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Sample records for underlying monogenic form

  1. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Your Baby is Born Monogenic Diabetes Monogenic Diabetes (Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus & MODY) The most common forms of diabetes, ... from each parent. What are monogenic forms of diabetes? Some rare forms of diabetes result from mutations ...

  2. Bariatric surgery in monogenic and syndromic forms of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Aayed R; Elahmedi, Mohamed; Alqahtani, Yara A

    2014-02-01

    Currently, no topic is more controversial in bariatric surgery than performing these procedures on children with monogenic and syndromic forms of obesity. The medical community and the caregivers of those patients are struggling to find a solution that can alleviate their suffering and save their life. In all forms of obesity, dieting and physical activity do not result in significant weight loss and is associated with a high rate of weight regain. Additionally, effective medical therapy is not available yet. While there is significant debate about the risks and benefits of bariatric surgery in the adolescent population, there is an increasing number of studies that demonstrate the success of this option for the appropriate patients. Similarly, our experience demonstrated the same success not only in normal children and adolescents but also in those with monogenic and syndromic form of obesity. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Monogenic Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form of monogenic diabetes? • What type of monogenic diabetes does my child (or do I) have? • What are the treatment options? • What are the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option? • Should I see a diabetes educator? • Should I see an endocrinologist? Resources • Find- ...

  4. Monogenic Diabetes: What It Teaches Us on the Common Forms of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    To date, more than 30 genes have been linked to monogenic diabetes. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified > 50 susceptibility loci for common type 1 diabetes (T1D) and approximately 100 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D). About 1–5% of all cases of diabetes result from single-gene mutations and are called monogenic diabetes. Here, we review the pathophysiological basis of the role of monogenic diabetes genes that have also been found to be associated with common T1D and/or T2D. Variants of approximately one-third of monogenic diabetes genes are associated with T2D, but not T1D. Two of the T2D-associated monogenic diabetes genes—potassium inward-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 (KCNJ11), which controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the β-cell; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG), which impacts multiple tissue targets in relation to inflammation and insulin sensitivity—have been developed as major antidiabetic drug targets. Another monogenic diabetes gene, the preproinsulin gene (INS), is unique in that INS mutations can cause hyperinsulinemia, hyperproinsulinemia, neonatal diabetes mellitus, one type of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY10), and autoantibody-negative T1D. Dominant heterozygous INS mutations are the second most common cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. Moreover, INS gene variants are strongly associated with common T1D (type 1a), but inconsistently with T2D. Variants of the monogenic diabetes gene Gli-similar 3 (GLIS3) are associated with both T1D and T2D. GLIS3 is a key transcription factor in insulin production and β-cell differentiation during embryonic development, which perturbation forms the basis of monogenic diabetes as well as its association with T1D. GLIS3 is also required for compensatory β-cell proliferation in adults; impairment of this function predisposes to T2D. Thus, monogenic forms of diabetes are invaluable “human models” that

  5. Monogenic autoimmune diseases of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Flanagan, Sarah E

    2016-10-01

    The most common endocrine diseases, type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, are the result of autoimmunity. Clustering of autoimmune endocrinopathies can result from polygenic predisposition, or more rarely, may present as part of a wider syndrome due to a mutation within one of seven genes. These monogenic autoimmune diseases show highly variable phenotypes both within and between families with the same mutations. The average age of onset of the monogenic forms of autoimmune endocrine disease is younger than that of the common polygenic forms, and this feature combined with the manifestation of other autoimmune diseases, specific hallmark features, or both, can inform clinicians as to the relevance of genetic testing. A genetic diagnosis can guide medical management, give an insight into prognosis, inform families of recurrence risk, and facilitate prenatal diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On the Bargmann-Radon transform in the monogenic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Fabrizio; Sabadini, Irene; Sommen, Franciscus

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study a Bargmann-Radon transform on the real monogenic Bargmann module. This transform is defined as the projection of the real Bargmann module on the closed submodule of monogenic functions spanned by the monogenic plane waves. We prove that this projection can be written in integral form in terms the so-called Bargmann-Radon kernel. Moreover, we have a characterization formula for the Bargmann-Radon transform of a function in the real Bargmann module in terms of its complex extension and then its restriction to the nullcone in Cm. We also show that the formula holds for the Szegő-Radon transform that we introduced in Colombo et al. (2016) and we define the dual transform and we provide an inversion formula. Finally, in Theorem 5.6, we prove an integral formula for the monogenic part of an entire function.

  7. [Monogenic and syndromic symptoms of morbid obesity. Rare but important].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, S; Krude, H

    2015-02-01

    Monogenic and syndromic obesity are rare diseases with variable manifestation. Therefore diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. The purpose of this work was to develop a clinical diagnostic algorithm for earlier diagnosis. Available publications for clinical symptoms and molecular defects of monogenic and syndromic obesity cases were evaluated. Monogenic and syndromic obesity can be expected in cases with early manifestation before the age of 5 years and a BMI above 40 or above the 99th percentile. Syndromic cases are mostly associated with a low IQ and dwarfism. Monogenic cases are associated with additional endocrine defects. Measurement of serum leptin proves the treatable leptin deficiency. Sequencing of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R) allows diagnosis of the most frequent monogenic form of obesity. Treatment with a melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) analog can be expected in the future. Early treatment of children with Prader-Willi syndrome can prevent severe obesity. Because in some cases treatment is available, monogenic and syndromic obesity should be diagnosed early. Based on the disease symptoms, serum leptin, and MC4R sequencing, a diagnostic algorithm is proposed, which can be used to diagnose cases of morbid obesity.

  8. Exome Sequencing in Suspected Monogenic Dyslipidemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitziel, Nathan O.; Peloso, Gina M.; Abifadel, Marianne; Cefalu, Angelo B.; Fouchier, Sigrid; Motazacker, M. Mahdi; Tada, Hayato; Larach, Daniel B.; Awan, Zuhier; Haller, Jorge F.; Pullinger, Clive R.; Varret, Mathilde; Rabès, Jean-Pierre; Noto, Davide; Tarugi, Patrizia; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Nohara, Atsushi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Risman, Marjorie; Deo, Rahul; Ruel, Isabelle; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Wilson, James G.; Rich, Stephen S.; Gupta, Namrata; Farlow, Deborah N.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Daly, Mark J.; Kane, John P.; Freeman, Mason W.; Genest, Jacques; Rader, Daniel J.; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Kastelein, John J.P.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Averna, Maurizio R.; Gabriel, Stacey; Boileau, Catherine; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2015-01-01

    Background Exome sequencing is a promising tool for gene mapping in Mendelian disorders. We utilized this technique in an attempt to identify novel genes underlying monogenic dyslipidemias. Methods and Results We performed exome sequencing on 213 selected family members from 41 kindreds with suspected Mendelian inheritance of extreme levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (after candidate gene sequencing excluded known genetic causes for high LDL cholesterol families) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. We used standard analytic approaches to identify candidate variants and also assigned a polygenic score to each individual in order to account for their burden of common genetic variants known to influence lipid levels. In nine families, we identified likely pathogenic variants in known lipid genes (ABCA1, APOB, APOE, LDLR, LIPA, and PCSK9); however, we were unable to identify obvious genetic etiologies in the remaining 32 families despite follow-up analyses. We identified three factors that limited novel gene discovery: (1) imperfect sequencing coverage across the exome hid potentially causal variants; (2) large numbers of shared rare alleles within families obfuscated causal variant identification; and (3) individuals from 15% of families carried a significant burden of common lipid-related alleles, suggesting complex inheritance can masquerade as monogenic disease. Conclusions We identified the genetic basis of disease in nine of 41 families; however, none of these represented novel gene discoveries. Our results highlight the promise and limitations of exome sequencing as a discovery technique in suspected monogenic dyslipidemias. Considering the confounders identified may inform the design of future exome sequencing studies. PMID:25632026

  9. Cost-effectiveness of DNA-diagnosis for four monogenic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.P.M. van der Riet; B.A. van Hout (Ben); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the costs and benefits associated with DNA-diagnosis of individuals who are at risk of a child with a monogenic disease and who seek genetic counselling because of their reproductive plans are predicted under various assumptions using a mathematical model. Four monogenic

  10. Clinical, Biological, and Imaging Features of Monogenic Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pilotto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of monogenic forms of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD associated with mutations within PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP genes is giving a big contribution in the understanding of the underpinning mechanisms of this complex disorder. Compared with sporadic form, the phenotype associated with monogenic cases is somewhat broader including behavioural disturbances, epilepsy, myoclonus, and focal presentations. Structural and functional imaging show typical early changes also in presymptomatic monogenic carriers. Amyloid imaging and CSF tau/Aβ ratio may be useful in the differential diagnosis with other neurodegenerative dementias, especially, in early onset cases. However, to date any specific biomarkers of different monogenic cases have been identified. Thus, in clinical practice, the early identification is often difficult, but the copresence of different elements could help in recognition. This review will focus on the clinical and instrumental markers useful for the very early identification of AD monogenic cases, pivotal in the development, and evaluation of disease-modifying therapy.

  11. Migraine genetics : from monogenic to complex forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanmolkot, Kaate Raymond Josepha

    2008-01-01

    Migraine has a strong genetic component, but the identification of these factors has proven difficult mainly because of the complex interaction of multiple loci and environmental factors. Unraveling its molecular basis and deciphering pathways leading to migraine attacks will help identifying novel

  12. Molekylaer patogenese ved monogen og polygen fedme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Philip J; Echwald, Søren Morgenthaler; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2006-01-01

    During the last few years, studies of the molecular pathogenesis of obesity both in mouse models and in the rare cases of monogenic obesity in humans have added significantly to our understanding of the key role of the hypothalamus in mediating hunger and satiety. These insights have brought us...

  13. Molekylaer patogenese ved monogen og polygen fedme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Philip J; Echwald, Søren M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2006-01-01

    During the last few years, studies of the molecular pathogenesis of obesity both in mouse models and in the rare cases of monogenic obesity in humans have added significantly to our understanding of the key role of the hypothalamus in mediating hunger and satiety. These insights have brought us c...... closer to the development of rational therapies of obesity, the epidemic of which is continuing in the post-industrial society, which is characterised by sedentary behaviour patterns....

  14. Lombardia GENS: a collaborative registry for monogenic diseases associated with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersano, Anna; Baron, Pierluigi; Lanfranconi, Silvia; Trobia, Nadia; Sterzi, Roberto; Motto, Cristina; Comi, Giancarlo; Sessa, Maria; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Micieli, Giuseppe; Ferrarese, Carlo; Santoro, Patrizia; Parati, Eugenio; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; Padovani, Alessandro; Pezzini, Alessandro; Candelise, Livia

    2012-01-01

    The Italian region of Lombardy, with its existing stroke centers and high-technology laboratories, provides a favorable context for studying monogenic diseases associated with stroke. The Lombardia GENS project was set up to create a regional network for the diagnosis of six monogenic diseases associated with stroke: CADASIL, Fabry disease, MELAS, familial and sporadic hemiplegic migraine, hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy and Marfan syndrome. The network comprises 36 stroke centers and seven high-technology laboratories, performing molecular analysis. In this context, all stroke/TIA patients fulfilling clinical criteria for monogenic diseases are currently being included in an ongoing study. Demographic, clinical and family data and diagnostic criteria are collected using standardized forms. On the basis of stroke incidence in Lombardy and the reported prevalence of the diseases considered, we expect, during the course of the study, to collect datasets and DNA samples from more than 200 stroke patients suspected of having monogenic diseases. This will allow evaluation of the regional burden and better phenotype characterization of monogenic diseases associated with stroke.

  15. Genome Editing of Monogenic Neuromuscular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chengzu; Amoasii, Leonela; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Muscle weakness, the most common symptom of neuromuscular disease, may result from muscle dysfunction or may be caused indirectly by neuronal and neuromuscular junction abnormalities. To date, more than 780 monogenic neuromuscular diseases, linked to 417 different genes, have been identified in humans. Genome-editing methods, especially the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)–Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) system, hold clinical potential for curing many monogenic disorders, including neuromuscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. OBJECTIVES To provide an overview of genome-editing approaches; to summarize published reports on the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of current genome-editing methods as they relate to the potential correction of monogenic neuromuscular diseases; and to highlight scientific and clinical opportunities and obstacles toward permanent correction of disease-causing mutations responsible for monogenic neuromuscular diseases by genome editing. EVIDENCE REVIEW PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles published from June 30, 1989, through June 9, 2016, using the following keywords: genome editing, CRISPR-Cas9, neuromuscular disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, andmyotonic dystrophy type 1. The following sources were reviewed: 341 articles describing different approaches to edit mammalian genomes; 330 articles describing CRISPR-Cas9–mediated genome editing in cell culture lines (in vitro) and animal models (in vivo); 16 websites used to generate single-guide RNA; 4 websites for off-target effects; and 382 articles describing viral and nonviral delivery systems. Articles describing neuromuscular diseases, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1

  16. Monogenic diabetes: Implementation of translational genomic research towards precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaxillaire, Martine; Froguel, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Various forms of early onset non-autoimmune diabetes are recognized as monogenic diseases, each subtype being caused by a single highly penetrant gene defect at the individual level. Monogenic diabetes (MD) is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, including maturity onset diabetes of the young and infancy-onset and neonatal diabetes mellitus, which are characterized by functional defects of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells and hyperglycemia early in life. Depending on the genetic cause, MD differs in the age at diabetes onset, the severity of hyperglycemia, long-term diabetic complications, and extrapancreatic manifestations. In this review we discuss the many challenges of molecular genetic diagnosis of MD in the face of a substantial genetic heterogeneity, as well as the clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of an early genetic diagnosis, as demonstrated by simulation models based on lifetime complications and treatment costs. We also discuss striking examples of proof-of-concept of genomic medicine, which have enabled marked improvement in patient care and long-term clinical management. Recent advances in genome editing and pluripotent stem cell reprogramming technologies provide new opportunities for in vitro diabetes modeling and the discovery of novel drug targets and cell-based diabetes therapies. A review of these future directions makes the case for exciting translational research to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of early onset diabetes. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Recent Discoveries in Monogenic Disorders of Childhood Bone Fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkitie, Riikka E; Kämpe, Anders J; Taylan, Fulya; Mäkitie, Outi

    2017-08-01

    This review summarizes our current knowledge on primary osteoporosis in children with focus on recent genetic findings. Advances in genetic research, particularly next-generation sequencing, have found several genetic loci that associate with monogenic forms of inherited osteoporosis, widening the scope of primary osteoporosis beyond classical osteogenesis imperfecta. New forms of primary osteoporosis, such as those related to WNT1, PLS3, and XYLT2, have identified defects outside the extracellular matrix components and collagen-related pathways, in intracellular cascades directly affecting bone cell function. Primary osteoporosis can lead to severe skeletal morbidity, including abnormal longitudinal growth, compromised bone mass gain, and noticeable fracture tendency beginning at childhood. Early diagnosis and timely care are warranted to ensure the best achievable bone health. Future research will most likely broaden the spectrum of primary osteoporosis, hopefully provide more insight into the genetics governing bone health, and offer new targets for treatment.

  18. Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from Monogenic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinki Murphy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying rare human metabolic disorders that result from a single-gene defect has not only enabled improved diagnostic and clinical management of such patients, but also has resulted in key biological insights into the pathophysiology of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are linked to obesity and driven by excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity. However, key events in the causation of the metabolic syndrome are difficult to disentangle from compensatory effects and epiphenomena. This review provides an overview of three types of human monogenic disorders that result in (1 severe, non-syndromic obesity, (2 pancreatic beta cell forms of early-onset diabetes, and (3 severe insulin resistance. In these patients with single-gene defects causing their exaggerated metabolic disorder, the primary defect is known. The lessons they provide for current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the common metabolic syndrome are highlighted.

  19. Monogenic Causes of Proteinuria in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cil, Onur; Perwad, Farzana

    2018-01-01

    Glomerular disease is a common cause for proteinuria and chronic kidney disease leading to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation in children. Nephrotic syndrome in children is diagnosed by the presence of a triad of proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and edema. Minimal change disease is the most common histopathological finding in children and adolescents with nephrotic syndrome. Focal segmental sclerosis is also found in children and is the most common pathological finding in patients with monogenic causes of nephrotic syndrome. Current classification system for nephrotic syndrome is based on response to steroid therapy as a majority of patients develop steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome regardless of histopathological diagnosis or the presence of genetic mutations. Recent studies investigating the genetics of nephrotic syndrome have shed light on the pathophysiology and mechanisms of proteinuria in nephrotic syndrome. Gene mutations have been identified in several subcellular compartments of the glomerular podocyte and play a critical role in mitochondrial function, actin cytoskeleton dynamics, cell–matrix interactions, slit diaphragm, and podocyte integrity. A subset of genetic mutations are known to cause nephrotic syndrome that is responsive to immunosuppressive therapy but clinical data are limited with respect to renal prognosis and disease progression in a majority of patients. To date, more than 50 genes have been identified as causative factors in nephrotic syndrome in children and adults. As genetic testing becomes more prevalent and affordable, we expect rapid advances in our understanding of mechanisms of proteinuria and genetic diagnosis will help direct future therapy for individual patients. PMID:29594119

  20. The search for modifier genes in Huntington disease - Multifactorial aspects of a monogenic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, Larissa

    2016-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the underlying mutation of a single locus is often insufficient for the prediction of the comprehensive phenotype in human Mendelian disorders, implicating that there is no clear distinction between monogenic and complex traits. By definition, monogenic traits show a classic pattern of inheritance and are strongly influenced by variation within a single gene. However, many Mendelian traits that result in genetic disorders can have phenotypes that differ in subtle or profound ways such as severity, onset age and other associated phenotypic characteristics. Among the factors that may explain these differences in disease expression are modifier genes. This review focuses on the role of modifier genes using the example of Huntington Disease (HD), an autosomal dominantly transmitted, progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The advantages and limitations of candidate gene approaches versus genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as well as its implications for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Autoimmunity/inflammation in a monogenic primary immunodeficiency cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, William; Ward, Daniel; Mattocks, Christopher J; Gao, Yifang; Pengelly, Reuben J; Patel, Sanjay V; Ennis, Sarah; Faust, Saul N; Williams, Anthony P

    2017-09-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are rare inborn errors of immunity that have a heterogeneous phenotype that can include severe susceptibility to life-threatening infections from multiple pathogens, unique sensitivity to a single pathogen, autoimmune/inflammatory (AI/I) disease, allergies and/or malignancy. We present a diverse cohort of monogenic PID patients with and without AI/I diseases who underwent clinical, genetic and immunological phenotyping. Novel pathogenic variants were identified in IKBKG , CTLA4 , NFKB1 , GATA2 , CD40LG and TAZ as well as previously reported pathogenic variants in STAT3 , PIK3CD , STAT1 , NFKB2 and STXBP2 . AI/I manifestations were frequently encountered in PIDs, including at presentation. Autoimmunity/inflammation was multisystem in those effected, and regulatory T cell (Treg) percentages were significantly decreased compared with those without AI/I manifestations. Prednisolone was used as the first-line immunosuppressive agent in all cases, however steroid monotherapy failed long-term control of autoimmunity/inflammation in the majority of cases and additional immunosuppression was required. Patients with multisystem autoimmunity/inflammation should be investigated for an underlying PID, and in those with PID early assessment of Tregs may help to assess the risk of autoimmunity/inflammation.

  2. A Multi-Model Stereo Similarity Function Based on Monogenic Signal Analysis in Poisson Scale Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A stereo similarity function based on local multi-model monogenic image feature descriptors (LMFD is proposed to match interest points and estimate disparity map for stereo images. Local multi-model monogenic image features include local orientation and instantaneous phase of the gray monogenic signal, local color phase of the color monogenic signal, and local mean colors in the multiscale color monogenic signal framework. The gray monogenic signal, which is the extension of analytic signal to gray level image using Dirac operator and Laplace equation, consists of local amplitude, local orientation, and instantaneous phase of 2D image signal. The color monogenic signal is the extension of monogenic signal to color image based on Clifford algebras. The local color phase can be estimated by computing geometric product between the color monogenic signal and a unit reference vector in RGB color space. Experiment results on the synthetic and natural stereo images show the performance of the proposed approach.

  3. Forming the ICT competency of future pedagogues under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article views the opportunities of forming the competency in the sphere of informationalcommunicational technologies (further − ICT competency) of future pedagogues under informational-educational environment at university. The stages of forming the ICT competency are substantiated, as well as tasks and content for ...

  4. The impact of genome editing on the introduction of monogenic traits in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, John W M; Bovenhuis, Henk; Groenen, Martien A M; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Mulder, Han A

    2018-04-16

    Genome editing technologies provide new tools for genetic improvement and have the potential to become the next game changer in animal and plant breeding. The aim of this study was to investigate how genome editing in combination with genomic selection can accelerate the introduction of a monogenic trait in a livestock population as compared to genomic selection alone. A breeding population was simulated under genomic selection for a polygenic trait. After reaching Bulmer equilibrium, the selection objective was to increase the allele frequency of a monogenic trait, with or without genome editing, in addition to improving the polygenic trait. Scenarios were compared for time to fixation of the desired allele, selection response for the polygenic trait, and level of inbreeding. The costs, in terms of number of editing procedures, were compared to the benefits of having more animals with the desired phenotype of the monogenic trait. Effects of reduced editing efficiency were investigated. In a population of 20,000 selection candidates per generation, the total number of edited zygotes needed to reach fixation of the desired allele was 22,118, 7072, or 3912 with, no, moderate, or high selection emphasis on the monogenic trait, respectively. Genome editing resulted in up to four-fold faster fixation of the desired allele when efficiency was 100%, while the loss in long-term selection response for the polygenic trait was up to seven-fold less compared to genomic selection alone. With moderate selection emphasis on the monogenic trait, introduction of genome editing led to a four-fold reduction in the total number of animals showing the undesired phenotype before fixation. However, with a currently realistic editing efficiency of 4%, the number of required editing procedures increased by 72% and loss in selection response increased eight-fold compared to 100% efficiency. With low efficiency, loss in selection response was 29% more compared to genomic selection alone

  5. Sensitive Monogenic Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis by Targeted Haplotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Carlo; Geeven, Geert; de Wit, Elzo; Verstegen, Marjon J A M; Jansen, Rumo P.M.; van Kranenburg, Melissa; de Bruijn, Ewart; Pulit, Sara L.; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Shahsavari, Zahra; Omrani, Davood; Zeinali, Fatemeh; Najmabadi, Hossein; Katsila, Theodora; Vrettou, Christina; Patrinos, George P.; Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne; Splinter, Erik; Beekman, Jeffrey M.; Kheradmand Kia, Sima; Te Meerman, Gerard J; Ploos van Amstel, Hans Kristian; de Laat, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    During pregnancy, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal blood encompasses a small percentage of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA), an easily accessible source for determination of fetal disease status in risk families through non-invasive procedures. In case of monogenic heritable disease, background

  6. Leaching experiment of cement solidified waste form under unsaturated condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Yao Laigen; Li Shushen; Zhao Yingjie; Cai Yun; Li Dan; Han Xinsheng; An Yongfeng

    2003-01-01

    A device for unsaturated leaching experiments was designed and built up. 8 different sizes, ranging from 40.2 cm 3 to 16945.5 cm 3 , of solidified waste form were tested in the experiment. 5 different water contents, from 0.15 to 0.40, were used for the experiment. The results show that the cumulative leaching fraction increases with water content when the sizes of the forms are equal to and less than 4586.7 cm 3 , for example, the ratios of the cumulative leaching fractions are between 1.24-1.41 under water content of 0.35 and 0.15 on 360 day of Teaching. It can also be seen that the cumulative leaching fraction under higher water content is close to that under saturated condition. The cumulative leaching fraction decreases with size of the form. Maximum leached depth of the solidified waste forms is about 2.25 cm after one year Teaching. Moreover, it has no clear effect on cumulative leaching fraction that sampling or non-sampling during the experiment

  7. PGD for monogenic disorders: aspects of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spits, Claudia; Sermon, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenic diseases has known a considerable evolution since its first application in the early 1990s. Especially the technical aspects of the genetic diagnosis itself, the single-cell genetic analysis, has constantly evolved to reach levels of accuracy and efficiency nearing those of genetic diagnosis on regular DNA samples. In this review, we will focus on the molecular biological techniques that are currently in use in the most advanced centers for PGD for monogenic disorders, including multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and post-PCR diagnostic methods, whole genome amplification (WGA) and multiple displacement amplification (MDA). As it becomes more and more clear that when it comes to ethically difficult indications, PGD goes further than prenatal diagnosis (PND), we will also briefly discuss ethical issues. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Two Families of Monogenic $S_4$ Quartic Number Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Hanson

    2018-01-01

    Consider the integral polynomials $f_{a,b}(x)=x^4+ax+b$ and $g_{c,d}(x)=x^4+cx^3+d$. Suppose $f_{a,b}(x)$ and $g_{c,d}(x)$ are irreducible, $b\\mid a$, and the integers $b$, $d$, $256d-27c^4$, and $\\dfrac{256b^3-27a^4}{\\gcd(256b^3,27a^4)}$ are all square-free. Using the Montes algorithm, we show that a root of $f_{a,b}(x)$ or $g_{c,d}(x)$ defines a monogenic extension of $\\mathbb{Q}$ and serves a generator for a power basis of the ring of integers. In fact, we show monogeneity for slightly mor...

  9. What Is the Best NGS Enrichment Method for the Molecular Diagnosis of Monogenic Diabetes and Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Philippe

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnosis of monogenic diabetes and obesity is of paramount importance for both the patient and society, as it can result in personalized medicine associated with a better life and it eventually saves health care spending. Genetic clinical laboratories are currently switching from Sanger sequencing to next-generation sequencing (NGS approaches but choosing the optimal protocols is not easy. Here, we compared the sequencing coverage of 43 genes involved in monogenic forms of diabetes and obesity, and variant detection rates, resulting from four enrichment methods based on the sonication of DNA (Agilent SureSelect, RainDance technologies, or using enzymes for DNA fragmentation (Illumina Nextera, Agilent HaloPlex. We analyzed coding exons and untranslated regions of the 43 genes involved in monogenic diabetes and obesity. We found that none of the methods achieves yet full sequencing of the gene targets. Nonetheless, the RainDance, SureSelect and HaloPlex enrichment methods led to the best sequencing coverage of the targets; while the Nextera method resulted in the poorest sequencing coverage. Although the sequencing coverage was high, we unexpectedly found that the HaloPlex method missed 20% of variants detected by the three other methods and Nextera missed 10%. The question of which NGS technique for genetic diagnosis yields the highest diagnosis rate is frequently discussed in the literature and the response is still unclear. Here, we showed that the RainDance enrichment method as well as SureSelect, which are both based on the sonication of DNA, resulted in a good sequencing quality and variant detection, while the use of enzymes to fragment DNA (HaloPlex or Nextera might not be the best strategy to get an accurate sequencing.

  10. Polygenic Versus Monogenic Causes of Hypercholesterolemia Ascertained Clinically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Dron, Jacqueline S; Ban, Matthew R; Robinson, John F; McIntyre, Adam D; Alazzam, Maher; Zhao, Pei Jun; Dilliott, Allison A; Cao, Henian; Huff, Murray W; Rhainds, David; Low-Kam, Cécile; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Lettre, Guillaume; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Hegele, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology is transforming our understanding of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, including revision of prevalence estimates and attribution of polygenic effects. Here, we examined the contributions of monogenic and polygenic factors in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia referred to a specialty clinic. We applied targeted next-generation sequencing with custom annotation, coupled with evaluation of large-scale copy number variation and polygenic scores for raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a cohort of 313 individuals with severe hypercholesterolemia, defined as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >5.0 mmol/L (>194 mg/dL). We found that (1) monogenic familial hypercholesterolemia-causing mutations detected by targeted next-generation sequencing were present in 47.3% of individuals; (2) the percentage of individuals with monogenic mutations increased to 53.7% when copy number variations were included; (3) the percentage further increased to 67.1% when individuals with extreme polygenic scores were included; and (4) the percentage of individuals with an identified genetic component increased from 57.0% to 92.0% as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased from 5.0 to >8.0 mmol/L (194 to >310 mg/dL). In a clinically ascertained sample with severe hypercholesterolemia, we found that most patients had a discrete genetic basis detected using a comprehensive screening approach that includes targeted next-generation sequencing, an assay for copy number variations, and polygenic trait scores. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Genome Editing of Monogenic Neuromuscular Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chengzu; Amoasii, Leonela; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2016-11-01

    Muscle weakness, the most common symptom of neuromuscular disease, may result from muscle dysfunction or may be caused indirectly by neuronal and neuromuscular junction abnormalities. To date, more than 780 monogenic neuromuscular diseases, linked to 417 different genes, have been identified in humans. Genome-editing methods, especially the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) system, hold clinical potential for curing many monogenic disorders, including neuromuscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. To provide an overview of genome-editing approaches; to summarize published reports on the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of current genome-editing methods as they relate to the potential correction of monogenic neuromuscular diseases; and to highlight scientific and clinical opportunities and obstacles toward permanent correction of disease-causing mutations responsible for monogenic neuromuscular diseases by genome editing. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for articles published from June 30, 1989, through June 9, 2016, using the following keywords: genome editing, CRISPR-Cas9, neuromuscular disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. The following sources were reviewed: 341 articles describing different approaches to edit mammalian genomes; 330 articles describing CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing in cell culture lines (in vitro) and animal models (in vivo); 16 websites used to generate single-guide RNA; 4 websites for off-target effects; and 382 articles describing viral and nonviral delivery systems. Articles describing neuromuscular diseases, including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and myotonic dystrophy type 1, were also reviewed. Multiple proof

  12. Cemented Solidified Biomass Waste Form Under Drastic Climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayoumi, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Immobilizing radioactive waste generated during different nuclear applications is a matter of great importance for safe disposal. Waste forms buried in a shallow burial disposal facility as low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes could be solidified by cement or other inert material that characterized by adequate strength against drastic climatic changes. In this study, a biomass generated from bioaccumulation of aquatic plants containing hazardous radioactive nuclides were dried, grinded, stabilized by cement that cured for 28 days then subjected to qualification during different aggressive conditions. The produced solidified waste form was followed by detecting mechanical strength and porosity measurements as well as spectroscopic analysis using infrared and X-ray. Fractured waste form sample was investigated using scanning electron microscope to examine the effect of different undesirable climatic events during extending disposal durations. It was found that the cement solidification of the aquatic plants generated from the phytoremediation of radioactive simulate is an essential step before disposal. The obtained cemented waste forms have adequate resistance under extreme climatic conditions

  13. Intrusion detection on oil pipeline right of way using monogenic signal representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Binu M.; Santhaseelan, Varun; Cui, Chen; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2013-05-01

    We present an object detection algorithm to automatically detect and identify possible intrusions such as construction vehicles and equipment on the regions designated as the pipeline right-of-way (ROW) from high resolution aerial imagery. The pipeline industry has buried millions of miles of oil pipelines throughout the country and these regions are under constant threat of unauthorized construction activities. We propose a multi-stage framework which uses a pyramidal template matching scheme in the local phase domain by taking a single high resolution training image to classify a construction vehicle. The proposed detection algorithm makes use of the monogenic signal representation to extract the local phase information. Computing the monogenic signal from a two dimensional object region enables us to separate out the local phase information (structural details) from the local energy (contrast) thereby achieving illumination invariance. The first stage involves the local phase based template matching using only a single high resolution training image in a local region at multiple scales. Then, using the local phase histogram matching, the orientation of the detected region is determined and a voting scheme gives a certain weightage to the resulting clusters. The final stage involves the selection of clusters based on the number of votes attained and using the histogram of oriented phase feature descriptor, the object is located at the correct orientation and scale. The algorithm is successfully tested on four different datasets containing imagery with varying image resolution and object orientation.

  14. Severe infectious diseases of childhood as monogenic inborn errors of immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the developments that have occurred in the field of human genetics of infectious diseases from the second half of the 20th century onward. In particular, it stresses and explains the importance of the recently described monogenic inborn errors of immunity underlying resistance or susceptibility to specific infections. The monogenic component of the genetic theory provides a plausible explanation for the occurrence of severe infectious diseases during primary infection. Over the last 20 y, increasing numbers of life-threatening infectious diseases striking otherwise healthy children, adolescents, and even young adults have been attributed to single-gene inborn errors of immunity. These studies were inspired by seminal but neglected findings in plant and animal infections. Infectious diseases typically manifest as sporadic traits because human genotypes often display incomplete penetrance (most genetically predisposed individuals remain healthy) and variable expressivity (different infections can be allelic at the same locus). Infectious diseases of childhood, once thought to be archetypal environmental diseases, actually may be among the most genetically determined conditions of mankind. This nascent and testable notion has interesting medical and biological implications. PMID:26621750

  15. Severe infectious diseases of childhood as monogenic inborn errors of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-12-22

    This paper reviews the developments that have occurred in the field of human genetics of infectious diseases from the second half of the 20th century onward. In particular, it stresses and explains the importance of the recently described monogenic inborn errors of immunity underlying resistance or susceptibility to specific infections. The monogenic component of the genetic theory provides a plausible explanation for the occurrence of severe infectious diseases during primary infection. Over the last 20 y, increasing numbers of life-threatening infectious diseases striking otherwise healthy children, adolescents, and even young adults have been attributed to single-gene inborn errors of immunity. These studies were inspired by seminal but neglected findings in plant and animal infections. Infectious diseases typically manifest as sporadic traits because human genotypes often display incomplete penetrance (most genetically predisposed individuals remain healthy) and variable expressivity (different infections can be allelic at the same locus). Infectious diseases of childhood, once thought to be archetypal environmental diseases, actually may be among the most genetically determined conditions of mankind. This nascent and testable notion has interesting medical and biological implications.

  16. Testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Menamin, T.

    1989-01-01

    The workshop on testing of high-level waste forms under repository conditions was held on 17 to 21 October 1988 in Cadarache, France, and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA) and the Savannah River Laboratory (US DOE). Participants included representatives from Australia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, The United Kingdom and the United States. The first part of the conference featured a workshop on in situ testing of simulated nuclear waste forms and proposed package components, with an emphasis on the materials interface interactions tests (MIIT). MIIT is a sevent-part programme that involves field testing of 15 glass and waste form systems supplied by seven countries, along with potential canister and overpack materials as well as geologic samples, in the salt geology at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA. This effort is still in progress and these proceedings document studies and findings obtained thus far. The second part of the meeting emphasized multinational experimental studies and results derived from repository systems simulation tests (RSST), which were performed in granite, clay and salt environments

  17. Planar Harmonic and Monogenic Polynomials of Type A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Dunkl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic polynomials of type A are polynomials annihilated by the Dunkl Laplacian associated to the symmetric group acting as a reflection group on R N . The Dunkl operators are denoted by T j for 1 ≤ j ≤ N , and the Laplacian Δ κ = ∑ j = 1 N T j 2 . This paper finds the homogeneous harmonic polynomials annihilated by all T j for j > 2 . The structure constants with respect to the Gaussian and sphere inner products are computed. These harmonic polynomials are used to produce monogenic polynomials, those annihilated by a Dirac-type operator.

  18. Extreme extensibility of copper foil under compound forming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingbo; Liu, Xianghua; Tang, Delin

    2013-12-19

    A copper foil with an extreme extensibility up to 43,684% was obtained without any intermediate annealing by means of asynchronous rolling with high tension. It was found that under the combination of compression, shearing and tension, the copper foil represents a wonderful phenomenon. As the reduction increases, the specimen hardness increases up to a peak value 138 HV0.05 when the foil thickness rolled to around 100 μm, and then it decreases down to 78 HV0.05 when the foil thickness rolled to the final size 19 μm. It tells us that the strain-softening effect occurs when the foil thickness is rolled down to a threshold level. The experimental results bring us some fresh ideas different with the traditional understanding on the strain-hardening mechanism of metals, which provides an experimental basis to establish the forming mechanism of the thin foil.

  19. Targeted next-generation sequencing in monogenic dyslipidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegele, Robert A; Ban, Matthew R; Cao, Henian; McIntyre, Adam D; Robinson, John F; Wang, Jian

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the potential clinical translation of high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods in diagnosis and management of dyslipidemia. Recent NGS experiments indicate that most causative genes for monogenic dyslipidemias are already known. Thus, monogenic dyslipidemias can now be diagnosed using targeted NGS. Targeting of dyslipidemia genes can be achieved by either: designing custom reagents for a dyslipidemia-specific NGS panel; or performing genome-wide NGS and focusing on genes of interest. Advantages of the former approach are lower cost and limited potential to detect incidental pathogenic variants unrelated to dyslipidemia. However, the latter approach is more flexible because masking criteria can be altered as knowledge advances, with no need for re-design of reagents or follow-up sequencing runs. Also, the cost of genome-wide analysis is decreasing and ethical concerns can likely be mitigated. DNA-based diagnosis is already part of the clinical diagnostic algorithms for familial hypercholesterolemia. Furthermore, DNA-based diagnosis is supplanting traditional biochemical methods to diagnose chylomicronemia caused by deficiency of lipoprotein lipase or its co-factors. The increasing availability and decreasing cost of clinical NGS for dyslipidemia means that its potential benefits can now be evaluated on a larger scale.

  20. Extension problem for generalized multi-monogenic functions in Clifford analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Quyet Thang.

    1992-10-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to extend some properties of multi-monogenic functions, which is a generalization of monogenic functions in higher dimensions, for a class of functions satisfying Vekua-type generalized Cauchy-Riemann equations in Clifford Analysis. It is proved that the Hartogs theorem is valid for these functions. (author). 7 refs

  1. A dichotomy for upper domination in monogenic classes

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality. The problem of finding an upper dominating set is NP-hard for general graphs and in many restricted graph families. In the present paper, we study the computational complexity of this problem in monogenic classes of graphs (i.e. classes defined by a single forbidden induced subgraph) and show that the problem admits a dichotomy in this family. In particular, we prove that if the only forbidden induced subgraph is a P4 or a 2K2 (or any induced subgraph of these graphs), then the problem can be solved in polynomial time. Otherwise, it is NP-hard.

  2. Management of suspected monogenic lung fibrosis in a specialised centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Borie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available At least 10% of patients with interstitial lung disease present monogenic lung fibrosis suspected on familial aggregation of pulmonary fibrosis, specific syndromes or early age of diagnosis. Approximately 25% of families have an identified mutation in genes mostly involved in telomere homeostasis, and more rarely in surfactant homeostasis. Beyond pathophysiological knowledge, detection of these mutations has practical consequence for patients. For instance, mutations involved in telomere homeostasis are associated with haematological complications after lung transplantation and may require adapted immunosuppression. Moreover, relatives may benefit from a clinical and genetic evaluation that should be specifically managed. The field of genetics of pulmonary fibrosis has made great progress in the last 10 years, raising specific problems that should be addressed by a specialised team.

  3. Progress in forming bottom barriers under waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes an new method for the construction, verification, and maintenance of underground vaults to isolate and contain radioactive burial sites without excavation or drilling in contaminated areas. The paper begins with a discussion of previous full-scale field tests of horizontal barrier tools which utilized high pressure jetting technology. This is followed by a discussion of the TECT process, which cuts with an abrasive cable instead of high pressure jets. The new method is potentially applicable to more soil types than previous methods and can form very thick barriers. Both processes are performed from the perimeter of a site and require no penetration or disturbance of the active waste area. The paper also describes long-term verification methods to monitor barrier integrity passively

  4. Spherical Dunkl-monogenics and a factorization of the Dunkl-Laplacian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Minggang; Cerejeiras, Paula; Kaehler, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider and study a factorization of the Dunkl-Laplacian in terms of spherical coordinates. This allows for the construction of a direct sum decomposition of spherical Dunkl-harmonics. By explicit representation in spherical coordinates of Dunkl-harmonics, one obtains explicit projection operators from Dunkl-harmonics to inner (resp. outer) Dunkl-monogenics. Concrete examples of spherical Dunkl-monogenics will be given at the end.

  5. Monogenic disorders that mimic the phenotype of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Siddharth; Desai, Sonal; Cohen, Julie; Smith-Hicks, Constance; Barañano, Kristin; Fatemi, Ali; Naidu, SakkuBai

    2018-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), but defects in a handful of other genes (e.g., CDKL5, FOXG1, MEF2C) can lead to presentations that resemble, but do not completely mirror, classical RTT. In this study, we attempted to identify other monogenic disorders that share features with RTT. We performed a retrospective chart review on n = 319 patients who had undergone clinical whole exome sequencing (WES) for further etiological evaluation of neurodevelopmental diagnoses that remained unexplained despite extensive prior workup. From this group, we characterized those who (1) possessed features that were compatible with RTT based on clinical judgment, (2) subsequently underwent MECP2 sequencing and/or MECP2 deletion/duplication analysis with negative results, and (3) ultimately arrived at a diagnosis other than RTT with WES. n = 7 patients had clinical features overlapping RTT with negative MECP2 analysis but positive WES providing a diagnosis. These seven patients collectively possessed pathogenic variants in six different genes: two in KCNB1 and one each in FOXG1, IQSEC2, MEIS2, TCF4, and WDR45. n = 2 (both with KCNB1 variants) fulfilled criteria for atypical RTT. RTT-associated features included the following: loss of hand or language skills (n = 3; IQSEC2, KCNB1 x 2); disrupted sleep (n = 4; KNCB1, MEIS2, TCF4, WDR45); stereotyped hand movements (n = 5; FOXG1, KNCB1 x 2, MEIS2, TCF4); bruxism (n = 3; KCNB1 x 2; TCF4); and hypotonia (n = 7). Clinically based diagnoses can be misleading, evident by the increasing number of genetic conditions associated with features of RTT with negative MECP2 mutations.

  6. Newcomers in paediatric GI pathology: childhood enteropathies including very early onset monogenic IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Arzu; Kelsen, Judith; Russo, Pierre

    2017-07-17

    Childhood enteropathies are a group of diseases causing severe chronic (>2-3 weeks) diarrhoea often starting in the first week of life with the potential for fatal complications for the affected infant. Early identification and accurate classification of childhood enteropathies are, therefore, crucial for making treatment decisions to prevent life-threatening complications. Childhood enteropathies are classified into four groups based on the underlying pathology: (i) conditions related to defective digestion, absorption and transport of nutrients and electrolytes; (ii) disorders related to enterocyte differentiation and polarization; (iii) defects of enteroendocrine cell differentiation; and (iv) disorders associated with defective modulation of intestinal immune response. While the intestinal mucosa is usually normal in enteropathies related to congenital transport or enzyme deficiencies, the intestinal biopsy in other disorders may reveal a wide range of abnormalities varying from normal villous architecture to villous atrophy and/or inflammation, or features specific to the underlying disorder including epithelial abnormalities, lipid vacuolization in the enterocytes, absence of plasma cells, lymphangiectasia, microorganisms, and mucosal eosinophilic or histiocytic infiltration. This review intends to provide an update on small intestinal biopsy findings in childhood enteropathies, the "newcomers", including very early onset monogenic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular, for the practicing pathologist.

  7. The prospect of molecular therapy for Angelman syndrome and other monogenic neurologic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Angelman syndrome is a monogenic neurologic disorder that affects 1 in 15,000 children, and is characterized by ataxia, intellectual disability, speech impairment, sleep disorders, and seizures. The disorder is caused by loss of central nervous system expression of UBE3A, a gene encoding a ubiquitin ligase. Current treatments focus on the management of symptoms, as there have not been therapies to treat the underlying molecular cause of the disease. However, this outlook is evolving with advances in molecular therapies, including artificial transcription factors a class of engineered DNA-binding proteins that have the potential to target a specific site in the genome. Results Here we review the recent progress and prospect of targeted gene expression therapies. Three main issues that must be addressed to advance toward human clinical trials are specificity, toxicity, and delivery. Conclusions Artificial transcription factors have the potential to address these concerns on a level that meets and in some cases exceeds current small molecule therapies. We examine the possibilities of such approaches in the context of Angelman syndrome, as a template for other single-gene, neurologic disorders. PMID:24946931

  8. Biological Treatments: New Weapons in the Management of Monogenic Autoinflammatory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vitale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, an expanding group of hereditary diseases characterized by apparently unprovoked recurrent episodes of inflammation, without high-titre autoantibodies or antigen-specific T cells, has been revolutionized by the discovery that several of these conditions are caused by mutations in proteins involved in the mechanisms of innate immune response, including components of the inflammasome, cytokine receptors, receptor antagonists, and oversecretion of a network of proinflammatory molecules. Aim of this review is to synthesize the current experience and the most recent evidences about the therapeutic approach with biologic drugs in pediatric and adult patients with monogenic autoinflammatory disorders.

  9. Depression and quality of life in monogenic compared to idiopathic, early-onset Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Meike; Kertelge, Lena; Tadic, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is decreased in PD and is linked with depression and anxiety. However, little is known about QoL in monogenic PD. Subjects with mutations in PD genes were recruited from ongoing family and genetic studies (manifesting carriers, n = 23; nonmanifesting carriers, n = 19......, monogenic and IPD cases were comparable in QoL and depression characteristics. The QoL and, possibly, overall prognosis of all PD patients can be improved by appropriate attention and treatment for depression, sleep impairments, and anxiety, even if the treatment of the motor problems cannot be further...

  10. Evaluation of a target region capture sequencing platform using monogenic diabetes as a study-model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Rui; Liu, Yanxia; Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior

    2014-01-01

    Monogenic diabetes is a genetic disease often caused by mutations in genes involved in beta-cell function. Correct sub-categorization of the disease is a prerequisite for appropriate treatment and genetic counseling. Target-region capture sequencing is a combination of genomic region enrichment...... and next generation sequencing which might be used as an efficient way to diagnose various genetic disorders. We aimed to develop a target-region capture sequencing platform to screen 117 selected candidate genes involved in metabolism for mutations and to evaluate its performance using monogenic diabetes...

  11. Diagnostic Impact and Cost-effectiveness of Whole-Exome Sequencing for Ambulant Children With Suspected Monogenic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tiong Yang; Dillon, Oliver James; Stark, Zornitza; Schofield, Deborah; Alam, Khurshid; Shrestha, Rupendra; Chong, Belinda; Phelan, Dean; Brett, Gemma R; Creed, Emma; Jarmolowicz, Anna; Yap, Patrick; Walsh, Maie; Downie, Lilian; Amor, David J; Savarirayan, Ravi; McGillivray, George; Yeung, Alison; Peters, Heidi; Robertson, Susan J; Robinson, Aaron J; Macciocca, Ivan; Sadedin, Simon; Bell, Katrina; Oshlack, Alicia; Georgeson, Peter; Thorne, Natalie; Gaff, Clara; White, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    Optimal use of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in the pediatric setting requires an understanding of who should be considered for testing and when it should be performed to maximize clinical utility and cost-effectiveness. To investigate the impact of WES in sequencing-naive children suspected of having a monogenic disorder and evaluate its cost-effectiveness if WES had been available at different time points in their diagnostic trajectory. This prospective study was part of the Melbourne Genomics Health Alliance demonstration project. At the ambulatory outpatient clinics of the Victorian Clinical Genetics Services at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, children older than 2 years suspected of having a monogenic disorder were prospectively recruited from May 1 through November 30, 2015, by clinical geneticists after referral from general and subspecialist pediatricians. All children had nondiagnostic microarrays and no prior single-gene or panel sequencing. All children underwent singleton WES with targeted phenotype-driven analysis. The study examined the clinical utility of a molecular diagnosis and the cost-effectiveness of alternative diagnostic trajectories, depending on timing of WES. Of 61 children originally assessed, 44 (21 [48%] male and 23 [52%] female) aged 2 to 18 years (mean age at initial presentation, 28 months; range, 0-121 months) were recruited, and a diagnosis was achieved in 23 (52%) by singleton WES. The diagnoses were unexpected in 8 of 23 (35%), and clinical management was altered in 6 of 23 (26%). The mean duration of the diagnostic odyssey was 6 years, with each child having a mean of 19 tests and 4 clinical genetics and 4 nongenetics specialist consultations, and 26 (59%) underwent a procedure while under general anesthetic for diagnostic purposes. Economic analyses of the diagnostic trajectory identified that WES performed at initial tertiary presentation resulted in an incremental cost savings of A$9020 (US$6838) per

  12. Clinical Pregenetic Screening for Stroke Monogenic Diseases: Results From Lombardia GENS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersano, Anna; Markus, Hugh Stephen; Quaglini, Silvana; Arbustini, Eloisa; Lanfranconi, Silvia; Micieli, Giuseppe; Boncoraglio, Giorgio B; Taroni, Franco; Gellera, Cinzia; Baratta, Silvia; Penco, Silvana; Mosca, Lorena; Grasso, Maurizia; Carrera, Paola; Ferrari, Maurizio; Cereda, Cristina; Grieco, Gaetano; Corti, Stefania; Ronchi, Dario; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Obici, Laura; Parati, Eugenio A; Pezzini, Alessando; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Verrengia, Elena P; Bono, Giorgio; Mazucchelli, Francesca; Zarcone, Davide; Calloni, Maria Vittoria; Perrone, Patrizia; Bordo, Bianca Maria; Colombo, Antonio; Padovani, Alessandro; Cavallini, Anna; Beretta, Simone; Ferrarese, Carlo; Motto, Cristina; Agostoni, Elio; Molini, Graziella; Sasanelli, Francesco; Corato, Manuel; Marcheselli, Simona; Sessa, Maria; Comi, Giancarlo; Checcarelli, Nicoletta; Guidotti, Mario; Uccellini, Davide; Capitani, Erminio; Tancredi, Lucia; Arnaboldi, Marco; Incorvaia, Barbara; Tadeo, Carlo Sebastiano; Fusi, Laura; Grampa, Giampiero; Merlini, Giampaolo; Trobia, Nadia; Comi, Giacomo Pietro; Braga, Massimiliano; Vitali, Paolo; Baron, Pierluigi; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Candelise, Livia

    2016-07-01

    Lombardia GENS is a multicentre prospective study aimed at diagnosing 5 single-gene disorders associated with stroke (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, Fabry disease, MELAS [mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes], hereditary cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and Marfan syndrome) by applying diagnostic algorithms specific for each clinically suspected disease We enrolled a consecutive series of patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or transient ischemic attack admitted in stroke units in the Lombardia region participating in the project. Patients were defined as probable when presenting with stroke or transient ischemic attack of unknown etiopathogenic causes, or in the presence of young age at onset, or positive familial history or of specific clinical features. Patients fulfilling diagnostic algorithms specific for each monogenic disease (suspected) were referred for genetic analysis. In 209 patients (57.4±14.7 years), the application of the disease-specific algorithm identified 227 patients with possible monogenic disease. Genetic testing identified pathogenic mutations in 7% of these cases. Familial history of stroke was the only significant specific feature that distinguished mutated patients from nonmutated ones. The presence of cerebrovascular risk factors did not exclude a genetic disease. In patients prescreened using a clinical algorithm for monogenic disorders, we identified monogenic causes of events in 7% of patients in comparison to the 1% to 5% prevalence reported in previous series. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Application Forms for Forestry and Silvicultural Burning Tribal Permits Under the FARR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application form for forestry and silvicultural burning on the Nez Perce Indian Reservation and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation under EPA's Federal Air Rules for Reservations.

