatal period in Australia, the results of this study should be interpreted with cautions for other countries. Australian definition of perinatal period commences at 20 completed weeks (140 days) of gestation and ends 27 completed days after birth which is different from the definition by World Health Organisation (commences at 22 completed weeks (154 days) of

  9. Infant mortality rates and structure in a town near a nuclear power enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, F.D.; Voronina, Z.I.; Voronin, P.F.; Demin, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is devoted to analysis of the rates and structure of mortality of infants aged under 1 in a town, situated near a nuclear power enterprise (NPE). Altogether 38124 infants born in 1950-1978, were investigated. The dead infants (1160) were divided into 3 groups with relation to their parents' place of work: 1 - infants whose parents worked in the NPE; 2 - infants whose parents worked in town factories and offices; 3 - all infants in the town. The total doses of γ-irradiation for mothers were 10-400 cSv, those for fathers - 30-520 cSv, intrauterine irradiation of a fetus was 0.5-0.55 cSv. The individual effective equivalent dose of irradiation of the residents of the town was 17.3 cSv over 40 years. Occupational γ-irradiation of the parents at doses exceeding the maximum permissible ones in the first 10 years of work at the NPE made no effect on the mortality rates in infants of the first generation

  10. Trends in Infant mortality rate and mortality for neonates born at less than 32 weeks and with very low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Barría-Pailaquilén, René Mauricio; Mendoza-Maldonado, Yessy; Urrutia-Toro, Yohana; Castro-Mora, Cristian; Santander-Manríquez, Gema

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the trend of the infant mortality rate between 1990-2004 and the neonatal mortality between 2000-2005 in infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age or with very low birth-weight. Based on secondary data, infant mortality rate and by its component for Valdivia city were compared with national indicators. Mortality at

  11. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Janine E.; St. John, Freya A. V.; Griffiths, Richard A.; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT), as well as direct questioning (DQ). Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates. PMID:26556237

  12. Forecasting selected specific age mortality rate of Malaysia by using Lee-Carter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri Kamaruddin, Halim; Ismail, Noriszura

    2018-03-01

    Observing mortality pattern and trend is an important subject for any country to maintain a good social-economy in the next projection years. The declining in mortality trend gives a good impression of what a government has done towards macro citizen in one nation. Selecting a particular mortality model can be a tricky based on the approached method adapting. Lee-Carter model is adapted because of its simplicity and reliability of the outcome results with approach of regression. Implementation of Lee-Carter in finding a fitted model and hence its projection has been used worldwide in most of mortality research in developed countries. This paper studies the mortality pattern of Malaysia in the past by using original model of Lee-Carter (1992) and hence its cross-sectional observation for a single age. The data is indexed by age of death and year of death from 1984 to 2012, in which are supplied by Department of Statistics Malaysia. The results are modelled by using RStudio and the keen analysis will focus on the trend and projection of mortality rate and age specific mortality rate in the future. This paper can be extended to different variants extensions of Lee-Carter or any stochastic mortality tool by using Malaysia mortality experience as a centre of the main issue.

  13. Forecasting the mortality rates using Lee-Carter model and Heligman-Pollard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, R. I.; Ngataman, N.; Abrisam, W. N. A. Wan Mohd

    2017-09-01

    Improvement in life expectancies has driven further declines in mortality. The sustained reduction in mortality rates and its systematic underestimation has been attracting the significant interest of researchers in recent years because of its potential impact on population size and structure, social security systems, and (from an actuarial perspective) the life insurance and pensions industry worldwide. Among all forecasting methods, the Lee-Carter model has been widely accepted by the actuarial community and Heligman-Pollard model has been widely used by researchers in modelling and forecasting future mortality. Therefore, this paper only focuses on Lee-Carter model and Heligman-Pollard model. The main objective of this paper is to investigate how accurately these two models will perform using Malaysian data. Since these models involves nonlinear equations that are explicitly difficult to solve, the Matrix Laboratory Version 8.0 (MATLAB 8.0) software will be used to estimate the parameters of the models. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) procedure is applied to acquire the forecasted parameters for both models as the forecasted mortality rates are obtained by using all the values of forecasted parameters. To investigate the accuracy of the estimation, the forecasted results will be compared against actual data of mortality rates. The results indicate that both models provide better results for male population. However, for the elderly female population, Heligman-Pollard model seems to underestimate to the mortality rates while Lee-Carter model seems to overestimate to the mortality rates.

  14. Birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates among their offspring : a population-based study from Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Siau-Wei; Liu, Jenny; Juay, Lester; Czene, Kamila; Miao, Hui; Salim, Agus; Verkooijen, Helena M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/213707705; Hartman, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With improvements in treatment of cancer, more men of fertile age are survivors of cancer. This study evaluates trends in birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates of their offspring. METHODS: From the Swedish Multi-generation Register and Cancer Register, we identified

  15. Heart rate variability predicts 30-day all-cause mortality in intensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HRV), has shown promise in predicting clinically important outcomes in the critical care setting; however, there is debate concerning its utility. ... Keywords: APACHE II, autonomic nervous system, critical care, heart rate variability, mortality ...

  16. Rate and time trend of perinatal, infant, maternal mortality, natality and natural population growth in kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    THE AIM OF WORK HAS BEEN THE PRESENTATION OF THE RATE AND TIME TRENDS OF SOME INDICATORS OF THE HEATH CONDITION OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN KOSOVO: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. THE DATA WERE TAKEN FROM: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a continuous decrease. Infant mortality

  17. Rate and Time Trend of Perinatal, Infant, Maternal Mortality, Natality and Natural Population Growth in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work has been the presentation of the rate and time trends of some indicators of the heath condition of mothers and children in Kosovo: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. Methods: The data were taken from: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. Results: The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Conclusion: Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a

  18. Ambulatory heart rate range predicts mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubbon, Richard M; Ruff, Naomi; Groves, David; Eleuteri, Antonio; Denby, Christine; Kearney, Lorraine; Ali, Noman; Walker, Andrew M N; Jamil, Haqeel; Gierula, John; Gale, Chris P; Batin, Phillip D; Nolan, James; Shah, Ajay M; Fox, Keith A A; Sapsford, Robert J; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Mark T

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to define the prognostic value of the heart rate range during a 24 h period in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Prospective observational cohort study of 791 patients with CHF associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation were linked with ambulatory heart rate range (AHRR; calculated as maximum minus minimum heart rate using 24 h Holter monitor data, including paced and non-sinus complexes) in univariate and multivariate analyses. Findings were then corroborated in a validation cohort of 408 patients with CHF with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. After a mean 4.1 years of follow-up, increasing AHRR was associated with reduced risk of all-cause, sudden, non-cardiovascular and progressive heart failure death in univariate analyses. After accounting for characteristics that differed between groups above and below median AHRR using multivariate analysis, AHRR remained strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 0.991/bpm increase in AHRR (95% CI 0.999 to 0.982); p=0.046). AHRR was not associated with the risk of any non-elective hospitalisation, but was associated with heart-failure-related hospitalisation. AHRR was modestly associated with the SD of normal-to-normal beats (R(2)=0.2; pheart rate (R(2)=0.33; p<0.001). Analysis of the validation cohort revealed AHRR to be associated with all-cause and mode-specific death as described in the derivation cohort. AHRR is a novel and readily available prognosticator in patients with CHF, which may reflect autonomic tone and exercise capacity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Sources of variation in under-5 mortality across sub-Saharan Africa: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Heft-Neal, Sam; Bendavid, Eran

    2016-12-01

    Detailed spatial understanding of levels and trends in under-5 mortality is needed to improve the targeting of interventions to the areas of highest need, and to understand the sources of variation in mortality. To improve this understanding, we analysed local-level information on child mortality across sub-Saharan Africa between 1980-2010. We used data from 82 Demographic and Health Surveys in 28 sub-Saharan African countries, including the location and timing of 3·24 million childbirths and 393 685 deaths, to develop high-resolution spatial maps of under-5 mortality in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. These estimates were at a resolution of 0·1 degree latitude by 0·1 degree longitude (roughly 10 km × 10 km). We then analysed this spatial information to distinguish within-country versus between-country sources of variation in mortality, to examine the extent to which declines in mortality have been accompanied by convergence in the distribution of mortality, and to study localised drivers of mortality differences, including temperature, malaria burden, and conflict. In our sample of sub-Saharan African countries from the 1980s to the 2000s, within-country differences in under-5 mortality accounted for 74-78% of overall variation in under-5 mortality across space and over time. Mortality differed significantly across only 8-15% of country borders, supporting the role of local, rather than national, factors in driving mortality patterns. We found that by the end of the study period, 23% of the eligible children in the study countries continue to live in mortality hotspots-areas where, if current trends continue, the Sustainable Developent Goals mortality targets will not be met. In multivariate analysis, within-country mortality levels at each pixel were significantly related to local temperature, malaria burden, and recent history of conflict. Our findings suggest that sub-national determinants explain a greater portion of under-5 mortality than do country

  20. Optimising stocking rate under commercial and subsistence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of the model, it pays (in the short term) to overgraze. There is apparently no technical solution to this problem. Keywords: Commercial pastoralism; Farming; grazing ecosystems; herbivores; livestock; model; overstocking; pastoralism; plant-herbivore models; south africa; stocking rate; Stocking rates; Subsistence ...

  1. Currency Risk Management under Floating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Duret

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As for the research into this subject, we find, therefore, that one of the most important indicators that quantify the international competitiveness is the exchange rate, together with other fundamental macroeconomic variables such as the size of the potential GDP, the equilibrium real exchange rate, gives a certain insight into the functioning of the fundamental macroeconomic mechanisms and their regulation. Commercial and financial operations imply relationships between partners from different currency countries or areas that involve conversion operations, of replacement of a currency to another. Exchange rate fluctuations of one currency create currency risk, to the extent that it is used to carry out international transactions. These operations are subjected to currency risk as exchange rates change frequently from one period to another and, on the other hand, speculations in the forex market influence the exchange rate by the interventions of those who perform them.

  2. Forecasting the mortality rates of Indonesian population by using neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Lutfiani; Mardiyati, Sri; Rahim, Hendrisman

    2018-03-01

    A model that can represent a problem is required in conducting a forecasting. One of the models that has been acknowledged by the actuary community in forecasting mortality rate is the Lee-Certer model. Lee Carter model supported by Neural Network will be used to calculate mortality forecasting in Indonesia. The type of Neural Network used is feedforward neural network aligned with backpropagation algorithm in python programming language. And the final result of this study is mortality rate in forecasting Indonesia for the next few years

  3. Body size and mortality rates in coral reef fishes: a three-phase relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatley, Christopher Harry Robert; Bellwood, David Roy

    2016-10-26

    Body size is closely linked to mortality rates in many animals, although the overarching patterns in this relationship have rarely been considered for multiple species. A meta-analysis of published size-specific mortality rates for coral reef fishes revealed an exponential decline in mortality rate with increasing body size, however, within this broad relationship there are three distinct phases. Phase one is characterized by naive fishes recruiting to reefs, which suffer extremely high mortality rates. In this well-studied phase, fishes must learn quickly to survive the many predation risks. After just a few days, the surviving fishes enter phase two, in which small increases in body size result in pronounced increases in lifespan (estimated 11 d mm -1 ). Remarkably, approximately 50% of reef fish individuals remain in phase two throughout their lives. Once fishes reach a size threshold of about 43 mm total length (TL) they enter phase three, where mortality rates are relatively low and the pressure to grow is presumably, significantly reduced. These phases provide a clearer understanding of the impact of body size on mortality rates in coral reef fishes and begin to reveal critical insights into the energetic and trophic dynamics of coral reefs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. National and sub-national under-five mortality profiles in Peru: a basis for informed policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huicho, Luis; Trelles, Miguel; Gonzales, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Background Information on profiles for under-five causes of death is important to guide choice of child-survival interventions. Global level data have been published, but information at country level is scarce. We aimed at defining national and departmental trends and profiles of under-five mortality in Peru from 1996 through 2000. Methods We used the Ministry of Health registered under-five mortality data. For correction of under-registration, a model life-table that fitted the age distribution of the population and of registered deaths was identified for each year. The mortality rates corresponding to these model life-tables were then assigned to each department in each particular year. Cumulative reduction in under-five mortality rate in the 1996–2000 period was estimated calculating the annual reduction slope for each department. Departmental level mortality profiles were constructed. Differences in mortality profiles and in mortality reduction between coastal, andean and jungle regions were also assessed. Results At country level, only 4 causes (pneumonia, diarrhoea, neonatal diseases and injuries) accounted for 68% of all deaths in 1996, and for 62% in 2000. There was 32.7% of under-five death reduction from 1996 to 2000. Diarrhoea and pneumonia deaths decreased by 84.5% and 41.8%, respectively, mainly in the andean region, whereas deaths due to neonatal causes and injuries decreased by 37.2% and 21.7%. For 1996–2000 period, the andean, coast and jungle regions accounted for 52.4%, 33.1% and 14.4% of deaths, respectively. These regions represent 41.0%, 46.4% and 12.6% of under-five population. Both diarrhoea and pneumonia constitute 30.6% of under-five deaths in the andean region. As a proportion, neonatal deaths remained stable in the country from 1996 to 2000, accounting for about 30% of under-five deaths, whereas injuries and "other" causes, including congenital anomalies, increased by about 5%. Conclusion Under-five mortality declined substantially in

  5. National and sub-national under-five mortality profiles in Peru: a basis for informed policy decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trelles Miguel

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on profiles for under-five causes of death is important to guide choice of child-survival interventions. Global level data have been published, but information at country level is scarce. We aimed at defining national and departmental trends and profiles of under-five mortality in Peru from 1996 through 2000. Methods We used the Ministry of Health registered under-five mortality data. For correction of under-registration, a model life-table that fitted the age distribution of the population and of registered deaths was identified for each year. The mortality rates corresponding to these model life-tables were then assigned to each department in each particular year. Cumulative reduction in under-five mortality rate in the 1996–2000 period was estimated calculating the annual reduction slope for each department. Departmental level mortality profiles were constructed. Differences in mortality profiles and in mortality reduction between coastal, andean and jungle regions were also assessed. Results At country level, only 4 causes (pneumonia, diarrhoea, neonatal diseases and injuries accounted for 68% of all deaths in 1996, and for 62% in 2000. There was 32.7% of under-five death reduction from 1996 to 2000. Diarrhoea and pneumonia deaths decreased by 84.5% and 41.8%, respectively, mainly in the andean region, whereas deaths due to neonatal causes and injuries decreased by 37.2% and 21.7%. For 1996–2000 period, the andean, coast and jungle regions accounted for 52.4%, 33.1% and 14.4% of deaths, respectively. These regions represent 41.0%, 46.4% and 12.6% of under-five population. Both diarrhoea and pneumonia constitute 30.6% of under-five deaths in the andean region. As a proportion, neonatal deaths remained stable in the country from 1996 to 2000, accounting for about 30% of under-five deaths, whereas injuries and "other" causes, including congenital anomalies, increased by about 5%. Conclusion Under

  6. National and sub-national under-five mortality profiles in Peru: a basis for informed policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huicho, Luis; Trelles, Miguel; Gonzales, Fernando

    2006-07-04

    Information on profiles for under-five causes of death is important to guide choice of child-survival interventions. Global level data have been published, but information at country level is scarce. We aimed at defining national and departmental trends and profiles of under-five mortality in Peru from 1996 through 2000. We used the Ministry of Health registered under-five mortality data. For correction of under-registration, a model life-table that fitted the age distribution of the population and of registered deaths was identified for each year. The mortality rates corresponding to these model life-tables were then assigned to each department in each particular year. Cumulative reduction in under-five mortality rate in the 1996-2000 period was estimated calculating the annual reduction slope for each department. Departmental level mortality profiles were constructed. Differences in mortality profiles and in mortality reduction between coastal, andean and jungle regions were also assessed. At country level, only 4 causes (pneumonia, diarrhoea, neonatal diseases and injuries) accounted for 68% of all deaths in 1996, and for 62% in 2000. There was 32.7% of under-five death reduction from 1996 to 2000. Diarrhoea and pneumonia deaths decreased by 84.5% and 41.8%, respectively, mainly in the andean region, whereas deaths due to neonatal causes and injuries decreased by 37.2% and 21.7%. For 1996-2000 period, the andean, coast and jungle regions accounted for 52.4%, 33.1% and 14.4% of deaths, respectively. These regions represent 41.0%, 46.4% and 12.6% of under-five population. Both diarrhoea and pneumonia constitute 30.6% of under-five deaths in the andean region. As a proportion, neonatal deaths remained stable in the country from 1996 to 2000, accounting for about 30% of under-five deaths, whereas injuries and "other" causes, including congenital anomalies, increased by about 5%. Under-five mortality declined substantially in all departments from 1996 to 2000, which

  7. Evaluation and Estimation of the Provincial Infant Mortality Rate in China's Sixth Census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Song Bo; Wang, Fang; Yu, Chuan Hua

    2015-06-01

    To assess the data quality and estimate the provincial infant mortality rate (1q0) from China's sixth census. A log-quadratic model is applied to under-fifteen data. We analyze and compare the average relative errors (AREs) for 1q0 between the estimated and reported values using the leave-one-out cross-validation method. For the sixth census, the AREs are more than 100% for almost all provinces. The estimated average 1q0 level for 31 provinces is 12.3‰ for males and 10.7‰ for females. The data for the provincial 1q0 from China's sixth census have a serious data quality problem. The actual levels of 1q0 for each province are significantly higher than the reported values. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. The current mortality rates of a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Mine, Mariko; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisayoshi

    1980-01-01

    The causes of death for 9814 a-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city from '70 to '76 were investigated. The mortality rates of the survivors in the aged group were slightly lower than those of both unexposed citizens in Nagasaki and the national average. No difference of the mortality ratios with respect to sex and the distance from a-bomb at exposure was observed. For the cause of death, the cerebrovascular diseases came next to malignant neoplasms in the a-bomb survivors, which order was reverse in the non-exposed population. The mortality rate of the cerebrovascular diseases in the survivors was lower than the expected value. The mortality rate of survivors due to neoplasms was slightly higher than the national average, although almost the same as that of unexposed citizens in Nagasaki. (Nakanishi, T.)

  9. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A. M.; Warner, Wayne A.; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y.; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Methods Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Results Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Conclusions Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation. PMID:28917021

  10. Gynecologic cancer mortality in Trinidad and Tobago and comparisons of mortality-to-incidence rate ratios across global regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Adana A M; Warner, Wayne A; Luciani, Silvana; Lee, Tammy Y; Bajracharya, Smriti; Slovacek, Simeon; Roach, Veronica; Lamont-Greene, Marjorie

    2017-11-01

    To examine the factors associated with gynecologic cancer mortality risks, to estimate the mortality-to-incidence rate ratios (MIR) in Trinidad and Tobago (TT), and to compare the MIRs to those of select countries. Data on 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2009 were analyzed using proportional hazards models to determine factors associated with mortality. MIRs for cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were calculated using cancer registry data (TT), GLOBOCAN 2012 incidence data, and WHO Mortality Database 2012 data (WHO regions and select countries). Among the 3,915 incident gynecologic cancers diagnosed in TT during the study period, 1,795 (45.8%) were cervical, 1,259 (32.2%) were endometrial, and 861 (22.0%) were ovarian cancers. Older age, African ancestry, geographic residence, tumor stage, and treatment non-receipt were associated with increased gynecologic cancer mortality in TT. Compared to GLOBOCAN 2012 data, TT MIR estimates for cervical (0.49 vs. 0.53), endometrial (0.61 vs. 0.65), and ovarian cancers (0.32 vs. 0.48) were elevated. While the Caribbean region had intermediate gynecologic cancer MIRs, MIRs in TT were among the highest of the countries examined in the Caribbean region. Given its status as a high-income economy, the relatively high gynecologic cancer MIRs observed in TT are striking. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved cancer surveillance, screening, and treatment for these (and other) cancers in this Caribbean nation.

  11. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Variation in pediatric and adolescent firearm mortality rates in rural and urban US counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Michael L; Carr, Brendan G; Kallan, Michael J; Branas, Charles C; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2010-06-01

    We examined whether firearm mortality rates among children varied across US counties along a rural-urban continuum. US vital statistics data were accessed for all pediatric (age: 0-19 years) firearm deaths from 1999 through 2006. Deaths were analyzed according to a modified rural-urban continuum code (based on population size and proximity to metropolitan areas) assigned to each county (3141 counties). In the 8-year study period, there were 23649 pediatric firearm deaths (15190 homicides, 7082 suicides, and 1377 unintentional deaths). Pediatric nonfirearm mortality rates were significantly higher in the most-rural counties (adjusted rate ratio: 1.36 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-1.64]), compared with the most-urban counties. The most-rural counties demonstrated virtually identical pediatric firearm mortality rates (adjusted rate ratio: 0.91 [95% CI: 0.63-1.32]), compared with the most-urban counties. The most-rural counties had higher rates of pediatric firearm suicide (adjusted rate ratio: 2.01 [95% CI: 1.43-2.83]) and unintentional firearm death (adjusted rate ratio: 2.19 [95% CI: 1.27-3.77]), compared with the most-urban counties. Pediatric firearm homicides rates were significantly higher in the most-urban counties (adjusted rate ratio: 3.69 [95% CI: 2.00-6.80]), compared with the most-rural counties. Children in the most-rural US counties had firearm mortality rates that were statistically indistinguishable from those for children in the most-urban counties. This finding reflects a greater homicide rate in urban counties counterbalanced by greater suicide and unintentional firearm death rates in rural counties. Nonfirearm mortality rates were significantly greater outside the most-urban US counties.

  13. Long-term association between the intensity of cosmic rays and mortality rates in the city of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. L. Z.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Lage, C.; Pacini, A.; Koutrakis, P.; Cury, P. R.; Shaodan, H.; Pereira, L. A.; Saldiva, P. H. N.

    2018-02-01

    Human beings are constantly exposed to many kinds of environmental agents which affect their health and lifespan. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are the main source of ionizing radiation in the lower troposphere, in which secondary products can penetrate the ground and underground layers. GCRs affect the physical-chemical properties of the terrestrial atmosphere, as well as the biosphere. GCRs are modulated by solar activity and latitudinal geomagnetic field distribution. In our ecological/populational retrospective study, we analyzed the correlation between the annual flux of local secondary GCR-induced ionization (CRII) and mortality rates in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, between 1951-2012. The multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted by demographic and weather parameters showed that CRII are significantly correlated with total mortality, infectious disease mortality, maternal mortality, and perinatal mortality rates (p < 0.001). The underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Further cross-sectional and experimental cohort studies are necessary to understand the biophysical mechanisms of the association found here.

  14. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Mutch, Linda S.; Johnson, Veronica G.; Esperanza, Annie M.; Parsons, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  15. Association between gender inequality index and child mortality rates: a cross-national study of 138 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinda, Ethel Mary; Rajkumar, Anto P; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-03-09

    Gender inequality weakens maternal health and harms children through many direct and indirect pathways. Allied biological disadvantage and psychosocial adversities challenge the survival of children of both genders. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has recently developed a Gender Inequality Index to measure the multidimensional nature of gender inequality. The global impact of Gender Inequality Index on the child mortality rates remains uncertain. We employed an ecological study to investigate the association between child mortality rates and Gender Inequality Indices of 138 countries for which UNDP has published the Gender Inequality Index. Data on child mortality rates and on potential confounders, such as, per capita gross domestic product and immunization coverage, were obtained from the official World Health Organization and World Bank sources. We employed multivariate non-parametric robust regression models to study the relationship between these variables. Women in low and middle income countries (LMICs) suffer significantly more gender inequality (p Inequality Index (GII) was positively associated with neonatal (β = 53.85; 95% CI 41.61-64.09), infant (β = 70.28; 95% CI 51.93-88.64) and under five mortality rates (β = 68.14; 95% CI 49.71-86.58), after adjusting for the effects of potential confounders (p inequality and child mortality. We present the socio-economic problems, which sustain higher gender inequality and child mortality in LMICs. We further discuss the potential solutions pertinent to LMICs. Dissipating gender barriers and focusing on social well-being of women may augment the survival of children of both genders.

  16. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...... in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should...

  17. Heart rate variability as predictor of mortality in sepsis: A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio M de Castilho

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a serious medical condition with increasing prevalence and high mortality. The role of the autonomic nervous system in pathophysiology of sepsis has been increasingly researched. The objective of this study is to evaluate the Heart rate variability (HRV as a predictor of mortality in septic patients.This was a prospective cohort of patients diagnosed with sepsis. Patient recruitment was carried out at ICU in tertiary university hospital between March 2012 and February 2014. Clinical data and laboratory exams were collected at admission. Each patient underwent a 20-minute Holter and a 24-hour Holter on the first day of enrollment. The primary outcome was the 28-day all-cause mortality.A total of 63 patients were included. Patients were categorized into nonsurvivor group (n = 16 or survivor group (n = 47 depending on this endpoint. Survivors were younger (48.6 years vs. 63.0 years, had better renal function and lower values in severity scores (APACHE II and SOFA compared to nonsurvivors. In the 20-minute Holter, SDNN, Total Power, VLF Power, LF Power and LF/HF of nonsurvivors were significantly lower than those of survivors (p = <0.001, p = 0.003, p = 0.002, p = 0.006, p = 0.009 respectively. ROC curve of SDNN was built, showing area under the curve of 0.772 (0.638-0.906 for mortality. The value of 17ms was chosen as best SDNN cutoff to discriminate survivors and nonsurvivors. In the Cox proportional regression, adjusted for SOFA score and for APACHE II, a SDNN ≤ 17ms was associated with a greater risk of death, with hazard ratios of 6.3 (1.4-28.0; p = 0.015 and 5.5 (1,2-24,8; p = 0.027, respectively. The addition of the dichotomized SDNN to the SOFA model reduced AIC and increased the concordance statistic and the R2, indicating that predictive power of the SDNN + SOFA model is better than predictive power of SOFA only.Several HRV parameters are reduced in nonsurviving septic patients. SDNN ≤17 is a risk factor for death in septic

  18. In Sickness but Not in Health: Self-Ratings, Identity, and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…

  19. Study of mortality risk factors for children under age 5 in Abu Dhabi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hosani, H A; Brebner, J; Bener, A B; Norman, J N

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the association of biological, sociocultural and economic risk factors with child mortality in Abu Dhabi from 1 January-31 December 1997. With McNemar chi-squared test, most selected biological risk factors were statistically associated with child mortality, although maternal age older than 40 years and history of fetal death were not positively correlated with neonate, infant or age under 5 mortality. Among sociocultural and economic risk factors, maternal lack of formal education and low monthly income were significantly associated with child death. Consanguinity was significantly associated with under 5 and infant but not neonatal mortality. Gestation <37 weeks was highly associated with mortality among all ages. Strengthening health care programmes and emphasizing the need to identify high risk groups should be priorities.

  20. Exceptionally high mortality rate of the 1918 influenza pandemic in the Brazilian naval fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck-Paim, Cynthia; Shanks, G Dennis; Almeida, Francisco E A; Alonso, Wladimir J

    2013-01-01

    The naval experience with the 1918 pandemic during World War I remains underexplored despite its key role on the pandemic's global diffusion and the epidemiological interest of isolated and relatively homogeneous populations. The pandemic outbreak in the Brazilian naval fleet is of particular interest both because of its severity and the fact that it was the only Latin American military force deployed to war. To study the mortality patterns of the pandemic in the Brazilian fleet sent to patrol the West African coast in 1918. We investigated mortality across vessels, ranks, and occupations based on official population and mortality records from the Brazilian Navy Archives. The outbreak that swept this fleet included the highest influenza mortality rate on any naval ship reported to date. Nearly 10% of the crews died, with death rates reaching 13-14% on two destroyers. While overall mortality was lower for officers, stokers and engineer officers were significantly more likely to die from the pandemic, possibly due to the pulmonary damage from constant exposure to the smoke and coal dust from the boilers. The fatality patterns observed provide valuable data on the conditions that can exacerbate the impact of a pandemic. While the putative lack of exposure to a first pandemic wave may have played a role in the excessive mortality observed in this fleet, our results indicate that strenuous labor conditions, dehydration, and exposure to coal dust were major risk factors. The unequal death rates among vessels remain an open question. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Dead reckoning: can we trust estimates of mortality rates in clinical databases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, Steve; Stark, Jaroslav; Pagel, Christina; Williams, Gail; Williams, William G

    2008-03-01

    Databases almost invariably contain some errors and improvements to the quality of recorded data are costly. We sought to assess the extent to which given levels of error in a clinical database can lead to misleading mortality rates being derived. We deliberately seeded a large database concerning congenital heart surgery involving over 17,600 operations, which we assumed to be error free, with errors at known rates of 0-20%. The effects of three different types of random error were explored: data omission, outcome miscoding (alive or dead) and the miscoding of procedures. For each error type, we compared the mortality rates calculated from the 'seeded' database to those calculated from the pristine database. Outcome miscoding typically results in overestimated mortality rates which for low-risk procedures may well give estimates over double the true value. Random data omission has relatively little effect. If procedure types are miscoded, procedure-specific mortality estimates for high-risk operations tend to be underestimates and those for low-risk operations overestimates. A mathematical model developed to examine these effects accurately forecasted the results of such error-seeding experiments. Software to implement this model is available free of charge on the Internet. Even small levels of data error can substantially affect the accuracy of mortality rate estimates, especially for low-risk operations. Such inaccuracy could lead to misleading analysis of institutional and individual surgeons' results. Our results suggest that caution is warranted in interpreting the mortality estimates derived from clinical databases. Our analysis goes beyond the realms of surgical mortality and concerns all adverse events whose frequency is rare.

  2. Characterization of heat waves affecting mortality rates of broilers between 29 days and market age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Vale

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate may affect broiler production, especially where there are heat waves, which may cause high mortality rates due to the heat stress. Heat wave prediction and characterization may allow early mitigation actions to be taken. Data Mining is one of the tools used for such a characterization, particularly when a large number of variables is involved. The objective of this study was to classify heat waves that promote broiler chicken mortality in poultry houses equipped with minimal environmental control. A single day of heat, a heat-shock day, is capable of producing high broiler mortality. In poultry houses equipped with fans and evaporative cooling, the characterization of heat waves affecting broiler mortality between 29 days of age and market age presented 89.34% Model Accuracy and 0.73 Class Precision for high mortality. There was no influence on high mortality (HM of birds between 29 and 31 days of age. Maximum temperature humidity index (THI above 30.6 ºC was the main characteristic of days when there was a heat wave, causing high mortality in broilers older than 31 days. The high mortality of broilers between 31 and 40 days of age occurred when maximum THI was above 30.6 ºC and maximum temperature of the day was above 34.4 ºC. There were two main causes of high mortality of broilers older than 40 days: 1 maximum THI above 30.6 ºC and minimum THI equal or lower than 15.5 ºC; 2 maximum THI above 30.6 ºC, minimum THI lower than 15.5 ºC, and the time of maximum temperature later than 15:00h. The heat wave influence on broiler mortality lasted an average of 2.7 days.

  3. Morbidity and mortality rates in a NOVA SCOTIA First Nations Community, 1996-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Weerasinghe, Swarna; Stevens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Despite an abundance of data and analysis of First Nations morbidity and mortality rates, accurate data have not been available to serve the First Nations community in Eastern Canada. Data for Eskasoni, the largest Mi'kmaq community, were obtained for 1996 through 1999 and Cape Breton and Nova Scotia were used as regional and provincial reference populations respectively. Age-adjusted relative risks (AARR) were calculated for overall mortality and disease-specific hospital admissions. Eskasoni's mortality AARR was greater than 1.0 in 3 of the 4 years studied, although the data may understate Eskasoni's mortality rates. Eskasoni's total admission AARRs were significantly greater than the two reference populations. Neoplasm admission rates were generally lower, while circulatory disease admission AARRs were significantly higher. A rise in diabetic admission rates was noted with the AARR reaching statistical significance in the final years of the study. Respiratory disease was the leading cause of hospitalization with significantly greater rates of admission than regional or provincial rates. Pneumonia and influenza accounted for more than one half of respiratory admissions. Infectious disease admissions were more prevalent in Eskasoni while rates of liver disease were generally low. Results suggest that members of the largest Mi'kmaq band are at greater risk for a number of disease categories and health promotion should be targeted toward respiratory ailments, circulatory disease and diabetic management. Further analysis, however, remains an important priority.

  4. Projection of temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease in beijing under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boya; Li, Guoxing; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2018-04-01

    Human health faces unprecedented challenges caused by climate change. Thus, studies of the effect of temperature change on total mortality have been conducted in numerous countries. However, few of those studies focused on temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or considered future population changes and adaptation to climate change. We present herein a projection of temperature-related mortality due to CVD under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios in Beijing, a megacity in China. To this end, 19 global circulation models (GCMs), 3 representative concentration pathways (RCPs), 3 socioeconomic pathways, together with generalized linear models and distributed lag non-linear models, were used to project future temperature-related CVD mortality during periods centered around the years 2050 and 2070. The number of temperature-related CVD deaths in Beijing is projected to increase by 3.5-10.2% under different RCP scenarios compared with that during the baseline period. Using the same GCM, the future daily maximum temperatures projected using the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios showed a gradually increasing trend. When population change is considered, the annual rate of increase in temperature-related CVD deaths was up to fivefold greater than that under no-population-change scenarios. The decrease in the number of cold-related deaths did not compensate for the increase in that of heat-related deaths, leading to a general increase in the number of temperature-related deaths due to CVD in Beijing. In addition, adaptation to climate change may enhance rather than ameliorate the effect of climate change, as the increase in cold-related CVD mortality greater than the decrease in heat-related CVD mortality in the adaptation scenarios will result in an increase in the total number of temperature-related CVD mortalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) in estimating under-five mortality levels and trends in Iran 1990 - 2013, study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, Parinaz; Navidi, Iman; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Mohammadi, Younes; Moradi Lakeh, Maziar; Rezaei Darzi, Ehsan; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2014-03-01

    Searching for the latest methods of estimating mortality rates is a major concern for researchers who are working in burden of diseases. Child mortality is an important indicator for assessing population health care services in a country. The National and Sub-national Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (NASBOD) is conducted in Iran with comparative methods and definitions of Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 to estimate major population health measures including child mortality rate. The need to have accurate and valid estimation of under-5 mortality rate led to apply more powerful and reliable methods. The available datasets consist of under-five mortality rates from different sources including death registration systems and summary birth history (SBH) questions from censuses and Demographic Health Survey. These datasets are gathered at national and sub-national levels. We have five time series of under-five mortality rates from SBH method that each one contains 25-year time period. We also calculated Child mortality rates from death registration for 5 years. The main challenge is how to combine and integrate these different time series and how to produce unified estimates of child mortality rates during the course of study. By synthesizing the result of other models, Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) is used as the final stage for generating yearly child mortality rates in this study. GPR is a Bayesian technique that uses data information and defines several hierarchical prior parameters for model. In corporation of GPR and MCMC methods, predicted rates are updated using data and defined parameters in model. This method, also captures both sampling and non-sampling errors and provides uncertainty intervals. The existence of uncertainty for predicting mortality rate is one of the considerable advantages of GPR that distinguish it from other alternative methods. Estimating accurate and reliable child mortality rates at national and sub-national levels

  6. Mapping under-5 and neonatal mortality in Africa, 2000-15: a baseline analysis for the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Nick; Burstein, Roy; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Fullman, Nancy; Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron; Earl, Lucas; Bhatt, Samir; Cameron, Ewan; Casey, Daniel C; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Farag, Tamer H; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fraser, Maya S; Gething, Peter W; Gibson, Harry S; Graetz, Nicholas; Krause, L Kendall; Kulikoff, Xie Rachel; Lim, Stephen S; Mappin, Bonnie; Morozoff, Chloe; Reiner, Robert C; Sligar, Amber; Smith, David L; Wang, Haidong; Weiss, Daniel J; Murray, Christopher J L; Moyes, Catherine L; Hay, Simon I

    2017-11-11

    During the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, many countries in Africa achieved marked reductions in under-5 and neonatal mortality. Yet the pace of progress toward these goals substantially varied at the national level, demonstrating an essential need for tracking even more local trends in child mortality. With the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, which established ambitious targets for improving child survival by 2030, optimal intervention planning and targeting will require understanding of trends and rates of progress at a higher spatial resolution. In this study, we aimed to generate high-resolution estimates of under-5 and neonatal all-cause mortality across 46 countries in Africa. We assembled 235 geographically resolved household survey and census data sources on child deaths to produce estimates of under-5 and neonatal mortality at a resolution of 5 × 5 km grid cells across 46 African countries for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015. We used a Bayesian geostatistical analytical framework to generate these estimates, and implemented predictive validity tests. In addition to reporting 5 × 5 km estimates, we also aggregated results obtained from these estimates into three different levels-national, and subnational administrative levels 1 and 2-to provide the full range of geospatial resolution that local, national, and global decision makers might require. Amid improving child survival in Africa, there was substantial heterogeneity in absolute levels of under-5 and neonatal mortality in 2015, as well as the annualised rates of decline achieved from 2000 to 2015. Subnational areas in countries such as Botswana, Rwanda, and Ethiopia recorded some of the largest decreases in child mortality rates since 2000, positioning them well to achieve SDG targets by 2030 or earlier. Yet these places were the exception for Africa, since many areas, particularly in central and western Africa, must reduce under-5 mortality rates by at least

  7. Causes and implications of the correlation between forest productivity and tree mortality rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; van Mantgem, Philip J.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Bruner, Howard; Harmon, Mark E.; O'Connell, Kari B.; Urban, Dean L.; Franklin, Jerry F.

    2011-01-01

    At global and regional scales, tree mortality rates are positively correlated with forest net primary productivity (NPP). Yet causes of the correlation are unknown, in spite of potentially profound implications for our understanding of environmental controls of forest structure and dynamics and, more generally, our understanding of broad-scale environmental controls of population dynamics and ecosystem processes. Here we seek to shed light on the causes of geographic patterns in tree mortality rates, and we consider some implications of the positive correlation between mortality rates and NPP. To reach these ends, we present seven hypotheses potentially explaining the correlation, develop an approach to help distinguish among the hypotheses, and apply the approach in a case study comparing a tropical and temperate forest.

  8. Projecting future heat-related mortality under climate change scenarios: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunrui; Barnett, Adrian Gerard; Wang, Xiaoming; Vaneckova, Pavla; FitzGerald, Gerard; Tong, Shilu

    2011-12-01

    Heat-related mortality is a matter of great public health concern, especially in the light of climate change. Although many studies have found associations between high temperatures and mortality, more research is needed to project the future impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality. We conducted a systematic review of research and methods for projecting future heat-related mortality under climate change scenarios. A literature search was conducted in August 2010, using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1980 through July 2010. Fourteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most projections showed that climate change would result in a substantial increase in heat-related mortality. Projecting heat-related mortality requires understanding historical temperature-mortality relationships and considering the future changes in climate, population, and acclimatization. Further research is needed to provide a stronger theoretical framework for projections, including a better understanding of socioeconomic development, adaptation strategies, land-use patterns, air pollution, and mortality displacement. Scenario-based projection research will meaningfully contribute to assessing and managing the potential impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality.

  9. Global, regional, and national levels and trends in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Ejdemyr, Simon; Idele, Priscila; Hogan, Daniel; Mathers, Colin; Gerland, Patrick; New, Jin Rou; Alkema, Leontine

    2015-12-05

    In 2000, world leaders agreed on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). MDG 4 called for a two-thirds reduction in the under-5 mortality rate between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to estimate levels and trends in under-5 mortality for 195 countries from 1990 to 2015 to assess MDG 4 achievement and then intended to project how various post-2015 targets and observed rates of change will affect the burden of under-5 deaths from 2016 to 2030. We updated the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME) database with 5700 country-year datapoints. As of July, 2015, the database contains about 17 000 country-year datapoints for mortality of children younger than 5 years for 195 countries, and includes all available nationally-representative data from vital registration systems, population censuses, household surveys, and sample registration systems. We used these data to generate estimates, with uncertainty intervals, of under-5 (age 0-4 years) mortality using a Bayesian B-spline bias-reduction model (B3 model). This model includes a data model to adjust for systematic biases associated with different types of data sources. To provide insights into the global and regional burden of under-5 deaths associated with post-2015 targets, we constructed five scenario-based projections for under-5 mortality from 2016 to 2030 and estimated national, regional, and global under-5 mortality rates up to 2030 for each scenario. The global under-5 mortality rate has fallen from 90·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths (90% uncertainty interval 89·3-92·2) in 1990 to 42·5 (40·9-45·6) in 2015. During the same period, the annual number of under-5 deaths worldwide dropped from 12·7 million (12·6 million-13·0 million) to 5·9 million (5·7 million-6·4 million). The global under-5 mortality rate reduced by 53% (50-55%) in the past 25 years and therefore missed the MDG 4 target. Based on point estimates, two regions-east Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean

  10. Darcy’s law predicts widespread forest mortality under climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Nate G.; Allen, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    Drought and heat-induced tree mortality is accelerating in many forest biomes as a consequence of a warming climate, resulting in a threat to global forests unlike any in recorded history. Forests store the majority of terrestrial carbon, thus their loss may have significant and sustained impacts on the global carbon cycle. We use a hydraulic corollary to Darcy’s law, a core principle of vascular plant physiology, to predict characteristics of plants that will survive and die during drought under warmer future climates. Plants that are tall with isohydric stomatal regulation, low hydraulic conductance, and high leaf area are most likely to die from future drought stress. Thus, tall trees of old-growth forests are at the greatest risk of loss, which has ominous implications for terrestrial carbon storage. This application of Darcy’s law indicates today’s forests generally should be replaced by shorter and more xeric plants, owing to future warmer droughts and associated wildfires and pest attacks. The Darcy’s corollary also provides a simple, robust framework for informing forest management interventions needed to promote the survival of current forests. Given the robustness of Darcy’s law for predictions of vascular plant function, we conclude with high certainty that today’s forests are going to be subject to continued increases in mortality rates that will result in substantial reorganization of their structure and carbon storage.