  14. Conformer of the peroxynitrite ion formed under photolysis of crystalline alkali nitrates - cis or trans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, V. Kh; Anan'ev, V. A.; Dyagileva, E. P.; Lyrshchikov, S. Yu; Miklin, M. B.; Rezvova, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    The optical and infrared reflectance spectra of the crystalline powders prepared by co-crystallization of caesium nitrate, nitrite, and peroxynitrite from alkali solution have been studied. We find that the trans conformer forms under photolysis of crystalline pure caesium nitrate. Under its dissolution the trans conformer transforms to the cis conformer.

  15. A Metabolic Signature of Mitochondrial Dysfunction Revealed through a Monogenic Form of Leigh Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson Legault, Julie; Strittmatter, Laura; Tardif, Jessica; Sharma, Rohit; Tremblay-Vaillancourt, Vanessa; Aubut, Chantale; Boucher, Gabrielle; Clish, Clary B; Cyr, Denis; Daneault, Caroline; Waters, Paula J; Vachon, Luc; Morin, Charles; Laprise, Catherine; Rioux, John D; Mootha, Vamsi K; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2015-11-03

    A decline in mitochondrial respiration represents the root cause of a large number of inborn errors of metabolism. It is also associated with common age-associated diseases and the aging process. To gain insight into the systemic, biochemical consequences of respiratory chain dysfunction, we performed a case-control, prospective metabolic profiling study in a genetically homogenous cohort of patients with Leigh syndrome French Canadian variant, a mitochondrial respiratory chain disease due to loss-of-function mutations in LRPPRC. We discovered 45 plasma and urinary analytes discriminating patients from controls, including classic markers of mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction (lactate and acylcarnitines), as well as unexpected markers of cardiometabolic risk (insulin and adiponectin), amino acid catabolism linked to NADH status (α-hydroxybutyrate), and NAD(+) biosynthesis (kynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid). Our study identifies systemic, metabolic pathway derangements that can lie downstream of primary mitochondrial lesions, with implications for understanding how the organelle contributes to rare and common diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitroxyl free radicals formed from hindered amine light stabilizers under 60Co γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huiliang; Chen Wenxiu

    2006-01-01

    Nitroxyl free radicals formed from several low molecular weight (LMW) hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) under 60 Co γ-ray irradiation was studied with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. All the HALSs irradiated in air formed nitroxyl free radicals under irradiation in air. For most of the HALSs, concentration of the nitroxyl free radicals increased linearly and quickly with absorbed dose in 0-10 kGy range, but increased slowly, or even kept constant, with doses of greater than 10 kGy. Concentration of nitroxyl free radicals formed from LMW HALS was usually higher than high molecular weight HALS. Tetramethyl HALS was easier to form nitroxyl free radicals than pentamethyl HLAS. Concentration of nitroxyl free radicals formed from the samples irradiated in oxygen was about two times higher than that the samples irradiated in air. Mechanisms of the nitroxyl free radical formation from the γ-ray irradiated HALSs were was discussed. (authors)

  17. Analysis of the chicken genome : mapping of monogenic traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter-Spira, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of genetic linkage maps in farm animals is progressing rapidly. Linkage maps can be used to identify genetic loci responsible for genetic variation in traits of economic importance. The ultimate goal is to find the underlying genes involved in these traits. To achieve this,

  18. Allelic variation, aneuploidy, and nongenetic mechanisms suppress a monogenic trait in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirr, Amy; Cromie, Gareth A; Jeffery, Eric W; Gilbert, Teresa L; Ludlow, Catherine L; Scott, Adrian C; Dudley, Aimée M

    2015-01-01

    Clinically relevant features of monogenic diseases, including severity of symptoms and age of onset, can vary widely in response to environmental differences as well as to the presence of genetic modifiers affecting the trait's penetrance and expressivity. While a better understanding of modifier loci could lead to treatments for Mendelian diseases, the rarity of individuals harboring both a disease-causing allele and a modifying genotype hinders their study in human populations. We examined the genetic architecture of monogenic trait modifiers using a well-characterized yeast model of the human Mendelian disease classic galactosemia. Yeast strains with loss-of-function mutations in the yeast ortholog (GAL7) of the human disease gene (GALT) fail to grow in the presence of even small amounts of galactose due to accumulation of the same toxic intermediates that poison human cells. To isolate and individually genotype large numbers of the very rare (∼0.1%) galactose-tolerant recombinant progeny from a cross between two gal7Δ parents, we developed a new method, called "FACS-QTL." FACS-QTL improves upon the currently used approaches of bulk segregant analysis and extreme QTL mapping by requiring less genome engineering and strain manipulation as well as maintaining individual genotype information. Our results identified multiple distinct solutions by which the monogenic trait could be suppressed, including genetic and nongenetic mechanisms as well as frequent aneuploidy. Taken together, our results imply that the modifiers of monogenic traits are likely to be genetically complex and heterogeneous. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Allelic Variation, Aneuploidy, and Nongenetic Mechanisms Suppress a Monogenic Trait in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Sirr, Amy; Cromie, Gareth A.; Jeffery, Eric W.; Gilbert, Teresa L.; Ludlow, Catherine L.; Scott, Adrian C.; Dudley, Aim?e M.

    2014-01-01

    Clinically relevant features of monogenic diseases, including severity of symptoms and age of onset, can vary widely in response to environmental differences as well as to the presence of genetic modifiers affecting the trait?s penetrance and expressivity. While a better understanding of modifier loci could lead to treatments for Mendelian diseases, the rarity of individuals harboring both a disease-causing allele and a modifying genotype hinders their study in human populations. We examined ...

  20. LipidSeq: a next-generation clinical resequencing panel for monogenic dyslipidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Christopher T; Dubé, Joseph B; Loyzer, Melissa N; MacDonald, Austin; Carter, David E; McIntyre, Adam D; Cao, Henian; Wang, Jian; Robinson, John F; Hegele, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    We report the design of a targeted resequencing panel for monogenic dyslipidemias, LipidSeq, for the purpose of replacing Sanger sequencing in the clinical detection of dyslipidemia-causing variants. We also evaluate the performance of the LipidSeq approach versus Sanger sequencing in 84 patients with a range of phenotypes including extreme blood lipid concentrations as well as additional dyslipidemias and related metabolic disorders. The panel performs well, with high concordance (95.2%) in samples with known mutations based on Sanger sequencing and a high detection rate (57.9%) of mutations likely to be causative for disease in samples not previously sequenced. Clinical implementation of LipidSeq has the potential to aid in the molecular diagnosis of patients with monogenic dyslipidemias with a high degree of speed and accuracy and at lower cost than either Sanger sequencing or whole exome sequencing. Furthermore, LipidSeq will help to provide a more focused picture of monogenic and polygenic contributors that underlie dyslipidemia while excluding the discovery of incidental pathogenic clinically actionable variants in nonmetabolism-related genes, such as oncogenes, that would otherwise be identified by a whole exome approach, thus minimizing potential ethical issues.

  1. Polytene chromosomes of monogenic and amphogenic Chrysomya species (Calliphoridae, Diptera): analysis of banding patterns and in situ hybridization with Drosophila sex determining gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalla, S

    1994-03-01

    Standard maps for the five banded polytene chromosomes found in trichogen cell nuclei of the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies and the amphogenic Chrysomya pinguis are presented. The chromosomes are highly homologous in the two species; differences in banding patterns are predominantly caused by one pericentric and ten paracentric inversions. In chromosome 5 of the amphogenic Chrysomya phaonis, also analysed in this paper, an additional paracentric inversion was observed. The distribution of species specific inversions indicates that the monogenic C. rufifacies is phylogenetically older than the amphogenic species. The maternal sex realizer locus F'/f on polytene chromosome 5 of C. rufifacies is not associated with a structural heterozygosity. Chromosome pair 6 of C. rufifacies and the sex chromosome pair of C. pinguis are under-replicated in polytene nuclei; they consist of irregular chromatin granules, frequently associated with nucleolus material. Evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in Chrysomya is probably correlated with heterochromatin accumulation. A search for sex determining genes in Chrysomya was initiated using sex determining sequences from Drosophila melanogaster for in situ hybridization. The polytene band 41A1 on chromosome 5 of monogenic and amphogenic Chrysomya species contains sequences homologous to the maternal sex determining gene daughterless (da). Homology to the zygotic gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) of Drosophila is detected in band 39A1 on chromosome 5 of C. rufifacies. The findings reported here are the first evidence for a possible homology between the da gene of Drosophila and the maternal sex realizer F' of C. rufifacies. An hypothesis for the evolution of the maternal effect sex determination of C. rufifacies is proposed.

  2. 78 FR 73237 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ...-0088] Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB... entities over which the agency exercises regulatory authority. Recent trends lead the agency to estimate.... Requesters are not required to keep copies of any records or reports [[Page 73238

  3. The implication of using a fixed form factor in areas under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implication of using a fixed form factor in areas under different rainfall and soil conditions for Pinus kesiya in Zambia. ... Trees were sampled from the three plantation groups and 10 sample plots were established in which 10 trees were randomly sampled for cutting. Height and diameter at breast height (dbh) were the ...

  4. Performance of high level waste forms and engineered barriers under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The IAEA initiated in 1977 a co-ordinated research programme on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High-Level Waste Forms'' which was terminated in 1983. As there was a continuing need for international collaboration in research on solidified high-level waste form and spent fuel, the IAEA initiated a new programme in 1984. The new programme, besides including spent fuel and SYNROC, also placed greater emphasis on the effect of the engineered barriers of future repositories on the properties of the waste form. These engineered barriers included containers, overpacks, buffer and backfill materials etc. as components of the ''near-field'' of the repository. The Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Performance of High-Level Waste Forms and Engineered Barriers Under Repository Conditions had the objectives of promoting the exchange of information on the experience gained by different Member States in experimental performance data and technical model evaluation of solidified high level waste forms, components of the waste package and the complete waste management system under conditions relevant to final repository disposal. The programme includes studies on both irradiated spent fuel and glass and ceramic forms as the final solidified waste forms. The following topics were discussed: Leaching of vitrified high-level wastes, modelling of glass behaviour in clay, salt and granite repositories, environmental impacts of radionuclide release, synroc use for high--level waste solidification, leachate-rock interactions, spent fuel disposal in deep geologic repositories and radionuclide release mechanisms from various fuel types, radiolysis and selective leaching correlated with matrix alteration. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Inorganic insertion compounds under the form of Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylberajch, Claire

    1989-01-01

    As the study of organic or mineral compounds under the form of thin layers showed that they are displaying very original properties with respect to massive compounds, this research thesis reports a work which aimed at obtaining mineral conductive materials under the form of extremely thin layers, notably metallic sulfides of mercury and cadmium. Synthesis is performed in soft conditions within an organic matrix produced by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique with successive diffusions of mineral reactants. Salt formation is monitored by infrared spectroscopy. Physical properties of these compounds have been studied by various techniques (UV, visible, and IR spectroscopy, linear dichroism, X ray diffraction, X ray photoelectron spectrometry, conduction, and so on). Structural and electronic properties of these extremely thin films confirm that metallic sulfides adopt a lamellar geometry with molecular thickness. Conductivity and photo-conductivity are interpreted by means of a conventional band diagram [fr

  6. Learning for Semantic Parsing with Kernels under Various Forms of Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    is because Turkish has larger number of unique tokens (36% more than English ) due to its complex agglunative morphology , which makes learning from its...Semantic Parsing with Kernels under Various Forms of Supervision 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Subsequence Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.3 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.3.1 Syntax -based Semantic

  7. Evolution of magnetic fields in collapsing star-forming clouds under different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Koki; Machida, Masahiro N.; Susa, Hajime

    2018-04-01

    In nearby star-forming clouds, amplification and dissipation of the magnetic field are known to play crucial roles in the star-formation process. The star-forming environment varies from place to place and era to era in galaxies. In this study, amplification and dissipation of magnetic fields in star-forming clouds are investigated under different environments using magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. We consider various star-forming environments in combination with the metallicity and the ionization strength, and prepare prestellar clouds having two different mass-to-flux ratios. We calculate the cloud collapse until protostar formation using ideal and non-ideal (inclusion and exclusion of ohmic dissipation and ambipolar diffusion) MHD calculations to investigate the evolution of the magnetic field. We perform 288 runs in total and show the diversity of the density range within which the magnetic field effectively dissipates, depending on the environment. In addition, the dominant dissipation process (Ohmic dissipation or ambipolar diffusion) is shown to strongly depend on the star-forming environment. Especially, for the primordial case, magnetic field rarely dissipates without ionization source, while it efficiently dissipates when very weak ionization sources exist in the surrounding environment. The results of this study help to clarify star formation in various environments.

  8. Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus species under different forms of N deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Differences in functional traits between invasive and native plant species are believed to determine the invasion success of the former. Increasing amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) are continually deposited into natural ecosystems, which may change the relative occurrence of the different N deposition forms (such as NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, and CO(NH 2 ) 2 -N) naturally deposited. Under high N deposition scenarios, some invasive species may grow faster, gaining advantage over native species. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew invasive and native Amaranthus species from seed both alone and in competition under simulated N enriched environments with different forms of N over 3 months. Then, we measured different leaf traits (i.e., plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf chlorophyll and N concentrations). Results showed that the competition intensity between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor decreased under N deposition. This may be due to the large functional divergence between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor under simulated N deposition. Phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus were significantly lower than in A. tricolor. The lower range of phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may indicate a fitness cost for plastic functional traits under adverse environments. The restricted phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may also stabilize leaf construction costs and the growth rate. Meanwhile, the two Amaranthus species possessed greater plasticity in leaf N concentration under NO 3 -N fertilization, which enhanced their competitiveness.

  9. Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus species under different forms of N deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Differences in functional traits between invasive and native plant species are believed to determine the invasion success of the former. Increasing amounts of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) are continually deposited into natural ecosystems, which may change the relative occurrence of the different N deposition forms (such as NH4-N, NO3-N, and CO(NH2)2-N) naturally deposited. Under high N deposition scenarios, some invasive species may grow faster, gaining advantage over native species. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew invasive and native Amaranthus species from seed both alone and in competition under simulated N enriched environments with different forms of N over 3 months. Then, we measured different leaf traits (i.e., plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf shape index, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf chlorophyll and N concentrations). Results showed that the competition intensity between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor decreased under N deposition. This may be due to the large functional divergence between A. retroflexus and A. tricolor under simulated N deposition. Phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus were significantly lower than in A. tricolor. The lower range of phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may indicate a fitness cost for plastic functional traits under adverse environments. The restricted phenotypic plasticity of SLA and leaf chlorophyll concentration of A. retroflexus may also stabilize leaf construction costs and the growth rate. Meanwhile, the two Amaranthus species possessed greater plasticity in leaf N concentration under NO3-N fertilization, which enhanced their competitiveness.

  10. [Gene therapy: a therapeutic option for neoplasias, infections and monogenic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnari, Brian M

    2011-08-01

    During the last two decades, the outcome of various gene therapy protocols lead to medical community disbelief. Nevertheless, successful results obtained in recent years, repositioned gene therapy as a promising option for treatment of several diseases. Facing this renaissance of the international scientific community interest on gene therapy, it seems to be necessary for the generalist physician to understand its strength and limitations. The objective of this article is to comment the way gene therapy addresses nowadays the treatment of such different pathologies as neoplasias, infections and monogenic diseases.

  11. 17 CFR 259.101 - Form U-1, application or declaration under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... declaration under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. 259.101 Section 259.101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY... declaration under the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. This form shall be used pursuant to Rule 20...

  12. Investigation of activity release from bituminized intermediate-level waste forms under thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluger, W.; Vejmelka, P.; Koester, R.

    1983-01-01

    To determine the consequences of a fire during fabrication, intermediate storage and transport of bituminized NaNO 3 waste forms, the fractions of plutonium released from the waste forms were assessed. For this purpose, laboratory tests were made with PuO 2 -containing specimens as well as a field test with specimens containing Eu 2 O 3 . By the evaluation of plutonium release in the laboratory and by the determination of the total sodium release and the relative Eu/Na release in the field tests the plutonium release can be deduced from full-scale specimens. The results show that for bituminized waste forms with high NaNO 3 contents (approx. 36 wt%) the average plutonium release obtained in laboratory testing is 15%. In the field tests (IAEA fire test conditions) an average Eu release of 8% was found. These results justify the statement that also for waste forms in open 175 L drum inserts a maximum plutonium release of about 15% can be expected. From the time-dependence of Eu/Na release in the field tests an induction period of 15-20 minutes between the start of testing and the first Na/Eu release can be derived. The maximum differential Na/Eu release occurs after a test period of 45 to 60 minutes duration and after 90 to 105 minutes (tests K2 and K4, respectively); after that time also the highest temperatures in the products are measured. The release values were determined for products in open 175 L drum inserts which in this form are not eligible for intermediate and ultimate storage. For bituminized waste forms in concrete packages (lost concrete shieldings) a delayed increase in temperature to only 70-80 deg. C takes place (4-5 hours after extinction of the fire) if the fire lasts 45 minutes. The concrete package remains intact under test conditions. This means that activity release from bituminized waste forms packaged in this way can be ruled out in the case under consideration. (author)

  13. U-Form vs. M-Form: How to Understand Decision Autonomy Under Healthcare Decentralization? Comment on "Decentralisation of Health Services in Fiji: A Decision Space Analysis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas

    2016-06-07

    For more than three decades healthcare decentralization has been promoted in developing countries as a way of improving the financing and delivery of public healthcare. Decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization would determine the role and scope of responsibility of local authorities. Jalal Mohammed, Nicola North, and Toni Ashton analyze decision autonomy within decentralized services in Fiji. They conclude that the narrow decision space allowed to local entities might have limited the benefits of decentralization on users and providers. To discuss the costs and benefits of healthcare decentralization this paper uses the U-form and M-form typology to further illustrate the role of decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization. This paper argues that when evaluating healthcare decentralization, it is important to determine whether the benefits from decentralization are greater than its costs. The U-form and M-form framework is proposed as a useful typology to evaluate different types of institutional arrangements under healthcare decentralization. Under this model, the more decentralized organizational form (M-form) is superior if the benefits from flexibility exceed the costs of duplication and the more centralized organizational form (U-form) is superior if the savings from economies of scale outweigh the costly decision-making process from the center to the regions. Budgetary and financial autonomy and effective mechanisms to maintain local governments accountable for their spending behavior are key decision autonomy variables that could sway the cost-benefit analysis of healthcare decentralization. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  14. Chemical form of release tritium from solid breeder materials under the various purge gas conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomohiro Kinjyo; Masabumi Nishikawa; Naoya Yamashita; Takanori Koyama; Takaaki Tanifuji; Mikio Enoeda

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of the release behavior of bred tritium from solid breeder materials is necessary to design tritium recovery system from blanket of a fusion reactor because permeation loss of bred tritium in the piping system or type of tritium recovery system depends on the tritium release behavior. Chemical form of released tritium from Li 4 SiO 4 (from FzK), LiAlO 2 (from JAERI), Li 2 TiO 3 (from CEA) and Li 2 ZrO 3 (from MAPI) under various purge gas condition is discussed in this study by using the data obtained from the out-pile tritium release experiment in JAEA. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a little portion of bred tritium is release as the chemical form of HTO even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. It is also confirmed that desorption of surface water together with liberation of water vapor formed by water formation reaction from contact of hydrogen with solid breeder materials at high temperature gives rather high partial pressure of water vapor in the blanket purge gas. Tritium liberation model to represent the release behavior of bred tritium from solid breeder materials has been developed by the present authors considering tritium migration in bulk of grain, tritium transfer from bulk to surface and surface reactions on grain. Then, competition of such surface reactions as adsorption/desorption, isotope exchange reaction with hydrogen in purge gas and isotope exchange reaction with water vapor in purge gas decides the portion of HTO and HT. Using the tritium release model obtained so far, the portion of HTO or HT released from solid breeder materials is estimated and compared with observed values under various conditions in this study. The tritium release behavior and chemical form of tritium in the test blanket module with solid breeder under the ITER condition is also discussed based on the estimation obtained using the tritium release model formed by the present authors. (author)

  15. The longest faun tail forming dreadlocks with underlying spina bifida occulta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Balvinder Kaur; Mahajan, Bharat Bhushan; Mittal, Jyotisterna

    2013-04-15

    Spina bifida is a developmental anomaly characterized by defective closure of the bony encasement of the spinal cord through which the spinal cord and meninges may or may not protrude. We report a rare case of a very long faun tail, which was in the form of a 20 inch long tail originating from the lumbosacral area in a rhomboidal pattern, measuring 10 x 8 inches. The case is being reported for its rare presentation of a 20 inch long faun tail with underlying spina bifida occulta.

  16. Effect of Bio char on Plant Growth and Aluminium Form of Soil under Aluminium Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lianwen; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Jingwei; Feng, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Aluminium-enriched acid red soils in South China easily cause aluminium toxicity to plants, but biochip can improve soils and eliminate soil contaminations. In this project, biochip was used in potted plant control test to study the effect of biochip on plant growth in soil under acid aluminium stress and the migration and conversion of aluminium in plant-soil system. The fin dings show that the application of biochip increases the pH value of soil under aluminium stress significantly, changes the existing form of aluminium ion in soil, reduces the plants’ absorption of aluminium, and alleviates the aluminium toxicity to plants, but too much biochip may inhibit the growth of plants. In this case, further study should be carried out as regards the volume and way of biochip input in practical applications as well as the timeliness of aluminium toxicity removal.

  17. Prerequisites for Forming the Institutional Concept of the National Economy Competitiveness under Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaremenko Oleh L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to prove that under conditions of globalization there have developed objective and subjective prerequisites for forming the institutional concept of the national economy. The objective prerequisites are the newest information and communication technologies, post-industrial trends and market transformation of civilization intensified by globalization. Under such conditions instability and volatility of the institutional environment both within national economies and at the international level are observed. The aggravation of the global competition between national economies actualizes the role of such institutional factors as political system, property, public administration, economic organization, culture, etc. The subjective prerequisites are related to the fact that the institutional economic theory is currently one of the leading trends in the modern world and Ukrainian economic thought. Interest in it is explained not only by the fact that it overcomes the limitations of a number of prerequisites for the mainstream, but also because it allows considering the modern economic processes in complex

  18. Real-time PCR for prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis of monogenic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The provision of prenatal diagnosis requires the highest standards in laboratory practice to ensure an accurate result. In preimplantation genetic diagnosis protocols additionally have to address the need to achieve an accurate result from 1 to 2 cells within a limited time. Emerging protocols of "non-invasive" prenatal diagnosis, which are based on analysis of free fetal DNA in the circulation of the pregnant mother, also have to achieve a result from a limited quantity of fetal DNA against a high background of maternal free DNA. Real-time PCR uses fluorescent probes or dyes and dedicated instruments to monitor the accumulation of amplicons produced throughout the progress of a PCR reaction. Real-time PCR can be used for quantitative or qualitative evaluation of PCR products and is ideally suited for analysis of nucleotide sequence variations (point mutations) and gene dosage changes (locus deletions or insertions/duplications) that cause human monogenic diseases. Real-time PCR offers a means for more rapid and potentially higher throughput assays, without compromising accuracy and has several advantages over end-point PCR analysis, including the elimination of post-PCR processing steps and a wide dynamic range of detection with a high degree of sensitivity. This review will focus on real-time PCR protocols that are suitable for genotyping monogenic diseases with particular emphasis on applications to prenatal diagnosis, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis and preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

  19. Impaired sense of smell and color discrimination in monogenic and idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kertelge, Lena; Brüggemann, Norbert; Schmidt, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Olfaction is typically impaired in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), but its role is uncertain in monogenic PD. Diminished color discrimination has been suggested as another early sign of dopaminergic dysfunction but not been systematically studied. Furthermore, it is unknown whether both......-Munsell (FM) color discrimination test, and mutation testing in known PD genes. The monogenic group consisted of 15 Parkin (6MC/9NMC), 17 PINK1 (10MC/7NMC), 8 LRRK2 (4MC/4NMC), 3 SNCA (MC), and 4 ATP13A2 (MC) carriers. Olfaction was most impaired in IPD (UPSIT percentiles 10.1 ± 13.5) compared with all other...... groups (MC 13.8 ± 11.9, NMC 19.6 ± 13.0, controls 33.8 ± 22.4). Within MC, carriers of two mutations in Parkin and PINK1 showed higher UPSIT percentiles than LRRK2 and SNCA carriers. Color discrimination was reduced in IPD (FM total error score 134.8 ± 92.7). In MC (122.4 ± 142.4), the reduction was most...

  20. Induction of L-form-like cell shape change of Bacillus subtilis under microculture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingaki, Ryuji; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Iwano, Megumi; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Takatsuka, Tomomasa; Inoue, Tetsuyoshi; Kokeguchi, Susumu; Fukui, Kazuhiro

    2003-09-01

    A remarkable cell shape change was observed in Bacillus subtilis strain 168 under microculture conditions on CI agar medium (Spizizen's minimal medium supplemented with a trace amount of yeast extract and Casamino acids). Cells cultured under a cover glass changed in form from rod-shaped to spherical, large and irregular shapes that closely resembled L-form cells. The cell shape change was observed only with CI medium, not with Spizizen's minimum medium alone or other rich media. The whole-cell protein profile of cells grown under cover glass and cells grown on CI agar plates differed in several respects. Tandem mass analysis of nine gel bands which differed in protein expression between the two conditions showed that proteins related to nitrate respiration and fermentation were expressed in the shape-changed cells grown under cover glass. The cell shape change of CI cultures was repressed when excess KNO3 was added to the medium. Whole-cell protein analysis of the normal rod-shaped cells grown with 0.1% KNO3 and the shape-changed cells grown without KNO3 revealed that the expression of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (coded by the bfmB gene locus) was elevated in the shape-changed cells. Inactivation of the bfmB locus resulted in the repression of cell shape change, and cells in which bfmB expression was induced by IPTG did show changes in shape. Transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections demonstrated that the shape-changed cells had thin walls, and plasmolysis of cells fixed with a solution including 0.1 M sucrose was observed. Clarifying the mechanism of thinning of the cell wall may lead to the development of a new type of cell wall biosynthetic inhibitor.

  1. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil water erosion under different cultivation systems and different fertilization rates and forms over 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of rain and surface runoff together are the active agents of water erosion, and further influences are the soil type, terrain, soil cover, soil management, and conservation practices. Soil water erosion is low in the no-tillage management system, being influenced by the amount and form of lime and fertilizer application to the soil, among other factors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of the form of liming, the quantity and management of fertilizer application on the soil and water losses by erosion under natural rainfall. The study was carried out between 2003 and 2013 on a Humic Dystrupept soil, with the following treatments: T1 - cultivation with liming and corrective fertilizer incorporated into the soil in the first year, and with 100 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T2 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over five years, and with 75 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T3 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over three years, and with 50 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T4 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over two years, and with 25 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T5 - fallow soil, without liming or fertilization. In the rotation the crops black oat (Avena strigosa , soybean (Glycine max , common vetch (Vicia sativa , maize (Zea mays , fodder radish (Raphanus sativus , and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris . The split application of lime and mineral fertilizer to the soil surface in a no-tillage system over three and five years, results in better control of soil losses than when split in two years. The increase in the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage cultivation increases phytomass production and reduces soil loss by water erosion. Water losses in treatments under no-tillage cultivation were low in all crop cycles, with a similar behavior as soil losses.

  3. Analysis and test of superplastically formed titanium hat-stiffened panels under compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Randall C.; Royster, Dick M.; Bales, Thomas T.

    1987-01-01

    Four hat-stiffened titanium panels with two different stiffener configurations were fabricated by superplastic forming/weld brazing and tested under a moderately heavy compressive load. The panels had the same overall dimensions but differed in the shape of the hat-stiffener webs; three panels had stiffeners with flat webs and the other panel had stiffeners with beaded webs. Analysis indicated that the local buckling strain of the flat stiffener web was considerably lower than the general panel buckling strain or cap buckling strain. The analysis also showed that beading the webs of the hat stiffeners removed them as the critical element for local buckling and improved the buckling strain of the panels. The analytical extensional stiffness and failure loads compared very well with experimental results.

  4. Effective Cross Section of Cold Formed Steel Column Under Axial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P.; Pradeep, T.

    2018-02-01

    The compressive resistance of cold-formed steel (CFS) section may be governed by local, distortional or overall buckling and any apparent interaction between these modes. A new inventive stiffened CFS section is elected in this study, selected cross sections geometries and lengths are chosen such that all the types of buckling modes are met with. Buckling plot is plotted using linear elastic buckling analysis software (CUFSM). Using the test results obtained in the literature, the developed finite element model is calibrated and furthers a total of 126 parametric study is conducted such as a consequence of dimensions and the length of the cross section, thickness and yield stress. The FEA included relevant material and geometric imperfections. All the columns are analyzed under pin end conditions with axial compression. The analysis results demonstrate that the DSM equations generally assess the strength of stiffened section conservatively. Modifications to the DSM equations are recommended to evaluate the strength of stiffened section more precisely.

  5. Self-similarity of asymmetric sand-ripple profiles formed under nonlinear shoaling waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testik, F. Y.; Voropayev, S. I.; Balasubramanian, S.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2006-10-01

    We report the results of laboratory experiments conducted to study equilibrium profiles of asymmetric sand ripples that form under nonlinear shoaling waves. Waves were generated in a large wave tank with a sandy slope that mimics the oceanic coastal zone. The measurements revealed that, to the first approximation, the equilibrium asymmetric sand ripples profiles can be considered as self-similar. In the experimental parameter range considered (wave asymmetry A =1.3-5; mobility parameter Ψ =8-70; shoaling coefficient S =1.03-1.6), the ripple profiles can be described by a simple similarity profile of "sawtooth" shape with "universal" onshore θ1 (≈34°) and offshore θ2 (≈18°) ripple slope angles. The results may be useful in parameterization of coastal bed roughness, in underwater acoustics and sediment transport applications.

  6. Soil P forms and P uptake under intensive plant growth in the greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, Carlos; Killorn, Randy

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of available soil (P) is a function of the equilibrium established among different soil P forms through numerous and different reactions in soil. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in P forms and P supply under exhaustive extraction conditions in soils from 3 different land use areas. In order to establish a greenhouse experiment, representative soil samples (0-20 cm) were taken from three fields located adjacent to one another, in a Typic Hapludands in Costa Rica. One field was a coffee plantation (Coffea arabica var Catuai), the second a sugar cane plantation (Saccarum spp. var 611721), and the third a secondary forest. Sorghum bicolor var Glazer 41) was planted in 1-liter pots and harvested 4 times consecutively. Treatments were no P and P application (100 mg kg -1 ) for each of the different land-use soil samples. Shoot and root dry matter and total P uptake were determined. Soil samples were taken before and after each of the 4 plant growth cycles and analyzed using a modified Hedley et al. (1982) soil P fractionation methodology. Labile-Pi, NaOH-Pi, HCI-Pi, extractable-Po, and residual -P were determined. Applied P increased labile-Pi, NaOH-Pi and HCI-Pi. Statistical changes were not observed in extractable organic P and residual-P due to P application. The NaOH-Pi and HCI-Pi seemed to act as a temporary pool of applied P. The possible participation of residual-P in replenishment of labile-P and NaOH-Pi was observed. The amount of plant P untake was closely related to the initial amount of labile-Pi and was higher in coffee than in forest and sugar cane soils. The labile-P was depleted by plant uptake. Rapid changes in reversibly available soil P forms (NaOH-Pi and HCI-Pi) were observed during the experiment. Our results suggest the occurrence of very rapid and dynamic changes between available and unavailable soil P forms in response to fertilizer application and plant uptake, supporting the idea of a continuum among the

  7. Behaviour of wrapped cold-formed steel columns under different loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baabu, B. Hari; Sreenath, S.

    2017-07-01

    The use of Cold Formed Steel (CFS) sections as structural members is widely accepted because of its light nature. However, the load carrying capacity of these sections will be less compared to hot rolled sections. This study is meant to analyze the possibility of strengthening cold formed members by wrapping it with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) laminates. Light gauge steel columns of cross sectional dimensions 100mm x 50mm x 3.15mm were taken for this study. The effective length of the section is about 750mm. A total of 8 specimens including the control specimen is tested under axial and eccentric loading. The columns were tested keeping both ends hinged. For both loading cases the buckling behaviour, ultimate load carrying capacity and load-deflection characteristics of the CFS columns were analyzed. The GFRP laminates were wrapped on columns in three different ways such that wrapping the outer surface of web and flange throughout the length of specimen, wrapping the outer surface of web alone throughout the length of specimen and wrapping the outer surface of web and flange for the upper half length of the specimen where the buckling is expected. For both loading cases, the results indicated that the column with wrapping at the outer surface of web and flange throughout the length of specimen provides better strength for it.

  8. The clinical application of genome-wide sequencing for monogenic diseases in Canada: Position Statement of the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycott, Kym; Hartley, Taila; Adam, Shelin; Bernier, Francois; Chong, Karen; Fernandez, Bridget A; Friedman, Jan M; Geraghty, Michael T; Hume, Stacey; Knoppers, Bartha M; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Majewski, Jacek; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Meyn, M Stephen; Michaud, Jacques L; Nelson, Tanya N; Richer, Julie; Sadikovic, Bekim; Skidmore, David L; Stockley, Tracy; Taylor, Sherry; van Karnebeek, Clara; Zawati, Ma'n H; Lauzon, Julie; Armour, Christine M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this Position Statement is to provide recommendations for Canadian medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors and other physicians regarding the use of genome-wide sequencing of germline DNA in the context of clinical genetic diagnosis. This statement has been developed to facilitate the clinical translation and development of best practices for clinical genome-wide sequencing for genetic diagnosis of monogenic diseases in Canada; it does not address the clinical application of this technology in other fields such as molecular investigation of cancer or for population screening of healthy individuals. Two multidisciplinary groups consisting of medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors, ethicists, lawyers and genetic researchers were assembled to review existing literature and guidelines on genome-wide sequencing for clinical genetic diagnosis in the context of monogenic diseases, and to make recommendations relevant to the Canadian context. The statement was circulated for comment to the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) membership-at-large and, following incorporation of feedback, approved by the CCMG Board of Directors. The CCMG is a Canadian organisation responsible for certifying medical geneticists and clinical laboratory geneticists, and for establishing professional and ethical standards for clinical genetics services in Canada. Recommendations include (1) clinical genome-wide sequencing is an appropriate approach in the diagnostic assessment of a patient for whom there is suspicion of a significant monogenic disease that is associated with a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, or where specific genetic tests have failed to provide a diagnosis; (2) until the benefits of reporting incidental findings are established, we do not endorse the intentional clinical analysis of disease-associated genes other than those linked to the primary indication; and (3) clinicians should

  9. Metabolic differences in ripening of Solanum lycopersicum ‘Ailsa Craig’ and three monogenic mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisken, Stephan; Earll, Mark; Baxter, Charles; Portwood, David; Ament, Zsuzsanna; Kende, Aniko; Hodgman, Charlie; Seymour, Graham; Smith, Rebecca; Fraser, Paul; Seymour, Mark; Salek, Reza M.; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Application of mass spectrometry enables the detection of metabolic differences between groups of related organisms. Differences in the metabolic fingerprints of wild-type Solanum lycopersicum and three monogenic mutants, ripening inhibitor (rin), non-ripening (nor) and Colourless non-ripening (Cnr), of tomato are captured with regard to ripening behaviour. A high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry system coupled to liquid chromatography produced a time series of the ripening behaviour at discrete intervals with a focus on changes post-anthesis. Internal standards and quality controls were used to ensure system stability. The raw data of the samples and reference compounds including study protocols have been deposited in the open metabolomics database MetaboLights via the metadata annotation tool Isatab to enable efficient re-use of the datasets, such as in metabolomics cross-study comparisons or data fusion exercises. PMID:25977786

  10. The equilibrium alluvial river under variable flow and its channel-forming discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Astrid; Arkesteijn, Liselot; Chavarrías, Víctor; Viparelli, Enrica

    2017-10-01

    When the water discharge, sediment supply, and base level vary around stable values, an alluvial river evolves toward a mean equilibrium or graded state with small fluctuations around this mean state (i.e., a dynamic or statistical equilibrium state). Here we present analytical relations describing the mean equilibrium geometry of an alluvial river under variable flow by linking channel slope, width, and bed surface texture. The solution holds in river normal flow zones (or outside both the hydrograph boundary layer and the backwater zone) and accounts for grain size selective transport and particle abrasion. We consider the variable flow rate as a series of continuously changing yet steady water discharges (here termed an alternating steady discharge). The analysis also provides a solution to the channel-forming water discharge, which is here defined as the steady water discharge that, given the mean sediment supply, provides the same equilibrium channel slope as the natural long-term hydrograph. The channel-forming water discharge for the gravel load is larger than the one associated with the sand load. The analysis illustrates how the load is distributed over the range of water discharge in the river normal flow zone, which we term the "normal flow load distribution". The fact that the distribution of the (imposed) sediment supply spatially adapts to this normal flow load distribution is the origin of the hydrograph boundary layer. The results quantify the findings by Wolman and Miller (1960) regarding the relevance of both magnitude and frequency of the flow rate with respect to channel geometry.

  11. Leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized radioactive waste form under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nagano, Tetsushi; Akimoto, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized waste form was studied to acquire data for the performance assessment of the geologic disposal of bituminized radioactive waste. Laboratory-scale leaching tests were performed for radioactive and non-radioactive waste specimens simulating bituminized waste of a French reprocessing company, COGEMA. The simulated waste was contacted with deionized water, an alkaline solution (0.03-mol/l KOH), and a saline solution (0.5-mol/l KCl) under atmospheric and anoxic conditions. The concentrations of Na, Ba, Cs, Sr, Np, Pu, NO 3 , SO 4 and I in the leachates were determined. Swelling of the bituminized waste progressed in deionized water and KOH. The release of the soluble components, Na and Cs, was enhanced by the swelling, and considered to be diffusion-controlled in the swelled layers of the specimens. The release of sparingly soluble components such as Ba and Np was solubility-limited in addition to the progression of leaching. Neptunium, a redox-sensitive element, showed a distinct difference in release between anoxic and atmospheric conditions. The elemental release from the bituminized waste specimens leached in the KCl was very low, which is likely due to the suppression of swelling of the specimens at high ionic strength. (author)

  12. The study of diffusion in network-forming liquids under pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, P.K. [Department of Computational Physics, Hanoi University of Technology, 1Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kien, P.H., E-mail: phkien80@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Thainguyen University of Education, 20 Luong Ngoc Quyen, Thainguyen (Viet Nam); San, L.T.; Hong, N.V. [Department of Computational Physics, Hanoi University of Technology, 1Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, the molecular dynamics simulation is applied to investigate the diffusion in silica liquids under different temperature and pressure. We show that the diffusion is controlled by the rate of effective SiO{sub x}→SiO{sub x±1} and OSi{sub y}→OSi{sub y±1} reaction. With increasing the pressure, the rate of reaction increases and the Si–O bond is weaker. Moreover, the reactions are not uniformly distributed in the space, but instead they happen frequently or rarely in separate regions. We also reveal two motion types: free and correlation motion. The correlation motion concerns the moving of a group of atoms which is similar to that of the diffusion of a super-molecule in the liquid. A detailed analysis of the movement of atoms from specified set shows the clustering of them which indicates structure and dynamics heterogeneity. Further, we find that the correlation motion is very important for the diffusion in network-forming liquid. The observed phenomena such as diffusion anomaly, dynamics heterogeneity and dynamical slowdown are originated from the correlation motion of atom.

  13. The study of diffusion in network-forming liquids under pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, P.K.; Kien, P.H.; San, L.T.; Hong, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the molecular dynamics simulation is applied to investigate the diffusion in silica liquids under different temperature and pressure. We show that the diffusion is controlled by the rate of effective SiO x →SiO x±1 and OSi y →OSi y±1 reaction. With increasing the pressure, the rate of reaction increases and the Si–O bond is weaker. Moreover, the reactions are not uniformly distributed in the space, but instead they happen frequently or rarely in separate regions. We also reveal two motion types: free and correlation motion. The correlation motion concerns the moving of a group of atoms which is similar to that of the diffusion of a super-molecule in the liquid. A detailed analysis of the movement of atoms from specified set shows the clustering of them which indicates structure and dynamics heterogeneity. Further, we find that the correlation motion is very important for the diffusion in network-forming liquid. The observed phenomena such as diffusion anomaly, dynamics heterogeneity and dynamical slowdown are originated from the correlation motion of atom.

  14. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf. Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Cirlini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B, was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G.

  15. 75 FR 19453 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... basis. Affected Public: Private individuals, fleet owners and lessees, motor vehicle dealers, repair... completed forms to NHTSA within seven days. The submission of the completed forms by the dealers and repair.... The completed forms will enable the agency to determine whether the dealers and repair business are...

  16. Characterization of degradation products of amorphous and polymorphic forms of clopidogrel bisulphate under solid state stress conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dhara K; Prasad, Bhagwat; Paudel, Amrit

    2010-01-01

    The present study deals with the stress degradation studies on amorphous and polymorphic forms of clopidogrel bisulphate. The objective was to characterize the degradation products and postulate mechanism of decomposition of the drug under solid state stress conditions. For that, amorphous form, ...

  17. [Identification of the genetic sex chromosomes in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Calliphoridae, Diptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullerich, F H

    1975-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown the sex determination in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies to be controlled by a cytologically not discernible homogametry-heterogamety mechanism in the female. Female-producing (thelygenic) females are assumed to be heterozygous for a dominant female sex realizer (F') with sex-predetermining properties, while male-producing (arrhenogenic) females as well as males are supposed to be homozygous for the recessive allele (f). In order to identify the genetic sex chromosomes of C. rufifacies among its five pairs of long euchromatic chromosomes (nos. 1-5) plus one pair of small heterochromatic ones (no. 6), all chromosomes were marked by reciprocal translocations induced by X-ray treatment of adult males. The inheritance of thirteen different heteroxygous translocations has been analyzed. All of the translocations (eleven) between two of the four longer chromosomes did not show sex-linked inheritance, thus demonstrating the autosomal character of the chromosomes nos 1, 2, 3 and 4. The same is true for the translocation T6 (2/6). Therefore the small heterochromatic chromosome no. 6, corresponding to the morphlogically differentiated six chromosomes within the amphogenic calliphorid species, remains without sex determining function in the monogenic fly. This could be confirmed by the analysis of monosomic (monosomy-6) and trisomic (trisomy-6) individuals, which resulted from meiotic non-disfunction in T6/+ translocation heterozygotes. Contrary to these translocations, the heteroxygous 5/2 translocation (T14) exhibited sex-linked inheritance: There was but a very low frequency (0,76 per cent) of recombinants resulting from crossing-over between F'/f and the translocation breakage point in theylgenic F1 T14/+females. The sex-linked inheritance of T14 was confirmed by the progeny of a thelygenic F1 T14/+ female crossed to a homozygous T14/T14 translocation male.Among the offspring of that F1 T14/+ female, which had received the

  18. 76 FR 15364 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ....S. citizens employed in other areas of waterborne commerce. Form(s): MA-823. Abstract: Section 1305(a) of the Maritime Education and Training Act of 1980 indicates that the Secretary of Transportation.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Maritime Administration (MARAD). Title of Collection: Supplementary Training Course...

  19. Identification of Buried Objects in GPR Using Amplitude Modulated Signals Extracted from Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lihong; Qin, Yao; Ren, Xiaozhen; Wang, Qifu

    2015-12-04

    It is necessary to detect the target reflections in ground penetrating radar (GPR) images, so that surface metal targets can be identified successfully. In order to accurately locate buried metal objects, a novel method called the Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis (MMSA) system is applied in ground penetrating radar (GPR) images. This process includes four steps. First the image is decomposed by the MMSA to extract the amplitude component of the B-scan image. The amplitude component enhances the target reflection and suppresses the direct wave and reflective wave to a large extent. Then we use the region of interest extraction method to locate the genuine target reflections from spurious reflections by calculating the normalized variance of the amplitude component. To find the apexes of the targets, a Hough transform is used in the restricted area. Finally, we estimate the horizontal and vertical position of the target. In terms of buried object detection, the proposed system exhibits promising performance, as shown in the experimental results.

  20. Identification of Buried Objects in GPR Using Amplitude Modulated Signals Extracted from Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Qiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to detect the target reflections in ground penetrating radar (GPR images, so that surface metal targets can be identified successfully. In order to accurately locate buried metal objects, a novel method called the Multiresolution Monogenic Signal Analysis (MMSA system is applied in ground penetrating radar (GPR images. This process includes four steps. First the image is decomposed by the MMSA to extract the amplitude component of the B-scan image. The amplitude component enhances the target reflection and suppresses the direct wave and reflective wave to a large extent. Then we use the region of interest extraction method to locate the genuine target reflections from spurious reflections by calculating the normalized variance of the amplitude component. To find the apexes of the targets, a Hough transform is used in the restricted area. Finally, we estimate the horizontal and vertical position of the target. In terms of buried object detection, the proposed system exhibits promising performance, as shown in the experimental results.

  1. Concise Review: Patient-Derived Stem Cell Research for Monogenic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yiren; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Monogenic disorders (MGDs) are caused by a single gene mutation and have a serious impact on human health. At present, there are no effective therapeutic methods for MGDs. Stem cell techniques provide insights into potential treatments for MGDs. With the development of patient-derived stem cells, we can begin to progressively understand the molecular mechanism of MGDs and identify new drugs for MGD treatment. Using powerful genome editing tools, such as zinc finger nucleases, transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases, and the clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 system, MGD-associated gene mutations can be corrected in MGD stem cells in vitro and then transplanted into MGD animal models to assess their safety and therapeutic effects. Despite the continued challenges surrounding potential pluripotent stem cell tumorigenicity and concerns regarding the genetic modification of stem cells, the extensive clinical application of MGD patient-specific stem cells will be pursued through further advances in basic research in the MGD field. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress in research into the use of patient-derived stem cells for the potential treatment of MGDs and provide predictions regarding the direction of future investigations. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Early childhood BMI trajectories in monogenic obesity due to leptin, leptin receptor, and melanocortin 4 receptor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlsdorf, Katja; Nunziata, Adriana; Funcke, Jan-Bernd; Brandt, Stephanie; von Schnurbein, Julia; Vollbach, Heike; Lennerz, Belinda; Fritsch, Maria; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Luedeke, Manuel; Borck, Guntram; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate whether early childhood body mass index (BMI) is an appropriate indicator for monogenic obesity. A cohort of n = 21 children living in Germany or Austria with monogenic obesity due to congenital leptin deficiency (group LEP, n = 6), leptin receptor deficiency (group LEPR, n = 6) and primarily heterozygous MC4 receptor deficiency (group MC4R, n = 9) was analyzed. A control group (CTRL) was defined that consisted of n = 22 obese adolescents with no mutation in the above mentioned genes. Early childhood (0-5 years) BMI trajectories were compared between the groups at selected time points. The LEP and LEPR group showed a tremendous increase in BMI during the first 2 years of life with all patients displaying a BMI >27 kg/m 2 (27.2-38.4 kg/m 2 ) and %BMI P95 (percentage of the 95th percentile BMI for age and sex) >140% (144.8-198.6%) at the age of 2 years and a BMI > 33 kg/m 2 (33.3-45.9 kg/m 2 ) and %BMI P95  > 184% (184.1-212.6%) at the age of 5 years. The MC4R and CTRL groups had a later onset of obesity with significantly lower BMI values at both time points (p BMI trajectories in this pediatric cohort with monogenic obesity we suggest that BMI values >27.0 kg/m 2 or %BMI P95  > 140% at the age of 2 years and BMI values >33.0 kg/m 2 or %BMI P95  > 184% at the age of 5 years may be useful cut points to identify children who should undergo genetic screening for monogenic obesity due to functionally relevant mutations in the leptin gene or leptin receptor gene.