  11. Forecasting the mortality rates of Malaysian population using Heligman-Pollard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Mohd, Razak; Ngataman, Nuraini; Abrisam, Wan Nur Azifah Wan Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Actuaries, demographers and other professionals have always been aware of the critical importance of mortality forecasting due to declining trend of mortality and continuous increases in life expectancy. Heligman-Pollard model was introduced in 1980 and has been widely used by researchers in modelling and forecasting future mortality. This paper aims to estimate an eight-parameter model based on Heligman and Pollard's law of mortality. Since the model involves nonlinear equations that are explicitly difficult to solve, the Matrix Laboratory Version 7.0 (MATLAB 7.0) software will be used in order to estimate the parameters. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be applied to forecast all the parameters according to Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA). The empirical data sets of Malaysian population for period of 1981 to 2015 for both genders will be considered, which the period of 1981 to 2010 will be used as "training set" and the period of 2011 to 2015 as "testing set". In order to investigate the accuracy of the estimation, the forecast results will be compared against actual data of mortality rates. The result shows that Heligman-Pollard model fit well for male population at all ages while the model seems to underestimate the mortality rates for female population at the older ages.

  12. Meningococcal meningitis: clinical and laboratorial characteristics, fatality rate and variables associated with in-hospital mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Strelow

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Meningococcal meningitis is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with meningococcal meningitis, and to identify associated factors with mortality. This was a retrospective study, between 2006 and 2011, at a referral center in São Paulo, Brazil. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with mortality. We included 316 patients. The median age was 16 years (IQR: 7–27 and 60% were male. The clinical triad: fever, headache and neck stiffness was observed in 89% of the patients. The cerebrospinal triad: pleocytosis, elevated protein levels and low glucose levels was present in 79% of patients. Factors associated with mortality in the multivariate model were age above 50 years, seizures, tachycardia, hypotension and neck stiffness. The classic clinical and laboratory triads of meningococcal meningitis were variable. The fatality rate was low. Age, seizures and shock signs were independently associated with mortality.

  13. Tagging methods for estimating population size and mortality rates of inland striped bass populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis in inland reservoirs play an important role ecologically and in supporting recreational fishing. To manage these populations, biologists need information about abundance and mortality. Abundance estimates can be used to assess the effectiveness of stocking programs that maintain most reservoir striped bass populations. Mortality estimates can indicate the relative impact of fishing versus natural mortality and the need for harvest regulation. The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate tagging studies as a way of obtaining information about abundance and mortality. These approaches can be grouped into three broad categories: tag recapture, tag return, and telemetry. Tag-recapture methods are typically used to estimate population size and other demographic parameters but are often difficult to apply in large systems. A fishing tournament can be an effective way of generating tagging or recapture effort in large systems, compared to using research sampling only. Tag-return methods that rely on angler harvest and catch and release can be used to estimate fishing (F) and natural (M) mortality rates and are a practical approach in large reservoirs. The key to success in tag-return studies is to build in auxiliary studies to estimate short-term tagging mortality, short- and longterm tag loss, reporting rate, and mortality associated with catch and release. F and M can also be estimated using telemetry tags. Advantages of this approach are that angler nonreporting does not bias estimates and fish with transmitters provide useful ecological data. Cost can be a disadvantage of telemetry studies; thus, combining telemetry tags with conventional tag returns in an integrated analysis is often the optimal approach. In summary, tagging methods can be a powerful tool for assessing the effectiveness of inland striped bass stocking programs and the relative impact of fishing versus natural mortality

  14. Declining comorbidity-adjusted mortality rates in English patients receiving maintenance renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Benjamin C; Staplin, Natalie; Harper, Charlie H; Haynes, Richard; Winearls, Christopher G; Goldacre, Raph; Emberson, Jonathan R; Goldacre, Michael J; Baigent, Colin; Landray, Martin J; Herrington, William G

    2018-01-30

    We aimed to compare long-term mortality trends in end-stage renal disease versus general population controls after accounting for differences in age, sex and comorbidity. Cohorts of 45,000 patients starting maintenance renal replacement therapy (RRT) and 5.3 million hospital controls were identified from two large electronic hospital inpatient data sets: the Oxford Record Linkage Study (1965-1999) and all-England Hospital Episode Statistics (2000-2011). All-cause and cause-specific three-year mortality rates for both populations were calculated using Poisson regression and standardized to the age, sex, and comorbidity structure of an average 1970-2008 RRT population. The median age at initiation of RRT in 1970-1990 was 49 years, increasing to 61 years by 2006-2008. Over that period, there were increases in the prevalence of vascular disease (from 10.0 to 25.2%) and diabetes (from 6.7 to 33.9%). After accounting for age, sex and comorbidity differences, standardized three-year all-cause mortality rates in treated patients with end-stage renal disease between 1970 and 2011 fell by about one-half (relative decline 51%, 95% confidence interval 41-60%) steeper than the one-third decline (34%, 31-36%) observed in the general population. Declines in three-year mortality rates were evident among those who received a kidney transplant and those who remained on dialysis, and among those with and without diabetes. These data suggest that the full extent of mortality rate declines among RRT patients since 1970 is only apparent when changes in comorbidity over time are taken into account, and that mortality rates in RRT patients appear to have declined faster than in the general population. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of self rated health and mortality in Russia – are they the same?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobak Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into Russia's health crisis during the 1990s includes studies of both mortality and self-rated health, assuming that the determinants of the two are the same. In this paper, we tested this assumption, using data from a single study on both outcomes and socioeconomic, lifestyle and psychological predictor variables. Methods We analysed data from 7 rounds (1994–2001 of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, a panel study of a general population sample (11,482 adults aged over 18 living in households of 2 or more people. Self-rated health was measured on a 5 point scale and dichotomised by combining responses "very poor" and "poor" into poor health. Deaths (n = 782 during a mean follow up of 4.1 years were reported by another household member. Associations between several predictor variables and poor or very poor self-rated health and mortality were measured using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analysis respectively. Results Poor self-rated health was significantly associated with mortality; hazard ratios, compared with very good, good or average health, were 1.69 (1.36-2.10 in men and 1.74 (1.38-2.20 in women. Low education predicted both mortality and poor self-rated health, but income predicted subjective health more strongly. Smoking doubled the risk of death but was unrelated to subjective wellbeing. Frequent drinkers experienced greater mortality than occasional drinkers, despite reporting better health. In contrast, dissatisfaction with life predicted poor self-rated health, but not mortality. Conclusion Differences between the predictors of subjective health and mortality, even though these outcomes were strongly associated, suggest that influences on subjective health are not restricted to serious disease. These findings also suggest the presence of risk factors for relatively sudden deaths in apparently well people, although further research is required. Meanwhile, caution is required

  16. Seasonal survival rates and causes of mortality of Little Owls in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Pedersen, Dorthe; Sunde, Peter

    2013-01-01

    the causes of current survival rates, we estimated age- and season-specific survival rates and causes of mortality in Danish Little Owls on the basis of ringed birds 1920–2002, radio tagged adult and juveniles 2005–2008 and nest surveys 2006–2008. We estimate that 32 % of all eggs fledge and survive to 2...... weeks post hatching (age of ringing) and 47 %of the nestlings from ringing to fledging. Fifty-five percentage of the radio-tracked fledged young survived to dispersal, i.e. a total survival rate from egg to dispersal of 8 %. Analyses of combined ringing and radio tracking data showed a lower survival......Survival rate is an essential component of population dynamics; therefore, identification of variation in mortality rates and the factors that influence them might be of key importance in understanding why populations increase or decrease. In Denmark, the Little Owl Athene noctua, a species...

  17. Gaussian and Affine Approximation of Stochastic Diffusion Models for Interest and Mortality Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus C. Christiansen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the actuarial literature, it has become common practice to model future capital returns and mortality rates stochastically in order to capture market risk and forecasting risk. Although interest rates often should and mortality rates always have to be non-negative, many authors use stochastic diffusion models with an affine drift term and additive noise. As a result, the diffusion process is Gaussian and, thus, analytically tractable, but negative values occur with positive probability. The argument is that the class of Gaussian diffusions would be a good approximation of the real future development. We challenge that reasoning and study the asymptotics of diffusion processes with affine drift and a general noise term with corresponding diffusion processes with an affine drift term and an affine noise term or additive noise. Our study helps to quantify the error that is made by approximating diffusive interest and mortality rate models with Gaussian diffusions and affine diffusions. In particular, we discuss forward interest and forward mortality rates and the error that approximations cause on the valuation of life insurance claims.

  18. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990-2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribe, Kebede; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Lakew, Yihunie; Amare, Azmeraw T; Abera, Semaw F; Mohammed, Mesoud; Hiruye, Abiy; Teklay, Efrem; Misganaw, Awoke; Kassebaum, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013. We used Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 data. Spatiotemporal Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) was applied to generate best estimates of child mortality with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI). Causes of death by age groups, sex, and year were measured using Cause of Death Ensemble modeling (CODEm). For estimation of HIV/AIDS mortality rate, the modified UNAIDS EPP-SPECTRUM suite model was used. Between 1990 and 2013 the under-5 mortality rate declined from 203.9 deaths/1000 live births to 74.4 deaths/1000 live births with an annual rate of change of 4.6%, yielding a total reduction of 64%. Similarly, child (1-4 years), post-neonatal, and neonatal mortality rates declined by 75%, 64%, and 52%, respectively, between 1990 and 2013. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRI), diarrheal diseases, and neonatal syndromes (preterm birth complications, neonatal encephalopathy, neonatal sepsis, and other neonatal disorders) accounted for 54% of the total under-5 deaths in 2013. Under-5 mortality rates due to measles, diarrhea, malaria, protein-energy malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anemia declined by more than two-thirds between 1990 and 2013. Among the causes of under-5 deaths, neonatal syndromes such as sepsis, preterm birth complications, and birth asphyxia ranked third to fifth in 2013. Of all risk-attributable deaths in 1990, 25% of the total under-5 deaths (112,288/435,962) and 48% (112,288/232,199) of the deaths due to diarrhea, LRI, and other common infections were

  19. Prostate cancer trends in Latvia during 1990-2012: incidence, prevalence, mortality, and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonis, Juris; Bokums, Kristaps; Cauce, Vinita; Miklasevics, Edvins; Vaganovs, Peteris; Irmejs, Arvids; Gardovskis, Janis; Vjaters, Egils

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common form of cancer in males worldwide. One of the highest PCa-related mortality rates in the world is observed in Latvia. Our study included male patients diagnosed with PCa between 1990 and 2012. We analyzed incidence, prevalence and mortality trends using joinpoint analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rates. A total of 14,083PCa patients with a mean age of initial PCa diagnosis being 70.1 (SD 8.6) was registered. The standardized incidence rates (per 100,000) increased from 18.9 in 1990 to 74.7 in 2012, while the standardized prevalence rates (per 100,000) increased from 69.9 in 1990 to 437.6 in 2012. Standardized PCa mortality rates (per 100,000) also rose from 13.2 in 1990 to 27.2 in 2006 followed by statistically insignificant decrease continuing up to 2012. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rates increased from 43.6% in 1990 to 70.7% in 2007, and the mean 10-year cancer-specific survival rates from 32.9% in 1990 to 40.5% in 2001. This study revealed that the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates increased between 1990 and 2012, and although the 5- and 10-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates improved over the reviewed period they still needed to get better. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. International variation in lung cancer mortality rates and trends among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Siegel, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth M; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-06-01

    There is no recent comprehensive global analysis of lung cancer mortality in women. We describe contemporary mortality rates and trends among women globally. We used the World Health Organization's Cancer Mortality Database covering 65 populations on six continents to calculate age-standardized (1960 Segi world standard) lung cancer death rates during 2006 to 2010 and annual percent change in rates for available years from 1985 to 2011 and for the most recent five data years by population and age group (30-49 and 50-74 years). Lung cancer mortality rates (per 100,000) among young women (30-49 years) during 2006 to 2010 ranged from 0.7 in Costa Rica to 14.8 in Hungary. Rates among young women were stable or declining in 47 of 52 populations examined. Rates among women 50 to 74 years ranged from 8.8 in Georgia and Egypt to 120.0 in Scotland. In both age groups, rates were highest in parts of Europe (Scotland, Hungary, Denmark) and North America and lowest in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Rates in older women were increasing for more than half (36/64) of populations examined, including most countries in Southern, Eastern, and Western Europe and South America. Although widespread reductions in lung cancer in young women provide evidence of tobacco control success, rates continue to increase among older women in many countries. More concentrated efforts to initiate or expand tobacco control programs in these countries globally will be required to attenuate the future lung cancer burden. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1025-36. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Parental mortality rates in a western country after the death of a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Smits, Luc J.M.; Li, Jiong

    2010-01-01

    to unnatural death (HR = 1.22; 95% CI, 0.84–1.77). Bereaved fathers who had lost a son had similar mortality as those bereaved by the death of a daughter (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.86–1.40). Bereaved mothers who had lost a daughter had similar mortality as those bereaved by the death of a son (HR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0...... fathers). Bereaved parents who had lost a child of the same sex had similar overall mortality as bereaved parents who had lost a child of the opposite sex (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.85–1.22). Similar findings were observed for mortality due to natural death (HR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.78–1.18) or mortality due.......70–1.22). Bereaved parents who had lost a son had mortality rates similar to those who had lost a daughter (HR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.91–1.31). The interactions between grouping variable and sex of parents were not significant, indicating that the differential effect of losing a child based on sex of the child...

  2. Co-occurring woody species have diverse hydraulic strategies and mortality rates during an extreme drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Carter Berry, Z; Schwantes, Amanda M; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Wayne Polley, H; Wortemann, Remí; Swenson, Jennifer J; Scott Mackay, D; McDowell, Nate G; Jackson, Robert B

    2018-03-01

    From 2011 to 2013, Texas experienced its worst drought in recorded history. This event provided a unique natural experiment to assess species-specific responses to extreme drought and mortality of four co-occurring woody species: Quercus fusiformis, Diospyros texana, Prosopis glandulosa, and Juniperus ashei. We examined hypothesized mechanisms that could promote these species' diverse mortality patterns using postdrought measurements on surviving trees coupled to retrospective process modelling. The species exhibited a wide range of gas exchange responses, hydraulic strategies, and mortality rates. Multiple proposed indices of mortality mechanisms were inconsistent with the observed mortality patterns across species, including measures of the degree of iso/anisohydry, photosynthesis, carbohydrate depletion, and hydraulic safety margins. Large losses of spring and summer whole-tree conductance (driven by belowground losses of conductance) and shallower rooting depths were associated with species that exhibited greater mortality. Based on this retrospective analysis, we suggest that species more vulnerable to drought were more likely to have succumbed to hydraulic failure belowground. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cancer mortality rates and spillover effects among different areas: A case study in Campania (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agovino, Massimiliano; Aprile, Maria Carmela; Garofalo, Antonio; Mariani, Angela

    2018-05-01

    The present study analyses the spatial distribution of cancer mortality rates in Campania (an Italian region with the highest population density), in which residents in several areas are exposed to major environmental health hazards. The paper has the methodological aims of verifying the existence, or otherwise, of a spatial correlation between mortality from different types of cancer and the occurrence of some specific area characteristics, using both Bayesian statistics and spatial econometrics. We show that the use of the Spatial Empirical Bayes Smoothed Rate, instead of the more commonly used Raw Rate, allows a more comprehensive analysis of the mortality rate, highlighting the existence of different cluster sizes throughout the region, according to the type of cancer mortality rate analysed. By using a Spatial Durbin model we verify that cancer mortality rates are related to the environmental characteristics of specific areas with spatial spillover effects. Our results validate the hypothesis that living along the coast by Mt Vesuvius and, to a lesser extent, along the Domitio-Flegreo coast NW of Naples and in more urbanised municipalities, increases the risk of dying of cancer. By contrast, living in less urbanised municipalities, with the presence of natural and historical attractions, has a positive effect on the residents' health, reducing their risk of disease. In both cases significant spillover effects (negative and positive) are found in municipalities close to the areas in question. Despite a number of reasonable limitations, our findings may provide useful information support for policy makers to foster knowledge, awareness and informed participation of citizens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Family type, domestic violence and under-five mortality in Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Nigeria still showcases unacceptably high under-five mortality despite all efforts to reduce the menace. Investigat- ing the significant predictors of this occurrence is paramount. Objective: To examine the interplay between family setting, domestic violence and under-five death in Nigeria. Methods: ...

  5. Effect of socio-economic characteristics on fertility and under-five mortality: examples from the Santals of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malakar Biswanath

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fertility and under-five mortality are considered as key health indicators of a population. Both the fertility and under-five mortality varies accross countries, regions, ethnic groups and so on, which may bedue to disparities in socio-economic and cultural factors. The study aimed to better understanding the association of fertility and under-five mortality with selected socio-economic characteristics of the Santal labourer group of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Cross-sectional data have been collected on fertility, mortality and socio-economic characteristics from 627 ever-married Santal women. Descriptive statistics, multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportion hazard analysis have been done. Total fertility rate (TFR of the present study group was 2.9 and the mortality rate was 105.1. In the present study, educational status, age and household size of the women have significant association with fertility. Under-five mortality has significant association with educational status of mother and birth order of the children. The study indicated that education was the one of the important factors (socio-economic characters that had most significant impact on both fertility and under-five mortality of the Santal labourer group.

  6. Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-05

    Diana Khuu discusses Blastomycosis Mortality Rates, United States, 1990–2010.  Created: 1/5/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/7/2015.

  7. Economic values of growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and uniformity for Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omasaki, S.K.; Janssen, K.; Besson, M.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to derive the economic value (s) (EVs) of growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and uniformity for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A smallholder production system where fish are cultured in earthen ponds and oxygen is a limiting factor for

  8. Nationwide Birth Weight and Gestational Age-specific Neonatal Mortality Rate in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Tse Hsu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: We have provided an easy-to-use birth weight/gestational age-specific neonatal mortality rate chart as a reference document that physicians and parents can use to make decisions based on ethical considerations relating to whether to give palliative care or further invasive management. The normative data are crucial for public health policies on neonatal care in Taiwan.

  9. Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration-related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, N.; Egenvall, A.; Hagman, R.; Gustas, P.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.; Meij, B.P.; Lagerstedt, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association June 1, 2012, Vol. 240, No. 11, Pages 1300-1309 doi: 10.2460/javma.240.11.1300 Incidence of intervertebral disk degeneration–related diseases and associated mortality rates in dogs Niklas Bergknut, Dr med vet, PhD; Agneta Egenvall, Dr

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rates in old age in the World Health Organization Europe Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.; Read, S.; Towriss, C.A.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Grundy, E.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic adversity is among the foremost fundamental causes of human suffering, and this is no less true in old age. Recent reports on socioeconomic inequalities in mortality rate in old age suggest that a low socioeconomic position continues to increase the risk of death even among the oldest

  11. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  12. International Ranking of Infant Mortality Rates: Taiwan Compared with European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wen Liang

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The ranking of Taiwan was similar (11th vs. 12th according the two definitions. However, after consideration of the confidence interval, only six countries (Sweden, Finland, Czech Republic, Belgium, Austria, and Germany had infant mortality rates statistically significantly lower than those of Taiwan in 2004.

  13. Sex Ratio at Birth and Infant Mortality Rate in China: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Denjian

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we used the data from the last three population censuses of China in 1982, 1990 and 2000, to study the dynamics of the sex ratio at birth and the infant mortality rate in China. In the late 1970s, China started its economic reform and implemented many family planning programs. Since then there has been great economic development…

  14. Creatinine Excretion Rate and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinkeler, Steef J.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Esmatjes, Enric; de Zeeuw, Dick; Navis, Gerjan; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers

    OBJECTIVE-The creatinine excretion rate (CER) is inversely associated with mortality in the general and renal transplant population. The CER is a marker for muscle mass. It is unknown whether the CER is associated with outcome in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether the CER is a determinant

  15. Rates of very preterm birth in Europe and neonatal mortality rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, D.; Draper, E. S.; Fenton, A.; Papiernik, E.; Zeitlin, J.; Blondel, B.; Cuttini, M.; Maier, R. F.; Weber, T.; Carrapato, M.; Kollee, L.; Gadzin, J.; Van Reempts, P.

    Objective: To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in 10 European regions. Design: Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a 1-year period (7 months in one

  16. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David John; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fenton, Alan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in ten European regions. DESIGN: Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a one year period (seven months ...

  17. Household Air Pollution and Under-Five Mortality in Bangladesh (2004–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Naz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Household air pollution (HAP is one of the leading causes of respiratory illness and deaths among children under five years in Bangladesh. This study investigates the association between HAP from cooking fuel and under-five mortality using Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS datasets over the period 2004–2011 (n = 18,308 children, and the extent to which this association differed by environmental and behavioral factors affecting level of exposure. The association between HAP and neonatal (age between 0–28 days, infant (age between 0 and 11 months and under–five (age between 0 and 59 months mortality was examined using multilevel logistic regression models. HAP was not strongly associated with overall neonatal (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.01–2.22, p = 0.043, infant (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.91–1.77, p = 0.157 or under-five mortality (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.83–1.55, p = 0.422 in the context of overall decreasing trends in under-five mortality. The association was stronger for households with an indoor kitchen using polluting fuels, and in women who had never breastfed. Reductions in exposure to pollution from cooking fuel, given it is a ubiquitous and modifiable risk factor, can result in further declines in under-five mortality with household design and behavioural interventions.

  18. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Steve E; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M

    2013-04-01

    Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data.

  19. Epidemiological Study of Mortality Rate from Alcohol and Illicit Drug Abuse in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohammad Sadegh; Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Mirtorabi, Seyed Davood; Ghadirzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed

    2017-10-14

    The estimate of mortality associated with illicit opiate use provides useful information to those directing and monitoring local, national and international policies and programs. This study investigated the epidemiology of mortality due to the illegal consumption of narcotics and psychotropic substances in the Iran to provide evidence-based public health data for useful programs and actions aimed at preventing drug-related mortality. A cross-sectional study. The information regarding all cases of psychotropic positive was collected from Legal Medicine Organization, occurred on Mar 2015 to Feb 2016. Demographic and epidemiological data were extracted from recorded documents. Data were then analyzed in Stata software. Overall, 2306 died cases from opioid or psychotropic abuse were evaluated. The mean age of the subjects was 36.07±12.61 yr, they were mostly single male, and 88.64% of them had Iranian nationality. The mortality rate from opiate and psychotropic abuse in the whole country was 38.22 per 1000000 population. The most common location of death was at home or in another private residence. History of overdose, suicide, hospitalization in psychiatric hospital, staying in prison and substance abuse in the family observed in some people who died from drug abuse. Mortality rate from substance abuse is more among unmarried young men aged 30-39 yr with low education level also in self-employed. We suggest policies to prevent this person accessing and using drug.

  20. Socioeconomic status and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates among the diverse population of California

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Iona; Witte, John S.; McClure, Laura A.; Shema, Sarah J.; Cockburn, Myles G.; John, Esther M.; Clarke, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic disparities in prostate cancer rates are well documented, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed among African-Americans followed by non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Whether socioeconomic status (SES) can account for these differences in risk has been investigated in previous studies, but with conflicting results. Furthermore, previous studies have focused primarily on the differences between African-Americans and non-H...

  1. Long-term climate and competition explain regional forest mortality patterns under extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. J.; Latimer, A.; Stevens, J. T.; Earles, J. M.; Ellis, A.; Jirka, A.; Moore, J.

    2016-12-01

    Rising temperatures are amplifying drought-induced stress and mortality in forests globally. It remains uncertain, however, how tree mortality in drought-affected regions will be distributed across environments. In particular, during a regional drought, will areas that are already generally dry experience the most mortality? For any given level of aridity, will more mortality be associated with more intense competition? To answer these questions, we investigated the effects of average aridity (i.e., 35-year mean annual climatic water deficit) and competition (i.e., tree basal area) on tree mortality patterns using regional-scale aerial mortality surveys conducted by the U.S. Forest Service throughout the forests of California during a four-year statewide extreme drought from 2012 to 2015. We used statistical models to relate these mortality data to regional-scale climate layers we developed to represent long-term and annual climatic conditions and coarse-scale plant water balance, and to independent gridded estimates of tree basal area. We found that tree mortality increased by an order of magnitude during this period, spiking dramatically during 2015, the fourth year of drought. Tree mortality rates were associated with both long-term average climatic water deficit and tree basal area, as well as with the interaction of these factors, so that the highest mortality tended to occur in forests with high CWD and basal area. By identifying areas that are high in tree basal area relative to their level of CWD, these results can assist forest managers and policy-makers in identifying the most drought-vulnerable forests across broad geographic areas.

  2. Associations of Various Health-Ratings with Geriatric Giants, Mortality and Life Satisfaction in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2016-01-01

    -rated, nurse-rated and physician-rated health's association with common disabilities in older people (the geriatric giants), mortality hazard and life satisfaction. For this, we used an age-representative population of 501 participant aged 85 from a middle-sized city in the Netherlands: the Leiden 85-plus...... Study. Participants with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded. Participants themselves provided health ratings, as well as a visiting physician and a research nurse. Visual acuity, hearing loss, mobility, stability, urinal and faecal incontinence, cognitive function and mood (depressive symptoms...

  3. Desiccation as a mitigation tool to manage biofouling risks: trials on temperate taxa to elucidate factors influencing mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Grant A; Prince, Madeleine; Cahill, Patrick L; Fletcher, Lauren M; Atalah, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The desiccation tolerance of biofouling taxa (adults and early life-stages) was determined under both controlled and 'realistic' field conditions. Adults of the ascidian Ciona spp. died within 24 h. Mortality in the adult blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis occurred within 11 d under controlled conditions, compared with 7 d when held outside. The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was the most desiccation-tolerant taxon tested (up to 34 d under controlled conditions). Biofouling orientated to direct sunlight showed faster mortality rates for all the taxa tested. Mortality in Mytilus juveniles took up to 24 h, compared with 8 h for Ciona, with greater survival at the higher temperature (18.5°C) and humidity (~95% RH) treatment combination. This study demonstrated that desiccation can be an effective mitigation method for a broad range of fouling taxa, especially their early life-stages. Further work is necessary to assess risks from other high-risk species such as algae and cyst forming species.

  4. Fiscal Policy and Welfare under Different Exchange Rate Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Finn

    , and secondbecause the government's inclination to expand government spending is affectedby inflation which depends on the exchange rate regime. At low rates of inflation,the government is inclined to set a higher level of government spending under afixed exchange rate regime than under a floating exchange rate...... a representativeindividual's utility, it is demonstrated that there are differences betweenexchange rate regimes with respect to the level of government spending. Thesedifferences arise first because a rise in government spending affects macroeconomicvariables differently under different exchange rate regimes...... regime in whichthe monetary authority optimises preferences which include an employment targetand an inflation target. As government spending affects the representativeindividual's utility, the choice of exchange rate regime has an impact on welfare.Keywords: exchange rate regimes; fiscal policy...

  5. Cross-Temporal and Cross-National Poverty and Mortality Rates among Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Fritzell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  6. Cross-temporal and cross-national poverty and mortality rates among developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes.

  7. The impact of changes in self-rated general health on 28-year mortality among middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, Volkert; Kreiner, Svend

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Self-rated general health (SRH) predicts future mortality. SRH may change, and these changes may alter the mortality risk. All-cause mortality until the age of 68 and its association with changes in SRH from the age of 40-45, 45-51, and 51-60 years was examined in a cohort of Danes...

  8. MATERNAL HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOUR AND UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY IN ZIMBABWE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadoka-Mutanda, Nyasha; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2017-05-01

    Under-five mortality remains a major public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. Zimbabwe is one of the countries in the region that failed to achieve Millennium Developmental Goal 4 in 2015. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which maternal health-seeking behaviour prior to and during pregnancy and post-delivery influences the likelihood of under-five mortality among Zimbabwean children. The study was cross-sectional and data were extracted from the 2010/11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS). The study sample comprised 5155 children who were born five years preceding the 2010/11 ZDHS to a sample of 4128 women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Cox Proportional Hazard regression modelling was used to examine the relationship between maternal health-seeking behaviour and under-five mortality. The results showed that maternal health-seeking behaviour factors are associated with the risk of dying during childhood. Children born to mothers who had ever used contraceptives (HR: 0.38, CI 0.28-0.51) had a lower risk of dying during childhood compared with children born to mothers who had never used any contraceptive method. The risk of under-five mortality among children who had a postnatal check-up within two months after birth (HR: 0.36, CI 0.23-0.56) was lower than that of children who did not receive postnatal care. Small birth size (HR: 1.70, CI 1.20-2.41) and higher birth order (2+) increased the risk of under-five mortality. Good maternal health-seeking behaviour practices at the three critical stages around childbirth have the potential to reduce under-five mortality. Therefore, public health programmes should focus on influencing health-seeking behaviour among women and removing obstacles to effective maternal health-seeking behaviour in Zimbabwe.

  9. An Investigation of the Mortality Rate and Risk Factors in Newborn Infants With Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabzehei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the serious challenges facing neonatal medicine is meconium aspiration syndrome, delays in the treatment of which can lead to high mortality. Objectives This study was designed and conducted with the aim of determining the mortality rate and risk factors affecting this rate in newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome. Methods This study was conducted as a retrospective descriptive research on newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome hospitalized at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Fatemieh and Be’sat hospitals in Hamadan city during a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Demographic information of the mother and the newborn, hospitalization course, the need for mechanical ventilation, and complications and outcomes of disease were extracted and were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22. Results Sixty-three newborn infants, diagnosed with meconium aspiration syndrome, were entered in this study, 40% of them were male, 85.7% wighed more than 2500 g, and 17.5% were post term, 25.3% had a five-minute Apgar Score (AS5min of less than seven, 39.6% were nonvigorous at birth, 31.8% needed to be placed on mechanical ventilation, and 14.3% died during the hospitalization course. There was a significant relationship between the need for mechanical ventilation, nonvigorous state at the birth, complications of disease and mortality rate. Conclusions Despite the progress made in medicine, meconium aspiration syndrome is still one of the causes of newborn infants’ mortality. The mortality and morbidity rates can be reduced by improvement in perinatal care, prevention of post term delivery, timely caesarean and effective neonatal resuscitation at birth.

  10. High maternal and neonatal mortality rates in northern Nigeria: an 8-month observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrier G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Gilles Guerrier,1 Bukola Oluyide,2 Maria Keramarou,1 Rebecca Grais1 1Epicentre, Paris, France; 2Médecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France Background: Despite considerable efforts to reduce the maternal mortality ratio, numerous pregnant women continue to die in many developing countries, including Nigeria. We conducted a study to determine the incidence and causes of maternal mortality over an 8-month period in a rural-based secondary health facility located in Jahun, northern Nigeria. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed in a 41-bed obstetric ward. From October 2010 to May 2011, demographic data, obstetric characteristics, and outcome were collected from all pregnant women admitted. The total number of live births during the study period was recorded in order to calculate the maternal mortality ratio. Results: There were 2,177 deliveries and 39 maternal deaths during the study period, with a maternal mortality ratio of 1,791/100,000 live births. The most common causes of maternal mortality were hemorrhage (26%, puerperal sepsis (19%, and obstructed labor (5%. No significant difference (P = 0.07 in mean time to reach the hospital was noted between fatal cases (1.9 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.6 and nonfatal cases (1.4 hours, 95% CI 1.4–1.5. Two hundred and sixty-six women were admitted presenting with stillbirth. Maternal mortality was higher for unbooked patients than for booked patients (odds ratio 5.1, 95% CI 3.5–6.2, P < 0.0001. The neonatal mortality rate was calculated at 46/1,000 live births. The main primary causes of neonatal deaths were prematurity (44% and birth asphyxia (22%. Conclusion: Maternal and neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high in this setting. Reducing unbooked emergencies should be a priority with continuous programs including orthodox practices in order to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Keywords: fetal mortality, maternal mortality, Nigeria, antenatal care

  11. No evidence of nonlinear effects of predator density, refuge availability, or body size of prey on prey mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkins, Richard M; Belk, Mark C

    2017-08-01

    Predator density, refuge availability, and body size of prey can all affect the mortality rate of prey. We assume that more predators will lead to an increase in prey mortality rate, but behavioral interactions between predators and prey, and availability of refuge, may lead to nonlinear effects of increased number of predators on prey mortality rates. We tested for nonlinear effects in prey mortality rates in a mesocosm experiment with different size classes of western mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis ) as the prey, different numbers of green sunfish ( Lepomis cyanellus ) as the predators, and different levels of refuge. Predator number and size class of prey, but not refuge availability, had significant effects on the mortality rate of prey. Change in mortality rate of prey was linear and equal across the range of predator numbers. Each new predator increased the mortality rate by about 10% overall, and mortality rates were higher for smaller size classes. Predator-prey interactions at the individual level may not scale up to create nonlinearity in prey mortality rates with increasing predator density at the population level.

  12. The Icelandic and Nordic cervical screening programs: trends in incidence and mortality rates through 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    1999-07-01

    The objective of cervical cancer screening is to lower the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. This study evaluates the effectiveness of cervical screening and the UICC and EC screening recommendations based on the Nordic screening experience. The study analyzes the features of the Icelandic and the Nordic screening programs and the observed trends in the incidence and mortality rates in these countries through 1995. Organized screening started in all the Nordic countries soon after 1960 and had nation-wide coverage in all these countries, except in Denmark (45% coverage in 1991), by around 1973 but in Norway screening was only spontaneous up to late in 1994. Up to 1985 the target age group and screening interval were most intensive in Iceland, followed by Finland, Sweden and Denmark. All countries except Finland lowered the lower age limit and intensified the screening intervals after 1985. Through the period 1986-1995 the reduction in both the mortality and the incidence rates was greatest in Iceland (mortality: 76% and incidence: 67%) and Finland (73% and 75%, respectively), intermediate in Sweden (60% and 55%, respectively) and Denmark (55% and 54%, respectively), and lowest in Norway (43% and 34%, respectively). The age-specific incidence in the 20-29 age group has been increasing since 1971 in all the Nordic countries, except in Finland, where the yearly registered age-specific incidence has been increasing in the targeted 30-54 age group since 1991. In Iceland screening has greatly affected the rate of all stages of squamous cell carcinoma, but not the rate of adeno- and adenosquamous carcinomas. In fact the rate of adenocarcinoma has been increasing. Organized screening is more effective than spontaneous screening in reducing the risk of cervical cancer. Although differences in environmental, biological and ethnic factors may call for different screening strategies, screening should preferably start soon after age 20 with a screening interval of 2

  13. Hurricane Sandy (New Jersey): Mortality Rates in the Following Month and Quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Kulkarni, Prathit A; Rajan, Mangala; Thomas, Pauline; Tsai, Stella; Tan, Christina; Davidow, Amy

    2017-08-01

    To describe changes in mortality after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in New Jersey on October 29, 2012. We used electronic death records to describe changes in all-cause and cause-specific mortality overall, in persons aged 76 years or older, and by 3 Sandy impact levels for the month and quarter following Hurricane Sandy compared with the same periods in earlier years adjusted for trends. All-cause mortality increased 6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2%, 11%) for the month, 5%, 8%, and 12% by increasing Sandy impact level; and 7% (95% CI = 5%, 10%) for the quarter, 5%, 8%, and 15% by increasing Sandy impact level. In elderly persons, all-cause mortality rates increased 10% (95% CI = 5%, 15%) and 13% (95% CI = 10%, 16%) in the month and quarter, respectively. Deaths that were cardiovascular disease-related increased by 6% in both periods, noninfectious respiratory disease-related by 24% in the quarter, infection-related by 20% in the quarter, and unintentional injury-related by 23% in the month. Mortality increased, heterogeneous by cause, for both periods after Hurricane Sandy, particularly in communities more severely affected and in the elderly, who may benefit from supportive services.

  14. Report of the Social Minister of Lower Saxony on the mortality rate due to leukaemia in Lower Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The mortality rate due to malignant neoplasms as well as due to leukaemia in children under the age of 15 in the various administrative districts of Lower Saxony is independent of the existence of nuclear facilities there or in the direct vicinity. In the population as a whole, the well-known age dependence was observed. In the administrative district of Emsland, where the Lingen nuclear power plant was operated until January 1977, the number of children is markedly higher than the Lower Saxony average, mortality due to leukaemia and malignant growths was significantly lower than average. For this reason, a higher incidence of leukaemia and malignant growths due to the operation of Lingen nuclear power plant and other nuclear facilities can be excluded. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Technology use, cesarean section rates, and perinatal mortality at Danish maternity wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Jensen, L M; Weber, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-eight Danish maternity units, managing 99% of Danish deliveries, participated in a cross sectional study to assess the relationship between use of birth-related technologies, cesarean section rates and perinatal mortality for births after 35 completed weeks of gestation. A regional technology...... FHM had a 15% higher cesarean section rate (not planned) than units not using FHM (p ... a technology index was calculated for eight regions in Denmark, weighting the index of each unit in a region according to its number of deliveries. There was no association between the technology index in these eight regions in Denmark and their cesarean section rates. Use of FHM, technology index...

  16. Growth and mortality rates of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus (Perciformes: Scombridae in the central Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zhu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth parameters were estimated for bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Lowe, 1839 sampled from China longline fisheries in the central Atlantic Ocean from October 2002 to July 2003 and from August 2004 to March 2005. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L8=217.9 cm fork length, k=0.23 year-1, and t0=-0.44 year. The total mortality rate (Z was estimated to be from 0.82 to 1.02, the fishing mortality (F and the natural mortality were 0.54 year-1 and 0.39 year-1, respectively. The exploitation ratio (E was 0.35. This study provides the detailed estimates of growth and mortality rate for bigeye tuna in the central Atlantic Ocean, which can be used as biological input parameters in further stock evaluations in this region. However, age analysis, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are needed for future studies. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 79-88. Epub 2009 June 30.

  17. Decadal-scale rates of reef erosion following El Niño-related mass coral mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, George; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    As the frequency and intensity of coral mortality events increase under climate change, understanding how declines in coral cover may affect the bioerosion of reef frameworks is of increasing importance. Here, we explore decadal-scale rates of bioerosion of the framework building coral Orbicella annularis by grazing parrotfish following the 1997/1998 El Niño-related mass mortality event at Long Cay, Belize. Using high-precision U-Th dating and CT scan analysis, we quantified in situ rates of external bioerosion over a 13-year period (1998-2011). Based upon the error-weighted average U-Th age of dead O. annularis skeletons, we estimate the average external bioerosion between 1998 and 2011 as 0.92 ± 0.55 cm depth. Empirical observations of herbivore foraging, and a nonlinear numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability, were used to create a model of external bioerosion at Long Cay. Model estimates of external bioerosion were in close agreement with U-Th estimates (0.85 ± 0.09 cm). The model was then used to quantify how rates of external bioerosion changed across a gradient of coral mortality (i.e., from few corals experiencing mortality following coral bleaching to complete mortality). Our results indicate that external bioerosion is remarkably robust to declines in coral cover, with no significant relationship predicted between the rate of external bioerosion and the proportion of O. annularis that died in the 1998 bleaching event. The outcome was robust because the reduction in grazing intensity that follows coral mortality was compensated for by a positive numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability. Our model estimates further indicate that for an O. annularis-dominated reef to maintain a positive state of reef accretion, a necessity for sustained ecosystem function, live cover of O. annularis must not drop below a ~5-10% threshold of cover. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Impact of climate change on heat-related mortality in six major cities, South Korea, under representative concentration pathways (RCPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin eKim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to quantify the excess mortality associated with increased temperature due to climate change in six major Korean cities under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs which are new emission scenarios designed for the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Methods: We first examined the association between daily mean temperature and mortality in each during the summertime (June to September from 2001 to 2008. This was done using a generalized linear Poisson model with adjustment for a long-term time trend, relative humidity, air pollutants, and day of the week. We then computed heat-related mortality attributable to future climate change using estimated mortality risks, projected future populations, and temperature increments for both future years 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 under RCP 4.5 and 8.5. We considered effects from added days with high temperatures over thresholds and shifted effects from high to higher temperature.Results: Estimated excess all-cause mortalities for six cities in Korea ranged from 500 (95% CI: 313-703 for 2041-2070 to 2,320 (95% CI: 1,430-3,281 deaths per year for 2071-2100 under two RCPs. Excess cardiovascular mortality was estimated to range from 192 (95% CI: 41-351 to 896 (95% CI: 185-1,694 deaths per year, covering about 38.5% of all-cause excess mortality. Increased rates of heat-related mortality were higher in cities located at relatively lower latitude than cities with higher latitude. Estimated excess mortality under RCP 8.5, a fossil fuel-intensive emission scenario, was more than twice as high compared with RCP 4.5, low to medium emission scenario.Conclusions: Excess mortality due to climate change is expected to be profound in the future showing spatial variation. Efforts to mitigate climate change can cause substantial health benefits via reducing heat-related mortality.

  19. Magnesium supplementation and the potential association with mortality rates among critically ill non-cardiac patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbagh, Ousama C.; Al-Dawood, Abdulaziz S.; Arabi, Yaseen M.; Lone, Nazir A.; Brits, R.; Pillay, M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature showed that development of hypomagnesaemia is associated with higher mortality. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of magnesium supplementation on mortality rates of critically ill patients. All patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of King Abadole-Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia since September 2003 were included. We recorded the demographics data, APACHE score, daily magnesium levels and magnesium supplementation. We collected the data for 30 days or until discharge from ICU. Statistical analysis was performed using the student t-test for continuous data and the Fischers exact test for categorical data. Nothing was carried out to influence the behavior of intensivists in replacing magnesium. During the study period, 71 patients (45 males and 26 females) were admitted to the ICU, the mean age was 54 +/- 18 years for males and 56 +/- 19.2 years for females. The mean magnesium level on admission was 0.78 +/- 0.2 mmol/L and the majority of the patients were medical admissions. Approximately 39.4% had hypomagnesaemia on admission and the overall mortality rate was 31%. In able to standardize the supplementation of magnesium among groups, the daily magnesium supplementation index (DMSI = total magnesium supplement in grams/length of stay in days) was calculated. The mortality rates for DMSI with 1 grm/day (high group) (43.5% versus 17%, p=0.035). There was no statistically significant differences between magnesium levels of both groups of DMSI except at admission where DMSI group had higher magnesium levels (<1 grm/day). Daily magnesium supplementation index higher than 1 grm/day is associated with lower mortality rates for critically ill patients. This effect was not found to be independent and may be related to severity of illness. Given that magnesium levels were similar between the 2 groups of DMSI at almost all points of the study, magnesium supplementation per se may be beneficial in lowering mortality

  20. Penetrating abdominal injuries during the Syrian war: Patterns and factors affecting mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Shawqi; Alsabek, Mhd Belal; Ahmad, Mousa; Hamo, Iman; Munder, Eskander

    2017-05-01

    A large number of innocent Syrians were injured or killed during the years of war. This retrospective study investigates the differences in patterns of injury and factors affecting the mortality rate in 324 patients coming to Damascus Hospital with penetrating abdominal trauma, and illustrates the difficulties of diagnosis and decision making in crisis situations. A retrospective study was registered from patient's records between October 2012 and June 2013 in Damascus Hospital. All victims were injured either by explosions or gunshots. A total of 325 patients: 183 by explosion; 56.3%, 141 by gunshot; 43.3%, and one patient by other means; 0.3% were reviewed. The study focused on the two large groups with a total of 324 patients. Males were predominant (82.1%; n=266) and the majority of patients were between 19 and 35 years old. Patients suffering from multi abdominal organ injury were more common in gunshot group (n=72, 51.1%) compared to the explosion group (n=83, 45.3%). 264 patients (81.5%) underwent surgical operations and only 22 (8.3%) had normal laparotomy. The inpatient mortality rate was (17.0%; n=55), and there was no difference in mortality rate between the two groups. More than the half of deaths (n=42; 76.4%) had a P.A.T.I score≥25 where the death rate was 35.6% which is higher compared to 6.3% in those with a P.A.T.I<25. In the ICU 33 patients died, of these (87.9%; n=29) died after immediate admission to the ICU which is higher compared with a later admission (12.1%; n=4). The need for massive blood transfusion affected the mortality rate. Efforts must be directed toward training of medical staff to deal with crisis incidents. The need for massive blood transfusion and ICU admissions can affects mortality. P.A.T.I was found to be an effective predictor of mortality. Clinical experience in this field can produce better health care and faster judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term climate and competition explain forest mortality patterns under extreme drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Derek J N; Stevens, Jens T; Earles, J Mason; Moore, Jeffrey; Ellis, Adam; Jirka, Amy L; Latimer, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Rising temperatures are amplifying drought-induced stress and mortality in forests globally. It remains uncertain, however, whether tree mortality across drought-stricken landscapes will be concentrated in particular climatic and competitive environments. We investigated the effects of long-term average climate [i.e. 35-year mean annual climatic water deficit (CWD)] and competition (i.e. tree basal area) on tree mortality patterns, using extensive aerial mortality surveys conducted throughout the forests of California during a 4-year statewide extreme drought lasting from 2012 to 2015. During this period, tree mortality increased by an order of magnitude, typically from tens to hundreds of dead trees per km 2 , rising dramatically during the fourth year of drought. Mortality rates increased independently with average CWD and with basal area, and they increased disproportionately in areas that were both dry and dense. These results can assist forest managers and policy-makers in identifying the most drought-vulnerable forests across broad geographic areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  2. An explanation of the 25% male excess mortality for all children under 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mage David T.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To demonstrate that an epidemiologic probability model of a hypothesized X-linkage for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS that predicted its 50% male excess, also predicts the 25% male excess of all child mortality for ages under 5 years.

  3. Childhood Pneumonia and under-five morbidity and mortality at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood mortality which remains high in children under the age of 5years is largely due to infectious and other preventable causes such as Human immunodeficiency virus/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ((HIV/AIDS), pneumonia and malaria1 . The prevention of pneumonia deaths is therefore an ...

  4. Homicide mortality rates in Canada, 2000-2009: Youth at increased risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basham, C Andrew; Snider, Carolyn

    2016-10-20

    To estimate and compare Canadian homicide mortality rates (HMRs) and trends in HMRs across age groups, with a focus on trends for youth. Data for the period of 2000 to 2009 were collected from Statistics Canada's CANSIM (Canadian Statistical Information Management) Table 102-0540 with the following ICD-10-CA coded external causes of death: X85 to Y09 (assault) and Y87.1 (sequelae of assault). Annual population counts from 2000 to 2009 were obtained from Statistics Canada's CANSIM Table 051-0001. Both death and population counts were organized into five-year age groups. A random effects negative binomial regression analysis was conducted to estimate age group-specific rates, rate ratios, and trends in homicide mortality. There were 9,878 homicide deaths in Canada during the study period. The increase in the overall homicide mortality rate (HMR) of 0.3% per year was not statistically significant (95% CI: -1.1% to +1.8%). Canadians aged 15-19 years and 20-24 years had the highest HMRs during the study period, and experienced statistically significant annual increases in their HMRs of 3% and 4% respectively (p < 0.05). A general, though not statistically significant, decrease in the HMR was observed for all age groups 50+ years. A fixed effects negative binomial regression model showed that the HMR for males was higher than for females over the study period [RRfemale/male = 0.473 (95% CI: 0.361, 0.621)], but no significant difference in sex-specific trends in the HMR was found. An increasing risk of homicide mortality was identified among Canadian youth, ages 15-24, over the 10-year study period. Research that seeks to understand the reasons for the increased homicide risk facing Canada's youth, and public policy responses to reduce this risk, are warranted.

  5. Fungal Infections Increase the Mortality Rate Three-Fold in Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Christopher B; Wesp, Brendan M; Fiore, Nicholas B; Rasane, Rohit K; Torres, Marlon; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Ilahi, Obeid N; Punch, Laurie J; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2017-10-01

    Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality rates, with as many as 76% of patients dying during their index admission. Published data suggest NSTIs rarely involve fungal infections in immunocompetent patients. However, because of the recent recognition of fungal infections in our population, we hypothesized that such infections frequently complicate NSTIs and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates. A prospectively maintained Acute and Critical Care Surgery (ACCS) database spanning 2008-2015 and including more than 7,000 patients was queried for patients with NSTIs. Microbiologic data, demographics, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Risk factors and outcomes associated with NSTI with positive intra-operative fungal cultures were determined. Frequencies were compared by χ 2 and continuous variables by the Student t-test using SPSS. Because the study included only archived data, no patient permission was needed. A total of 230 patients were found to have NSTIs; 197 had intra-operative cultures, and 21 (10.7%) of these were positive for fungi. Fungal infection was more common in women, patients with higher body mass index (BMI), and patients who had had prior abdominal procedures. There were no significant differences in demographics, co-morbidities, or site of infection. The majority of patients (85.7%) had mixed bacterial and fungal infections; in the remaining patients, fungi were the only species isolated. Most fungal cultures were collected within 48 h of hospital admission, suggesting that the infections were not hospital acquired. Patients with positive fungal cultures required two more surgical interventions and had a three-fold greater mortality rate than patients without fungal infections. This is the largest series to date describing the impact of fungal infection in NSTIs. Our data demonstrate a three-fold increase in the mortality rate and the need for two additional operations

  6. Projected heat-related mortality under climate change in the metropolitan area of Skopje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sanchez Martinez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive summer heat is a serious environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital and largest city of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper attempts to forecast the impact of heat on mortality in Skopje in two future periods under climate change and compare it with a historical baseline period. Methods After ascertaining the relationship between daily mean ambient air temperature and daily mortality in Skopje, we modelled the evolution of ambient temperatures in the city under a Representative Concentration Pathway scenario (RCP8.5 and the evolution of the city population in two future time periods: 2026–2045 and 2081–2100, and in a past time period (1986–2005 to serve as baseline for comparison. We then calculated the projected average annual mortality attributable to heat in the absence of adaptation or acclimatization during those time windows, and evaluated the contribution of each source of uncertainty on the final impact. Results Our estimates suggest that, compared to the baseline period (1986–2005, heat-related mortality in Skopje would more than double in 2026–2045, and more than quadruple in 2081–2100. When considering the impact in 2081–2100, sampling variability around the heat–mortality relationship and climate model explained 40.3 and 46.6 % of total variability. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of a long-term perspective in the public health prevention of heat exposure, particularly in the context of a changing climate.

  7. Fiscal Policy and Welfare under Different Exchange Rate Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Finn

    The article analyses how government spending is determined under differentexchange rate regimes in the context of a small open economy. Assumingnominal wage contracts which last for one period and assuming a benevolentgovernment which determines government spending to optimise a representativeind......The article analyses how government spending is determined under differentexchange rate regimes in the context of a small open economy. Assumingnominal wage contracts which last for one period and assuming a benevolentgovernment which determines government spending to optimise...... a representativeindividual's utility, it is demonstrated that there are differences betweenexchange rate regimes with respect to the level of government spending. Thesedifferences arise first because a rise in government spending affects macroeconomicvariables differently under different exchange rate regimes......, and secondbecause the government's inclination to expand government spending is affectedby inflation which depends on the exchange rate regime. At low rates of inflation,the government is inclined to set a higher level of government spending under afixed exchange rate regime than under a floating exchange rate...

  8. Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauslund, J; Green, A; Sjølie, A K

    2008-04-01

    We evaluated the effect of diabetic retinopathy on 25 year survival rate among a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark. In 1973 all diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark with onset before the age of 30 years as of 1 July 1973 were identified (n=727). In 1981, only 627 patients were still alive and resident in Denmark. Of these, 573 (91%) participated in a clinical baseline examination, in which diabetic retinopathy was graded and other markers of diabetes measured. Mortality rate was examined in a 25 year follow-up and related to the baseline examination. Of the 573 patients examined at baseline in 1981 and 1982, 297 (51.8%) were still alive in November 2006. Of the others, 256 (44.7%) had died, three (0.5%) had left Denmark and 17 (3%) were of unknown status. Age- and sex-adjusted HRs of mortality rate were 1.01 (95% CI 0.72-1.42) and 2.04 (1.43-2.91) for patients with non-proliferative and proliferative retinopathy respectively at baseline compared with patients with no retinopathy. After adjusting for proteinuria, HR among patients with proliferative retinopathy lost statistical significance, but still remained 1.48 (95% CI 0.98-2.23). The 10 year survival rate of patients who had proliferative retinopathy as well as proteinuria at baseline was 22.2% and significantly lower (pretinopathy only (79.0%) or neither (86.6%). Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients. In combination they act even more strongly. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy did not affect survival rate.

  9. Colorectal cancer among Koreans living in South Korea versus California: incidence, mortality, and screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M; Maxwell, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    This study compared trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates among Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California between 1999 and 2009, and examined CRC screening rates and socio-demographic correlates of CRC screening in the two Korean populations. Age-standardized CRC incidence and mortality rates of Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California for the years 1999-2009 were obtained from annual reports of cancer statistics and modeled using joinpoint regression. Using 2009 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the California Health Interview Survey, we estimated and compared CRC screening rates and test modalities. We used multiple logistic regression to examine socio-demographic correlates of completion of CRC screening according to the guidelines among the two Korean populations. CRC incidence and mortality rates among South Koreans increased during 1999-2009 but more slowly during the late 2000s. In California, CRC incidence increased among Korean American females but decreased among non-Hispanic whites. About 37% of South Koreans and 60% of Korean Americans reported completion of CRC screening according to guidelines in 2009. Among South Koreans, married status, higher income, and private health insurance were associated with CRC screening, adjusting for other factors. Among Korean Americans, having health insurance was associated with CRC screening. Despite almost identical CRC screening guidelines in South Korea and the USA and substantially higher screening rates among Korean Americans as compared to South Koreans, disparities remain in both populations with respect to CRC statistics. Thus, efforts to promote primary and secondary prevention of CRC in both Korean populations are critically important in both countries.

  10. Technology use, cesarean section rates, and perinatal mortality at Danish maternity wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Jensen, L M; Weber, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-eight Danish maternity units, managing 99% of Danish deliveries, participated in a cross sectional study to assess the relationship between use of birth-related technologies, cesarean section rates and perinatal mortality for births after 35 completed weeks of gestation. A regional technology...... index (0-10) was calculated for each maternity unit according to its use of ante and intra partum fetal heart rate monitoring (FHM), hormone analysis (human placental lactogen (HPL) and/or estriol (O3)), fetal blood samples (scalp-pH), intrauterine catheter and umbilical cord-pH. Maternity units using...

  11. Exacerbation rate, health status and mortality in COPD – a review of potential interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence AR Seemungal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Terence AR Seemungal1, John R Hurst2, Jadwiga A Wedzicha21Department of Clinical Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago; 2Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, University College London, UKAbstract: COPD is prevalent in Western society and its incidence is rising in the developing world. Acute exacerbations of COPD, about 50% of which are unreported, lead to deterioration in quality of life and contribute significantly to disease burden. Quality of life deteriorates with time; thus, most of the health burden occurs in more severe disease. COPD severity and frequent and more severe exacerbations are all related to an increased risk of mortality. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS have similar effects on quality of life but ICS/long-acting bronchodilator combinations and the long-acting antimuscarinic tiotropium all improve health status and exacerbation rates and are likely to have an effect on mortality but perhaps only with prolonged use. Erythromycin has been shown to decrease the rate of COPD exacerbations. Pulmonary rehabilitation and regular physical activity are indicated in all severities of COPD and improve quality of life. Noninvasive ventilation is associated with improved quality of life. Long-term oxygen therapy improves mortality but only in hypoxic COPD patients. The choice of an inhaler device is a key component of COPD therapy and this requires more attention from physicians than perhaps we are aware of. Disease management programs, characterized as they are by patient centeredness, improve quality of life and decrease hospitalization rates. Most outcomes in COPD can be modified by interventions and these are well tolerated and have acceptable safety profiles.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, health burden, mortality, inhaled steroids, long-acting bronchodilators, long-acting antimuscarinic agents, macrolide, disease management program

  12. Hospitalization and Mortality Rates in Long-Term Care Facilities: Does For-Profit Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuseputro, Peter; Chalifoux, Mathieu; Bennett, Carol; Gruneir, Andrea; Bronskill, Susan E; Walker, Peter; Manuel, Douglas

    2015-10-01

    To establish if proprietary status (ie, for-profit or not-for-profit) is associated with mortality and hospitalizations among publicly funded long-term care (nursing) homes. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of new admissions in 640 publicly funded long-term care facilities in Ontario, Canada (384 for-profit, 256 not-for-profit). A population-based cohort of 53,739 incident admissions into long-term care facilities between January 1, 2010, and March 1, 2012, was observed. We measured adjusted rates of hospital admissions and mortality, per 1000 person-years (PY) of follow-up, among for-profit and not-for-profit facilities at 3, 6, and 12 months postadmission. Rates were measured postadmission and until discharge or death, whichever came first. One year after admission and before discharge, 11.7% of residents died and 25.7% had at least one hospitalization. After 12 months of follow-up, residents in for-profit facilities had a hospitalization rate of 462 per 1000 PY versus 358 per 1000 PY in not-for-profit facilities. During this period, the crude mortality rate in for-profit facilities was 208 per 1000 PY versus 185 per 1000 PY in not-for-profit facilities. At 3, 6, and 1 year after admission, for-profit facilities had an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.43), 1.33 (95% CI 1.27-1.39), and 1.25 (95% CI 1.21-1.30) for hospitalizations and hazards of 1.20 (95% CI 1.11-1.29), 1.16 (95% CI 1.09-1.24), and 1.10 (95% CI 1.05-1.16) for mortality, respectively. Publicly funded for-profit facilities have significantly higher rates of both mortality and hospital admissions. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    OpenAIRE

    MALISZEWSKA, Justyna; TĘGOWSKA, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxic...

  14. Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, J; Green, A; Sjølie, A K

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of diabetic retinopathy on 25 year survival rate among a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark. METHODS: In 1973 all diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark with onset before the age of 30 years as of 1 July 1973 w....../INTERPRETATION: Proliferative retinopathy and proteinuria predict mortality rate in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients. In combination they act even more strongly. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy did not affect survival rate.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We evaluated the effect of diabetic retinopathy on 25 year survival rate among a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark. METHODS: In 1973 all diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark with onset before the age of 30 years as of 1 July 1973...... were identified (n=727). In 1981, only 627 patients were still alive and resident in Denmark. Of these, 573 (91%) participated in a clinical baseline examination, in which diabetic retinopathy was graded and other markers of diabetes measured. Mortality rate was examined in a 25 year follow...

  15. Low mortality rates after endovascular aortic repair expand use to high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Shaunak S; Turner, Megan C; Leraas, Harold J; Gilmore, Brian F; Nag, Uttara; Turley, Ryan S; Shortell, Cynthia K; Mureebe, Leila

    2018-02-01

    The 2010 endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) trial 2 (EVAR 2) reported that patients with comorbidity profiles rendering them unfit for open aneurysm repair who underwent EVAR did not experience a survival advantage compared with those who did not undergo intervention. These patients experienced a 30-day mortality of 7.3%, whereas reports from similar cohorts reported far lower mortality rates. The primary objective of our study was to compare the incidence of 30-day mortality in low- and high-risk patients undergoing EVAR in a contemporary data set, using patient risk stratification criteria from EVAR 2. Secondarily, we sought to identify risk factors associated with a disproportionate contribution to 30-day mortality risk. Data were obtained from the 2005 to 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) Participant Use Data Files (N = 24,813). Patients were included in the high-risk cohort with the presence of renal, respiratory, or cardiac preoperative criteria alone or in combination. Renal impairment criteria were defined as dialysis and creatinine concentration >2.26 mg/dL. Respiratory impairment criteria included history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and preoperative ventilator support. Cardiac impairment criteria included history of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, angina, and prior coronary intervention. Patient and procedural characteristics and 30-day postoperative outcomes were compared using Pearson χ 2 tests for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank sum tests for continuous variables. Among 24,813 patients undergoing EVAR, 12,043 (48%) patients were characterized as high risk (at least one impairment criterion); 12,770 (52%) patients were stratified as low risk. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.9% in the high-risk cohort compared with the 7.3% reported by EVAR 2, and it was higher in the high-risk cohort compared with the low-risk cohort (1.9% vs 0.9%; P < .001). Whereas the

  16. The impact of democracy and media freedom on under-5 mortality, 1961-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, Simon; Akkoyunlu-Wigley, Arzu

    2017-10-01

    Do democracies produce better health outcomes for children than autocracies? We argue that (1) democratic governments have an incentive to reduce child mortality among low-income families and (2) that media freedom enhances their ability to deliver mortality-reducing resources to the poorest. A panel of 167 countries for the years 1961-2011 is used to test those two theoretical claims. We find that level of democracy is negatively associated with under-5 mortality, and that that negative association is greater in the presence of media freedom. These results are robust to the inclusion of country and year fixed effects, time-varying control variables, and the multiple imputation of missing values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Status and trend of tree growth and mortality rate at the CONECOFOR plots, 1997-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Fabbio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The circumference of trees in the CONECOFOR permanent monitoring plots (PMPs were measured by three surveys carried out in 1997, 2000 and 2005. Plots were arranged into forest types according to tree species, management system and stand structure: beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and spruce (Picea abies K. high forests, aged coppice forests and transitory crops (deciduous, evergreen oaks and beech. Diameter distribution, basal area, basal area increment, tree mortality rate and in-growth were calculated per layer (dominant, intermediate, dominated within each PMP, to point out relative contributions and changes. A range in relative annual growth was detected both within and between types over the monitored period, but an obvious reduction of annual increment was found in two/thirds of plots over 2000-04 as compared to 1997-99. Current mortality, mostly allocated into the dominated and intermediate layers, can be explained as “regular” due to overstocking and high inter-tree competition in almost all of the observed case-studies. Opposite patterns were found to occur as for stand growth vs. mortality rate between coppice forests and the other types owing to the different dynamics of tree competition in progress. Drought 2003 is the likely large-scale factor determining the reduced annual growth course over the second period.

  18. [Mortality in children under 5 years of age in families of marginal settlements in Guadalajara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nápoles-Rodríguez, F; Vásquez-Garibay, E M; Romero-Velarde, E

    1991-09-01

    The purpose was, to determine the frequency of infant mortality in the marginal areas of Guadalajara and, find its association with sociodemographic and economical factors, which are known as determinant of the nutritional status of children. There were included 898 families in a cross sectional design among children who applied to the food supplementation program of ONI of Guadalajara. Through an interview and home visit, it was obtained information about sociodemographic and economical characteristics and food habits. The data was recorded and analyzed by the Dbase III Plus and Epi-Info program. It was also used Chi square test and Odds Ratio for the statistical analysis. Education of the mother and income per capita for feeding (as a percentage of the minimum salary) had a significantly and inverse association with infant mortality (P less than 0.0001 and P less than 0.001 respectively). There was also major mortality among children with no social security (P less than 0.05). The Odds Ratio for infant mortality was of 3.02 for education of the father, 8.42 for education of the mother and 6.8 for income per capita for feeding. Meanwhile the level of education and the economical situation of the studied population remain so low, it seems improbable to decrease the rate of infant mortality.

  19. Stroke subtypes, risk factors and mortality rate in northwest of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhoudi, Mehdi; Mehrvar, Kaveh; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    data, risk factors, types and mortality. Methods: A retrospective study was done in two university tertiary referral hospitals in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, from March 2008 to April 2013. Patients diagnosed with stroke were enrolled in the study. Demographic data, stroke subtypes, duration...... of hospitalization, stroke risk factors and hospital mortality rate were recorded for all the patients. Results: A total number of 5355 patients were evaluated in the present study. Mean age of the patients was 67.5 ± 13.8 years, and 50.6% were men. Final diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made in 76.......5% of the patients, intra-cerebral hemorrhage (ICH) with or without intra-ventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in 14.3% and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 9.2%. Stroke risk factors among the patients were hypertension in 68.8% of the patients, diabetes mellitus (DM) in 23.9%, smoking in 12.6% and ischemic heart diseases...

  20. What is the empirical evidence that hospitals with higher-risk adjusted mortality rates provide poorer quality care? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.

  1. Observational study of 1-year mortality rates before and after a major earthquake among Chinese nonagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Joseph H; Dong, Birong; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yanling; Guralnik, Jack M; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Morley, John E

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about mortality among nonagenarians after an earthquake. Using secondary data analyses from the 2005 study called the Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan(n = 870), 1-year mortality rates were compared among a pre-earthquake group and a post-earthquake group of nonagenarians. All participants were from Dujiangyan, 50 km from the epicenter of the May 12, 2008 earthquake, in China. The pre-earthquake group was a subset of the 870 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan participants, ages 93-95 years at the beginning of "Time Frame 1" (July 2005 through June 2006; n = 228). The post-earthquake group was a different subset of the 870 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan participants, ages 93-95 years and alive at the beginning of Time Frame 2 (July 2008 through June 2009; n = 235). Time Frame 2 excluded a 7-week period following the earthquake in order to account for deaths due to trauma. Pre-earthquake health assessment data from the 2005 Project of Longevity and Aging in Dujiangyan study were used to calculate unadjusted/adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality. One-year mortality rates were 8.3% (19/228) and 16.2% (38/235) in the pre-earthquake group and the post-earthquake group, respectively (p =.01). In unadjusted analyses, only "being in the post-earthquake group" was associated with death (HR = 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-3.53; p = .011). In the multivariable Cox regression model, being in the post-earthquake group continued to be the strongest risk factor associated with mortality (HR = 2.47; 95% CI, 1.39-4.40; p = .002). Other significant risk factors included impaired cognition (HR = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.10-3.53; p = .024), serum albumin (HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; p earthquake in Wenchuan, China, was associated with a twofold increase in the 1-year mortality among a group of nonagenarians who lived nearby.

  2. Visualising variation in mortality rates across the life course and by sex, USA and comparator states, 1933-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbloemen, Laura; Dorling, Danny; Minton, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Previous research showed that younger adult males in the USA have, since the 1950s, died at a faster rate than females of the same age. In this paper, we quantify this difference, and explore possible explanations for the differences at different ages and in different years. Using data from the Human Mortality Database (HMD), the number of additional male deaths per 10 000 female deaths was calculated for each year from 1933 to 2010, and for each year of age from 0 to 60 years, for the USA, and a number of other countries for comparison. The data were explored visually using shaded contour plots. Gender differences in excess mortality have increased. Coming of age (between the ages of 15 and 25 years of age) is especially perilous for men relative to women now compared with the past in the USA; the visualisations highlight this change as important. Sex differences in mortality risks at various ages are not static. While women may today have an advantage when it comes to life expectancy, in the USA, this has greatly increased since the 1930s. Just as young adulthood for women has been made safer through safer antenatal and childbirth practices, changes in public policy can make the social environment safer for men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Diabetes mellitus increased all-cause mortality rate among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis patients in an Asian population: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Yen; Lin, Shi-Dou; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on all-cause mortality among patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) in an Asian population. We also identified risk factors for mortality in these patients. The data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database and included 9831 newly-diagnosed TB individuals and 1627 TB mortality cases in the period of 2000-2010. The mortality data were divided into a DM group and a non-DM group. We measured the incidence density of mortality and identified the risk factors of mortality. The all-cause mortality of newly-diagnosed TB patients progressively increased with an average rate of 16.5% during 2000-2010. DM is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality with HRs 1.17-1.27 by various models. TB patients with ages above 75years had the highest risk of mortality (HR=11.93) compared with those under 45 years. TB patients with heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, pulmonary disease, liver disease, cancer, peptic ulcer disease, gout, and autoimmune disease had higher mortality compared to those without the aforementioned factors. The one-year all-cause mortality after TB diagnosis was high among TB patients in Taiwan and it tended to increase in the past decade. While treating these newly-diagnosed TB patients, it is crucial to detect the factors predisposing to death, such as old age, male gender, certain kinds of aforementioned factors and diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cancer incidence and mortality rate in children of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the previous findings of carcinogenesis and mortality rate in children born to A-bomb survivors. The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has collected 72,228 children born to A-bomb survivors from May 1946 through 1984. Of their parents, 31,159 parents had been exposed to significant doses (≥0.01 Sv), with a mean genital dose of 0.435 Sv. Among a hypothetic population of 100,000 children of A-bomb survivors exposed to an mean genital dose of 0.4 SV, radiation-induced diseases were considered to occur in only 250 children or less. An earlier large-scale survey during the period 1948-1956 has revealed an evidence of significant increase in stillborn, congenital malformation, and infantile death. In the 1946-1982 survey concerning carcinogenesis in 72,216 children of A-bomb survivors, cancer was found to be detected in 92 children, with no statistically significant increase in cancer risk with increasing radiation doses in their parents. The survey on mortality rate in 67,586 children of A-bomb survivors has revealed no evidence of significant increase in mortality rate from diseases, other than cancer, and in the incidence of lethal cancer. For A-bomb survivors, genetic doubling doses were considered to be 1 Sv or more. Further, when genetic doubling doses are calculated, the contribution rate of genital cell disturbance should be considered in the incidence of spontaneously induced disease. There is no supportive evidence of genetic effects of A-bomb radiation in children of A-bomb survivors; however, genetic effects of A-bomb radiation cannot be denied completely. Continuing survey is expected to be done for children of A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  5. The effects of tail autotomy on survivorship and body growth of Uta stansburiana under conditions of high mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, David M; Thompson, John N

    1994-12-01

    We examined the effects of tail autotomy on survivorship and body growth of both adult and juvenile Uta stansburiana by directly manipulating tail condition. Tail loss decreased neither survivorship nor rate of body growth for individuals in two natural populations. Lack of an influence of tail loss on survivorship in these two populations may be the result of high mortality. Under high mortality any differential effects of tail loss will be lower than in populations facing lower mortality. Growth experiments in the laboratory demonstrated that, under conditions of minimal environmental variation and social interactions, there is no tradeoff between body growth and tail regeneration as has been suggested for other species of lizards. One possible reason for this difference is that U. stansburiana does not use the tail as a storage organ for lipids. The original and regenerated tails are composed mainly of protein. In general, any differential body growth between tailed and tailless individuals may be due to social interactions and not a diversion of limited energy into tail regeneration.

  6. Family type, domestic violence and under-five mortality in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titilayo, Ayotunde; Anuodo, Oludare O; Palamuleni, Martin E

    2017-06-01

    Nigeria still showcases unacceptably high under-five mortality despite all efforts to reduce the menace. Investigating the significant predictors of this occurrence is paramount. To examine the interplay between family setting, domestic violence and under-five death in Nigeria. Cross-sectional secondary data, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, (NDHS) women dataset was utilized. Subset of 26,997 ever married and ever had childbirth experience respondents were extracted from the nationally representative women dataset. Dependent and Independent variables were recoded to suit the statistical analysis for the study. The study revealed that 33.7% of the respondents were in polygyny family setting; one-quarter of the ever married women reported ever experiencing one form of domestic violence or the other. The results of the logistic regressions indicate that family type and domestic violence were significant predictors of under-five children mortality in Nigeria. The study concludes that women who belong to polygyny family setting and who ever experienced sexual domestic violence are highly susceptible to experience under-five children mortality than their counterparts. The study recommends that strategies and policies aimed at improving child survival should strengthen women empowerment initiatives, discourage multiple wives and campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria.

  7. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E; Oteyza, Juan C; Mitchell, Adam E; Potticary, Ahva L; Lloyd, Penn

    2015-03-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  8. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  9. Technology use, cesarean section rates, and perinatal mortality at Danish maternity wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Jensen, L M; Weber, Tom

    1994-01-01

    FHM had a 15% higher cesarean section rate (not planned) than units not using FHM (p complicated deliveries to central units, which at the same time relatively often use FHM, is probably responsible for this association. Trying to encounter this selection bias......Fifty-eight Danish maternity units, managing 99% of Danish deliveries, participated in a cross sectional study to assess the relationship between use of birth-related technologies, cesarean section rates and perinatal mortality for births after 35 completed weeks of gestation. A regional technology...... a technology index was calculated for eight regions in Denmark, weighting the index of each unit in a region according to its number of deliveries. There was no association between the technology index in these eight regions in Denmark and their cesarean section rates. Use of FHM, technology index...

  10. Decrease in mortality rate and hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction after the enactment of the smoking ban law in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tania M O; Scholz, Jaqueline; de Masi, Eduardo; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Filho, Roberto Kalil

    2017-11-01

    Smoking restriction laws have spread worldwide during the last decade. Previous studies have shown a decline in the community rates of myocardial infarction after enactment of these laws. However, data are scarce about the Latin American population. In the first phase of this study, we reported the successful implementation of the law in São Paulo city, with a decrease in carbon monoxide rates in hospitality venues. To evaluate whether the 2009 implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban law in São Paulo city was associated with a reduction in rates of mortality and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction. We performed a time-series study of monthly rates of mortality and hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction from January 2005 to December 2010. The data were derived from DATASUS, the primary public health information system available in Brazil and from Mortality Information System (SIM). Adjustments and analyses were performed using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) method modelled by environmental variables and atmospheric pollutants to evaluate the effect of smoking ban law in mortality and hospital admission rate. We also used Interrupted Time Series Analysis (ITSA) to make a comparison between the period pre and post smoking ban law. We observed a reduction in mortality rate (-11.9% in the first 17 months after the law) and in hospital admission rate (-5.4% in the first 3 months after the law) for myocardial infarction after the implementation of the smoking ban law. Hospital admissions and mortality rate for myocardial infarction were reduced in the first months after the comprehensive smoking ban law was implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Spatio-temporal analysis of mortality among children under the age of five in Manhiça (Mozambique during the period 1997-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhacolo Ariel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing childhood mortality is the fourth goal of the Millennium Development Goals agreed at the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000. However, childhood mortality in developing countries remains high. Providing an accurate picture of space and time-trend variations in child mortality in a region might generate further ideas for health planning actions to achieve such a reduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the spatio-temporal variation for child mortality rates in Manhiça, a district within the Maputo province of southern rural Mozambique during the period 1997-2005 using a proper generalized linear mixed model. Results The results showed that childhood mortality in all the area was modified from year to year describing a convex time-trend but the spatial pattern described by the neighbourhood-specific underlying mortality rates did not change during the entire period from 1997 to 2005, where neighbourhoods with highest risks are situated in the peripheral side of the district. The spatial distribution, though more blurred here, was similar to the spatial distribution of child malaria incidence in the same area. The peak in mortality rates observed in 2001 could have been caused by the precipitation system that started in early February 2000, following which heavy rains flooded parts of Mozambique's southern provinces. However, the mortality rates at the end of the period returned to initial values. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the health intervention programmes established in Manhiça to alleviate the effects of flooding on child mortality should cover a period of around five years and that special attention might be focused on eradicating malaria transmission. These outcomes also suggest the utility of suitably modelling space-time trend variations in a region when a point effect of an environmental factor affects all the study area.

  12. Five-year mortality rate in an ophthalmic ward in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamidzai Madzima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the mortality rate in the ophthalmic ward at the Sekuru KaguviHospital Eye Unit (SKHEU, Zimbabwe, from January 2009 to December 2013 and to identify the causes of death. Design: A hospital-based clinical audit. Methods: Data from completed hospital death notification forms and medical records of patients who had died in the ward during the review period were collected that included age, gender, diagnoses, date of admission, date of death and cause of death. The data were analysed using Epi Info7 software. Setting: The audit was conducted at SKHEU, the largest tertiary eye unit in Zimbabwe. It comprises an ophthalmic ward with 30 beds and caters for about 900 patients per year. Patients are admitted via the Out-patients Department where about 30 000 patients are seen yearly. SKHEU is part of the Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals, which is one of the four major referral hospitals in Zimbabwe. Results: Of the 4722 ophthalmic admissions at SKHEU during the 5-year study period, therewere 15 (0.3% deaths, with a male:female ratio of 3:2 giving a mortality rate of 0.3% and an average of 3 deaths per year. The highest number of deaths was in 2009 when 7 deaths occurred, whilst the lowest number was 1 death in 2010 and 1 in 2013. Of the 15 deaths,4 (26.7% were children < 12 years old and 11 (73.3% were adults; of whom 12 (80% patients had orbital malignancies, 2 (13.3% had orbital cellulitis and 1 (6.7% had ocular trauma. Theorbital malignancies included ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN, retinoblastomaand non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL. The most common probable cause of death was OSSN which accounted for 9 (60% of the deaths. Conclusion: The mortality rate at SKHEU was 0.3%, with approximately 3 deaths occurring per year. The most common attributable cause of death was OSSN.

  13. Rates of thoracic trauma and mortality due to accidents in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cury, Francisco; Baitello, Andre Luciano; Echeverria, Rodrigo Florencio; Espada, Paulo Cesar; Godoy, Jose Maria Pereira de

    2009-01-01

    To report on the causes of trauma, indexes of trauma, and mortality related to thoracic trauma in one region of Brazil. This prospective study was performed at the Regional Trauma Center in Syo Josi do Rio Preto over a 1-year period, from 1 st July 2004 to 30 th June 2005. We included all patients attending the center's emergency room with thoracic trauma and an anatomic injury scale (AIS) > - 2. We collected data using a protocol completed on arrival in hospital utilizing the AIS. We studied the types of accidents as well as the mortality and the AIS scores. Prevalence rates were calculated and the paired t-test and logistic regression were employed for the statistical analysis.There were a total of 373 casualties with AIS > - 2 and there were 45 (12%) deaths. The causes of thoracic trauma among the 373 casualties were as follows: 91 (24.4%) car crashes, 75 (20.1%) falls, 46 (12.3%) motorbike accidents, 40 (10.7%) stabbings, 22 (5.9%) accidents involving pedestrians, 21 (5.6%) bicycle accidents, 17 (4.6%) shootings, and 54 (14.5%) other types of accident. The severity of the injuries was classified according to the AIS: 224 (60%) were grade 2, 101 (27%) were grade 3, 27 (7.2%) were grade 4, 18 (4.9%) were grade 5, and 3 were (0.8%) grade 6. With respect to thoracic trauma, pedestrians involved in accidents and victims of shootings had mortality rates that were significantly higher than that of those involved in other types of accidents. Road accidents are the main cause of thoracic injury, with accidents involving pedestrians and shootings being associated with a greater death rate. (author)

  14. Annual rates of decline in child, maternal, HIV, and tuberculosis mortality across 109 countries of low and middle income from 1990 to 2013: an assessment of the feasibility of post-2015 goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Olson, Zachary D; Yamey, Gavin; Jamison, Dean T

    2014-12-01

    Measuring a country's health performance has focused mostly on estimating levels of mortality. An alternative is to measure rates of decline in mortality, which are more sensitive to changes in health policy than are mortality levels. Historical rates of decline in mortality can also help test the feasibility of future health goals (eg, post-2015). We aimed to assess the annual rates of decline in under-5, maternal, tuberculosis, and HIV mortality over the past two decades for 109 low-income and middle-income countries. For the period 1990-2013, we estimated annual rates of decline in under-5 mortality (deaths per 1000 livebirths), the maternal mortality ratio (deaths per 100 000 livebirths), and tuberculosis and HIV mortality (deaths per 100 000 population per year) using published data from UNICEF and WHO. For every 5-year interval (eg, 1990-95), we defined performance as the size of the annual rate of decline for every mortality indicator. Subsequently, we tested the feasibility of post-2015 goals by estimating the year by which countries would achieve 2030 targets proposed by The Lancet's Commission on Investing in Health (ie, 20 deaths per 1000 for under-5 mortality, 94 deaths per 100 000 for maternal mortality, four deaths per 100 000 for tuberculosis mortality, and eight deaths per 100 000 for HIV mortality) at observed country and aspirational best-performer (90th percentile) rates. From 2005 to 2013, the mean annual rate of decline in under-5 mortality was 4·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·9-4·6), for maternal mortality it was 3·3% (2·5-4·1), for tuberculosis mortality 4·1% (2·8-5·4), and for HIV mortality 2·2% (0·1-4·3); aspirational best-performer rates per year were 7·1% (6·8-7·5), 6·3% (5·5-7·1), 12·8% (11·5-14·1), and 15·3% (13·2-17·4), respectively. The top two country performers were Macedonia and South Africa for under-5 mortality, Belarus and Bulgaria for maternal mortality, Uzbekistan and Macedonia for

  15. The Mortality Rate of Myocardial Infraction Patients With and Without Opium Dependen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, Hani; Shamsi, Alireza; Firouzkouhi Moghadam, Mahboubeh; Seyed Zadeh, Fatemeh Sadat; Ghazi, Arash

    2015-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a heart condition caused by the suspension of blood circulation in a part of the myocardium. There are different risk factors contributing to a heart attack. Some believe that endorphins and endogenous opioids play an important role in causing MIs. This study intended to determine the relationship between opium dependency and mortality rate among patients with MI. This retrospective study investigated patients who had MI for the first time and were hospitalized in the coronary care unit (CCU) of Khatamolanbia hospital in Zahedan, Iran, from 2007 to 2010. These patients were either opium dependent or not. Four hundred patients were selected. The patients' possibilities of death and re-hospitalization after the first MI were confirmed over the phone. Data was analyzed through t-test and chi-squared test. Of all the patients, 19.5% were opium-dependent. The mortality rate in the non-opium-dependent group was 5.9%, while in the dependent group this rate was 11.5% (P = 0.072). The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was higher in the opium-dependent patients (P opium-dependent or non-opium-dependent. The number of re-hospitalizations due to heart problems was meaningfully higher in the opium-dependent patients; hence, educating people and training them on the destructive effects of opium, specifically in patients with heart conditions is highly recommended.

  16. Impact of heat on mortality in 15 European cities: attributable deaths under different weather scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, M; Kosatsky, T; Analitis, A; Anderson, H R; D'Ovidio, M; Menne, B; Michelozzi, P; Biggeri, A

    2011-01-01

    High ambient summer temperatures have been shown to influence daily mortality in cities across Europe. Quantification of the population mortality burden attributable to heat is crucial to the development of adaptive approaches. The impact of summer heat on mortality for 15 European cities during the 1990s was evaluated, under hypothetical temperature scenarios warmer and cooler than the mean and under future scenarios derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). A Monte Carlo approach was used to estimate the number of deaths attributable to heat for each city. These estimates rely on the results of a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis that combines city-specific heat-mortality functions. The number of heat-attributable deaths per summer ranged from 0 in Dublin to 423 in Paris. The mean attributable fraction of deaths was around 2%. The highest impact was in three Mediterranean cities (Barcelona, Rome and Valencia) and in two continental cities (Paris and Budapest). The largest impact was on persons over 75 years; however, in some cities, important proportions of heat-attributable deaths were also found for younger adults. Heat-attributable deaths markedly increased under warming scenarios. The impact under SRES scenarios was slightly lower or comparable to the impact during the observed hottest year. Current high summer ambient temperatures have an important impact on European population health. This impact is expected to increase in the future, according to the projected increase of mean ambient temperatures and frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves.

  17. “Dhoulath's method” – An investigative probe into mortality rate to aid diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dhoulath Beegum

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the urgent need to save life, during cardiac arrest, time is an important factor, and time factors, if not speeded up, may lead to death. Baby cries proved to be an obstacle for cardiac diagnosis. To speed up the diagnoses, ‘Dhoulath's method’ was proposed and result proved that the data quality of cardiac data, ‘aortic regurgitation sound’ from a mixture of ‘crying baby's cry’ was faithfully separated out. This separation, by utilizing the features of blind source component separation, in the case of medical emergency, can lead to a speedy diagnoses, to reduce the mortality rate.