  3. 75 FR 38863 - Reports, Forms, and Record Keeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... associated with the countermeasures; and key advantages and disadvantages associated with various... collection techniques or other forms of information technology. A comment to OMB is most effective if OMB...

  4. 78 FR 36633 - Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements, Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

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    2013-06-18

    ... manufacturers of passenger cars and of trucks, buses and multi-purpose passenger vehicles (MPVs) with a GVWR of... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. A comment to OMB is most effective...

  5. 77 FR 27539 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ...-world driving of passenger car and truck drivers have provided unprecedented information describing... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. A comment to OMB is most effective...

  6. 76 FR 46895 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review; Reports, Forms and Record Keeping...

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    2011-08-03

    ... manufacturers of passenger cars, trucks, buses and MPVs with a GVWR of 4,536 kg (10,000 lb) or less, to annually... information on respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information...

  7. 77 FR 47914 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... collection of information requires manufacturers of passenger cars and of trucks, buses and multipurpose... collection of information on respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms...

  8. 77 FR 5628 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements; Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... obtained could be vital in a national or international emergency, and is essential to the logistical..., including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. A comment to...

  9. Identifying gene coexpression networks underlying the dynamic regulation of wood-forming tissues in Populus under diverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkgraf, Matthew; Liu, Lijun; Groover, Andrew; Filkov, Vladimir

    2017-06-01

    Trees modify wood formation through integration of environmental and developmental signals in complex but poorly defined transcriptional networks, allowing trees to produce woody tissues appropriate to diverse environmental conditions. In order to identify relationships among genes expressed during wood formation, we integrated data from new and publically available datasets in Populus. These datasets were generated from woody tissue and include transcriptome profiling, transcription factor binding, DNA accessibility and genome-wide association mapping experiments. Coexpression modules were calculated, each of which contains genes showing similar expression patterns across experimental conditions, genotypes and treatments. Conserved gene coexpression modules (four modules totaling 8398 genes) were identified that were highly preserved across diverse environmental conditions and genetic backgrounds. Functional annotations as well as correlations with specific experimental treatments associated individual conserved modules with distinct biological processes underlying wood formation, such as cell-wall biosynthesis, meristem development and epigenetic pathways. Module genes were also enriched for DNase I hypersensitivity footprints and binding from four transcription factors associated with wood formation. The conserved modules are excellent candidates for modeling core developmental pathways common to wood formation in diverse environments and genotypes, and serve as testbeds for hypothesis generation and testing for future studies. No claim to original US government works. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. PKC in motorneurons underlies self-learning, a form of motor learning in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Colomb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tethering a fly for stationary flight allows for exquisite control of its sensory input, such as visual or olfactory stimuli or a punishing infrared laser beam. A torque meter measures the turning attempts of the tethered fly around its vertical body axis. By punishing, say, left turning attempts (in a homogeneous environment, one can train a fly to restrict its behaviour to right turning attempts. It was recently discovered that this form of operant conditioning (called operant self-learning, may constitute a form of motor learning in Drosophila. Previous work had shown that Protein Kinase C (PKC and the transcription factor dFoxP were specifically involved in self-learning, but not in other forms of learning. These molecules are specifically involved in various forms of motor learning in other animals, such as compulsive biting in Aplysia, song-learning in birds, procedural learning in mice or language acquisition in humans. Here we describe our efforts to decipher which PKC gene is involved in self-learning in Drosophila. We also provide evidence that motorneurons may be one part of the neuronal network modified during self-learning experiments. The collected evidence is reminiscent of one of the simplest, clinically relevant forms of motor learning in humans, operant reflex conditioning, which also relies on motorneuron plasticity.

  11. 76 FR 57103 - Reports, Forms and Recordkeeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

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    2011-09-15

    ... collection of information on respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms..., 565 and 567. Part 541 The Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act was amended by the Anti-Car... Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard was extended to include all passenger cars and...

  12. Formability and failure mechanisms of AA2024 under hot forming conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Strangwood, M. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Balint, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Lin, J., E-mail: jianguo.lin@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dean, T.A. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Forming AA2024 sheet at its solution heat treatment (SHT) temperature is studied. {yields} Formability is shown to be extremely low for AA2024 at the SHT temperature. {yields} The cause of low SHT temperature formability of AA2024 is found by experiment. {yields} An attainable high formability window (temperature and speed) is found for AA2024. {yields} AA2024 formability may be dramatically increased by elevated temperature stamping. - Abstract: Aluminium alloy 2024 (AA2024) is extensively used as a structural material in the aircraft industry because of its good combination of strength and fatigue resistance. However, complex shaped components, particularly those made from sheet, are extremely difficult to form by traditional cold forming due to its low ductility at room temperature. A possible solution of this problem is to form sheet workpieces at elevated temperature. The aim of the work described in this paper is to determine the relationship between formability and temperature for AA2024 by conducting a series of tensile tests at elevated temperatures ranging from 350 to 493 deg. C. Ductility of AA2024 was found to increase gradually with increasing temperature up to 450 deg. C, followed by a sharp decrease with further increase in temperature. So-called cup tests confirmed that the formability of AA2024 is very high at a temperature of about 450 deg. C. Fracture surfaces and longitudinal sections of formed samples were examined by scanning electron microscope. It was found that fracture occurred in three different modes depending upon the temperature, and the sharp decrease in ductility when the temperature exceeds 450 deg. C was caused by softening of grain boundaries by solute enrichment (at higher heating rates liquation may be involved) and softening of the matrix around inclusion particles.

  13. THE TRUST UNDER ROMANIAN LAW. FORM OF PATRIMONY SPLIT FOR NATURAL AND LEGAL PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moreanu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The trust represents, according to the father of English modern legal history, Frederic William Maitland, „the greatest and most distinctive achievement performed by Englishmen in the field of jurisprudence”. Its special flexibility, has transformed the trust, initially linked with the common law systems, into a legal instrument adopted and integrated, specifically during the last few years, under civil law systems with which, previously, it has been deemed to be incompatible. The objective of this study is to review to which extent the trust is present and/or may be integrated under Romanian law, considering the modernist split patrimony theory introduced by the Romanian legislation under the Civil Code, as of its October 1st, 2011, its entry into force date. The research methods that we envisage using are the following: the comparative analysis, through which we aim at reflecting the legal existence of the trust under various legal systems, specifically the common law systems, and the economic analysis within which we propose to describe the economic reasons for which the trust is so widely used in the international business arena. We assess that the importance of this study is considerably greater in the international environment of the sole European and world wide market under which the existence of legal instruments (such as the trust accessible to certain persons (natural, but more specifically legal persons and out of reach to others, confers the former with a major competitive advantage.

  14. Modeling Monogenic Human Nephrotic Syndrome in the Drosophila Garland Cell Nephrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermle, Tobias; Braun, Daniela A; Helmstädter, Martin; Huber, Tobias B; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2017-05-01

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome is characterized by podocyte dysfunction. Drosophila garland cell nephrocytes are podocyte-like cells and thus provide a potential in vivo model in which to study the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. However, relevant pathomechanisms of nephrotic syndrome have not been studied in nephrocytes. Here, we discovered that two Drosophila slit diaphragm proteins, orthologs of the human genes encoding nephrin and nephrin-like protein 1, colocalize within a fingerprint-like staining pattern that correlates with ultrastructural morphology. Using RNAi and conditional CRISPR/Cas9 in nephrocytes, we found this pattern depends on the expression of both orthologs. Tracer endocytosis by nephrocytes required Cubilin and reflected size selectivity analogous to that of glomerular function. Using RNAi and tracer endocytosis as a functional read-out, we screened Drosophila orthologs of human monogenic causes of nephrotic syndrome and observed conservation of the central pathogenetic alterations. We focused on the coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) biosynthesis gene Coq2 , the silencing of which disrupted slit diaphragm morphology. Restoration of CoQ 10 synthesis by vanillic acid partially rescued the phenotypic and functional alterations induced by Coq2 -RNAi. Notably, Coq2 colocalized with mitochondria, and Coq2 silencing increased the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Silencing of ND75 , a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain that controls ROS formation independently of CoQ 10 , phenocopied the effect of Coq2 -RNAi. Moreover, the ROS scavenger glutathione partially rescued the effects of Coq2 -RNAi. In conclusion, Drosophila garland cell nephrocytes provide a model with which to study the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome, and ROS formation may be a pathomechanism of COQ2 -nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Bacillus thuringiensis monogenic strains: screening and interactions with insecticides used against rice pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura M.N.; Dörr, Natália C.; Ribeiro, Ana Paula A.; de Salles, Silvia M.; de Oliveira, Jaime V.; Menezes, Valmir G.; Fiuza, Lidia M.

    2012-01-01

    The screening of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry proteins with high potential to control insect pests has been the goal of numerous research groups. In this study, we evaluated six monogenic Bt strains (Bt dendrolimus HD-37, Bt kurstaki HD-1, Bt kurstaki HD-73, Bt thuringiensis 4412, Bt kurstaki NRD-12 and Bt entomocidus 60.5, which codify the cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ba, cry1C, cry2A genes respectively) as potential insecticides for the most important insect pests of irrigated rice: Spodoptera frugiperda, Diatraea saccharalis, Oryzophagus oryzae, Oebalus poecilus and Tibraca limbativentris. We also analyzed their compatibility with chemical insecticides (thiamethoxam, labdacyhalothrin, malathion and fipronil), which are extensively used in rice crops. The bioassay results showed that Bt thuringiensis 4412 and Bt entomocidus 60.5 were the most toxic for the lepidopterans, with a 93% and 82% mortality rate for S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis, respectively. For O. oryzae, the Bt kurstaki NRD-12 (64%) and Bt dendrolimus HD-37 (62%) strains were the most toxic. The Bt dendrolimus HD-37 strain also caused high mortality (82%) to O. poecilus, however the strains assessed to T. limbativentris caused a maximum rate of 5%. The assays for the Bt strains interaction with insecticides revealed the compatibility of the six strains with the four insecticides tested. The results from this study showed the high potential of cry1Aa and cry1Ba genes for genetic engineering of rice plants or the strains to biopesticide formulations. PMID:24031872

  16. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) for Monogenic Disorders: the Value of Concurrent Aneuploidy Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Kara N; Nazem, Taraneh; Berkeley, Alan; Palter, Steven; Grifo, Jamie A

    2016-12-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has changed the landscape of clinical genetics by helping families reduce the transmission of monogenic disorders. However, given the high prevalence of embryonic aneuploidy, particularly in patients of advanced reproductive age, unaffected embryos remain at high risk of implantation failure or pregnancy loss due to aneuploidy. 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening has become widely utilized in routine in vitro fertilization (IVF) to pre-select embryos with greater pregnancy potential, but concurrent 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening has not become standard practice in embryos biopsied for PGD. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent PGD with or without 24-chromosome aneuploidy screening to explore the value of concurrent screening. Among the PGD + aneuploidy-screened group (n = 355 blastocysts), only 25.6 % of embryos were both Single Gene Disorder (SGD)-negative (or carriers) and euploid; thus the majority of embryos were ineligible for transfer due to the high prevalence of aneuploidy. Despite a young mean age (32.4 ± 5.9y), 49.9 % of Blastocysts were aneuploid. The majority of patients (53.2 %) had ≥1 blastocyst that was Single Gene Disorder (SGD)-unaffected but aneuploid; without screening, these unaffected but aneuploid embryos would likely have been transferred resulting in implantation failure, pregnancy loss, or a pregnancy affected by chromosomal aneuploidy. Despite the transfer of nearly half the number of embryos in the aneuploidy-screened group (1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.6, p aneuploidy screening when performed concurrently with PGD provides valuable information for embryo selection, and notably improves single embryo transfer rates.

  17. Re-modeling Chara action potential: II. The action potential form under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Beilby

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In part I we established Thiel-Beilby model of the Chara action potential (AP. In part II the AP is investigated in detail at the time of saline stress. Even very short exposure of salt-sensitive Chara cells to artificial pond water with 50 mM NaCl (Saline APW modified the AP threshold and drastically altered the AP form. Detailed modeling of 14 saline APs from 3 cells established that both the Ca2+ pump and the Ca2+ channels on internal stores seem to be affected, with the changes sometimes cancelling and sometimes re-enforcing each other, leading to APs with long durations and very complex forms. The exposure to salinity offers further insights into AP mechanism and suggests future experiments. The prolonged APs lead to greater loss of chloride and potassium ions, compounding the effects of saline stress.

  18. Tritium forms discrimination in ryegrass under constant tritium exposure: From seed germination to seedling autotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, H; Maro, D; Le Dizès, S; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A; Voiseux, C; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Rozet, M; Cossonnet, C; Barillot, R

    2017-10-01

    Uncertainties remain regarding the fate of atmospheric tritium after it has been assimilated in grasslands (ryegrass) in the form of TFWT (Tissue Free Water Tritium) or OBT (Organically Bound Tritium). One such uncertainty relates to the tritium forms discrimination during transfer from TFWT to OBT resulting from photosynthesis (OBT photo ), corresponding to the OBT photo /TFWT ratio. In this study, the OBT/TFWT ratio is determined by experiments in the laboratory using a ryegrass model and hydroponic cultures, with constant activity of tritium in the form of tritiated water (denoted as HTO) in the "water" compartment (liquid HTO) and "air" compartment (HTO vapour in the air). The OBT photo /TFWT ratio and the exchangeable OBT fraction are measured for three parts of the plant: the leaf, seed and root. Plant growth is modelled using dehydrated biomass measurements taken over time in the laboratory and integrating physiological functions of the plant during the first ten days after germination. The results suggest that there is no measurable discrimination of tritium in the plant organic matter produced by photosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Crystalline structures of poly(L-lactide) formed under pressure and structure transitions with heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaoyong; Li, Hongfei; Yu, Donghong

    2013-01-01

    The isothermally crystallized poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) samples were obtained at 135 °C under pressures (Pc) ranging from 1 bar to 2.5 kbar. The crystalline structures, the structure transition, and thermal properties of the prepared samples were investigated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD...

  20. GENESIS AND CLASSIFICATION OF INCEPTISOLS FORMED ON THE SLATE PARENT MATERIAL UNDER FOREST VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUMHUR AYDINALP

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Inceptisols are most extensive soils in this region. These soils are under forest vegetation. Ten soil profiles were selected in this research. The some important physical, chemical and morphological properties were investigated and classified according to USDA Soil Taxonomy.

  1. A dynamic artificial gastrointestinal system for studying the behavior of orally administered drug dosage forms under various physiological conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanquet, S.; Zeijdner, E.; Beyssac, E.; Meunier, J.-P.; Denis, S.; Havenaar, R.; Alric, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential of a dynamic, multicompartmental in vitro system simulating the human stomach and small intestine (TIM-1) for studying the behavior of oral drug dosage forms under various physiological gastrointestinal conditions. Methods. Two

  2. The Job Dimensions Underlying the Job Elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) (Form B). Report No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Lloyd D.; McCormick, Ernest J.

    This study was concerned with the identification of the job dimension underlying the job elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), Form B. The PAQ is a structured job analysis instrument consisting of 187 worker-oriented job elements which are divided into six a priori major divisions. The statistical procedure of principal components…

  3. Forming supermassive black hole seeds under the influence of a nearby anisotropic multifrequency source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A; Johansson, Peter H; Wise, John H

    2016-07-01

    The photodissociation of H 2 by a nearby anisotropic source of radiation is seen as a critical component in creating an environment in which a direct collapse black hole may form. Employing radiative transfer we model the effect of multifrequency (0.76-60 eV) radiation on a collapsing halo at high redshift. We vary both the shape of the spectrum which emits the radiation and the distance to the emitting galaxy. We use blackbody spectra with temperatures of T = 10 4  K and 10 5  K and a realistic stellar spectrum. We find that an optimal zone exists between 1 and 4 kpc from the emitting galaxy. If the halo resides too close to the emitting galaxy the photoionizing radiation creates a large H ii region which effectively disrupts the collapsing halo, too far from the source and the radiation flux drops below the level of the expected background and the H 2 fraction remains too high. When the emitting galaxy is initially placed between 1 and 2 kpc from the collapsing halo, with a spectral shape consistent with a star-forming high-redshift galaxy, then a large central core forms. The mass of the central core is between 5000 and 10 000 M ⊙ at a temperature of approximately 1000 K. This core is however surrounded by a reservoir of hotter gas at approximately 8000 K, which leads to mass inflow rates of the order of ∼0.1 M ⊙  yr -1 .

  4. Tool-life prediction under multi-cycle loading during metal forming: a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, X; Zhou, D; Politis, DENIS; Ma, GUOJIA; Wang, L

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, the friction and wear behaviour of a hard coating were studied by using ball-on-disc tests to simulate the wear process of the coated tools for sheet metal forming process. The evolution of the friction coefficient followed a typical dual-plateau pattern, i.e. at the initial stage of sliding, the friction coefficient was relatively low, followed by a sharp increase due to the breakdown of the coatings after a certain number of cyclic dynamic loadings. This phenomenon ...

  5. Theoretical investigation of radical species formed from L-α-alanine under gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, C.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-irradiated L-α-alanine used in EPR-coupled dosimetry has a complex EPR spectrum at room temperature. Changing the temperature or other conditions of the irradiated samples leads to varied EPR spectrum, i.e., some components disappear and/or new ones are formed. We used both molecular mechanics (MM+) and semiempirical (AM1) methods to perform a theoretical investigation of the seven radical species that have been experimentally detected. We established their order of priority in the given simulation conditions (at 0 K, in vacuo). The formation stages advanced for these long-lived radical species were characterized by a theoretical determination of the reaction enthalpies. (author)

  6. Wear Behaviour of Hard Cr Coatings for Cold Forming Tools Under Dry Sliding Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mitrović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cr hard coatings are largely used in industry in metal cutting and cold forming processes; This work on quantitative way represents improvement, in terms of wear resistance, which is obtained by depositing Cr hard coating on foundation material. Wear testing is done on tribometer with block –on –disc contact geometry at sliding contact of Cr hard coated sample with steel disc. Testing was performed in conditions without lubrication at variable value of contact parameters (normal load, sliding speed. Cr hard coatings in all contact conditions show smaller values of wear rate.

  7. Spatial configuration of a plasma bunch formed under gyromagnetic resonance in a magnetic mirror trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V. V.; Novitskii, A. A.; Umnov, A. M.; Chuprov, D. V., E-mail: chu-d@mail.ru [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The spatial configuration of a relativistic plasma bunch generated under the gyromagnetic autoresonance and confined in a magnetic mirror trap has been studied experimentally and numerically. The characteristics of bremsstrahlung generated by the plasma bunch from the gas and chamber walls were investigated using X-ray spectroscopy and radiometry, which made it possible to determine the localization of the bunch and analyze the dynamics of its confinement.

  8. Normal form of particle motion under the influence of an ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tomás

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available ac dipoles in accelerators are used to excite coherent betatron oscillations at a drive frequency close to the tune. These beam oscillations may last arbitrarily long and, in principle, there is no significant emittance growth if the ac dipole is adiabatically turned on and off. Therefore the ac dipole seems to be an adequate tool for nonlinear diagnostics provided the particle motion is well described in the presence of the ac dipole and nonlinearities. Normal forms and Lie algebra are powerful tools to study the nonlinear content of an accelerator lattice. In this article a way to obtain the normal form of the Hamiltonian of an accelerator with an ac dipole is described. The particle motion to first order in the nonlinearities is derived using Lie algebra techniques. The dependence of the Hamiltonian terms on the longitudinal coordinate is studied showing that they vary differently depending on the ac dipole parameters. The relation is given between the lines of the Fourier spectrum of the turn-by-turn motion and the Hamiltonian terms.

  9. Closed-form overturning limit of rigid block under critical near-fault ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko eNabeshima

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A closed-form limit on the input level of the double impulse as a substitute of a near-fault ground motion is derived for the overturning of a rigid block. The rocking vibration of the rigid block is formulated by using the conservation law of angular momentum and the conservation law of mechanical energy. The initial rotational velocity after the first impulse and the rotational velocity after the impact are determined by the conservation law of angular momentum. The velocity change after the second impulse is also characterized by the conservation law of angular momentum. The maximum angles of rotation of the rigid block in both the clockwise and anti-clockwise directions, which are needed for the computation of the overturning limit, are derived by the conservation law of mechanical energy. This enables us to avoid the computation of complicated non-linear time-history responses. The critical timing of the second impulse to the first impulse is characterized by the time of impact after the first impulse. It is clarified that the action of the second impulse just after the impact corresponds to the critical timing. It is derived from the closed-form expression of the critical velocity amplitude limit of the double impulse that its limit is proportional to the square root of size, i.e. the scale effect.

  10. Leaching of radioactive waste forms under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelka, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    To predict the environmental impact of shallow land burial sites for radioactive waste, the mobilization and migration of waste nuclides must be estimated. The theoretical understanding that in potential leaching mechanisms leach-rate variations may arise from changes in both moisture content and volumetric flow rate was tested in column flow leach experiments using labeled vermiculite particles as a simulated waste form. As far as possible, conditions of flow rate and solution ion concentration were chosen to roughly approximate expected field conditions. A modified pressure-plate apparatus was developed, tested, and found suitable for the production of steady-state unsaturated conditions with leachate flow. Water content was determined using the gamma-ray attenuation method. The effects of several parameters on leaching were studied, including moisture content and pore velocity. Pore velocity effects were found to be negligible. It was found that the leach rate depends on the fraction of the exposed waste surface that is wetted and varies with the mobile water content in a non-linear fashion. The experimental results indicate that the release rate of radionuclides placed within a properly sited low-level waste disposal site may be two to three times smaller than that predicted assuming saturated conditions. This study was performed using a homogeneous fine-grained synthetic waste form, at room temperature, with a near neutral pH leachant and oxidizing conditions

  11. [Geochemical characteristics of the carbonate constructions formed during microbial oxidation of methane under anaerobic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, A Iu; Ivanov, M V; Pimenov, N V; Gulin, M B

    2002-01-01

    The aragonite constructions of the Black Sea are formed in a stable anaerobic zone and are a perfect object to study the natural mechanism of anaerobic methane oxidation. The most probable pathway of methane oxidation is its methanogen-mediated reaction with bicarbonates, dissolved in seawater, with the formation of water and acetate, which is then consumed by other components of the anaerobic community. Comparison of the delta 13C values of carbonate minerals and organic matter once more demonstrated that the formation of the organic matter of biomass is accompanied by intense fractionation of carbon isotopes, as a result of which the total organic matter of biomass acquires an extremely light isotopic composition, characterized by delta 13C values as low as -83.8@1000.

  12. Rust formed on cannons of XVIII century under two environment conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cindra Fonseca, M.P.; Bastos, I.N.; Caytuero, A.; Baggio Saitovitch, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion products of two ancient cannons exposed to atmospheric corrosion were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After almost three centuries exposed in marine environment one of them was moved to a rural region and was maintained in this environment for approximately 30 years. The inland region has an altitude of 1000 m above sea level and consequently low aggressiveness. The studied rusts were obtained from external and internal surfaces of the cannon barrels. This investigation, using three different techniques, was done to check if the relatively short time (ca. 30 years) in rural area was sufficient to change the characteristics of the thick rust formed during long time exposure (ca. 300 years) in marine atmosphere. The time-environment effects change the physical nature of rust, mainly observed by Moessbauer spectroscopy results

  13. A modular tooling set-up for incremental sheet forming (ISF) with subsequent stress-relief annealing under partial constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Fawad; Bambach, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Incremental sheet forming (ISF) is a manufacturing process most suitable for small-batch production of sheet metal parts. In ISF, a CNC-controlled tool moves over the sheet metal, following a specified contour to form a part of the desired geometry. This study focuses on one of the dominant process limitations associated with the ISF, i.e., the limited geometrical accuracy. In this regard, a case study is performed which shows that increased geometrical accuracy of the formed part can be achieved by a using stress-relief annealing before unclamping. To keep the tooling costs low, a modular die design consisting of a stiff metal frame and inserts made from inexpensive plastics (Sika®) were devised. After forming, the plastics inserts are removed. The metal frame supports the part during stress-relief annealing. Finite Element (FE) simulations of the manufacturing process are performed. Due to the residual stresses induced during the forming, the geometry of the formed part, from FE simulation and the actual manufacturing process, shows severe distortion upon unclamping the part. Stress relief annealing of the formed part under partial constraints exerted by the tool frame shows that a part with high geometrical accuracy can be obtained.

  14. [Case report: Diagnosis under the microscope - disseminated echninococcosis, the multilocular form with protoscoleces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jůza, Tomáš; Jůzová, Alena; Gajdošová, Tatiana

    Echinococcosis (hydatidosis) is a rare severe tissue parasitosis. In the Czech Republic it is caused by two species of tapeworm: Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. The species differ in both their usual hosts during their life cycle as well as in the typical form of lesions in infested tissues. In both cases the liver is the most common primary infested organ.We describe an autopsy case of a massive hepatic parasitic lesion in an 81 year-old man. There were metastatic parasitic cysts in both lungs and the hepatic mass spread per continuitatem in the right adrenal gland. The lesion was microscopically represented by small cystic forms with PAS positive laminar membranes and frequent occurrence of protoscoleces in the peripheral parts of the liver and the adrenal gland.The diagnosis of echinococcosis was settled after microscopic exploration of necroptic material. The overall appearance and pattern of spreading corresponded to alveolar echinococcosis, however the massive presence of protoscoleces in the liver is very rare for E. multilocularis. Protoscoleces are usually found in infections caused by E. granulosus. Cystic echinococcosis typically presents with one larger cyst or a small number of bigger cysts with prominent fibrous rim. Because of the unavailability of molecular diagnostic methods (PCR, immunohistochemistry), that are able to distinguish individual species of parasite, the case was closed according to the typical histological findings as disseminated alveolar echinococcosis with the rare appearance of protoscoleces with possible association with immunosuppressive therapy.We have found about ten other cases of alveolar echinococcosis published in last ten years in the Czech Republic. All these cases were diagnosed in living patients. It is assumed that most of these patients were infected in the vicinity of their homes.

  15. Closed-form dynamic stability criterion for elastic-plastic structures under near-fault ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro eKojima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic stability criterion for elastic-plastic structures under near-fault ground motions is derived in closed-form. A negative post-yield stiffness is treated in order to consider the P-delta effect. The double impulse is used as a substitute of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. Since only the free-vibration appears under such double impulse, the energy approach plays a critical role in the derivation of the closed-form solution of a complicated elastic-plastic response of structures with the P-delta effect. It is remarkable that no iteration is needed in the derivation of the closed-form dynamic stability criterion on the critical elastic-plastic response. It is shown via the closed-form expression that several patterns of unstable behaviors exist depending on the ratio of the input level of the double impulse to the structural strength and on the ratio of the negative post-yield stiffness to the initial elastic stiffness. The validity of the proposed dynamic stability criterion is investigated by the numerical response analysis for structures under double impulses with stable or unstable parameters. Furthermore the reliability of the proposed theory is tested through the comparison with the response analysis to the corresponding one-cycle sinusoidal input as a representative of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. The applicability of the proposed theory to actual recorded pulse-type ground motions is also discussed.

  16. Radionuclide release from high level waste forms under repository conditions in clay or granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.; Lanza, F.

    1990-01-01

    The behaviour of both fully active and simulated vitrified high level waste (HLW) has been studied under conditions that are likely to occur in future repositories in clay and granite. The simulated HLW was doped with Cs, Sr, Tc and the actinides and the leaching of these elements from the glass has been measured together with their concentrations in the water of the near-field and their distribution between the various components of the repository. The diffusion coefficients of several elements in Boom clay has also been measured. The results show that the concentrations of Tc and the actinides in the near-field of a repository will be very low and that the actinides will only diffuse very slowly away from the vicinity of the glass. 24 refs., 1 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Dislocation-Disclination Substructures Formed in FCC Polycrystals Under Large Plastic Deformations: Evolution and Association with Flow Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, É. V.; Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of dislocation substructures formed in polycrystalline Cu-Al and Cu-Mn alloys undergoing large plastic deformations is studied, using transmission electron microscopy. Microband and fragmented substructures are examined. The Al and Mn alloying element concentrations for which the substructures are formed have been found. The mechanisms involved in the formation of the substructures during the substructural evolution in the alloys subjected to deformation have been revealed. Parameters describing the substructures under study have been measured. The dependence of the parameters on the flow stress has been established.

  18. The specification and testing of radioactive sources designated as ''special form'' under the IAEA transport regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.; Bodimeade, A.H.; Hall, E.G.; Taylor, C.B.G.

    1982-01-01

    The object of this study is to remove some of the uncertainties associated with the application of the IAEA Regulations insofar as they apply to Special Form materials. The first part of this project involved a comparison of the ISO and IAEA Regulations. An analysis of the physical tests has been carried out. The second and most important part of the project involved an assessment of the leakage tests used to evaluate the capsules after each of the physical tests. The work has defined and confirmed by experiment the relationship between the IAEA and ISO impact and percussion tests. The practical application of the tests particularly with regard to specimen orientation will be aided by the data now available. The work has established the sensitivities of the primary volumetric leak test methods and practical procedures are outlined. Volumetric leak test methods, with sentivities approximately 10 - 5 mbar l/s, are considered to be more reliable in detecting leakage paths in capsules than methods using solid leachable or non-leachable radioactive contents. The work reported should assist in the updating and clarification and harmonisation of IAEA Safety Series Nos 6 and 37 and ISO 4919 and ISO TR 4826

  19. A reduced-form intensity-based model under fuzzy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Zhuang, Yaming

    2015-05-01

    The external shocks and internal contagion are the important sources of default events. However, the external shocks and internal contagion effect on the company is not observed, we cannot get the accurate size of the shocks. The information of investors relative to the default process exhibits a certain fuzziness. Therefore, using randomness and fuzziness to study such problems as derivative pricing or default probability has practical needs. But the idea of fuzzifying credit risk models is little exploited, especially in a reduced-form model. This paper proposes a new default intensity model with fuzziness and presents a fuzzy default probability and default loss rate, and puts them into default debt and credit derivative pricing. Finally, the simulation analysis verifies the rationality of the model. Using fuzzy numbers and random analysis one can consider more uncertain sources in the default process of default and investors' subjective judgment on the financial markets in a variety of fuzzy reliability so as to broaden the scope of possible credit spreads.

  20. Pathologizing poverty: new forms of diagnosis, disability, and structural stigma under welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helena; Bourgois, Philippe; Drucker, Ernest

    2014-02-01

    In 1996 the U.S. severely restricted public support for low income people, ending "welfare as we know it." This led to dramatic increases in medicalized forms of support for indigent people, who increasingly rely on disability benefits justified by psychiatric diagnoses of chronic mental illness. We present case studies drawn from ethnographic data involving daily participant-observation between 2005 and 2012 in public clinics and impoverished neighborhoods in New York City, to describe the subjective experience of structural stigma imposed by the increasing medicalization of public support for the poor through a diagnosis of permanent mental disability. In some cases, disability benefits enable recipients to fulfill important social roles (sustaining a vulnerable household and promoting stable parenting). The status of family members who receive a monthly disability check improves within their kin and neighborhood-based networks, counterbalancing the felt stigma of being identified by doctors as "crazy". When a diagnosis of mental pathology becomes a valuable survival strategy constituting the basis for fulfillment of household responsibilities, stigmatizing processes are structurally altered. Through the decades, the stigmatized labels applied to the poor have shifted: from being a symptom of racial weakness, to the culture of poverty, and now to permanent medical pathology. The neoliberal bureaucratic requirement that the poor must repeatedly prove their "disabled" status through therapy and psychotropic medication appears to be generating a national and policy-maker discourse condemning SSI malingerers, resurrecting the 16th century specter of the "unworthy poor". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of cardiac motion in cine-MRI sequences by correlation transform optical flow of monogenic features distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Liu, Wanyu; Wang, Liang; Liu, Zhengjun; Croisille, Pierre; Delachartre, Philippe; Clarysse, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Cine-MRI is widely used for the analysis of cardiac function in clinical routine, because of its high soft tissue contrast and relatively short acquisition time in comparison with other cardiac MRI techniques. The gray level distribution in cardiac cine-MRI is relatively homogenous within the myocardium, and can therefore make motion quantification difficult. To ensure that the motion estimation problem is well posed, more image features have to be considered. This work is inspired by a method previously developed for color image processing. The monogenic signal provides a framework to estimate the local phase, orientation, and amplitude, of an image, three features which locally characterize the 2D intensity profile. The independent monogenic features are combined into a 3D matrix for motion estimation. To improve motion estimation accuracy, we chose the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation as a matching measure, and implemented a bilateral filter for denoising and edge-preservation. The monogenic features distance is used in lieu of the color space distance in the bilateral filter. Results obtained from four realistic simulated sequences outperformed two other state of the art methods even in the presence of noise. The motion estimation errors (end point error) using our proposed method were reduced by about 20% in comparison with those obtained by the other tested methods. The new methodology was evaluated on four clinical sequences from patients presenting with cardiac motion dysfunctions and one healthy volunteer. The derived strain fields were analyzed favorably in their ability to identify myocardial regions with impaired motion.

  2. Structural transitions and hysteresis in clump- and stripe-forming systems under dynamic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Danielle; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Reichhardt, Charles

    2016-11-28

    Using numerical simulations, we study the dynamical evolution of particles interacting via competing long-range repulsion and short-range attraction in two dimensions. The particles are compressed using a time-dependent quasi-one dimensional trough potential that controls the local density, causing the system to undergo a series of structural phase transitions from a low density clump lattice to stripes, voids, and a high density uniform state. The compression proceeds via slow elastic motion that is interrupted with avalanche-like bursts of activity as the system collapses to progressively higher densities via plastic rearrangements. The plastic events vary in magnitude from small rearrangements of particles, including the formation of quadrupole-like defects, to large-scale vorticity and structural phase transitions. In the dense uniform phase, the system compresses through row reduction transitions mediated by a disorder-order process. We characterize the rearrangement events by measuring changes in the potential energy, the fraction of sixfold coordinated particles, the local density, and the velocity distribution. At high confinements, we find power law scaling of the velocity distribution during row reduction transitions. We observe hysteresis under a reversal of the compression when relatively few plastic rearrangements occur. The decompressing system exhibits distinct phase morphologies, and the phase transitions occur at lower compression forces as the system expands compared to when it is compressed.

  3. Natural Disasters under the Form of Severe Storms in Europe: the Cause-Effect Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available For more than 100 years, from 1900 to 2008, there were almost 400 storms natural disasters in Europe, 40% of which occurred in the 1990s. The international prognoses for the world weather suggest a tendency toward increasing in frequency and intensity of the severe storms as the climate warms. In these circumstances, for a researcher in the field of Environmental Economics, a natural question occurs, on whether people can contribute to reducing the frequency and the magnitude of severe storms that produce disastreous social and economic effects, by acting on their causes. In researching an answer to support the public policies in the field, a cause-effect analysis applied to Europe might make a contribution to the literature in the field. This especially considering the fact that international literature regarding the factors influencing global warming contains certainties in regard to the natural factors of influence, but declared incertitudes or skepticism in regard to anthropogenic ones. Skepticism, and even tension arised during the international negotiations in Copenhagen (December 2009 in regard to the agreement for limiting global warming, with doubts being raised about the methods used by experts of the International Climate Experts Group (GIEC, and thus the results obtained, which served as a basis for the negotiations. The object of critics was in regard to the form, and at times in regard to the content. It was not about contesting the phenomenon of Global warming during the negotiations, but the methods of calculation. The methodology relies on qualitative (type top down and quantitative (type correlations bottom up cause-effect analysis of the storm disasters in Europe. Based on the instruments used, we proposed a dynamic model of association of the evolution of storm disasters in Europe with anthropogenic factors, with 3 variants. Results: The diagram cause-effect (Ishikawa or fishbone diagram and quantitative correlation of sub

  4. Analyzing the mobility in granular forms of P fertilizer in Brazilians soils under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Robson C. de; Oliveira, Davi Ferreira de; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth. Million of tones of P are applied to the soils annually. However, only a small fraction of the P applied with fertilizers is taken up by crops in the year of application, and the effectiveness of any residual P fertilizer declines with time. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this response to P in the field, we have studied the mobility of P from 3 different fertilizes: monoammonium phosphate (MAP), polymer coated monoammonium phosphate (MAPp) and Organomineral phosphate (OMP) applied on high weathered soil samples in a Petri dish experiment. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine the P diffusive flux at different distances (0 - 7.5, 7.5 – 13.5, 13.5 – 25.5 and 25.5 – 43 mm) from granular fertilizer. TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline D09B at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo, using a polychromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Besides that, the detections were performed in a high vacuum chamber (2.5 x 10-5 mbar) to avoid air absorption. After a period of five weeks, the total P concentration increased in the soil sampled 7.5 to 13.5 mm from the fertilizer showing a diffusive flux of P. About 20% (considering MAP and MAPp) of the total P applied diffused out of the central soil ring. Different sources showed differences in diffusive flux of P. Soil pH also influenced diffusive flux of P showing higher flux on lower pH soils. (author)

  5. Analyzing the mobility in granular forms of P fertilizer in Brazilians soils under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Robson C. de; Oliveira, Davi Ferreira de; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos, E-mail: prof.robinho@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares; Teixeira, Paulo Cesar; Benites, Vinicius Melo, E-mail: paulo.c.teixeira@embrapa.br [Embrapa Solos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth. Million of tones of P are applied to the soils annually. However, only a small fraction of the P applied with fertilizers is taken up by crops in the year of application, and the effectiveness of any residual P fertilizer declines with time. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this response to P in the field, we have studied the mobility of P from 3 different fertilizes: monoammonium phosphate (MAP), polymer coated monoammonium phosphate (MAPp) and Organomineral phosphate (OMP) applied on high weathered soil samples in a Petri dish experiment. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine the P diffusive flux at different distances (0 - 7.5, 7.5 – 13.5, 13.5 – 25.5 and 25.5 – 43 mm) from granular fertilizer. TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline D09B at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo, using a polychromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Besides that, the detections were performed in a high vacuum chamber (2.5 x 10-5 mbar) to avoid air absorption. After a period of five weeks, the total P concentration increased in the soil sampled 7.5 to 13.5 mm from the fertilizer showing a diffusive flux of P. About 20% (considering MAP and MAPp) of the total P applied diffused out of the central soil ring. Different sources showed differences in diffusive flux of P. Soil pH also influenced diffusive flux of P showing higher flux on lower pH soils. (author)

  6. Purification of hydrogen under a free or combined form in a gaseous mixture, by chemical reactions with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron Charles, M.

    1988-03-01

    Within the framework of the european fusion program, we are dealing with the purification of hydrogen (tritium) under a free or combined form, from a H 2 , N 2 , NH 3 , CH 4 , O 2 , gaseous mixture. The process consists in cracking the hydrogenated molecules and absorbing the impurities by chemical reactions with uranium, without holding back hydrogen. In the temperature range: 950 K [fr

  7. Comparative miRNAs analysis of Two contrasting broccoli inbred lines with divergent head-forming capacity under temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Chien; Fu, Shih-Feng; Norikazu, Monma; Yang, Yau-Wen; Liu, Yu-Ju; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi; Huang, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in growth, development, and stress response at the post-transcriptional level. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var italic) is an important vegetable crop, and the yield and quality of broccoli are decreased by heat stress. The broccoli inbred lines that are capable of producing head at high temperature in summer are unique varieties in Taiwan. However, knowledge of miRNAomes during the broccoli head formation under heat stress is limited. In this study, molecular characterization of two nearly isogenic lines with contrasting head-forming capacity was investigated. Head-forming capacity was better for heat-tolerant (HT) than heat-sensitive (HS) broccoli under heat stress. By deep sequencing and computational analysis, 20 known miRNAs showed significant differential expression between HT and HS genotypes. According to the criteria for annotation of new miRNAs, 24 novel miRNA sequences with differential expression between the two genotypes were identified. To gain insight into functional significance, 213 unique potential targets of these 44 differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted. These targets were implicated in shoot apical development, phase change, response to temperature stimulus, hormone and energy metabolism. The head-forming capacity of the unique HT line was related to autonomous regulation of Bo-FT genes and less expression level of heat shock protein genes as compared to HS. For the genotypic comparison, a set of miRNAs and their targets had consistent expression patterns in various HT genotypes. This large-scale characterization of broccoli miRNAs and their potential targets is to unravel the regulatory roles of miRNAs underlying heat-tolerant head-forming capacity.

  8. Performance of Screen Grid Insulating Concrete Form Walls under Combined In-Plane Vertical and Lateral Loads

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    Insulating Concrete Forms (ICF) walls generally comprise two layers of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), steel reinforcement is placed in the center between the two layers and concrete is poured to fill the gap between those two layers. ICF\\'s have many advantages over traditional methods of wall construction such as reduced construction time, noise reduction, strength enhancement, energy efficiency, and compatibility with any inside or outside surface finish. The focus of this study is the Screen Grid ICF wall system consisting of a number of beams and columns forming a concrete mesh. The performance of ICF wall systems under lateral loads simulating seismic effect is experimentally evaluated in this paper. This work addresses the effect of the different design parameters on the wall behavior under seismic simulated loads. This includes different steel reinforcement ratio, various reinforcement distribution, wall aspect ratios, different openings sizes for windows and doors, as well as different spacing of the grid elements of the screen grid wall. Ten full scale wall specimens were tested where the effects of the various parameters on wall behavior in terms of lateral load capacity, lateral displacement, and modes of failure are presented. The test results are stored to be used for further analysis and calibration of numerical models developed for this study. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.

  9. Forms of phosphorus transfer in runoff under no-tillage in a soil treated with successive swine effluents applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenzi, Cledimar Rogério; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Tiecher, Tadeu Luis; Lorensini, Felipe; Cancian, Adriana; Stefanello, Lincon; Girotto, Eduardo; Vieira, Renan Costa Beber; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Successive swine effluent applications can substantially increase the transfer of phosphorus (P) forms in runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in the soil and transfer of P forms in surface runoff from a Hapludalf soil under no-tillage subjected to successive swine effluent applications. This research was carried out in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil, from 2004 to 2007, on a Typic Hapludalf soil. Swine effluent rates of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha(-1) were broadcast over the soil surface prior to sowing of different species in a crop rotation. Soil samples were collected in stratified layers, and the levels of available P were determined. Samples of water runoff from the soil surface were collected throughout the period, and the available, soluble, particulate, and total P were measured. Successive swine effluent applications led to increases in P availability, especially in the soil surface, and P migration through the soil profile. Transfer of P forms was closely associated with runoff, which is directly related to rainfall volume. Swine effluent applications also reduced surface runoff. These results show that in areas with successive swine effluent applications, practices that promote higher water infiltration into the soil are required, e.g., crop rotation and no-tillage system.

  10. Study of the environment and optical properties of Ti3+ ions formed under ionizing irradiations in oxide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, Pierre

    2009-10-01

    We studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), by EPR simulation, by Raman spectroscopy and by photoluminescence the Ti 3+ ions formed under β-irradiation from 3, 37 * 10 5 to 1, 68 * 10 9 Gy in SiO 2 - Na 2 O - TiO 2 and SiO 2 - Al 2 0 3 - B 2 O 3 - Na 2 O - TiO 2 glasses. We demonstrate the existence of three different Ti 3+ sites in silicate glasses and three other Ti 3+ sites in alumino-borosilicate glasses. One of theses sites is common to both kind of glasses. Moreover, we associate theses sites to three different titanium environment: (VI)Ti 3+ (octahedral), (V)Ti 3+ square pyramid and may be (V)Ti 3+ trigonal bi - pyramid. The existence of theses sites is determined by the total integrated dose and by the [Na]/[Ti] ratio. We propose a definition of this ratio in the special case of SiO 2 - Al 2 O 3 - B 2 O 3 - Na 2 O - TiO 2 glasses. Last, under 266 nm excitation, we observe at room temperature an emission band at 500 nm attributed to Ti 4+ ions. Under a 532 nm excitation, we observe an emission band at 590 nm with a short lifetime (hundred of ns) attributed either to Ti 3+ ions or to an irradiation defect formed near a Ti 4+ ion. Our study demonstrate that is possible to control by the chemical composition and the integrated dose the Ti 3+ environment and the emission properties of this ion in an oxide glass. (author)

  11. Treatment of Aqueous Film-Forming Foam by Heat-Activated Persulfate Under Conditions Representative of In Situ Chemical Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in an increasing number of water supplies. In many instances, the contamination is associated with the use of PFAS-containing aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) in firefighting activities. To investigate the potential for remediating AFFF contamination in groundwater with heat-activated persulfate, PFAS oxidation and the generation of transformation products was evaluated under well-controlled conditions. Fluorotelomer- and perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide-based polyfluorinated compounds were transformed to perfluorinated carboxylic acids, which underwent further degradation under acidic conditions produced after persulfate decomposed. The presence of aquifer sediments decreased the efficiency of the remedial process but did not alter the transformation pathways. At high concentrations, the presence of organic solvents, such as those present in AFFF formulations, inhibited transformation of a representative perfluorinated compound, perfluorooctanoic acid. Heat-activated persulfate did not transform perfluorooctanesulfonic acid or perfluorohexanesulfonic acid under any conditions. Despite challenges associated with the creation of acidic conditions in the subsurface, the potential for generation of undesirable transformation products, and the release of toxic metals, heat-activated persulfate may be a useful in situ treatment for sites contaminated with polyfluoroalkyl substances and perfluorocarboxylic acids. PMID:29164864

  12. Closed-form solutions for the hollow sphere model with Coulomb and Drucker-Prager materials under isotropic loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoré, Philippe; Pastor, Franck; Pastor, Joseph; Kondo, Djimedo

    2009-05-01

    Though the solution to the limit analysis problem of the hollow sphere model—with a von Mises matrix and under spherical symmetry—is well known, it is not available, to our knowledge, for both isotropic loadings (tension and compression) in the case of a Coulomb matrix and partially for a Drucker-Prager matrix. In the present Note, we establish in a unified framework, for this class of materials, closed-form solutions for stress and strain fields in a hollow sphere under external isotropic tension and compression. These analytical results not only give useful reference solutions, but can also be considered as a part of a trial velocity field in the hollow sphere submitted to an arbitrary loading. Comparisons with 3D finite element-based limit analysis approaches and with recent results in the literature are provided. In addition to the established analytical results, we present a rigorous evaluation of a recent Gurson-type macroscopic criterion corresponding to the Drucker-Prager hollow sphere under an arbitrary loading, by means of the previous 3D limit analysis codes. To cite this article: Ph. Thoré et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  13. How useful are monogenic rodent models for the study of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Peter Mann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving understanding of the genetic basis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has the potential to facilitate risk stratification of affected patients, permit personalised treatment, and inform development of new therapeutic strategies. Animal models have been widely used to interrogate the pathophysiology of, and genetic predisposition, to NAFLD. Nevertheless considerable interspecies differences in intermediary metabolism potentially limits the extent to which results can be extrapolated to humans. For example, human genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 as the two most prevalent determinants of susceptibility to NAFLD and its inflammatory component (NASH, but animal models of these mutations have had only variable success in recapitulating this link. In this review we critically appraise selected murine monogenic models of NAFLD, NASH, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with a focus on how closely they mirror human disease.

  14. Characterization of antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties and apoA-I-containing subpopulations of HDL from family subjects with monogenic low HDL disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniil, Georgios; Phedonos, Alexia A. P.; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Motazacker, Mohammad Mahdi; Argyri, Letta; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Chroni, Angeliki

    2011-01-01

    Background: Genetic factors regulate both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and functionality, thus affecting HDL antiatherogenic properties. We characterized the HDL antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties and apoA-I-containing subpopulations in families with monogenic low HDL disorders.