  18. Correlation between the radon levels and the lung cancer mortality rates - experimental and theoretical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dai Nghiep; Vo Thi Anh

    2003-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas and is present in the most earth materials such as soil, stone, air, water and others. Comprehensive and scientifically rigorous studies found a low lung cancer mortality rates in high radon areas. It is opposite to the linear no-threshold hypothesis (LNTH), which is a popular theory in the field of radiation safety. The fact is explained by the theory of energy transfer model, that takes accounts of the competitive processes arising in material during irradiation.(author)

  19. Determinants of under-5 mortality among the poor and the rich: a cross-national analysis of 43 developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Kunst, Anton E.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Under-5 mortality is unacceptably high in many countries, the burden of which is mainly borne by the poor. Whereas country characteristics are known to influence under-5 mortality, it is unknown whether these have a different impact on the poor and the rich. We aimed to describe how the

  20. Self-rated Health and Mortality due to Kidney Diseases: Racial Differences in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the role of self-rated health (SRH on all-cause mortality is known, we still do not know whether SRH predicts death due to specific causes (e.g., kidney disease. The current study aimed to compare Blacks and Whites on the association between SRH and mortality due to kidney diseases. A nationally representative sample of adults in the United States was used to provide generalizable results to the United States population. Materials and Methods: The Americans' Changing Lives study is a nationally representative cohort, conducted from 1986–2011. The study followed 3361 Blacks (n = 1156 and Whites (n = 2205 for up to 25 years. The outcome was time to death due to kidney diseases, derived from death certificates and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test whether race and baseline SRH interact on mortality due to kidney diseases. Results: In the pooled sample, poor SRH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24–4.24 was associated with an increased risk of death due to kidney diseases over the follow-up period. Baseline SRH also showed a significant interaction with race on the outcome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25–0.96, suggesting a stronger effect of SRH on deaths due to kidney diseases for Whites compared to Blacks. In race-specific models, poor SRH at baseline increased risk of death due to kidney diseases among Whites (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.14–4.34 but not Blacks (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.54–2.41. Conclusions: Blacks and Whites differ regarding the predictive role of baseline SRH on death due to kidney diseases over time. Factors such as SRH better predict risk of mortality for Whites than for Blacks.

  1. Self-rated Health and Mortality due to Kidney Diseases: Racial Differences in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2018-01-01

    Although the role of self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality is known, we still do not know whether SRH predicts death due to specific causes (e.g., kidney disease). The current study aimed to compare Blacks and Whites on the association between SRH and mortality due to kidney diseases. A nationally representative sample of adults in the United States was used to provide generalizable results to the United States population. The Americans' Changing Lives study is a nationally representative cohort, conducted from 1986-2011. The study followed 3361 Blacks ( n = 1156) and Whites ( n = 2205) for up to 25 years. The outcome was time to death due to kidney diseases, derived from death certificates and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test whether race and baseline SRH interact on mortality due to kidney diseases. In the pooled sample, poor SRH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24-4.24) was associated with an increased risk of death due to kidney diseases over the follow-up period. Baseline SRH also showed a significant interaction with race on the outcome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25-0.96), suggesting a stronger effect of SRH on deaths due to kidney diseases for Whites compared to Blacks. In race-specific models, poor SRH at baseline increased risk of death due to kidney diseases among Whites (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.14-4.34) but not Blacks (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.54-2.41). Blacks and Whites differ regarding the predictive role of baseline SRH on death due to kidney diseases over time. Factors such as SRH better predict risk of mortality for Whites than for Blacks.

  2. Self-rated Health and Mortality due to Kidney Diseases: Racial Differences in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although the role of self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality is known, we still do not know whether SRH predicts death due to specific causes (e.g., kidney disease). The current study aimed to compare Blacks and Whites on the association between SRH and mortality due to kidney diseases. A nationally representative sample of adults in the United States was used to provide generalizable results to the United States population. Materials and Methods: The Americans’ Changing Lives study is a nationally representative cohort, conducted from 1986–2011. The study followed 3361 Blacks (n = 1156) and Whites (n = 2205) for up to 25 years. The outcome was time to death due to kidney diseases, derived from death certificates and the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test whether race and baseline SRH interact on mortality due to kidney diseases. Results: In the pooled sample, poor SRH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24–4.24) was associated with an increased risk of death due to kidney diseases over the follow-up period. Baseline SRH also showed a significant interaction with race on the outcome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25–0.96), suggesting a stronger effect of SRH on deaths due to kidney diseases for Whites compared to Blacks. In race-specific models, poor SRH at baseline increased risk of death due to kidney diseases among Whites (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.14–4.34) but not Blacks (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.54–2.41). Conclusions: Blacks and Whites differ regarding the predictive role of baseline SRH on death due to kidney diseases over time. Factors such as SRH better predict risk of mortality for Whites than for Blacks. PMID:29456975

  3. Mortality rates increase dramatically below a systolic blood pressure of 105-mm Hg in septic surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Damian L; Chipps, Jennifer A; Sartorius, Benn; Bruce, John; Laing, Grant L; Brysiewicz, Petra

    2016-11-01

    This study used a prospective surgical database, to investigate the level of systolic blood pressure (SBP) at which the mortality rates begin to increase in septic surgical patients. All acute, septic general surgical patients older than 15 years of age admitted between January 2012 and January 2015 were included in these analyses. Of a total of 6,020 adult surgical patients on the database, 3,053 elective patients, 1,664 nonseptic, 52 duplicates, and 11 patients with missing SBP were excluded to leave a cohort of 1,232 acute, septic surgical patients. The median age (intraquartile range [IQR]): 48 (32 to 62) and roughly 50:50 sex ratio (620 female: 609 male). Most of the patients were African: 988 (80.2%) followed by Asians (128 or 10.4%). More than two-thirds (852 or 69.2%) of the patient cohort underwent some form of surgery, and 152 or 12.3% required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The median length of ICU stay (IQR) was 2 (1 to 4.5) days. The median length of total hospital stay (IQR) was 4 (2 to 9) days. The median SBP (IQR) on admission was 122 (107 to 138). A total of 167 patients died (13.6%). Those that died did have a significantly lower mean SBP compared with the survivors (116 vs 125, P mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: .6 [.551, .65]). This cut-off yields a moderate sensitivity (70%), high positive predictive value (90%) but low specificity, and negative predictive value when predicting mortality. Based on this optimal cut-off, 388 or 31.5% of the patients would be classified as shocked. The inflection curve below with fitted nonlinear curve (95% confidence intervals) clearly shows the upward change in observed mortality frequency at lower systolic and base excess (ie base deficit) values. Shocked patients had a significantly higher frequency of mortality (20% vs 11%, P increased mortality risk begins at a level of ∼111-mm Hg. This finding needs to be incorporated into bundles of care for surgical sepsis

  4. Is there a relationship between insect metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. after insecticide exposure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna MALISZEWSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are known to affect insects metabolic rate and CO2 release patterns. In the presented paper metabolic rate and mortality of mealworms Tenebrio molitor L. exposed to four different insecticides was evaluated, to find out whether there is a relationship between mealworms sensitivity to pesticides and their metabolic rate. Tenebrio molitor mortality was determined after intoxication with pyrethroid, oxadiazine, neonicotinoid and organophosphate. Metabolic rate before and after intoxication with insecticides was also determined. The highest CO2 production and mortality rate was observed after mealworms exposition to neonicotinoid insecticide. The results suggest that high CO2 release after intoxication is adequate to the intensity of the non-specific action of the xenobiotic (e.g. hyperactivity of neuromuscular system, rather than the intensity of detoxification processes, and it is correlated with mealworms mortality.

  5. Mortality rates in patients with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. A meta-analysis of 36 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcelus, Jon; Mitchell, Alex J; Wales, Jackie; Nielsen, Søren

    2011-07-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates in patients with eating disorders are thought to be high, but exact rates remain to be clarified. To systematically compile and analyze the mortality rates in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). A systematic literature search, appraisal, and meta-analysis were conducted of the MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase databases and 4 full-text collections (ie, ScienceDirect, Ingenta Select, Ovid, and Wiley-Blackwell Interscience). English-language, peer-reviewed articles published between January 1, 1966, and September 30, 2010, that reported mortality rates in patients with eating disorders. Primary data were extracted as raw numbers or confidence intervals and corrected for years of observation and sample size (ie, person-years of observation). Weighted proportion meta-analysis was used to adjust for study size using the DerSimonian-Laird model to allow for heterogeneity inclusion in the analysis. From 143 potentially relevant articles, we found 36 quantitative studies with sufficient data for extraction. The studies reported outcomes of AN during 166 642 person-years, BN during 32 798 person-years, and EDNOS during 22 644 person-years. The weighted mortality rates (ie, deaths per 1000 person-years) were 5.1 for AN, 1.7 for BN, and 3.3 for EDNOS. The standardized mortality ratios were 5.86 for AN, 1.93 for BN, and 1.92 for EDNOS. One in 5 individuals with AN who died had committed suicide. Individuals with eating disorders have significantly elevated mortality rates, with the highest rates occurring in those with AN. The mortality rates for BN and EDNOS are similar. The study found age at assessment to be a significant predictor of mortality for patients with AN. Further research is needed to identify predictors of mortality in patients with BN and EDNOS.

  6. Child Mortality as Predicted by Nutritional Status and Recent Weight Velocity in Children under Two in Rural Africa.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    WHO has released prescriptive child growth standards for, among others, BMI-for-age (BMI-FA), mid-upper arm circumference-for-age, and weight velocity. The ability of these indices to predict child mortality remains understudied, although growth velocity prognostic value underlies current growth monitoring programs. The study aims were first to assess, in children under 2, the independent and combined ability of these indices and of stunting to predict all-cause mortality within 3 mo, and second, the comparative abilities of weight-for-length (WFL) and BMI-FA to predict short-term (<3 mo) mortality. We used anthropometry and survival data from 2402 children aged between 0 and 24 mo in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo with high malnutrition and mortality rates and limited nutritional rehabilitation. Analyses used Cox proportional hazard models and receiver operating characteristic curves. Univariate analysis and age-adjusted analysis showed predictive ability of all indices. Multivariate analysis without age adjustment showed that only very low weight velocity [HR = 3.82 (95%CI = 1.91, 7.63); P < 0.001] was independently predictive. With age adjustment, very low weight velocity [HR = 3.61 (95%CI = 1.80, 7.25); P < 0.001] was again solely retained as an independent predictor. There was no evidence for a difference in predictive ability between WFL and BMI-FA. This paper shows the value of attained BMI-FA, a marker of wasting status, and recent weight velocity, a marker of the wasting process, in predicting child death using the WHO child growth standards. WFL and BMI-FA appear equivalent as predictors.

  7. Effect of temperature on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatch rate, egg water loss and partridge chick weight (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakage ES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incubation temperature (34.5; 35.5; 36.5; 37.5 and 38.5ºC, on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatching rate, water loss and chick weight at hatch, using daily incubation of partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens eggs. The highest hatching percentage was obtained between 35.5 and 36.5ºC. Incubation length and temperature were inversely proportional. Water loss was lower in eggs incubated at low temperatures as compared to high temperatures. There was no difference among incubation temperatures in absolute and relative hatchling weights. Early embryonic mortality increased at low temperatures (36.5ºC. Our results show that, under conditions of daily incubation of eggs in the same incubator, higher hatching rate can be obtained using temperatures between 35.5ºC and 36.5ºC; incubation temperature is inversely proportional to incubation length, and absolute and relative weights of partridge chicks are not affected by incubation temperature.

  8. Social disorganization and homicide mortality rate trajectories in Brazil between 1991 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Nivette, Amy

    2017-10-01

    Since the 1990s, researchers have noted declining trends in crime and violence, particularly homicide, in Western countries. Studies have explored national and sub-national trends using latent trajectory analysis techniques and identified several factors associated with declining and/or increasing trajectories. Social disorganization (SD) has been consistently linked to increases in homicide rates over time, explaining at least some of the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of homicide. Similar studies have not yet been carried out in Latin America's cities. In this paper we use Group Based Trajectory models to study homicide mortality rate [HMR] trajectories in Brazilian municipalities between 1991 and 2010. Then, through binary and multinomial logistic regression we investigated the association between SD in 1991, and the likelihood of an increasing HMR trajectory. We carried out an ecological time series study using all Brazilian municipalities in the period between 1991 and 2010 (n = 4491). Data on homicide deaths were collected from the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health and standardized by age to calculate HMR per 100,000 population. Socioeconomic and demographic data for 1991 were used to compose the composite measure of SD. Our results highlight the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of homicide mortality in Brazilian municipalities. While national trends are steadily increasing, disaggregating municipal trajectories shows that this is driven by a small proportion of municipalities in the country. We found that SD is associated with an ascending homicide trajectory. This result generally supports the notion that poor social structural conditions can create 'space' for criminal behavior and groups and, consequently, violent death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Uneven futures of human lifespans: reckonings from Gompertz mortality rates, climate change, and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans through improvements in the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene, public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jeanne Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st century cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st century, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and facilitate the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy.

  10. Estimated migration rates under scenarios of global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay R. Malcolm; Adam Markham; Ronald P. Neilson; Michael. Oaraci

    2002-01-01

    Greefihouse-induced warming and resulting shifts in climatic zones may exceed the migration capabilities of some species. We used fourteen combinations of General Circulation Models (GCMs) and Global Vegetation Models (GVMs) to investigate possible migration rates required under CO2 doubled climatic forcing.

  11. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... Grain yield under post anthesis high temperature stress is largely influenced by grain filling rate (GFR). To investigate molecular basis of this trait, a set of 111 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Raj. 4014, a heat sensitive genotype and WH 730, heat tolerant cultivar was phenotyped during 2009- ...

  12. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitrioukhin, A. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered. 5 refs.

  13. Molecular investigations on grain filling rate under terminal heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain yield under post anthesis high temperature stress is largely influenced by grain filling rate (GFR). To investigate molecular basis of this trait, a set of 111 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Raj 4014, a heat sensitive genotype and WH 730, heat tolerant cultivar was phenotyped during 2009-2010 and ...

  14. Resting Heart Rate is a Predictor of Mortality in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob Louis; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The clinical significance of high heart rate in COPD is unexplored.We investigated the association between resting heart rate (RHR), pulmonary function, and prognosis in subjects with COPD.16,696 subjects above 40 years from The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective study of the general...... population, followed for 35.3 years, 10,986 deaths occurring. Analyses were performed using time-dependent Cox-models and net reclassification index (NRI).RHR increased with severity of COPD (pcardiovascular and all-cause mortality across all stages of COPD (p... stage, (categorical NRI 4.9%, p=0.01; categoryless NRI 23.0%, pvariable that improves risk prediction in patients with COPD...

  15. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  16. Long-term mortality rates (>8-year) improve as compared to the general and obese population following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana A; Talamini, Mark; Shroyer, A Laurie; Yang, Jie; Altieri, Maria; Zhang, Qiao; Gracia, Gerald; Pryor, Aurora D

    2015-03-01

    Sparse data are available on long-term patient mortality following bariatric surgery as compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term mortality rates and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality following bariatric surgery. New York State (NYS) Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) longitudinal administrative data were used to identify 7,862 adult patients who underwent a primary laparoscopic bariatric surgery from 1999 to 2005. The Social Security Death Index database identified >30-day mortalities. Risk factors for mortality were screened using a univariate Cox proportional hazard (PH) model and analyzed using a multiple PH model. Based on age, gender, and race/ethnicity, actuarial projections for NYS mortality rates obtained from Centers of Disease Control were compared to the actual post-bariatric surgery mortality rates observed. The mean bariatric mortality rate was 2.5 % with 8-14 years of follow-up. Mean time to death ranged from 4 to 6 year and did not differ by operation (p = 0.073). From 1999 to 2010, the actuarial mortality rate predicted for the general NYS population was 2.1 % versus the observed 1.5 % for the bariatric surgery population (p = 0.005). Extrapolating to 2013, demonstrated the actuarial mortality predictions at 3.1 % versus the bariatric surgery patients' observed morality rate of 2.5 % (p = 0.01). Risk factors associated with an earlier time to death included: age, male gender, Medicare/Medicaid insurance, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary circulation disorders, and diabetes. No procedure-specific or perioperative complication impact for time-to-death was found. Long-term mortality rate of patients undergoing bariatric surgery significantly improves as compared to the general population regardless of bariatric operation performed. Additionally, perioperative complications do not increase long-term mortality risk. This study did identify specific patient

  17. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues dos; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Trombetta, Ivani Credidio [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Arap, Marco Antônio [Faculdade de medicina da Universidade de São Paulo - Urologia (Brazil); Negrão, Carlos Eduardo [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Middlekauff, Holly R. [Division of Cardiology - David Geffen School of Medicine - University of California (United States); Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes, E-mail: janieire.alves@incor.usp.br [Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT.

  18. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Moura, Lenildo de; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-06-27

    To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. Descrever a tendência da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil e regiões, antes e após as correções por sub-registro de óbitos, redistribuição de causas mal definidas e causas inespecíficas. Foram utilizados dados de óbitos por câncer de pulmão da população de 30 a 69 anos, notificados ao Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, entre 1996 e 2011, corrigidos para sub-registro de óbitos, declaração de sexo e idade ignorados e causas com códigos mal definidos e inespecíficos segundo sexo, idade e região. Foram calculadas taxas padronizadas por idade para dados brutos e corrigidos. Realizou-se análise da tendência temporal da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão por meio do modelo de regressão com erros autorregressivos. O câncer de pulmão no Brasil apresentou taxas mais elevadas em homens que em mulheres e a região Sul foi a que apresentou maior risco de morte em 1996 e

  19. Wood fuel consumption and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from a dynamic panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S; Chin, Lee; Mohd-Shahwahid, H O

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the impact of wood fuel consumption on health outcomes, specifically under-five and adult mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa, where wood usage for cooking and heating is on the increase. Generalized method of moment (GMM) estimators were used to estimate the impact of wood fuel consumption on under-five and adult mortality (and also male and female mortality) in the region. The findings revealed that wood fuel consumption had significant positive impact on under-five and adult mortality. It suggests that over the studied period, an increase in wood fuel consumption has increased the mortality of under-five and adult. Importantly, it indicated that the magnitude of the effect of wood fuel consumption was more on the under-five than the adults. Similarly, assessing the effect on a gender basis, it was revealed that the effect was more on female than male adults. This finding suggests that the resultant mortality from wood smoke related infections is more on under-five children than adults, and also are more on female adults than male adults. We, therefore, recommended that an alternative affordable, clean energy source for cooking and heating should be provided to reduce the wood fuel consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of local extrinsic mortality rate, crime and sex ratio on preventable death in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth

    2015-09-03

    Individual investment in health varies greatly within populations and results in significant differences in the risk of preventable death. Life history theory predicts that individuals should alter their investment in health (somatic maintenance) in response to ecological cues that shift the perceived fitness payoffs to such investments. However, previous research has failed to isolate the effects of different ecological factors on preventable death, and has often relied on macro-level data without individual controls. Here, we test some key predictions concerning the local ecology-that higher extrinsic mortality rate (EMR), crime rate and mate-scarcity (male/female-biased sex ratio) at the ward-level-will be associated with a higher risk of preventable death. We use census-based data from Northern Ireland (n = 927 150) on preventable death during an 8.7-year period from the 2001 Census and run Cox regressions for (i) accident/suicide or alcohol-related death and (ii) deaths from preventable diseases, for men and women separately, controlling for a wide range of individual variables. We find evidence of ward-level EMR and crime rate being positively associated with preventable death among men, particularly men with low socioeconomic position. There was a tentative relationship between male-biased sex ratio and preventable death among women, but not among men. Both behaviours that might lead to 'risky' death and health neglect might be adaptive responses to local ecologies. Efforts to reduce crime might be as effective as those to reduce extrinsic mortality, and both could have positive effects on various health behaviours. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  1. The mortality and response rate after FLANG regimen in patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali A Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncologists today are greatly concerned about the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute leukemia. FLANG regimen, combination of novantron, cytarabine, fludarabine, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has been used in treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukemia since 1990s. The present study has evaluated mortality and response rate of this regimen. Materials and Methods: In this study, 25 patients with refractory/relapsed acute leukemia aged 15-55 years underwent FLANG regimen at Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran during 2008-2009. One month later, bone marrow samples were taken to evaluate the responsiveness to treatment. Participants were followed for a year. The data was analyzed by student-t and chi-square tests, logistic, and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan-Meier curves in SPSS 19. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 8 patients (32% had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (5 refractory and 3 relapsed cases and 17 subjects had acute myeloid leukemia (7 refractory and 10 relapsed cases. According to the bone marrow biopsies taken one month after FLANG regimen, 10 patients (40% had responded to treatment. Five patients of the 10 responders underwent successful bone marrow transplantation (BMT. On the other hand, 13 patients (52%, who had not entered the CR period, died during the follow-up. Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any significant associations between disease type and responsiveness to treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated higher rates of unresponsiveness to treatment while its mortality rate was comparable with other studies. Overall, according to limitations for BMT (as the only chance for cure in Iran, it seems that FLANG therapy is an acceptable choice for these patients.

  2. Five-year mortality rate in an ophthalmic ward in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamidzai Madzima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the mortality rate in the ophthalmic ward at the Sekuru KaguviHospital Eye Unit (SKHEU, Zimbabwe, from January 2009 to December 2013 and to identify the causes of death.Design: A hospital-based clinical audit.Methods: Data from completed hospital death notification forms and medical records of patients who had died in the ward during the review period were collected that included age, gender, diagnoses, date of admission, date of death and cause of death. The data were analysed using Epi Info7 software.Setting: The audit was conducted at SKHEU, the largest tertiary eye unit in Zimbabwe. It comprises an ophthalmic ward with 30 beds and caters for about 900 patients per year. Patients are admitted via the Out-patients Department where about 30 000 patients are seen yearly. SKHEU is part of the Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals, which is one of the four major referral hospitals in Zimbabwe.Results: Of the 4722 ophthalmic admissions at SKHEU during the 5-year study period, therewere 15 (0.3% deaths, with a male:female ratio of 3:2 giving a mortality rate of 0.3% and an average of 3 deaths per year. The highest number of deaths was in 2009 when 7 deaths occurred, whilst the lowest number was 1 death in 2010 and 1 in 2013. Of the 15 deaths,4 (26.7% were children < 12 years old and 11 (73.3% were adults; of whom 12 (80% patients had orbital malignancies, 2 (13.3% had orbital cellulitis and 1 (6.7% had ocular trauma. Theorbital malignancies included ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN, retinoblastomaand non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL. The most common probable cause of death was OSSN which accounted for 9 (60% of the deaths.Conclusion: The mortality rate at SKHEU was 0.3%, with approximately 3 deaths occurring per year. The most common attributable cause of death was OSSN.

  3. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990–2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Deribew

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990–2013. Methods We used Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2013 data. Spatiotemporal Gaussian Process Regression (GPR was applied to generate best estimates of child mortality with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI. Causes of death by age groups, sex, and year were measured using Cause of Death Ensemble modeling (CODEm. For estimation of HIV/AIDS mortality rate, the modified UNAIDS EPP-SPECTRUM suite model was used. Results Between 1990 and 2013 the under-5 mortality rate declined from 203.9 deaths/1000 live births to 74.4 deaths/1000 live births with an annual rate of change of 4.6%, yielding a total reduction of 64%. Similarly, child (1–4 years, post-neonatal, and neonatal mortality rates declined by 75%, 64%, and 52%, respectively, between 1990 and 2013. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRI, diarrheal diseases, and neonatal syndromes (preterm birth complications, neonatal encephalopathy, neonatal sepsis, and other neonatal disorders accounted for 54% of the total under-5 deaths in 2013. Under-5 mortality rates due to measles, diarrhea, malaria, protein-energy malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anemia declined by more than two-thirds between 1990 and 2013. Among the causes of under-5 deaths, neonatal syndromes such as sepsis, preterm birth complications, and birth asphyxia ranked third to fifth in 2013. Of all risk-attributable deaths in 1990, 25% of the total under-5 deaths (112,288/435,962 and 48% (112,288/232,199 of the deaths due to

  4. Microfluidic thrombosis under multiple shear rates and antiplatelet therapy doses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Li

    Full Text Available The mainstay of treatment for thrombosis, the formation of occlusive platelet aggregates that often lead to heart attack and stroke, is antiplatelet therapy. Antiplatelet therapy dosing and resistance are poorly understood, leading to potential incorrect and ineffective dosing. Shear rate is also suspected to play a major role in thrombosis, but instrumentation to measure its influence has been limited by flow conditions, agonist use, and non-systematic and/or non-quantitative studies. In this work we measured occlusion times and thrombus detachment for a range of initial shear rates (500, 1500, 4000, and 10000 s(-1 and therapy concentrations (0-2.4 µM for eptifibatide, 0-2 mM for acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA, 3.5-40 Units/L for heparin using a microfluidic device. We also measured complete blood counts (CBC and platelet activity using whole blood impedance aggregometry. Effects of shear rate and dose were analyzed using general linear models, logistic regressions, and Cox proportional hazards models. Shear rates have significant effects on thrombosis/dose-response curves for all tested therapies. ASA has little effect on high shear occlusion times, even at very high doses (up to 20 times the recommended dose. Under ASA therapy, thrombi formed at high shear rates were 4 times more prone to detachment compared to those formed under control conditions. Eptifibatide reduced occlusion when controlling for shear rate and its efficacy increased with dose concentration. In contrast, the hazard of occlusion from ASA was several orders of magnitude higher than that of eptifibatide. Our results show similar dose efficacy to our low shear measurements using whole blood aggregometry. This quantitative and statistically validated study of the effects of a wide range of shear rate and antiplatelet therapy doses on occlusive thrombosis contributes to more accurate understanding of thrombosis and to models for optimizing patient treatment.

  5. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Manisha; Ram, Usha; Ram, Faujdar

    2015-01-01

    Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover. We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981-2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India's 90% population in 2011). Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover. India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women). For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1-59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early.

  6. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Dubey

    Full Text Available Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover.We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981-2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India's 90% population in 2011. Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover.India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women.For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1-59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early.

  7. Methods of forecasting crack growth rate under creep conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'kin, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    Using construction aluminium alloy application possibility of linear mechanics of the destruction for quantitative description of crack development process under creepage conditions is investigated. It is shown, that the grade dependence between the stress intensity coefficient and the crack growth rate takes place only at certain combination of the sample geometry and creepage parameters, and consequently, its applicability in every given case must necessarily be tested experimentally

  8. High mortality rates occur in copper deficient rats exposed to a normally nonlethal endotoxin treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSilvestro, R.; Joseph, E.; Yang, F.L. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Endotoxin hepatotoxicity is proposed to occur by processes which could be retarded by 3 copper enzymes: ceruloplasmin, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and extracellular (EC) SOD. Weanling rats fed low copper for 40 days showed low activity levels of these enzymes, and a very high mortality rate 20 h after endotoxin injection. No rats fed adequate copper died from this treatment. In addition, serum transaminase activities, indicators of liver damage, were elevated by 3 h to a greater extent in the deficient rats than in the adequates. The high susceptibility to endotoxemia in the deficient rats was not associated with low hepatic glutathione, high liver malondialedhyde, nor restricted metallothionein induction 3 h after endotoxin injection. Endotoxin reduced serum EC SOD activities in adequate and deficient rats, but final values were lower in the latter. Studies on roles of specific copper enzymes in resistance to endotoxemia are currently underway.

  9. Case fatality ratio and mortality rate trends of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom, S; Galbraith, J C; Valiquette, L

    2014-01-01

    Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Australia......, Sweden and Denmark to evaluate 30-day CFR and MR trends between 2000 and 2008. The CFR was 20.3% (MSSA 20.2%, MRSA 22.3%) and MR was 3.4 (MSSA 3.1, MRSA 0.3) per 100 000 per year. Although MSSA CFR was stable the MSSA MR increased; MRSA CFR decreased while its MR remained low during the study. Community......-onset S. aureus bacteraemia, particularly MSSA, is associated with major disease burden. This study highlights complementary information provided by evaluating both CFR and MR....

  10. Mortality rate and cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarises the outcome of follow-up surveys on mortality rate and cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors. The subjects were 1791 A-bomb survivors, and 1534 (85.7%) of these came from Hiroshima. According to uterus absorption doses, these A-bomb survivors could be divided into the 0 Gy exposed group (n=772) and the ≥0.01 Gy (a mean, 0.302 Gy) exposed group (n=1019). The number of proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (2,000 m or less) was approximately 3 times larger in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, probably due to various socioeconomical factors. When the mortality rate was examined according to uterus absorption doses, it was higher at infancy and at the age of 15-39 in the ≥0.60 Gy exposed group than the 0 Gy exposed group. For infants, it was 3 times higher in the ≥0.60 Gy exposed group than the 0 Gy exposed group. The 1950-1984 survey on cancer incidence among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors have revealed that cancer incidence tended to increase among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors with increasing uterus absorption doses in their mothers. Since A-bomb survivors aged 15 years or younger at the time of A-bombing are characterized by developing leukemia 5-10 years after A-bombing, leukemia is unlikely to be increased among in uterus exposed A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  11. Level of dependence in patients on haemodialysis in Catalonia and evolution of mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Periz, Lola; Puig-Llobet, Montserrat; Cases-Amenós, Aleix

    2012-01-01

    Age and the comorbidities associated with ESRD impair the functional autonomy of patients on haemodialysis (HD). Our objectives were to assess the level of dependence in patients on HD and their mortality rates after three years of treatment. To do so, we followed the criteria established by the "Ley de Promoción de la Autonomía Personal y Atención a las Personas en situación de dependencia", the Spanish Law of Dependence (LD). We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study between October 2007 and January 2008. From 3702 patients in 40 dialysis units in Catalonia, 806 were selected as potential dependent individuals according to the criteria of their healthcare providers. Variables studied included: level of dependence according to the LD criteria, age, time on HD, associated pathology, treatment characteristics, family circumstances, and survival from 2009 to 2011. According to the LD, 137 were not dependent, 350 had a grade 1 dependence level, 237 grade 2, and 82 grade 3. In addition, 121 were living in an institution. The mean age was 74.9 ± 18.2 years and the median time on HD was 36 months. The prevalence of common pathologies was: diabetes (35.7%) and cardiovascular disease (29.1%). Musculoskeletal alterations (87%) and neurological disorders (38%) were the main causes of dependence. 64.2% of patients had a catheter as a vascular access. 34.9% of patients survived after three years, and these had a lower level of dependence when compared to those patients who had died, with no statistically significant differences within those three years. According to the LD, the prevalence of dependent patients in Catalonia is substantial (18.07%). These patients have a high mortality rate after three years.

  12. Resting heart rate is a risk factor for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not for exacerbations or pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; Rutten, Frans H; de Boer, Anthonius

    2014-01-01

    increased non-significantly with 7% for every 10 beats/minute increase in resting heart rate (adjusted HR: 1.07 [0.96-1.18], p = 0.208). CONCLUSIONS: Increased resting heart rate is a strong and independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in elderly patients with COPD. An increased resting heart rate...... did not result in an increased risk of exacerbations or pneumonia. This may indicate that the increased mortality risk of COPD is related to non-pulmonary causes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to investigate whether heart-rate lowering agents are worthwhile for COPD patients....... and information on complications (exacerbation of COPD or pneumonia) by scrutinizing patient files of general practitioners. Multivariable cox regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: During the follow-up 132 (33%) patients died. The overall mortality rate was 50/1000 py (42-59). The major causes of death were...

  13. Socioeconomic indicators and ethnicity as determinants of regional mortality rates in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosicova, Katarina; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Rosic, Martin; Zezula, Ivan; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Regional differences in mortality might reflect socioeconomic and ethnic differences between regions. The present study examines the relationship between education, unemployment, income, Roma population and regional mortality in the Slovak Republic. Separately for males and females, data on

  14. A web tool for age-period-cohort analysis of cancer incidence and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Philip S; Check, David P; Anderson, William F

    2014-11-01

    Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis can inform registry-based studies of cancer incidence and mortality, but concerns about statistical identifiability and interpretability, as well as the learning curves of statistical software packages, have limited its uptake. We implemented a panel of easy-to-interpret estimable APC functions and corresponding Wald tests in R code that can be accessed through a user-friendly Web tool. Input data for the Web tool consist of age-specific numbers of events and person-years over time, in the form of a rate matrix of paired columns. Output functions include model-based estimators of cross-sectional and longitudinal age-specific rates, period and cohort rate ratios that incorporate the overall annual percentage change (net drift), and estimators of the age-specific annual percentage change (local drifts). The Web tool includes built-in examples for teaching and demonstration. User data can be input from a Microsoft Excel worksheet or by uploading a comma-separated-value file. Model outputs can be saved in a variety of formats, including R and Excel. APC methodology can now be carried out through a freely available user-friendly Web tool. The tool can be accessed at http://analysistools.nci.nih.gov/apc/. The Web tool can help cancer surveillance researchers make important discoveries about emerging cancer trends and patterns. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Epidemiological characteristics and underlying risk factors for mortality during the autumn 2009 pandemic wave in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Chowell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elucidating the role of the underlying risk factors for severe outcomes of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic could be crucial to define priority risk groups in resource-limited settings in future pandemics. METHODS: We use individual-level clinical data on a large series of ARI (acute respiratory infection hospitalizations from a prospective surveillance system of the Mexican Social Security medical system to analyze clinical features at presentation, admission delays, selected comorbidities and receipt of seasonal vaccine on the risk of A/H1N1-related death. We considered ARI hospitalizations and inpatient-deaths, and recorded demographic, geographic, and medical information on individual patients during August-December, 2009. RESULTS: Seasonal influenza vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients (OR = 0.43 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.74 after adjustment for age, gender, geography, antiviral treatment, admission delays, comorbidities and medical conditions. However, this result should be interpreted with caution as it could have been affected by factors not directly measured in our study. Moreover, the effect of antiviral treatment against A/H1N1 inpatient death did not reach statistical significance (OR = 0.56 (95% CI: 0.29, 1.10 probably because only 8.9% of A/H1N1 inpatients received antiviral treatment. Moreover, diabetes (OR = 1.6 and immune suppression (OR = 2.3 were statistically significant risk factors for death whereas asthmatic persons (OR = 0.3 or pregnant women (OR = 0.4 experienced a reduced fatality rate among A/H1N1 inpatients. We also observed an increased risk of death among A/H1N1 inpatients with admission delays >2 days after symptom onset (OR = 2.7. Similar associations were also observed for A/H1N1-negative inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Geographical variation in identified medical risk factors including prevalence of diabetes and immune suppression may in part

  16. [Mortality rates of foreign national residents in Japan: comparison with the Japanese population and a possible healthy migrant effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Eiko; Maeda, Yuko; Yamamoto, Taro

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study clarified the health status of foreign nationals residing in Japan by comparing their current mortality rates with those of the Japanese population.Methods We focused on foreign national residents and used official statistical data from 2010. Due to the possible overestimation of published death rates (PDRs), we computed calculated death rates (CDRs) for foreign national residents, using the number of registered foreign national residents as the denominator. We obtained this number from the Statistics on Foreign National Residents provided by the Ministry of Justice.Results The all-cause age-adjusted mortality rates (per 100,000 population) of foreign national residents were 571.5 for men and 316.1 for women. The ratios with reference to the mortality rates of the Japanese population were 1.1 and 1.0 for men and women, respectively, indicating that the age-adjusted mortality rates for foreign national residents were similar to those of the Japanese population. However, the rate ratios by age group were 0.3-0.5 for those aged 20-34 years, 0.6-1.0 for those aged 35-59 years, and 1.0-1.4 for those aged ≥60 years, suggesting that the mortality rate of foreign national residents increases with age when compared to that of the Japanese population. Although the foreign population are thought to be disadvantaged in many ways, the mortality rates of the young and middle-aged groups were lower than those of the Japanese population. A similar tendency was observed in the cause-specific mortality rates of the young and middle-aged groups of foreign national residents, except the rates of mortality due to accidents and suicide in the middle-aged group, which were higher than those of the Japanese population. In those aged ≥60 years, the mortality rates were higher than those of the Japanese population overall, especially the mortality rates due to suicide.Conclusion These results suggest that young and middle-aged foreign national residents are

  17. Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age–period–cohort analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Pesce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age–period–cohort models. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic bronchitis represent nearly 98% of the deaths from CLRDs. Despite the overall number of deaths have been stable (in men or increasing (in women, the age-standardised rates have been steadily decreasing from 1979 to 2010, passing from 104.3 to 55.4 per 100 000 person-years in men and from 32.2 to 19.6 per 100 000 person-years in women. The average relative annual decrease was −3.6% in men and −2.7% in women. Since the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend of CLRD mortality has started to level off, in particular in women. The decrease in CLRD mortality rates has been more accentuated in more recent cohorts and in younger age groups. Both birth cohort and time period significantly affected the CLRD mortality rates, suggesting that changes in the spread of risk factors (smoking habits, early-life and occupational exposures across different birth cohorts, as well as in advanced in healthcare and medical practice, may have played a major role in secular changes in COPD mortality rates in Italy.

  18. Delayed effects of obese and overweight population conditions on all-cause adult mortality rate in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert A Okunade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMI to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult population overweight and obesity rates separately to the all-cause mortality rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation to slow premature mortality linked to unhealthy BMIs.

  19. Measuring Iran's success in achieving Millennium Development Goal 4: a systematic analysis of under-5 mortality at national and subnational levels from 1990 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Mohammadi, PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Child mortality as one of the key Millennium Development Goals (MDG 4—to reduce child mortality by two-thirds from 1990 to 2015, is included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 3, target 2—to reduce child mortality to fewer than 25 deaths per 1000 livebirths for all countries by 2030, and is a key indicator of the health system in every country. In this study, we aimed to estimate the level and trend of child mortality from 1990 to 2015 in Iran, to assess the progress of the country and its provinces toward these goals. Methods: We used three different data sources: three censuses, a Demographic and Health Survey (DHS, and 5-year data from the death registration system. We used the summary birth history data from four data sources (the three censuses and DHS and used maternal age cohort and maternal age period methods to estimate the trends in child mortality rates, combining the estimates of these two indirect methods using Loess regression. We also used the complete birth history method to estimate child mortality rate directly from DHS data. Finally, to synthesise different trends into a single trend and calculate uncertainty intervals (UI, we used Gaussian process regression. Findings: Under-5 mortality rates (deaths per 1000 livebirths at the national level in Iran in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015 were 63·6 (95% UI 63·1–64·0, 38·8 (38·5–39·2, 24·9 (24·3–25·4, and 19·4 (18·6–20·2, respectively. Between 1990 and 2015, the median annual reduction and total overall reduction in these rates were 4·9% and 70%, respectively. At the provincial level, the difference between the highest and lowest child mortality rates in 1990, 2000, and 2015 were 65·6, 40·4, and 38·1 per 1000 livebirths, respectively. Based on the MDG 4 goal, five provinces had not decreased child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. Furthermore, six provinces had not reached SDG 3 (target 2. Interpretation: Iran and most of its

  20. ANALYSIS OF POLYMORPHISM OF THE GENES OF THE PHASE II OF XENOBIOTICS BIOTRANSFORMATION (GSTM1, GSTT1 IN THE SHORIANS AND ALIEN POPULATION OF THE KEMEROVO REGION: THE PROBLEM OF THE DIFFERENCES IN MORTALITY RATE FROM MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Фаина Анисимовна Лузина

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions. The reduced frequency of the deletion variants of the genes of xenobiotics biotransformation (GSTM1, GSTT1 in the Shorians allows predicting the risk of disease incidence and mortality rates from oncologic pathology at the population level. Under the same ecological conditions of the urban environment mortality rates from MNP among the Shorians occupy a lower rank in the structure of the main classes of death causes in the comparison with the population of Novokuznetsk.

  1. Demonstrating the robustness of population surveillance data: implications of error rates on demographic and mortality estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As in any measurement process, a certain amount of error may be expected in routine population surveillance operations such as those in demographic surveillance sites (DSSs. Vital events are likely to be missed and errors made no matter what method of data capture is used or what quality control procedures are in place. The extent to which random errors in large, longitudinal datasets affect overall health and demographic profiles has important implications for the role of DSSs as platforms for public health research and clinical trials. Such knowledge is also of particular importance if the outputs of DSSs are to be extrapolated and aggregated with realistic margins of error and validity. Methods This study uses the first 10-year dataset from the Butajira Rural Health Project (BRHP DSS, Ethiopia, covering approximately 336,000 person-years of data. Simple programmes were written to introduce random errors and omissions into new versions of the definitive 10-year Butajira dataset. Key parameters of sex, age, death, literacy and roof material (an indicator of poverty were selected for the introduction of errors based on their obvious importance in demographic and health surveillance and their established significant associations with mortality. Defining the original 10-year dataset as the 'gold standard' for the purposes of this investigation, population, age and sex compositions and Poisson regression models of mortality rate ratios were compared between each of the intentionally erroneous datasets and the original 'gold standard' 10-year data. Results The composition of the Butajira population was well represented despite introducing random errors, and differences between population pyramids based on the derived datasets were subtle. Regression analyses of well-established mortality risk factors were largely unaffected even by relatively high levels of random errors in the data. Conclusion The low sensitivity of parameter

  2. Projections of temperature-related excess mortality under climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, Antonio; Guo, Yuming; Sera, Francesco; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria; Huber, Veronika; Tong, Shilu; de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Micheline; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario; Lavigne, Eric; Matus Correa, Patricia; Valdes Ortega, Nicolas; Kan, Haidong; Osorio, Samuel; Kyselý, Jan; Urban, Aleš; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Ryti, Niilo R I; Pascal, Mathilde; Goodman, Patrick G; Zeka, Ariana; Michelozzi, Paola; Scortichini, Matteo; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Hurtado-Diaz, Magali; Cesar Cruz, Julio; Seposo, Xerxes; Kim, Ho; Tobias, Aurelio; Iñiguez, Carmen; Forsberg, Bertil; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Ragettli, Martina S; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Bell, Michelle L; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Van, Dung Do; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Hajat, Shakoor; Haines, Andy; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Climate change can directly affect human health by varying exposure to non-optimal outdoor temperature. However, evidence on this direct impact at a global scale is limited, mainly due to issues in modelling and projecting complex and highly heterogeneous epidemiological relationships across different populations and climates. We collected observed daily time series of mean temperature and mortality counts for all causes or non-external causes only, in periods ranging from Jan 1, 1984, to Dec 31, 2015, from various locations across the globe through the Multi-Country Multi-City Collaborative Research Network. We estimated temperature-mortality relationships through a two-stage time series design. We generated current and future daily mean temperature series under four scenarios of climate change, determined by varying trajectories of greenhouse gas emissions, using five general circulation models. We projected excess mortality for cold and heat and their net change in 1990-2099 under each scenario of climate change, assuming no adaptation or population changes. Our dataset comprised 451 locations in 23 countries across nine regions of the world, including 85 879 895 deaths. Results indicate, on average, a net increase in temperature-related excess mortality under high-emission scenarios, although with important geographical differences. In temperate areas such as northern Europe, east Asia, and Australia, the less intense warming and large decrease in cold-related excess would induce a null or marginally negative net effect, with the net change in 2090-99 compared with 2010-19 ranging from -1·2% (empirical 95% CI -3·6 to 1·4) in Australia to -0·1% (-2·1 to 1·6) in east Asia under the highest emission scenario, although the decreasing trends would reverse during the course of the century. Conversely, warmer regions, such as the central and southern parts of America or Europe, and especially southeast Asia, would experience a sharp surge in heat

  3. Survival rates of some terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.; Koike, K. A.; Taguchi, H.; Tanaka, R.; Nishimura, K.; Miyaji, M.

    1992-10-01

    In connection with planetary quarantine, we have been studying the survival rates of nine species of terrestrial microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions. If common terrestrial microorganisms cannot survive in space even for short periods, we can greatly reduce expenditure for sterilizing space probes. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 k, 4 × 10-6 torr), and protons irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, Tobacco mosaic virus. Bacillus subtilis spores, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82%, 45%, 28%, and 25%, respectively. Furthermore, pathogenic Candida albicans showed 7% survival after irradiation corresponding to about 60 years in space.

  4. Use rates under President Clinton's health reform plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, T P

    1993-01-01

    During the 1992 presidential debates there was considerable rhetoric on health reform. Based on the broad principles now available concerning President Clinton's plan, this article compares differences in hospital and physician use rates of the now uninsured, who would be covered by his proposal, to those who have been traditionally enrolled in health insurance plans. Numerous studies illustrate that these new insurees have historically needed more and received less health care than the insured. Hospitals and physicians will be under pressure to provide a greater volume of benefits. It is predicted that these future estimated use rates will be more akin to the Canadian single-payor rather than the German multipayor national health insurance plan.

  5. Worst-Case Portfolio Optimization under Stochastic Interest Rate Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Engler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a portfolio optimization problem under the threat of a market crash, where the interest rate of the bond is modeled as a Vasicek process, which is correlated with the stock price process. We adopt a non-probabilistic worst-case approach for the height and time of the market crash. On a given time horizon [0; T], we then maximize the investor’s expected utility of terminal wealth in the worst-case crash scenario. Our main result is an explicit characterization of the worst-case optimal portfolio strategy for the class of HARA (hyperbolic absolute risk aversion utility functions.

  6. [The Nordic cervical screening programmes through 1995. Evaluation of incidence and mortality rates, targeted age groups and screening intervals.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, K

    1999-11-01

    The objective of cervical cancer screening is to lower the incidence and mortality rates of the disease. The Nordic countries have a long experience in cervical cancer screening. Based on this experience this study evaluates the UICC and EC guidelines regarding the effectiveness of organized vs. spontaneous screening, targeted age groups and screening intervals. The study analyses the features of the Icelandic and the Nordic screening programmes and the observed trends in the incidence and mortality rates in these countries through 1995. It also analyses the trends for cytologic preinvasive lesions at first visit and at second and later visits after a normal test(s). The frequency of histologic lesions was calculated for the birth cohort 1920-1926 from the age of 60 and among women referred for colposcopic examination in 1994. Organized screening started in all the Nordic countries except Norway soon after 1960. Up to 1985 the target age group and screening interval were most intensive in Iceland. All countries intensified the screening intervals after 1985. The reduction in both the mortality and the incidence rates was greatest in Iceland and Finland, intermediate in Sweden and Denmark, and lowest in Norway but in that country organized screening started in 1994. The age-specific incidence in the 20-29 age group has been increasing since 1971 in all the Nordic countries, except in Finland. In Iceland screening has greatly affected the rate of all stages of squamous cell carcinoma, but not the rate of adeno-and adenosquamous carcinomas. The prevalence of preinvasive disease has increased significantly since 1980. The rate of moderate to high-grade cytologic changes begins increasing as early as at 20 years of age and moderate to high-grade histologic lesions start to accumulate at 24 to 36 months after a normal smear. The rate of these lesions decreases with the number of negative smears taken. Moderate to high-grade histologic lesions and invasive cancer are

  7. Hospitalization rates and post-operative mortality for abdominal aortic aneurysm in Italy over the period 2000-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sensi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have reported declines in incidence, prevalence and mortality for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs in various countries, but evidence from Mediterranean countries is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine the trend of hospitalization and post-operative mortality rates for AAAs in Italy during the period 2000-2011, taking into account the introduction of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR in 1990s. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was carried out in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with 4.5 million inhabitants. A total of 19,673 patients hospitalized for AAAs between 2000 and 2011, were identified from the hospital discharge records (HDR database. Hospitalization rates, percentage of OSR and EVAR and 30-day mortality rates were calculated for unruptured (uAAAs and ruptured AAAs (rAAAs. RESULTS: Adjusted hospitalization rates decreased on average by 2.9% per year for uAAAs and 3.2% for rAAAs (p<0.001. The temporal trend of 30-day mortality rates remained stable for both groups. The percentage of EVAR for uAAAs increased significantly from 2006 to 2011 (42.7 versus 60.9% respectively, mean change of 3.9% per year, p<0.001. No significant difference in mortality was found between OSR and EVAR for uAAAs and rAAAs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and trend of hospitalization rates for rAAAs and uAAAs decreased significantly in the last decade, while 30-day mortality rates in operated patients remained stable. OSR continued to be the most common surgery in rAAAs, although the gap between OSR and EVAR recently declined. The EVAR technique became the preferred surgery for uAAAs since 2008.

  8. National, regional, and global sex ratios of infant, child, and under-5 mortality and identification of countries with outlying ratios: a systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Leontine; Chao, Fengqing; You, Danzhen; Pedersen, Jon; Sawyer, Cheryl C

    2014-09-01

    Under natural circumstances, the sex ratio of male to female mortality up to the age of 5 years is greater than one but sex discrimination can change sex ratios. The estimation of mortality by sex and identification of countries with outlying levels is challenging because of issues with data availability and quality, and because sex ratios might vary naturally based on differences in mortality levels and associated cause of death distributions. For this systematic analysis, we estimated country-specific mortality sex ratios for infants, children aged 1-4 years, and children under the age of 5 years (under 5s) for all countries from 1990 (or the earliest year of data collection) to 2012 using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model, accounting for various data quality issues and assessing the uncertainty in sex ratios. We simultaneously estimated the global relation between sex ratios and mortality levels and constructed estimates of expected and excess female mortality rates to identify countries with outlying sex ratios. Global sex ratios in 2012 were 1·13 (90% uncertainty interval 1·12-1·15) for infants, 0·95 (0·93-0·97) for children aged 1-5 years, and 1·08 (1·07-1·09) for under 5s, an increase since 1990 of 0·01 (-0·01 to 0·02) for infants, 0·04 (0·02 to 0·06) for children aged 1-4 years, and 0·02 (0·01 to 0·04) for under 5s. Levels and trends varied across regions and countries. Sex ratios were lowest in southern Asia for 1990 and 2012 for all age groups. Highest sex ratios were seen in developed regions and the Caucasus and central Asia region. Decreasing mortality was associated with increasing sex ratios, except at very low infant mortality, where sex ratios decreased with total mortality. For 2012, we identified 15 countries with outlying under-5 sex ratios, of which ten countries had female mortality higher than expected (Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, China, Egypt, India, Iran, Jordan, Nepal, and Pakistan). Although excess female

  9. Mortality and recurrence rates among systemically untreated high risk breast cancer patients included in the DBCG 77 trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maj Britt; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Knoop, Ann S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Following loco-regional treatment for early breast cancer accurate prognostication is essential for communicating benefits of systemic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine time to recurrence and long-term mortality rates in high risk patients according to patient characte......Background: Following loco-regional treatment for early breast cancer accurate prognostication is essential for communicating benefits of systemic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine time to recurrence and long-term mortality rates in high risk patients according to patient...... and EGFR positive. Multivariate categorical and fractional polynomials (MFP) models were used to construct prognostic subsets by clinicopathologic characteristics. Results: In a multivariate model, mortality rate was significantly associated with age, tumor size, nodal status, invasion, histological type...

  10. Estimation of peacock bass (Cichla spp. mortality rate during catch-release fishing employing different post-capture procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. A. Barroco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of catch-and-release fishing on the survival of peacock bass (Cichla spp. was evaluated by comparing two types of artificial bait (jig and shallow-diver plugs and two types of post-catch confinement. Two experiments were conducted during the periods January-February and October-November 2012 in the Unini River, a right-bank tributary of the Negro River. In total, 191 peacock bass were captured. Both groups of fish were subjected to experimental confinement (collective and individual for three days. Additionally, 11 fish were tagged with radio transmitters for telemetry monitoring. Mortality rate was estimated as the percentage of dead individuals for each type of bait and confinement. For peacock bass caught with jig baits, mortality was zero. The corresponding figure for shallow-diver bait was 1.66% for fish in collective containment, 18.18% for fish monitored by telemetry and 0% for individuals confined individually. Our results show low post-release mortality rates for peacock bass. Furthermore, neither the type of confinement nor the type of bait had a statistically significant influence on mortality rates. While future studies could include other factors in the analysis, our results show that catch-and-release fishing results in low mortality rates.

  11. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  12. Differences in age-standardized mortality rates for avoidable deaths based on urbanization levels in Taiwan, 1971-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-02-05

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result.

  13. The Prevalence and Determinants of Under-Five Mortality in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issah N. Abu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence, and the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of under-five mortality in Benue State, Nigeria. Using a purposive random sampling technique, a total of 1,500 questionnaires were administered to women aged 15 to 49 years and who have ever given birth in 30 communities from 10 sampled local government areas in the state. In addition, focus group discussions and key informant interviews formed sources of data for this research. The analysis of data was carried out using descriptive statistics, child survival analysis, and probit regression model. The pattern of the prevalence of infant and child mortality showed that there are three major child killers in the study area: malaria (38.2%, complications at birth (29.5%, and measles (16.9%. The survival probability results show that children born to parents living in an urban area have more chances (72.6% of survival, as against 71.4% for children born to parents living in a rural area. The probit regression analysis showed that the pregnancies ever had by the mothers has a greater marginal effect on child survival (6.7% than the current age of mothers at birth (3.7% and the age of mother at marriage (0.9%. Based on the findings, recommendations such as empowerment and education of mothers are suggested.

  14. Estimation of stage duration distributions and mortality under repeated cohort censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Jonas; Daane, Kent M; de Valpine, Perry

    2014-06-01

    Many processes in nature can be viewed as arising from subjects progressing through sequential stages and may be described by multistage models. Examples include disease development and the physiological development of plants and animals. We develop a multistage model for sampling designs where a small set of subjects is followed and the number of subjects in each stage is assessed repeatedly for a sequence of time points, but for which the subjects cannot be identified. The motivating problem is the laboratory study of developing arthropods through stage frequency data. Our model assumes that the same individuals are censused at each time, introducing among sample dependencies. This type of data often occur in laboratory studies of small arthropods but their detailed analysis has received little attention. The likelihood of the model is derived from a stochastic model of the development and mortality of the individuals in the cohort. We present an MCMC scheme targeting the posterior distribution of the times of development and times of death of individuals. This is a novel type of MCMC that uses customized proposals to explore a posterior with disconnected support arising from the fact that individual identities are unknown. The MCMC algorithm may be used for inference about parameters governing stage duration distributions and mortality rates. The method is demonstrated by fitting the development model to stage frequency data of a mealybug cohort placed on a grape vine. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  15. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Midwest. Top of Page Infant Mortality Rates by Race and Ethnicity, 2015 *Source: Table 1 (p. 79) ... 1.27MB] . In 2015, infant mortality rates by race and ethnicity were as follows: Non-Hispanic black ...

  16. Fine-particulate Air Pollution from Diesel Emission Control and Mortality Rates in Tokyo: A Quasi-experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-01

    Evidence linking air pollution with adverse health outcomes is accumulating. However, few studies have adopted a quasi-experimental design to evaluate whether decline in air pollution from regulatory action improves public health. We evaluated the effect of a diesel emission control ordinance introduced in 2003 on mortality rates in 23 wards of the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from October 2000 to September 2012, taking into account change in mortality rates in a reference population (Osaka) with a introduction of such a regulation in 2009. We obtained daily counts of all-cause and cause-specific mortality and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) during the study period. We employed interrupted time-series analysis to analyze the data. Decline in NO2 during the study period was similar in the two areas, while decline in PM2.5 and the improvement in age-standardized mortality rates were greater in Tokyo's 23 wards compared with Osaka. Even after adjusting for age-standardized mortality rates in Osaka, percent changes in mortality between the first 3-year interval (October 2000 to September 2003) and the last 3-year interval (October 2009 to September 2012) were -6.0% for all causes, -11% for cardiovascular disease, -10% for ischemic heart disease, -6.2% for cerebrovascular disease, -22% for pulmonary disease, and -4.9% for lung cancer. We did not observe a decline in mortality from other causes. This quasi-experimental study in Tokyo suggests that emission control was associated with improvements in both air quality and health outcomes.

  17. Fish community reassembly after a coral mass mortality: higher trophic groups are subject to increased rates of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David; Pinyol-Gallemí, Aleix; Alcoverro, Teresa; Arthur, Rohan

    2015-05-01

    Since Gleason and Clements, our understanding of community dynamics has been influenced by theories emphasising either dispersal or niche assembly as central to community structuring. Determining the relative importance of these processes in structuring real-world communities remains a challenge. We tracked reef fish community reassembly after a catastrophic coral mortality in a relatively unfished archipelago. We revisited the stochastic model underlying MacArthur and Wilson's Island Biogeography Theory, with a simple extension to account for trophic identity. Colonisation and extinction rates calculated from decadal presence-absence data based on (1) species neutrality, (2) trophic identity and (3) site-specificity were used to model post-disturbance reassembly, and compared with empirical observations. Results indicate that species neutrality holds within trophic guilds, and trophic identity significantly increases overall model performance. Strikingly, extinction rates increased clearly with trophic position, indicating that fish communities may be inherently susceptible to trophic downgrading even without targeted fishing of top predators. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Pneumonia Mortality among Children under 5 in China from 1996 to 2013: An Analysis from National Surveillance System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua He

    Full Text Available We investigated the mortality rate of pneumonia (PMR among children under 5 and its time trend from 1996 to 2013 to determine the priorities for ending preventable deaths from pneumonia in children under 5, and share China's successful experience in reducing PMR with other developing countries.We used data from China's Under 5 Child Mortality Surveillance System (U5CMSS to calculate the PMR and the proportion of pneumonia deaths to total deaths of children under 5. The data were grouped by urban and rural areas with Cochran-Mantel-Haensel (CMH test and Chi-square test to examine the differences of PMR and proportion. The time trend was tested by Cochran-Armitage trend test.The overall PMR of children under 5 was reduced by 85.5% (from 1053.2 to 153.2 per 100,000 live births from 1996 to 2013, with the urban and rural areas reduced by 69.1% (from 188.4 to 58.2 per 100,000 live births and 84.7% (from 1252.8 to 191.9 per 100,000 live births, respectively. The overall proportion of pneumonia deaths to total deaths was also declined from 23.4% in 1996 to 12.8% in 2013, with the rural areas decreased from 24.4% to 13.2% and the urban areas decreased from 11.1% to 9.7%. The PMRs in neonates (0-27 days, post-neonates (1-11 months, and childhood (12-59 months were reduced by 80.7%, 77.4%, and 80.1%, respectively in rural areas, and 71.7%, 69.6%, and 39.0%, respectively in urban areas. During 1996-2013, the PMR in children under 5 years was 4.9 fold higher in rural areas relative to that in urban areas, with relative risk (RR of 3.6 and 6.4 in neonates and 1- to 59-month-old children, respectively.PMR in children under 5 significantly declined in China from 1996 to 2013, especially in rural areas. However, huge disparities still existed between rural and urban areas. Infants had the highest PMR, which indicated that interventions aiming at prevention and control of infant pneumonia should be the priority for further reducing PMR in China.

  19. Case-mix and the use of control charts in monitoring mortality rates after coronary artery bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is debate about the role of crude mortality rates and case-mix adjusted mortality rates in monitoring the outcomes of treatment. In the context of quality improvement a key purpose of monitoring is to identify special cause variation as this type of variation should be investigated to identify possible causes. This paper investigates agreement between the identification of special cause variation in risk adjusted and observed hospital specific mortality rates after coronary artery bypass grafting in New York hospitals. Methods Coronary artery bypass grafting mortality rates between 1994 and 2003 were obtained from the New York State Department of Health's cardiovascular reports for 41 hospitals. Cross-sectional control charts of crude (observed and risk adjusted mortality rates were produced for each year. Special cause variation was defined as a data point beyond the 99.9% probability limits: hospitals showing special cause variation were identified for each year. Longitudinal control charts of crude (observed and risk adjusted mortality rates were produced for each hospital with data for all ten years (n = 27. Special cause variation was defined as a data point beyond 99.9% probability limits, two out of three consecutive data points beyond 95% probability limits (two standard deviations from the mean or a run of five consecutive points on one side of the mean. Years showing special cause variation in mortality were identified for each hospital. Cohen's Kappa was calculated for agreement between special causes identified in crude and risk-adjusted control charts. Results In cross sectional analysis the Cohen's Kappa was 0.54 (95% confidence interval: 0.28 to 0.78, indicating moderate agreement between the crude and risk-adjusted control charts with sensitivity 0.4 (95% confidence interval 0.17–0.69 and specificity 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.95–0.99. In longitudinal analysis, the Cohen's Kappa was 0.61 (95

  20. Influence of Age on the Survival and Mortality Rate in Acute Caustic Poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, Andon; Glasnovic, Marija; Miletic, Milena; Smokovski, Ivica; Chitkushev, Lou

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acute poisonings with caustic substances can cause severe chemical injuries to the upper gastrointestinal tract, which can be localized from the mouth to the small intestines. They are seen very often among young people in their most productive years. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of patient’s age on the mortality rate and survival of patients with acute caustic poisonings, and also to analyze their correlation. Material and Methods: We studied medical records from 415 patients, aged between 14 and 90 years, who were hospitalized and treated at the University Clinic for toxicology and urgent internal medicine, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia, in the period between 2007 and 2011. Results: In the survey we included 415 patients with acute corrosive poisonings, from which 295 (71.08%) were females and 120 (28. 92%) were males. 388 (93.49%) from the total number of patients ingested the corrosive agent with suicidal attempt and 27 (6.5%) ingested it accidentally. Conclusion: Unregulated production, import, packing and labeling of various caustic agents, due to inappropriate legislative, made them one of the most often abused substances in everyday life, especially in developing countries where the number of caustic poisonings rises. PMID:25395893

  1. Prediction of hospital mortality by changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Berzan, E

    2015-03-01

    Deterioration of physiological or laboratory variables may provide important prognostic information. We have studied whether a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) value calculated using the (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula) over the hospital admission, would have predictive value. An analysis was performed on all emergency medical hospital episodes (N = 61964) admitted between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2011. A stepwise logistic regression model examined the relationship between mortality and change in renal function from admission to discharge. The fully adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for 5 classes of GFR deterioration showed a stepwise increased risk of 30-day death with OR\\'s of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), 1.59 (1.27, 1.99), 2.71 (2.24, 3.27), 5.56 (4.54, 6.81) and 11.9 (9.0, 15.6) respectively. The change in eGFR during a clinical episode, following an emergency medical admission, powerfully predicts the outcome.

  2. Sex differences in adult mortality rate mediated by early-life environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert M; Hayward, Adam D; Bolund, Elisabeth; Maklakov, Alexei A; Lummaa, Virpi

    2018-02-01

    Variation in sex differences is affected by both genetic and environmental variation, with rapid change in sex differences being more likely due to environmental change. One case of rapid change in sex differences is human lifespan, which has become increasingly female-biased in recent centuries. Long-term consequences of variation in the early-life environment may, in part, explain such variation in sex differences, but whether the early-life environment mediates sex differences in life-history traits is poorly understood in animals. Combining longitudinal data on 60 cohorts of pre-industrial Finns with environmental data, we show that the early-life environment is associated with sex differences in adult mortality and expected lifespan. Specifically, low infant survival rates and high rye yields (an important food source) in early-life are associated with female-bias in adult lifespan. These results support the hypothesis that environmental change has the potential to affect sex differences in life-history traits in natural populations of long-lived mammals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Differential mortality rates in major and subthreshold depression: meta-analysis of studies that measured both

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Vogelzangs, N.; Twisk, J.; Kleiboer, A.M.; Li, J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although the association between depression and excess mortality has been well established, it is not clear whether this is greater in major depression than in subthreshold depression. Aims: To compare excess mortality in major depression with that in subthreshold depression. Method: We

  4. Major depressive symptoms increase 3-year mortality rate in patients with mild dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Depression and dementia are commonly concurrent and are both associated with increased mortality among older people. However, little is known about whether home-dwelling patients newly diagnosed with mild dementia coexisting with depressive symptoms have excess mortality. We conducted a post hoc ...

  5. Variation in bird-window collision mortality and scavenging rates within an urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual avian mortality from collisions with windows and buildings is estimated to range from a million to a billion birds in the United States alone. However, estimates of mortality based on carcass counts suffer from bias due to imperfect detection and carcass scavenging. We stu...

  6. Prevalence of Anemia and Its Impact on Mortality and Hospitalization Rate in Predialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, N.; Grootendorst, D. C.; Urlings, T. A. J.; Boeschoten, E. W.; Sijpkens, Y. W.; Huisman, R. M.; Krediet, R. T.; Dekker, F. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Anemia is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in both early and very late stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to assess whether anemia is a risk factor for mortality or hospitalization in CKD stage 4-5 predialysis patients not yet on

  7. The impact of heat waves and cold spells on mortality rates in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynen, M. M.; Martens, P.; Schram, D.; Weijenberg, M. P.; Kunst, A. E.

    2001-01-01

    We conducted the study described in this paper to investigate the impact of ambient temperature on mortality in the Netherlands during 1979-1997, the impact of heat waves and cold spells on mortality in particular, and the possibility of any heat wave- or cold spell-induced forward displacement of

  8. The US President's Malaria Initiative and under-5 child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: A difference-in-differences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Aleksandra; Stearns, Sally C; Kruk, Margaret E; Angeles, Gustavo; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2017-06-01

    Despite substantial financial contributions by the United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) since 2006, no studies have carefully assessed how this program may have affected important population-level health outcomes. We utilized multiple publicly available data sources to evaluate the association between introduction of PMI and child mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We used difference-in-differences analyses to compare trends in the primary outcome of under-5 mortality rates and secondary outcomes reflecting population coverage of malaria interventions in 19 PMI-recipient and 13 non-recipient countries between 1995 and 2014. The analyses controlled for presence and intensity of other large funding sources, individual and household characteristics, and country and year fixed effects. PMI program implementation was associated with a significant reduction in the annual risk of under-5 child mortality (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96). Each dollar of per-capita PMI expenditures in a country, a measure of PMI intensity, was also associated with a reduction in child mortality (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.93). We estimated that the under-5 mortality rate in PMI countries was reduced from 28.9 to 24.3 per 1,000 person-years. Population coverage of insecticide-treated nets increased by 8.34 percentage points (95% CI 0.86-15.83) and coverage of indoor residual spraying increased by 6.63 percentage points (95% CI 0.79-12.47) after PMI implementation. Per-capita PMI spending was also associated with a modest increase in artemisinin-based combination therapy coverage (3.56 percentage point increase, 95% CI -0.07-7.19), though this association was only marginally significant (p = 0.054). Our results were robust to several sensitivity analyses. Because our study design leaves open the possibility of unmeasured confounding, we cannot definitively interpret these results as causal. PMI may have significantly contributed to reducing the burden of

  9. The US President's Malaria Initiative and under-5 child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: A difference-in-differences analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jakubowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial financial contributions by the United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI since 2006, no studies have carefully assessed how this program may have affected important population-level health outcomes. We utilized multiple publicly available data sources to evaluate the association between introduction of PMI and child mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.We used difference-in-differences analyses to compare trends in the primary outcome of under-5 mortality rates and secondary outcomes reflecting population coverage of malaria interventions in 19 PMI-recipient and 13 non-recipient countries between 1995 and 2014. The analyses controlled for presence and intensity of other large funding sources, individual and household characteristics, and country and year fixed effects. PMI program implementation was associated with a significant reduction in the annual risk of under-5 child mortality (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96. Each dollar of per-capita PMI expenditures in a country, a measure of PMI intensity, was also associated with a reduction in child mortality (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.78-0.93. We estimated that the under-5 mortality rate in PMI countries was reduced from 28.9 to 24.3 per 1,000 person-years. Population coverage of insecticide-treated nets increased by 8.34 percentage points (95% CI 0.86-15.83 and coverage of indoor residual spraying increased by 6.63 percentage points (95% CI 0.79-12.47 after PMI implementation. Per-capita PMI spending was also associated with a modest increase in artemisinin-based combination therapy coverage (3.56 percentage point increase, 95% CI -0.07-7.19, though this association was only marginally significant (p = 0.054. Our results were robust to several sensitivity analyses. Because our study design leaves open the possibility of unmeasured confounding, we cannot definitively interpret these results as causal.PMI may have significantly contributed to reducing the

  10. Evaluation of the product ratio coherent model in forecasting mortality rates and life expectancy at births by States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shair, Syazreen Niza; Yusof, Aida Yuzi; Asmuni, Nurin Haniah

    2017-05-01

    Coherent mortality forecasting models have recently received increasing attention particularly in their application to sub-populations. The advantage of coherent models over independent models is the ability to forecast a non-divergent mortality for two or more sub-populations. One of the coherent models was recently developed by [1] known as the product-ratio model. This model is an extension version of the functional independent model from [2]. The product-ratio model has been applied in a developed country, Australia [1] and has been extended in a developing nation, Malaysia [3]. While [3] accounted for coherency of mortality rates between gender and ethnic group, the coherency between states in Malaysia has never been explored. This paper will forecast the mortality rates of Malaysian sub-populations according to states using the product ratio coherent model and its independent version— the functional independent model. The forecast accuracies of two different models are evaluated using the out-of-sample error measurements— the mean absolute forecast error (MAFE) for age-specific death rates and the mean forecast error (MFE) for the life expectancy at birth. We employ Malaysian mortality time series data from 1991 to 2014, segregated by age, gender and states.

  11. An Analysis of Determinants of Under-5 Mortality across Countries: Defining Priorities to Achieve Targets in Sustainable Developmental Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Michael; Ejiofor, Chukwudi; Salinas-Miranda, Abraham

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The end of the era of millennium development goals (MDGs) ushered in the sustainable development goals (SDGs) with a new target for the reduction of under-five mortality rates (U5MR). Although U5MR decreased globally, the reduction was insufficient to meet MDGs targets because significant socioeconomic inequities remain unaddressed across and within countries. Thus, further progress in achieving the new SDGs target will be hindered if there is no adequate prioritization of important socioeconomic, healthcare, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to assess factors that account most for the differences in U5MR between countries around the globe. Methods We conducted an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression-based prioritization analysis of socioeconomic, healthcare, and environmental variables from 109 countries to understand which factors explain the differences in U5MR best. Results All indicators examined individually affected differences in U5MR between countries. However, the results of multivariate OLS regression showed that the most important factors that accounted for the differences were, in order: fertility rate, total health expenditure per capita, access to improved water and sanitation, and female employment rate. Conclusions To achieve the new global target for U5MR, policymakers must focus on certain priority areas, such as interventions that address access to affordable maternal healthcare services, educational programs for mothers, especially those who are adolescents, and safe drinking water and sanitation.

  12. Socioeconomic and environmental determinants of under-five mortality in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a matched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifa, Girma Temam; Ahmed, Ahmed Ali; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku

    2018-02-27

    Despite global declaration of the right to life as a fundamental human right and substantial progress in reducing childhood mortality, unacceptably high number of children still die before their fifth birthday every day. Different factors have been studied and implicated for under-five mortality with mixed results. Mortality studies in the current study sites were lacking. Therefore, this study examined environmental and socioeconomic determinants of under-five mortality. The study applied a matched case control study design on 381 cases of children who died before their fifth birthday and 762 controls born within 1 month in the same locality as the cases. We conducted weighted conditional logistic regression to assess the association between selected factors and mortality status. The odds of death was found to be significantly lower among children of mothers whose educational status was grade nine or above (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 0.34(0.16-0.72)). The odds of death was significantly higher among children whose mothers' marital status were separated/divorced or widowed (AOR of 3.60(1.23-10.47)) and whose fathers were daily laborers (AOR of 2.34(1.29-4.23)). Presence of separate kitchen in the household for cooking was a proximate factor which was significantly associated with under-five mortality with AOR of 1.77(1.16-2.70). Socioeconomic factors like maternal education, husband occupation and marital status of the mother were shown to be significantly associated with under-five mortality. Hence, in order to enhance reduction in childhood mortality, investing on maternal education targeting those at risk groups is recommended.

  13. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  14. [Environmental sanitation and mortality associated with waterborne diseases in children under 5 years of age in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Jaime Gregorio; Barcellos, Christovam; Barbosa, Flavia dos Santos; Bastos, Francisco Inacio

    2010-08-01

    Determine and evaluate the relationship between the variables for water conditions, environmental sanitation, and mortality in children under 5 years of age associated with a group of waterborne diseases. An exploratory ecological study was conducted based on data obtained from the 2000 national demographic census and the Unified Health System for the 558 microregions of Brazil. The model used multiple linear regression analysis. Mortality associated with waterborne diseases in children under 5 years of age was considered to be the response variable. Water conditions, sanitation, and level of education were considered to be explanatory variables. A direct relationship was observed between inadequate sanitation in the dwelling (e.g., sewage disposal via rudimentary gutters and pits, the disposal of waste in uncultivated land or public areas) and mortality in children under 5 years of age associated with waterborne diseases. An inverse relationship was found between level of education and mortality associated with waterborne diseases in these children. The greatest health hazards related to poor sanitation were found in the microregions with a high concentration of low-income population with limited education. The general sanitation conditions and other factors related to dwelling quality and infrastructure are major determinants of mortality. Coverage of the water services, which reach 90% of households in Brazil, was not in itself found to be an important factor in the reduction of the mortality studied.

  15. Misery loves company? A meta-regression examining aggregate unemployment rates and the unemployment-mortality association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfs, David J; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. We use six meta-regression models (each using a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (P = .27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (P = .46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (P = .87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (P = .73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; P = .61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (P unemployment experiences change when macroeconomic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macroeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  17. Community-based incidence rate of cardiovascular disease and mortality in 50-75 year old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Suárez, A; Bascuñana-Quirell, A; Elvira-González, J; Beltrán-Robles, M; Aboza-Lobatón, A; Solís-Díaz, R

    2013-01-01

    Updated information on the incidence of the principal cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cardiovascular mortality is not available in Spain. We have studied the incidence rate of new cases of myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke and cardiovascular mortality in the adult population in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Spain). A community-based prospective follow-up study was conducted. The study enrolled 858 participants aged 50-75 years who were randomly selected from the population and followed-up for 5 years. Age and gender-adjusted incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality were calculated, obtaining complete information for 855 participants. Prognostic risk factors of new cases of cardiovascular disease were obtained using Cox proportional hazard modeling. The community-based incidence rate of heart failure was 455/100.000 persons-year. The incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular mortality (506, 216 and 225/100.000 persons-year, respectively) was also very elevated. Male gender, family history of early cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and sedentary life style were independent risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The community-based incidence rate of heart failure in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Spain) is very high, and it is the first to be reported in Spain. The incidence of myocardial infarction is among the highest in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with cancer mortality rates, a town-scale ecological study in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Liao, Qi Lin; Ma, Zong Wei; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic are well-known carcinogens. However, few studies have examined whether soil heavy metals and arsenic concentrations associate with cancer in the general population. In this ecological study, we aimed to evaluate the association of heavy metals and arsenic in soil with cancer mortality rates during 2005-2010 in Suzhou, China, after controlling for education and smoking prevalence. In 2005, a total of 1683 soil samples with a sampling density of one sample every 4 km(2) were analyzed. Generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson regression was applied to evaluate the association between town-scale cancer mortality rates and soil heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that soil arsenic exposure had a significant relationship with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates and soil nickel exposure was significantly associated with liver and lung cancer. The associations of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with colon, gastric, kidney, and liver cancer in male were higher than those in female. The observed associations of soil arsenic and nickel with cancer mortality rates were less sensitive to alternative exposure metrics. Our findings would contribute to the understanding of the carcinogenic effect of soil arsenic and nickel exposure in general population.

  19. Influence of housing systems on stillbirth and mortality rate in preweaning pigs farrowed by different gilt breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antunovic, B.; Baban, M.; Dobranic, V.; Margeta, V.; Mijic, P.; Njari, B.; Pavicic, Z.; Poljak, V.; Steiner, Z.; Wellbrock, W.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of housing systems on stillbirth and mortality rate in preweaning pigs farrowed by different gilt breeds. The investigation included first farrowings of 225 Large White (LW) gilts, 297 Swedish Landrace (SL) gilts and 260 crossbreed gilts (LWxSL)

  20. Intentional weight loss reduces mortality rate in a rodent model of dietary obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R; Weindruch, Richard; Heymsfield, Steven B; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Boozer, Carol N; Yi, Nengjun; Wang, Chenxi; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Allison, David B

    2005-04-01

    We used a rodent model of dietary obesity to evaluate effects of caloric restriction-induced weight loss on mortality rate. Research Measures and Procedures: In a randomized parallel-groups design, 312 outbred Sprague-Dawley rats (one-half males) were assigned at age 10 weeks to one of three diets: low fat (LF; 18.7% calories as fat) with caloric intake adjusted to maintain body weight 10% below that for ad libitum (AL)-fed rat food, high fat (HF; 45% calories as fat) fed at the same level, or HF fed AL. At age 46 weeks, the lightest one-third of the AL group was discarded to ensure a more obese group; the remaining animals were randomly assigned to one of three diets: HF-AL, HF with energy restricted to produce body weights of animals restricted on the HF diet throughout life, or LF with energy restricted to produce the body weights of animals restricted on the LF diet throughout life. Life span, body weight, and leptin levels were measured. Animals restricted throughout life lived the longest (p < 0.001). Life span was not different among animals that had been obese and then lost weight and animals that had been nonobese throughout life (p = 0.18). Animals that were obese and lost weight lived substantially longer than animals that remained obese throughout life (p = 0.002). Diet composition had no effect on life span (p = 0.52). Weight loss after the onset of obesity during adulthood leads to a substantial increase in longevity in rats.

  1. Coronary artery disease is associated with an increased mortality rate following video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandri, Alberto; Petersen, Rene Horsleben; Decaluwé, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and mortality following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy in patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Multicentre retrospective analysis of 1699 patients undergoing VATS lobectomy...

  2. Do Mortality Rates in Eating Disorders Change over Time? A Longitudinal Look at Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Krishna, Meera; Davis, Martha C.; Keel, Pamela K.; Herzog, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although anorexia nervosa has a high mortality rate, our understanding of the timing and predictors of mortality in eating disorders is limited. The authors investigated mortality in a long-term study of patients with eating disorders. Method Beginning in 1987, 246 treatment-seeking women with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa were interviewed every 6 months for a median of 9.5 years to obtain weekly ratings of eating disorder symptoms, comorbidity, treatment participation, and psychosocial functioning. From January 2007 to December 2010 (median follow-up of 20 years), vital status was ascertained with a National Death Index search. Results Sixteen deaths (6.5%) were recorded (lifetime anorexia nervosa, N=14; bulimia nervosa with no history of anorexia nervosa, N=2). The standardized mortality ratio was 4.37 [95% CI=2.4-7.3] for lifetime anorexia nervosa and 2.33 [95% CI=0.3-8.4] for bulimia nervosa with no history of anorexia nervosa. Risk of premature death among women with lifetime anorexia nervosa peaked within the first 10 years of follow-up resulting in a standardized mortality ratio of 7.7 [95% CI=3.7-14.2]. The standardized mortality ratio varied by duration of illness and was 3.2 [95% CI=0.9-8.3] for women with lifetime anorexia nervosa for 0-15 years (4/119 died), and 6.6 [95% CI=3.2-12.1] for women with lifetime anorexia nervosa for >15-30 years (10/67 died). Multivariate predictors of mortality included alcohol abuse (panorexia nervosa. PMID:23771148

  3. Self-rated health and all-cause and cause-specific mortality of older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Juerges, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    with random-effect meta-analyses. Main outcome measures All-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Results Within the median 12.5 years of follow-up, 93,014 (22%) deaths occurred. SRH “fair” or “poor” vs. “at-least-good” was associated with increased mortality: HRs 1.46 (95% CI 1·23–1.74) and 2.31 (1...

  4. Shifting the Paradigm of Trauma Medicine to Positively Influence Critical Mortality Rates Following a Mass Casualty Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    further examination of the literature, the theory that there is a linear relationship between over-triage rates and critical mortality rates is further...staffed with either two EMTs or one EMT and one volunteer and contain basic equipment and defibrillator . They are primarily used for patient...assess airway, B for breaths or ventilation, C for circulation or chest compressions and D for definitive care, defibrillation , and drugs. TCCC

  5. Gum chewing modulates heart rate variability under noise stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Takeuchi, Noriko; Morita, Manabu

    2012-12-01

    Gum chewing may relieve stress, although this hypothesis has not been proven. Heart-rate variability (HRV) is commonly used to measure stress levels. However, it is not known if gum chewing modulates HRV under acute stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gum chewing on HRV under acute stress. A cross-over study involving 47 non-smoking healthy subjects, aged 22-27 years, was carried out. The subjects received a stress procedure with gum chewing (GS group) and without gum chewing (S group). Additionally, the other 20 subjects were allocated to the gum chewing without stress group (G group). The GS and S groups were exposed to noise for 5 min (75 dBA) as stress. Before and after stress exposure/gum chewing, participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s) and a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measurement. HRV measurement was performed before and during stress/gum chewing for 5 min. After the stress procedure, VAS score significantly increased in the GS and S groups. During the stress procedure, the GS group showed a significantly lower level of high frequency (HF) and higher levels of low frequency (LF) and LF/HF than the S group. However, there were no significant differences in the scores of the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s) and VAS between the two stress groups. These findings suggest that gum chewing modulates HRV, but may not relieve acute stress caused by noise.

  6. Heat-Related Mortality Projections for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Under the Changing Climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4 percent, 47.8 percent, and 69.0 percent in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6 percent, 73.8 percent and 134 percent in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP 8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  7. Girl child marriage and its association with national rates of HIV, maternal health, and infant mortality across 97 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to assess associations between national rates of girl child marriage and national rates of HIV and maternal and child health (MCH) concerns, using national indicator data from 2009 United Nations reports. Current analyses were limited to the N = 97 nations (of 188 nations) for which girl child marriage data were available. Regression analyses adjusted for development and world region demonstrate that nations with higher rates of girl child marriage are significantly more likely to contend with higher rates of maternal and infant mortality and nonutilization of maternal health services, but not HIV.