  15. Tomato defense to the powdery mildew fungus: differences in expression of genes in susceptible, monogenic- and polygenic resistance responses are mainly in timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li Chengwei,; Bai, Y.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.; Lindhout, P.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Oidium neolycopersici is a causal agent of tomato powdery mildew. In this paper, gene expression profiles were investigated of susceptible, monogenic- and polygenic resistant tomato genotypes in response to O. neolycopersici infection by using cDNA-AFLP. Around 30,000 TDFs (Transcript Derived

  16. Analysis of Genes Associated with Monogenic Primary Immunodeficiency Identifies Rare Variants in XIAP in Patients With Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amininejad, Leila; Charloteaux, Benoit; Theatre, Emilie; Liefferinckx, Claire; Dmitrieva, Julia; Hayard, Pierre; Muls, Vincianne; Maisin, Jean-Marc; Schapira, Michael; Ghislain, Jean-Michel; Closset, Pierre; Talib, Mehdi; Abramowicz, Marc; Momozawa, Yukihide; Deffontaine, Valerie; Crins, François; Mni, Myriam; Karim, Latifa; Cambisano, Nadine; Ornemese, Sandra; Zucchi, Alessandro; Minsart, Charlotte; Deviere, Jacques; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; De Vos, Martine; Louis, Edouard; Vermeire, Severine; Van Gossum, Andre; Coppieters, Wouter; Twizere, Jean-Claude; Georges, Michel; Franchimont, Denis

    2018-02-28

    A few rare monogenic primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that resembles Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated whether 23 genes associated with 10 of these monogenic disorders contain common, low-frequency or rare variants that increase risk for CD. Common and low frequency variants in 1 Mb loci centered on the candidate genes were analyzed using meta-data corresponding to genotypes of approximately 17,000 patients with CD or without CD (controls) in Europe. The contribution of rare variants was assessed by high-throughput sequencing of 4750 individuals, including 660 early-onset and/or familial cases among the 2390 patients with CD. Variants were expressed from vectors in SW480 or HeLa cells and functions of their products were analyzed in immunofluorescence, luciferase, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblot assays. We reproduced the association of the IL10 locus with CD (P=.007), although none of the significantly associated variants modified the coding sequence of IL10. We found XIAP to be significantly enriched for rare coding mutations in patients with CD vs controls (P=.02). We identified 4 previously unreported missense variants associated with CD. Variants in XIAP cause PID X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 2 (XLP2), yet none of the carriers of these variants had all the clinical features of XLP2. Identified XIAP variants S123N, R233Q and P257A were associated with an impaired activation of NOD2 signaling following MDP stimulation. In a systematic analysis of variants in 23 PID-associated genes, we confirmed the association of variants in XIAP with CD. Further screens for CD-associated variants and analyses of their functions could increase our understanding of the relationship between PID-associated genes and CD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spent fuel as a waste form: Data needs to allow long term performance assessment under repository disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1986-12-01

    Performance assessment calculations are required for high level waste repositories for a period of 10,000 years. The Siting Guidelines require a comparison of sites following site characterization and prior to final site selection to be made over a 100,000 year period. To perform the required calculations, a detailed knowledge of the physical and chemical processes that affect waste form performance will be needed for each site. This paper will review the factors that affect the release of radionuclides from spent fuel under repository conditions, summarize our present state of knowledge, and suggest areas where more work is needed to support the performance assessment calculations. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Closed-form nonlinear frequency of flexoelectric nanobeams with surface and nonlocal effects under closed circuit electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    Nonlocal and surface effects on nonlinear vibration characteristics of a flexoelectric nanobeams under magnetic field are examined. Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity as well as surface elasticity theories are employed to describe the size-dependency of the flexoelectric nanobeam. Also, flexoelectricity is an important size-dependent phenomena for piezoelectric structures at nanoscale, related to the strain gradient-electric polarization coupling. After the derivation of governing equation via Hamilton’s principle, Galerkin method is employed to satisfy boundary conditions. Also, analytical procedures are implemented to obtain the closed-form nonlinear frequency of flexoelectric nanobeam. It is showed that magnetic field intensity, flexoelectric parameter, nonlocal parameter, elastic foundation and applied voltage on the top surface of the nanobeam have great influences on nonlinear vibration frequency.

  19. Compositional sorting dynamics in coexisting lipid bilayer phases with variations in underlying e-beam formed curvature pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunyankin, Maria O; Longo, Marjorie L

    2013-07-07

    Nanometer-scale curvature patterns of an underlying substrate are imposed on lipid multibilayers with each pattern imparting distinctly different sorting dynamics to a metastable pixelation pattern of coexisting liquid ordered (Lo)-liquid disordered (Ld) lipid phases. Therefore, this work provides pathways toward mechanical energy-based separations for analysis of biomembrane-associate species. The central design concept of the patterned sections of the silica substrate is a square lattice pattern of 100 nm projected radius poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hemispherical features formed by electron beam lithography which pixelates the coexisting phases in order to balance membrane bending and line energy. In one variation, we surround this pattern with three PMMA walls/fences 100 nm in height which substantially slows the loss of the high line energy pixelated Lo phase by altering the balance of two competing mechanism (Ostwald ripening vs. vesiculation). In another walled variation, we form a gradient of the spacing of the 100 nm features which forces partitioning of the Lo phase toward the end of the gradient with the most open (400 nm spacing) lattice pattern where a single vesicle could grow from the Lo phase. We show that two other variations distinctly impact the dynamics, demonstrating locally slowed loss of the high line energy pixelated Lo phase and spontaneous switching of the pixel location on the unit cell, respectively. Moreover, we show that the pixelation patterns can be regenerated and sharpened by a heating and cooling cycle. We argue that localized variations in the underlying curvature pattern have rather complex consequences because of the coupling and/or competition of dynamic processes to optimize mechanical energy such as lipid diffusion, vesiculation and growth, and phase/compositional partitioning.

  20. [Nutrient Characteristics and Nitrogen Forms of Rhizosphere Soils Under Four Typical Plants in the Littoral Zone of TGR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-feng; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Jian-jun; Yue, Jun-sheng

    2015-10-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), which is the largest water conservancy project ever built in tne world, produced a drawdown area of about 348.93 km2 because of water level control. The biological geochemical cycle of the soil in the drawdown zone has been changed as the result of long-term winter flooding and summer drought and vegetation covering. The loss of soil nitrogen in the drawdown zone poses a threat to the water environmental in TGR. Pengxi river, is an important anabranch, which has the largest drawdown area has been selected in the present study. The four typical vegetation, contained Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus, Anthium sibiricum and Zea mays L. as the control, were studied to measure nutrient characteristics and nitrogen forms of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in three distribution areas with different soil types (paddy soil, purple soil and fluvo-aquic soils). The variables measured included organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), hydrolysis N, available P and available K, pH, ion-exchangeable N (IEE-N), weak acid extractable N (CF-N) , iron-manganese oxides N (IMOF-N), organic matter sulfide N (OSF-N), added up four N forms for total transferable N (TF-N) and TN minus TF-N for non-transferable N (NTF-N). The results showed: (1) pH of rhizosphere soil was generally lower than that of non-rhizosphere soil under different vegetation in different type soils because the possible organic acid and H+ released form plant roots and cation absorption differences, and the OM, TP, TN and hydrolysis N of rhizosphere soil were generally higher than those of non-rhizosphere soil, and that the enrichment ratio (ER) of all the four nutrient indicators showed Cyperus rotundus > Cynodon dactylon > Zea mays L. > Anthium sibiricum. Available P showed enrichment in the rhizosphere of three natural vegetations but lose under corn, and available K, TK showed different ER in different conditions. (2) IEF-N CF

  1. The effectiveness of Microsoft Project in assessing extension of time under PAM 2006 standard form of contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, S. K.; Wong, Z. D.

    2017-11-01

    Time is equal to money; and it is applies in the construction industry where time is very important. Most of the standard form of contracts provide contractual clauses to ascertain time and money related to the scenarios while Extension of Time (EOT) is one of them. Under circumstance and delays, contractor is allow to apply EOT in order to complete the works on a later completion date without Liquidated Damages (LD) imposed to the claimant. However, both claimants and assessors encountered problems in assessing the EOT. The aim of this research is to recommend the usage of Microsoft Project as a tool in assessing EOT associated with the standard form of contract, PAM 2006. A quantitative method is applied towards the respondents that consisted of architects and quantity surveyors (QS) in order to collect data on challenges in assessing EOT claims and the effectiveness of Microsoft Project as a tool. The finding of this research highlighted that Microsoft Project can serve as a basis to perform EOT tasks as this software can be used as a data bank to store handy information which crucial for preparing and evaluating EOT.

  2. Study on the capacity of cold-formes steel built-up battened colums under axial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. Anbarasu

    Full Text Available This paper presents the theoretical and numerical investigation results of the pin ended cold-formed steel built-up battened columns under axial compression. The finite element model was developed using the finite element software ABAQUS. The comparison of finite element analysis results match with the test results available in the literature shows that the analysis model can simulate the buckling behaviour and ultimate capacity of cold-formed steel built-up columns. Three types of sections were selected based on the limitations provided in AISI S100-2007 for prequalified sections for single lipped channel. Spacing between the chords is chosen such that the moment of inertia about major axis equals the moment of inertia about minor axis. After the verification of the finite element model, parametric study has been carried out by varying the slenderness ratio and number of battens. Two types of analytical models were used to obtain the ultimate load by the direct strength method. The ultimate loads from FEA and DSM were compared. At the end, a design recommendation is proposed for DSM to evaluate ultimate strength of the lipped channel built-up battened columns.

  3. Ideological Manipulation in the Form of Official Censorship: Audiovisual Tie-ins of Bestselling Novels in Spain under Franco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gómez Castro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Whereas technical manipulation in the form of necessary “textual dislocations” (Diaz-Cintas 2012: 284 may be seen as a common object of study in audiovisual translation (AVT, ideological manipulation or a deliberate change from what is said (or shown in the original (ibid still seems to be under developed in the discipline. However, power plays have a lot to say in AVT, as can be illustrated with the repressive forces of censorship at certain times and periods. In the case of Franco’s dictatorship in Spain (1939-1975 and beyond the control of every cultural product which entered the country, both in written or audiovisual form, functioned as an ideological gatekeeper. The last years, however, were marked by a progressive weakening both of the regime and of its censoring mechanism. By then, the massive importation of North American best- selling novels took place, novels which were either commonly filmed afterwards or turned into a TV series, making them famous worldwide. This nurturing from literature of the film industry in the form of tie-ins was a very common synergy at the time, denounced and considered by some as commercial manipulation and social alienation (Carrero Eras 1977. In the present article, the effects of the censoring mechanism on some North American best-selling novels and their film counterparts will be examined, trying to reveal the manoeuvrings at stake and thus contribute to increase the research on the matter and, at the same time see if, the solitary act of reading versus the public broadcasting of a film had a say in the harshness applied to a product derived from the same root.

  4. Analytic approximations of Von Kármán plate under arbitrary uniform pressure—equations in integral form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, XiaoXu; Liao, ShiJun

    2018-01-01

    Analytic approximations of the Von Kármán's plate equations in integral form for a circular plate under external uniform pressure to arbitrary magnitude are successfully obtained by means of the homotopy analysis method (HAM), an analytic approximation technique for highly nonlinear problems. Two HAM-based approaches are proposed for either a given external uniform pressure Q or a given central deflection, respectively. Both of them are valid for uniform pressure to arbitrary magnitude by choosing proper values of the so-called convergence-control parameters c 1 and c 2 in the frame of the HAM. Besides, it is found that the HAM-based iteration approaches generally converge much faster than the interpolation iterative method. Furthermore, we prove that the interpolation iterative method is a special case of the first-order HAM iteration approach for a given external uniform pressure Q when c 1 = - θ and c 2 = -1, where θ denotes the interpolation iterative parameter. Therefore, according to the convergence theorem of Zheng and Zhou about the interpolation iterative method, the HAM-based approaches are valid for uniform pressure to arbitrary magnitude at least in the special case c 1 = - θ and c 2 = -1. In addition, we prove that the HAM approach for the Von Kármán's plate equations in differential form is just a special case of the HAM for the Von Kármán's plate equations in integral form mentioned in this paper. All of these illustrate the validity and great potential of the HAM for highly nonlinear problems, and its superiority over perturbation techniques.

  5. U-Form vs. M-Form: How to Understand Decision Autonomy Under Healthcare Decentralization?; Comment on “Decentralisation of Health Services in Fiji: A Decision Space Analysis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Vargas Bustamante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For more than three decades healthcare decentralization has been promoted in developing countries as a way of improving the financing and delivery of public healthcare. Decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization would determine the role and scope of responsibility of local authorities. Jalal Mohammed, Nicola North, and Toni Ashton analyze decision autonomy within decentralized services in Fiji. They conclude that the narrow decision space allowed to local entities might have limited the benefits of decentralization on users and providers. To discuss the costs and benefits of healthcare decentralization this paper uses the U-form and M-form typology to further illustrate the role of decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization. This paper argues that when evaluating healthcare decentralization, it is important to determine whether the benefits from decentralization are greater than its costs. The U-form and M-form framework is proposed as a useful typology to evaluate different types of institutional arrangements under healthcare decentralization. Under this model, the more decentralized organizational form (M-form is superior if the benefits from flexibility exceed the costs of duplication and the more centralized organizational form (U-form is superior if the savings from economies of scale outweigh the costly decision-making process from the center to the regions. Budgetary and financial autonomy and effective mechanisms to maintain local governments accountable for their spending behavior are key decision autonomy variables that could sway the cost-benefit analysis of healthcare decentralization.

  6. Allelopathic effects of macroalga Corallina pilulifera on the red-tide forming alga Heterosigma akashiwo under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renjun; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-03-01

    Over the past few years, harmful algal blooms (HABs), such as red tides, have been frequently observed in coastal zones worldwide. The natural allelopathic interactions among macroalgae and red tide microalgae can alter the structure and succession of aquatic ecosystems. We investigated the influence of four environmental factors (temperature, salinity, light, and pH) on the allelopathic effects of the macroalgae Corallina pilulifera on red-tide forming Heterosigma akashiwo under laboratory conditions. Each of the factors had four levels: temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°C), salinity (10, 20, 30, and 40), light (20, 100, 200 and 400 μmol/(m2•s)), and pH (5.5, 7, 8.5, and 10. Two-factor experiments were designed for each two environmental factors, with six combination treatments (temperature-salinity, temperature-light, temperature-pH, salinity-light, salinity-pH, and light-pH). Results showed that the allelopathic effect was significantly influenced by temperature, salinity, light, and pH. As single factors, the low temperature (15°C), low salinity (10), high-intensity light (400 μmol/(m2•s)), and high pH (10) treatments substantially enhanced the allelopathic effect. The strongest allelopathic effect of C. pilulifera on H. akashiwo was observed under the following treatments: 15°C and salinity of 40, 25°C and pH 10, 25°C with medium- to high-intensity light at 200-400 μmol/(m 2 •s), 400 μmol/(m2•s) and salinity of 10, 400 μmol/(m2•s) and pH 10, and pH 10 with a salinity of 40.

  7. How do trees and the small life forms under the ground talk to each other and other outside things: Can they make our world hot (or cool) again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Trees use water and a bad stuff in air as food with the help of sun light and store the bad stuff in it's body parts (both the parts above the ground and under the ground). However, trees (both above and under ground parts) also return part of the same bad stuff stored in their food to air as it grows. After death, these trees become part of the dead things under the ground and a large part of the bad stuff can be locked under the ground for quite a long time. But, small life forms living under the ground, eat these dead things and return part of the bad stuff locked in these dead things under the ground to the air. The small life forms living under the ground can also make two other stuff (which are even more bad) while eating these dead things under the ground and return them to the air. All of these bad stuffs returned to the air make the air hot. Different things (like sun light, rain, water in the air and under the ground) could make it easier or harder in either storing or returning each of these bad stuffs by the trees or life forms living under the ground in different ways. We study how trees and the small life forms living under the ground talk to each other and to other things mentioned above, and decide how much of those bad stuffs to store and return. But, we do not know well how each of these things can change one another and how trees and small life forms living under the ground will respond to these changes. So, we are yet to understand how much the air will be hotter (if more bad stuff are returned to the air than stored in trees and under the ground) or cooler (if less bad stuffs are returned to the air than stored in trees and under the ground) in tomorrow's world.

  8. Closed-Form Algorithm for 3-D Near-Field OFDM Signal Localization under Uniform Circular Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaolong; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Xin; Wei, Xizhang

    2018-01-14

    Due to its widespread application in communications, radar, etc., the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal has become increasingly urgent in the field of localization. Under uniform circular array (UCA) and near-field conditions, this paper presents a closed-form algorithm based on phase difference for estimating the three-dimensional (3-D) location (azimuth angle, elevation angle, and range) of the OFDM signal. In the algorithm, considering that it is difficult to distinguish the frequency of the OFDM signal's subcarriers and the phase-based method is always affected by errors of the frequency estimation, this paper employs sparse representation (SR) to obtain the super-resolution frequencies and the corresponding phases of subcarriers. Further, as the phase differences of the adjacent sensors including azimuth angle, elevation angle and range parameters can be expressed as indefinite equations, the near-field OFDM signal's 3-D location is obtained by employing the least square method, where the phase differences are based on the average of the estimated subcarriers. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by several simulations.

  9. Monogenic control of sex-limited colouration in the honey gourami ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    howard.edu. exhibit a grey-yellow hue with a single dark-brown stripe. A striking colour variant of the male honey gourami is a yellow phenotypic form that, as the name indicates, has a golden yellow body colouring with an orange-red hue on the ...

  10. Mutations in the VNTR of the carboxyl-ester lipase gene (CEL) are a rare cause of monogenic diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsvik, Janniche; Johansson, Stefan; Johansen, Anders; Ek, Jakob; Minton, Jayne; Raeder, Helge; Ellard, Sian; Hattersley, Andrew; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Molven, Anders; Njølstad, Pål R

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that heterozygous single-base deletions in the carboxyl-ester lipase (CEL) gene cause exocrine and endocrine pancreatic dysfunction in two multigenerational families. These deletions were found in the first and fourth repeats of a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), which has proven challenging to sequence due to high GC-content and considerable length variation. We have therefore developed a screening method consisting of a multiplex PCR followed by fragment analysis. The method detected putative disease-causing insertions and deletions in the proximal repeats of the VNTR, and determined the VNTR-length of each allele. When blindly testing 56 members of the two families with known single-base deletions in the CEL VNTR, the method correctly assessed the mutation carriers. Screening of 241 probands from suspected maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) families negative for mutations in known MODY genes (95 individuals from Denmark and 146 individuals from UK) revealed no deletions in the proximal repeats of the CEL VNTR. However, we found one Danish patient with a short, novel CEL allele containing only three VNTR repeats (normal range 7-23 in healthy controls). This allele co-segregated with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in the patient's family as six of seven mutation carriers were affected. We also identified individuals who had three copies of a complete CEL VNTR. In conclusion, the CEL gene is highly polymorphic, but mutations in CEL are likely to be a rare cause of monogenic diabetes.

  11. The clinical application of genome-wide sequencing for monogenic diseases in Canada: Position Statement of the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists

    OpenAIRE

    Boycott, Kym; Hartley, Taila; Adam, Shelin; Bernier, Francois; Chong, Karen; Fernandez, Bridget A; Friedman, Jan M; Geraghty, Michael T; Hume, Stacey; Knoppers, Bartha M; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Majewski, Jacek; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Meyn, M Stephen; Michaud, Jacques L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and scope The aim of this Position Statement is to provide recommendations for Canadian medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors and other physicians regarding the use of genome-wide sequencing of germline DNA in the context of clinical genetic diagnosis. This statement has been developed to facilitate the clinical translation and development of best practices for clinical genome-wide sequencing for genetic diagnosis of monogenic diseases in Canada; it...

  12. 17 CFR 259.206 - Form U-6B-2, for notification of security issues exempt under section 6(b) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of security issues exempt under section 6(b) of the Act. 259.206 Section 259.206 Commodity and... security issues exempt under section 6(b) of the Act. This form shall be filed pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act as the certificate of notification of the issue, sale, renewal, or guaranty of securities...

  13. 48 CFR 53.301-1093 - Standard Form 1093, Schedule of Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Form 1093, Schedule of Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act... Withholdings Under the Davis-Bacon Act and/or the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. EC01MY91.076 ...

  14. 17 CFR 239.18 - Form S-11, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain real estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain real estate companies. 239.18 Section 239.18... Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain real estate companies. This form shall be used for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of (a) securities issued by real estate investment trusts, as...

  15. Arctic observers: Richard King, monogenism and the historicisation of Inuit through travel narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera-Shriar, Efram

    2015-06-01

    In 1848 the ethnologist, surgeon and Arctic explorer Richard King (1810-1876) published a three-part series on Inuit in the Journal of the Ethnological Society of London. This series provided a detailed history of Inuit from the eleventh century to the early nineteenth century. It incorporated a mixture of King's personal observations from his experience travelling to the Arctic as a member of George Back's expedition (1833-1835), and the testimonies of other contemporary and historical actors who had written on the subject. The aim was to historicise Inuit through the use of travel reports and show persistent features among the race. King was a monogenist and his sensitive recasting of Inuit was influenced by his participation in a research community actively engaged in humanitarian and abolitionist causes. The physician and ethnologist Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866) argued that King's research on Inuit was one of the best ethnological approaches to emulate and that it set the standard for the nascent discipline. If we are to take seriously Hodgkin's claim, we should look at how King constructed his depiction of Inuit. There is much to be gained by investigating the practices of nineteenth-century ethnologists because it strengthens our knowledge of the discipline's past and shows how modern understandings of races were formed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a new biaxial testing system for generating forming limit diagrams for sheet metals under hot stamping conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Z; Li, N; Lin, J; Dean, TA

    2016-01-01

    Conventional experimental approaches used to generate forming limit diagrams (FLDs) for sheet metals at different linear strain paths are not applicable to hot stamping and cold die quenching processes because cooling occurs prior to deformation and consistent values of heating rate, cooling rate, deformation temperature and strain rate are not easy to obtain. A novel biaxial testing system for use in a Gleeble testing machine has been adopted to generate forming limits of sheet metals, inclu...

  17. Changes in the organic matter forms in chernozems of the Kamennaya Steppe under different land uses, locations, and hydromorphism degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikhod'ko, V. E.; Cheverdin, Yu. I.; Titova, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    The soils of the Kamennaya Steppe (Voronezh oblast) were studied. The rate of changes in the contents of Corg and the particular forms of organic matter (labile, microbial, and stable) were revealed in the quasi-natural soils of the fallows and shelterbelt and in the arable soils (rainfed farming for 12, 55, 85, and 115 yrs and irrigated farming for 40 yrs) of different positions on the watersheds and slopes. The effect of the increased soil moistening in the recent decades was also studied. In the upper 50 cm of the fallow soils that were not plowed since 1882, the relative Corg accumulation in the recent 30 yrs has amounted to 5%. The soils of the shelterbelt planted in 1903 were similar to the fallow soils. As compared to the soil of the unmown fallow, the Corg loss from the 1-m soil layer under the shelterbelt and the 12-year-old cropland were less than 9%; the losses from the plowed soils (used for 55-115 yrs) were 21-27% on the watersheds and 37-46% on the slopes. In the first decade, the rate of the Corg losses in the 0- to 20-cm layer of the cultivated chernozem was 120 g C/m2. With the increasing duration of the soil plowing (from 55 to 115 yrs), the Corg losses decreased from 45 to 28 g C/m2 per yr in the watershed soils and from 51 to 35 g C/m2 per yr in the soils on the slopes. The maximum loss of Corg was found for the soils on slopes, waterlogged soils, and irrigated soils. In the slope soils, the Corg loss due to erosion was 9-18% of the total. In the upper horizons of the old agrogenic soils, compared to the soil of the unmown fallow, the Cha/Cfa increased, since the content of fulvic acids (FA) faster decreased than that of the humic acids (HA); the C content of the nonhydrolyzable residue was reduced. The slope and waterlogged soils differed from the watershed soils in the smaller amounts of HA and FA and in the greater content of humin carbon. In the 0- to 20-cm layer of the soils studied, the rate of the basal respiration (BR) was 0.2-0.5 μg C

  18. Monogenic diabetes syndromes: Locus-specific databases for Alström, Wolfram, and Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Dewi; Sabir, Ataf; Fulton, Piers; Zatyka, Malgorzata; Williams, Denise; Hardy, Carol; Milan, Gabriella; Favaretto, Francesca; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Rohayem, Julia; López de Heredia, Miguel; Hershey, Tamara; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Chen, Jian-Hua; Chaussenot, Annabel; Nunes, Virginia; Marshall, Bess; McAfferty, Susan; Tillmann, Vallo; Maffei, Pietro; Paquis-Flucklinger, Veronique; Geberhiwot, Tarekign; Mlynarski, Wojciech; Parkinson, Kay; Picard, Virginie; Bueno, Gema Esteban; Dias, Renuka; Arnold, Amy; Richens, Caitlin; Paisey, Richard; Urano, Fumihiko; Semple, Robert; Sinnott, Richard; Barrett, Timothy G

    2017-07-01

    We developed a variant database for diabetes syndrome genes, using the Leiden Open Variation Database platform, containing observed phenotypes matched to the genetic variations. We populated it with 628 published disease-associated variants (December 2016) for: WFS1 (n = 309), CISD2 (n = 3), ALMS1 (n = 268), and SLC19A2 (n = 48) for Wolfram type 1, Wolfram type 2, Alström, and Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndromes, respectively; and included 23 previously unpublished novel germline variants in WFS1 and 17 variants in ALMS1. We then investigated genotype-phenotype relations for the WFS1 gene. The presence of biallelic loss-of-function variants predicted Wolfram syndrome defined by insulin-dependent diabetes and optic atrophy, with a sensitivity of 79% (95% CI 75%-83%) and specificity of 92% (83%-97%). The presence of minor loss-of-function variants in WFS1 predicted isolated diabetes, isolated deafness, or isolated congenital cataracts without development of the full syndrome (sensitivity 100% [93%-100%]; specificity 78% [73%-82%]). The ability to provide a prognostic prediction based on genotype will lead to improvements in patient care and counseling. The development of the database as a repository for monogenic diabetes gene variants will allow prognostic predictions for other diabetes syndromes as next-generation sequencing expands the repertoire of genotypes and phenotypes. The database is publicly available online at https://lovd.euro-wabb.org. © 2017 The Authors. **Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Monogenic diabetes syndromes: Locus‐specific databases for Alström, Wolfram, and Thiamine‐responsive megaloblastic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Dewi; Sabir, Ataf; Fulton, Piers; Zatyka, Malgorzata; Williams, Denise; Hardy, Carol; Milan, Gabriella; Favaretto, Francesca; Yu‐Wai‐Man, Patrick; Rohayem, Julia; López de Heredia, Miguel; Hershey, Tamara; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Chen, Jian‐Hua; Chaussenot, Annabel; Nunes, Virginia; Marshall, Bess; McAfferty, Susan; Tillmann, Vallo; Maffei, Pietro; Paquis‐Flucklinger, Veronique; Geberhiwot, Tarekign; Mlynarski, Wojciech; Parkinson, Kay; Picard, Virginie; Bueno, Gema Esteban; Dias, Renuka; Arnold, Amy; Richens, Caitlin; Paisey, Richard; Urano, Fumihiko; Semple, Robert; Sinnott, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We developed a variant database for diabetes syndrome genes, using the Leiden Open Variation Database platform, containing observed phenotypes matched to the genetic variations. We populated it with 628 published disease‐associated variants (December 2016) for: WFS1 (n = 309), CISD2 (n = 3), ALMS1 (n = 268), and SLC19A2 (n = 48) for Wolfram type 1, Wolfram type 2, Alström, and Thiamine‐responsive megaloblastic anemia syndromes, respectively; and included 23 previously unpublished novel germline variants in WFS1 and 17 variants in ALMS1. We then investigated genotype–phenotype relations for the WFS1 gene. The presence of biallelic loss‐of‐function variants predicted Wolfram syndrome defined by insulin‐dependent diabetes and optic atrophy, with a sensitivity of 79% (95% CI 75%–83%) and specificity of 92% (83%–97%). The presence of minor loss‐of‐function variants in WFS1 predicted isolated diabetes, isolated deafness, or isolated congenital cataracts without development of the full syndrome (sensitivity 100% [93%–100%]; specificity 78% [73%–82%]). The ability to provide a prognostic prediction based on genotype will lead to improvements in patient care and counseling. The development of the database as a repository for monogenic diabetes gene variants will allow prognostic predictions for other diabetes syndromes as next‐generation sequencing expands the repertoire of genotypes and phenotypes. The database is publicly available online at https://lovd.euro-wabb.org. PMID:28432734

  20. Stability of water clusters on hydronium ions formed under the conditions of radioactive contamination of the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevkunov, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The hydronium ion hydrate shell H 3 O + , formed by addition of water molecule to proton is studied with the purpose of explaining the experimentally observed noticeable accumulation of ions by the atmosphere radioactive contamination. The results of computerized simulation of water clusters on hydronium ions testify to the clearly expressed stabilizing role of the proton electrical field

  1. Study of the geometry effect of the channel with variable cross section under forming transonic region in the supersonic flow with energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuraev, V. P.; Kalinina, A. P.

    2017-10-01

    This work concerns the process of deceleration of supersonic flow up to the transonic velocities in the channel. This process is connected with the problem of combustion organizing of fuels in the various ramjet engines. The influence of mode of energy supply and the type of channel geometry (axisymmetric or planar channel) is studied as well as the other factors. The similarity of gas dynamic structure formed under hydrogen burning and under pulse periodic energy supply is studied.

  2. The behavior of various chemical forms of nickel in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry under different chemical modification approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Various organic and inorganic Ni forms were investigated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Experiments without chemical modification showed a wide range of characteristic mass values for Ni (from 6.7 to 29 pg) and the importance of interaction with graphite. With the aim of achieving signal unification of organic Ni forms, different ways of chemical modification were tested. Some rules that govern the behavior of Ni were found and confirmed a significant role of the organic component of the analyte molecule in the analytical process. The application of air as an internal furnace gas in the pyrolysis phase and the Pd modifier injected with the sample solution improved the signal of porphyrins, while the application of iodine and methyltrioctylammonium chloride was required for organic compounds containing oxygen-bound Ni atoms. The Ni signal was strongly diminished when an aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid was measured with the Pd modifier injected over the sample. Using the developed analytical methods, the range of characteristic mass values for various Ni forms totally dissolved in organic or aqueous solution was 6.5–7.9 pg. - Highlights: ► Some rules that govern behavior of organic Ni forms during GFAAS analysis were found. ► Interaction with graphite can significantly influence evaporation of porphyrins. ► Determination of Ni in form of porphyrins needs Pd organic modifier and air ashing. ► Determination of Ni in O-bound organic compounds needs pretreatment with I2+MTOACl. ► Chemical modification for GFAAS determination of Ni in HCl-containing solution.

  3. Silica-forming articles having engineered surfaces to enhance resistance to creep sliding under high-temperature loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, Don Mark; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Meschter, Peter Joel; Sundaram, Sairam; Wan, Julin

    2017-02-07

    An article includes a silicon-containing region; at least one outer layer overlying a surface of the silicon-containing region; and a constituent layer on the surface of the silicon-containing region and between and contacting the silicon-containing region and the at least one outer layer, the constituent layer being formed by constituents of the silicon-containing region and being susceptible to creep within an operating environment of the article, wherein the silicon-containing region defines a plurality of channels and a plurality of ridges that interlock within the plurality of channels are formed in the silicon-containing region to physically interlock the at least one outer layer with the silicon-containing region through the constituent layer.

  4. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Stabilized Zirconia Films with Embedded Au Nanoparticles Formed under Irradiation with Gold Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, S. Yu.; Antonov, I. N.; Gorshkov, O. N.; Kasatkin, A. P.; Kryukov, R. N.; Nikolichev, D. E.; Pavlov, D. A.; Shenina, M. E.

    2018-03-01

    Nanosized films of stabilized zirconia with Au nanoparticles formed by implanting Au ions are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of irradiation of films with Au ions and postimplantation annealing on the distribution of chemical elements and zirconium- containing ZrO x compounds over the depth of the films is studied. Based on the data on the dimensional shift of the Au 4 f photoelectron line, the average value of the nanoparticle size is determined.

  5. Monogenic diabetes syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astuti, Dewi; Sabir, Ataf; Fulton, Piers

    2017-01-01

    We developed a variant database for diabetes syndrome genes, using the Leiden Open Variation Database platform, containing observed phenotypes matched to the genetic variations. We populated it with 628 published disease-associated variants (December 2016) for: WFS1 (n = 309), CISD2 (n = 3), ALMS1...... for the WFS1 gene. The presence of biallelic loss-of-function variants predicted Wolfram syndrome defined by insulin-dependent diabetes and optic atrophy, with a sensitivity of 79% (95% CI 75%-83%) and specificity of 92% (83%-97%). The presence of minor loss-of-function variants in WFS1 predicted isolated...... diabetes, isolated deafness, or isolated congenital cataracts without development of the full syndrome (sensitivity 100% [93%-100%]; specificity 78% [73%-82%]). The ability to provide a prognostic prediction based on genotype will lead to improvements in patient care and counseling. The development...

  6. Monogenic diabetes syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astuti, Dewi; Sabir, Ataf; Fulton, Piers

    2017-01-01

    (n = 268), and SLC19A2 (n = 48) for Wolfram type 1, Wolfram type 2, Alström, and Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndromes, respectively; and included 23 previously unpublished novel germline variants in WFS1 and 17 variants in ALMS1. We then investigated genotype-phenotype relations...

  7. The effect of preparation height and luting agent on the resistance form of cemented cast crowns under load fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Elvin W J; Choon Tan, Keson Beng; Nicholls, Jack Ivan; Chua, Ee Kiam; Wong, Keng Mun; Neo, Jennifer Chiew Lian

    2009-09-01

    The minimum amount of resistance form required for the success of a clinical crown is unknown.There is little information on the fatigue performance of complete coverage restorations on natural tooth preparations cemented with different luting cements. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth preparation height and luting agent on resistance form using unidirectional load fatigue testing. For a given tooth preparation with a clinically relevant total occlusal convergence (TOC), the adequacy of resistance form was investigated. Sixty-four human maxillary premolars were prepared with occlusal-cervical dimensions of 2, 3,4, or 5 mm and a TOC of 20 degrees. Complete metal crowns were cemented using either zinc phosphate cement (HY Bond;ZP groups) or resin cement (Panavia F; PF groups). Cyclic load fatigue testing was done with an applied load of 6.0 kg at 2.6 Hz. Load cycles to preliminary failure were detected with a strain gauge at the palatal crown-tooth interface. Results were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Wilcoxon post-hoc rank sum test (alpha=.05). Groups ZP4, ZP5, PF2, PF3, PF4, and PF5 had the highest mean number of cycles to preliminary failure,while group ZP2 had the lowest mean number of cycles to failure. Group ZP2 was significantly different (Pcement exhibited a poorer fatigue performance compared to Panavia F. There was no significant difference in the number of cycles to failure for groups ZP4,ZP5, PF2, PF3, PF4, and PF5. For both cements, the number of cycles to failure increased with increasing resistance length. (J Prosthet Dent 2009;102:155-164)

  8. Conserved charge of a gravity theory with p -form gauge fields and its property under Kaluza-Klein reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun-Jin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the conserved charges of generally diffeomorphism invariant gravity theories with a wide variety of matter fields, particularly of the theories with multiple scalar fields and p -form potentials, in the context of the off-shell generalized Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) formalism. We first construct a new off-shell ADT current that consists of the terms for the variation of a Killing vector and expressions of the field equations as well as the Lie derivative of a surface term with respect to the Killing vector within the framework of generally diffeomorphism invariant gravity theories involving various matter fields. After deriving the off-shell ADT potential corresponding to this current, we propose a formula of conserved charges for these theories. Next, we derive the off-shell ADT potential associated with the generic Lagrangian that describes a large range of gravity theories with a number of scalar fields and p -form potentials. Finally, the properties of the off-shell generalized ADT charges for the theory of Einstein gravity and the gravity theories with a single p -form potential are investigated by performing Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction along a compactified direction. The results indicate that the charge contributed by all the fields in the lower-dimensional theory is equal to that of the higher-dimensional one at mathematical level with the hypothesis that the higher-dimensional spacetime allows for the existence of the compactified dimension. In order to illustrate our calculations, the mass and angular momentum for the five-dimensional rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes are explicitly evaluated as an example.

  9. Forming mechanism and prevention of water-coal-burst disaster on extremely inclined faces under Ordovician aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Qian, Z.; Dong, D.; Song, E.; Hong, Y. [China University Of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Campus

    2000-08-01

    The formation of a saturated body of coal-water mixture is due to the actions of multiple controlling factors of water source, coal characteristics, potential energy and time. Coal-water burst disaster is characterized by paroxysm, huge energy, short duration, strong explosive force and causing severe damages. Very often it takes place only under special background conditions. In extremely inclined coal seam districts, because the working faces are generally arranged under water-prevention coal pillars, the mining inbreak heights are too near the location of the body of coal-water mixture. Hence the mining activity may induce the occurrence of coal-water burst disaster. Based on the analysis of the disaster mechanism, some effective preventive measures for coal-water burst disaster in coal mines are put forward. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Analysis of the predetermining effect of a sex realizer by ovary transplantations in the monogenic flyChrysomya rufifacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullerich, Fritz-Helmut

    1980-02-01

    In the heterozygousF'/f female-producing females of the strictly monogenic blowflyChrysomya rufifacies the gene product of the dominant or epistatic female sex realizerF' which causes sexpredetermination is thought to be synthesized either by cells of the germ line (oocytes, nurse cells or oogonia) or by somatic cells and then transferred into the oocytes. To determine the possible site of synthesis, reciprocal transplantations were made of prepupal ovaries between female-producing (thelygenic; t) and male-producing (arrhenogenic; a) females ofChrysomya rufifacies. In another series of experiments prepupal host females of the wild t-type and a-type were each provided with one additional ovary either from a0type (f/f) or a t-type (F'/f) prepupa (neither were distinguishable by their phenotypes). In all these experiments the donor females were marked by the recessive sex-linked mutation 'white' (w/w); white eyes, white Malpighian tubules). In a considerable number of cases the implanted ovaries were in contact with the host's own oviduct and grew normally, but the rate of hatched adults was somewhat reduced. Crosses between such host females andw/w males (f/f) produced female or male offspring with white eyes from the eggs of the implantedw/w ovary, as well as flies with wild-type eyes (+/w) which had developed in the host's own ovaries. In all cases so far examined, the genetically thelygenic (or arrhenogenic) host females with an additional ovary implanted from an arrhenogenic (thelygenic) donor, produced progeny of both sexes: sons (daughters) from the eggs of the donor's ovary and daugthers (sons) from the eggs of the host's own gonads.These results demonstrate that the ovaries of the t-females ofChrysomya rufifacies at least from the early prepupal stage, are autonomous for the product of theF' gene. Transplantations of the premordial germ cells (pole cells) are planned to find out whether the predeterminingF' gene product is synthesized before the prepupal

  11. [Forming radiation load on humans for territory being under influence of radioactive waste release from Nuclear Power Plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, L I

    2010-01-01

    The results of long-term radioecological researches (1980-2005 years), executed on the south of Ukraine on the study of forming of irradiation dose of man as a result of gaz-aerozol extrass and liquid upcasts of radionuclid's from operating AEPS (South Ukraine and Zaporozhia) in the mode of their normal exploitation are presented in the article. Different ways are considered of stantion radionuclids migration in the external environment. The sizes of effective dose of irradiation of man are certain from the receipt of "station" radionuclid's on the considered migratory chainlets. Researches were conducted with the purpose of search of methods of decline of irradiation dose for man in modern terms. Dosimetric descriptions which allow to forecast the size of effective irradiation dose for man from the receipt of radionuclids with AEPS in the mode of its normal exploitation are certain.

  12. THE FORMS OF EDUCATIONAL COOPERATION IN SCHOOL UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Puzep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the publication is to show possibilities of implementation of requirements of the federal state educational standard (FSES for formati on of the universal educational activities (UEA during group work at lessons at comprehensive school.Methods. Theoretical methods involve analysis, comparison and generalizationmethods; empirical method of interview.Results. The main components of learning technology in cooperation and stages of technological process of group work are presented. The features of the formation of small groups are described due to the criteria of duration of a group work and the age of pupils. The possible options for the role structure of discussion groups and ways of distribution of social roles in groups are found out. The authors show the main steps of the process of group work process and organization techniques of group work of students at different stages of the lesson that allow purposefully organize the situation of communication and reflective activities. Scientific novelty. The essence of an educational cooperation as forms of group interaction of the teacher and pupils at a lesson is considered in the context of FSES of the last generation. The emergent problems in the course of the group activities organization at school are disclosed. The authors propose their own opinion on the implementation of the basic stages of group work, which are defined as a technological lesson plan. In addition, the components of a technological lesson plan include the universal learning activities forming during groupactivities which are important for the implementation of FSES requirements.Practical significance. The proposed techniques for organizing group work of pupils at different stages of the lesson and a technological lesson plan describing the universal learning activities allow teachers to effectively use technology of cooperation in education, aimed at the formation of pupils’ communicative learning activities.

  13. Dextran-based self-healing hydrogels formed by reversible diels-alder reaction under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhao; Yang, Jian Hai; Du, Xiao Jing; Xu, Feng; Zrinyi, Miklos; Osada, Yoshihito; Li, Fei; Chen, Yong Mei

    2013-09-01

    A dextran-based self-healing hydrogel is prepared by reversible Diels-Alder reaction under physiological conditions. Cytocompatible fulvene-modified dextran as main polymer chains and dichloromaleic-acid-modified poly(ethylene glycol) as cross-linkers are used. Both macro- and microscopic observation as well as the rheological recovery test confirm the self-healing property of the dextran-l-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels ("l" means "linked-by"). In addition, scanning electrochemical microscopy is used to qualitatively and quantitatively in situ track the self-healing process of the hydrogel for the first time. It is found that the longitudinal depth of scratch on hydrogel surface almost completely healed at 37 °C after 7 h. This work represents a facile approach for fabrication of polysaccharide self-healing hydrogel, which can be potentially used in several biomedical fields. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The Effects of Five Forms of Capital on Thought Processes Underlying Water Consumption Behavior in Suburban Vientiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Makino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A community’s water supply is one of its most important infrastructures, as sufficient quality and quantity of water are as much prerequisites for human life as economic development. The rapid urbanization predicted for developing countries will cause serious water shortages in densely populated areas. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR is taking precautions by planning and developing their water supply infrastructure to ensure reliable supply of water. We used the five capitals model of sustainable livelihoods to capture how a household makes a living and analyzed the effects of five forms of capital (natural, physical, human, financial, and social on water consumption behaviors from the perspective of the residents’ livelihood. We conducted a survey to gain an understanding of the thought processes behind water consumption behavior in two villages in suburban Vientiane. The results indicated that natural and physical capital delayed connections to the water supply. Financial capital stimulated the purchase of high-quality water in preference to a connection to the water supply. This lack of connection is not necessarily sustainable in the near future, considering ongoing urbanization. Furthermore, this possibility presents a difficult problem, as residents do not usually acknowledge it. To accomplish sustainable development goals, this gap should be overcome.

  15. Microscopic characterization of pretransition oxide formed on Zr–Nb–Sn alloy under various Zn and dissolved hydrogen concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyu Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure of oxide formed on Zr–Nb–Sn tube sample was intensively examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy after exposure to simulated primary water chemistry conditions of various concentrations of Zn (0 or 30 ppb and dissolved hydrogen (H2 (30 or 50 cc/kg for various durations without applying desirable heat flux. Microstructural analysis indicated that there was no noticeable change in the microstructure of the oxide corresponding to water chemistry changes within the test duration of 100 days (pretransition stage and no significant difference in the overall thickness of the oxide layer. Equiaxed grains with nano-size pores along the grain boundaries and microcracks were dominant near the water/oxide interface, regardless of water chemistry conditions. As the metal/oxide interface was approached, the number of pores tended to decrease. However, there was no significant effect of H2 concentration between 30 cc/kg and 50 cc/kg on the corrosion of the oxide after free immersion in water at 360°C. The adsorption of Zn on the cladding surface was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and detected as ZnO on the outer oxide surface. From the perspective of OH− ion diffusion and porosity formation, the absence of noticeable effects was discussed further. Keywords: Dissolved Hydrogen Effect, Porosity, Pretransition Oxide, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Zirconium Alloys

  16. Determination of Actual Friction Factors in Metal Forming under Heavy Loaded Regimes Combining Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Camacho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tribological conditions can change drastically during heavy loaded regimes as experienced in metal forming; this is especially critical when lubrication can only be applied at the early stage of the process because the homogeneous lubricant layer can break along the die-workpiece interface. In these cases, adopting a constant friction factor for the lubricant-surface pair may not be a valid assumption. This paper presents a procedure based on the use of dual friction factor maps to determine friction factors employed in heavy loaded regimes. A finite element (FE simulation is used to obtain the friction factor map for the alloy UNS A96082. Experiments were conducted using four lubricants (aluminum anti-size, MoS2 grease, silicone oil, and copper paste to determine the actual friction curves. The experimental procedure is based on the application of lubricant only at the beginning of the first stage of ring compression, and not at intermediate stages as is usual in typical ring compression tests (RCTs. The results show that for small reductions (rh < 20%, the conventional RCT can be applied because the tribological conditions remain similar. For large reductions (rh > 20%, it is recommended to obtain an average value of the friction factor for every lubricant-surface pair in the range of deformation considered.

  17. An Improved Control Strategy for a Four-Leg Grid-Forming Power Converter under Unbalanced Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Miveh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved multiloop control strategy for a three-phase four-leg voltage source inverter (VSI operating with highly unbalanced loads in an autonomous distribution network. The main objective is to balance the output voltages of the four-leg inverter under unbalanced load conditions. The proposed control strategy consists of a proportional-integral (PI voltage controller and a proportional current loop in each phase. The voltage controller and the current control loop are, respectively, used to regulate the instantaneous output voltage and generate the pulse width modulation (PWM voltage command with zero steady-state tracking error and fast transient response. A voltage decoupling feedforward path is also used to enhance the system robustness. Since the outer voltage loop operates in the synchronous reference frame, tuning and stability analysis of the PI controller is far from being straightforward. In order to cope with this challenge, the stationary reference frame equivalent of the voltage controller in the rotating frame is derived. Subsequently, a systematic design based on a frequency response approach is provided. Simulation results are also carried out using the DIgSILENT PowerFactory software to verify the effectiveness of the suggested control strategy.

  18. Human iPS cell-derived insulin producing cells form vascularized organoids under the kidney capsules of diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu P Raikwar

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is caused by autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Transplantation of cadaveric pancreatic organs or pancreatic islets can restore normal physiology. However, there is a chronic shortage of cadaveric organs, limiting the treatment of the majority of patients on the pancreas transplantation waiting list. Here, we hypothesized that human iPS cells can be directly differentiated into insulin producing cells (IPCs capable of secreting insulin. Using a series of pancreatic growth factors, we successfully generated iPS cells derived IPCs. Furthermore, to investigate the capability of these cells to secrete insulin in vivo, the differentiated cells were transplanted under the kidney capsules of diabetic immunodeficient mice. Serum glucose levels gradually declined to either normal or near normal levels over 150 days, suggesting that the IPCs were secreting insulin. In addition, using MRI, a 3D organoid appeared as a white patch on the transplanted kidneys but not on the control kidneys. These organoids showed neo-vascularization and stained positive for insulin and glucagon. All together, these data show that a pancreatic organ can be created in vivo providing evidence that iPS cells might be a novel option for the treatment of T1D.

  19. The investigation of form and processes in the coastal zone under extreme storm events - the case study of Rethymno, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afentoulis, Vasileios; Mohammadi, Bijan; Tsoukala, Vasiliki

    2017-04-01

    Coastal zone is a significant geographical and particular region, since it gathers a wide range of social-human's activities and appears to be a complex as well as fragile system of natural variables. Coastal communities are increasingly at risk from serious coastal hazards, such as shoreline erosion and flooding related to extreme hydro-meteorological events: storm surges, heavy precipitation, tsunamis and tides. In order to investigate the impact of these extreme events on the coastal zone, it is necessary to describe the driving mechanisms which contribute to its destabilization and more precisely the interaction between the wave forces and the transport of sediment. The aim of the present study is to examine the capability of coastal zone processes simulation under extreme wave events, using numerical models, in the coastal area of Rethymno, Greece. Rethymno city is one of the eleven case study areas of PEARL (Preparing for Extreme And Rare events in coastal regions) project, an EU funded research project, which aims at developing adaptive risk management strategies for coastal communities focusing on extreme hydro-meteorological events, with a multidisciplinary approach integrating social, environmental and technical research and innovation so as to increase the resilience of coastal regions all over the world. Within this framework, three different numerical models have been used: the MIKE 21 - DHI, the XBeach model and a numerical formulation for sea bed evolution, developed by Afaf Bouharguane and Bijan Mohammadi (2013). For the determination of the wave and hydrodynamic conditions, as well as the assessment of the sediment transport components, the MIKE 21 SW and the MIKE 21 FM modules have been applied and the bathymetry of Rethymno is arranged into a 2D unstructured mesh. This method of digitalization was selected because of its ability to easily represent the complex geometry of the coastal zone. It allows smaller scale wave characteristics to be

  20. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... and concepts from real designs by studying form in abstract contexts. The challenge for the first approach is how to support students in decoupling form from the work as a whole. The challenge for the second approach is how to translate general form into real design. Hence, choosing between the two approaches...

  1. Products formed under pressurized pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, P.; Numazawa, S.; Mouras, S.; Napoli, A. [Cirad-Foret, Montpellier Cedex (France)

    1999-07-01

    Pressure is responsible for very high charcoal yields (varying from 40% to 48% depending on the raw material and process parameters). This high solid yield induces products quality changes. A primary goal of this ongoing research is to quantitatively measure the effect of process parameters (e.g., temperature, pressure) and feedstock composition (species, moisture) on the quality of pyrolysis products. Reaction pressure was achieved either by adding nitrogen into a seated reactor or by self-increase due to gas formation during load heating. Charcoal proximate and ultimate analyses have been performed. Gas and vapour analyses by GC are not completed yet and will be discussed later. The experimental results on Brazilian tropical hardwoods show the influence of the initial pressure on product quality compared with atmospheric pressure reaction. The paper will then compare and discuss results on the role of water during the reaction. Temperature and pressure profiles suggest that water has no chemical action in the reaction but allows faster pressure increase when heated. (author)

  2. The clinical application of genome-wide sequencing for monogenic diseases in Canada: Position Statement of the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boycott, Kym; Hartley, Taila; Adam, Shelin; Bernier, Francois; Chong, Karen; Fernandez, Bridget A; Friedman, Jan M; Geraghty, Michael T; Hume, Stacey; Knoppers, Bartha M; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Majewski, Jacek; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Meyn, M Stephen; Michaud, Jacques L; Nelson, Tanya N; Richer, Julie; Sadikovic, Bekim; Skidmore, David L; Stockley, Tracy; Taylor, Sherry; van Karnebeek, Clara; Zawati, Ma'n H; Lauzon, Julie; Armour, Christine M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and scope The aim of this Position Statement is to provide recommendations for Canadian medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors and other physicians regarding the use of genome-wide sequencing of germline DNA in the context of clinical genetic diagnosis. This statement has been developed to facilitate the clinical translation and development of best practices for clinical genome-wide sequencing for genetic diagnosis of monogenic diseases in Canada; it does not address the clinical application of this technology in other fields such as molecular investigation of cancer or for population screening of healthy individuals. Methods of statement development Two multidisciplinary groups consisting of medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors, ethicists, lawyers and genetic researchers were assembled to review existing literature and guidelines on genome-wide sequencing for clinical genetic diagnosis in the context of monogenic diseases, and to make recommendations relevant to the Canadian context. The statement was circulated for comment to the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) membership-at-large and, following incorporation of feedback, approved by the CCMG Board of Directors. The CCMG is a Canadian organisation responsible for certifying medical geneticists and clinical laboratory geneticists, and for establishing professional and ethical standards for clinical genetics services in Canada. Results and conclusions Recommendations include (1) clinical genome-wide sequencing is an appropriate approach in the diagnostic assessment of a patient for whom there is suspicion of a significant monogenic disease that is associated with a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, or where specific genetic tests have failed to provide a diagnosis; (2) until the benefits of reporting incidental findings are established, we do not endorse the intentional clinical analysis of disease-associated genes

  3. Light beams interaction with highly effective holographic diffraction structure formed in polymer-stabilized liquid crystal under the impact of arbitrarily spatially inhomogeneous electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharangovich, Sergey N.; Semkin, Artem O.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we developed the analytical model of highly effective diffraction on holographic diffraction structures in polymer-stabilized liquid crystals (PSLC) under the impact of arbitrarily inhomogeneous external electric field. The exact self-consistent analytical solutions are obtained by solving the system of coupled-wave equations describing the diffraction process by Riemann's method. They takes into account the electrically-induced phase mismatch changing's inhomogeneity caused by the strong adhesion between liquid crystal molecules and bounding surfaces. According to the obtained relations, numerical simulation of the diffraction characteristics under the influence of external fields with different form of spatial inhomogeneity was made. The simulation results show qualitative compliance with the earlier obtained results.

  4. Lipoprotein distribution and serum concentrations of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and bile acids: effects of monogenic disturbances in high-density lipoprotein metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Carine; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Karuna, Ratna

    2012-01-01

    distributions of the major 15 BA species and their precursor C4 (7a-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one). In normolipidaemic plasma, approximately 84%, 11% and 5% of BAs were recovered in the LPDS (lipoprotein-depleted serum), HDL and the combined LDL (low-density lipoprotein)/VLDL (very-low-density lipoproteins......) fraction respectively. Conjugated BAs were slightly over-represented in HDL. For C4, the respective percentages were 23%, 21% and 56% (41% in LDL and 15% in VLDL) respectively. Compared with unaffected family members, neither HDL-C (HDL-cholesterol)-decreasing mutations in the genes APOA1 [encoding Apo......BA (bile acid) formation is considered an important final step in RCT (reverse cholesterol transport). HDL (high-density lipoprotein) has been reported to transport BAs. We therefore investigated the effects of monogenic disturbances in human HDL metabolism on serum concentrations and lipoprotein...

  5. Large-Scale microRNA Expression Profiling Identifies Putative Retinal miRNA-mRNA Signaling Pathways Underlying Form-Deprivation Myopia in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatchenko, Andrei V; Luo, Xiaoyan; Tkatchenko, Tatiana V; Vaz, Candida; Tanavde, Vivek M; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Zauscher, Stefan; Gonzalez, Pedro; Young, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Development of myopia is associated with large-scale changes in ocular tissue gene expression. Although differential expression of coding genes underlying development of myopia has been a subject of intense investigation, the role of non-coding genes such as microRNAs in the development of myopia is largely unknown. In this study, we explored myopia-associated miRNA expression profiles in the retina and sclera of C57Bl/6J mice with experimentally induced myopia using microarray technology. We found a total of 53 differentially expressed miRNAs in the retina and no differences in miRNA expression in the sclera of C57BL/6J mice after 10 days of visual form deprivation, which induced -6.93 ± 2.44 D (p myopia. We also identified their putative mRNA targets among mRNAs found to be differentially expressed in myopic retina and potential signaling pathways involved in the development of form-deprivation myopia using miRNA-mRNA interaction network analysis. Analysis of myopia-associated signaling pathways revealed that myopic response to visual form deprivation in the retina is regulated by a small number of highly integrated signaling pathways. Our findings highlighted that changes in microRNA expression are involved in the regulation of refractive eye development and predicted how they may be involved in the development of myopia by regulating retinal gene expression.

  6. Large-Scale microRNA Expression Profiling Identifies Putative Retinal miRNA-mRNA Signaling Pathways Underlying Form-Deprivation Myopia in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V Tkatchenko

    Full Text Available Development of myopia is associated with large-scale changes in ocular tissue gene expression. Although differential expression of coding genes underlying development of myopia has been a subject of intense investigation, the role of non-coding genes such as microRNAs in the development of myopia is largely unknown. In this study, we explored myopia-associated miRNA expression profiles in the retina and sclera of C57Bl/6J mice with experimentally induced myopia using microarray technology. We found a total of 53 differentially expressed miRNAs in the retina and no differences in miRNA expression in the sclera of C57BL/6J mice after 10 days of visual form deprivation, which induced -6.93 ± 2.44 D (p < 0.000001, n = 12 of myopia. We also identified their putative mRNA targets among mRNAs found to be differentially expressed in myopic retina and potential signaling pathways involved in the development of form-deprivation myopia using miRNA-mRNA interaction network analysis. Analysis of myopia-associated signaling pathways revealed that myopic response to visual form deprivation in the retina is regulated by a small number of highly integrated signaling pathways. Our findings highlighted that changes in microRNA expression are involved in the regulation of refractive eye development and predicted how they may be involved in the development of myopia by regulating retinal gene expression.

  7. Phosphorus forms and chemistry in the soil profile under long-term conservation tillage: a phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Carter, Martin R; James, Dean C; Liu, Corey W

    2010-01-01

    In many regions, conservation tillage has replaced conventional tilling practices to reduce soil erosion, improve water conservation, and increase soil organic matter. However, tillage can have marked effects on soil properties, specifically nutrient redistribution or stratification in the soil profile. The objective of this research was to examine soil phosphorus (P) forms and concentrations in a long-term study comparing conservation tillage (direct drilling, "No Till") and conventional tillage (moldboard plowing to 20 cm depth, "Till") established on a fine sandy loam (Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. No significant differences in total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total P, or total organic P concentrations were detected between the tillage systems at any depth in the 0- to 60-cm depth range analyzed. However, analysis with phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed differences in P forms in the plow layer. In particular, the concentration of orthophosphate was significantly higher under No Till than Till at 5 to 10 cm, but the reverse was true at 10 to 20 cm. Mehlich 3-extractable P was also significantly higher in No Till at 5 to 10 cm and significantly higher in Till at 20 to 30 cm. This P stratification appears to be caused by a lack of mixing of applied fertilizer in No Till because the same trends were observed for pH and Mehlich 3-extractable Ca (significantly higher in the Till treatment at 20 to 30 cm), reflecting mixing of applied lime. The P saturation ratio was significantly higher under No Till at 0 to 5 cm and exceeded the recommended limits, suggesting that P stratification under No Till had increased the potential for P loss in runoff from these sites.

  8. CHANGE IN THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND STRESS CORROSION CRACKING UNDER MATERIAL OF METALWARE TENSION OF A CLAMP-FORMING MACHINE ARROW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Polishchuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim is to study the effects of conditions and duration of working of structures arrows of a clamp-forming machine on mechanical properties of the material and its stress corrosion cracking under tension. It is necessary to improve the accuracy of resources analysis of boom metalwares of lifting and transporting machines. Methodology. Samples for experimental investigations were made of the elements of arrow continued exploited clamp-forming machine where there were major work stress. Centers of greatest efforts in elements of arrows constructions were determined in its 3D model in the analysis of the stress cards by finite element method. Experimental studies were performed at the facility UVP-6, which determined the characteristics of strength and ductility of samples of two types by means of tensile strain, speed 10-5 s-1 and 10-6 s-1 in air and in the environment of synthetic rain. Metallographic studies were performed on a scanning electron microscope. Findings. Experimental studies found that after long-term operation of arrow of clamp-forming machine material of its most loaded elements changed due to characteristics of strength and ductility. At joint action of corrosion environment and the greatest stress on the surface of the material expressions, point defects are appeared. They are concentrators of local mechanical stress, which reduce the resource construction elements of the arrow. Originality. 1. Firstly set patterns of changes in the mechanical properties of continued operated metal construction of arrow of clamp-forming machine made of St. 3; 2. Received further developed methodology for remaining resource estimation continued operated of metal boom lifting and shipping the machine by taking into account joint action vibration and dynamic loads and corrosive environments. Practical value. Determination the residual resource of continued operated boom lifting and transporting metal machines should be carried out

  9. Projections of Ocean Acidification Under the U.N. Framework Convention of Climate Change Using a Reduced-Form Climate Carbon-Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, C.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean chemistry is quickly changing in response to continued anthropogenic emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. Mean surface ocean pH has already decreased by 0.1 units relative to the preindustrial era. We use an open-source, simple climate and carbon cycle model ("Hector") to investigate future changes in ocean acidification (pH and calcium carbonate saturations) under the climate agreement from the United Nations Convention on Climate Change Conference (UNFCCC) of Parties in Paris 2015 (COP 21). Hector is a reduced-form, very fast-executing model that can emulate the global mean climate of the CMIP5 models, as well as the inorganic carbon cycle in the upper ocean, allowing us to investigate future changes in ocean acidification. We ran Hector under three different emissions trajectories, using a sensitivity analysis approach to quantify model uncertainty and capture a range of possible ocean acidification changes. The first trajectory is a business-as-usual scenario comparable to a Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, the second a scenario with the COP 21 commitments enacted, and the third an idealized scenario keeping global temperature change to 2°C, comparable to a RCP 2.6. Preliminary results suggest that under the COP 21 agreements ocean pH at 2100 will decrease by 0.2 units and surface saturations of aragonite (calcite) will decrease by 0.9 (1.4) units relative to 1850. Under the COP 21 agreement the world's oceans will be committed to a degree of ocean acidification, however, these changes may be within the range of natural variability evident in some paleo records.

  10. Meta-analysis of Magnetic Marker Monitoring Data to Characterize the Movement of Single Unit Dosage Forms Though the Gastrointestinal Tract Under Fed and Fasting Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénin, Emilie; Bergstrand, Martin; Weitschies, Werner; Karlsson, Mats O

    2016-03-01

    To develop a model predicting movement of non-disintegrating single unit dosage forms (or "tablet") through the gastrointestinal tract and characterizing the effect of food intake, based on Magnetic Marker Monitoring data, allowing real-time location of a magnetically labeled formulation. Five studies including 30 individuals in 94 occasions under 3 food status were considered. The mean residence time (MRT) of the tablet and the effect of food intake in proximal (PS) and distal stomach (DS), small intestine (SI), ascending (AC), transverse (TC) and descending colon (DC) were estimated using a Markov model for probabilities of movement. Under fasting conditions, tablet MRTs were 9.4 min in PS, 10.4 in DS, 246 in SI, 545 in AC, 135 in TC, and 286 in DC. A meal taken simultaneous to tablet intake prolonged tablet MRT to 99 min in PS and to 232 in DS; probability of gastric emptying increased of 89% each hour from 2.25 h after meal. The effect of a gastroileac reflex, caused by a secondary meal, accelerated the transit from terminal SI to AC. This model-based knowledge can be used as a part of mechanism-based models for drug absorption, applied for bottom-up predictions and/or top-down estimation.

  11. Identifying the genetic components underlying the pathophysiology of movement disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezquerra M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mario Ezquerra, Yaroslau Compta, Maria J MartiParkinson’s Disease and Movement Disorders Unit, Service of Neurology, Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERNED, SpainAbstract: Movement disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurological conditions, few of which have been classically described as bona fide hereditary illnesses (Huntington’s chorea, for instance. Most are considered to be either sporadic or to feature varying degrees of familial aggregation (parkinsonism and dystonia. In the late twentieth century, Mendelian monogenic mutations were found for movement disorders with a clear and consistent family history. Although important, these findings apply only to very rare forms of movement disorders. Already in the twenty-first century, and taking advantage of the modern developments in genetics and molecular biology, growing attention is being paid to the complex genetics of movement disorders. The search for risk genetic variants (polymorphisms in large cohorts and the identification of different risk variants across different populations and ethnic groups are under way, with the most relevant findings to date corresponding to recent genome wide association studies in Parkinson’s disease. These new approaches focusing on risk variants may enable the design of screening tests for early or even preclinical disease, and the identification of likely therapeutic targets.Keywords: genetics, movement disorders, Parkinson’s disease, parkinsonism, dystonia

  12. Primary hyperoxaluria type I: a model for multiple mutations in a monogenic disease within a distinct ethnic group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinat, C.; Wanders, R. J.; Drukker, A.; Halle, D.; Frishberg, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disease in which excessive oxalates are formed by the liver and excreted by the kidneys, causing a wide spectrum of phenotypes ranging from renal failure in infancy to mere renal stones in late adulthood. Mutations in the

  13. PAH formation under single collision conditions: reaction of phenyl radical and 1,3-butadiene to form 1,4-dihydronaphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, R I; Parker, D S N; Zhang, F; Landera, A; Kislov, V V; Mebel, A M

    2012-05-03

    The crossed beam reactions of the phenyl radical (C(6)H(5), X(2)A(1)) with 1,3-butadiene (C(4)H(6), X(1)A(g)) and D6-1,3-butadiene (C(4)D(6), X(1)A(g)) as well as of the D5-phenyl radical (C(6)D(5), X(2)A(1)) with 2,3-D2-1,3-butadiene and 1,1,4,4-D4-1,3-butadiene were carried out under single collision conditions at collision energies of about 55 kJ mol(-1). Experimentally, the bicyclic 1,4-dihydronaphthalene molecule was identified as a major product of this reaction (58 ± 15%) with the 1-phenyl-1,3-butadiene contributing 34 ± 10%. The reaction is initiated by a barrierless addition of the phenyl radical to the terminal carbon atom of the 1,3-butadiene (C1/C4) to form a bound intermediate; the latter underwent hydrogen elimination from the terminal CH(2) group of the 1,3-butadiene molecule leading to 1-phenyl-trans-1,3-butadiene through a submerged barrier. The dominant product, 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, is formed via an isomerization of the adduct by ring closure and emission of the hydrogen atom from the phenyl moiety at the bridging carbon atom through a tight exit transition state located about 31 kJ mol(-1) above the separated products. The hydrogen atom was found to leave the decomposing complex almost parallel to the total angular momentum vector and perpendicularly to the rotation plane of the decomposing intermediate. The defacto barrierless formation of the 1,4-dihydronaphthalene molecule involving a single collision between a phenyl radical and 1,3-butadiene represents an important step in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their partially hydrogenated counterparts in combustion and interstellar chemistry.

  14. [Application of the expanding forming under the plate through cervical spatium intermusculare approach in treating multi-segmental myelopathic cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Bei-lei; Ye, Zhou

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the application of the expanding forming under the plate through cervical spatium intermusculare approach to treat multi-segmental myelopathic cervical spondylosis. From July 2005 to June 2013, 25 patients with multi-segmental myelopathic cervical spondylosis were treated by the expanding forming under the plate through cervical spatium intermusculare approach including 16 males and 9 females with an average age of 56.5 years old ranging from 35 to 78 years old. Among them, 10 cases were onset without causes slowly, 7 cases were onset without causes suddenly, 8 cases were onset after mild trauma or tired. JOA scoring, incidence of postoperative axial symptoms and imaging studies were used to evaluate the effect. Twenty-five cases were followed up for 6 months to 7 years and 6 months with an average of 2 years and 9 months. There were no infection, cerebrospinal fluid leakage after the operation, and complications such as nerve damage were occurred. The operation time was 120 to 150 min, the bleeding was 300 to 500 ml. Imaging examination showed vertebral canal sagittal diameter increased, the vertebral canal increased significantly in the cross sectional area of the spinal cord, cervical curvature was straighten in 4 cases (2 cases of them became normal sequence). There were no more cases of cervical protruding and segmental instability increased. Postoperative walking ability enhanced, the finger activity of majority of patients improved on flexibility, grip strength, and accuracy of using chopsticks improved, numbness and chest waist band feeling had different degree of reduce, preoperative urine impairment were improved to varying degrees. Preoperative JOA scores were 3 to 13 points with an average of (8.86 ± 4.25) points; Postoperative 12 months' JOA scores were 7 to 17 points with an average of (13.76 ± 3.56) points, period was 60.19% in average, JOA score had statistically difference between before and after operation (P spondylosis, through

  15. Innovative application of AC-voltammetry in the characterization of oxides nanolayers formed on metals, under the effect of AC-perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, V.; Lazzari, L.; Ormellesse, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering; Spinelli, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy). Dept. of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Stray AC-currents have been reported to cause many cases of unwanted corrosion on metallic structures. This study characterized the formation and stability of the surface oxide film formed on mild steel under the effect of AC voltage in a very basic environment. The response of the system to DC signals was examined, along with its reversibility to AC perturbations. SEM analysis was used to complement AC-Voltammetry. Reaction mechanisms responsible for the AC-corrosion were formulated. AC-Voltammetry involves the application of a controlled sinusoidal voltage onto a solid working electrode while it is being swept in a DC-voltage range, with the faradaic or capacitative components of the resulting AC-current being recorded. The innovative aspect is the application of AC-V to characterize its nano-surface while it is being affected by AC-signals. It was concluded that the AC-V can be useful for the study of redox processes occurring at the surface of a reactive electrode and for the application of a considerable AC perturbation to the electrode in a potentiostatically controlled way. According to the electrochemistry of the double layer, there are 3 main reactions in the NaOH 1M media that are not reversible to DC nor to AC perturbations in the range of cathodic protection of mild steel. When designing metallic systems susceptible to stray currents, the AC-V could quantify the final faradaic, resistive and capacitative responses. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  16. IL-7 dysregulation and loss of CD8+ T cell homeostasis in the monogenic human disease autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Sini M; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Rossi, Laura H; Laurinolli, Tuisku-Tuulia; Mannerström, Helga; Heikkilä, Nelli; Lehtoviita, Anni; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Jarva, Hanna; Arstila, T Petteri

    2011-08-15

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a monogenic autoimmune disease that is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene. Murine studies have linked AIRE to thymocyte selection and peripheral deletional tolerance, but the pathogenesis of the human disease remains unclear. In this study, we show that APECED patients have elevated IL-7 levels and a drastically decreased expression of IL-7R on CD8(+) T cells. This is associated with increased proliferation and a decreased expression of the negative TCR regulator CD5 in the CD45RO(-) subset. The CD45RO(-) cells also display oligoclonal expansions, decreased expression of the lymph node homing factors CCR7 and CD62L, and increased expression of perforin, consistent with the accumulation of highly differentiated effector cells. The CD45RO(-)CCR7(+)CD8(+) population of cells with markers characteristic of naive phenotype is also skewed, as shown by decreased expression of CD5 and increased expression of perforin. The putative CD31(+) recent thymic emigrant population is likewise affected. These data are consistent with IL-7 dysregulation inducing a decreased threshold of TCR signaling and self-antigen-driven proliferation, probably in synergy with the failed thymic selection. The resultant loss of CD8(+) T cell homeostasis is likely to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of APECED. Our findings may also hold lessons for other diseases in which the IL-7-IL-7R pathway has emerged as a risk factor.

  17. The reactivity of Fe(II) associated with goethite formed during short redox cycles toward Cr(VI) reduction under oxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, Elizabeth J.; Lee, Seungyeol; Rudolph, Jared; Xu, Huifang; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew (UW)

    2017-08-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a toxic metal that causes a myriad of health problems and enters the environment as a result of anthropogenic activities and/or natural processes. The toxicity and solubility of chromium is linked to its oxidation state; Cr(III) is poorly soluble and relatively nontoxic, while Cr(VI) is soluble and a known carcinogen. Solid Fe(II) in iron-bearing minerals, such as pyrite, magnetite, and green rusts, reduce the oxidation state of chromium, reducing its toxicity and mobility. However, these minerals are not the only potential sources of solid-associated Fe(II) available for Cr(VI) reduction. For example, ferric (Fe(III)) (hydr)oxides, such as goethite or hematite, can have Fe(II) in the solid without phase transformation; however, the reactivity of Fe(II) within Fe(III) (hydr)oxides with contaminants, has not been previously investigated. Here, we cyclically react goethite with dissolved Fe(II) followed by dissolved O2, leading to the formation of reactive Fe(II) associated with goethite. In separate reactors, the reactivity of this Fe(II) is probed under oxic conditions, by exposure to chromate (CrO42 -) after either one, two, three or four redox cycles. Cr is not present during redox cycling; rather, it is introduced to a subset of the solid after each oxidation half-cycle. Analysis of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra reveals that the extent of Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) depends not only on solid Fe(II) content but also surface area and mean size of ordered crystalline domains, determined by BET surface area analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Shell-by-shell fitting of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra demonstrates chromium forms both single and double corner sharing complexes on the surface of goethite, in addition to sorbed Cr(III) species. Finally, transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) illustrate that Cr preferentially

  18. Monogene and polygene therapy for the treatment of experimental prostate cancers by use of apoptotic genes bax and bad driven by the prostate-specific promoter ARR(2)PB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Yu, Jiang; Unni, Emmanual; Shao, Tsang C; Nan, Bicheng; Snabboon, Thiti; Kasper, Susan; Andriani, Francesca; Denner, Larry; Marcelli, Marco

    2002-11-20

    We have shown that adenovirus-mediated manipulation of apoptotic genes such as bax could be a therapeutic option for prostate cancer. Unfortunately, the response of experimental prostate tumors to a single therapeutic gene of the apoptotic pathway is short-lived, and most of these tumors relapse after a short period of time. In this investigation we present data generated with adenovirus AvARR(2)PB-Bad, in which the apoptotic gene bad was placed under the control of the dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-inducible third-generation probasin-derived promoter ARR(2)PB. This therapeutic virus was given alone or in combination with other therapeutic viruses to a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental models of prostate cancer. On infection with AvARR(2)PB-Bad, DHT-induced Bad overexpression occurred specifically in androgen receptor-positive (AR(+)) cells of prostatic derivation. The apoptotic effect of AvARR(2)PB-Bad (group 1) was compared with that of AvARR(2)PB-Bax (which overexpresses the apoptotic protein Bax) (group 2), with that of the combination AvARR(2)PB-Bad plus AvARR(2)PB-Bax (group 3), and with that of the control virus AvARR(2)PB-CAT (group 4) in the cell line LNCaP. In addition to identifying the modality of apoptosis induction by overexpressed Bad, the results suggested that group 3 contained more apoptotic cells than any other group. In additional studies, AR(+) androgen-dependent LNCaP cells or AR(+) and androgen-independent C4-2 cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Four groups of six LNCaP or C4-2 tumors were treated with the same combinations of viruses discussed above for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4. Treatment resulted in decreased tumor size in groups 1, 2, and 3 compared with group 4. There was a better response in group 3 compared with group 2, and in group 2 compared with group 1. A better response in group 3 was confirmed during a 8-week follow-up period, in which no treatment was administered. Two LNCaP and C4-2 tumors of group 3

  19. Algunas adiciones a la fauna monogenética (Plathyhelminthes de Venezuela | Some additions to venezuelan monogenetic fauna (Plathyhelminthes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Figueredo Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of periodical studies about parasitic fauna of marine fishes carried out in Laboratory of Parasitology of Universidad de Oriente, campus Nueva Esparta, several commercially important ichthyic species were evaluated. Fishes were collected in three landing ports of Nueva Esparta state and immediately processed. Gills were carefully extracted and reviewed under stereoscopic microscope. Permanent slides were prepared with parasites found, and then to obtain descriptive images. In all cases, the parasitic habitat was gills of hosts. New records for Venezuela comprises five monogeneans: Capsala manteri collected on little tunny, Euthynnus alleteratus; Capsala pricei found over lesser devil ray, Mobula hypostoma; Tristoma integrum observed on swordfish, Xiphias gladius; Decacotyle floridana registred over spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari and Hexostoma lintoni discovered on yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares. For the first time for the country, representatives of sub-families Capsalinae and Decacotylinae were referred to. Some details of parasites anatomy are described, discussing about taxonomic and biogeographic aspects.

  20. REPARTITION BRANCHIALE DES MONOGENES Gotocotyla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Sur la base des données recoltées, nous avons défini et discuté de la localisation branchiale de ces deux monogènes dans le cas d'infestations monospécifiques et .... et Pyragraphorus hollisae. Monospecific infections of Trachinotus ovatus with Gotocotyla acanthura and. Pyragraphorus hollisae. Nbre = Nombre ...

  1. Monogenic diseases of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keijzers, Guido; Bakula, Daniela; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the stability of the genome is essential for all organisms, and it is not surprising that damage to DNA has been proposed as an explanation for multiple chronic diseases.1-5 Conserving a pristine genome is therefore of central importance to our health. To overcome the genotoxic stress...

  2. 17 CFR 239.40 - Form F-10, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain Canadian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) This Form may not be used for registration of derivative securities except: (1) Warrants, options and... reporting history calculation if the reporting histories of predecessors whose assets and gross revenues... with the reporting history of the successor registrant in each case satisfy such 12-month reporting...

  3. 17 CFR 239.33 - Form F-3, for registration under the Securities Act of 1933 of securities of certain foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... one or more long term leases, which defaults in the aggregate are material to the financial position... the end of their last fiscal year for which certified financial statements of the registrant and its... information specified in Form S-3 (§ 239.13). Rule 3-10 of Regulation S-X specifies the financial statements...

  4. Optimization of the culturing conditions of human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells under xeno-free conditions applying a transcriptomic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeisberger, Steffen M.; Zoller, Stefan; Riegel, Mariluce; Chen, Shuhua; Krenning, Guido; Harmsen, Martin C.; Sachinidis, Agapios; Zisch, Andreas H.

    Establishment of fetal bovine serum (FBS)-free cell culture conditions is essential for transplantation therapies. Blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are potential candidates for regenerative medicine applications. ECFCs were isolated from term umbilical cord blood units and

  5. Profilowe zróżnicowanie form żelaza i glinu w glebach pod świerczyn górnoreglową Plagiothecio-Piccetum tatricum w Gorcach jako wskaźnik aktualnych procesów glebotwórczych / Distribution of Iron and Aluminum Forms as an Indicator of Present-Day Soil-Forming Processes in Soil Profiles under Wooded Spruce Plagiothecio-Piccetum Tatricum in the Gorce Mts. (Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miechówka Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine soil-forming processes in soils formed from the Magura sandstones (Carpathian flysch under wooded spruce Plagiothecio-Piccetum tatricum in the Gorce Mts., southern Poland. The research focused on distribution of non-silicate forms of iron and aluminum in soil profiles. The content of pyrophosphate, oxalate, and dithionite phases of iron and aluminum in the genetic horizons of four soil profiles was measured and selected pedogenic factors were calculated. Based on the obtained results podzolization and brunification are dominant soil-forming processes in the studied soils. The brunification effect was more common in the soils under the large share of Athyrium distentifolium, whereas podzolization predominates in the soils where Vaccinium myrtillus prevails in forest floor. Studied soils were classified as Dystric Endoskeletic Cambisol (Loamic, Humic, Dystric Cambisol (Siltic, Humic and Skeletic Folic Albic Podzol (Arenic.

  6. Anthocyanin condensed forms do not affect color or chemical stability of purple corn pericarp extracts stored under different pHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vital, Diego; Li, Qian; West, Leslie; West, Megan; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2017-10-01

    Purple corn is rich in anthocyanins, some of which are condensed with flavanols. The aim was to determine the impact of anthocyanin condensed forms extracted from purple corn pericarp on color and chemical stability at different pHs compared with the complete extract, and an extract without condensed forms. Extracts were dissolved at pH values ranging from 2.0 to 6.0 and stored for 12weeks at 22°C. Color stability of anthocyanins decreased as the pH increased. Slight color differences were observed throughout time at pH 2 (ΔE from 0.2 to 3.6). After 12weeks, pH 6 caused substantial changes in color (ΔE=17.7 to 47.5); and reduced the predicted half-life of total anthocyanins (ranging from 1.8 to 3weeks), compared to pH 2 (44.6 to 60.7weeks). Condensed forms had degradation kinetics similar to monomeric anthocyanins. Purple corn pericarp pigments can be used in acid beverages with an acceptable shelf-life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 18 CFR 250.6 - Form of application to be filed by distributor under section 7(a), seeking gas service of not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distribution system project? If you have filed an application for such a certificate, with whom was it filed... available. (This evidence need not be submitted if you have a state certificate for your project.) 13. For... you (state the rate to be paid to the pipeline supplier and the pipeline's rate schedule under which...

  8. In-cloud processes of methacrolein under simulated conditions – Part 3: Hygroscopic and volatility properties of the formed secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monod

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic and volatility properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous phase photooxidation of methacrolein was experimentally studied in a laboratory, using a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem DMA (VHTDMA. The obtained SOA were 80% 100°C-volatile after 5 h of reaction and only 20% 100°C-volatile after 22 h of reaction. The Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF of the SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous-phase photooxidation of methacrolein is 1.34–1.43, which is significantly higher than the HGF of SOA formed by gas-phase photooxidation of terpenes, usually found almost hydrophobic. These hygroscopic properties were confirmed for SOA formed by the nebulization of the same solutions where NaCl was added. The hygroscopic properties of the cloud droplet residuals decrease with the reaction time, in parallel with the formation of more refractory compounds. This decrease was mainly attributed to the 250°C-refractive fraction (presumably representative of the highest molecular weight compounds, which evolved from moderately hygroscopic (HGF of 1.52 to less hygroscopic (HGF of 1.36. Oligomerization is suggested as a process responsible for the decrease of both volatility and hygroscopicity with time. The NaCl seeded experiments enabled us to show that 19±4 mg L−1 of SOA was produced after 9.5 h of reaction and 41±9 mg L−1 after 22 h of in-cloud reaction. Because more and more SOA is formed as the reaction time increases, our results show that the reaction products formed during the aqueous-phase OH-oxidation of methacrolein may play a major role in the properties of residual particles upon the droplet's evaporation. Therefore, the specific physical properties of SOA produced during cloud processes should be taken into account for a global estimation of SOA and their atmospheric impacts.

  9. Crystallographic relations between face- and body-centred cubic crystals formed under near-equilibrium conditions: Observations from the Gibeon meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Youliang; Godet, Stephane; Jacques, Pascal J.; Jonas, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The orientations of the kamacite lamellae formed from a single prior-taenite grain were measured by analysing the electron backscatter diffraction patterns obtained using scanning electron microscopy. These are shown to be close to the Kurdjumov-Sachs and Nishiyama-Wassermann relations and their intermediate, i.e., the Greninger-Troiano relation. The orientations of the α grains in the plessite regions were also measured and these were found to be continuously distributed around the Bain circles formed by the variants of the common correspondence relationships, including the Pitsch one in this case. The local misorientations between individual face- and body-centred cubic crystals along their common interfaces were measured. These can be characterized by the orientation relationships mentioned above as long as a certain amount of tolerance is allowed. Orientation variations within individual kamacite lamellae were also analysed. The crystallographic data support the view that somewhat different mechanisms are involved in the formation of Widmanstaetten structures and of the plessite in meteorites

  10. Surface morphology of laser tracks used for forming the non-smooth biomimetic unit of 3Cr2W8V steel under different processing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihui; Zhou Hong; Ren Luquan; Tong Xin; Shan Hongyu; Li Xianzhou

    2008-01-01

    Aiming to form the high quality of non-smooth biomimetic unit, the influence of laser processing parameters (pulse energy, pulse duration, frequency and scanning speed in the present work) on the surface morphology of scanned tracks was studied based on the 3Cr2W8V die steel. The evolution of the surface morphology was explained according to the degree of melting and vaporization of surface material, and the trend of mean surface roughness and maximum peak-to-valley height. Cross-section morphology revealed the significant microstructural characteristic of the laser-treated zone used for forming the functional zone on the biomimetic surface. Results showed that the combination of pulse energy and pulse duration plays a major role in determining the local height difference on the irradiated surface and the occurrence of melting or vaporization. While frequency and scanning speed have a minor effect on the change of the surface morphology, acting mainly by the different overlapping amount and overlapping mode. The mechanisms behind these influences were discussed, and schematic drawings were introduced to describe the mechanisms

  11. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  12. CO oxidation on PtSn nanoparticle catalysts occurs at the interface of Pt and Sn oxide domains formed under reaction conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Michalak, William D.

    2014-04-01

    The barrier to CO oxidation on Pt catalysts is the strongly bound adsorbed CO, which inhibits O2 adsorption and hinders CO2 formation. Using reaction studies and in situ X-ray spectroscopy with colloidally prepared, monodisperse ∼2 nm Pt and PtSn nanoparticle catalysts, we show that the addition of Sn to Pt provides distinctly different reaction sites and a more efficient reaction mechanism for CO oxidation compared to pure Pt catalysts. To probe the influence of Sn, we intentionally poisoned the Pt component of the nanoparticle catalysts using a CO-rich atmosphere. With a reaction environment comprised of 100 Torr CO and 40 Torr O2 and a temperature range between 200 and 300 C, Pt and PtSn catalysts exhibited activation barriers for CO2 formation of 133 kJ/mol and 35 kJ/mol, respectively. While pure Sn is readily oxidized and is not active for CO oxidation, the addition of Sn to Pt provides an active site for O2 adsorption that is important when Pt is covered with CO. Sn oxide was identified as the active Sn species under reaction conditions by in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. While chemical signatures of Pt and Sn indicated intermixed metallic components under reducing conditions, Pt and Sn were found to reversibly separate into isolated domains of Pt and oxidic Sn on the nanoparticle surface under reaction conditions of 100 mTorr CO and 40 mTorr O2 between temperatures of 200-275 C. Under these conditions, PtSn catalysts exhibited apparent reaction orders in O2 for CO 2 production that were 0.5 and lower with increasing partial pressures. These reaction orders contrast the first-order dependence in O 2 known for pure Pt. The differences in activation barriers, non-first-order dependence in O2, and the presence of a partially oxidized Sn indicate that the enhanced activity is due to a reaction mechanism that occurs at a Pt/Sn oxide interface present at the nanoparticle surface. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Semianalytical Solution for the Deformation of an Elastic Layer under an Axisymmetrically Distributed Power-Form Load: Application to Fluid-Jet-Induced Indentation of Biological Soft Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhua Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid-jet-based indentation is used as a noncontact excitation technique by systems measuring the mechanical properties of soft tissues. However, the application of these devices has been hindered by the lack of theoretical solutions. This study developed a mathematical model for testing the indentation induced by a fluid jet and determined a semianalytical solution. The soft tissue was modeled as an elastic layer bonded to a rigid base. The pressure of the fluid jet impinging on the soft tissue was assumed to have a power-form function. The semianalytical solution was verified in detail using finite-element modeling, with excellent agreement being achieved. The effects of several parameters on the solution behaviors are reported, and a method for applying the solution to determine the mechanical properties of soft tissues is suggested.

  14. The Form in Which Nitrogen Is Supplied Affects the Polyamines, Amino Acids, and Mineral Composition of Sweet Pepper Fruit under an Elevated CO2 Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Maria C; Otálora, Ginés; Porras, Manuel E; Sánchez-Guerrero, Mari C; Lorenzo, Pilar; Medrano, Evangelina; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effect of supplying nitrogen, as NO 3 - or as NO 3 - /NH 4 + , on the composition of fruits of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Melchor) plants grown with different CO 2 concentrations ([CO 2 ]): ambient or elevated (800 μmol mol -1 ). The results show that the application of NH 4 + and high [CO 2 ] affected the chroma related to the concentrations of chlorophylls. The concentrations of Ca, Cu, Mg, P, and Zn were significantly reduced in the fruits of plants nourished with NH 4 + , the loss of Fe being more dramatic at increased [CO 2 ], which was also the case with the protein concentration. The concentration of total phenolics was increased by NH 4 + , being unaffected by [CO 2 ]. Globally, the NH 4 + was the main factor that affected fruit free amino acid concentrations. Polyamines were affected differently: putrescine was increased by elevated [CO 2 ], while the response of cadaverine depended on the form of N supplied.

  15. Sunlight mediated diesel degradation under saline conditions using ionic silver coated sand via nanoreduction: use of impregnated form of thiourea modified chitosan membranes for ex situ application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Devlina; Das, Nilanjana

    2014-08-15

    The present research investigates the use of ionic silver coated sand dust (ISSD) for the sunlight mediated degradation of diesel under saline conditions. Sand dust was used as a template for reduction of silver ions by effective removal of chloride ions. Diesel degradation was estimated in terms of degradation (%), chloride removal, volume reduction and nanoparticle synthesis, respectively. The process was optimized using a 7-level Box-Behnken design. Among several factors, time (B), Tween 80 (C), ISSD dosage (D) and silver(I) concentration (F) were found to be most significant. Maximum diesel degradation 99.8% was obtained in a period of 14 h which was analyzed by gas chromatography. XPS analysis confirmed silver reduction as the underlying phenomena. TEM analysis and albeit first approximation method confirmed that enhanced degradation occurred due to physical contact between diesel components and ISSD. First order kinetic model exhibited the best fit. Light microscopy results showed the various stages in diesel degradation by a reduction in bubble size. Ex situ application was carried out using ISSD impregnated thiourea modified chitosan/PVA membranes by surface floatation technique for the remediation of diesel contaminated sea water. Complete diesel degradation was noted after 48 h of sunlight exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of the influence of the molecular structure of vinyl compounds on their ability to form polymer films by electro-polymerization under cathodic polarisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniau, Guy

    1990-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of new vinyl compounds, and aims at improving knowledge on the interaction between metal and a vinyl molecule under an intense electric field (the field of the double electrochemical layer), and more particularly at studying the influence of the molecular structure of the vinyl compound as well as the occurring reactions. After a first part presenting physical-chemical principles and knowledge which govern the whole set of reactions which are occurring within an electrolysis reactor, and a brief historical overview, this research thesis proposes a presentation of molecules which have been chosen for this study (vinyl compounds) and a justification of this choice. The author also presents the experimental device and describes the process implementation. Then, he presents and analyses experimental results. It appears that only some studied molecules result in the formation of polymer film [fr

  17. Background studies for the measurement of the strangeness vector form factor of the proton by parity-violating electron scattering under backward angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozza, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Within the A4 experiment the contributions of the strange quark to the electromagnetic form factors of the proton are measured. These see-quark effects in low energy observables are very important for the understanding of hadron structure, because they are a direct manifestation of QCD degrees of freedom in the non-perturbative regime. Linear combinations of the strangeness vector form factors of the proton (G E s and G M s ) are accessible experimentally by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in the cross section of the elastic scattering of longitudinal polarised electrons off unpolarised nucleons. Two such measurements were published by the A4 collaboration before this work. Both of them were forward angle measurements at the Q 2 values of 0.23 and 0.10 (GeV/c) 2 , respectively. A measurement at backward angle with a beam energy of 315 MeV was performed for separating G E s and G M s at the higher of these Q 2 values. In the A4 experiment a longitudinally polarised electron beam scatters on a liquid hydrogen target. Single scattered electrons are counted with a Cherenkov calorimeter. The separation of elastic from inelastic events is achieved by means of calorimetric energy measurement. For the backward angle measurement a plastic scintillator was installed as electron tagger for suppressing the γ background coming from the decay of π 0 mesons. In order to make the data analysis possible the energy spectra needed to be studied thoroughly. This was done in this work using detailed simulations of both the scattering processes suffered by beam electrons and of the response of the detectors. A method for handling the remaining background due to γ conversion before the scintillator has been also developed. The simulation results agree with the measured spectra at the 5% level and the strategy for handling the background was shown to be feasible. The asymmetry value obtained by handling the background as proposed in this work was combined with the previous A4

  18. 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analysis of mat-forming and accompanying bacteria covering organically-enriched marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile (Calbuco Island)

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Carlos; Paredes, Javier; Valenzuela, Cristian; Lam, Phyllis; Guillou, Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The mat forming bacteria covering organic matter-enriched and anoxic marine sediments underlying a salmon farm in Southern Chile, were examined using 16S rRNA gene phylogenies. This mat was absent in the sea bed outside the direct influence of the farm (360 m outside fish cages). Based on nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences (similar to 1500 bp), mat-forming filamentous cells were settled as the sulphur-oxidizing and putatively dissimilative nitrate-reducing Beggict...

  19. Biochemical and bioactive phytonutrients changes in tissues of two cultivars of fresh-cut cassava in stick form under refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus da Silva Junqueira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fresh-cut in stick form of two cassava cultivars on their biochemical and antioxidant characteristics, at two harvest times. The fresh cut cassava sticks were packaged in polypropylene, maintained at 5±1ºC, with 90±5% relative humidity for 12 days. The concentration of carotenoids, total soluble phenolic compounds and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant capacity were significantly higher for the sticks of cultivar 'Amarela' cassava than for the sticks of cultivar 'Cacau'. The concentrations of carotenoids, total soluble phenolic compounds, and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and antioxidant capacity were all significantly greater when harvested at 14-month of age. There was a significant increase in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase during the 12 days of storage at 5ºC. However, there was a decrease in total carotenoids, soluble phenolic compounds, and in the antioxidant capacity of the two cultivars.

  20. Investigation of R-Factor for steel moment frame combined with cold-formed steel structures under different load patterns using pushover analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Sadeghi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Lightweight Steel Frames (LSF has grown considerably in recent years all over the world due to its unique advantages such as being cost-effective and light-weight, easy and quick installment. Another application is to use them in order to increase the number of new floors on the existing buildings. But since the behavior of the combined structure is not clear, there is no possibility of increasing new floors with Lightweight Steel Frames. Therefore, through selecting and modeling three buildings of three, five and seven floors with steel moment frames in SAP2000 software and adding one or two new floors using Lightweight Steel Frames (LSF and conducting a non-linear static analysis with three different lateral load pattern, we dealt with the seismic behavior and determined the behavior coefficient of each of the combined structures. The results indicated that the use of cold-formed structures in order to add story do not have a significant impact on R-factor. In addition, R-factor depends on the type of the side loading pattern.

  1. Research on the Influence of Cutting Rates on Macrogeometry Deflections of Surfaces under Processing Complex form Products Made of Aluminium Aloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Švagždytė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the influence of cutting rates on macrogeometry deflection of milling complex form products and turning an outside surface. For that purpose, one of the most popular aluminium alloys 6082 has been chosen. A ball nose mill of 8 mm in diameter has been milled employing CNC vertical centre HAAS MINI MILL and applying CNC lathe HAAS ST 20 for turning. Measurements have been carried out using coordinate measuring machine DEA micro-hite DCC, applying the probe sphere of 3mm in diameter and the probe equipped with a needle. A deviation of the surface profile from tangent to therophore parabola has been investigated. The determinants R2 of the obtained regressive equation have disclosed that the depth of the cut has the biggest influence on macrogeometry deflections, whereas feed rate has a slighter influence and cutting speed has no radical influence. For the turning process, the depth of the cut has the strongest influence on circularity while cilindrisity has been mainly affected by cutting speed.

  2. Transmission electron microscopy studying of structural features of NiTi B2 phase formed under pulsed electron-beam impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, Ludmila L.; Semin, Viktor O.; Gudimova, Ekaterina Y. [Institute of Strength Physicists and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Neiman, Alexey A., E-mail: nasa@ispms.tsc.ru; Lotkov, Alexander I.; Ostapenko, Marina G. [Institute of Strength Physicists and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Koval, Nikolai N.; Teresov, Anton D. [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    By transmission electron microscopy method the evolution of structural-phase states on a depth of close to equiatomic NiTi modified layer has been studied. Modification performed by pulse impact on its surface low-energy high-current electron beam (beam energy density 10 J/sm{sup 2}, 10 pulses, pulse duration 50mks). It is established that during the treatment in the layer thickness of 8–10 μm, the melting of primary B2 phase and contained therein as Ti2Ni phase particles occurs. The result is change in the concentration ratio of titanium and nickel in the direction of increasing titanium content, which was confirmed by X-ray analysis in the form of increased unit cell parameter B2 phase. Analysis of the electron diffraction pattern showed that the modified layer is characterized as a highly distorted structure on the basis of bcc lattice. Lattice distortions are maximal near the surface and extends to a depth of melt. In subjacent layer there is gradual decline lattice distortions is observed.

  3. MYC Regulates α6 Integrin Subunit Expression and Splicing Under Its Pro-Proliferative ITGA6A Form in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groulx, Jean-François; Boudjadi, Salah; Beaulieu, Jean-François

    2018-02-03

    The α6 integrin subunit ( ITGA6 ) pre-mRNA undergoes alternative splicing to form two splicing variants, named ITGA6A and ITGA6B. In primary human colorectal cancer cells, the levels of both ITGA6 and β4 integrin subunit (ITGB4) subunits of the α6β4 integrin are increased. We previously found that the upregulation of ITGA6 is a direct consequence of the increase of the pro-proliferative ITGA6A variant. However, the mechanisms that control ITGA6 expression and splicing into the ITGA6A variant over ITGA6B in colorectal cancer cells remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the promoter activity of the ITGA6 gene is regulated by MYC. Pharmacological inhibition of MYC activity with the MYC inhibitor (MYCi) 10058-F4 or knockdown of MYC expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) both lead to a decrease in ITGA6 and ITGA6A levels in colorectal cancer cells, while overexpression of MYC enhances ITGA6 promoter activity. We also found that MYC inhibition decreases the epithelial splicing regulatory protein 2 (ESRP2) splicing factor at both the mRNA and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that the proximal promoter sequences of ITGA6 and ESRP2 were occupied by MYC and actively transcribed in colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, expression studies in primary colorectal tumors and corresponding resection margins confirmed that the up-regulation of the ITGA6A subunit can be correlated with the increase in MYC and ESRP2 . Taken together, our results demonstrate that the proto-oncogene MYC can regulate the promoter activation and splicing of the ITGA6 integrin gene through ESRP2 to favor the production of the pro-proliferative ITGA6A variant in colorectal cancer cells.

  4. Ordering kinetics of lamella-forming block copolymers under the guidance of various external fields studied by dynamic self-consistent field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaomin; Gao, Tong; Zhang, Liangshun; Lin, Jiaping

    2017-03-01

    Self-consistent field theory with a dynamic extension is exploited to investigate the kinetics of the lamellar formation of symmetric block copolymers under the direction of external fields. In particular, three types of directed self-assembly methods - a permanent field for chemo-epitaxy, a dynamic field for zone annealing and an integrated permanent/dynamic field - are examined. For the chemo-epitaxy involving sparsely prepatterned substrates or zone annealing, the block copolymers generally develop into polycrystalline nanostructures with multiple orientations due to the lack of strong driving forces for eliminating the long-lived imperfections in a limited time. As the integrated chemo-epitaxy and zone annealing method is applied to the block copolymer systems, single-crystalline nanostructures with precisely registered orientations are achieved in a short annealing time owing to the mutual acceleration of defect annihilations, which cannot be produced by the conventional techniques alone. Furthermore, the integrated method allows the rapid fabrication of well-ordered nanostructures on the extremely sparse prepatterned substrates. Our theoretical work may serve to rationalize the faster modern nanolithographic fabrication of smaller microelectronic components using lower-spatial-frequency templates.

  5. Lorazepam photofate under photolysis and TiO2-assisted photocatalysis: identification and evolution profiles of by-products formed during phototreatment of a WWTP effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, M A; Lacina, O; Hrádková, P; Pulkrabová, J; Vilar, Vítor J P; Gonçalves, C; Boaventura, Rui A R; Hajšlová, J; Alpendurada, M F

    2013-10-01

    This manuscript reports on the study of Lorazepam (LZP) phototransformation pathways under artificial UV and natural solar irradiation, through photolytic and TiO2-assisted photocatalytic processes. Three experimental set-ups were employed: two lab-scale photoreactors, each provided with an UV lamp (one medium pressure mercury lamp and one blacklight blue lamp), and a pilot-scale Solar Plant with Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPCs). Samples collected along the different phototreatment experiments were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QqToF-MS). The key assumption of the analytical approach was that related compounds (LZP and its by-products (LBPs)) provide identical "diagnostic fragment ions". Identification was also based on the chlorine atoms specific isotopic pattern, as well as accurate masses. Six major LBPs were identified and elucidated, with nominal [M + H](+) masses of 337, 303, 319, 275, 291 and 293 Da. The proposed LZP photodegradation mechanism included the initial opening of the diazepinone seven-membered ring, followed by a rearrangement into a highly stabilized six-membered aromatic ring and subsequent cleavage and/or hydroxylation reactions. The evolution profiles of LBPs were described for each of the three experimental prototypes and the CPCs Solar Pilot Plant proved to be the most efficient one. Finally, LZP photocatalytic degradation was further assessed on a municipal effluent, where the photoproducts generated showed to be more persistent than LZP itself. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Search for Fibrous Aggregates Potentially Useful in Regenerative Medicine Formed under Physiological Conditions by Self-Assembling Short Peptides Containing Two Identical Aromatic Amino Acid Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Fraczyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the propensity of short peptides to self-organize and the influence of aggregates on cell cultures. The dipeptides were derived from both enantiomers of identical aromatic amino acids and tripeptides were prepared from two identical aromatic amino acids with one cysteine or methionine residue in the C-terminal, N-terminal, or central position. The formation or absence of fibrous structures under physiological conditions was established using Congo Red and Thioflavine T assays as well as by microscopic examination using normal and polarized light. The in vitro stability of the aggregates in buffered saline solution was assessed over 30 days. Materials with potential for use in regenerative medicine were selected based on the cytotoxicity of the peptides to the endothelial cell line EA.hy 926 and the wettability of the surfaces of the films, as well as using scanning electron microscopy. The criteria were fulfilled by H-dPhedPhe-OH, H-dCysdPhedPhe-OH, H-CysTyrTyr-OH, H-dPhedPhedCys-OH, H-TyrTyrMet-OH, and H–TyrMetTyr–OH. Our preliminary results suggest that the morphology and cell viability of L919 fibroblast cells do not depend on the stereochemistry of the self-organizing peptides.