  8. BIOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISATION OF THE UNDER-APPRECIATED AND IMPORTANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND HEART RATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfredi, Oliver; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Johnsen, Anne-Berit; Inada, Shin; Schneider, Heiko; Wang, Ruoxi; Nirmalan, Mahesh; Wisloff, Ulrik; Maltsev, Victor A; Lakatta, Edward G; Zhang, Henggui; Boyett, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (beat-to-beat changes in the RR interval) has attracted considerable attention over the last 30+ years (PubMed currently lists >17,000 publications). Clinically, a decrease in heart rate variability is correlated to higher morbidity and mortality in diverse conditions, from heart disease to foetal distress. It is usually attributed to fluctuation in cardiac autonomic nerve activity. We calculated heart rate variability parameters from a variety of cardiac preparations (including humans, living animals, Langendorff-perfused heart and single sinoatrial nodal cell) in diverse species, combining this with data from previously published papers. We show that regardless of conditions, there is a universal exponential decay-like relationship between heart rate variability and heart rate. Using two biophysical models, we develop a theory for this, and confirm that heart rate variability is primarily dependent on heart rate and cannot be used in any simple way to assess autonomic nerve activity to the heart. We suggest that the correlation between a change in heart rate variability and altered morbidity and mortality is substantially attributable to the concurrent change in heart rate. This calls for re-evaluation of the findings from many papers that have not adjusted properly or at all for heart rate differences when comparing heart rate variability in multiple circumstances. PMID:25225208

  9. Heart Rate Variability Density Analysis (Dyx) and Prediction of Long-Term Mortality after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Mørch; Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Levitan, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The density HRV parameter Dyx is a new heart rate variability (HRV) measure based on multipole analysis of the Poincaré plot obtained from RR interval time series, deriving information from both the time and frequency domain. Preliminary results have suggested that the parameter may provide...... of mortality (P = 0.02). Reduced Dyx also predicted cardiovascular death (P cardiovascular death (P = 0.05). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, Dyx significantly predicted mortality in patients both with and without impaired left ventricular systolic function (P

  10. Aging Will Amplify the Heat-related Mortality Risk under a Changing Climate: Projection for the Elderly in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Liang, Xudong; Ban, Jie; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-06-01

    An aging population could substantially enhance the burden of heat-related health risks in a warming climate because of their higher susceptibility to extreme heat health effects. Here, we project heat-related mortality for adults 65 years and older in Beijing China across 31 downscaled climate models and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Under a scenario of medium population and RCP8.5, by the 2080s, Beijing is projected to experience 14,401 heat-related deaths per year for elderly individuals, which is a 264.9% increase compared with the 1980s. These impacts could be moderated through adaptation. In the 2080s, even with the 30% and 50% adaptation rate assumed in our study, the increase in heat-related death is approximately 7.4 times and 1.3 times larger than in the 1980s respectively under a scenario of high population and RCP8.5. These findings could assist countries in establishing public health intervention policies for the dual problems of climate change and aging population. Examples could include ensuring facilities with large elderly populations are protected from extreme heat (for example through back-up power supplies and/or passive cooling) and using databases and community networks to ensure the home-bound elderly are safe during extreme heat events.

  11. Aging Will Amplify the Heat-Related Mortality Risk Under a Changing Climate: Projection for the Elderly in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Zhou, Maigeng; Liang, Xudong; Ban, Jie; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    An aging population could substantially enhance the burden of heat-related health risks in a warming climate because of their higher susceptibility to extreme heat health effects. Here, we project heatrelated mortality for adults 65 years and older in Beijing China across 31 downscaled climate models and 2 representative concentration pathways (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. Under a scenario of medium population and RCP8.5, by the 2080s, Beijing is projected to experience 14,401 heat-related deaths per year for elderly individuals, which is a 264.9% increase compared with the 1980s. These impacts could be moderated through adaptation. In the 2080s, even with the 30% and 50% adaptation rate assumed in our study, the increase in heat-related death is approximately 7.4 times and 1.3 times larger than in the 1980s respectively under a scenario of high population and RCP8.5. These findings could assist countries in establishing public health intervention policies for the dual problems of climate change and aging population. Examples could include ensuring facilities with large elderly populations are protected from extreme heat (for example through back-up power supplies and/or passive cooling) and using databases and community networks to ensure the home-bound elderly are safe during extreme heat events.

  12. Growth and mortality rates of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares (Perciformes: Scombridae, in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zhu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth parameters were estimated for the yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre, 1788. Atotal of 443 individuals were sampled from China longline fisheries in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean from February to November 2006. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L∞ = 175.9 cm fork length, k = 0.52 year-1, and t0 = 0.19 year. The total mortality rate (Z was estimated to be from 1.19 to 1.93 year-1, the fishing mortality (F and the natural mortality (M were calculated to be 0.91 year-1 and 0.65 year-1, respectively. The rate of exploitation (U was estimated to be 0.46. This study provides estimates of growth and mortality rate for yellowfin tuna in the eastern and central Pacific Ocean, which may be used as biological input parameters in future stock assessments for the oceanic region. However, age analysis with other techniques, additional validation of the size composition and stock structure are also needed.

  13. Lower mortality rate in people with dementia is associated with better cognitive and functional performance in an outpatient cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Verdan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a three-year experience with patients with dementia. Method: clinical, cognitive and functional evaluation was performed by a multidisciplinary team for persons above 60 years. Mortality was assessed after three years. Results: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE (n=2,074 was 15.7 (8.4. Male patients MMSE (n=758 was 15.6 (8.3 and female's (n=1315 was 15.8 (8.3. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (n=2023 was 16.5 (7.6; females (n=1277 was 16.9 (7.2 and males (n=745 was 15.7(8.2. From these patients, 12.6% (n=209 died within three years. Baseline cognition of patients still alive was higher (p<0.001 than MMSE of those who died [MMSE=16.3 (8.1 vs. 10.6 (7.6]. Mortality rate decreased 6% (IR=0.94 for each additional point on MMSE. Higher functional status decreases the mortality rate approximately 11% (IR=0.89 independently of age, gender, and education. Conclusion: Three-year mortality rates are dependent on baseline functional and cognitive status

  14. Mortality rates due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in São Paulo City from 2002 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Evangelista de Matos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the mortality rates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS in the city of São Paulo as a function of demographics, year, and region. METHOD: This was a retrospective descriptive study. Information was obtained from death certificates registered at the Program for the Improvement of Mortality Information, Municipal Health Department (PRO-AIM/SMS, coded as G12.2 according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10, from 2002 to 2006. RESULTS: Over the studied time, were found 326 deaths (51.6% women, overall mean age of 64.1 years. Highest deaths percentages happened in those from 60 to 69 and 70 to 79 years and in white individuals. ALS mortality rates ranged 0.44/100,000 in 2002 and 0.76/100,000 in 2006. No significant changes overtime in administrative districts were found. CONCLUSION: ALS mortality rates in São Paulo were lower in comparison to other countries, however any risk factor in our environment, lifestyle or genetic characteristics were found.

  15. Typology and description of the endemic areas with a long-time and smallest colorectal mortality rates within Silesia voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunon Zemła

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the years 1999–2009, in Silesia voivodeship, 7339 males and 6635 females were died for the colorectal cancers (C18–C21, by ISCD&HRP, X revision. Mortality, especially among men increase. Mortality, among both sexes, is very unequal, taking into account a small administrative units (counties. Therefore an attempt looking for endemic areas with a long – time biggest and smallest mortality rates. Materials and methods: For the 13 974 cases of deaths because of the colorectal cancer, and at used demographic data, the following mortality rates were calculated to be average for 11 years period (in this two periods extreme, each 4-years: a age specific (for 5-years age groups, b crude rates („intensity rates” for all ages and a particular administrative unit type of counties, c age-adjusted (standardized rates by direct M. Spiegelman’s method and the age structure of „world population” according to M. Segi’s and M. Kurihara’s method and modified by R. Doll’s. Age – adjusted mortality rates for particular counties (R1 to the whole voivodeship (R2 were compared with used 95% confidence interval for the ratio (R1/R2 according to O.S. Miettinen’s method. Basing on the data the endemic areas with a biggest and smallest cancer colorectal rates were described. Results: In the years 1999–2009 within Silesia voivodeship 13974 patients died because of the colorectal cancers, i.e. 52.5% males and 47.5% females. Standardized mortality rate for whole Silesia voivodeship is 20.9 per 100 thousands among males and 12.1/100 thousands among females (at the small increase between two periods comparising, i.e. 1999–2002:2006–2009 for females, and bigger among males. Standardized, average minimum mortality rate for the colorectal cancers for the whole Silesia voivodeship and the period 1999–2009 is 17.1/100 thousands for males (bieruńsko-lędziński county and 10.0/100 thousands for females (myszkowski county; and maximum

  16. Is socioeconomic segregation of the poor associated with higher premature mortality under the age of 60? A cross-sectional analysis of survey data in major Indian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandola, Tarani; Mikkilineni, Sitamma; Chandran, Anil; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik Kumar; Zhang, Nan; Bassanesi, Sergio Luiz

    2018-02-10

    Although urbanisation is generally associated with poverty reduction in low-income and middle-income countries, it also results in increased socioeconomic segregation of the poor. Cities with higher levels of socioeconomic segregation tend to have higher mortality rates, although the evidence is based on ecological associations. The paper examines whether socioeconomic segregation of the poor is associated with higher under-60 years ('premature') mortality risk in Indian cities and whether this association is confounded by contextual and compositional sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. A population representative sample of over one million from 39 427 households living in 1876 urban wards within 59 Indian districts (cities) from the third (2008) District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3). The outcome was any death under the age of 60 reported by households in the preceding 4years of the DLHS-3. Socioeconomic segregation, estimated at the district (city) level, was measured using an isolation index of the poor and the index of dissimilarity. Poor households living in cities where the poor were more isolated had higher probabilities of premature mortality than poor households living in cities where the poor were less isolated. In contrast, it did not matter whether rich households lived in more or less socioeconomically segregated cities. A 1 SD increase in the isolation index was associated with an absolute increase of 1.1% in the probability of premature mortality for the poorest households. Increasing segregation of the poor may result in higher premature mortality. As low-income and middle-income countries become increasingly urbanised, there is a risk that this may lead to increased segregation of the poor as well as increased premature mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Trait acclimation mitigates mortality risks of tropical canopy trees under global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eSterck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a heated debate about the effect of global change on tropical forests. Many scientists predict large-scale tree mortality while others point to mitigating roles of CO2 fertilization and – the notoriously unknown – physiological trait acclimation of trees. In this opinion article we provided a first quantification of the potential of trait acclimation to mitigate the negative effects of warming on tropical canopy tree growth and survival. We applied a physiological tree growth model that incorporates trait acclimation through an optimization approach. Our model estimated the maximum effect of acclimation when trees optimize traits that are strongly plastic on a week to annual time scale (leaf photosynthetic capacity, total leaf area, stem sapwood area to maximize carbon gain. We simulated tree carbon gain for temperatures (25-35ºC and ambient CO2 concentrations (390-800 ppm predicted for the 21st century. Full trait acclimation increased simulated carbon gain by up to 10-20% and the maximum tolerated temperature by up to 2ºC, thus reducing risks of tree death under predicted warming. Functional trait acclimation may thus increase the resilience of tropical trees to warming, but cannot prevent tree death during extremely hot and dry years at current CO2 levels. We call for incorporating trait acclimation in field and experimental studies of plant functional traits, and in models that predict responses of tropical forests to climate change.

  18. Trait Acclimation Mitigates Mortality Risks of Tropical Canopy Trees under Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterck, Frank; Anten, Niels P. R.; Schieving, Feike; Zuidema, Pieter A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a heated debate about the effect of global change on tropical forests. Many scientists predict large-scale tree mortality while others point to mitigating roles of CO2 fertilization and – the notoriously unknown – physiological trait acclimation of trees. In this opinion article we provided a first quantification of the potential of trait acclimation to mitigate the negative effects of warming on tropical canopy tree growth and survival. We applied a physiological tree growth model that incorporates trait acclimation through an optimization approach. Our model estimated the maximum effect of acclimation when trees optimize traits that are strongly plastic on a week to annual time scale (leaf photosynthetic capacity, total leaf area, stem sapwood area) to maximize carbon gain. We simulated tree carbon gain for temperatures (25–35°C) and ambient CO2 concentrations (390–800 ppm) predicted for the 21st century. Full trait acclimation increased simulated carbon gain by up to 10–20% and the maximum tolerated temperature by up to 2°C, thus reducing risks of tree death under predicted warming. Functional trait acclimation may thus increase the resilience of tropical trees to warming, but cannot prevent tree death during extremely hot and dry years at current CO2 levels. We call for incorporating trait acclimation in field and experimental studies of plant functional traits, and in models that predict responses of tropical forests to climate change. PMID:27242814

  19. Changes in standardized mortality rates from thyroid cancer in Korea between 1985 and 2015: Analysis of Korean national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Won Gu; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Han, Minkyu; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Hong, Sang Mo; Hong, Eun-Gyoung; Kim, Won Bae

    2017-12-15

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea; however, most previous studies suggested that the mortality rate for thyroid cancer remained stable. The objective of the current study was to evaluate recent changes in standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea. Population and mortality data from 1985 through 2015 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) from thyroid cancer per 100,000 population were calculated based on the World Health Organization standard population. In Korea, the ASMRs from thyroid cancer increased from 0.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.18) per 100,000 in 1985 to 0.85 (95% CI, 0.83-0.86) per 100,000 in 2004, which was the highest among all countries. Subsequently, the ASMRs continuously decreased to 0.42 (95% CI, 0.41-0.43) per 100,000 between 2004 and 2015. The estimated annual percent change (APC) from 1985 to 2004 was 7.94 (95% CI, 6.43-9.46), and the corresponding value from 2004 to 2015 was -4.10 (95% CI, -5.76 to -2.40). Changes in the ASMRs reflected similar patterns in men (1985-2003: APC, 8.51; 2003-2015: APC, -4.32) and women (1985-2004: APC, 7.62; 2004-2015: APC, -4.38) and were also observed in older patients (aged ≥ 55 years). Thyroid cancer mortality in Korea increased until 2004 and then continuously decreased until 2015. Increases in the early diagnosis of thyroid cancer, changes in exposure to risk factors, and standardization in diagnosis and treatment may be associated with the decrease in thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. Cancer 2017; 123:4808-14. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Comparing tagging strategies: Effects of tags on retention rate, mortality rate and growth in hatchery-reared juvenile meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Pisces: Sciaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Gil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different tags (T-bar anchor tags, internal anchor tags and visible implant elastomers implanted into juvenile meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Asso, 1801 for a restocking programme conducted in the Balearic Islands. Effectiveness was assessed in terms of tag loss, fish survival and fish growth by means of a tank experiment. The internal anchor tags showed the highest retention rate (100%, but the tagging mortality was also high (40%. The tagging mortality of T-bar tags was negligible. However, another tank experiment with different food rates showed the tag retention rate of the T-bar tag to be highly variable, ranging from 35% to 95%. In contrast with other reported results, the retention rate of visible implant elastomers was low (48%. Finally, none of the tested tags affected growth. In summary, the T-bar anchor tags showed the best trade-off between short-term tag retention and fish mortality, and seem to be the most suitable tagging method for meagre juveniles.

  1. Characteristics, outcome and predictors of one year mortality rate in patients with acute heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Marko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acute heart failure (AHF is one of the most common diseases in emergency medicine, associated with poor prognosis and high in-hospital and longterm mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics, outcomes and one year mortality of patients with AHF in the local population. Methods. This prospective study consisted of 64 consecutive unselected patients treated in the Coronary Care Unit of the Emergency Centre (Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade and were followed for one year after the discharge. Results. Mean age of the patients was 63.6 ± 12.6 years and 59.4% were males. Acute congestion (43.8% and pulmonary edema (39.1% were the most common presentations of AHF. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 39.7% ± 9.25%, while 44.4% of the patients had LVEF ≥ 50%. At discharge, 55.9% of the patients received therapy with β-blockers, 94.9% diuretics, out of which 47.7% spironolactone, 94.9% patients were given ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blokcers (ARB. The 12-month all-cause mortality was 26.5%. Independent predictors of one year mortality were previous hospitalization due to heart disease, reduced LVEF, reduced fraction of shortening (FS and a higher tricuspid velocity. Conclusion. One year mortality of our patients with AHF was high, similar to the known European studies. Independent predictors of one year mortality were previous hospitalization due to heart disease, reduced LVEF and LVFS and a higher tricuspid velocity.

  2. The impact of the worldwide Millennium Development Goals campaign on maternal and under-five child mortality reduction: 'Where did the worldwide campaign work most effectively?'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman

    2017-01-01

    As the Millennium Development Goals campaign (MDGs) came to a close, clear evidence was needed on the contribution of the worldwide MDG campaign. We seek to determine the degree of difference in the reduction rate between the pre-MDG and MDG campaign periods and its statistical significance by region. Unlike the prevailing studies that measured progress in 1990-2010, this study explores by percentage how much MDG progress has been achieved during the MDG campaign period and quantifies the impact of the MDG campaign on the maternal and under-five child mortality reduction during the MDG era by comparing observed values with counterfactual values estimated on the basis of the historical trend. The low accomplishment of sub-Saharan Africa toward the MDG target mainly resulted from the debilitated progress of mortality reduction during 1990-2000, which was not related to the worldwide MDG campaign. In contrast, the other regions had already achieved substantial progress before the Millennium Declaration was proclaimed. Sub-Saharan African countries have seen the most remarkable impact of the worldwide MDG campaign on maternal and child mortality reduction across all different measurements. In sub-Saharan Africa, the MDG campaign has advanced the progress of the declining maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rate, respectively, by 4.29 and 4.37 years. Sub-Saharan African countries were frequently labeled as 'off-track', 'insufficient progress', or 'no progress' even though the greatest progress was achieved here during the worldwide MDG campaign period and the impact of the worldwide MDG campaign was most pronounced in this region in all respects. It is time to learn from the success stories of the sub-Saharan African countries. Erroneous and biased measurement should be avoided for the sustainable development goals to progress.

  3. Self-rated health and mortality risk in relation to gender and education: a time-dependent covariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Santos, Maria Teresa; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Otero-Puime, Angel; Cañas, Ramiro; Casado-Collado, Alfonso Jaime

    2011-12-01

    This study examines the relations between self-rated health (SRH) at baseline, SRH as a time-dependent covariate (TDC), and mortality by gender and education in a community-dwelling older population in Spain. The data used are from the longitudinal study "Aging in Leganes", launched in 1993, carried out in a community-dwelling representative sample ( n  = 1,560) of the older population of Leganes (Spain). Mortality was assessed in 2008. Proportional regression models were fitted to examine the association between mortality and baseline SRH, and SRH as a TDC among subjects aged 65-85 at baseline. The multivariate analyses were stratified by gender and education and adjusted for sociodemographic factors, smoking and physical activity, physical and mental morbidity, and ADL disability. SRH and SRH as a TDC were significant predictors of mortality in men and in people with some education, but not in women or in illiterate persons. SRH and declines in SRH were associated with increased mortality risk in older men and in those who can read and write in this Mediterranean population. Given current improvements in education and decreasing gender inequality, health professionals in Spain should pay attention to both current SRH and declines in SRH in their patients regardless of gender and literacy.

  4. Satellite telemetry reveals higher fishing mortality rates than previously estimated, suggesting overfishing of an apex marine predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael E; Cortés, Enric; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Harvey, Guy C McN; Sampson, Mark; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood

    2017-08-16

    Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark ( Isurus oxyrinchus ) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Forty satellite-tagged shortfin mako sharks tracked over 3 years entered the Exclusive Economic Zones of 19 countries and were harvested in fisheries of five countries, with 30% of tagged sharks harvested. Our tagging-derived estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality rates ( F = 0.19-0.56) were 10-fold higher than previous estimates from fisheries-dependent data (approx. 0.015-0.024), suggesting data used in stock assessments may considerably underestimate fishing mortality. Additionally, our estimates of F were greater than those associated with maximum sustainable yield, suggesting a state of overfishing. This information has direct application to evaluations of stock status and for effective management of populations, and thus satellite tagging studies have potential to provide more accurate estimates of fishing mortality and survival than traditional fisheries-dependent methodology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. The use of hypothetical cohorts in estimating demographic parameters under conditions of changing fertility and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, H; Hill, K

    1981-02-01

    The indirect methods of demographic estimation available to date are often inadequate to estimate levels in the presence of trends. The use of measures relative to hypothetical cohorts to minimize the effects of trends and estimate period levels is described. Procedures allowing the estimation of inter-survey levels of fertility, child mortality and adult mortality are illustrated using data from Thailand and Peru.

  6. Major depressive symptoms increase 3-year mortality rate in patients with mild dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2017-01-01

    them, 12 were with MD-S at baseline. Multivariable analysis adjusting for the potential confounders (age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, education, BMI, household status, MMSE, CCI, QoL-AD, NPIQ, ADSC-ADL, medication, and RCT allocation) showed that patients with MD-S had a 2.5-fold higher...... mortality as compared to the patients without or with only few depressive symptoms. Our result revealed that depression is possibly associated with increased mortality in patients with mild dementia. Given that depression is treatable, screening for depression and treatment of depression can be important...

  7. Misalignment under different exchange rate regimes: the case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Dağdeviren, Sengül; Ogus Binatli, Ayla; Sohrabji, Niloufer

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines misalignment of the Turkish lira between 1998 to 2008. Misalignment, specifically overvaluation has been linked to fixed exchange rate regimes. By studying the case of Turkey during this period which covers both a fixed and floating exchange rate regime, we contribute to the literature on the relation between misalignment and exchange rate regimes. We first estimate the equilibrium real exchange rate for Turkey, then compute misalignment and finally test for structural brea...

  8. Oral primary care: an analysis of its impact on the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; da Silva, Núbia Cristina; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; de Souza, Marta Rovery; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Thumé, Elaine; Rocha, João Victor Muniz; Alvares, Viviane; de Almeida, Dante Grapiuna; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Staton, Catherine Ann; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-10-30

    Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease, especially when diagnosed in advanced stages. In Brazil, the primary health care (PHC) system is responsible for promoting oral health in order to prevent oral diseases. However, there is insufficient evidence to assess whether actions of the PHC system have some effect on the morbidity and mortality from oral cancer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of PHC structure and work processes on the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer after adjusting for contextual variables. An ecological, longitudinal and analytical study was carried out. Data were obtained from different secondary data sources, including three surveys that were nationally representative of Brazilian PHC and carried out over the course of 10 years (2002-2012). Data were aggregated at the state level at different times. Oral cancer incidence and mortality rates, standardized by age and gender, served as the dependent variables. Covariables (sociodemographic, structure of basic health units, and work process in oral health) were entered in the regression models using a hierarchical approach based on a theoretical model. Analysis of mixed effects with random intercept model was also conducted (alpha = 5%). The oral cancer incidence rate was positively association with the proportion of of adults over 60 years (β = 0.59; p = 0.010) and adult smokers (β = 0.29; p = 0.010). The oral cancer related mortality rate was positively associated with the proportion of of adults over 60 years (β = 0.24; p oral cancer (β = 0.02; p = 0.002). Mortality was inversely associated with the coverage of primary care teams (β = -0.01; p work processes have been shown to help reduce the mortality rate of oral cancer, but not the incidence rate of the disease. We recommend expanding investments in PHC in order to prevent oral cancer related deaths.

  9. Morbidity and mortality rates after emergency abdominal surgery: an analysis of 4346 patients scheduled for emergency laparotomy or laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup, Mai-Britt; Watt, Sara Kehlet; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-06-01

    Emergency abdominal surgery results in a high rate of post-operative complications and death. There are limited data describing the emergency surgical population in details. We aimed to give a detailed analyses of complications and mortality in a consecutive group of patients undergoing acute abdominal surgery over a 4-year period. This observational study was conducted between 2009 and 2013 at Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark. All patients scheduled for emergency laparotomy or laparoscopy were included. Pre-, intra-, and post-operative data were collected from medical records. Complications were registered according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for mortality. A total of 4,346 patients underwent emergency surgery, of whom 14 % had surgical complications and 23 % medical complications. The overall 30-day mortality was 8 % with 50 % of those in this group over 80 years of age. The 30-day mortality rates were 0.8 % (95 % CI 0.5-1.1) and 17 % (95 % CI 15.5-18.9), respectively, for the laparoscopy and the laparotomy groups. The overall death rate within 24 h of surgery was 21 %. Several risk factors for 30- and 90-day mortality were identified: age, ASA ≥3 (American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status classification), performance score (Zubroed/WHOclassification), cirrhosis of the liver, chronic nephropathy, several medical conditions, and malignancy. Almost one in five patients died after emergency laparotomy, of whom one in five died within 24 h of surgery. Predictors for poor outcome were identified.

  10. What is the infant mortality rate in South Africa? The need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of births recorded in the health services was analysed by province in order to assess and explore alternatives within health authorities that could complement the existing system. Results. 1. Published estimates of infant mortality for the period from 1990 range from 40 to 71 / 1 000 births and estimates based on ...

  11. Measuring Iran's success in achieving Millennium Development Goal 4: a systematic analysis of under-5 mortality at national and subnational levels from 1990 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Younes; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Larijani, Bagher; Sheidaei, Ali; Mansouri, Anita; Kasaeian, Amir; Yazdani, Kamran; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Kazemi, Elaheh; Aghamohamadi, Saeide; Rezaei, Nazila; Chegini, Maryam; Haghshenas, Rosa; Jamshidi, Hamidreza; Delavari, Farnaz; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2017-05-01

    Child mortality as one of the key Millennium Development Goals (MDG 4-to reduce child mortality by two-thirds from 1990 to 2015), is included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 3, target 2-to reduce child mortality to fewer than 25 deaths per 1000 livebirths for all countries by 2030), and is a key indicator of the health system in every country. In this study, we aimed to estimate the level and trend of child mortality from 1990 to 2015 in Iran, to assess the progress of the country and its provinces toward these goals. We used three different data sources: three censuses, a Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), and 5-year data from the death registration system. We used the summary birth history data from four data sources (the three censuses and DHS) and used maternal age cohort and maternal age period methods to estimate the trends in child mortality rates, combining the estimates of these two indirect methods using Loess regression. We also used the complete birth history method to estimate child mortality rate directly from DHS data. Finally, to synthesise different trends into a single trend and calculate uncertainty intervals (UI), we used Gaussian process regression. Under-5 mortality rates (deaths per 1000 livebirths) at the national level in Iran in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015 were 63·6 (95% UI 63·1-64·0), 38·8 (38·5-39·2), 24·9 (24·3-25·4), and 19·4 (18·6-20·2), respectively. Between 1990 and 2015, the median annual reduction and total overall reduction in these rates were 4·9% and 70%, respectively. At the provincial level, the difference between the highest and lowest child mortality rates in 1990, 2000, and 2015 were 65·6, 40·4, and 38·1 per 1000 livebirths, respectively. Based on the MDG 4 goal, five provinces had not decreased child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. Furthermore, six provinces had not reached SDG 3 (target 2). Iran and most of its provinces achieved MDG 4 and SDG 3 (target 2) goals by 2015. However, at the

  12. Global, regional, and national causes of under-5 mortality in 2000-15: an updated systematic analysis with implications for the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Oza, Shefali; Hogan, Dan; Chu, Yue; Perin, Jamie; Zhu, Jun; Lawn, Joy E; Cousens, Simon; Mathers, Colin; Black, Robert E

    2016-12-17

    Despite remarkable progress in the improvement of child survival between 1990 and 2015, the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 target of a two-thirds reduction of under-5 mortality rate (U5MR) was not achieved globally. In this paper, we updated our annual estimates of child mortality by cause to 2000-15 to reflect on progress toward the MDG 4 and consider implications for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target for child survival. We increased the estimation input data for causes of deaths by 43% among neonates and 23% among 1-59-month-olds, respectively. We used adequate vital registration (VR) data where available, and modelled cause-specific mortality fractions applying multinomial logistic regressions using adequate VR for low U5MR countries and verbal autopsy data for high U5MR countries. We updated the estimation to use Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate in place of malaria index in the modelling of malaria deaths; to use adjusted empirical estimates instead of modelled estimates for China; and to consider the effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and rotavirus vaccine in the estimation. In 2015, among the 5·9 million under-5 deaths, 2·7 million occurred in the neonatal period. The leading under-5 causes were preterm birth complications (1·055 million [95% uncertainty range (UR) 0·935-1·179]), pneumonia (0·921 million [0·812 -1·117]), and intrapartum-related events (0·691 million [0·598 -0·778]). In the two MDG regions with the most under-5 deaths, the leading cause was pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa and preterm birth complications in southern Asia. Reductions in mortality rates for pneumonia, diarrhoea, neonatal intrapartum-related events, malaria, and measles were responsible for 61% of the total reduction of 35 per 1000 livebirths in U5MR in 2000-15. Stratified by U5MR, pneumonia was the leading cause in countries with very high U5MR. Preterm birth complications and pneumonia were both important in high, medium high, and medium

  13. The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine does not increase the mortality rate of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Shintaro; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Inoue, Eisuke; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Kono, Shigeru; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2014-01-01

    Evidence regarding the mortality rate after administration of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine on patients with underlying diseases is currently scarce. We conducted a case-control study in Japan to compare the mortality rates of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia after the vaccines were administered and were not administered. Between October 2009 and March 2010, we collected clinical records in Japan and conducted a 1:1 matched case-control study. Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia who died during this period were considered case patients, and those who survived were considered control patients. We determined and compared the proportion of each group that received the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine and estimated the odds ratio. Finally, we conducted simulations that compensated for the shortcomings of the study associated with adjusted severity of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The case and control groups each comprised of 75 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The proportion of patients who received the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine was 30.7% and 38.7% for the case and control groups, respectively. During that winter, the crude conditional odds ratio of mortality was 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-1.47) and the adjusted conditional odds ratio was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-4.49); neither was significant. The simulation study showed more accurate conditional odds ratios of 0.63-0.71. In our study, we detected no evidence that the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine increased the mortality rate of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The results, however, are limited by the small sample size and low statistical power. A larger-scale study is required.

  14. Effects of oil sands tailings compounds and harsh weather on mortality rates, growth and detoxification efforts in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentes, Marie-Line [Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada)]. E-mail: marie-line.gentes@usask.ca; Waldner, Cheryl [Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada)]. E-mail: cheryl.waldner@usask.ca; Papp, Zsuzsanna [Toxicology Research Centre, 44 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada)]. E-mail: zsp127@duke.usask.ca; Smits, Judit E.G. [Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada)]. E-mail: judit.smits@usask.ca

    2006-07-15

    Oil sands mining companies in Alberta, Canada, are evaluating the feasibility of using wetlands to detoxify oil sands process material (OSPM) as a reclamation strategy. Reproductive success, nestling growth, survival and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on experimental wetlands. In 2003, harsh weather triggered a widespread nestling die-off. Mortality rates on the control site reached 48% while they ranged from 59% to 100% on reclaimed wetlands. The odds of dying on the most process-affected sites were more than ten times higher than those on the control site. In 2004, weather was less challenging. Mortality rates were low, but nestlings on reclaimed wetlands weighed less than those on the control site, and had higher EROD activity. These results indicate that compared with reference birds, nestlings from OSPM-impacted wetlands may be less able to withstand additional stressors, which could decrease their chances of survival after fledging. - Under natural stress caused by harsh weather, birds exposed to chemicals from the oil sands extraction process suffered higher mortality than those in control areas.

  15. Effects of oil sands tailings compounds and harsh weather on mortality rates, growth and detoxification efforts in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentes, Marie-Line; Waldner, Cheryl; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Smits, Judit E.G.

    2006-01-01

    Oil sands mining companies in Alberta, Canada, are evaluating the feasibility of using wetlands to detoxify oil sands process material (OSPM) as a reclamation strategy. Reproductive success, nestling growth, survival and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on experimental wetlands. In 2003, harsh weather triggered a widespread nestling die-off. Mortality rates on the control site reached 48% while they ranged from 59% to 100% on reclaimed wetlands. The odds of dying on the most process-affected sites were more than ten times higher than those on the control site. In 2004, weather was less challenging. Mortality rates were low, but nestlings on reclaimed wetlands weighed less than those on the control site, and had higher EROD activity. These results indicate that compared with reference birds, nestlings from OSPM-impacted wetlands may be less able to withstand additional stressors, which could decrease their chances of survival after fledging. - Under natural stress caused by harsh weather, birds exposed to chemicals from the oil sands extraction process suffered higher mortality than those in control areas

  16. One-Year Mortality Rates Before and After Implementing Quality-Improvement Initiatives to Prevent Inpatient Falls (2012–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderpal Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-room ward design has previously been associated with increased risk of inpatient falls and adverse outcomes. However, following quality initiatives, the incidence of inpatient falls has shown a sustained reduction. Benefits have also been observed in the reduction of hip fractures. However, one-year mortality trends have not been reported. The aim of this observational study is to report the trends in one-year mortality rates before and after implementing quality-improvement initiatives to prevent inpatient falls over the last 5 years (2012–2016. This retrospective observational study was conducted for all patients who had sustained an inpatient fall between January 2012 and December 2016. All the incident reports in DATIX patient-safety software which were completed for each inpatient fall were studied, and the clinical information was extracted from Clinical Work Station software. Mortality data were collected on all patients for a minimum of one year following the discharge from the hospital. The results show that 95% patients were admitted from their own homes; 1704 patients had experienced 3408 incidents of an inpatient fall over 5 years. The mean age of females (82.61 ± 10.34 years was significantly higher than males (79.36 ± 10.14 years. Mean falls/patient = 2.0 ± 2.16, range 1–33. Mean hospital stay was 45.43 ± 41.42 days. Mean hospital stay to the first fall was 14.5 ± 20.79 days, and mean days to first fall prior to discharge was 30.8 ± 34.33 days. The results showed a significant and sustained reduction in the incidence of inpatient falls. There was a downward trend in the incidence of hip fractures over the last two years. There was no significant difference in the inpatient and 30-day mortality rate over the last five years. However, mortality trends appear to show a significant downward trend in both six-month and one-year mortality rates over the last two years following the implementation of quality initiatives

  17. Explaining the decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates in the Slovak Republic between 1993-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Psota

    Full Text Available Between the years 1993 and 2008, mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD in the Slovak Republic have decreased by almost one quarter. However, this was a smaller decline than in neighbouring countries. The aim of this modelling study was therefore to quantify the contributions of risk factor changes and the use of evidence-based medical therapies to the CHD mortality decline between 1993 and 2008.We identified, obtained and scrutinised the data required for the model. These data detailed trends in the major population cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol, diabetes prevalence, body mass index (BMI and physical activity levels, and also the uptake of all standard CHD treatments. The main data sources were official statistics (National Health Information Centre and Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic and national representative studies (AUDIT, SLOVAKS, SLOVASeZ, CINDI, EHES, EHIS. The previously validated IMPACT policy model was then used to combine and integrate these data with effect sizes from published meta-analyses quantifying the effectiveness of specific evidence-based treatments, and population-wide changes in cardiovascular risk factors. Results were expressed as deaths prevented or postponed (DPPs attributable to risk factor changes or treatments. Uncertainties were explored using sensitivity analyses.Between 1993 and 2008 age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in the Slovak Republic (SR decreased by 23% in men and 26% in women aged 25-74 years. This represented some 1820 fewer CHD deaths in 2008 than expected if mortality rates had not fallen. The IMPACT model explained 91% of this mortality decline. Approximately 50% of the decline was attributable to changes in acute phase and secondary prevention treatments, particularly acute and chronic treatments for heart failure (≈12%, acute coronary syndrome treatments (≈9% and secondary prevention following AMI and revascularisation (≈8

  18. Impact of Socioeconomic and Health System Factors on Infant Mortality Rate in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC: Evidence from 2004 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: infant mortality rate is one of the main health indicators for assessing the health system’s performance over the world. We aim to examine the socioeconomic and health system factors affect infant mortality in OPEC from 2004 to 2013. Methods: was used to examine the effects of some of the key explanatory factors (total fertility rate per women, GDP per capita (current US$, public health expenditure as % of total health expenditure and female labor force participation rate on infant mortality in OPEC from 2004 to 2013.  These data were obtained from World Bank and World Health Organization data bank. Results: our results showed the total fertility rate had a positive and significant impact on infant mortality in the studied period. Also, there are negative significant associations between GDP per capita and public health expenditure with infant mortality. We did not observe any relationship between infant mortality and female labour force participation rate in the studied countries from 2004 to 2013. Conclusion: total fertility rate per women, GDP per capita (current US$, public health expenditure as % of total health expenditure were identified as the main factors affecting on infant mortality in OPEC over the ten years (2004-2013. This study enables health policy-makers to better understand the factors affecting on infant mortality and thereby take necessary steps in managing and decreasing the infant mortality rate in the studied countries.

  19. Short and long term mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcome: population register based study for Denmark 1980-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, David C; Coleman, Priscilla K

    2012-09-01

    There is a growing interest in examining death rates associated with different pregnancy outcomes for time periods beyond one year. Previous population studies, however, have failed to control for complete reproductive histories. In this study we seek to eliminate the potential confounding effect of unknown prior pregnancy history by examining mortality rates associated specifically with first pregnancy outcome alone. We also examine differences in mortality rates associated with early abortion and late abortions (after 12 weeks). Medical records for the entire population of women born in Denmark between 1962 and 1991 and were alive in 1980, were linked to death certificates. Mortality rates associated with first pregnancy outcomes (delivery, miscarriage, abortion, and late abortion) were calculated. Odds ratios examining death rates based on reproductive outcomes, adjusted for age at first pregnancy and year of women's births, were also calculated. A total of 463,473 women had their first pregnancy between 1980 and 2004, of whom 2,238 died. In nearly all time periods examined, mortality rates associated with miscarriage or abortion of a first pregnancy were higher than those associated with birth. Compared to women who delivered, the age and birth year adjusted cumulative risk of death for women who had a first trimester abortion was significantly higher in all periods examined, from 180 days (OR=1.84; 1.11 <95% CI <3.71) through 10 years (1.39; 1.22 <95% CI <1.61), as was the risk for women who had abortions after 12 weeks from one year (OR=4.31; 2.18 <95% CI <8.54) through 10 years (OR=2.41; 1.56 <95% CI <2.41). For women who miscarried, the risk was significantly higher for cumulative deaths through 4 years (OR=1.75; 1.34 <95% CI <2.27) and at 10 years (OR=1.48; 1.18 <95% CI <1.85). Compared to women who delivered, women who had an early or late abortion had significantly higher mortality rates within 1 through 10 years. A lesser effect may also be present

  20. The Mortality Rate of Nosocomial Infection in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Taleghani Educational and Treatment Center, Tabriz, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Parvin Abbasian; Mariye Mahmoodi Yegane; Mina karimi; Faezeh Ahmadi; khadijeh Pazani; Zohreh Tahmasbi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives : Information about nosocomial infections (NIs) is necessary for both appropriate management and establishment of preventative measures in hospitals. Neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are at high-risk of developing nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate of nosocomial infections and the distribution of pathogens among newborns who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Taleghani educatio...

  1. Mortality of rats under repeated +Gz acceleration in the course of radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki, T.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of repeated +10G z acceleration on the mortality of rats after acute total-body irradiation was studied. No conclusive evidence was found to the effect that daily repeated exposures to 5 or 7.5 min of +10G z inertial forces essentially influence the mortality of rats after acute irradiation in the dose range 0.206-0.309 C/kg. 7 refs. (author)

  2. Cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drugs are associated with increased mortality rate in patients with Alzheimer's dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R E; Lolk, A; Valentin, J B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We wished to investigate the effects of cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drug in Alzheimer's dementia, when controlling for known risk factors, including current antipsychotic exposure, on all-cause mortality. METHOD: We utilized a nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort...... study design with mortality as outcome in individual patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia. RESULTS: We included a total of 45 894 patients and followed them for 3 803 996 person-years in total, presenting 27 894 deaths in the study population. Cumulative antipsychotic exposure increased...... or equal to 730 DDDs: HR 1.06, 95% CI (0.95-1.18), P = 0.322, when controlling for proxy markers of severity, somatic and mental comorbid disorders. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide cohort study of 45 894 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia, we found that cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drugs...

  3. Hyperglycemia increases the complicated infection and mortality rates during induction therapy in adult acute leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina do Nascimento Matias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hyperglycemia during induction therapy in adult patients with acute leukemia and its effect on complicated infections and mortality during the first 30 days of treatment. METHODS: An analysis was performed in a retrospective cohort of 280 adult patients aged 18 to 60 years with previously untreated acute leukemia who received induction chemotherapy from January 2000 to December 2009 at the Hemocentro de Pernambuco (HEMOPE, Brazil. Hyperglycemia was defined as the finding of at least one fasting glucose measurement > 100 mg/dL observed one week prior to induction therapy until 30 days after. The association between hyperglycemia and complicated infections, mortality and complete remission was evaluated using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS in the R software package version 2.9.0. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-eight patients (67.1% presented hyperglycemia at some moment during induction therapy. Eighty-two patients (29.3% developed complicated infections. Infection-related mortality during the neutropenia period was 20.7% (58 patients. Mortality from other causes during the first 30 days after induction was 2.8%. Hyperglycemia increased the risk of complicated infections (OR 3.97; 95% confidence interval: 2.08 - 7.57; p-value < 0.001 and death (OR 3.55; 95% confidence interval: 1.77-7.12; p-value < 0.001 but did not increase the risk of fungal infections or decrease the probability of achieving complete remission. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates an association between the presence of hyperglycemia and the development of complicated infections and death in adult patients during induction therapy for acute leukemia.