  7. Characterizing haploinsufficiency of SHELL gene to improve fruit form prediction in introgressive hybrids of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Chee-Keng; Muaz, Siti Dalila; Tangaya, Praveena; Fong, Po-Yee; Ong, Ai-Ling; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook-Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David

    2017-06-08

    The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura × shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene - a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in AVROS and Nigerian origins, were reported to be responsible for different fruit forms. In this study, we have tested 1,339 samples maintained in Sime Darby Plantation using both mutations. Five genotype-phenotype discrepancies and eight controls were then re-tested with all five reported mutations (sh AVROS , sh MPOB , sh MPOB2 , sh MPOB3 and sh MPOB4 ) within the same gene. The integration of genotypic data, pedigree records and shell formation model further explained the haploinsufficiency effect on the SHELL gene with different number of functional copies. Some rare mutations were also identified, suggesting a need to further confirm the existence of cis-compound mutations in the gene. With this, the prediction accuracy of fruit forms can be further improved, especially in introgressive hybrids of oil palm. Understanding causative variant segregation is extremely important, even for monogenic traits such as shell thickness in oil palm.

  8. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTRIBUTOR FORMManuscript Title:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________I/we certify that I/we have participated sufficiently in the intellectual content, conception and design of this work or the analysis and interpretation of the data (when applicable, as well as the writing of the manuscript, to take public responsibility for it and have agreed to have my/our name listed as a contributor. I/we believe the manuscript represents valid work. Neither this manuscript nor one with substantially similar content under my/our authorship has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in the covering letter. I/we certify that all the data collected during the study is presented in this manuscript and no data from the study has been or will be published separately. I/we attest that, if requested by the editors, I/we will provide the data/information or will cooperate fully in obtaining and providing the data/information on which the manuscript is based, for examination by the editors or their assignees. I/we also certify that we have taken all necessary permissions from our institution and/or department for conducting and publishing the present work.Financial interests, direct or indirect, that exist or may be perceived to exist for individual contributors in connection with the content of this paper have been disclosed in the cover letter. Sources of outside support of the project are named in the cover letter. I/We hereby transfer(s, assign(s, or otherwise convey(s all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the Journal, in the event that such work is published by the Journal. The Journal shall own the work, including 1 copyright; 2 the right to grant permission to republish the article in whole or in part, with or without fee; 3 the right

  9. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  10. Chemical forms of radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1979-01-01

    Release of radioiodine built-up during reactor operations presents a potential problem from the standpoint of environmental safety. Among the chemical forms of radioiodine, depending upon the circumstances, organic iodides cast a most serious problem because of its difficulties in the trapping and because of its stability compared to other chemical forms. Furthermore, pellet-cladding interaction (PCl) fuel failures in LWR fuel rods are believed to be stress corrosion cracks caused by embrittling fission product species, radioiodine. To deal with these problems, knowledge is required on the chemical behaviors of radioiodine in and out of fuels, as well as the release behaviors from fuels. Here a brief review is given of these respects, in aiming at clearing-up the questions still remaining unknown. The data seem to indicate that radioiodine exists as a combined form in fuels. upon heating slightly irradiated fuels, the iodine atoms are released in a chemical form associated with uranium atoms. Experiments, however, as needed with specimen of higher burnup, where the interactions of radioiodine with metallic fission products could be favored. The dominant release mechanism of radioiodine under normal operating temperatures will be diffusion to grain boundaries leading to open surfaces. Radiation-induced internal traps, however, after the rate of diffusion significantly. The carbon sources of organic iodides formed under various conditions and its formation mechanisms have also been considered. (author)

  11. Waste-form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements

  12. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  13. Validated column high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of aspirin and clopidogrel in combined tablets in the presence of degradation products formed under ICH-recommended stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhadia, Pankaj K; Doshi, Ashish S; Joshi, Hitendra S

    2009-01-01

    The development and validation of a column high-performance liquid chromatographic assay method for the determination of aspirin and clopidogrel in tablet formulation are described. The combination formulation was subjected to International Conference on Harmonization-recommended stress conditions. Separation of the drugs from the degradation products formed under stress conditions was achieved on an octasilyl (C8) column using 0.3% orthophosphoric acid-acetonitrile (65 + 35, v/v) mobile phase. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The method was found to be specific against placebo interference and during the forced degradation. The response was linear in the concentration range of 30.0-120.0 microg/mL for aspirin and 15.0-60.0 microg/mL for clopidogrel, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 for both. The relative standard deviation values for intra- and interday precision were aspirin and 98.20 and 100.35% for clopidogrel. Stress testing showed degradation products that were well-separated from the parent compound, confirming the stability-indicating capacity of the method.

  14. On Growth and Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maartens, Aidan

    2017-12-01

    D'Arcy Thompson was born in 1860, trained in Edinburgh and Cambridge, and held positions in Dundee and St Andrews, where he worked until his death in 1948. On Growth and Form , his classic work on the mathematical patterns and physical rules underlying biological forms, was first published in 1917. To learn more about the book's context, we met Matthew Jarron, Curator of Museum Services at the University of Dundee, in the University's D'Arcy Thompson Zoology Museum. Surrounded by specimens, many of which were collected by Thompson himself, we discussed the legacy of On Growth and Form and the life of the man behind it. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Formas de fósforo no solo sob leguminosas florestais, floresta secundária e pastagem no Norte Fluminense Soil phosphorus forms under leguminous tree species, secondary forest and pasture in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Costa Zaia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Em solos muito intemperizados, a disponibilidade de P para as plantas está estreitamente associada às formas de P orgânico, que tem o seu conteúdo alterado por influência do tipo de cobertura vegetal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar os teores de fósforo de compostos orgânicos (Po-total, Po lábil e P microbiano do solo, em plantios de Acacia auriculiformis (acácia e Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (sabiá, em floresta secundária e em pastagem. Os teores médios ponderados de Po total e Po lábil, pelo teor de argila, foram de 375 mg kg-1 de P na argila e de 40,2 mg kg-1 de P na argila, respectivamente. Os solos sob acácia e sabiá apresentaram maior teor relativo de Po (total e lábil do que os solos sob pastagem e capoeira. O Po representou de 22,6 a 39,6 % do P total extraído dos solos das coberturas estudadas. Em relação ao P lábil total, o Po lábil representou, em média, 67,1 %. Para o P microbiano, o maior teor foi encontrado no solo sob sabiá, seguido da floresta secundária, acácia e pastagem. Contudo, foi na capoeira que houve a maior eficiência da biomassa microbiana do solo em imobilizar P. O teor de P disponível por Mehlich-1 correlacionou-se positivamente com o teor de C e o de P da biomassa microbiana. Houve estreita correlação positiva entre o P microbiano e o C microbiano.In highly weathered tropical soils phosphorus (P bioavailability to plants is closely associated with soil organic P forms, which in turn are influenced by the vegetation cover. The aim of this study was to evaluate total organic P (Po, labile P fractions and microbial biomass P in soils under Acacia auriculiformis and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia stands, secondary forest and pasture. The clay-adjusted average content of total Po and labile Po were 375 mg kg-1 P and 40.2 mg kg-1, respectively. The Po contents (total and labile in soils under Acacia auriculiformis and Mimosa caesalpiniifolia were higher than under pasture and secondary forest soils

  16. Getting in-formed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    Work-in-progress paper præsenteret ved PhD Seminar: Analytical strategies and methodologies for the study of virtual worlds at RUC. September 28th to October 1st 2009. I paperet diskuteres den dobbelte bevægelse at vi som forskere via vores undersøgelser bliver informeret og i samme moment putter...... det vi undersøger på form gennem vores beskrivelser. Paperet tager afsæt i empiriske eksempler fra et postdoc projekt om et såkaldt 'serious game' - Mingoville. Projektet følger circuleringer og etableringer af Mingoville 'på en global markedsplads'. I paperet diskuteres hvordan vi som forskere samler....../performer de fænomener vi forsker i. Aktør-Netværks-Teoretiker Bruno Latour (2005) pointerer at enhver beskrivelse også er en form for forklaring. En form for forklaring, der putter ting ind i et skript og dermed også putter ting på form. Paperet diskuterer to tilgange til at gøre serious games og derved skabe viden om...

  17. Loss-of-Function KCNE2 Variants: True Monogenic Culprits of Long-QT Syndrome or Proarrhythmic Variants Requiring Secondary Provocation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason D; Krahn, Andrew D; Ackerman, Michael J; Rohatgi, Ram K; Moss, Arthur J; Nazer, Babak; Tadros, Rafik; Gerull, Brenda; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Wijeyeratne, Yanushi D; Baruteau, Alban-Elouen; Muir, Alison R; Pang, Benjamin; Cadrin-Tourigny, Julia; Talajic, Mario; Rivard, Lena; Tester, David J; Liu, Taylor; Whitman, Isaac R; Wojciak, Julianne; Conacher, Susan; Gula, Lorne J; Leong-Sit, Peter; Manlucu, Jaimie; Green, Martin S; Hamilton, Robert; Healey, Jeff S; Lopes, Coeli M; Behr, Elijah R; Wilde, Arthur A; Gollob, Michael H; Scheinman, Melvin M

    2017-08-01

    Insight into type 6 long-QT syndrome (LQT6), stemming from mutations in the KCNE2 -encoded voltage-gated channel β-subunit, is limited. We sought to further characterize its clinical phenotype. Individuals with reported pathogenic KCNE2 mutations identified during arrhythmia evaluation were collected from inherited arrhythmia clinics and the Rochester long-QT syndrome (LQTS) registry. Previously reported LQT6 cases were identified through a search of the MEDLINE database. Clinical features were assessed, while reported KCNE2 mutations were evaluated for genotype-phenotype segregation and classified according to the contemporary American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. Twenty-seven probands possessed reported pathogenic KCNE2 mutations, while a MEDLINE search identified 17 additional LQT6 cases providing clinical and genetic data. Sixteen probands had normal resting QTc values and only developed QT prolongation and malignant arrhythmias after exposure to QT-prolonging stressors, 10 had other LQTS pathogenic mutations, and 10 did not have an LQTS phenotype. Although the remaining 8 subjects had an LQTS phenotype, evidence suggested that the KCNE2 variant was not the underlying culprit. The collective frequency of KCNE2 variants implicated in LQT6 in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database was 1.4%, in comparison with a 0.0005% estimated clinical prevalence for LQT6. On the basis of clinical phenotype, the high allelic frequencies of LQT6 mutations in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, and absence of previous documentation of genotype-phenotype segregation, our findings suggest that many KCNE2 variants, and perhaps all, have been erroneously designated as LQTS-causative mutations. Instead, KCNE2 variants may confer proarrhythmic susceptibility when provoked by additional environmental/acquired or genetic factors, or both. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Creation of Cu2O@TiO2 composite photocatalysts with p-n heterojunctions formed on exposed Cu2O facets, their energy band alignment study, and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under illumination with visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingmei; Yang, Weiyi; Sun, Wuzhu; Li, Qi; Shang, Jian Ku

    2015-01-28

    The creation of photocatalysts with controlled facets has become an important approach to enhance their activity. However, how the formation of heterojunctions on exposed facets could affect their photocatalytic performance ranking had not yet been investigated. In this study, Cu2O@TiO2 core-shell structures were created, and Cu2O/TiO2 p-n heterojunctions were formed on various exposed facets of Cu2O cubes, Cu2O cuboctahedra, and Cu2O octahedra, respectively. These Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra demonstrated an enhanced photocatalytic degradation effect on Methylene Blue (MB) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) under visible light illumination, because of the enhanced charge carrier separation by the formation of Cu2O@TiO2 p-n heterojunctions. It was further found that their photocatalytic performance was also facet-dependent as pure Cu2O polyhedra, while the photocatalytic performance ranking of these Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra was different with that of their corresponding Cu2O polyhedron cores. By the combination of optical property measurement and XPS analysis, the energy band alignments of these Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra were determined, which demonstrated that Cu2O@TiO2 octahedra had the highest band offset for the separation of charge carriers. Thus, the charge-carrier-separation-driven force in Cu2O@TiO2 polyhedra was different from their corresponding Cu2O polyhedron cores, which resulted in their different surface photovoltage spectrum (SPS) responses and different photocatalytic performance rankings.

  19. Phosphate fertilization and phosphorus forms in an Oxisol under no-till Adubação fosfatada e formas de fósforo num Latossolo sob sistema de semeadura direta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dácio Olibone

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Under no-till phosphorus (P accumulates in a few centimeters of the topsoil layer. Plant residues left on the soil surface release P and organic acids, which may improve P availability and fertilizer efficiency, including both soluble (such as triple super phosphate and less soluble sources (such as reactive natural phosphates. In this study, soybean response to P fertilizer and P forms in the top 40 cm of an Oxisol were evaluated after surface application of different phosphates in a 5-year-old no-till system. Treatments consisted of 0 or 80 kg ha-1 of total P2O5 applied on the soil surface, both as natural reactive phosphate (NRP or triple super phosphate (TSP. In addition, 80 kg ha-1 of P2O5 were applied to subplots, in furrows below and beside the soybean (Glycine max L. seeds, in different combinations of NRP and TSP. Soil samples were taken before and after the soybean growth, down to 0.40 m and soil phosphorus was chemically fractionated. The responses to NRP were similar to TSP, with an increase in P reserves at greater depths, even in non-available forms, such as P-occluded. After the soybean harvest, P-occluded levels were lower at the surface layer, but an increase was observed in the soluble, organic and total P down to 40 cm. An improved P distribution in soil depth, especially regarding the soluble and organic forms, resulted in higher soybean yields, even when the phosphates were applied to the soil surface.Em semeadura direta o fósforo (P acumula-se na camada mais superficial do solo, mas os resíduos deixados na superfície liberam P e ácidos orgânicos, que podem melhorar a disponibilidade e a eficiência de fertilizantes como o superfosfato triplo e fosfatos naturais reativos. Neste estudo, a resposta da soja à adubação com P e as formas de P até 40 cm de profundidade do solo foram avaliadas após a aplicação de fosfatos em um sistema conduzido em semeadura direta há cinco anos. Os tratamentos consistiram de 0 ou 80

  20. Waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    In this program, contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements (both as they exist and as they are modified with time). 6 tables

  1. Coordination nature of aluminum (oxy)hydroxides formed under the influence of low molecular weight organic acids and a soil humic acid studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R. K.; Hu, Y. F.; Dynes, J. J.; Zhao, A. Z.; Blyth, R. I. R.; Kozak, L. M.; Huang, P. M.

    2010-11-01

    Organic ligands in the environment hinder the formation of crystalline Al precipitation products by perturbing the hydrolytic and polymeric reactions of Al resulting in the formation of short-range ordered (SRO) mineral colloids with varying degrees of crystallinity. However, the effect of these ligands on the mechanisms of their formation and nature of the transformation products of Al (oxy)hydroxides at the atomic and molecular levels is not well understood. In this study, the coordination structure of Al in Al (oxy)hydroxides formed under the influence of varying concentrations of low molecular weight (LMW) organic acids such as citric, malic, salicylic and acetic acids and a humic acid (HA) was investigated with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The Al K- and L-edge XANES spectra showed that with increasing LMW organic acid concentration the coordination number of Al changed from 6-fold to a mixture of 4- and 6-fold, except for acetate as acetate was unable to perturb the formation of Al (oxy)hydroxides at the acetate/Al molar ratio (MR) = 0.1. The proportion of 4-fold to 6-fold coordinated Al in the Al precipitation products depended on the structure and functionality of the LMW organic acids. The incorporation of the LMW organic acid into the network structure of Al (oxy)hydroxides prevented the formation of sheets/inter-layer H-bonding that was required for the formation of crystalline Al (oxy)hydroxides. The HA used in this study only slightly perturbed the crystallization of the Al (oxy)hydroxides at the concentrations used. The Al K-edge data showed that Al coordination number had not been altered in the presence of HA. The findings obtained in the present study are of fundamental significance in understanding the physicochemical behavior of soils and sediments, and their relation to the accumulation and transport of nutrients and pollutants in the

  2. Monogenic primary hypercholesterolaemia in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are secreted into the lymphatic system to enter the circu- lation via the thoracic .... east coasts of India. A minority Oess than 30 000) were traders and artisans who paid their own passage to. South Africa. This group, known as the 'passenger. Indians', came ... the castes are represented) and there are a significant number ...

  3. Strange nucleon form-factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, F. E.; Paschke, K. D.

    2017-07-01

    A broad program measuring parity-violation in electron-nuclear scattering has now provided a large set of precision data on the weak-neutral-current form-factors of the proton. Under comparison with well-measured electromagnetic nucleon form-factors, these measurements reveal the role of the strange quark sea on the low-energy interactions of the proton through the strange-quark-flavor vector form-factors. This review will describe the experimental program and the implications of the global data for the strange-quark vector form-factors. We present here a new fit to the world data.

  4. Estoque de carbono e nitrogênio e formas de nitrogênio mineral em um solo submetido a diferentes sistemas de manejo Carbon and nitrogen storage, and inorganic nitrogen forms in a soil under different management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fonseca d'Andréa

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar alterações nos teores e no estoque de C orgânico e N total do solo, e nas suas formas nítrica e amoniacal, em sistemas de manejo implementados em área de cerrado nativo. Foram coletadas amostras no Município de Morrinhos, GO, num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, textura argilosa, em cinco profundidades, nos sistemas: cerrado nativo, pastagem de Brachiaria sp., plantio direto irrigado com rotação milho-feijão, plantio direto irrigado com rotação milho-feijão e arroz-tomate, plantio convencional de longa duração e plantio convencional recente após pastagem. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores e no estoque de C e N totais do solo, embora o plantio convencional de longa duração tenha apresentado variações negativas no estoque de C em relação ao cerrado nativo até 20 cm de profundidade, ao contrário dos sistemas com menor revolvimento. O amônio predominou no cerrado nativo e na pastagem ao longo de praticamente todo o perfil, enquanto os teores de nitrato foram maiores na camada superficial dos sistemas com culturas anuais. A pastagem e o plantio direto, desde que com esquema diversificado de rotação de culturas, são promissores para aumentar os estoques de C orgânico do solo.The objective of this work was to verify alterations on the amounts and storage of organic carbon and total nitrogen of the soil, and on the nitric and ammonium forms, in management systems implemented in an area under native cerrado. Samples were collected at Morrinhos, Goiás, Brazil, in a clayey, typic, dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol, from five depths, in the systems: native cerrado, Brachiaria sp. pasture, irrigated no-till with corn-beans crop rotation, irrigated no-till with corn-beans and rice-tomato for industry crop rotation, long-term conventional till and recent conventional till following pasture. There were no significant differences on the level, and on carbon and total nitrogen

  5. Variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos do solo em diferentes formas do relevo sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar Spatial variability of physical attributes of the soil in different landscape forms under sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Souza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização intensiva de máquinas e implementos agrícolas no nordeste do estado de São Paulo tem contribuído para aumentar as áreas com problemas de compactação, provavelmente pela ausência de um cronograma de trabalho bem definido ou de modelos capazes de estimar a capacidade de suporte do solo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em Guariba (SP, com o objetivo de avaliar a variabilidade espacial da resistência à penetração do solo, umidade e densidade do solo em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico sob cultivo de cana-de-açúcar. Os solos foram amostrados nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 10 m, perfazendo um total de 100 pontos, nas profundidades de 0,0-0,2 e 0,2-0,4 m. O coeficiente de variação indicou baixa variabilidade para umidade e densidade do solo nas duas profundidades e alta para resistência à penetração do solo. Observou-se um grau forte de dependência espacial para todas variáveis, exceto para densidade do solo na profundidade de 0,2-0,4 m que apresentou grau moderado de dependência espacial. Os altos valores para a resistência à penetração e densidade do solo, principalmente na profundidade de 0,2-0,4 m, indicaram compactação nesta camada. Pequenas variações nas formas do relevo condicionam variabilidade diferenciada nos atributos físicos dos solos.The intensive use of machines and agricultural equipments in the northeastearn São Paulo State has contributed to increase the areas with compaction problems, probably due to the absence of a well-defined operation chronogram or of models capable of predicting the soil support capacity. This study was conducted in Guariba (SP, with the objective of evaluating the spatial variability of the penetration resistance, soil moisture, and bulk density of a Oxisol (rhodic Eutrustox under sugar-cane cultivation. The soils were sampled at the crossing points of a grid with regular 10 m intervals at depths of 0.0-0.2 m and 0.2-0.4 m. The

  6. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  7. Harmonic maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  8. On good ETOL forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1978-01-01

    This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....

  9. Au-TiO2 Nanocomposites and Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production under UV-Visible and Visible Light Illuminations: A Comparison of Different Crystalline Forms of TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Jose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available nanocomposites were prepared by the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD method, and the as-prepared samples were characterized by diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, powder XRD, BET surface analysis measurements, and transmission electron microscopy bright field imaging. The particle size of the embedded Au nanoparticles ranged from 1 to 10 nm. These Au/TiO2 nanocomposites were used for photocatalytic hydrogen production in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor like ethanol or methanol under UV-visible and visible light illumination. These nanocomposites showed very good photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen production under UV-visible conditions, whereas under visible light illumination, there was considerably less hydrogen produced. Au/P25 gave a hydrogen evolution rate of 1600 μmol/h in the presence of ethanol (5 volume % under UV-visible illumination. In the case of Au/TiO2 prepared by the SMAD method, the presence of Au nanoparticles serves two purposes: as an electron sink gathering electrons from the conduction band (CB of TiO2 and as a reactive site for water/ethanol reduction to generate hydrogen gas. We also observed hydrogen production by water splitting in the absence of a sacrificial electron donor using Au/TiO2 nanocomposites under UV-visible illumination.

  10. ELEMENTAL FORMS OF HOSPITALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  11. The Questionnaire in the Interactive Educational Environment as a Means to Form a New Level of a Person’s Consciousness under the Conditions of Informatization of University Education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Malyuchenko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities of a questionnaire in the interactive educational environment of Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University installed on the electronic platform MOODLE with the purpose of determining the people’s attitude to different problematic situations of ethic and ecological character, which takes into account the concept of sustainable development and helps to form a new level of a person’s consciousness.

  12. Waste forms for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.G.; O'Holleran, T.P.; Frank, S.M.; Meyer, M.K.; Hanson, M.; Staples, B.A.; Knecht, D.A.; Kong, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The field of plutonium disposition is varied and of much importance, since the Department of Energy has decided on the hybrid option for disposing of the weapons materials. This consists of either placing the Pu into mixed oxide fuel for reactors or placing the material into a stable waste form such as glass. The waste form used for Pu disposition should exhibit certain qualities: (1) provide for a suitable deterrent to guard against proliferation; (2) be of minimal volume, i.e., maximize the loading; and (3) be reasonably durable under repository-like conditions. This paper will discuss several Pu waste forms that display promising characteristics

  13. Modular Forms and Weierstrass Mock Modular Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Clemm

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfes, Griffin, Ono, and Rolen have shown that the harmonic Maass forms arising from Weierstrass ζ-functions associated to modular elliptic curves “encode” the vanishing and nonvanishing for central values and derivatives of twisted Hasse-Weil L-functions for elliptic curves. Previously, Martin and Ono proved that there are exactly five weight 2 newforms with complex multiplication that are eta-quotients. In this paper, we construct a canonical harmonic Maass form for these five curves with complex multiplication. The holomorphic part of this harmonic Maass form arises from the Weierstrass ζ-function and is referred to as the Weierstrass mock modular form. We prove that the Weierstrass mock modular form for these five curves is itself an eta-quotient or a twist of one. Using this construction, we also obtain p-adic formulas for the corresponding weight 2 newform using Atkin’s U-operator.

  14. 76 FR 21946 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 990-BL; Schedule A (Form 990-BL), Form 6069

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Initial Excise Tax Return for Black Lung Benefit Trusts and Certain Related Persons, and Form 6069, Return of Excise Tax on Excess Contributions to Black Lung Benefit Trust Under Section 4953 and Computation...: Form 990-BL, Schedule A (Form 990-BL), Information and Initial Excise Tax Return for Black Lung Benefit...

  15. Manufacturing processes 4 forming

    CERN Document Server

    Klocke, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    This book provides essential information on metal forming, utilizing a practical distinction between bulk and sheet metal forming. In the field of bulk forming, it examines processes of cold, warm and hot bulk forming, as well as rolling and a new addition, the process of thixoforming. As for the field of sheet metal working, on the one hand it deals with sheet metal forming processes (deep drawing, flange forming, stretch drawing, metal spinning and bending). In terms of special processes, the chapters on internal high-pressure forming and high rate forming have been revised and refined. On the other, the book elucidates and presents the state of the art in sheet metal separation processes (shearing and fineblanking). Furthermore, joining by forming has been added to the new edition as a new chapter describing mechanical methods for joining sheet metals. The new chapter “Basic Principles” addresses both sheet metal and bulk forming, in addition to metal physics, plastomechanics and computational basics; ...

  16. Forms of War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Bartelt, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Under war conditions, employed weapons can be identified on radiographs obtained in X-ray diagnostic. The analysis of such X-ray films allows concluding that there are additional information about the conditions of transport and treatment; it shall be shown that there are X-ray findings which are typical and characteristic for certain forms of warfare. Material and method: The radiograms have been collected during thirty years; they come from hospitals, where war casualties had been treated, and personal collections. Results: The material is selected, because in war X-ray diagnostic will be limited and the interest of the opposing parties influence the access to the material; furthermore the possibilities to publish or to communicate facts and thoughts are different. Citizens of the USA, GB, France, or Israel will have easier access to journals than those of Vietnam, Chad, and Zimbabwe. Under war conditions, poor countries, like North Vietnam may develop own concepts of medical care. There are X-ray findings which are typical or even characteristic for air warfare, guerrilla warfare, gas war, desert warfare, conventional warfare, and annihilation warfare, and city guerrilla warfare/civil war. The examples demonstrate that weapons and the conditions of transport and treatment can be recognized by X-ray findings. The radiogram can be read like a document. Conclusion: In War, there are differences between a treatment and imaging diagnostic in countries, which control the air space and in those who do not. Medical care of the poor, i.e. in countries (in general those opposing the western nations) will hardly be published, and poverty has no advocate

  17. Efficacy of aqueous extract of “Terminalia catappa” in tambaqui juveniles parasitized by monogenea and, protozoan Eficácia do extrato aquoso de "Terminalia catappa" em juvenis de tambaqui parasitados por monogenéticos e protozoários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Salvador

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of the aqueous extract of dry Terminalia catappa leaves in juveniles of tambaqui parasited by monogenean and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Piscinoodinium pillulare protozoan. Fifty six fish, naturally infested were treated with 40, 80 and 120 ml of extract/L of water. After seven days of exposure to the extract, the fish treated with the highest concentration presented significant decrease of monogenean and P. pillulare number in the mucus and in the gills. However, the extract was not effective against the protozoan I. multifiliis in any tested concentration. The study concludes that the aqueous extract of dry T. catappa, at the concentration of 120 ml/L, was effective against the monogenean and P. pillulare protozoa of juveniles of tambaqui, however it does not produce the same effect against the I. multifiliis protozoan.O objetivo com o trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de Terminalia catappa em juvenis de tambaqui parasitados por monogenéticos e pelos protozoários Ichthyophthirius multifiliis e Piscinoodinium pillulare. Cinqüenta e seis peixes, naturalmente infestados pelos parasitos acima descritos, foram submetidos a banhos em soluções contendo 40, 80 e 120 ml de extrato /L de água. Após sete dias de exposição ao extrato, os peixes tratados com a concentração mais alta apresentaram redução significativa do número de monogenéticos e de P. pillulare, tanto no muco quanto nas brânquias. Entretanto, o extrato não foi eficaz nos peixes infestados com o protozoário I. multifiliis, nas concentrações testadas. Conclui-se assim, que o extrato aquoso de folhas secas de T. catappa na concentração de 120 ml/L, é eficaz no controle de monogenéticos e do protozoário P. pillulare em juvenis de tambaqui, todavia, não produz o mesmo efeito contra o protozoário I. multifiliis.

  18. Stability of the spherical form of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, A.A.

    1976-08-01

    An extension of the mass formula for a spherical nucleus in the drop model to include a largely deformed nucleus of different forms is investigated. It is found that although the spherical form is stable under small deformations from equilibrium, there exists for heavier nuclei another more favourable stable form, which can be approximated by two, or three touching prolate ellipsoids of revolution

  19. Formas de fósforo no solo em sistemas de milho exclusivo e consorciado com feijão sob adubação orgânica e mineral Soil phosphorus forms under systems of sole corn and corn-bean intercrop under organic and mineral fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Matos

    2006-08-01

    ção orgânica, evidenciam a importância deste sistema de manejo no favorecimento da ciclagem de P.Soil management systems affect the P dynamics in content and forms. The aim of this work was to measure the effect of several cultivations systems in the long term (16 years on the different soil P forms. The treatments consisted of combinations of the two cultivation systems: sole corn (C and corn-bean intercrop (CB, with two levels (0 and 1 of organic fertilizer (OF, at rates of 0 and 40 m³ ha-1 year-1 and three levels (0, 1, 2 of mineral fertilizer (MF N-P-K, in the doses 0, 250 and 500 kg ha-1 of the formula 4-14-8. An area under Atlantic Forest was used as reference of a balanced state. The values of total organic P (Pto changed from 184.2 to 280.2 and from 184.4 to 282.9 mg kg-1 in 0-10 and 10-20 cm deep soil, respectively. The highest values were observed for 500 kg ha-1 of mineral fertilizer + organic fertilizer, corresponding on average to 26.4 % P in the soil. The C/Pto ratio of the treatments tended to be constant. An increase of the Pto values with the increase of the soil organic carbon content was observed. The mineral fertilizer promoted P increment in the microbial biomass (Pmb in the sole corn crop system. The increase of Pmb was 262 and 164 % of the system that received the organic compost in the sole corn crop and corn-bean intercrop, respectively. On average, the fraction of organic soluble P corresponded to 90 % Pto, prevailing over the basic soluble fraction. The 500 kg ha-1 of mineral fertilizer and 500 kg ha-1 of mineral fertilizer + organic fertilizer treatments in the intercrop system caused increases in the total labile P (Plt values of 53 and 157 %, respectively, compared to the reference. The labile organic P fraction (Plo corresponded to 3.7 % of Pto for the cultivation systems; for the Atlantic Forest soil this relationship was 10.7 % at both depths. The increments in the contents of most labile P forms, owing to the organic manure

  20. Formas de carbono em Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico sob plantio direto no sistema biogeográfico do cerrado Carbon forms of a Typic Eutroferric Red Latossol under no-tillage in a savanna biogeographic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. C. Rosa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar aspectos da física, química e da dinâmica de carbono de um Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico, sob diferentes condições de uso. Foram utilizados materiais de solo cultivado com plantio direto, irrigado e sequeiro, e sob floresta nativa, na região de Santa Helena de Goiás (GO. As amostras foram coletadas de camadas de 0,00-0,05, 0,05-0,10, 0,10-0,20, 0,20-0,30 e 0,30-0,40 m e separadas em agregados maiores e menores que 0,25 mm. Foram realizadas análises químicas e físicas para caracterização do solo e determinados o carbono orgânico total, o carbono mineralizável, o carbono da biomassa microbiana, o carbono solúvel em água e a matéria orgânica lábil. Os resultados, indicaram que o plantio direto não foi capaz de manter os níveis de carbono nos agregados, quando comparado ao solo sob floresta nativa; a matéria orgânica desempenhou papel relevante na formação e estabilização de agregados maiores que 0,25 mm; a porosidade, resistência ao penetrômetro e densidade do solo demonstraram que houve aumento da compactação do solo no sistema plantio direto, quando comparado ao solo sob floresta nativa, tendo a densidade se mostrado uma variável satisfatória para a avaliação de compactação no Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico; a matéria orgânica lábil apresentou potencial para ser utilizada em estudos de ciclagem de nutrientes e fenômenos de dispersão e floculação de argila.The objective of this study was to evaluate physical and chemical soil properties and organic carbon dynamics in a Typic Eutroferric Red Latossol under different land uses (no-till system, irrigated and non- irrigated crops, and native forest in the savanna region of Santa Helena de Goiás, Goiás State, Brazil. Samples were collected from five soil layers (0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30, and 0.30-0.40 m and separated in aggregate size groups of above or below 0.25 mm. Chemical and physical

  1. Background studies for the measurement of the strangeness vector form factor of the proton by parity-violating electron scattering under backward angles; Untergrundstudien zur Messung der Strangeness-Vektorfaktoren des Protons durch paritaetsverletzende Elektronenstreuung unter Rueckwaertswinkeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozza, Luigi

    2010-08-19

    Within the A4 experiment the contributions of the strange quark to the electromagnetic form factors of the proton are measured. These see-quark effects in low energy observables are very important for the understanding of hadron structure, because they are a direct manifestation of QCD degrees of freedom in the non-perturbative regime. Linear combinations of the strangeness vector form factors of the proton (G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s}) are accessible experimentally by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in the cross section of the elastic scattering of longitudinal polarised electrons off unpolarised nucleons. Two such measurements were published by the A4 collaboration before this work. Both of them were forward angle measurements at the Q{sup 2} values of 0.23 and 0.10 (GeV/c){sup 2}, respectively. A measurement at backward angle with a beam energy of 315 MeV was performed for separating G{sub E}{sup s} and G{sub M}{sup s} at the higher of these Q{sup 2} values. In the A4 experiment a longitudinally polarised electron beam scatters on a liquid hydrogen target. Single scattered electrons are counted with a Cherenkov calorimeter. The separation of elastic from inelastic events is achieved by means of calorimetric energy measurement. For the backward angle measurement a plastic scintillator was installed as electron tagger for suppressing the {gamma} background coming from the decay of {pi}{sup 0} mesons. In order to make the data analysis possible the energy spectra needed to be studied thoroughly. This was done in this work using detailed simulations of both the scattering processes suffered by beam electrons and of the response of the detectors. A method for handling the remaining background due to {gamma} conversion before the scintillator has been also developed. The simulation results agree with the measured spectra at the 5% level and the strategy for handling the background was shown to be feasible. The asymmetry value obtained by handling the

  2. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  3. Investigation into the behaviour of highly compacted dry low-level radioactive waste under repository conditions. Task 3 characterization of radioactive waste forms a series of final reports (1985-89) no 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.N.; Wang, J.

    1991-01-01

    Supercompaction is a process in which drums containing low-level radioactive waste are compressed at a high axial pressure of up to 70 MPa, resulting in a significant saving in the volume of a repository built to store such waste. Recent practice of supercompaction is to compact waste which has been placed in a sealed primary container, typically a 200-litre steel drum. During the process of compaction the drum is squashed with its contents into a flat pellet; and the compaction ratio can reach as high as 20:1. Although the compaction of radioactive waste has long been a popular means for reducing its storage volume, there is virtually no available information as to the physical or chemical characteristics of such compacted wastes. The primary objective of this project has been to investigate the physical and some of the chemical characteristics of such supercompacted pellets. All the work was carried out on full-scale 200-litre drums of simulated, but non-radioactive, waste. The compaction ratio reached in this study ranged from 5 to 21, depending on the type of waste. Upon completion of compaction, all drums exhibited a tendency to expand. The magnitude of ultimate expansion for dry storage was of the order of 1 mm only, whereas under wet storage conditions values were up to about 10 mm. As the presence of moisture can significantly increase the expansion of compacted waste drums or stress developed due to restraint, it is recommended that the waste repository be made water/vapour-tight

  4. Efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre as respostas fisiológicas e controle de helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Effect of sodium chloride on physiological responses and monogenean control in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsandra Campos Chagas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sal (NaCl sobre as respostas fisiológicas e controle de helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Para isso, juvenis de tambaqui (42,38 ± 0,47 g; 13,90 ± 0,06 cm foram transferidos para tanques de 350L e aclimatados por um período de 24 horas. Os ensaios foram conduzidos utilizando as concentrações de 0, 2, 4, 6 e 8 g de sal comum L-1 de água, nos tempos de exposição de 30, 60 e 120 minutos, com três repetições por tratamento. A tolerância dos tambaquis ao sal e a eficácia deste sobre os helmintos monogenóides foi avaliada mediante análise dos indicadores fisiológicos (glicose, cloretos, sódio e potássio plasmático e parasitológicos (número total de parasitas e prevalência. Tambaquis expostos a 4 g NaCl L-1 por 120 minutos, 6 e 8 g NaCl L-1 por 60 e 120 minutos apresentaram maior elevação da glicose plasmática e na concentração de 8 g NaCl L-1 por 120 minutos maiores níveis de cloreto plasmático. A prevalência de monogenóides nas brânquias foi de 100% e todas as concentrações de sal avaliadas neste estudo não foram eficazes na redução dos helmintos monogenóides em tambaqui.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of salt (NaCl on physiological responses and monogenean control in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Juveniles of tambaqui (42.38 ± 0.47 g; 13.90 ± 0.06 cm were transferred to 350L tanks and acclimated for a period of 24 hours. The assays were conducted using the concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g of NaCl L-1 of water, exposed to 30, 60 and 120 minutes, with three replicates in each treatment. The tambaqui tolerance to salt and the efficacy against monogenean were evaluated by physiological analysis (glucose, chloride, sodium and potassium plasmatic concentrations and parasitic indices (total number of parasites and prevalence. Tambaquis exposed to 4 g NaCl L-1 for 120 minutes, 6 and 8 g NaCl L-1 for 60 and 120

  5. Analysis of forming limit in tube hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Il; Yang, Seung Hang; Kim, Young Suk

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry has shown increasing interest in tube hydroforming. Despite many automobile structural parts being produced from cylindrical tubes, failures frequently occur during tube hydroforming under improper forming conditions. These problems include wrinkling, buckling, folding back, and bursting. We perform analytical studies to determine forming limits in tube hydroforming and demonstrate how these forming limits are influenced by the loading path. Theoretical results for the forming limits of wrinkling and bursting are compared with experimental results for an aluminum tube.

  6. Method for forming ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  7. Mesonic Form Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, Frederic D.R.; Edwards, Robert G.; Felming, George T.; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-01-01

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors

  8. Isotropy of quadratic forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. Suresh University Of Hyderabad Hyderabad

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... Historically, the study of quadratic forms was part of number theory; Minkowski, Siegel, Hasse, Eichler, Kneser and several other mathematicians created a rich arithmetic theory of quadratic forms. V. Suresh University Of Hyderabad Hyderabad. Isotropy of quadratic forms ...

  9. Micro metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Micro Metal Forming, i. e. forming of parts and features with dimensions below 1 mm, is a young area of research in the wide field of metal forming technologies, expanding the limits for applying metal forming towards micro technology. The essential challenges arise from the reduced geometrical size and the increased lot size. In order to enable potential users to apply micro metal forming in production, information about the following topics are given: tribological behavior: friction between tool and work piece as well as tool wear mechanical behavior: strength and formability of the work piece material, durability of the work pieces size effects: basic description of effects occurring due to the fact, that the quantitative relation between different features changes with decreasing size process windows and limits for forming processes tool making methods numerical modeling of processes and process chains quality assurance and metrology All topics are discussed with respect to the questions relevant to micro...

  10. Gravitation and quadratic forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Sudarshan; Brink, Lars; Majumdar, Sucheta; Mali, Mahendra; Shah, Nabha

    2017-03-01

    The light-cone Hamiltonians describing both pure ( N = 0) Yang-Mills and N = 4 super Yang-Mills may be expressed as quadratic forms. Here, we show that this feature extends to theories of gravity. We demonstrate how the Hamiltonians of both pure gravity and N = 8 supergravity, in four dimensions, may be written as quadratic forms. We examine the effect of residual reparametrizations on the Hamiltonian and the resulting quadratic form.

  11. Gravitation and quadratic forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananth, Sudarshan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India); Brink, Lars [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Institute of Advanced Studies and Department of Physics & Applied Physics,Nanyang Technological University,Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Majumdar, Sucheta [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India); Mali, Mahendra [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Thiruvananthapuram, Trivandrum 695016 (India); Shah, Nabha [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India)

    2017-03-31

    The light-cone Hamiltonians describing both pure (N=0) Yang-Mills and N=4 super Yang-Mills may be expressed as quadratic forms. Here, we show that this feature extends to theories of gravity. We demonstrate how the Hamiltonians of both pure gravity and N=8 supergravity, in four dimensions, may be written as quadratic forms. We examine the effect of residual reparametrizations on the Hamiltonian and the resulting quadratic form.

  12. PowerForms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Ricky, Mikkel

    2000-01-01

    such validation. Today, CGI programmers often use Perl libraries for simple server-side validation or program customized JavaScript solutions for client-side validation. We present PowerForms, which is an add-on to HTML forms that allows a purely declarative specification of input formats and sophisticated...... interdependencies of form fields. While our work may be seen as inspiration for a future extension of HTML, it is also available for CGI programmers today through a preprocessor that translates a PowerForms document into a combination of standard HTML and JavaScript that works on all combinations of platforms...

  13. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  14. Electronic Capitalization Asset Form -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Automated Capitalization Authorization Form used by ATO Engineering Services, Logistics, Accounting for the purpose of identifying and capturing FAA project...

  15. The discovery of structural form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2008-08-05

    Algorithms for finding structure in data have become increasingly important both as tools for scientific data analysis and as models of human learning, yet they suffer from a critical limitation. Scientists discover qualitatively new forms of structure in observed data: For instance, Linnaeus recognized the hierarchical organization of biological species, and Mendeleev recognized the periodic structure of the chemical elements. Analogous insights play a pivotal role in cognitive development: Children discover that object category labels can be organized into hierarchies, friendship networks are organized into cliques, and comparative relations (e.g., "bigger than" or "better than") respect a transitive order. Standard algorithms, however, can only learn structures of a single form that must be specified in advance: For instance, algorithms for hierarchical clustering create tree structures, whereas algorithms for dimensionality-reduction create low-dimensional spaces. Here, we present a computational model that learns structures of many different forms and that discovers which form is best for a given dataset. The model makes probabilistic inferences over a space of graph grammars representing trees, linear orders, multidimensional spaces, rings, dominance hierarchies, cliques, and other forms and successfully discovers the underlying structure of a variety of physical, biological, and social domains. Our approach brings structure learning methods closer to human abilities and may lead to a deeper computational understanding of cognitive development.

  16. Mastering HTML5 forms

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Gaurav

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial will show you how to create stylish forms, not only visually appealing, but interactive and customized, in order to gather valuable user inputs and information.Enhance your skills in building responsive and dynamic web forms using HTML5, CSS3, and related technologies. All you need is a basic understanding of HTML and PHP.

  17. Hepatitis E: Epidemiological forms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In these endemic countries, the disease takes two major epidemiological forms. The form that was recognized first was occurrence of large outbreaks affecting several hundred to several thousand cases of acute hepatitis, usually over a short period of a few weeks. However, it was soon realized that the viral agent was also ...

  18. Basic Parameters of Metal Behavior under High Rate Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-03-01

    levels or, at best, linear stress-strain relations. The results for each tesi are given in Table X A more complete description of the experi- mental...Department of Chemistry East Lansing, Michigan Ohio State University Research Foundation Attn: Dr. R. McMaster Columbus, Ohio A.,thur il.Jttle.3Jnc. a I U0

  19. FORM version 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, J.; Ueda, T.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.; Vollinga, J.

    2013-05-01

    We present version 4.0 of the symbolic manipulation system FORM. The most important new features are manipulation of rational polynomials and the factorization of expressions. Many other new functions and commands are also added; some of them are very general, while others are designed for building specific high level packages, such as one for Gröbner bases. New is also the checkpoint facility, that allows for periodic backups during long calculations. Finally, FORM 4.0 has become available as open source under the GNU General Public License version 3. Program summaryProgram title: FORM. Catalogue identifier: AEOT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151599 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 078 748 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: The FORM language. FORM itself is programmed in a mixture of C and C++. Computer: All. Operating system: UNIX, LINUX, Mac OS, Windows. Classification: 5. Nature of problem: FORM defines a symbolic manipulation language in which the emphasis lies on fast processing of very large formulas. It has been used successfully for many calculations in Quantum Field Theory and mathematics. In speed and size of formulas that can be handled it outperforms other systems typically by an order of magnitude. Special in this version: The version 4.0 contains many new features. Most important are factorization and rational arithmetic. The program has also become open source under the GPL. The code in CPC is for reference. You are encouraged to upload the most recent sources from www.nikhef.nl/form/formcvs.php because of frequent bug fixes. Solution method: See "Nature of Problem", above. Additional comments: NOTE: The code in CPC is for reference. You are encouraged

  20. Teaching With Documents: Chinese Exclusion Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Linda, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the history of Chinese immigration to the United States and provides a facsimilie of a form used to document immigrants under the Chinese Exclusion Act. Teaching suggestions are included. (JDH)

  1. Hybrids and glueballs: new forms of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.

    1983-01-01

    Theories of the forces that bind together the atomic nucleus predict the existence of exotic forms of matter, dubbed ''glueballs'' and ''hybrids''. The underlying story illustrates progress in science through the agencies of analogy and paradox. (author)

  2. Reciprocal mass tensor : a general form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Using the results of earlier treatment of wave packets, a general form of reciprocal mass tensor has been obtained. The elements of this tensor are seen to be dependent on momentum as well as space coordinates of the particle under consideration. The conditions under which the tensor would reduce to the usual space-independent form, are discussed and the impact of the space-dependence of this tensor on the motion of Bloch electrons, is examined. (author)

  3. 物權「自治」主義的美麗新世界?― 民法第757條之立法論與解釋論 Is Freedom of Property Form Principle Efficient?― Interpretations of Articles 757 of the Taiwan Civil Code and the Underlying Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張永健 Yun-Chine Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 近來,不少學者批評物權法定主義,提倡以物權自治主義代之。2009年民法第757條修正,改採物權法定加習慣主義。文以Merrill和Smith提出之物權類型最適數目理論為基礎,輔以Hansmann和Kraakman及本文之批評修正,評判上述各種制度安排何者為優。 本文主張物權法定主義,理論上雖不當然創設最適數目之物權類型(台灣經驗即為一例,但若立法者不怠惰,仍有可能達成該目標。物權自治主義製造外部成本,,理論上必然會創造過多之物權類型,並無效率。法院解釋物權法定加習慣主義時,除應注意修法理由所揭示之社會成本外,亦應考量邊際社會利益。此外,動產因難以適當地公示,不應輕易使習慣得創設新動產物權。法院承認習慣所創設之不動產物權,應以該習慣存在於全國大多數地區為要件。 Recently, many Taiwanese and Chinese scholars criticized the numerus clausus principle, and proposed freedom of property form principle instead. In 2009, the Taiwan legislature amended Article 757 of the Civil Code, loosening the numerus clausus principle, and allowing customs to create new property forms. Based on the optimal standardization theory first proposed by Merrill & Smith, with the revision by Hansmann & Kraakman and this article, I evaluate which institutional arrangement to create property forms is the most desirable. This article argues that although the numerus clausus principle (under which the legislature monopolizes the creation of property forms does not guarantee creation of optimal number of property forms, it is not impossible for the number of statue-created property forms to approximate the optimal number. The freedom of property form principle, by contrast, will produce an over-optimal number of property forms, because of the external costs of creating new property forms by private transactors. When interpreting

  4. 8 CFR 265.1 - Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for those exempted by section 263(b) of the Act, all aliens in the United States required to register under section 262 of the Act shall report each change of address and new address within 10 days on Form... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms. 265.1 Section 265.1 Aliens and...

  5. Forms of Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Today, Linda Saisselin takes joy in holding her new grandson—pain free. Photo courtesy of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this is a joint disease that mostly affects ...

  6. NOAA Form 370 Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains information from submitted NOAA Form 370s, also known as the Fisheries Certificate of Origin, for imported shipments of frozen and/or processed...

  7. Science on form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Shozo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Takaki, Ryuji; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Symposium was to discuss interdisciplinal science aspects of form. 'Form' depends on the material and the changes. But, it is the form that appears evident at once and endures. Form is absorbed from every field as media of information. One part of the work covers the description of non-periodic phenomena, morphogenesis or evolution. Irreducible stubborn facts as diseases or social problems, or whatever else that could not be analyzed are integrally challenged to be systematized by computer simulation. The other part covers the finding of laws for determining how systems behave. Attention should be paid to pattern recognition, image processing and pattern formation. The Symposium proceeded with no parallel sessions, and participants from various fields made exciting discussions in an interdisciplinal atmosphere. (Auth.)

  8. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  9. Forms of Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Events Faces of Dystonia Donate Donate Online Membership Find an Event Donor Bill of Rights About Dystonia Symptoms & Diagnosis Forms of Dystonia Genetics Glossary Treatment Find a Doctor Oral Medications Botulinum Neurotoxin Neurosurgery ...