  4. Space and panic : The application of space syntax to understand the relationship between mortality rates and spatial configuration in Banda Aceh during the tsunami 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakhrurrazi, F.; Van Nes, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reveal the correlation between mortality rates from the tsunami of 2004 and the spatial structure of Banda Aceh’s street net. Structurally, the city is divided up in several small villages, which consists of a couple of urban blocks. The mortality rates for each of these

  5. Decreased glomerular filtration rate is associated with mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies reported the associations between decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR and mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD, and stroke in hypertensive patients. We aim to assess the associations between GFR and mortality, CHD, and stroke in hypertensive patients and to evaluate whether low GFR can improve the prediction of these outcomes in addition to conventional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is an observational prospective study and 3,711 eligible hypertensive patients aged ≥5 years from rural areas of China were used for the present analysis. The associations between eGFR and outcomes, followed by a median of 4.9 years, were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for other potential confounders. Low eGFR was independently associated with risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and incident stroke [multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2 relative to eGFR ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m(2 were 1.824 (1.047-3.365, 2.371 (1.109-5.068, and 2.493 (1.193-5.212, respectively]. We found no independent association between eGFR and the risk of CHD. For 4-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI was positive when eGFR were added to traditional risk factors (1.51%, P = 0.016, and 1.99%, P = 0.017, respectively. For stroke and CHD events, net reclassification improvements (NRI were 5.9% (P = 0.012 and 1.8% (P = 0.083 for eGFR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We have established an inversely independent association between eGFR and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and stroke in hypertensive patients in rural areas of China. Further, addition of eGFR significantly improved the prediction of 4-year mortality and stroke over and above that of conventional risk factors. We recommend that eGFR be incorporated into prognostic assessment for patients with hypertension in

  6. Distinct effects of reminding mortality and physical pain on the default-mode activity and activity underlying self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2018-06-01

    Behavioral research suggests that reminding both mortality and negative affect influences self-related thoughts. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we tested the hypothesis that reminders of mortality and physical pain decrease brain activity underlying self-related thoughts. Three groups of adults underwent priming procedures during which they answered questions pertaining to mortality, physical pain, or leisure time, respectively. Before and after priming, participants performed personality trait judgments on oneself or a celebrity, identified the font of words, or passively viewed a fixation. The default-mode activity and neural activity underlying self-reflection were identified by contrasting viewing a fixation vs. font judgment and trait judgments on oneself vs. a celebrity, respectively. The analyses of the pre-priming functional MRI (fMRI) data identified the default-mode activity in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and parahippocampal gyrus, and the activity underlying instructed self-reflection in both the ventral and dorsal regions of the MPFC. The analyses of the post-priming fMRI data revealed that, relative to leisure time priming, reminding mortality significantly reduced the default-mode PCC activity, and reminding physical pain significantly decreased the dorsal MPFC activity during instructed self-reflection. Our findings suggest distinct neural underpinnings of the effect of reminding morality and aversive emotion on default-mode and instructed self-reflection.

  7. Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Daniel J; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH) interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ecological time-series and child-level regression models, we estimated the effect of MNCH interventions (summarized by the percent composite coverage index, or CCI) on child mortality with in the first 5 years of life net of temporal trends and covariates at the household, maternal, and child levels. At the ecologic level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with a reduction in under-5 child mortality rate (U5MR) of 29.0 per 1,000 (95% CI: -43.2, -14.7) after adjustment for survey period effects and country-level per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP). At the child level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with an odds ratio of 0.86 for child mortality (95% CI: 0.82-0.90) after adjustment for survey period effect, country-level pcGDP, and a set of household-, maternal-, and child-level covariates. MNCH interventions are important in reducing U5MR, while the effects of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa remain weak and inconsistent. Improved coverage of proven life-saving interventions will likely contribute to further reductions in U5MR in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Association between coverage of maternal and child health interventions, and under-5 mortality: a repeated cross-sectional analysis of 35 sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Corsi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant and child mortality rates are among the most important indicators of child health, nutrition, implementation of key survival interventions, and the overall social and economic development of a population. In this paper, we investigate the role of coverage of maternal and child health (MNCH interventions in contributing to declines in child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Design: Data are from 81 Demographic and Health Surveys from 35 sub-Saharan African countries. Using ecological time-series and child-level regression models, we estimated the effect of MNCH interventions (summarized by the percent composite coverage index, or CCI on child mortality with in the first 5 years of life net of temporal trends and covariates at the household, maternal, and child levels. Results: At the ecologic level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with a reduction in under-5 child mortality rate (U5MR of 29.0 per 1,000 (95% CI: −43.2, −14.7 after adjustment for survey period effects and country-level per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP. At the child level, a unit increase in standardized CCI was associated with an odds ratio of 0.86 for child mortality (95% CI: 0.82–0.90 after adjustment for survey period effect, country-level pcGDP, and a set of household-, maternal-, and child-level covariates. Conclusions: MNCH interventions are important in reducing U5MR, while the effects of economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa remain weak and inconsistent. Improved coverage of proven life-saving interventions will likely contribute to further reductions in U5MR in sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. AIDS web sites face censorship under new rating schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-22

    The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) issued a position paper regarding the software industry's proposed rating standards that will block and rate information judged unsuitable for minors. Following the U.S. Supreme Court's overturning of the Communications Decency Act, a ruling that maintains a high level of free speech protection over the Internet, the software industry began examining mechanisms to rate online content. Legislators are considering criminal penalties for those who misrate a web page. These moves are seen as damaging to HIV/AIDS prevention and safe sex information web sites that utilize jargon, street language, and explicit diagrams to teach safe sex practices to a wide audience. It is noted that related ratings and censorships do not apply to print material.

  10. GROWTH RATE DISTRIBUTION OF BORAX SINGLE CRYSTALS ON THE (001 FACE UNDER VARIOUS FLOW RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth rates of borax single crystals from aqueous solutions at various flow rates in the (001 direction were measured using in situ cell method. From the growth rate data obtained, the growth rate distribution of borax crystals was investigated using Minitab Software and SPSS Software at relative supersaturation of 0807 and temperature of 25 °C. The result shows that normal, gamma, and log-normal distribution give a reasonably good fit to GRD. However, there is no correlation between growth rate distribution and flow rate of solution.   Keywords: growth rate dispersion (GRD, borax, flow rate

  11. Projecting future air pollution-related mortality under a changing climate: progress, uncertainties and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaniyazi, Lina; Guo, Yuming; Yu, Weiwei; Tong, Shilu

    2015-02-01

    Climate change may affect mortality associated with air pollutants, especially for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Projection studies of such kind involve complicated modelling approaches with uncertainties. We conducted a systematic review of researches and methods for projecting future PM2.5-/O3-related mortality to identify the uncertainties and optimal approaches for handling uncertainty. A literature search was conducted in October 2013, using the electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1980 to September 2013. Fifteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that an increase of climate change-induced PM2.5 and O3 may result in an increase in mortality. However, little research has been conducted in developing countries with high emissions and dense populations. Additionally, health effects induced by PM2.5 may dominate compared to those caused by O3, but projection studies of PM2.5-related mortality are fewer than those of O3-related mortality. There is a considerable variation in approaches of scenario-based projection researches, which makes it difficult to compare results. Multiple scenarios, models and downscaling methods have been used to reduce uncertainties. However, few studies have discussed what the main source of uncertainties is and which uncertainty could be most effectively reduced. Projecting air pollution-related mortality requires a systematic consideration of assumptions and uncertainties, which will significantly aid policymakers in efforts to manage potential impacts of PM2.5 and O3 on mortality in the context of climate change. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Platelet Counts, MPV and PDW in Culture Proven and Probable Neonatal Sepsis and Association of Platelet Counts with Mortality Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M. S.; Waheed, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequency of thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis, the MPV (mean platelet volume) and PDW (platelet distribution width) in patients with probable and culture proven neonatal sepsis and determine any association between platelet counts and mortality rate. Study Design: Descriptive analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: NICU, Fazle Omar Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012. Methodology: Cases of culture proven and probable neonatal sepsis, admitted in Fazle Omar Hospital, Rabwah, were included in the study. Platelet counts, MPV and PDW of the cases were recorded. Mortality was documented. Frequencies of thrombocytopenia ( 450000/mm3) were ascertained. Mortality rates in different groups according to platelet counts were calculated and compared by chi-square test to check association. Results: Four hundred and sixty nine patients were included; 68 (14.5%) of them died. One hundred and thirty six (29%) had culture proven sepsis, and 333 (71%) were categorized as probable sepsis. Thrombocytopenia was present in 116 (24.7%), and thrombocytosis was present in 36 (7.7%) cases. Median platelet count was 213.0/mm3. Twenty eight (27.7%) patients with thrombocytopenia, and 40 (12.1%) cases with normal or raised platelet counts died (p < 0.001). Median MPV was 9.30, and median PDW was 12.30. MPV and PDW of the patients who died and who were discharged were not significantly different from each other. Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia is a common complication of neonatal sepsis. Those with thrombocytopenia have higher mortality rate. No significant difference was present between PDW and MPV of the cases who survived and died. (author)

  13. Geographical detector-based risk assessment of the under-five mortality in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    Full Text Available On 12 May, 2008, a devastating earthquake registering 8.0 on the Richter scale occurred in Sichuan Province, China, taking tens of thousands of lives and destroying the homes of millions of people. Many of the deceased were children, particular children less than five years old who were more vulnerable to such a huge disaster than the adult. In order to obtain information specifically relevant to further researches and future preventive measures, potential risk factors associated with earthquake-related child mortality need to be identified. We used four geographical detectors (risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector, and interaction detector based on spatial variation analysis of some potential factors to assess their effects on the under-five mortality. It was found that three factors are responsible for child mortality: earthquake intensity, collapsed house, and slope. The study, despite some limitations, has important implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  14. Pricing real estate index options under stochastic interest rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Pu; Dai, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Real estate derivatives as new financial instruments are not merely risk management tools but also provide a novel way to gain exposure to real estate assets without buying or selling the physical assets. Although real estate derivatives market has exhibited a rapid development in recent years, the valuation challenge of real estate derivatives remains a great obstacle for further development in this market. In this paper, we derive a partial differential equation contingent on a real estate index in a stochastic interest rate environment and propose a modified finite difference method that adopts the non-uniform grids to solve this problem. Numerical results confirm the efficiency of the method and indicate that constant interest rate models lead to the mispricing of options and the effects of stochastic interest rates on option prices depend on whether the term structure of interest rates is rising or falling. Finally, we have investigated and compared the different effects of stochastic interest rates on European and American option prices.

  15. Logistic regression and multiple classification analyses to explore risk factors of under-5 mortality in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmik, K.R.; Islam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Logistic regression (LR) analysis is the most common statistical methodology to find out the determinants of childhood mortality. However, the significant predictors cannot be ranked according to their influence on the response variable. Multiple classification (MC) analysis can be applied to identify the significant predictors with a priority index which helps to rank the predictors. The main objective of the study is to find the socio-demographic determinants of childhood mortality at neonatal, post-neonatal, and post-infant period by fitting LR model as well as to rank those through MC analysis. The study is conducted using the data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 where birth and death information of children were collected from their mothers. Three dichotomous response variables are constructed from children age at death to fit the LR and MC models. Socio-economic and demographic variables significantly associated with the response variables separately are considered in LR and MC analyses. Both the LR and MC models identified the same significant predictors for specific childhood mortality. For both the neonatal and child mortality, biological factors of children, regional settings, and parents socio-economic status are found as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd significant groups of predictors respectively. Mother education and household environment are detected as major significant predictors of post-neonatal mortality. This study shows that MC analysis with or without LR analysis can be applied to detect determinants with rank which help the policy makers taking initiatives on a priority basis. (author)

  16. Differential mortality rates by ethnicity in 3 influenza pandemics over a century, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Barnard, Lucy Telfar; Summers, Jennifer A; Shanks, G Dennis; Baker, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that indigenous populations have suffered disproportionately from past influenza pandemics. To examine any such patterns for Māori in New Zealand, we searched the literature and performed new analyses by using additional datasets. The Māori death rate in the 1918 pandemic (4,230/100,000 population) was 7.3× the European rate. In the 1957 pandemic, the Māori death rate (40/100,000) was 6.2× the European rate. In the 2009 pandemic, the Māori rate was higher than the European rate (rate ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.3-5.3). These findings suggest some decline in pandemic-related ethnic inequalities in death rates over the past century. Nevertheless, the persistent excess in adverse outcomes for Māori, and for Pacific persons residing in New Zealand, highlights the need for improved public health responses.

  17. The contribution of reduction in malaria as a cause of rapid decline of under-five mortality: evidence from the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanté, Almamy M; Nathan, Rose; Helleringer, Stéphane; Sigilbert, Mrema; Levira, Francis; Masanja, Honorati; de Savigny, Don; Abdulla, Salim; Phillips, James F

    2014-05-10

    Under-five mortality has been declining rapidly in a number of sub-Saharan African settings. Malaria-related mortality is known to be a major component of childhood causes of death and malaria remains a major focus of health interventions. The paper explored the contribution of malaria relative to other specific causes of under-five deaths to these trends. This paper uses longitudinal demographic surveillance data to examine trends and causes of death of under-five mortality in Rufiji, whose population has been followed for over nine years (1999-2007). Causes of death, determined by the verbal autopsy technique, are analysed with Arriaga's decomposition method to assess the contribution of declining malaria-related mortality relative to other causes of death as explaining a rapid decline in overall childhood mortality. Over the 1999-2007 period, under-five mortality rate in Rufiji declined by 54.3%, from 33.3 to 15.2 per 1,000 person-years. If this trend is sustained, Rufiji will be a locality that achieves MDG4 target. Although hypotrophy at birth remained the leading cause of death for neonates, malaria remains as the leading cause of death for post-neonates followed by pneumonia. However, declines in malaria death rates accounted for 49.9% of the observed under-five mortality decline while all perinatal causes accounted for only 19.9%. To achieve MDG 4 in malaria endemic settings, health programmes should continue efforts to reduce malaria mortality and more efforts are also needed to improve newborn survival.

  18. The correlation between National Health Service trusts' clinical trial activity and both mortality rates and care quality commission ratings: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, L; Fisher, S J

    2018-02-10

    Evidence supporting the notion that clinical research activity in itself is of benefit to organisations as a whole is inconclusive. In the recent past, a positive association between research activity and reduced mortality has been shown. This study aimed to ascertain if clinical research activity is associated with established organisational outcome measures. Retrospective cross-sectional study. For 129 English National Health Service hospital Trusts, National Institute for Health Research study activity data, Summary Hospital-level Mortality Indicator (SHMI) scores and Care Quality Commission (CQC) ratings were collected. Research activity was controlled for Trust size by dividing it by clinical staffing levels. Multiple linear regression and Spearman correlation analyses were performed. Although there is a significant association between the number of studies and participants with both SHMI score and CQC rating, one particular variable is correlated more significantly than others: the number of participants recruited into interventional studies. It shows a significant correlation with better CQC ratings (standardised coefficient beta 0.26, P-value 0.003) and lower SHMI scores (standardised coefficient beta -0.50, P-value 0.001). The mortality-related results corroborate with other published data showing a correlation between increased research and reduced deaths. Furthermore, there is also a statistically significant association between clinical trials activity and improved CQC ratings. However, these tie-ins are predominantly driven by the number of participants in interventional research rather than observational research activity. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Corporate Finance Under Low Interest Rates: Evidence from Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Mizen; Cihan Yalcin

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the dramatic reduction in interest rates by the Federal Reserve on Hong Kong. Using a panel of several hundred firms in Hong Kong we find that firms increase all types of debt, but shift from short-term to long-term debt as rates fall. This can be attributed in part to a supplyside effect as the benign monetary policy environment has improved creditworthiness. The most noticable result from our analysis is the high level of bank dependence among Hong Kong fir...

  20. Associations of Various Health-Ratings with Geriatric Giants, Mortality and Life Satisfaction in Older People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Westendorp, Rudi J.

    2016-01-01

    Self-rated health is routinely used in research and practise among general populations. Older people, however, seem to change their health perceptions. To accurately understand these changed perceptions we therefore need to study the correlates of older people's self-ratings. We examined self-rated,

  1. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  2. The Mortality Rate of Nosocomial Infection in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU of Taleghani Educational and Treatment Center, Tabriz, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Abbasian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Information about nosocomial infections (NIs is necessary for both appropriate management and establishment of preventative measures in hospitals. Neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU are at high-risk of developing nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate of nosocomial infections and the distribution of pathogens among newborns who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Taleghani educational and treatment center, Tabriz. Material and Methods : This was a cross-sectional study. The sampling method was census. The inclusion criteria were dead infants who developed signs of infection after 48 hours of hospitalization and those who had symptoms at the admission were excluded. Data were collected through hospital records and were analyzed using Excel software. Results: From 904 infants admitted to NICU, 39 (4.3% acquired hospital infection. Mortality from nosocomial infections in NICU was 20.5% that was 12% of the total deaths. Coagulase-negative staphylococcal Cook (37.5% and Escherichia coli (25% were the most commonly identified agents among dead neonates. Conclusion: For more reduction in nosocomial infection and its mortality rate, mercury hygiene principles and also optimizing bed spaces are recommended. ​

  3. Elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Is Predictive of Interstitial Lung Disease and Mortality in Dermatomyositis: a Korean Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of death in patients with dermatomyositis (DM). This study was aimed to examine the utility of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as a predictor of ILD and prognostic marker of mortality in patients with DM. One hundred-and-fourteen patients with DM were examined, including 28 with clinically amyopathic DM (CADM). A diagnosis of ILD was made based on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. The association between elevated ESR and pulmonary impairment and mortality was then examined. ILD was diagnosed in 53 (46.5%) of 114 DM patients. Cancer was diagnosed in 2 (3.8%) of 53 DM patients with ILD and in 24 (92.3%) of those without ILD (P < 0.001). The median ESR (50.0 mm/hour) in patients with ILD was significantly higher than that in patients without ILD (29.0 mm/hour; P < 0.001). ESR was inversely correlated with forced vital capacity (Spearman ρ = - 0.303; P = 0.007) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (ρ = - 0.319; P = 0.006). DM patients with baseline ESR ≥ 30 mm/hour had significantly higher mortality than those with ESR < 30 mm/hour (P = 0.002, log-rank test). Patients with a persistently high ESR despite immunosuppressive therapy was associated with higher mortality than those with a normalized ESR (P = 0.039, log-rank test). Elevated ESR is associated with increased mortality in patients with DM due to respiratory failure. Thus, monitoring ESR should be an integral part of the clinical care of DM patients. PMID:26955239

  4. Bank Profitability and Risk-Taking under Low Interest Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Vervliet, Tobias M.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of the unusually low interest rate environment on the soundness of the US banking sector in terms of profitability and risk-taking. Using both dynamic and static modeling approaches and various estimation techniques, we find that the low interest

  5. Macroeconomic stabilization and intervention policy under an exchange rate band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; van der Ploeg, F.

    1998-01-01

    Macroeconomic stabilization and foreign exchange market interventions are investigated for a small open economy with a nominal exchange rate band. In a first-best situation, a band is not advisable from a stabilization perspective, even though with money demand shocks no welfare losses are incurred.

  6. Trickle Bed Reactor Operation under Forced Liquid Feed Rate Modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Karnetová, P.; Kolena, J.; Lederer, J.; Skála, D.; Staněk, Vladimír; Tukač, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2007), s. 192-198 ISSN 1451-9372 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FT-TA/039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : trickle-bed reactor * period * feed rate Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  7. Female fitness optimum at intermediate mating rates under traumatic mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolanda Lange

    Full Text Available Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner's gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, field mating rates exceed those required for female fertilization insurance, possibly because costs imposed on females are balanced by direct or indirect benefits of multiple sperm receipt. To test this idea, we exposed animals to a relevant range of mating opportunity regimes and assessed the effects on mating behavior and proxies of female fitness. We find penis intromission duration to decrease with mating rates, and a female fecundity maximum at intermediate mating rates. The latter finding indicates that benefits beyond fertilization insurance can make higher mating rates also beneficial from a female perspective in this traumatically mating species.

  8. Kinetic analysis of oxygen dynamics under a variable work rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiga Gonzalez, Alexander; Bertschinger, Raphael; Brosda, Fabian; Dahmen, Thorsten; Thumm, Patrick; Saupe, Dietmar

    2017-09-14

    Measurements of oxygen uptake are central to methods for the assessment of physical fitness and endurance capabilities in athletes. Two important parameters extracted from such data of incremental exercise tests are the maximal oxygen uptake and the critical power. A commonly accepted model of the dynamics of oxygen uptake during exercise at a constant work rate comprises a constant baseline oxygen uptake, an exponential fast component, and another exponential slow component for heavy and severe work rates. We have generalized this model to variable load protocols with differential equations that naturally correspond to the standard model for a constant work rate. This provides the means for predicting the oxygen uptake response to variable load profiles including phases of recovery. The model parameters have been fitted for individual subjects from a cycle ergometer test, including the maximal oxygen uptake and critical power. The model predictions have been validated by data collected in separate tests. Our findings indicate that the oxygen kinetics for a variable exercise load can be predicted using the generalized mathematical standard model. Such models can be applied in the field where the constant work rate assumption generally is not valid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On the Determination of Magnesium Degradation Rates under Physiological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidadavolu, Eshwara Phani Shubhakar; Feyerabend, Frank; Ebel, Thomas; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Dahms, Michael

    2016-07-28

    The current physiological in vitro tests of Mg degradation follow the procedure stated according to the ASTM standard. This standard, although useful in predicting the initial degradation behavior of an alloy, has its limitations in interpreting the same for longer periods of immersion in cell culture media. This is an important consequence as the alloy's degradation is time dependent. Even if two different alloys show similar corrosion rates in a short term experiment, their degradation characteristics might differ with increased immersion times. Furthermore, studies concerning Mg corrosion extrapolate the corrosion rate from a single time point measurement to the order of a year (mm/y), which might not be appropriate because of time dependent degradation behavior. In this work, the above issues are addressed and a new methodology of performing long-term immersion tests in determining the degradation rates of Mg alloys was put forth. For this purpose, cast and extruded Mg-2Ag and powder pressed and sintered Mg-0.3Ca alloy systems were chosen. DMEM Glutamax +10% FBS (Fetal Bovine Serum) +1% Penicillin streptomycin was used as cell culture medium. The advantages of such a method in predicting the degradation rates in vivo deduced from in vitro experiments are discussed.

  10. High Rates of All-cause and Gastroenteritis-related Hospitalization Morbidity and Mortality among HIV-exposed Indian Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy Srikanth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants in the first 12 months of life. Methods Using data from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT trial (India SWEN, where HIV-exposed breastfed infants were given extended nevirapine, we measured 12-month infant all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates and hospitalization risk factors. Results Among 737 HIV-exposed Indian infants, 93 (13% were HIV-infected, 15 (16% were on HAART, and 260 (35% were hospitalized 381 times by 12 months of life. Fifty-six percent of the hospitalizations were attributed to infections; gastroenteritis was most common accounting for 31% of infectious hospitalizations. Gastrointestinal-related hospitalizations steadily increased over time, peaking around 9 months. The 12-month all-cause hospitalization, gastroenteritis-related hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality rates were 906/1000 PY, 229/1000 PY, and 35/1000 PY respectively among HIV-infected infants and 497/1000 PY, 107/1000 PY, and 3/1000 PY respectively among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Advanced maternal age, infant HIV infection, gestational age, and male sex were associated with higher all-cause hospitalization risk while shorter duration of breastfeeding and abrupt weaning were associated with gastroenteritis-related hospitalization. Conclusions HIV-exposed Indian infants experience high rates of all-cause and infectious hospitalization (particularly gastroenteritis and in-hospital mortality. HIV-infected infants are nearly 2-fold more likely to experience hospitalization and 10-fold more likely to die compared to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. The combination of scaling up HIV PMTCT programs and implementing proven health

  11. Experimental investigation of bond strength under high loading rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Mathias; Keuser, Manfred; Solomos, George; Peroni, Marco; Larcher, Martin; Esteban, Beatriz

    2015-09-01

    The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete is governed significantly by the transmission of forces between steel and concrete. The bond is of special importance for the overlapping joint and anchoring of the reinforcement, where rigid bond is required. It also plays an important role in the rotational capacity of plastic hinges, where a ductile bond behaviour is preferable. Similar to the mechanical properties of concrete and steel also the characteristics of their interaction changes with the velocity of the applied loading. For smooth steel bars with its main bond mechanisms of adhesion and friction, nearly no influence of loading rate is reported in literature. In contrast, a high rate dependence can be found for the nowadays mainly used deformed bars. For mechanical interlock, where ribs of the reinforcing steel are bracing concrete material surrounding the bar, one reason can be assumed to be in direct connection with the increase of concrete compressive strength. For splitting failure of bond, characterized by the concrete tensile strength, an even higher dynamic increase is observed. For the design of Structures exposed to blast or impact loading the knowledge of a rate dependent bond stress-slip relationship is required to consider safety and economical aspects at the same time. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete has been investigated with different experimental methods at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UniBw) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra. Both static and dynamic tests have been carried out, where innovative experimental apparatuses have been used. The bond stress-slip relationship and maximum pull-out-forces for varying diameter of the bar, concrete compressive strength and loading rates have been obtained. It is expected that these experimental results will contribute to a better understanding of the rate dependent bond behaviour and will serve for calibration of numerical models.

  12. Experimental investigation of bond strength under high loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural behaviour of reinforced concrete is governed significantly by the transmission of forces between steel and concrete. The bond is of special importance for the overlapping joint and anchoring of the reinforcement, where rigid bond is required. It also plays an important role in the rotational capacity of plastic hinges, where a ductile bond behaviour is preferable. Similar to the mechanical properties of concrete and steel also the characteristics of their interaction changes with the velocity of the applied loading. For smooth steel bars with its main bond mechanisms of adhesion and friction, nearly no influence of loading rate is reported in literature. In contrast, a high rate dependence can be found for the nowadays mainly used deformed bars. For mechanical interlock, where ribs of the reinforcing steel are bracing concrete material surrounding the bar, one reason can be assumed to be in direct connection with the increase of concrete compressive strength. For splitting failure of bond, characterized by the concrete tensile strength, an even higher dynamic increase is observed. For the design of Structures exposed to blast or impact loading the knowledge of a rate dependent bond stress-slip relationship is required to consider safety and economical aspects at the same time. The bond behaviour of reinforced concrete has been investigated with different experimental methods at the University of the Bundeswehr Munich (UniBw and the Joint Research Centre (JRC in Ispra. Both static and dynamic tests have been carried out, where innovative experimental apparatuses have been used. The bond stress-slip relationship and maximum pull-out-forces for varying diameter of the bar, concrete compressive strength and loading rates have been obtained. It is expected that these experimental results will contribute to a better understanding of the rate dependent bond behaviour and will serve for calibration of numerical models.

  13. Naked mole-rat mortality rates defy Gompertzian laws by not increasing with age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, J Graham; Smith, Megan

    2018-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), has a reported maximum lifespan of >30 years and exhibits delayed and/or attenuated age-associated physiological declines. We questioned whether these mouse-sized, eusocial rodents conform to Gompertzian mortality laws by experiencing an exponentially increasing risk of death as they get older. We compiled and analyzed a large compendium of historical naked mole-rat lifespan data with >3000 data points. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed a substantial portion of the population to have survived at 30 years of age. Moreover, unlike all other mammals studied to date, and regardless of sex or breeding-status, the age-specific hazard of mortality did not increase with age, even at ages 25-fold past their time to reproductive maturity. This absence of hazard increase with age, in defiance of Gompertz’s law, uniquely identifies the naked mole-rat as a non-aging mammal, confirming its status as an exceptional model for biogerontology. PMID:29364116

  14. Ambient PM2.5exposure and expected premature mortality to 2100 in India under climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sourangsu; Dey, Sagnik; Smith, Kirk R

    2018-01-22

    Premature mortality from current ambient fine particulate (PM 2.5 ) exposure in India is large, but the trend under climate change is unclear. Here we estimate ambient PM 2.5 exposure up to 2100 by applying the relative changes in PM 2.5 from baseline period (2001-2005) derived from Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) models to the satellite-derived baseline PM 2.5 . We then project the mortality burden using socioeconomic and demographic projections in the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) scenarios. Ambient PM 2.5 exposure is expected to peak in 2030 under the RCP4.5 and in 2040 under the RCP8.5 scenario. Premature mortality burden is expected to be 2.4-4 and 28.5-38.8% higher under RCP8.5 scenario relative to the RCP4.5 scenario in 2031-2040 and 2091-2100, respectively. Improved health conditions due to economic growth are expected to compensate for the impact of changes in population and age distribution, leading to a reduction in per capita health burden from PM 2.5 for all scenarios except the combination of RCP8.5 exposure and SSP3.

  15. Risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates for stroke: evidence from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry (AuSCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Kilkenny, Monique F; Levi, Christopher R; Lannin, Natasha A; Thrift, Amanda G; Kim, Joosup; Grabsch, Brenda; Churilov, Leonid; Dewey, Helen M; Hill, Kelvin; Faux, Steven G; Grimley, Rohan; Castley, Helen; Hand, Peter J; Wong, Andrew; Herkes, Geoffrey K; Gill, Melissa; Crompton, Douglas; Middleton, Sandy; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Anderson, Craig S

    2017-05-01

    Hospital data used to assess regional variability in disease management and outcomes, including mortality, lack information on disease severity. We describe variance between hospitals in 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rates (RAMRs) for stroke, comparing models that include or exclude stroke severity as a covariate. Cohort design linking Australian Stroke Clinical Registry data with national death registrations. Multivariable models using recommended statistical methods for calculating 30-day RAMRs for hospitals, adjusted for demographic factors, ability to walk on admission, stroke type, and stroke recurrence. Australian hospitals providing at least 200 episodes of acute stroke care, 2009-2014. Hospital RAMRs estimated by different models. Changes in hospital rank order and funnel plots were used to explore variation in hospital-specific 30-day RAMRs; that is, RAMRs more than three standard deviations from the mean. In the 28 hospitals reporting at least 200 episodes of care, there were 16 218 episodes (15 951 patients; median age, 77 years; women, 46%; ischaemic strokes, 79%). RAMRs from models not including stroke severity as a variable ranged between 8% and 20%; RAMRs from models with the best fit, which included ability to walk and stroke recurrence as variables, ranged between 9% and 21%. The rank order of hospitals changed according to the covariates included in the models, particularly for those hospitals with the highest RAMRs. Funnel plots identified significant deviation from the mean overall RAMR for two hospitals, including one with borderline excess mortality. Hospital stroke mortality rates and hospital performance ranking may vary widely according to the covariates included in the statistical analysis.

  16. The Growth and Mortality Rate of Mullet (Mugil dussumieri) on Seagrass Beds of The Teluk Awur Bay, Jepara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinandita, L. K.; Riniatsih, I.; Irwani, I.

    2018-02-01

    Seagrass beds that have relatively high primary productivity are used as habitat for many marine species. Fish use seagrass as feeding, nursery, and spawning grounds. This research aimed to determinate the growth and mortality rates of mullet (Mugil dussumieri) on seagrass bed ecosystems of Teluk Awur Bay water, Jepara, Central Java. The descriptive method was applied in this research with the purposive method for sampling. Microsoft Excel software and FISAT II of FAO were used for data analyses, and the samples of 347 mullet (M. dussumieri) were taken from October until December 2016. The results of this research showed that length of fish ranges 8 – 28.9 cm with weight range 5 – 248 grams. The growth coefficient value (K) was 0.33 with asymptotic length (L∞) 30.24 cm, and the value of t was - 0.305, which will be reaching for 11 years. The rate of total mortality (Z) was 0.854 per year, the value of natural mortality (M) was 0.706 per year and the value of fishing mortality (F) was 0.148 per year. Exploitation ratio (E) was 0.173 per year, it indicated that only 17.3% of mullet’s (M. dussumieri) deaths in Teluk Awur Bay waters caused bycatch. It can be estimated that the death of mullet in Teluk Awur Bay waters affected more by the condition of the waters, in this case, the decreasing density of seagrass in research location is expected to affect the growth of mullet.

  17. DEFLAGRATION RATES OF SECONDARY EXPLOSIVES UNDER STATIC MPA - GPA PRESSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaug, J; Young, C; Long, G; Maienschein, J; Glascoe, E; Hansen, D; Wardell, J; Black, C; Sykora, G

    2009-07-30

    We provide measurements of the chemical reaction propagation rate (RPR) as a function of pressure using diamond anvil cell (DAC) and strand burner technologies. Materials investigated include HMX and RDX crystalline powders, LX-04 (85% HMX and 15% Viton A), and Composition B (63% RDX, 36% TNT, 1% wax). The anomalous correspondence between crystal structure, including in some instances isostructural phase transitions, on pressure dependent RPRs of HMX and RDX are correlated to confocal micro-Raman spectroscopic results. The contrast between DAC GPa and strand burner MPa regime measurements yield insight into explosive material burn phenomena. Here we highlight pressure dependent physicochemical mechanisms that appear to affect the deflagration rate of precompressed energetic materials.

  18. Dynamic asset allocation for bank under stochastic interest rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Chakroun, Fatma; Abid, Fathi

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal asset allocation strategy for bank with stochastic interest rates when there are three types of asset: Bank account, loans and securities. The asset allocation problem is to maximize the expected utility from terminal wealth of a bank's shareholders over a finite time horizon. As a consequence, we apply a dynamic programming principle to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation explicitly in the case of the CRRA utility function. A case study is given ...

  19. On the Determination of Magnesium Degradation Rates under Physiological Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nidadavolu, Eshwara Phani Shubhakar; Feyerabend, Frank; Ebel, Thomas; Willumeit-R?mer, Regine; Dahms, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The current physiological in vitro tests of Mg degradation follow the procedure stated according to the ASTM standard. This standard, although useful in predicting the initial degradation behavior of an alloy, has its limitations in interpreting the same for longer periods of immersion in cell culture media. This is an important consequence as the alloy?s degradation is time dependent. Even if two different alloys show similar corrosion rates in a short term experiment, their degradation char...

  20. [Trendency analysis of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight in China from 1996 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hao; He, Chunhua; Miao, Lei; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Qi; Li, Xiaohong; Shen, Liqin

    2015-02-01

    To study the secular trend and characteristics of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight (IMRPL) in China from 1996 to 2013. Data used in this study was collected from the population-based Child's Health Surveillance Network of China. The Cochran-Armitage Trend test and Poisson regression were used to test the trend of IMRPL and explore the differences of the trend among different regions or areas. The nationwide IMRPL was 629.9 per 100 000 live births in 1996 and it decreased to 214.6 per 100 000 live births in 2013. The average annual decline rate was 6.14%, while the proportion of infant mortality due to premature birth or low birth weight in all infant deaths was on the rise with the average annual growth rate of 1.52%. And the proportion increased to 22.6% in 2013. IMRPLin rural and urban areas fell 28.1% and 66.6% respectively during 1996 and 2013. But the differences between urban and rural areas was obvious. During the same period, the average IMRPLin the central region was 1.40 times (95%CI:1.31-1.49) of that in the eastern region. And the average IMRPL in the western region was 2.25 times (95%CI:2.12-2.40) of that in the eastern region. The differences among different regions was obvious. Male infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight was 1.09 times (95%CI:1.05-1.14) of that in female infant from 1996 to 2013. The risk of IMRPL decreased substantially in China from 1996 to 2013. And the risk of IMRPL decreased more in rural areas than that in urban areas. The differences among different regions and areas were obvious. Premature birth or low birth weight as one of main factors has become a serious threat for health of Chinese children.

  1. Decomposition of sugar cane crop residues under different nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Costa Potrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of organic residues through mechanical harvesting of cane sugar is a growing practice in sugarcane production system. The maintenance of these residues on the soil surface depends mainly on environmental conditions. Nitrogen fertilization on dry residues tend to retard decomposition of these, providing benefits such as increased SOM. Thus, the object of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen on sugar cane crop residues, as its decomposition and contribution to carbon sequestration in soil. The experiment was conducted in Dourados-MS and consisted of a randomized complete block design. Dried residues were placed in litter bags and the treatments were arranged in a split plot, being the four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N the plots, and the seven sampling times (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 the spit plots. Decomposition rates of residues, total organic carbon and labile carbon on soil were analysed. The application of increasing N doses resulted in an increase in their decomposition rates. Despite this, note also the mineral N application as a strategy to get higher levels of labile carbon in soil.

  2. Encountering Mortality: A Decade Later, the Pedagogical Necessity of "Six Feet Under"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitfils, Brad

    2016-01-01

    In today's society, where the Promethean project of mastering the universe seems to guide the scientific community to its last moment of triumph--human immortality--young people seem to lack curricular opportunities to engage with mortality. This is not surprising, as the legacy of psychology, as far back as the times of Freud and Jung, exposes a…

  3. Age at First Birth and Social Dimensions of Under-5 Child Mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings of the study show significant relationships between maternal age at first birth and childhood mortality level within the socio-demographic characteristics of women (such as place of residence, current age, occupational status, educational level, marital status, form of marriage and number of children ever born).

  4. Projections of temperature-related excess mortality under climate change scenarios

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gasparrini, A.; Guo, Y.; Sera, F.; Vicedo-Cabrera, A.M.; Huber, V.; Tong, S.; Coelho, M. S. Z. S.; Saldiva, P. H. N.; Lavigne, E.; Correa, P.M.; Ortega, N. V.; Kan, H.; Osorio, S.; Kyselý, Jan; Urban, Aleš; Jaakkola, J.J.K.; Ryti, N.R.I.; Pascal, M.; Goodman, P.G.; Zeka, A.; Michelozzi, P.; Scortichini, M.; Hashizume, M.; Honda, Y.; Hurtado-Diaz, M.; Cruz, J.C.; Seposo, X.; Kim, H.; Tobias, A.; Iñiguez, C.; Forsberg, B.; Åström, D.O.; Ragettli, M.S.; Guo, Y.L.; Wu, Ch.; Zanobetti, A.; Schwartz, J.; Bell, M.L.; Dang, T.N.; Van, D.D.; Heaviside, C.; Vardoulakis, S.; Hajat, S.; Haines, A.; Armstrong, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 9 (2017), e360-e367 ISSN 2542-5196 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-22000S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : climate change scenarios * mortality Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Climatic research https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2542519617301560#!

  5. Analyzing Infant and Child (Under-five) Mortality in Zaria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    that there are marginal deviations in the levels of infant and child mortality, comparing the child's age, gender, the mothers' educational attainment, age at birth, nature and duration of marriage, financial status. It has been discovered that a mother's education is one of the single most significant determinant of infant and child ...

  6. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  7. Hypoalbuminemia is a predictor of mortality and rebleeding in peptic ulcer bleeding under proton pump inhibitor use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Yang, Er-Hsiang; Wu, Chung-Tai; Wang, Wen-Lun; Chen, Po-Jun; Lin, Meng-Ying; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2018-04-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding remains a deadly disease, and a simple indicator of long-term outcomes is crucial. This study validated whether hypoalbuminemia and its related factors in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding can indicate long-term mortality and rebleeding under proton pump inhibitor use. The prospective cohort study enrolled 426 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who had high risk stigmata at endoscopy and had received endoscopic hemostasis. They were divided into 79 patients in the hypoalbuminemia group (Hypo-AG, serum albumin ulcer size ≥1.0 cm independently (p peptic ulcer bleeding can be an alarm indicator of all-cause mortality and recurrent bleeding in a long-term follow-up situation under proton pump inhibitor use (NCT01591083). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Assessing and mapping spatial associations among oral cancer mortality rates, concentrations of heavy metals in soil, and land use types based on multiple scale data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Pin; Wang, Yung-Chieh; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2014-02-21

    In this study, a deconvolution procedure was used to create a variogram of oral cancer (OC) rates. Based on the variogram, area-to-point (ATP) Poisson kriging and p-field simulation were used to downscale and simulate, respectively, the OC rate data for Taiwan from the district scale to a 1 km × 1 km grid scale. Local cluster analysis (LCA) of OC mortality rates was then performed to identify OC mortality rate hot spots based on the downscaled and the p-field-simulated OC mortality maps. The relationship between OC mortality and land use was studied by overlapping the maps of the downscaled OC mortality, the LCA results, and the land uses. One thousand simulations were performed to quantify local and spatial uncertainties in the LCA to identify OC mortality hot spots. The scatter plots and Spearman's rank correlation yielded the relationship between OC mortality and concentrations of the seven metals in the 1 km cell grid. The correlation analysis results for the 1 km scale revealed a weak correlation between OC mortality rate and concentrations of the seven studied heavy metals in soil. Accordingly, the heavy metal concentrations in soil are not major determinants of OC mortality rates at the 1 km scale at which soils were sampled. The LCA statistical results for local indicator of spatial association (LISA) revealed that the sites with high probability of high-high (high value surrounded by high values) OC mortality at the 1 km grid scale were clustered in southern, eastern, and mid-western Taiwan. The number of such sites was also significantly higher on agricultural land and in urban regions than on land with other uses. The proposed approach can be used to downscale and evaluate uncertainty in mortality data from a coarse scale to a fine scale at which useful additional information can be obtained for assessing and managing land use and risk.

  9. Maternal intimate partner violence victimization and under-five children mortality in Western Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoma, Sileshi; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Worku, Alemayehu

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the association between maternal intimate partner violence and under-five mortality. Matched case-control study was conducted from May to June 2011. A sample of 286 cases and 572 controls were randomly selected from East Wollega Zone, West Ethiopia. Among cases, 72.7% ever experienced controlling behaviors when compared to 62.4% for controls. All forms of maternal intimate partner violence were experienced by 61.9% of cases and 50.9% of controls. Controlling behavior in marriage and experiences of all forms of intimate partner violence during lifetime were more than four [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-18.89), and two (AOR = 2.55, 95% CI 1.66-3.92) times as likely to be associated with under-five mortality. Maternal intimate partner violence victimization is strongly associated with under-five mortality. Involving men in maternal and child health programs could be one strategy to address the issue of intimate partner violence against women.