  10. Biofilm Growth and Fossil Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Petroff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stromatolites can grow under the influence of microbial processes, but it is often unclear whether and how the macroscopic morphology of these rocks records biological processes. Conical stromatolites, which formed in the absence of sedimentation, provide a comparatively simple record of the interplay between microbial growth and lithification. Here, we show that the dynamics shaping conical stromatolites result from diffusive gradients within the overlying microbial mat. These gradients cause minerals to precipitate faster in regions of high curvature, resulting in measurable properties of the shapes of stromatolite laminas. This model allows us to estimate the thickness of ancient stromatolite-forming mats to be approximately 1  mm, consistent with modern systems. Proceeding from the assumption that the ubiquitous process of diffusion is recorded in the translating form of a stromatolite, we derive the shape of a diffusion-driven stromatolite. The conical morphology—a distinctive feature of stromatolites growing in the absence of sedimentation—arises from these dynamics. This form is quantitatively consistent with the shape of conical stromatolites that grew for more than 2.9×10^{9} yrs of Earth history.

  11. Education fees – New forms

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The application forms for the payment of education fees have been updated and are now available in the Admin e-guide (under the “Useful Documents” heading):   Payment of education fees (including language course fees) – AC12A (form to be used by staff members recruited before 1 January 2007, with the exception of former “local staff”).   Payment of education fees – AC12B (form to be used by staff members recruited on or after 1 January 2007, by fellows, scientific associates and guest professors and by former “local staff” whose contracts started before 1 January 2007). The Education Fees service will continue to accept the old forms until the end of the current academic year, i.e. until 31 August 2015. Members of the personnel are reminded that any false declaration or failure to declare information with a view to deceiving others or achieving a gain that would result in a financial loss for CERN or...

  12. Forms of global governence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Kharkevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.

  13. Polyphony and verb forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Rajić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some special uses of indicative and subjunctive verb forms in Spanish, which contemporary linguistics explains using the notions of polyphony, evidentials, echoic representation, quotatives, etc. These terms, even though they refer to different characteristics and belong to different theoretical frameworks, share one common feature: they all refer to diverse linguistic forms (discourse markers, linguistic negation, quotatives, echoic utterances, etc. characterized by the presence and interaction of different voices or points of view in one discourse sequence. In this study we are interested in a description of quotative or polyphonic meanings expressed by specific verb forms and tenses, the imperfect and the conditional, and also by indicative forms in subordinate substantive clauses with a negative main verb and by subjunctive forms in subordinate concessive clauses. Our research focuses on the analysis of the linguistic conditions that make possible the evidential use of the conditional, the imperfect and the echoic (metarepresentative interpretation of indicative and subjunctive forms in the above-mentioned contexts. The examples we discuss show that evidential and echoic interpretations are inferential meanings derived from the extralinguistic situation and the knowledge that speakers have of the world.

  14. Comparative waste forms study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, J.W.; Lokken, R.O.; Shade, J.W.; Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    A number of alternative process and waste form options exist for the immobilization of nuclear wastes. Although data exists on the characterization of these alternative waste forms, a straightforward comparison of product properties is difficult, due to the lack of standardized testing procedures. The characterization study described in this report involved the application of the same volatility, mechanical strength and leach tests to ten alternative waste forms, to assess product durability. Bulk property, phase analysis and microstructural examination of the simulated products, whose waste loading varied from 5% to 100% was also conducted. The specific waste forms investigated were as follows: Cold Pressed and Sintered PW-9 Calcine; Hot Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Hot Isostatic Pressed PW-9 Calcine; Cold Pressed and Sintered SPC-5B Supercalcine; Hot Isostatic pressed SPC-5B Supercalcine; Sintered PW-9 and 50% Glass Frit; Glass 76-68; Celsian Glass Ceramic; Type II Portland Cement and 10% PW-9 Calcine; and Type II Portland Cement and 10% SPC-5B Supercalcine. Bulk property data were used to calculate and compare the relative quantities of waste form volume produced at a spent fuel processing rate of 5 metric ton uranium/day. This quantity ranged from 3173 L/day (5280 Kg/day) for 10% SPC-5B supercalcine in cement to 83 L/day (294 Kg/day) for 100% calcine. Mechanical strength, volatility, and leach resistance tests provide data related to waste form durability. Glass, glass-ceramic and supercalcine ranked high in waste form durability where as the 100% PW-9 calcine ranked low. All other materials ranked between these two groupings

  15. Sixth form pure mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1968-01-01

    Sixth Form Pure Mathematics, Volume 1, Second Edition, is the first of a series of volumes on Pure Mathematics and Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Form students whose aim is entrance into British and Commonwealth Universities or Technical Colleges. A knowledge of Pure Mathematics up to G.C.E. O-level is assumed and the subject is developed by a concentric treatment in which each new topic is used to illustrate ideas already treated. The major topics of Algebra, Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, and Trigonometry are developed together. This volume covers most of the Pure Mathematics required for t

  16. Electrically assisted forming modeling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Salandro, Wesley A; Bunget, Cristina; Mears, Laine; Roth, John T

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest research findings and applications of Electrically-Assisted Forming (EAF) – whereby metals are formed under an electric current field – this book explains how such a process produces immediate improved formability of metals beyond the extent of thermal softening, and allows metals to be formed to greater elongation with lower mechanical energy as well as allowing for lightweight brittle metals such as magnesium and titanium to be formed without external heating or annealing, enabling the more effective use of these lightweight metals in design. Including case studies that illustrate and support the theoretical content and real-world applications of the techniques discussed, this book also serves to enrich readers understanding of the underlying theories that influence electro-plastic behaviour. The authors have extensive experience in studying Electrically-Assisted Forming and have written extensively on the topic with publications including experimental works, t...

  17. Friction and bending forces evaluation of AISI 304 DDQ steel sheet forming by bending tests under deep-drawing multiaxial stresses; Evaluacion de la fuerza de doblado y de friccion en el conformado de chapa de acero inoxidable AISI 304 DDQ mediante ensayos de doblado en condiciones multiaxiales de embuticion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coello, J.; Miguel, V.; Ferrer, C.; Calatayud, A.; Martinez, A.

    2012-11-01

    Die radius is a critical area from the viewpoint of friction in forming processes. Moreover the sheet, that has been previously deformed in flange area, suffers bending and unbending stresses. Then, die-sheet contact in die radius must be especially considered in order to guarantee the suitable lubrication conditions. In the present work, a test method is carried out for evaluating an AISI 304 DDQ steel under similar conditions to those existing in the die radius area and that, usually, are not really reproduced in traditional bending under tensions tests. Deformation under pure shear condition, the bending and the radius angle have been established as variables of the tests. Results allow to obtain the apparent pressure sheet-bending tool, that increases with bending angle and decreases with tool radius. This last variable is the most significant while the bending angle has lesser influence. Although experimental results present some concordances with values obtained by analytical methods, some corrections must be considered in them in order to improve the theoretical values. (Author) 18 refs.

  18. Many Forms of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  19. Sesotho Address Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akindele, Dele Femi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Address forms constitute an integral part of Basotho sociolinguistic etiquette. They are regarded as a kind of emotional capital that may be invested in putting others at ease. They are indicators of deference, politeness and markers of social distance. (Fasold 1990, Akindele 1990, 1991, 1993 This paper examines the address forms used by the Basotho people. It analyzes and discusses the various types and the factors determining their use. The discussion of address forms in Sesotho focuses on First Name, Title plus First Name, Title plus Last Name, Nickname, Multiple Names, and Teknonym. Drawing data from semi-literate and literate urban and rural population of Maseru district of Lesotho, it was found that the commonest form of address used by the Basotho people is title plus first name. e.g. ntate Thabo (father Thabo, 'm'e Puleng (mother Puleng, ausi Maneo (sister Maneo, abuti Mahao (brother Mahao. It is used by close relations, associates, and familiar people in both formal and informal situations.

  20. Documentary form no. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This first documentary form, edited by the national association of local commissions of information about nuclear activities (ANCLI), briefly presents the radioactivity phenomenon, the ionising radiations, the characteristics of radiation sources (activity, half life, energy), and the dosimetry (absorbed, equivalent, efficient doses). (J.S.)

  1. Manifolds admitting stable forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van; Panák, Martin; Vanžura, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2008), s. 101-11 ISSN 0010-2628 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/05/P088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : stable forms * automorphism groups Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Inequalities for Differential Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P

    2009-01-01

    Presents a series of local and global estimates and inequalities for differential forms, in particular the ones that satisfy the A-harmonic equations. This work focuses on the Hardy-Littlewood, Poincare, Cacciooli, imbedded and reverse Holder inequalities. It is for researchers, instructors and graduate students

  3. Metal forming and lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Lubrication is essential in most metal forming processes. The lubricant film has two basic functions, [1]: i. to separate the work piece and tool surfaces and ii. to cool the workpiece and the tool. Separation of the two surfaces implies lower friction facilitating deformation and lowering the tool...

  4. Special Geometry and Automorphic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Berglund, P; Wyllard, N; Berglund, Per; Henningson, Mans; Wyllard, Niclas

    1997-01-01

    We consider special geometry of the vector multiplet moduli space in compactifications of the heterotic string on $K3 \\times T^2$ or the type IIA string on $K3$-fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds. In particular, we construct a modified dilaton that is invariant under $SO(2, n; Z)$ T-duality transformations at the non-perturbative level and regular everywhere on the moduli space. The invariant dilaton, together with a set of other coordinates that transform covariantly under $SO(2, n; Z)$, parameterize the moduli space. The construction involves a meromorphic automorphic function of $SO(2, n; Z)$, that also depends on the invariant dilaton. In the weak coupling limit, the divisor of this automorphic form is an integer linear combination of the rational quadratic divisors where the gauge symmetry is enhanced classically. We also show how the non-perturbative prepotential can be expressed in terms of meromorphic automorphic forms, by expanding a T-duality invariant quantity both in terms of the standard special coord...

  5. Coated particle waste form development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes.

  6. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  7. Formed HIP Can Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  8. Forms of Inattentiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    and kept out of sight in the decision processes by looking at a specific case study involving the construction of a model intended to control, and render transparent, the quality of health services in Denmark. This paper outlines the forms of inattentiveness which make communication blind to information...... that could question the quality model. Five forms of inattentiveness are identified that function as answers to the question of how communication avoids actualizing relevant but also potentially destructive information. This study documents a considerable amount of blindness to potentially relevant themes...... effect of the categories applied. This paper puts forward a fourth type of organizational blindness in addition to the already documented ones, namely self-imposed blindness to potentially destructive information. This paper studies how relevant - but problematic - information is actively ignored...

  9. Exotic Forms of Silicon for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. Craig

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few decades many exotic forms of carbon, such as carbon-60, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have generated novel scientific discoveries and revolutionized many important applications. Similar potentially transformative breakthroughs may be expected with exotic forms of silicon. Such structures include, but are not necessarily limited to, (1) those formed under high pressure that are metastable at ambient pressure, (2) single layers of Si (silicene), (2) clathrate Si, which has been studied for superconducting and thermoelectric properties but not in any detail for semiconductor applications, (3) nanostructured forms of Si (nanodots and nanowires), including those composed of diamond Si, (4) porous Si, and (5) any other structures that differ in their structural, optical or electronic properties from bulk diamond Si. Silicon is an abundant, non-toxic element around which an advanced technology exists for semiconducting devices based on diamond Si. One of these exotic forms of Si could form the basis for the next revolution in electronics or even opto-electronics, since some forms exhibit direct, or nearly direct, band gaps. Recent results toward producing pure and dopable semiconductors out of Si nanodots imbedded in amorphous matrices and in clathrate Si and clathrate Si-Ge alloys will be discussed. The author acknowledges important collaborations with R. T. Collins, C. A. Koh, L. Krishna, M. Lusk, and P. Stradins. DOE SUNSHOT program, under Contract DE-EE0005326 and by the NSF MRSEC program under Grant DMR-0820518.

  10. Differential forms of supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresin, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of differential and pseUdo-differential forms on supermanifolds is constructed. The definition and notations of superanalogy of the Pontryagin and Chern characteristic classes are given. The theory considered is purely local. The scheme suggested here generalizes the so-called Weil homomorphism for superspace which lays on the basis of the Chern and Potryagin characteristic class theory. The theory can be extended to the global supermanifolds

  11. Personal Information Request Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PC Forms Inc. 834-4048

    Request Form. Head Office / Siège : PO Box / CP 8500, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1G 3H9 www.idrc.ca www.crdi.ca. (150 Kent Street, Constitution Square / 150, rue Kent, Complexe Constitution Square). Phone / Tél. : 613-236-6163, ext./poste 2348 Fax / Téléc. : 613-565-8212 Email / Courriel : ATIP-AIPRP@idrc.ca. Privacy Act.

  12. Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hacker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The phrase ‘Lebensform’ (form of life had a long and varied history prior to Wittgenstein’s use of it on a mere three occasions in the Philosophical Investigations. It is not a pivotal concept in Wittgenstein’s philosophy. But it is a minor signpost of a major reorientation of philosophy, philosophy of language and logic, and philosophy of mathematics that Wittgenstein instigated. For Wittgenstein sought to replace the conception of a language as a meaning calculus (Frege, Russell, the Tractatus by an anthropological or ethnological conception. A language is not a class of sentences that can be formed from a set of axioms (definitions, formation and transformation rules and the meanings of which is given by their truth-conditions, but an open-ended series of interlocking language-games constituting a form of life or way of living (a culture. Wittgenstein’s uses of ‘Lebensform’ and its cognates, both in the Investigations and in his Nachlass are severally analysed, and various exegetical misinterpretations are clarified.

  13. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of the...

  14. Dendritic growth forms of borax crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takoo, R.K.; Patel, B.R.; Joshi, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of dendritic forms of borax grown from solutions by the film formation method is given. The changing growth morphology is followed as a function of concentration and temperature. The initial, intermediate and final growth morphologies are described and discussed. Influence of evaporation rate and supersaturation on the mechanism of growth is assessed. It is suggested that under all crystallization conditions, borax crystals have dendritic form in the initial stages of growth. (author)

  15. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  16. Miscellaneous Waste-Form FEPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, A.

    2000-01-01

    The US DOE must provide a reasonable assurance that the performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) potential radioactive-waste repository can be achieved for a 10,000-year post-closure period. The guidance that mandates this direction is under the provisions of 10 CFR Part 63 and the US Department of Energy's ''Revised Interim Guidance Pending Issuance of New US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulations (Revision 01, July 22, 1999), for Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (Dyer 1999 and herein referred to as DOE's Interim Guidance). This assurance must be demonstrated in the form of a performance assessment that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the performance of the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of such FEPs on the performance of the potential geologic repository; (3) estimates the expected annual dose to a specified receptor group; and (4) provides the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs

  17. Waste form development/test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1983-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate new solidification agents relative to their potential application to wastes generated by advanced high volume reduction technologies, e.g., incinerator ash, dry solids, and ion exchange resins. Candidate materials selected for the solidification of these wastes include a modified sulfur cement and low-density polyethylene, neither of which are currently employed commerically for the solidification of low-level waste (LLW). As both the modified sulfur cement and the polyethylene are thermoplastic materials, a heated screw type extruder is utilized in the production of waste form samples for testing and evaluation. In this regard, work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be satisfactorily applied to the specific LLW streams and to provide information relevant to operating parameters and process control

  18. Candidate SNP Markers of Gender-Biased Autoimmune Complications of Monogenic Diseases Are Predicted by a Significant Change in the Affinity of TATA-Binding Protein for Human Gene Promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, Mikhail P.; Arkova, Olga; Rasskazov, Dmitry; Ponomarenko, Petr; Savinkova, Ludmila; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Some variations of human genome [for example, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] are markers of hereditary diseases and drug responses. Analysis of them can help to improve treatment. Computer-based analysis of millions of SNPs in the 1000 Genomes project makes a search for SNP markers more targeted. Here, we combined two computer-based approaches: DNA sequence analysis and keyword search in databases. In the binding sites for TATA-binding protein (TBP) in human gene promoters, we found candidate SNP markers of gender-biased autoimmune diseases, including rs1143627 [cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis (double prevalence among women)]; rs11557611 [demyelinating diseases (thrice more prevalent among young white women than among non-white individuals)]; rs17231520 and rs569033466 [both: atherosclerosis comorbid with related diseases (double prevalence among women)]; rs563763767 [Hughes syndrome-related thrombosis (lethal during pregnancy)]; rs2814778 [autoimmune diseases (excluding multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis) underlying hypergammaglobulinemia in women]; rs72661131 and rs562962093 (both: preterm delivery in pregnant diabetic women); and rs35518301, rs34166473, rs34500389, rs33981098, rs33980857, rs397509430, rs34598529, rs33931746, rs281864525, and rs63750953 (all: autoimmune diseases underlying hypergammaglobulinemia in women). Validation of these predicted candidate SNP markers using the clinical standards may advance personalized medicine. PMID:27092142

  19. [Terra firma-forme dermatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallure, V; Ameline, M; Plantin, P; Bessis, D

    2013-11-01

    Terra firma-forme (i.e. resembling dry earth) is a condition chiefly affecting children wrongly considered as dermatosis arising out of negligence and inadequate corporal hygiene. It is in fact an acquired and asymptomatic grey-brown hyperpigmentation of the skin that persists despite normal washing with soap and water, but which subsides on rubbing with isopropyl alcohol 70%. Herein we report 10 new cases of this disorder. Ten patients aged between 7 months in 17 years were seen for acquired macular skin pigmentation, either brown or grey, fragmented and confluent. In six patients, this abnormality was the main reason for the consultation, generally on aesthetic grounds, and more rarely for diagnosis or suspicion of acanthosis nigricans. In all cases, questioning revealed normal hygiene measures. The condition comprised macular or acquired papular pigmentation, either brown or grey, of bilateral and symmetrical disposition and electively affecting the neck, trunk and retro-malleolar area of the ankles. Clinical examination together with a test involving rubbing with isopropyl alcohol 70° confirmed the diagnosis, revealing healthy underlying skin. Terra firma-forme dermatosis is frequently seen in clinical practice but is largely ignored in the French literature, possibly because of relevant indifference towards the condition. It affects both sexes equally, with no predilection for age or ethnicity, although it is classically seen to a greater extent during adolescence. Diagnosis of the condition, which is easily made thanks to the hyperpigmentation of dirty brown appearance on the neck and the ankles in particular, should not mislead the practitioner into blaming patients for supposedly deficient body hygiene. Knowledge of this form of dermatosis is useful because of its potentially harmful aesthetic and social effects, despite the ease of treatment by insistent rubbing of the affected areas with medical alcohol or ether. Early recognition also avoids pointless

  20. Nonlinear dynamics exploration through normal forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, this exposition covers the method of normal forms and its application to ordinary differential equations through perturbation analysis. In addition to its emphasis on the freedom inherent in the normal form expansion, the text features numerous examples of equations, the kind of which are encountered in many areas of science and engineering. The treatment begins with an introduction to the basic concepts underlying the normal forms. Coverage then shifts to an investigation of systems with one degree of freedom that model oscillations

  1. Pion form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  2. Image forming apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    An image H(x, y) for displaying a target image G(x, y) is displayed on a liquid-crystal display panel and illumination light from an illumination light source is made to pass therethrough to form an image on a PALSLM. Read light hv is radiated to the PALSLM and a phase-modulated light image alpha...... (x, y) read out of the PALSLM is subjected to Fourier transform by a lens. A phase contrast filter gives a predetermined phase shift to only the zero-order light component of Fourier light image alpha f(x, y). The phase-shifted light image is subjected to inverse Fourier transform by a lens...... characteristics of the illumination light source, PALSLM, and phase contrast filter, based on the evaluation result....

  3. Le forme del fondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Non è vero che la natura ha paura del vuoto. Forse addirittura si completa. Il vuoto è anche una modalità dell'essere. È possibile nidificarvisi, avvolgersi pigramente e, così, proteggersi dall'angoscia del tempo che passa. Il vuoto delle apparenze è, in alcuni momenti, una delle forme d'espressione della vita sociale. Oltretutto occorre saperle riconoscere. Certamente, abbiamo tutti un'esistenza personale, ma siamo, ugualmente, i rappresentanti, a volte anche le vittime, di uno "spirito comune", forse anche di un "inconscio collettivo" che si è costituito di secolo in secolo. E, molto spesso, quando crediamo di esprimere le nostre idee, siamo soltanto dei portavoce, comparse di un vasto "theatrum mundi" dalle dimensioni infinite.

  4. Dimeric form of peroxynitrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, K. V.; Tulub, A. V.

    2009-07-01

    The (ONOO)- anion, known as peroxynitrite, is characterized by a singlet spin state. A new stable dimer form of peroxynitrite [NO-O2]- in the triplet state at distances close to r(O-N) ≈ 2.885 Å between oxygen in the O2 structure and nitrogen has been established within the quantum-chemical CASSCF approximation. The vibrational motion of the dimer is significantly anharmonic; for the 16O and 14N isotopes, the differences in the energies of two neighboring levels correspond to frequencies of about 70-30 cm-1. The triplet dimer structure retains stability in the case of interaction with water molecules. The activation barriers caused by rearrangement of the peroxynitrite structure into the ground state of the NO{3/-} anion with the symmetry D 3 h are found.

  5. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  6. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  7. Prevalence of Under Nutrition among Under Five Year Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria. ... International Journal of Community Research ... The nutritional status of under-five children is a reflection of the health of children in the community and this forms the basis for the development of success–oriented interventional ...

  8. Cavitation During Superplastic Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Campbell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is the opening of pores during superplastic forming, typically at grain boundary triple points or on second phase grain boundary particles during slip of grain boundaries. Theories for the initiation of cavitation are reviewed. It seems that cavitation is unlikely to occur by processes intrinsic to metals such as dislocation mechanisms or point defect condensation. It is proposed that cavitation can only occur at non-bonded interfaces such as those introduced extrinsically (i.e., from the outside during the original casting of the metal. These defects, known as oxide bifilms, are naturally introduced during pouring of the liquid metal, and are frozen into the solid, often pushed by dendritic growth into grain boundaries where they are difficult to detect because of their extreme thinness, often measured in nanometres. Their unbonded central interface acts as a crack and can initiate cavitation. Second phase precipitates probably do not nucleate and grow on grain boundaries but grow on bifilms in the boundaries, explaining the apparent association between boundaries, second phase particles and failure initiation. Improved melting and casting techniques can provide metal with reduced or zero bifilm population for which cavitation would not be possible, promising significant improvements in superplastic behaviour.

  9. Les formes du fond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Il n'est pas vrai que la nature a horreur du vide. Peut-être même s'y complait-elle. Le creux est aussi une modalité de l'être. Il est possible de s'y nicher, de s'y lover paresseusement et, ainsi, de se protéger contre l'angoisse du temps qui passe. Le creux des apparences est, à certains moments, une des formes d'expression de la vie sociale. Encore faut-il savoir le reconnaître. Certes, nous avons tous une existence personnelle, mais nous sommes, également, les représentants, parfois même les victimes, d'un "esprit commun", peut-être même d'un "inconscient collectif" qui s'est constitué de siècle en siècle. Et, très souvent, là où nous croyons exprimer nos propres idées, nous ne sommes que les porte-voix, les figurants d'un vaste "theatrum mundi" aux dimensions infinies.

  10. Image forming apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    An image H(x, y) for displaying a target image G(x, y) is displayed on a liquid-crystal display panel and illumination light from an illumination light source is made to pass therethrough to form an image on a PALSLM. Read light hv is radiated to the PALSLM and a phase-modulated light image alpha...... (x, y) read out of the PALSLM is subjected to Fourier transform by a lens. A phase contrast filter gives a predetermined phase shift to only the zero-order light component of Fourier light image alpha f(x, y). The phase-shifted light image is subjected to inverse Fourier transform by a lens...... to project an output image O(x, y) to an output plane. A light image O'(x, y) branched by a beam sampler is picked up by a pickup device and an evaluation value calculating unit evaluates conformity between the image O(x, y) and the image G(x, y).; A control unit performs feedback control of optical...

  11. Characterization of fracture loci in metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels; Tekkaya, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Fracture in metal forming can occur in three different modes: (i) tensile; (ii) in-plane shear; and (iii) out-of-plane shear (respectively the same as modes I, II and III of fracture mechanics). The circumstances under which each mode will occur are identified in terms of plastic flow and microst...

  12. supplier, tax and bank information form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Hakan Mustafa

    General Principles of our Privacy Policy. IDRC is committed to protect the privacy of its suppliers' information. IDRC gathers specific personal information that you supply voluntarily in written form or by e-mail. Any personal information created, held or collected by IDRC is protected under the Canadian federal Privacy Act.

  13. Forms and Issues in Experiential Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David Thornton

    2010-01-01

    Programs falling under the general rubric of "experiential education" take a number of forms, varying on several dimensions; what is offered here is a schematic overview. In general, they all involve students in activities that look rather different from more traditional classroom-based methods: (1) the formal lecture and discussion; (2) the…

  14. 14 CFR 151.67 - Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... undertaking and carrying out of the project, determination of allowability of costs, payment of the United... 5100-3: Contains a statement requesting Federal-aid in carrying out a project under the Federal Airport... proposed work, and its estimated cost. (2) Project application, Form FAA-1624: A formal application for...

  15. Advanced verb form production in story retelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, J C; Johnson, C J

    1995-10-01

    This study investigated the rate at which 60 elementary school children produced three advanced verb forms--past progressive, past perfect progressive, and past perfect--when asked to retell literate narratives, a discourse genre that originates from written prose and frequently contains these advanced verb forms. The three verb forms were embedded in nine story episodes and told to the children. The children were then asked to retell the stories. Verb form production by the children was scored as either "borrowed" or substituted spontaneous production. During their story-retelling episodes, the 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old children borrowed all verb forms under investigation from the stimuli stories. They significantly preferred to borrow the past progressive over the past perfect progressive and past perfect forms. Rate of verb form production by 8-year-old children was significantly higher than for the younger age groups. These data suggest that advanced verb form production is influenced by the children's sensitivity to the type of narrative register (i.e., 1st or 3rd person perspective), the propositional ability associated with narrative development, and the progressive meaning of the -ing suffix.

  16. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Interaction design is distinguished from most other design disciplines through its temporal form. Temporal form is the computational structure that enables and demands a temporal expression in the resulting design. Temporal form is what enables poetry. In music, temporal form is the composition o...

  17. Lubricant Test Methods for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2008-01-01

    Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials such as stainless steel, Al-alloys and Ti-alloys or forming in tribologically difficult operations like ironing, punching or deep drawing of thick plate requires often use of environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes a systematic research in the development of new, environmentally harmless lubricants focusing on the lubricant testing aspects. A system of laboratory tests has been developed to study the lubricant performance under the very varied conditions...... appearing in different sheet forming operations such as stretch forming, deep drawing, ironing and punching. The laboratory tests have been especially designed to model the conditions in industrial production. Application of the tests for evaluating new lubricants before introducing them in production has...

  18. Child abuse: underlying mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Gladys S.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confi rmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents. In this article, I...

  19. R gas under diaphragm

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachar Sreevathsa, Maddibande; Melanta, Khyati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The most common cause of gas under diaphragm is hollow viscous perforation. In 10% of cases it can be due to rare causes, both abdominal and extra-abdominal, one of them being intra abdominal infection by gas forming organisms. Presentation of the case: A 51 year old male patient, a poorly controlled diabetic, presented with a second episode of severe pain abdomen and abdominal distention, with lower abdominal tenderness. Plain Xray of the abdomen in erect posture showed gas ...

  20. 17 CFR 269.0-1 - Availability of forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of forms. 269.0-1 Section 269.0-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 § 269.0-1 Availability of forms. (a) This part identifies...

  1. 17 CFR 209.0-1 - Availability of forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of forms. 209.0-1 Section 209.0-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE COMMISSION'S RULES OF PRACTICE § 209.0-1 Availability of forms. (a) This part identifies and...

  2. 17 CFR 274.0-1 - Availability of forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of forms. 274.0-1 Section 274.0-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 274.0-1 Availability of forms. (a) This part identifies...

  3. 17 CFR 279.0-1 - Availability of forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of forms. 279.0-1 Section 279.0-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 279.0-1 Availability of forms. (a) This part...

  4. 17 CFR 259.0-1 - Availability of forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of forms. 259.0-1 Section 259.0-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 § 259.0-1 Availability of forms. (a) This...

  5. 17 CFR 239.0-1 - Availability of forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Availability of forms. 239.0-1 Section 239.0-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 § 239.0-1 Availability of forms. (a) This part identifies and describes...

  6. The Analysis of Forming Forces in Single Point Incremental Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Kyung Hee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental forming is a process to produce sheet metal parts in quick. Because there is no need for dedicated dies and molds, this process is less cost and time spent. The purpose of this study is to investigate forming forces in single point incremental forming. Producing a cone frustum of aluminum is tested for forming forces. A dynamometer is used to collect forming forces and analyze them. These forces are compared with cutting forces upon producing same geometrical shapes of experimental parts. The forming forces in Z direction are 40 times larger than the machining forces. A spindle and its axis of a forming machine should be designed enough to withstand the forming forces.

  7. Summary: special waste form lysimeters - arid program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, R.L.; Walter, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Special Waste Form Lysimeters - Arid Program is to determine the performance of solidified commercial low-level waste forms using a field-scale lysimeter facility constructed for measuring the release and migration of radionuclides from the waste forms. The performance of these waste forms, as measured by radionuclide concentrations in lysimeter effluent, will be compared to that predicted by laboratory characterization of the waste forms. Waste forms being tested include nuclear power reactor waste streams that have been solidified in cement, Dow polymer, and bitumen. To conduct the field leaching experiments a lysimeter facility was built to measure leachate under actual environmental conditions. Field-scale samples of waste were buried in lysimeters equipped to measure water balance components, effluent radionuclide concentrations, and to a limited extent, radionuclide concentrations in lysimeter soil samples. The waste forms are being characterized by standard laboratory leach tests to obtain estimates of radionuclide release. These estimates will be compared to leach rates observed in the field. Adsorption studies are being conducted to determine the amount of contaminant available for transport after the release. Theoretical solubility calculations will also be performed to investigate whether common solid phases could be controlling radionuclide release. 4 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  8. Miscellaneous Waste-Form FEPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Schenker

    2000-12-08

    The US DOE must provide a reasonable assurance that the performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) potential radioactive-waste repository can be achieved for a 10,000-year post-closure period. The guidance that mandates this direction is under the provisions of 10 CFR Part 63 and the US Department of Energy's ''Revised Interim Guidance Pending Issuance of New US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulations (Revision 01, July 22, 1999), for Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (Dyer 1999 and herein referred to as DOE's Interim Guidance). This assurance must be demonstrated in the form of a performance assessment that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the performance of the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of such FEPs on the performance of the potential geologic repository; (3) estimates the expected annual dose to a specified receptor group; and (4) provides the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs.

  9. 76 FR 27077 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form AR-11 and Form AR-11SR, Extension of an Existing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...: Extension of a currently approved information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Alien's Change... Registration requirements, to submit their change of address to USCIS within 10 days from the date of change... Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection under Review: Form AR- 11 and Form AR-11SR, Alien...

  10. Humus forms in two secondary semi-evergreen tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Loranger, Gladys; Ponge, Jean-François; Lavelle, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The dynamics and function of humus forms in tropical forests are still poorly understood. Humus profiles in two secondary semi-evergreen woodlands in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) were analysed micromorphologically. The humus forms are described under the canopy of five dominant tree species at two sites: under Pisonia subcordata and Bursera simaruba in a secondary forest on a Leptosol (Rendzina), and under Swietenia macrophylla, Tabebuia heterophylla and B. simaruba...

  11. Advances in metal forming expert system for metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hingole, Rahulkumar Shivajirao

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive book offers a clear account of the theory and applications of advanced metal forming. It provides a detailed discussion of specific forming processes, such as deep drawing, rolling, bending extrusion and stamping. The author highlights recent developments of metal forming technologies and explains sound, new and powerful expert system techniques for solving advanced engineering problems in metal forming. In addition, the basics of expert systems, their importance and applications to metal forming processes, computer-aided analysis of metalworking processes, formability analysis, mathematical modeling and case studies of individual processes are presented.

  12. Tectonics: The meaning of form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Brandt, Per Aage

    Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill and insi......Tectonics – The meaning of form deals with one of the core topics of architecture: the relationship between form and content. In the world of architecture, form is not only made from brick, glass and wood. Form means something. When a material is processed with sufficient technical skill...... perspectives. You can read the chapters in any order you like – from the beginning, end or the middle. There is no correct order. The project is methodologically inductive: the more essays you read, the broader your knowledge of tectonics get....

  13. Adaptive Municipal e-forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, P.M.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Boerma, A.K.; Weibelzahl, S.; Cristea, A.

    2006-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer eforms online that can be used to request a municipal product or service. To create adaptive e-forms that satisfy the need of end-users, involvement of

  14. Drug development for neurodevelopmental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Lindemann, Lothar; Jønch, Aia E

    2018-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as fragile X syndrome (FXS) result in lifelong cognitive and behavioural deficits and represent a major public health burden. FXS is the most frequent monogenic form of intellectual disability and autism, and the underlying pathophysiology linked to its causal gene...

  15. Monogenic heritable autism gene neuroligin impacts Drosophila social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Nina; Geurten, Bart; Gurvich, Artem; Piepenbrock, David; Kästner, Anne; Zanini, Damiano; Xing, Guanglin; Xie, Wei; Göpfert, Martin C; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Heinrich, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by deficits in social interactions, language development and repetitive behaviours. Multiple genes involved in the formation, specification and maintenance of synapses have been identified as risk factors for ASDs development. Among these are the neuroligin genes which code for postsynaptic cell adhesion molecules that induce the formation of presynapses, promote their maturation and modulate synaptic functions in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Neuroligin-deficient mice display abnormal social and vocal behaviours that resemble ASDs symptoms. Here we show for the fly Drosophila melanogaster that deletion of the dnl2 gene, coding for one of four Neuroligin isoforms, impairs social interactions, alters acoustic communication signals, and affects the transition between different behaviours. dnl2-Deficient flies maintain larger distances to conspecifics and males perform less female-directed courtship and male-directed aggressive behaviours while the patterns of these behaviours and general locomotor activity were not different from wild type controls. Since tests for olfactory, visual and auditory perception revealed no sensory impairments of dnl2-deficient mutants, reduced social interactions seem to result from altered excitability in central nervous neuropils that initiate social behaviours. Our results demonstrate that Neuroligins are phylogenetically conserved not only regarding their structure and direct function at the synapse but also concerning a shared implication in the regulation of social behaviours that dates back to common ancestors of humans and flies. In addition to previously described mouse models, Drosophila can thus be used to study the contribution of Neuroligins to synaptic function, social interactions and their implication in ASDs. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Monogenic and chromosomal causes of isolated speech and language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnett, C.P.; Bon, B.W.M. van

    2015-01-01

    The importance of a precise molecular diagnosis for children with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy has become widely accepted and genetic testing is an integral part of the diagnostic evaluation of these children. In contrast, children with an isolated speech or

  17. Formas e dessorção de cobre em solos cultivados com videira na Serra Gaúcha do Rio Grande do Sul Copper forms and desorption in soils under grapevine in the Serra Gaúcha of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Casali

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available As aplicações sucessivas de fungicidas cúpricos em videiras podem aumentar o teor de cobre total do solo e modificar a sua distribuição e dessorção no perfil do solo. O trabalho objetivou determinar as formas de cobre e a sua dessorção em solos cultivados com videira e submetidos a sucessivas aplicações de fungicidas cúpricos. Amostras de um solo Neossolo Litólico e Cambissolo Húmico foram coletadas em 2006, nas camadas de 0-20 e 20-40 cm, em um vinhedo com 40 anos, em Bento Gonçalves (RS. Amostras de um solo Neossolo Litólico foram coletadas nas mesmas profundidades, em área de mata natural próxima do vinhedo, e os resultados de análise foram usados como referência. Os solos coletados foram conduzidos ao Laboratório de Química e Fertilidade de Solo da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, onde foram secos, moídos, passados em peneira de malha de 2 mm, e submetidos ao fracionamento químico do cobre pela metodologia de Tessier et al. (1979 e à cinética de dessorção de cobre com EDTA 0,05 mol L-1, em pH 6,0, conforme proposto por Fangueiro et al. (2005. Os resultados mostram que a aplicação de fungicidas cúpricos em videiras aumenta o teor total e das frações biodisponíveis de cobre do solo, inclusive na camada de 20-40 cm. A maior parte do cobre dos solos cultivados com a videira encontra-se retido na fração mineral, e do solo sob mata natural, na matéria orgânica principalmente. A maior quantidade do Cu, independentemente dos materiais adsorventes nos solos cultivados com videira, é facilmente dessorvível e pode ser considerada em equilíbrio rápido com o cobre da solução.Successive applications of cupric fungicides to grapevine can increase total copper concentration in the soil and modify its desorption in the soil profile. This study was carried out in 2006 in the soil chemistry and fertility laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria to evaluate copper forms and desorption dynamics in

  18. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  19. Low temperatue ceramic radioactive waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Scheetz, B.E.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Sarkar, A.K.; Atkinson, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary research on low temperature ceramic waste forms based upon modified calcium silicate and aluminate cements is described. Compositional and reaction variations, modified to achieve a strongly consolidated waste form which is reistant to significant change under the anticipated ambient, have been investigated. Extending previous studies in this laboratory, the recent work has utilized combinations of calcium aluminate cements and high early strength portland cements, different supercalcine waste formulations, and other additives. Both modified conventional cement composite consolidation methods and low-temperature hot-pressing methods were used to incorporate the supercalcine into a consolidated form. Products after initial consolidation and after drastic accelerated leaching treatment (hydrothermal leaching) were characterized. Uranium and simulated transuranics were found to be highly resistant to leaching; strontium was relatively resistant in many cases; and cesium leaching was found to be compositionally dependent. 8 tables

  20. ANTISTAPHYLOCOCCAL ACTIVITY OF LIPOSOMAL FORMS OF LINCOMYCIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach SA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the vital problem of modern medicine is a tendency to emerging of both nosocomial and community-acquired strains before antibiotic resistance forming. The complexity of antibiotic therapy of diseases caused by methicillin resistant staphylococci having high poly resistance almost to every classes of antibacterial agents is of prime importance. One of the ways to improve antibacterial preparations still remains the development of their liposomal forms. This work studies antistaphylococcal activity (according to MIC of the liposomal form of lincomycin developed in the Institute of Dermatology and Venereology of Ukraine by Ivanova N. N., the Candidate of Сhemical Sciences.The purpose of this research work was to study liposomal inhibiting concentration of the liposomalny form of lincomycin and a commercial preparation lincomycin (produced by CJSC “Pharmaceutical firm "Darnitsa". Determination of the minimum inhibiting concentration was carried out by a tablet micromethod by consecutive cultivations of the samples under study.It is shown that MIC of liposomal lincomycin is eight times as low as usual lincomycin (0,23mkg/ml to 1,87 mkg/ml. Antibacterial activity of the liposomal form of lincomycin is studied concerning the patients selected from the different biotopes with pyo inflammatory diseases of staphylococcus strains (15 strains – methicillin sensitive, 12 strains - methicillin resistant.It is shown authentically the higher sensitivity of S. aureus strains to the liposomal form of lincomycin in comparison with usual lincomycin . Also 50.0% of MRSA strains were sensitive to the liposomalny form of lincomycin that shows the perspective for the development of the liposomal forms of antibiotics to cure staphylococcal infections.

  1. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  2. Harmony of super form factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhuber, A.; Gürdoğan, Ö.; Mooney, R.; Travaglini, G.; Yang, G.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we continue our systematic study of form factors of half-BPS operators in mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills. In particular, we extend various on-shell techniques known for amplitudes to the case of form factors, including MHV rules, recursion relations, unitarity and dual MHV rules. As an application, we present the solution of the recursion relation for split-helicity form factors. We then consider form factors of the stress-tensor multiplet operator and of its chiral truncation, and write down supersymmetric Ward identities using chiral as well as non-chiral superspace formalisms. This allows us to obtain compact formulae for families of form factors, such as the maximally non-MHV case. Finally we generalise dual MHV rules in dual momentum space to form factors.

  3. FormTracer. A mathematica tracing package using FORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrol, Anton K.; Mitter, Mario; Strodthoff, Nils

    2017-10-01

    We present FormTracer, a high-performance, general purpose, easy-to-use Mathematica tracing package which uses FORM. It supports arbitrary space and spinor dimensions as well as an arbitrary number of simple compact Lie groups. While keeping the usability of the Mathematica interface, it relies on the efficiency of FORM. An additional performance gain is achieved by a decomposition algorithm that avoids redundant traces in the product tensors spaces. FormTracer supports a wide range of syntaxes which endows it with a high flexibility. Mathematica notebooks that automatically install the package and guide the user through performing standard traces in space-time, spinor and gauge-group spaces are provided. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/7rd29h4p3m.1 Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: Mathematica and FORM Nature of problem: Efficiently compute traces of large expressions Solution method: The expression to be traced is decomposed into its subspaces by a recursive Mathematica expansion algorithm. The result is subsequently translated to a FORM script that takes the traces. After FORM is executed, the final result is either imported into Mathematica or exported as optimized C/C++/Fortran code. Unusual features: The outstanding features of FormTracer are the simple interface, the capability to efficiently handle an arbitrary number of Lie groups in addition to Dirac and Lorentz tensors, and a customizable input-syntax.

  4. Phosphorus Forms and Distribution in Selected Soils Formed Over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphorus Forms and Distribution in Selected Soils Formed Over Different Parent Materials in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Fe-P. Organic P correlated positively with Fe-P, Al-P and total P. Ca-P correlated negatively with sand and positively with organic carbon, exchangeable Ca, Al-P and total P. Fe-P correlated positively with ...

  5. Forming processes and mechanics of sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchitz, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The report is dealing with the numerical analysis of forming processes. Forming processes is the large group of manufacturing processes used to obtain various product shapes by means of plastic deformations. The report is organized as follows. An overview of the deformation processes and the

  6. Seal for fluid forming tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich [Beverly Hills, MI; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis [Milford, MI

    2012-03-20

    An electro-hydraulic forming tool for forming a sheet metal blank in a one-sided die has first and second rigid rings that engage opposite sides of a sheet metal blank. The rigid rings are contained within slots on a die portion and a hydraulic force applicator portion of the forming tool. The seals are either resiliently biased by an elastomeric member or inherently resiliently biased into contact with the blank.

  7. Laser forming and welding processes

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shuja, Shahzada Zaman

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces model studies and experimental results associated with laser forming and welding such as laser induced bending, welding of sheet metals, and related practical applications. The book provides insight into the physical processes involved with laser forming and welding. The analytical study covers the formulation of laser induced bending while the model study demonstrates the simulation of bending and welding processes using the finite element method. Analytical and numerical solutions for laser forming and welding problems are provided.

  8. Confectionery-based dose forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangso, Kristian J; Ho, Quy Phuong; Boyd, Ben J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional dosage forms such as tablets, capsules and syrups are prescribed in the normal course of practice. However, concerns about patient preferences and market demands have given rise to the exploration of novel unconventional dosage forms. Among these, confectionery-based dose forms have strong potential to overcome compliance problems. This report will review the availability of these unconventional dose forms used in treating the oral cavity and for systemic drug delivery, with a focus on medicated chewing gums, medicated lollipops, and oral bioadhesive devices. The aim is to stimulate increased interest in the opportunities for innovative new products that are available to formulators in this field, particularly for atypical patient populations.

  9. INFORMATIONAL EFFECT OF A FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko V.F.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted by method of light scattering of laser emission. The influence of the form field, mutual influence of mental informational and form torsional fields as well as the following exposure of water samples in the form field after the cease of informational influence on water structure were examined. Paper forms of a pyramid, a cylinder, and a prism were used. The experimental findings show that mechanism of mutual influence on water structure of the form and informational torsional fields depended on the initial conditions of spin restructuring process – the configuration of a form, the type of the form field (internal and external ones, and the initial water structure. The influence of the form field on informational aftereffect was determined, the character of which was defined by ratio of intensities of torsional form field and an informational soliton. The phenomenon of the abnormally large amplification of the informational aftereffect in the internal field of a pyramid demonstrating the attributes of positive reverse connection between the informational soliton and torsional field of water structure and selection of generated cluster sizes were discovered.

  10. The Landscape Form of the Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van der Velde

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When the city disintegrates into an archipelago of fragments a new role is imposed on the landscape as a carrier of topographical characterizations, cohesion and continuity. Patterns such as transportation corridors, settlement areas and landscape voids can be regarded as latent macro-landscape forms of the metropolitan territory. In the staging of the metropolis these forms need to be embedded in a compositional structure that addresses fragmentation and disorientation, without relapsing into utopian forms of the traditional city that have proven inadequate for the metropolitan condition.The potential basis to inform this structure is the landscape itself: permanent, neutral and ubiquitous. The underlying landscape also contains an annotated catalogue of situations, in which the genius loci is recorded and secured. These latent compositional elements are transformed into landscape architectural ‘narratives’ within the topography of the emerging metropolis. The enlargement and distortion of specific topographies result in a field of new topologies, drawn from the genius loci and from local cultures and customs. The question is not so much if metropolitan form is determined by landscape, but how we can use it to structure and give meaning to dispersed territories. This involves a delicate choreography of macro-landscape forms and the micro-topography of landscape places. 

  11. NETWORK CODING BY BEAM FORMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Network coding by beam forming in networks, for example, in single frequency networks, can provide aid in increasing spectral efficiency. When network coding by beam forming and user cooperation are combined, spectral efficiency gains may be achieved. According to certain embodiments, a method...

  12. The nucleon's strange form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of the nucleon's strange form factors will provide valuable insight into low energy hadron structure. Measurement of the vector strange form factor of the nucleon is accomplished through parity-violating electron scattering. This paper reviews the current status of this class of experiments

  13. Automated Test-Form Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  14. 46 CFR 310.12-1 - Form of Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Minimum Standards for State, Territorial or Regional Maritime Academies and Colleges § 310.12-1 Form of... support payments, Federal student subsistence and incentive payments and fuel assistance under the 1958...

  15. Topics on the FORM software; Topicos do software FORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Jorge, Patricia M. da; Peres, Patricia Duarte [Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia da Computacao

    1997-06-01

    These notes studies the compilation with FORM software as applied to high energy physics, covering the following topics: Command structures, statistics and numbers, Dirac matrices, optimization control, Gamma matrices, errors and polynomial substitution

  16. Near net shape forming unsing semi-solid metal forming

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available is supplied in specific lengths , which means there would be additional scrap created by off cuts. • During reheating oxidation of the billet surface occurs therefore dies have to be designed to remove oxides during the forming process. • During... Absorption Process consistency 2005 Advantages of Using The SSM Forming Methods • High wall thicknesses and different wall thicknesses can be designed • Low gas porosity due to laminar filling and good airing • Low solidification porosity due...

  17. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Milian, L.; Clinton, J.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  18. TS/EL ELECTRICAL WORK REQUEST FORM

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    To facilitate the processing of requests for minor electrical installation work to be carried out by the TS/EL group, a new procedure designed to improve contacts and exchange of information with customers has been set up. The procedure comprises a check to determine whether the TS/EL or the TS/FM group is responsible for the area where the electrical work is to be done. If the work is to be performed by the EL group, an on-line request form must be completed. The following steps must be completed: On a web browser, use the link http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/el/el.htm In the left-hand menu choose ‘Demande de Travaux Electriques’ Enter the building number to check which group to contact and click ‘FIND’ If the area is: Under FM’s responsibility:\tCall 77777 Under EL’s responsibility:\tClick the link to the work form, complete it and send it (click ‘ENVOYER’) IMPORTANT This form is for minor electrical installation requests only. Please call 72201 in t...

  19. Ultrasonic imaging of sheet metal forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitmann-Curdes, Oliver; Hansen, Christian; Knoll, Patrick; Meier, Horst; Ermert, Helmut

    2004-04-01

    With sheet metal hydroforming, a sheet metal is formed by a liquid medium under high pressure (up to 1000 bar) and a cavity contour (die). As the exact state of forming is of interest, an ultrasonic imaging system is under development. The task is to determine the geometry of a sheet metal contour with respect to the original (before forming) and the final (die) state of the sheet metal. For this purpose, two different contour reconstruction algorithms were designed, tested and compared. With the reconstruction results it will be possible to determine the optimal distribution of transmitters and receivers in the ultrasonic transducer matrix. Experiments were conducted with one pair of transducers (unfocussed, center frequency 2 MHz) and a three axis stepper motor set-up. For each experimental set of data, the contour was reconstructed with both SAFT reconstruction algorithms. Both algorithms incorporate a priori information such as original and final contour and maximal axial dislocation of the sheet metal. The results for both algorithms are compared and the relative mean error in axial direction is 0.30% and 0.48%.

  20. Differential forms theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Differential forms are utilized as a mathematical technique to help students, researchers, and engineers analyze and interpret problems where abstract spaces and structures are concerned, and when questions of shape, size, and relative positions are involved. Differential Forms has gained high recognition in the mathematical and scientific community as a powerful computational tool in solving research problems and simplifying very abstract problems through mathematical analysis on a computer. Differential Forms, 2nd Edition, is a solid resource for students and professionals needing a solid g

  1. Entropic Forms and Related Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maria Scarfone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a very general trace-form entropy, we introduce a pair of algebraic structures endowed by a generalized sum and a generalized product. These algebras form, respectively, two Abelian fields in the realm of the complex numbers isomorphic each other. We specify our results to several entropic forms related to distributions recurrently observed in social, economical, biological and physical systems including the stretched exponential, the power-law and the interpolating Bosons-Fermions distributions. Some potential applications in the study of complex systems are advanced.