  10. Acute Myocardial Infarction Population Incidence and Mortality Rates, and 28-day Case-fatality in Older Adults. The REGICOR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Oliva, Gabriel; Zamora, Alberto; Ramos, Rafel; Marti, Ruth; Subirana, Isaac; Grau, María; R Degano, Irene; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2017-11-21

    Our aims were to determine acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence and mortality rates, and population and in-hospital case-fatality in the population older than 74 years; variability in clinical characteristics and AMI management of hospitalized patients, and changes in the incidence and mortality rates, case-fatality, and management by age groups from 1996 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008. A population-based AMI registry in Girona (Catalonia, Spain) including individuals with suspected AMI older than 34 years. The incidence rate increased with age from 169 and 28 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 2306 and 1384 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 85 to 94 years, in men and women, respectively. Population case-fatality also increased with age, from 19% in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 84% in the group aged 85 to 94 years. A lower population case-fatality was observed in the second period, mainly explained by a lower in-hospital case-fatality. The use of invasive procedures and effective drugs decreased with age but increased in the second period in all ages up to 84 years. Acute myocardial infarction incidence, mortality, and case-fatality increased exponentially with age. There is still a gap in the use of invasive procedures and effective drugs between younger and older patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  12. Relation of Telemetry Use and Mortality Risk, Hospital Length of Stay, and Readmission Rates in Patients With Respiratory Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Nancy; Burton, M Caroline; Hull, Bryan; Beliles, Gregory; Pritchard, Ingrid; Trautman, Christopher; Ferry, Laura; Doyon, Amanda; Colby, Rebecca; Chuu, Andy; Kung, Shu Ting; Khang, Tran; Durocher, Donna; Buras, Matthew; Kosiorek, Heidi; Agrwal, Neera; Sen, Ayan; Goss, Darin; Geyer, Holly

    2017-10-15

    The 2004 American Heart Association expert opinion-based guidelines restrict telemetry use primarily to patients with current or high-risk cardiac conditions. Respiratory infections have emerged as a common source of hospitalization, and telemetry is frequently applied without indication in efforts to monitor patient decompensation. In this retrospective study, we aimed to determine whether telemetry impacts mortality risk, length of stay (LOS), or readmission rates in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infection not meeting American Heart Association criteria. A total of 765 respiratory infection patient encounters with Diagnosis-Related Groups 193, 194, 195, 177, 178 and 179 admitted in 2013 to 2015 to 2 tertiary community-based medical centers (Mayo Clinic, Arizona, and Mayo Clinic, Florida) were evaluated, and outcomes between patients who underwent or did not undergo telemetry were compared. Overall, the median LOS was longer in patients who underwent telemetry (3.0 days vs 2.0 days, p Telemetry predicted LOS for both univariate (estimate 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.32, p = 0.003) and multivariate (estimate 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.30, p = 0.003) analyses after controlling for severity of illness but did not predict patient mortality. In conclusion, this study identified that patients with respiratory infection who underwent telemetry without clear indications may face increased LOS without reducing their readmission risk or improving the overall mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006 and Mortality Rates (1997–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Babb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006 and data on mortality (1997–2009 from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma. There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  14. A research on personal credit rating under big-data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Nie, Erbao; Chen, Shaozhen

    2018-04-01

    Solvency mainly discover the availability and fluctuations of one's cashflow, to reveal the reasons for one's balance and future trends, as well as to determine one's ability to obtain funds to repay debt and the flow Release space. the intention to repay reflects the debtor's decision which is made after weighting the benefits and cost of repaying the principal and interest. examining the repaying willingness reveals the debtor's passion to repay the outstanding obligations and the new debt, then based on which we can determine the security of principal and interest payment. risk preference is to examine individual's exact demand for credit, and the adjusting degree between the demand and the solvency, to derive the agent cost and the coverage rate of the new-issued debt.

  15. The Association between Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimated Using Different Equations and Mortality in the Japanese Community-Based Population: The Yamagata (Takahata Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Kabasawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate renal function, the indices of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR obtained using several equations, including the Japanese versions of the serum creatinine-based MDRD equation (eGFRcreat, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (eGFR-EPI, and serum cystatin C-based equation (eGFRcys, are utilized. This study prospectively examined the association between these eGFR values and all-cause mortality during a 12-year observational period in a community-based population. Methods and Results. The subjects of this study were 1312 participants undergoing a health checkup, aged ≥40 years. In the total population, the mean eGFR values (mL·min−1·1.73 m−2 were 81.5 for eGFRcreat, 78.1 for eGFR-EPI, and 76.6 for eGFRcys. There were 141 deaths during the observation period, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting mortality was 0.59 for eGFRcreat, 0.67 for eGFR-EPI, and 0.70 for eGFRcys (all P<0.01. In the Cox proportional analysis adjusted for age and sex, eGFRcys, but not eGFRcreat and eGFR-EPI, showed a significant association with all-cause mortality (per 15 mL·min−1·1.73 m−2 decrease: hazard ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.18–1.67. Conclusions. This study revealed that eGFRcys showed lower values than eGFRcreat and eGFR-EPI and was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in the Japanese community-based population.

  16. Inhibition Underlies the Effect of High Need for Closure on Cultural Closed-Mindedness under Mortality Salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrij Agroskin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that people respond to reminders of mortality with closed-minded, ethnocentric attitudes has received extensive empirical support, largely from research in the Terror Management theory tradition. However, the basic motivational and neural processes that underlie this effect remain largely hypothetical. According to recent neuropsychological theorizing, mortality salience (MS effects on cultural closed-mindedness may be mediated by activity in the behavioral inhibition system (BIS, which leads to passive avoidance and decreased approach motivation. This should be especially true for people motivated to avoid unfamiliar and potentially threatening stimuli as reflected in a high need for closure (NFC. In two studies involving moderated mediation analyses, people high on trait NFC responded to MS with increased BIS activity (as indicated by EEG and the line bisection task, which is characteristic of inhibited approach motivation. BIS activity, in turn, predicted a reluctance to explore foreign cultures (Study 1 and generalized ethnocentric attitudes (Study 2. In a third study, inhibition was induced directly and caused an increase in ethnocentrism for people high on NFC. Moreover, the effect of the inhibition manipulation × NCF interaction on ethnocentrism was explained by increases in BIS-related affect (i.e., anxious inhibition at high NFC. To our knowledge, this research is the first to establish an empirical link between very basic, neurally-instantiated inhibitory processes and rather complex, higher-order manifestations of intergroup negativity. Our findings contribute to a fuller understanding of the cultural worldview defense phenomenon by illuminating the motivational underpinnings of cultural closed-mindedness in the wake of existential threat.

  17. Effect of small-dose levosimendan on mortality rates and organ functions in Chinese elderly patients with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xin Wang,1,* Shikui Li2,* 1Intensive Care Unit, 2Cardiothoracic Surgery, Daqing Oilfield General Hospital, Daqing, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: As a primary cause of death not only in Western countries but also in the People’s Republic of China, sepsis is diagnosed as abnormal organ functions as a result of a disordered response to a severe infection. This study was designed to assess the effect of small-dose levosimendan without a loading dose on mortality rates and organ functions in Chinese elderly patients with sepsis.Methods: Following a prospective, randomized, and double-blinded design, 240 Chinese elderly patients with sepsis shock were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU. All patients were randomly and evenly assigned into a levosimendan group (number of patients =120 and a control group (number of patients =120. The control group underwent standard care, and the levosimendan group was administered levosimendan in addition to standard care.Results: All participants, comprising 134 males (55.8% and 106 females (44.2%, were 70 (67–73 years old. Baseline characteristics, preexisting illnesses, initial infections, organ failures, and additional agents and therapies showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05 for all. There were no significant differences in mortality rates at 28 days, at ICU discharge, and at hospital discharge between the two groups (P>0.05 for all. The number of days of ICU and hospital stay in the levosimendan group was significantly less than for those in the control group (P<0.05 for all. Mean daily total sequential organ failure assessment score and all organ scores except the cardiovascular scores showed no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05 for all. Cardiovascular scores in the levosimendan group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05 for all.Conclusion: Small

  18. Mortality rates and causes of death in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women, 1993–1999

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Dawn K.; Gardner, Lytt I.; Phelps, Ruby; Hamburger, Merle E.; Carpenter, Charles; Klein, Robert S.; Rompalo, Ann; Schuman, Paula; Holmberg, Scott D.

    2003-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-associated and non-HIV/AIDS-associated death rates and causes of death between 1993 and 1999 were examined in 885 HIV-infected women and 425 uninfected women of the HIV Epidemiology Research Study cohort. Causes of death were determined by review of death certificates and the National Death Index. Adjusted bazard ratios were calculated for mortality risk factors. In the 885 HIV-infected women and 425 uninfected women, 234 deaths and 8 deaths, respectively, occurred by December 31, 19...

  19. Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Berhe, D. F.; van Boven, J. F. M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can identify

  20. Fine-root mortality rates in a temperate forest: Estimates using radiocarbon data and numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, W.J.; Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Joslin, J.D.; Hanson, P.J.

    2009-09-01

    We used an inadvertent whole-ecosystem {sup 14}C label at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA to develop a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root dynamics. Radix simulates two live-root pools, two dead-root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored carbon (C) pool, and seasonal growth and respiration patterns. We applied Radix to analyze measurements from two root size classes (< 0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm diameter) and three soil-depth increments (O horizon, 0-15 cm and 30-60 cm). Predicted live-root turnover times were < 1 yr and 10 yr for short- and long-lived pools, respectively. Dead-root pools had decomposition turnover times of 2 yr and 10 yr. Realistic characterization of C flows through fine roots requires a model with two live fine-root populations, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. These are the first fine-root turnover time estimates that take into account respiration, storage, seasonal growth patterns, and non-normal turnover time distributions. The presence of a root population with decadal turnover times implies a lower amount of belowground net primary production used to grow fine-root tissue than is currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  1. An industry perspective: dietary supplements and mortality rates in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Taylor C; MacKay, Douglas; Ritz, Barry W; McBurney, Michael; Shao, Andrew; Miller, John; Brooks, James; Hendricks, Lewis

    2013-06-01

    This special article seeks to provide balance and clarity to the confusion brought about by the conclusions resulting from a recent study published in Archives of Internal Medicine by Mursu et al. (2011). An examination of three key limitations of the study provides context to why additional research is needed: (a) Nonusers were poorly defined; (b) supplement users were healthier than nonusers; and (c) the number of supplement users increased throughout the study. Although the literature is limited, other similar observational studies have also shown positive effects on the risk mortality for both multivitamins and single-nutrient supplements. Observational trials are an essential component of evidence-based nutrition but do not offer certainty because other data, such as the one generated from randomized controlled trials, are equally important in regard to the totality of evidence. The Senior Scientific Advisory Committee for the Council for Responsible Nutrition, an industry trade group, feels that the conclusions of the study by Mursu et al. (2011) are overstated and suggests that researchers analyze cohort(s) designed to specifically examine vitamin and mineral supplements free of confounding from factors, such as hormone replacement therapy, to better assess their benefits to the general population.

  2. Evaluating the predictive performance of empirical estimators of natural mortality rate using information on over 200 fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Amy Y.; Hoenig, John M; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been developed in the last 70 years to predict the natural mortality rate, M, of a stock based on empirical evidence from comparative life history studies. These indirect or empirical methods are used in most stock assessments to (i) obtain estimates of M in the absence of direct information, (ii) check on the reasonableness of a direct estimate of M, (iii) examine the range of plausible M estimates for the stock under consideration, and (iv) define prior distributions for Bayesian analyses. The two most cited empirical methods have appeared in the literature over 2500 times to date. Despite the importance of these methods, there is no consensus in the literature on how well these methods work in terms of prediction error or how their performance may be ranked. We evaluate estimators based on various combinations of maximum age (tmax), growth parameters, and water temperature by seeing how well they reproduce >200 independent, direct estimates of M. We use tenfold cross-validation to estimate the prediction error of the estimators and to rank their performance. With updated and carefully reviewed data, we conclude that a tmax-based estimator performs the best among all estimators evaluated. The tmax-based estimators in turn perform better than the Alverson–Carney method based on tmax and the von Bertalanffy K coefficient, Pauly’s method based on growth parameters and water temperature and methods based just on K. It is possible to combine two independent methods by computing a weighted mean but the improvement over the tmax-based methods is slight. Based on cross-validation prediction error, model residual patterns, model parsimony, and biological considerations, we recommend the use of a tmax-based estimator (M=4.899tmax−0.916">M=4.899t−0.916maxM=4.899tmax−0.916, prediction error = 0.32) when possible and a growth-based method (M=4.118K0.73L∞−0.33">M=4.118K0.73L−0.33∞M=4.118K0.73L∞−0.33 , prediction error

  3. European cancer mortality predictions for the year 2015: does lung cancer have the highest death rate in EU women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvezzi, M; Bertuccio, P; Rosso, T; Rota, M; Levi, F; La Vecchia, C; Negri, E

    2015-04-01

    Cancer mortality statistics for 2015 were projected from the most recent available data for the European Union (EU) and its six more populous countries. Prostate cancer was analysed in detail. Population and death certification data from stomach, colorectum, pancreas, lung, breast, uterus, prostate, leukaemias and total cancers were obtained from the World Health Organisation database and Eurostat. Figures were derived for the EU, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the UK. Projected 2015 numbers of deaths by age group were obtained by linear regression on estimated numbers of deaths over the most recent time period identified by a joinpoint regression model. A total of 1,359,100 cancer deaths are predicted in the EU in 2015 (766,200 men and 592,900 women), corresponding to standardised death rates of 138.4/100,000 men and 83.9/100,000 women, falling 7.5% and 6%, respectively, since 2009. In men, predicted rates for the three major cancers (lung, colorectum and prostate) are lower than in 2009, falling 9%, 5% and 12%. Prostate cancer showed predicted falls of 14%, 17% and 9% in the 35-64, 65-74 and 75+ age groups. In women, breast and colorectal cancers had favourable trends (-10% and -8%), but predicted lung cancer rates rise 9% to 14.24/100,000 becoming the cancer with the highest rate, reaching and possibly overtaking breast cancer rates--though the total number of deaths remain higher for breast (90 800) than lung (87 500). Pancreatic cancer has a negative outlook in both sexes, rising 4% in men and 5% in women between 2009 and 2015. Cancer mortality predictions for 2015 confirm the overall favourable cancer mortality trend in the EU, translating to an overall 26% fall in men since its peak in 1988, and 21% in women, and the avoidance of over 325,000 deaths in 2015 compared with the peak rate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  4. Race-specific impact of natural history, mammography screening, and adjuvant treatment on breast cancer mortality rates in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien); C.B. Schechter (Clyde); A.M. Near (Aimee); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); M.A. Stoto (Michael); G. Draisma (Gerrit); H.J. de Koning (Harry); J.S. Mandelblatt (Jeanne)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: U.S. Black women have higher breast cancer mortality rates than White women despite lower incidence. The aim of this study is to investigate how much of the mortality disparity can be attributed to racial differences in natural history, uptake of mammography screening, and

  5. Level and pattern of overstory retention influence rates and forms of tree mortality in mature, coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren S. Urgenson; Charles B. Halpern; Paul D. Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Mortality of retained trees can compromise the ecological objectives of variable-retention harvest. We used a large-scale experiment replicated at six locations in western Washington and Oregon to examine the influences of retention level (40% vs. 15% of original basal area) and its spatial pattern (aggregated vs.dispersed) on the rate and form of tree mortality for 11...

  6. Variations in mesothelioma mortality rates among migrants to Australia and Australian-born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Si; Peters, Susan; Reid, Alison

    2018-07-01

    Australia's use and consumption of asbestos occurred at the same time as its immigration boom. Our objective was to investigate mesothelioma death rates among migrants and Australian-born between 1981 and 2012. Australian national mesothelioma deaths from 1981 to 2002 and 2006 to 2012 together with national censuses from 1981 to 2011 were extracted and combined. Directly standardised rates and negative binomial regression were applied examining differences in mesothelioma death rates with regard to country of birth. Migrants from the UK and Ireland, Italy and Germany had significantly higher mesothelioma death rates than Australian-born; lower rates were observed among migrants from other countries. Our findings suggest there may have been differences in occupational health and safety between foreign and Australian-born. Because of changes in the demographics of migrants to Australia since the 1970s and changes in occupational circumstances over time, further comparisons of occupational-related health outcomes between foreign and Australian-born could identify potential occupational inequalities that may still exist today.

  7. Laboratory determined mortality, fecundity and growth rates of Thalia democratica Forskal and Dolioletta gegenbauri Uljanin (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deibel, D.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory experiments are reported which provide information on culture conditions, mortality, fecundity and growth of Thalia democratica and Dolioletta gegenbauri in relation to simulated environmental conditions. Thaliacenas were maintained in laboratory culture at 20/sup 0/C. Culture vessels were 2.5 l glass bottles. Diets consisted of Isochrysis galbana and Peridinium trochoideum, offered alone or together at total concentrations of 0.25 to 0.70 mm/sup 3/ x 1/sup -/2exclamation. Laboratory released aggregate stages of Thalia were maintained for one week and gonozooid, phorozooid and oozooid stages of Dolioletta were reared for up to three weeks with daily mortality rates of 5-10%. There was no effect of diet on mortality rate. Thalia did not reproduce sexually but Dolioletta did routinely. Each Thalia solitary relased a mean (+/- SE) of 54 +/- 8 aggregates of 1.1-2.1 mm length. Each Dolioletta gonozooid produced 2-6 larvae 0.6-1.2 mm long, and each phorozooid released a mean of 31 +/- 11 gonozooids. Aggregate growth was exponential for 7 days, with daily exponential growth coefficients (k) ranging from 0.03-0.36. Gonozooids grew exponentially for 17 days with a range of k from 0.08-0.25, and phorozooids grew exponentially for 5 days with k ranging from 0.17-0.69. There was no effect of food concentration on k. Generation times of Thalia and Dolioletta were estimated to be from 3-6 weeks. These are probably maximum generation times for these two species in the Georgia Bight.

  8. Heritability of resting heart rate and association with mortality in middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Wod, Mette; Galatius, Søren

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Resting heart rate (RHR) possibly has a hereditary component and is associated with longevity. We used the classical biometric twin study design to investigate the heritability of RHR in a population of middle-aged and elderly twins and, furthermore, studied the association between RHR...

  9. Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Admission Rates and Subsequent One-Year Mortality in England: 1998-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony; Clacey, Joe; Seagroatt, Valerie; Goldacre, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time of very rapid change not only in physical but also psychological development. During the teenage years there is a reported rise in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and sex-specific National Health Service (NHS) hospital inpatient admission rates for psychiatric…

  10. Mortality counts and rates for injuries in Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Injury Observatory for Britain and Ireland (IOBI)

    2014-01-01

    Number of deaths and age-standardised death rates by type of injury for the following regions and year of occurrence:Republic of Ireland 1982, 1983, 1995-2004Northern Ireland 1982, 1983, 1995-2002England 1996-2003Scotland 1982, 1983, 1995-2004Wales 1996-2003

  11. Differences in cancer mortality rates in Ohio communities with respect to uraniferous geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzik, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Populations in areas of uraniferous geology may be at risk from radon emissions. Twenty-eight municipalities were examined as to their location with respect to uraniferous geology. Communities with possible radon risk had higher rates for all cancers and cancer of the respiratory system, but differences were not statistically significant. Some possible reasons for the results are discussed

  12. Music therapy-induced changes in salivary cortisol level are predictive of cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi-Chou; Lin, Yen-Ju; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chang, Chia-Chi; Yang, Li-King

    2017-01-01

    Music therapy has been applied in hemodialysis (HD) patients for relieving mental stress. Whether the stress-relieving effect by music therapy is predictive of clinical outcome in HD patients is still unclear. We recruited a convenience sample of 99 patients on maintenance HD and randomly assigned them to the experimental (n=49) or control (n=50) group. The experimental group received relaxing music therapy for 1 week, whereas the control group received no music therapy. In the experimental group, we compared cardiovascular mortality in the patients with and without cortisol changes. The salivary cortisol level was lowered after 1 week of music therapy in the experimental group (-2.41±3.08 vs 1.66±2.11 pg/mL, P 0.6 pg/mL (83.8% vs 63.6%, P predict cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance HD.

  13. Femicide trends in Brazil: relationship between public interest and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete; Mendes, Mário Luis Tavares; Reinheimer, Daniele Machado; do Nascimento-Júnior, Edmundo Marques; Vaez, Andréia Centenaro; Santos, Victor Santana; Santos, Hudson P

    2018-03-29

    In this information epidemiology (infodemiology) study, we describe the online public interest about the issue of femicide in Brazil and analyze the relationship between search queries and femicide trends from 2004 to 2015. We showed that information-seeking behavior for femicide in the Brazilian states has been strongly influenced by female homicide rates. Educational and policy-related interventions are needed to improve the population's knowledge and attitude toward femicide.

  14. The relationship of cancer mortality to life span and food supply rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totter, J.R.; Adler, H.I.; Storer, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Survival curves for men and women dying from cardiovascular disease and similar curves for those dying from cancer in 47 countries were compared with the 1970-1974 per capita incomes of the inhabitants. The data were taken chiefly from 1964 life tables. The steepest survival curves were found in countries with the highest incomes. Comparison of the survival curves in different countries and comparison of cardiovascular survival with cancer survival curves indicate that both groups of diseases are probably diseases of senescence. The differences in survival slopes are interpreted as homeostatic responses in the population to rate of food intake. The response protects the population against long-term effects of changes in food supply by promoting differential reproduction of offspring best suited to the food supply rate fro the environment. The response to food supply rate complicates calculation of the effects of protracted exposure to low-level ionizing radiation because the radiation exposure appears to mimic the effec of extra food

  15. Metropolitan social environments and pre-HAART/HAART era changes in mortality rates (per 10,000 adult residents among injection drug users living with AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R Friedman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was developed. METHODS: This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993-2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents from 1993-1995 to 2004-2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993-1995 mortality rates to (partially control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes. RESULTS: In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in 'hard drug' arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be

  16. Functional outcome, revision rates and mortality after primary total hip replacement--a national comparison of nine prosthesis brands in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Mark; Grieve, Richard; Black, Nick; van der Meulen, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    The number of prosthesis brands used for hip replacement has increased rapidly, but there is little evidence on their effectiveness. We compared patient-reported outcomes, revision rates, and mortality for the three most frequently used brands within each prosthesis type: cemented (Exeter V40 Contemporary, Exeter V40 Duration and Exeter V40 Elite Plus Ogee), cementless (Corail Pinnacle, Accolade Trident, and Taperloc Exceed), and hybrid (Exeter V40 Trilogy, Exeter V40 Trilogy, and CPT Trilogy). We used three national databases of patients who had hip replacements between 2008 and 2011 in the English NHS to compare functional outcome (Oxford Hip Score (OHS) ranging from 0 (worst) to 48 (best)) in 43,524 patients at six months. We analysed revisions and mortality in 187,201 patients. We used multiple regression to adjust for pre-operative differences. Prosthesis type had an impact on post-operative OHS and revision rates (both pprosthesis type were small and not significant (p = 0.06). Functional outcome varied according to brand among cemented (p = 0.05, with Exeter V40 Duration having the best) and cementless prostheses (p = 0.01, with Corail Pinnacle having the best). Revision rates varied according to brand among hybrids (p = 0.05, with Exeter V40 Trident having the lowest). Functional outcomes were better with cementless cups and revision rates were lower with cemented stems, which underlies the good overall performance of hybrids. The hybrid Exeter V40 Trident seemed to produce the best overall results. This brand should be considered as a benchmark in randomised trials.

  17. Suicide Mortality, Suicidal Ideation and Psychological Problems in Dutch Anaesthesiologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, M.C.A.; Liem, A.L.; Dongen, van E.P.A.; Carels, I.C.; Egmond, van M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reveal an elevated suicide rate for anaesthesiologists. We sought to examine anaesthesiologist suicide mortality and its underlying explanatory factors. Two studies were conducted in order to establish the suicide mortality figures among Dutch anaesthesiologists and to investigate

  18. Strategies to reduce hospital 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction: a cross-sectional and longitudinal survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Sipsma, Heather; Brewster, Amanda L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Curry, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Background Survival rates after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) vary markedly across U.S. hospitals. Although substantial efforts have been made to improve hospital performance, we lack contemporary evidence about changes in hospital strategies and features of organizational culture that might contribute to reducing hospital AMI mortality rates. We sought to describe current use of several strategies and features of organizational culture linked to AMI mortality in a national sample of hosp...

  19. National, regional, and global sex ratios of infant, child, and under-5 mortality and identification of countries with outlying ratios: a systematic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Alkema, Leontine; Chao, Fengqing; You, Danzhen; Pedersen, Jon; Sawyer, Cheryl C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Under natural circumstances, the sex ratio of male to female mortality up to the age of 5 years is greater than one but sex discrimination can change sex ratios. The estimation of mortality by sex and identification of countries with outlying levels is challenging because of issues with data availability and quality, and because sex ratios might vary naturally based on differences in mortality levels and associated cause of death distributions. Methods: For this systematic anal...

  20. Functional outcome, revision rates and mortality after primary total hip replacement--a national comparison of nine prosthesis brands in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pennington

    Full Text Available The number of prosthesis brands used for hip replacement has increased rapidly, but there is little evidence on their effectiveness. We compared patient-reported outcomes, revision rates, and mortality for the three most frequently used brands within each prosthesis type: cemented (Exeter V40 Contemporary, Exeter V40 Duration and Exeter V40 Elite Plus Ogee, cementless (Corail Pinnacle, Accolade Trident, and Taperloc Exceed, and hybrid (Exeter V40 Trilogy, Exeter V40 Trilogy, and CPT Trilogy.We used three national databases of patients who had hip replacements between 2008 and 2011 in the English NHS to compare functional outcome (Oxford Hip Score (OHS ranging from 0 (worst to 48 (best in 43,524 patients at six months. We analysed revisions and mortality in 187,201 patients. We used multiple regression to adjust for pre-operative differences. Prosthesis type had an impact on post-operative OHS and revision rates (both p<0.001. Patients with hybrid prostheses had the best functional outcome (mean OHS 39.4, 95%CI 39.1 to 39.7 and those with cemented prostheses the worst (37.7, 37.3 to 38.1. Patients with cemented prostheses had the lowest reported 5-year revision rates (1.3%, 1.2% to 1.4% and those with cementless prostheses the highest (2.2%, 2.1% to 2.4%. Differences in mortality according to prosthesis type were small and not significant (p = 0.06. Functional outcome varied according to brand among cemented (p = 0.05, with Exeter V40 Duration having the best and cementless prostheses (p = 0.01, with Corail Pinnacle having the best. Revision rates varied according to brand among hybrids (p = 0.05, with Exeter V40 Trident having the lowest.Functional outcomes were better with cementless cups and revision rates were lower with cemented stems, which underlies the good overall performance of hybrids. The hybrid Exeter V40 Trident seemed to produce the best overall results. This brand should be considered as a benchmark in randomised trials.

  1. Jaundice increases the rate of complications and one-year mortality in patients with hypoxic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Bernhard; Drolz, Andreas; Michl, Barbara; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Nikfardjam, Miriam; Zauner, Christian; Heinz, Gottfried; Trauner, Michael; Fuhrmann, Valentin

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is the most frequent cause of acute liver injury in critically ill patients. No clinical data exist about new onset of jaundice in patients with HH. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and clinical effect of jaundice in critically ill patients with HH. Two hundred and six consecutive patients with HH were screened for the development of jaundice during the course of HH. Individuals with preexisting jaundice or liver cirrhosis at the time of admission (n = 31) were excluded from analysis. Jaundice was diagnosed in patients with plasma total bilirubin levels >3 mg/dL. One-year-survival, infections, and cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal (GI), renal, and hepatic complications were prospectively documented. New onset of jaundice occurred in 63 of 175 patients with HH (36%). In patients who survived the acute event of HH, median duration of jaundice was 6 days (interquartile range, 3-8). Patients who developed jaundice (group 1) needed vasopressor treatment (P jaundice (group 2). One-year survival rate was significantly lower in group 1, compared to group 2 (8% versus 25%, respectively; P jaundice was associated with an increased frequency of complications during follow-up (54% in group 1 versus 35% in group 2; P Jaundice is a common finding during the course of HH. It leads to an increased rate of complications and worse outcome in patients with HH. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Incidence and Mortality Rates and Clinical Characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes among Children and Young Adults in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Duarte Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine incidence, mortality, and clinical status of youth with diabetes at the Centro Vivir con Diabetes, Cochabamba, Bolivia, with support from International Diabetes Federation Life for a Child Program. Methods. Incidence/mortality data analysis of all cases (<25 year (y diagnosed January 2005–February 2017 and cross-sectional data (December 2015. Results. Over 12.2 years, 144 cases with type 1 diabetes (T1D were diagnosed; 43.1% were male. Diagnosis age was 0.3–22.2 y; peak was 11-12 y. 11.1% were <5 y; 29.2%, 5–<10 y; 43.1%, 10–<15 y; 13.2%, 15–<20 y; and 3.5%, 20–<25 y. The youngest is being investigated for monogenic diabetes. Measured incidence in Cercado Province (Cochabamba Department was 2.2/100,000 children < 15 y/y, with ≈80% ascertainment, giving total incidence of 2.7/100,000 children < 15 y/y. Two had died. Crude mortality rate was 2.3/1000 patient years. Clinical data on 141 cases <35 y: mean/median HbA1c was 8.5/8.2% (69/62 mmol/mol, levels higher in adolescents. Three were on renal replacement therapy; four others had substantial renal impairment. Elevated BMI, triglycerides, and cholesterol were common: 19.1%, 18.3%, and 39.1%, respectively. Conclusions. Bolivia has low T1D incidence. Reasonable glycemic control is being achieved despite limited resources; however, some have serious complications and adverse cardiovascular risk factor profiles. Further attention is needed for complications.

  3. Estimation of fine-root production using rates of diameter-dependent root mortality, decomposition and thickening in forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Do, Tran; Osawa, Akira; Sato, Tamotsu

    2016-04-01

    Current studies indicate that fine roots of different diameter classes show different rates of decomposition. This study developed a new method to estimate fine-root production by considering the difference in the production of fine roots of two size classes, fine roots thinner than 1 mm and those between 1 and 2 mm, and their corresponding rates of decomposition. A litter bag experiment was used to estimate the decomposition rates, while the sequential soil core technique was used to identify mass values of live roots and dead roots at a given period of observation. The continuous inflow method was applied to estimate the amount of root decomposition, mortality and production with a framework of two diameter classes of fine roots and for quantification of the amount of mass transfer from the thicker fine-root class to the coarser root category (>2 mm). The results indicated that the estimate of fine-root production was greater when two size classes of fine roots were distinguished. Using a framework of two size classes developed in this study resulted in 21.3% higher fine-root production than a method that did not recognize fine-root size classes or mass transfer to the category of coarse roots. In addition, using shorter collection intervals led to higher production estimates than longer intervals. The production estimate with a 1-month interval was 21.4% higher than that with a 6-month interval. We consider that the use of the sequential soil core technique with continuous inflow estimate method by differentiating size classes of fine roots is likely to minimize the underestimation of the parameters of fine-root dynamics by accounting for decomposition and mortality of fine roots more appropriately. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Impact of cesarean section in a private health service in Brazil: indications and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, M A; Araujo Júnior, E; Camano, L; Peixoto, A B; Martins, W P; Mattar, R

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of, indications of, and maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in cesarean sections in a private health service in Brazil. Retrospective and observational study. Private health service in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to determine maternal age, gestational age at the time of delivery, number of previous deliveries, type of delivery performed, duration of labor, indications for cesarean delivery, point at which cesarean section was performed, physician responsible for delivery, and maternal morbidity, fetal morbidity, and fetal mortality rates. A descriptive analysis of the data was conducted. Students t-test was performed to compare quantitative variables, and Fishers exact test was performed for categorical variables. A total of 584 patients were evaluated. Of these, 91.8% (536/584) had cesarean sections, while only 8.2% (48/584) had vaginal deliveries. There were no reports of forceps-assisted vaginal deliveries. In 87.49% of the deliveries, the number of gestational weeks was more than 37. In terms of indications for performing cesarean section, 48.5% were for maternal causes, 30.41% were for fetal causes, and 17.17% were elective. Maternal re-hospitalization due to puerperal complications was necessary in 10.42% of the vaginal deliveries and in 0.93% of the cesarean deliveries (pcesarean section. Of the newborns with complications at birth, 40.59% (41/101) had to be admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. There were no cases of maternal death. There were seven cases of fetal/neonatal death. We observed that the vast majority of deliveries in the private sector are performed by cesarean section, without labor, and by the patients obstetrician. We found no serious maternal complications or increased neonatal morbidity rates associated with cesarean section.

  5. Respirator Filter Efficiency Testing Against Particulate and Biological Aerosols Under Moderate to High Flow Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Aaron W; Eshbaugh, Jonathan P; Hofacre, Kent C; Gardner, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    ...) and biological test aerosols under breather flow rates associated with high work rates. The inert test challenges consisted of solid and oil aerosols having nominal diameters ranging from 0.02...

  6. Age-specific malaria mortality rates in the KEMRI/CDC health and demographic surveillance system in western Kenya, 2003-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Desai

    Full Text Available Recent global malaria burden modeling efforts have produced significantly different estimates, particularly in adult malaria mortality. To measure malaria control progress, accurate malaria burden estimates across age groups are necessary. We determined age-specific malaria mortality rates in western Kenya to compare with recent global estimates. We collected data from 148,000 persons in a health and demographic surveillance system from 2003-2010. Standardized verbal autopsies were conducted for all deaths; probable cause of death was assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Annual malaria mortality rates per 1,000 person-years were generated by age group. Trends were analyzed using Poisson regression. From 2003-2010, in children <5 years the malaria mortality rate decreased from 13.2 to 3.7 per 1,000 person-years; the declines were greatest in the first three years of life. In children 5-14 years, the malaria mortality rate remained stable at 0.5 per 1,000 person-years. In persons ≥15 years, the malaria mortality rate decreased from 1.5 to 0.4 per 1,000 person-years. The malaria mortality rates in young children and persons aged ≥15 years decreased dramatically from 2003-2010 in western Kenya, but rates in older children have not declined. Sharp declines in some age groups likely reflect the national scale up of malaria control interventions and rapid expansion of HIV prevention services. These data highlight the importance of age-specific malaria mortality ascertainment and support current strategies to include all age groups in malaria control interventions.

  7. Fractal analysis of heart rate variability and mortality after an acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapanainen, Jari M; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Køber, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The recently developed fractal analysis of heart rate (HR) variability has been suggested to provide prognostic information about patients with heart failure. This prospective multicenter study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of fractal and traditional HR variability parameters...... in a large, consecutive series of survivors of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A consecutive series of 697 patients were recruited to participate 2 to 7 days after an AMI in 3 Nordic university hospitals. The conventional time-domain and spectral parameters and the newer fractal scaling indexes of HR...... variability were analyzed from 24-hour RR interval recordings. During the mean follow-up of 18.4 +/- 6.5 months, 49 patients (7.0%) died. Of all the risk variables, a reduced short-term fractal scaling exponent (alpha(1)

  8. [Light pollution increases morbidity and mortality rate from different causes in male rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukalev, A V; Vinogradova, I A; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Semenchenko, A V; Anisimov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of different light regimes (constant light--LL; constant darkness--DD; standard light regime--LD, 12 hours light 12 hours darkness; natural lightening of the North-West of Russia--NL) on the dynamics of life's morbidity rate, spontaneous tumorigenesis and frequency of some kinds of non-tumor pathology revealed at the post-mortem examination of male rats was studied. It was found out that the maintenance of animals at LL and NL conditions led to the increase of the number of infectious diseases, substantially faster development of spontaneous tumors and the increase of non-tumor diseases in comparison with the animals kept at LD (standard light) regime. Light deprivation (DD) led to substantial reduction of development of new growth, of non-tumor and infectious diseases in comparison with the similar parameters in standard light regime.

  9. Determinants of under-five mortality in Gilgel Gibe Field Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-27

    The objective of this study was to investigate causes of death and its determinants in under-five children in Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center. Methods: A case-control study was conducted from December 12 to 27, 2005. Cases of under-five children who died between August 27, 2004 and September 22, 2005 and controls ...

  10. Independent Evaluation of the Rapid Scale-Up Program to Reduce Under-Five Mortality in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munos, Melinda; Guiella, Georges; Roberton, Timothy; Maïga, Abdoulaye; Tiendrebeogo, Adama; Tam, Yvonne; Bryce, Jennifer; Baya, Banza

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective evaluation of the “Rapid Scale-Up” (RSU) program in Burkina Faso, focusing on the integrated community case management (iCCM) component of the program. We used a quasi-experimental design in which nine RSU districts were compared with seven districts without the program. The evaluation included documentation of program implementation, assessments of implementation and quality of care, baseline and endline coverage surveys, and estimation of mortality changes using the Lives Saved Tool. Although the program trained large numbers of community health workers, there were implementation shortcomings related to training, supervision, and drug stockouts. The quality of care provided to sick children was poor, and utilization of community health workers was low. Changes in intervention coverage were comparable in RSU and comparison areas. Estimated under-five mortality declined by 6.2% (from 110 to 103 deaths per 1,000 live births) in the RSU area and 4.2% (from 114 to 109 per 1,000 live births) in the comparison area. The RSU did not result in coverage increases or mortality reductions in Burkina Faso, but we cannot draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the iCCM strategy, given implementation shortcomings. The evaluation results highlight the need for greater attention to implementation of iCCM programs. PMID:26787147

  11. Effects of increasing root carbon investment on the mortality and resprouting of Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Xie, J-B; Li, Y

    2017-03-01

    Tree mortality induced by drought is one of the most complex processes in ecology. Although two mechanisms associated with water and carbon balance are proposed to explain tree mortality, outstanding problems still exist. Here, in order to test how the root system benefits survival and resprouting of Haloxylon ammodendron seedlings, we examined the various water- and carbon-related physiological indicators (shoot water potential, photosynthesis, dark respiration, hydraulic conductance and non-structural carbohydrates [NSC]) of H. ammodendron seedlings, which were grown in drought and control conditions throughout a grow season in greenhouse. The survival time of the seedling root system (died 70 days after drought) doubled the survival time of the shoot (died at 35 days). Difference in survival time between shoot and root resulted from sustained root respiration supported by increased NSC in roots under drought. Furthermore, investment into the root contributed to resprouting following drought. Based on these results, a death criterion is proposed for this species. The time sequence of major events indicated that drought shifted carbon allocation between shoot and root and altered the flux among different sinks (growth, respiration or storage). The interaction of water and carbon processes determined death or survival of droughted H. ammodendron seedlings. These findings revealed that the 'root protection' strategy is critical in determining survival and resprouting of this species, and provided insights into the effects of carbon and water dynamics on tree mortality. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Early growth rates and their relationships to mortalities of five breeds of chickens following exposure to acute gamma radiation stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latimer, B.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Growth and mortality responses were recorded for 541 chicks, representing five different breeds of chickens, following acute exposures to gamma radiation stress at two days of age. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the LD50/30 of the five breeds studied, Cobb broilers showed the highest (1580R) and White Leghorn bantams the lowest (980R) levels, respectively. Other breeds studied included the standard White Leghorn, Athens Randombreds and a strain of feral bantam. Growth rates of body weights were proportionately more depressed by radiation stress than were body sizes, as measured by the lengths of the culmen, tarsus, middle toe and longest primary wing feather of all 32 day-old survivors. Among these structures, the length of the culmen seemed to be the least affected by radiation stress in all of the breeds studied. Feral bantams were able to tolerate the greatest depression in weight gain before exhibiting mortality at exposures below their LD50/30' while Cobb broilers tolerated the greatest depression of weight gain at higher exposure levels. There was a suggestion that those characteristics which were strongly selected for in the course of a particular breed's development were those which experienced the greatest proportional depressions following exposure to gamma radiation stress

  13. Overall and abortion-related maternal mortality rates in Uruguay over the past 25years and their association with policies and actions aimed at protecting women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briozzo, Leonel; Gómez Ponce de León, Rodolfo; Tomasso, Giselle; Faúndes, Anibal

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate changes in maternal mortality rates in Uruguay over the past 25years, as well as their distribution by cause, and their temporal relationship with social changes and Human Development Index (HDI) indicators. Data on maternal mortality obtained directly from the Uruguayan Ministry of Public Health for the 2001 to 2015 period were analyzed together with data from the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation for the 1990 to 2015 period. The swiftness of the decrease in maternal mortality per five-year period, the variation in the percentage of abortion-related deaths, and the correlation with HDI indicators were evaluated. Maternal mortality decreased significantly, basically due to a reduction in the number of deaths from unsafe abortion, which was the principal cause of maternal mortality in the 1990s. The reduction in maternal mortality over the past 10years also coincides with a reduction in poverty and an improvement in the HDI. A rapid reduction occurred in maternal mortality in Uruguay, particularly in maternal mortality resulting from unsafe abortion. This coincided with the application of a model for reducing the risk and harm of unsafe abortions, which finally led to the decriminalization of abortion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Overall and abortion-related maternal mortality rates in Uruguay over the past 25 years and their association with policies and actions aimed at protecting women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briozzo, Leonel; Gómez Ponce de León, Rodolfo; Tomasso, Giselle; Faúndes, Anibal

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate changes in maternal mortality rates in Uruguay over the past 25 years, as well as their distribution by cause, and their temporal relationship with social changes and Human Development Index (HDI) indicators. Data on maternal mortality obtained directly from the Uruguayan Ministry of Public Health for the 2001 to 2015 period were analyzed together with data from the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation for the 1990 to 2015 period. The swiftness of the decrease in maternal mortality per five-year period, the variation in the percentage of abortion-related deaths, and the correlation with HDI indicators were evaluated. Maternal mortality decreased significantly, basically due to a reduction in the number of deaths from unsafe abortion, which was the principal cause of maternal mortality in the 1990s. The reduction in maternal mortality over the past 10 years also coincides with a reduction in poverty and an improvement in the HDI. A rapid reduction occurred in maternal mortality in Uruguay, particularly in maternal mortality resulting from unsafe abortion. This coincided with the application of a model for reducing the risk and harm of unsafe abortions, which finally led to the decriminalization of abortion. © 2016 The Authors. Published by International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Music therapy-induced changes in salivary cortisol level are predictive of cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou YC

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yi-Chou Hou,1 Yen-Ju Lin,2 Kuo-Cheng Lu,1 Han-Sun Chiang,3 Chia-Chi Chang,4 Li-King Yang1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Cardinal Tien Hospital, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, 2Department of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, 3Graduate Institute of Basic Medici