  2. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  3. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 202 - Sample Notification Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sufficient length to qualify. ___ could not be verified. Your Credit History: ___ of making payments on time... CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B) Pt. 202, App. C Appendix C to Part 202—Sample Notification Forms 1... connection with applications for business credit under § 202.9(a)(3). Form C-9 is designed for use in...

  4. Mobility of inorganic and organic phosphorus forms under different levels of phosphate and poultry litter fertilization in soils Mobilidade de formas inorgânicas e orgânicas de fósforo sob diferentes doses de adubação fosfatada e cama de aviário em solos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Oliveira Gebrim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The eutrophication of aquifers is strongly linked to the mobility of P in soils. Although P mobility was considered irrelevant in a more distant past, more recent studies have shown that P, both in organic (Po and inorganic forms (Pi, can be lost by leaching and eluviation through the soil profile, particularly in less weathered and/or sandier soils with low P adsorption capacity. The purpose of this study was to determine losses of P forms by leaching and eluviation from soil columns. Each column consisted of five PVC rings (diameter 5 cm, height 10 cm, filled with two soil types: a clayey Red-Yellow Latosol and a sandy loam Red-Yellow Latosol, which were exposed to water percolation. The soils were previously treated with four P rates (as KH2PO4 to reach 0, 12.5, 25.0 and 50 % of the maximum P adsorption capacity (MPAC. The P source was homogenized with the whole soil volume and incubated for 60 days. After this period the soils were placed in the columns; the soil of the top ring was mixed with five poultry litter rates of 0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 t ha-1 (dry weight basis. Treatments consisted of a 4 x 5 x 2 factorial scheme corresponding to four MPAC levels, five poultry litter rates, two soils, with three replications, arranged in a completely randomized block design. Deionized water was percolated through the columns 10 times in 35 days to simulate about 1,200 mm rainfall. In the leachate of each column the inorganic P (reactive P, Pi and organic P forms (unreactive P, Po were determined. At the end of the experiment, the columns were disassembled and P was extracted with the extractants Mehlich-1 (HCl 0.05 mol L-1 and H2SO4 0.0125 mol L-1 and Olsen (NaHCO3 0.5 mol L-1; pH 8.5 from the soil of each ring. The Pi and Po fractions were measured by the Olsen extractant. It was found that under higher poultry litter rates the losses of unreactive P (Po were 6.4 times higher than of reactive P (Pi. Both the previous P fertilization and increasing

  5. Methods of forming CIGS films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Lorelle; Ramanathan, Kannan

    2017-09-19

    Methods for forming CIGS films are provided. According to an aspect of the invention, a method of forming a CIGS film includes a precursor step, which includes simultaneously evaporating Cu, In, Ga, Se, and Sb onto a substrate. The Se is incident on the substrate at a rate of at least 20 .ANG./s. The method also includes a selenization step, which includes evaporating Se over the substrate after the precursor step.

  6. Positive geometries and canonical forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bai, Yuntao; Lam, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Recent years have seen a surprising connection between the physics of scattering amplitudes and a class of mathematical objects — the positive Grassmannian, positive loop Grassmannians, tree and loop Amplituhedra — which have been loosely referred to as "positive geometries". The connection between the geometry and physics is provided by a unique differential form canonically determined by the property of having logarithmic singularities (only) on all the boundaries of the space, with residues on each boundary given by the canonical form on that boundary. The structures seen in the physical setting of the Amplituhedron are both rigid and rich enough to motivate an investigation of the notions of "positive geometries" and their associated "canonical forms" as objects of study in their own right, in a more general mathematical setting. In this paper we take the first steps in this direction. We begin by giving a precise definition of positive geometries and canonical forms, and introduce two general methods for finding forms for more complicated positive geometries from simpler ones — via "triangulation" on the one hand, and "push-forward" maps between geometries on the other. We present numerous examples of positive geometries in projective spaces, Grassmannians, and toric, cluster and flag varieties, both for the simplest "simplex-like" geometries and the richer "polytope-like" ones. We also illustrate a number of strategies for computing canonical forms for large classes of positive geometries, ranging from a direct determination exploiting knowledge of zeros and poles, to the use of the general triangulation and push-forward methods, to the representation of the form as volume integrals over dual geometries and contour integrals over auxiliary spaces. These methods yield interesting representations for the canonical forms of wide classes of positive geometries, ranging from the simplest Amplituhedra to new expressions for the volume of arbitrary convex

  7. Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, G

    2002-01-01

    Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.

  8. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees

  9. Critical Wave Forms in Dry Type Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kenneth; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns critical wave forms in dry type transformers under transient voltage application. A very general approach has been applied, meaning that many of the results will be applicable to various types of power transformers. The results can be very useful if they are combined...... with knowledge of the ageing effects of the insulation. Especially fast transients are likely to become a major issue due to fast breakers and power electronics. In order to perform relevant research in transformer insulation with respect to this subject, fundamental knowledge about the transmission...... and distortion of incoming transients is required. Thus, in this paper it is illustrated how the resulting internal wave forms are affected by different transformer characteristics....

  10. Chemical compatibility of DWPF canistered waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require that the contents of the canistered waste form are compatible with one another and the stainless steel canister. The canistered waste form is a closed system comprised of a stainless steel vessel containing waste glass, air, and condensate. This system will experience a radiation field and an elevated temperature due to radionuclide decay. This report discusses possible chemical reactions, radiation interactions, and corrosive reactions within this system both under normal storage conditions and after exposure to temperatures up to the normal glass transition temperature, which for DWPF waste glass will be between 440 and 460 degrees C. Specific conclusions regarding reactions and corrosion are provided. This document is based on the assumption that the period of interim storage prior to packaging at the federal repository may be as long as 50 years

  11. SuperFormLab: showing SuperFormLab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    3D-printing in clay and ceramic objects shaped by your own sounds and movements! Digital form transferred via CNC-milling to ornamental ceramic wall-cladding. Brave New World… Students and their teacher at SuperFormLab, the new ceramic workshop of the School of Design at the Royal Danish Academy...... of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, will be showing results of their investigations into the potential of combining digital technologies with ceramic materials. It is now possible to shape the most complex mathematical, virtual 3D objects through the use of advanced software-programs. And more than that – you can...... now get these objects out of the computer and be able to hold and experience them with your hands. Even made in clay. At SuperFormLab, workshop for the new education in Ceramic Design at the School of Design, the integration of digital technologies in relation to the ceramic materials and techniques...

  12. 75 FR 33670 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 2032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ..., Public Law 104-13(44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 2032, Contract Coverage Under Title II of the Social Security Act. DATES: Written comments should [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Contract Coverage Under Title II of the Social...

  13. 78 FR 28020 - Proposed Collection: Comment Request for Form 2032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ..., Public Law 104-13(44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 2032, Contract Coverage Under Title II of the Social Security Act. DATES: Written comments should be... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Contract Coverage Under Title II of the Social Security Act. OMB Number: 1545...

  14. Standard forms of construction contracts in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bănică

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry in Romania is under pressure to modernize in order to cope with the new demands of development and convergence with EU. Contractual procedures in construction have to become an integral part in this process of modernization. The article makes an introduction to the advantages of standard forms of contract and professional contract administration in construction and presents the current state-of-the art in the use of standard construction contracts in Romania. Some practical conclusions and recommendations are presented considering the need for further contract studies.

  15. Characterizing haploinsufficiency of SHELL gene to improve fruit form prediction in introgressive hybrids of oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Chee Keng; Muaz, Siti Dalila; Tangaya, Praveena; Fong, Po-Yee; Ong, Ai Ling; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David Ross

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental trait in selective breeding of oil palm (Eleais guineensis Jacq.) is the shell thickness surrounding the kernel. The monogenic shell thickness is inversely correlated to mesocarp thickness, where the crude palm oil accumulates. Commercial thin-shelled tenera derived from thick-shelled dura???shell-less pisifera generally contain 30% higher oil per bunch. Two mutations, sh MPOB (M1) and sh AVROS (M2) in the SHELL gene ? a type II MADS-box transcription factor mainly present in ...

  16. Molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial persisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisonneuve, Etienne; Gerdes, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    All bacteria form persisters, cells that are multidrug tolerant and therefore able to survive antibiotic treatment. Due to the low frequencies of persisters in growing bacterial cultures and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms, the phenomenon has been challenging to study. However, recent...

  17. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms

  18. Cells, walls, and endless forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monniaux, Marie; Hay, Angela

    2016-12-01

    A key question in biology is how the endless diversity of forms found in nature evolved. Understanding the cellular basis of this diversity has been aided by advances in non-model experimental systems, quantitative image analysis tools, and modeling approaches. Recent work in plants highlights the importance of cell wall and cuticle modifications for the emergence of diverse forms and functions. For example, explosive seed dispersal in Cardamine hirsuta depends on the asymmetric localization of lignified cell wall thickenings in the fruit valve. Similarly, the iridescence of Hibiscus trionum petals relies on regular striations formed by cuticular folds. Moreover, NAC transcription factors regulate the differentiation of lignified xylem vessels but also the water-conducting cells of moss that lack a lignified secondary cell wall, pointing to the origin of vascular systems. Other novel forms are associated with modified cell growth patterns, including oriented cell expansion or division, found in the long petal spurs of Aquilegia flowers, and the Sarracenia purpurea pitcher leaf, respectively. Another good example is the regulation of dissected leaf shape in C. hirsuta via local growth repression, controlled by the REDUCED COMPLEXITY HD-ZIP class I transcription factor. These studies in non-model species often reveal as much about fundamental processes of development as they do about the evolution of form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-exposure to moving form enhances static form sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S A Wallis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motion-defined form can seem to persist briefly after motion ceases, before seeming to gradually disappear into the background. Here we investigate if this subjective persistence reflects a signal capable of improving objective measures of sensitivity to static form. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented a sinusoidal modulation of luminance, masked by a background noise pattern. The sinusoidal luminance modulation was usually subjectively invisible when static, but visible when moving. We found that drifting then stopping the waveform resulted in a transient subjective persistence of the waveform in the static display. Observers' objective sensitivity to the position of the static waveform was also improved after viewing moving waveforms, compared to viewing static waveforms for a matched duration. This facilitation did not occur simply because movement provided more perspectives of the waveform, since performance following pre-exposure to scrambled animations did not match that following pre-exposure to smooth motion. Observers did not simply remember waveform positions at motion offset, since removing the waveform before testing reduced performance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Motion processing therefore interacts with subsequent static visual inputs in a way that can improve performance in objective sensitivity measures. We suggest that the brief subjective persistence of motion-defined forms that can occur after motion offsets is a consequence of the decay of a static form signal that has been transiently enhanced by motion processing.

  20. Form Filling with SCC in a Vertical Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2004-01-01

    been produced. To improve identification of the flow (i.e. dead zones, plug flow, laminar flow, turbulent flow, blocking etc.) the form has one transparent acrylic plate and it has shown valuable to change between normal greyish concrete, and a pigmented (red) concrete during the filling process...

  1. Toroidal helical quartz forming machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanks, K.W.; Cole, T.R.

    1977-01-01

    The Scyllac fusion experimental machine used 10 cm diameter smooth bore discharge tubes formed into a simple toroidal shape prior to 1974. At about that time, it was discovered that a discharge tube was required to follow the convoluted shape of the load coil. A machine was designed and built to form a fused quartz tube with a toroidal shape. The machine will accommodate quartz tubes from 5 cm to 20 cm diameter forming it into a 4 m toroidal radius with a 1 to 5 cm helical displacement. The machine will also generate a helical shape on a linear tube. Two sets of tubes with different helical radii and wavelengths have been successfully fabricated. The problems encountered with the design and fabrication of this machine are discussed

  2. Amorphous drugs and dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Löbmann, K.; Priemel, P.

    2013-01-01

    The transformation to an amorphous form is one of the most promising approaches to address the low solubility of drug compounds, the latter being an increasing challenge in the development of new drug candidates. However, amorphous forms are high energy solids and tend to recry stallize. New...... formulation principles are needed to ensure the stability of amorphous drug forms. The formation of solid dispersions is still the most investigated approach, but additional approaches are desirable to overcome the shortcomings of solid dispersions. Spatial separation by either coating or the use of micro......-containers has shown potential to prevent or delay recrystallization. Another recent approach is the formation of co-amorphous mixtures between either two drugs or one drug and one low molecular weight excipient. Molecular interactions between the two molecules provide an energy barrier that has to be overcome...

  3. New directions in Dirichlet forms

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen; Mosco, Umberto; Rockner, Michael; Sturm, Karl-Theodor

    1998-01-01

    The theory of Dirichlet forms brings together methods and insights from the calculus of variations, stochastic analysis, partial differential and difference equations, potential theory, Riemannian geometry and more. This book features contributions by leading experts and provides up-to-date, authoritative accounts on exciting developments in the field and on new research perspectives. Topics covered include the following: stochastic analysis on configuration spaces, specifically a mathematically rigorous approach to the stochastic dynamics of Gibbs measures and infinite interacting particle systems; subelliptic PDE, homogenization, and fractals; geometric aspects of Dirichlet forms on metric spaces and function theory on such spaces; generalized harmonic maps as nonlinear analogues of Dirichlet forms, with an emphasis on non-locally compact situations; and a stochastic approach based on Brownian motion to harmonic maps and their regularity. Various new connections between the topics are featured, and it is de...

  4. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...

  5. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...

  6. Methods of forming boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  7. Mathematics and Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin Schroeder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Wittgenstein, mathematics is embedded in, and partly constituting, a form of life. Hence, to imagine different, alternative forms of elementary mathematics, we should have to imagine different practices, different forms of life in which they could play a role. If we tried to imagine a radically different arithmetic we should think either of a strange world (in which objects unaccountably vanish or appear or of people acting and responding in very peculiar ways. If such was their practice, a calculus expressing the norms of representation they applied could not be called false. Rather, our criticism could only be to dismiss such a practice as foolish and to dismiss their norms as too different from ours to be called ‘mathematics’.

  8. Differential forms on electromagnetic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, N V; Sen Gupta, D P

    2013-01-01

    Differential Forms on Electromagnetic Networks deals with the use of combinatorial techniques in electrical circuit, machine analysis, and the relationship between circuit quantities and electromagnetic fields. The monograph is also an introduction to the organization of field equations by the methods of differential forms. The book covers topics such as algebraic structural relations in an electric circuit; mesh and node-pair analysis; exterior differential structures; generalized Stoke's theorem and tensor analysis; and Maxwell's electromagnetic equation. Also covered in the book are the app

  9. Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Lucia C.

    2013-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin drives plant growth and morphogenesis. The levels and distribution of the active auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are tightly controlled through synthesis, inactivation, and transport. Many auxin precursors and modified auxin forms, used to regulate auxin homeostasis, have been identified; however, very little is known about the integration of multiple auxin biosynthesis and inactivation pathways. This review discusses the many ways auxin levels are regulated through biosynthesis, storage forms, and inactivation, and the potential roles modified auxins play in regulating the bioactive pool of auxin to affect plant growth and development. PMID:23580748

  10. $K_{13}$ transition form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Chueng Ryong Ji

    2001-01-01

    The rainbow truncation of the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation is combined with the ladder Bethe-Salpeter equation for the meson bound state amplitudes and the dressed quark-W vertex in a manifestly covariant calculation of the K/sub l3/ transition form factors and decay width in the impulse approximation. With model gluon parameters previously fixed by the chiral condensate, the pion mass and decay constant, and the kaon mass, our results for the K/sub l3/ form factors and the kaon semileptonic decay width are in good agreement with the experimental data. (37 refs).

  11. PASSIVATION LAYER STABILITY OF A METALLIC ALLOY WASTE FORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.; Mickalonis, J.; Fisher, D.; Sindelar, R.

    2010-01-01

    Alloy waste form development under the Waste Forms Campaign of the DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development program includes the process development and characterization of an alloy system to incorporate metal species from the waste streams generated during nuclear fuel recycling. This report describes the tests and results from the FY10 activities to further investigate an Fe-based waste form that uses 300-series stainless steel as the base alloy in an induction furnace melt process to incorporate the waste species from a closed nuclear fuel recycle separations scheme. This report is focused on the initial activities to investigate the formation of oxyhydroxide layer(s) that would be expected to develop on the Fe-based waste form as it corrodes under aqueous repository conditions. Corrosion tests were used to evaluate the stability of the layer(s) that can act as a passivation layer against further corrosion and would affect waste form durability in a disposal environment.

  12. Development and evaluation of candidate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Some seventeen candidate waste forms have been investigated under US Department of Energy programs as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. Two of these HLW forms were selected at the end of fiscal year (FY) 1981 for intensive development if FY 1982 to 1983. Borosilicate glass was continued as the reference form. A crystalline ceramic waste form, SYNROC, was selected for further product formulation and process development as the alternative to borosilicate glass. This paper describes the bases on which this decision was made

  13. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food‐protein‐induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Spin-forming Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzner, Nathan; Henry, Dick

    2009-03-20

    In a second development order, spin-forming equipment was again evaluated using the test shape, a hemispherical shell. In this second development order, pure vanadium and alloy titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) were spin-formed, as well as additional copper and 21-6-9 stainless. In the first development order the following materials had been spin-formed: copper (alloy C11000 ETP), 6061 aluminum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and tantalum-2.5% tungsten. Significant challenges included properly adjusting the rotations-per-minute (RPM), cracking at un-beveled edges and laser marks, redressing of notches, surface cracking, non-uniform temperature evolution in the titanium, and cracking of the tailstock. Lessons learned were that 300 RPM worked better than 600 RPM for most materials (at the feed rate of 800 mm/min); beveling the edges to lower the stress reduces edge cracking; notches, laser marks, or edge defects in the preform doom the process to cracking and failure; coolant is required for vanadium spin-forming; increasing the number of passes to nine or more eliminates surface cracking for vanadium; titanium develops a hot zone in front of the rollers; and the tailstock should be redesigned to eliminate the cylindrical stress concentrator in the center.

  15. Smooth functors vs. differential forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, U.; Waldorf, K.

    2011-01-01

    We establish a relation between smooth 2-functors defined on the path 2-groupoid of a smooth manifold and differential forms on this manifold. This relation can be understood as a part of a dictionary between fundamental notions from category theory and differential geometry. We show that smooth

  16. Constitutive modelling for composite forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Remko; Lamers, E.A.D.; Long, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Fibre reorientation occurs when forming a reinforced structure such as a fabric onto a doubly curved surface. This leads to a change in the angle between warp and fill yarns. The composite properties change inhomogeneously, corresponding to the varying angle between warp and fill yarns. Many

  17. Generalized forms and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nurowski, P

    2002-01-01

    The calculus of generalized p-forms, -1 <= p <= n, is developed further. On an n-dimensional manifold with metric, M, a (Hodge) star operator, inner product, co-differential and Laplacian operators are introduced. The inner product and Lie derivative with respect to vector fields on M are defined. Applications are made to Hamiltonian mechanics, field theories and Einstein's vacuum equations.

  18. Green Lubricants for Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The increasing focus on legislation towards diminishing the impact on working environment as well as external environment has driven efforts to develop new, environmentally benign lubricants for metal forming. The present paper gives an overview of these efforts to substitute environmentally...

  19. New forms of quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.K.; Rajasekaran, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new two-parameter deformation of the algebra of creation and destruction operators, which allows the construction of a new family of Hillbert spaces with positive definite inner product is proposed. This provides a continuous interpolation between two new forms of statistics named orthofermi and orthobose statistics. Positivity of the inner product over the two-parameter region is discussed. (author). 8 refs

  20. Collaborating with Forms in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Aileen Pugliese

    2011-01-01

    Taking students outside is a great opportunity to make art. In this article, the author describes how her students collaborated with forms in nature to create their own visual structures to communicate ideas. This lesson can be done on the beach, in a sand box on the school playground, in grassy areas, or nature can even be brought into the…

  1. Fast form alpha-2-macroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft, Daniel; Gram, Jørgen Brodersen; Larsen, Anette

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we investigated whether an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), that specifically measures the electrophoretic "fast form" of α2-macroglobulin (F-α2M), could be a sensitive and global marker for activation of calcium dependent and in-dependent proteases in plasma exposed to biomaterials...

  2. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically uniqu...

  3. Technetium Immobilization Forms Literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-05-01

    Of the many radionuclides and contaminants in the tank wastes stored at the Hanford site, technetium-99 (99Tc) is one of the most challenging to effectively immobilize in a waste form for ultimate disposal. Within the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the Tc will partition between both the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the tank waste. The HLW fraction will be converted to a glass waste form in the HLW vitrification facility and the LAW fraction will be converted to another glass waste form in the LAW vitrification facility. In both vitrification facilities, the Tc is incorporated into the glass waste form but a significant fraction of the Tc volatilizes at the high glass-melting temperatures and is captured in the off-gas treatment systems at both facilities. The aqueous off-gas condensate solution containing the volatilized Tc is recycled and is added to the LAW glass melter feed. This recycle process is effective in increasing the loading of Tc in the LAW glass but it also disproportionally increases the sulfur and halides in the LAW melter feed which increases both the amount of LAW glass and either the duration of the LAW vitrification mission or the required supplemental LAW treatment capacity.

  4. Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds

  5. Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga [International Technology Center, 8100 Brownleigh Drive, Suite 120, Raleigh, NC 27617 (United States)], E-mail: oshenderova@itc-inc.org

    2008-06-04

    Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds.

  6. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  7. Ultrasonographic features of pseudotumorous form of ascariasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Joyce Y.H.; Woo, Patrick C.Y. E-mail: pcywoo@hkucc.hku.hk; Kan, Pan Shing; Lai, Yeong Man; Tang, Alice P.Y

    2001-09-01

    We report the ultrasonographic findings of a 60 year old woman with pseudotumorous form of ascariasis. Real-time ultrasonographic examination using a curved array transducer revealed grossly thickened small bowel loops, multiple small circular deposits throughout the peritoneal cavity, and a moderate amount of ascites. The English literature on the different forms of abdominal ascariasis is reviewed. Specific signs, which include the 'strip' sign, the 'four-lines', 'inner tube', or 'double tube' sign, the 'bull's eye' or 'target' sign, a 'worm mass' or 'spaghetti-like' appearance, and the 'zig-zag' sign can be present in any form of abdominal ascariasis, as they represent the image of the Ascaris worms visualized under ultrasonographic examination. However, the non-specific signs are not peculiar to A. lumbricoides infections, but are results of secondary changes due to A. lumbricoides infections in the corresponding organs.

  8. Terra firma-forme dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Erkek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terra firma-forme dermatosis is characterized by ′dirty′ brown-grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can simply be eradicated by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. Although affected patients present with typical lesions, the disorder is not well-known by dermatologists. In this report, we describe two patients with terra firma-forme dermatosis in the setting of xerosis cutis and atopic dermatitis. From a clinical point of view, we lay emphasis on its unique expression and diagnosis/treatment. From a histological perspective, we highlight its resemblance to dermatosis neglecta and speculate on the role of ′neglect′ in a patient with seemingly adequate hygiene. The role of urea containing emollients in the development of this disorder remains to be determined.

  9. Strange mesonic transition form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goity, J.L.; Musolf, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The strange-quark vector current ρ-to-π meson transition form factor is computed at one-loop order using strange meson intermediate states. A comparison is made with a φ-meson dominance model estimate. We find that one-loop contributions are comparable in magnitude to those predicted by φ-meson dominance. It is possible that the one-loop contribution can make the matrix element as large as those of the electromagnetic current mediating vector meson radiative decays. However, due to the quadratic dependence of the one-loop results on the hadronic form factor cutoff mass, a large uncertainty in the estimate of the loops is unavoidable. These results indicate that non-nucleonic strange quarks could contribute appreciable in moderate-parallel Q 2 parallel parity-violating electron-nucleus scattering measurements aimed at probing the strange-quark content of the nucleon. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  11. The integral form of supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Catenacci, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Gruppo Nazionale di Fisica Matematica, INdAM,P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Grassi, P.A. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale,Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-10-11

    By using integral forms we derive the superspace action of D=3,N=1 supergravity as an integral on a supermanifold. The construction is based on target space picture changing operators, here playing the rôle of Poincaré duals to the lower-dimensional spacetime surfaces embedded into the supermanifold. We show how the group geometrical action based on the group manifold approach interpolates between the superspace and the component supergravity actions, thus providing another proof of their equivalence.

  12. Recall in extensive form games

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers characterizations of perfect recall in extensive form games. It is shown that perfect recall can be expressed in terms of choices without any reference to infomation sets. When information sets are taken into account, it is decomposable into an ordering of information sets and that players do not forget what they knew nor what they did. Thus, if information sets are partially ordered, then perfect recall is implied by the player's inability to refine her information from ...

  13. Benign bone-forming tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Staebler, A.; Steinborn, M.; Woertler, K.

    2001-01-01

    Benign bone-forming tumors include osteomas, enostomas, osteoid osteomas, and osteoblastomas. These lesions are often characterized by typical imaging findings on radiographs, CT and MR imaging studies. Radiologic findings and additional clinical information allow for a specific diagnosis in most cases. This review article emphasizes the radiological patterns of benign boneforming tumors as well as their epidemiological, clinical, and pathological characteristics. In addition, minimally invasive interventional procedures for the therapy of osteoid osteoma are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  14. Terra firma-forme dermatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Emine; Guarneri, Claudio; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Wollina, Uwe; Tchernev, Georgi

    2017-03-01

    Terra firma-forme dermatosis (TFFD) belongs to the group of "dirty dermatoses" and represents a not well-known and surely underestimated vexing skin condition. Firstly described by Duncan, Tschen and Knox in 1987, it accounts for a few case series in the literature and has a still undefined aetiology. The authors present an additional report of TFFD, occurring in a young Caucasian girl, and briefly review the current medical literature on the topic.

  15. Forming a multinational joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, N.K.; Garb, R.H.; Statton, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the basis and mechanics for forming a multinational joint venture. The topics of the paper include the motivations for a joint venture, selection of the appropriate co-venturer, management of the multinational joint venture, and the joint venture agreement. The authors state that a joint venture is not applicable or desirable in all instances and to be successful, must be carefully planned

  16. Modular forms a classical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The theory of modular forms is a fundamental tool used in many areas of mathematics and physics. It is also a very concrete and "fun" subject in itself and abounds with an amazing number of surprising identities. This comprehensive textbook, which includes numerous exercises, aims to give a complete picture of the classical aspects of the subject, with an emphasis on explicit formulas. After a number of motivating examples such as elliptic functions and theta functions, the modular group, its subgroups, and general aspects of holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms are explained, with an emphasis on explicit examples. The heart of the book is the classical theory developed by Hecke and continued up to the Atkin-Lehner-Li theory of newforms and including the theory of Eisenstein series, Rankin-Selberg theory, and a more general theory of theta series including the Weil representation. The final chapter explores in some detail more general types of modular forms such as half-integral weight, Hilbert, Jacob...

  17. Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlovsky, L.I. [Nichols Research Corp., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.

  18. Organizational forms and knowledge absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the entire portion of knowledge in an organization is a challenging task. At the organizational level, there can be enormous quantities of unknown, poorly valued or inefficiently applied knowledge. This is normally followed with the underdeveloped potential or inability of organizations to absorb knowledge from external sources. Facilitation of the efficient internal flow of knowledge within the established communication network may positively affect organizational capacity to absorb or identify, share and subsequently apply knowledge to commercial ends. Based on the evidences that the adoption of different organizational forms affects knowledge flows within an organization, this research analyzed the relationship between common organizational forms and absorptive capacity of organizations. In this paper, we test the hypothesis stating that the organizational structure affects knowledge absorption and exploitation in the organization. The methodology included quantitative and qualitative research method based on a questionnaire, while the data has been statistically analyzed and the hypothesis has been tested with the use of cross-tabulation and chi-square tests. The findings suggest that the type of organizational form affects knowledge absorption capacity and that having a less formalized and more flexible structure in an organization increases absorbing and exploiting opportunities of potentially valuable knowledge.

  19. EM Form Factors and OLYMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohl Michael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The elastic form factors of the nucleon characterize the distributions of charge and magnetization in momentum space and are important input for calculations of strong interaction phenomena and nuclear structure. The dramatic discrepancy in the observed ratio of elastic proton form factors between the Rosenbluth separation and polarization transfer methods has invoked numerous theoretical and experimental investigations. The previously neglected effect from two-photon exchange has become the favored explanation for the discrepancy. While the effect can not be calculated from first principles, it can be verified experimentally in several ways, most stringently by comparing the positron- proton and electron-proton elastic cross sections. The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY has been carried out to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange using intense stored positron and electron beams along with an internal unpolarized hydrogen target and a large acceptance detector to measure the ratio of the positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections. The status of proton form factor measurements and of the experimental efforts to verify the effect of two-photon exchange is presented, with some emphasis on the OLYMPUS experiment.

  20. 77 FR 65706 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker, Form I-140...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Petition for Alien Worker, Form I-140; Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice... Form/Collection: Immigrant Petition for Alien Worker. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the... information furnished on Form I-140 will be used by USCIS to classify aliens under sections 203(b)(1), 203(b...

  1. 78 FR 53507 - Agency Information Collection (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-NEW] Agency Information Collection (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health... Control No. 2900- NEW (Beneficiary Travel Mileage Reimbursement Application Form)'' in any correspondence...

  2. CERAMIC WASTE FORM DATA PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-06-13

    The purpose of this data package is to provide information about simulated crystalline waste forms that can be used to select an appropriate composition for a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) proof of principle demonstration. Melt processing, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal analysis information was collected to assess the ability of two potential candidate ceramic compositions to be processed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CCIM and to guide processing parameters for the CCIM operation. Given uncertainties in the CCIM capabilities to reach certain temperatures throughout the system, one waste form designated 'Fe-MP' was designed towards enabling processing and another, designated 'CAF-5%TM-MP' was designed towards optimized microstructure. Melt processing studies confirmed both compositions could be poured from a crucible at 1600{degrees}C although the CAF-5%TM-MP composition froze before pouring was complete due to rapid crystallization (upon cooling). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the crystalline nature and phase assemblages of the compositions. The kinetics of melting and crystallization appeared to vary significantly between the compositions. Impedance spectroscopy results indicated the electrical conductivity is acceptable with respect to processing in the CCIM. The success of processing either ceramic composition will depend on the thermal profiles throughout the CCIM. In particular, the working temperature of the pour spout relative to the bulk melter which can approach 1700{degrees}C. The Fe-MP composition is recommended to demonstrate proof of principle for crystalline simulated waste forms considering the current configuration of INL's CCIM. If proposed modifications to the CCIM can maintain a nominal temperature of 1600{degrees}C throughout the melter, drain, and pour spout, then the CAF-5%TM-MP composition should be considered for a proof of principle demonstration.

  3. Survey of concrete waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The incorporation of radioactive waste in cement has been widely studied for many years. It has been routinely used at nuclear research and production sites for some types of nuclear waste for almost three decades and at power reactor plants for nearly two decades. Cement has many favorable characteristics that have contributed to its popularity. It is a readily available material and has not required complex and/or expensive equipment to solidify radioactive waste. The resulting solid products are noncombustible, strong, radiation resistant, and have reasonable chemical and thermal stability. As knowledge increased on the possible dangers from radioactive waste, requirements for waste fixation became more stringent. A brief survey of some of the research efforts used to extend and improve cementitious waste hosts to meet these requirements is given in this paper. Selected data are presented from the rather extensive study of the applicability of concrete as a waste form for Savannah River defense waste and the use of polymer impregnation to reduce the leachability and improve the durability of such waste forms. Hot-pressed concretes that were developed as prospective host solids for high-level wastes are described. Highlights are given from two decades of research on cementitious waste forms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The development of the hydrofracture process for the disposal of all locally generated radioactive waste led to a process for the disposal of I-129 and to the current research on the German in-situ solidification process for medium-level waste and the Oak Ridge FUETAP process for all classes of waste including commercial and defense high-level wastes. Finally, some of the more recent ORNL concepts are presented for the use of cement in the disposal of inorganic and biological sludges, waste inorganic salts, trash, and krypton

  4. How Do Atmospheric Rivers Form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, H.; Martinez-Alvarado, O.; Clark, P. A.; Stringer, M. A.; Lavers, D.

    2017-12-01

    The term "atmospheric river" is used to describe corridors of strong water vapor transport in the troposphere. Filaments of enhanced water vapor, commonly observed in satellite imagery extending from the subtropics to the extratropics, are routinely used as a proxy for identifying these regions of strong water vapor transport. The precipitation associated with these filaments of enhanced water vapor can lead to high-impact flooding events. However, there remains some debate as to how these filaments form. In this study, the authors analyze the transport of water vapor within a climatology of wintertime North Atlantic extratropical cyclones. Results show that atmospheric rivers are formed by the cold front that sweeps up water vapor in the warm sector as it catches up with the warm front. This causes a narrow band of high water vapor content to form ahead of the cold front at the base of the warm conveyor belt airflow. Thus, water vapor in the cyclone's warm sector, not long-distance transport of water vapor from the subtropics, is responsible for the generation of filaments of high water vapor content. A continuous cycle of evaporation and moisture convergence within the cyclone replenishes water vapor lost via precipitation. Thus, rather than representing a direct and continuous feed of moist air from the subtropics into the center of a cyclone (as suggested by the term "atmospheric river"), these filaments are, in fact, the result of water vapor exported from the cyclone, and thus they represent the footprints left behind as cyclones travel poleward from the subtropics.

  5. Pion form factor in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    The calculation of the next-to-leading order corrections to pion form factor Fsub(π)(Q) in the QCD shows that analysis of Fsub(π)(Q) is not a short-distance problem up to Q 2 =10 4 -10 6 GeV 2 . A QCD-inspired model is proposed which in a semi-phenomenological way, takes into account the most important confinement effects. The curve obtained for Fsub(π)(Q) is in good agreement with existing experimental data

  6. The forgotten form of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe-Schmidt, Lisbeth

    The forgotten form of knowledge: Similarities between early 18th century Danish journals and nowadays Facebook discourse. Contemplating the early display of the public sphere in the 18th century, one is struck by the ease with which participants conduct themselves within the emerging institution...... the answer through a dual analytical strategy, first an examination of the conceptions of reason, emotion and morality introduced by early Danish journals and second, a sociohistorical study of authors and editors of the journals. The theoretical standpoint is the intersection between theory on the public...

  7. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    of sound. This issue is a part of a Ph.D. study at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. Sound diffusion in architecture is a complex phenomenon. From the sound source the sound spreads in all directions as a sphere of wave fronts. When the sound is reflected from room boundaries or furniture, complex......Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...

  8. Terra Firma-forme Dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagha Ramesh Babu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Terra firma-forme dermatosis is a cutaneous discoloration. ‘Dirty’ brown grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can be rid off by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads characterize it. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. It poses no medical threat. A 40-year-old male patient presented to the Department of Dermatology with a 2-3 month history of persistent pigmented patches on both upper arms. The lesions were not associated with itching or burning sensation. He gives no history of exacerbation on exposure to the sun.

  9. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes stock of recent research on patterns of cultural engagement in various European nations, with specific reference to British and Danish research. It argues that Bourdieu's original theorisation of cultural capital in ‘Distinction’ needs to be significantly updated to register...... the decline of ‘highbrow’ culture which these studies reveal. However, we argue that this shift does not entail the erosion of cultural capital itself, or the rise of the ‘cultural omnivore’, so much as the emergence of a form of ‘cosmopolitan cultural capital’. We argue that this emerging cultural capital...

  10. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    parts. The first material system employs a novel rotated joint design to allow the structural tuning of quasi-reciprocal timber frame elements fabricated from multi-axis machined plywood sheet stock. The second em-loys discontinuous post-tensioning to assemble unique precast concrete components......This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically unique...

  11. Theoretical mechanics for sixth forms

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Forms, Second Edition is a 14-chapter book that begins by elucidating the nature of theoretical mechanics. The book then describes the statics of a particle in illustration of the techniques of handling vector quantities. Subsequent chapters focus on the principle of moments, parallel forces and centers of gravity; and the application of Newton's second law to the dynamics of a particle and the ideas of work and energy, impulse and momentum, and power. The concept of friction is also explained. This volume concludes with chapters concerning motion in a circle an

  12. Creation and cessation of the land ownership right - legal forms

    OpenAIRE

    Celerýn, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    I chose for my diploma thesis the theme which is called "Creation and cessation of the land ownership right - legal forms". The aim of the work is to give complex and complete description of basic legal forms of acquiring ownership right to land. The presented work is divided into ten chapters. The first part (second chapter) of the diploma thesis determines the concepts of "ownership", "real estate", "land", "plot" etc. According to Czech law concept of "real estate" means mainly under groun...

  13. Form finding in elastic gridshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Changyeob; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O.; Jawed, Mohammad K.; Reis, Pedro M.

    2018-01-01

    Elastic gridshells comprise an initially planar network of elastic rods that are actuated into a shell-like structure by loading their extremities. The resulting actuated form derives from the elastic buckling of the rods subjected to inextensibility. We study elastic gridshells with a focus on the rational design of the final shapes. Our precision desktop experiments exhibit complex geometries, even from seemingly simple initial configurations and actuation processes. The numerical simulations capture this nonintuitive behavior with excellent quantitative agreement, allowing for an exploration of parameter space that reveals multistable states. We then turn to the theory of smooth Chebyshev nets to address the inverse design of hemispherical elastic gridshells. The results suggest that rod inextensibility, not elastic response, dictates the zeroth-order shape of an actuated elastic gridshell. As it turns out, this is the shape of a common household strainer. Therefore, the geometry of Chebyshev nets can be further used to understand elastic gridshells. In particular, we introduce a way to quantify the intrinsic shape of the empty, but enclosed regions, which we then use to rationalize the nonlocal deformation of elastic gridshells to point loading. This justifies the observed difficulty in form finding. Nevertheless, we close with an exploration of concatenating multiple elastic gridshell building blocks.

  14. AMERICAN QUARTER HORSES’ BEHAVIORAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Olexandrivna Suprun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of basic literary sources is made out of behavior of horse. On the basis of the field researches (visual supervisions after three different aged groups of mares it is built ethograms. An ethogram of behavioral forms among mares was developed. They represent the different forms of mares’ behavior in a dynamics. The reaction of mares of the different age-related and physiology groups on appearance of extraneous objects on a pasture, their activity, hierarchy, socialization is analyzed in groups. Several main studies on equines were reviewed in ethogram. Four objects were placed into the pasture with the mares and foals including a mat, cone, halter, and mounting block. Initial interest of mares in objects was high. Herd mentality highly evident. When one horse spooked at object the whole herd followed. After 5 minutes, majority of mares and foals lose interest in objects. The major general behavior categories observed include: locomotion, comfort, and harem social. Dominance was demonstrated while looking at the objects. Dominance was also demonstrated when a mare wanted to be in a specific place or play with a specific toy, she would pin her ears back, bite, or kick at the other mare. 

  15. Severe forms of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinho, Emanuel; Lins, Maria das Graças Moura

    To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Search in the Medline database using the terms "severe food allergy," "anaphylaxis and food allergy," "generalized urticaria and food allergy," and "food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome" in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Internal shear cracking in bulk metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an uncoupled ductile damage criterion for modelling the opening and propagation of internal shear cracks in bulk metal forming. The criterion is built upon the original work on the motion of a hole subjected to shear with superimposed tensile stress triaxiality and its overall...... performance is evaluated by means of side-pressing formability tests in Aluminium AA2007-T6 subjected to different levels of pre-strain. Results show that the new proposed criterionis able to combine simplicity with efficiency for predicting the onset of fracture and the crack propagation path for the entire...... set of test cases regardless the amount of pre-strain derived from previous upsetting under near frictionless conditions. The new proposed criterion can be easily implemented in existing finite element programs and its scope of application allows extending previous work on the opening modes in surface...

  17. Forming Core Elements for Strategic Design Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    . This evolution also leads to a demand for precise definitions of the values and qualities that can be used as managing tools in common building practice and it puts the traditional architectural design process under pressure. This paper outlines an approach to architectural quality as dealt with in the design...... process in an industrialized context. It also presents a way to analyse how and to what degree design processes are formed strategically according to specific architectural intentions (values). Through detailed interviews with professional architects, the way in which they manage the design process......, and to generate a common debate about quality in industrialized architecture. It is hoped that by presenting a way to talk about strategy and architectural value, it will inspire further elaboration of the field of strategic design management....

  18. 78 FR 57218 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8283-V

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... Form 8283-V, Payment Voucher for Filing Fee Under Section 170(f)(13). DATES: Written comments should be... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Payment Voucher for Filing Fee Under Section 170(f)(13). OMB Number: 1545-2069...

  19. Do planets remember how they formed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, David

    2018-01-01

    One of the most directly observable features of a transiting multiplanet system is their size-ordering when ranked in orbital separation. Kepler has revealed a rich diversity of outcomes, from perfectly ordered systems, like Kepler-80, to ostensibly disordered systems, like Kepler-20. Under the hypothesis that systems are born via preferred formation pathways, one might reasonably expect non-random size-orderings reflecting these processes. However, subsequent dynamical evolution, often chaotic and turbulent in nature, may erode this information and so here we ask - do systems remember how they formed? To address this, we devise a model to define the entropy of a planetary system's size-ordering, by first comparing differences between neighbouring planets and then extending to accommodate differences across the chain. We derive closed-form solutions for many of the microstate occupancies and provide public code with look-up tables to compute entropy for up to 10-planet systems. All three proposed entropy definitions exhibit the expected property that their credible interval increases with respect to a proxy for time. We find that the observed Kepler multis display a highly significant deficit in entropy compared to a randomly generated population. Incorporating a filter for systems deemed likely to be dynamically packed, we show that this result is robust against the possibility of missing planets too. Put together, our work establishes that Kepler systems do indeed remember something of their younger years and highlights the value of information theory for exoplanetary science.

  20. On different forms of self similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswathy, R.K.; Mathew, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Fractal geometry is mainly based on the idea of self-similar forms. To be self-similar, a shape must able to be divided into parts that are smaller copies, which are more or less similar to the whole. There are different forms of self similarity in nature and mathematics. In this paper, some of the topological properties of super self similar sets are discussed. It is proved that in a complete metric space with two or more elements, the set of all non super self similar sets are dense in the set of all non-empty compact sub sets. It is also proved that the product of self similar sets are super self similar in product metric spaces and that the super self similarity is preserved under isometry. A characterization of super self similar sets using contracting sub self similarity is also presented. Some relevant counterexamples are provided. The concepts of exact super and sub self similarity are introduced and a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be exact super self similar in terms of condensation iterated function systems (Condensation IFS’s) is obtained. A method to generate exact sub self similar sets using condensation IFS’s and the denseness of exact super self similar sets are also discussed.

  1. Dry patch formed boiling and burnout in potassium pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michiyoshi, I.; Takenaka, N.; Takahashi, O.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on dry patch formed boiling and burnout in saturated potassium pool boiling on a horizontal plane heater for system pressures from 30 to 760 torr and liquid levels from 5 to 50 mm. The dry patch formation occurs in the intermittent boiling which is often encountered when liquid alkali metals are used under relatively low pressure conditions. Burnout is caused from both continuous nucleate and dry patch formed boiling. The burnout heat flux together with nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients are empirically correlated with system pressures. A model is also proposed to predict the minimum heat flux to form the dry patch. (author)

  2. Nuclear waste forms for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1999-01-01

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  3. Innovative forms of citizen participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyseth, Torill; Ringholm, Toril; Agger, Annika

    Formal procedures of citizen participation in planning and urban governance in Norway and Denmark share many similarities. Although the planning laws are intended to give all affected stakeholders a chance to air their concerns within a limited time frame, then few use these channels for voice......: What characterises the new and innovative forms of citizen participation in urban planning in terms of innovation? And in what ways and to what degree is input from these processes fed into the formal planning processes? Theoretically, the paper is inspired by the concept of: ‘planning...... as experimentation’ (Hillier 2007, Nyseth et al 2010), ‘co-creation’ (Voorberg m.fl. 2013), and of the approach to participation offered by Clarke et al. (2014), where the traditional approaches are questioned and a contextualised approach is offered. Empirically, the paper draws on two different cases from Denmark...

  4. Emerging Forms of Cultural Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    - the claims that there are forms of emotional, subcultural or national cultural capital at work - The claim about cosmopolitanism or an international orientation as a distinctive feature of the culturally privileged classes The paper responds to the first theme announced in the call for this conference......This paper reviews recent European studies to assess whether cultural capital now has the same characteristics – or may be rather the same functions - as when Distinction was written. The paper will examine empirical applications of the concept of cultural capital in leading European studies...... – and hence are highly appropriate for direct comparisons with that study. This paper will begin by raising general issues regarding the meaning of the concept, and about how one may make assessments and claims about cultural capital. Here we consider how the legitimacy of certain cultural competencies...

  5. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    three-dimensional geometries of interfering spheres are created. Textiles are generally a very good sound dampening material. To dampen the sound most effective it should be placed where the sound energy is highest. To find these invisible spots of energy and to reveal the geometry of them, two......Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... of sound. This issue is a part of a Ph.D. study at The Danish Design School in Copenhagen. Sound diffusion in architecture is a complex phenomenon. From the sound source the sound spreads in all directions as a sphere of wave fronts. When the sound is reflected from room boundaries or furniture, complex...

  6. [Familial form of rheumatoid nodulosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosser, H; Schubert, B; Grosshans, E

    1993-01-01

    We report a familial form of rheumatoid nodulosis where the early lesions appeared in the first years of life in a young man and his son. The numerous papular and nodular skin lesions disclosed an ulcerative evolution leaving atrophic scars mainly near the limbs' joints. In both patients the evolution was characterized by the late onset of polyarthralgias and of a non-destructive seronegative polyarthritis; intra-osseous lesions were present in the metatarsal bones in the father. Rheumatoid nodulosis is a rare disease, sometimes considered as a benign variant of rheumatoid arthritis without destructive joint involvement. A serum rheumatoid factor is inconstantly present and the intra-osseous geodes have been shown to be rheumatoid nodules exhibiting the same histological structures of palisading granulomas as the subcutaneous nodules. The main symptom of the disease is the occurrence of multiple nodules followed by the delayed onset of a polyarthritis with a benign course without systemic involvement.

  7. Forms and Linear Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan P.

    We present a general theory to obtain linear network codes utilizing forms and obtain explicit families of equidimensional vector spaces, in which any pair of distinct vector spaces intersect in the same small dimension. The theory is inspired by the methods of the author utilizing the osculating...... spaces of Veronese varieties. Linear network coding transmits information in terms of a basis of a vector space and the information is received as a basis of a possibly altered vector space. Ralf Koetter and Frank R. Kschischang introduced a metric on the set af vector spaces and showed that a minimal...... distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the intersection of the transmitted and received vector space is sufficiently large. The vector spaces in our construction are equidistant in the above metric and the distance between any pair of vector spaces is large making...

  8. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Data sources: Search in the Medline database using the terms “severe food allergy,” “anaphylaxis and food allergy,” “generalized urticaria and food allergy,” and “food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome” in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Summary of data: Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  9. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into the...

  10. Cellular and Molecular Defects Underlying Invasive Fungal Infections—Revelations from Endemic Mycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela P. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs. Dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp., Paracoccidioides spp., Blastomyces dermatiditis, Sporothrix schenckii, Talaromyces (Penicillium marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. are geographically restricted to their respective habitats and cause endemic mycoses. Disseminated histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and T. marneffei infection are recognized as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-defining conditions, while the rest also cause high rate of morbidities and mortalities in patients with HIV infection and other immunocompromised conditions. In the past decade, a growing number of monogenic immunodeficiency disorders causing increased susceptibility to fungal infections have been discovered. In particular, defects of the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway and T-helper 17-mediated response are associated with increased susceptibility to endemic mycoses. In this review, we put together the various forms of endemic mycoses on the map and take a journey around the world to examine how cellular and molecular defects of the immune system predispose to invasive endemic fungal infections, including primary immunodeficiencies, individuals with autoantibodies against interferon-γ, and those receiving biologic response modifiers. Though rare, these conditions provide importance insights to host defense mechanisms against endemic fungi, which can only be appreciated in unique

  11. Cellular and Molecular Defects Underlying Invasive Fungal Infections—Revelations from Endemic Mycoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pamela P.; Lau, Yu-Lung

    2017-01-01

    The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp., Paracoccidioides spp., Blastomyces dermatiditis, Sporothrix schenckii, Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. are geographically restricted to their respective habitats and cause endemic mycoses. Disseminated histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and T. marneffei infection are recognized as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining conditions, while the rest also cause high rate of morbidities and mortalities in patients with HIV infection and other immunocompromised conditions. In the past decade, a growing number of monogenic immunodeficiency disorders causing increased susceptibility to fungal infections have been discovered. In particular, defects of the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway and T-helper 17-mediated response are associated with increased susceptibility to endemic mycoses. In this review, we put together the various forms of endemic mycoses on the map and take a journey around the world to examine how cellular and molecular defects of the immune system predispose to invasive endemic fungal infections, including primary immunodeficiencies, individuals with autoantibodies against interferon-γ, and those receiving biologic response modifiers. Though rare, these conditions provide importance insights to host defense mechanisms against endemic fungi, which can only be appreciated in unique climatic and

  12. Undersøgelsesdesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    2014-01-01

    Delrapport fra LUG-projektet, delprojekt A - Uddannelsesinstitutionelle Grænser. I 2014 udvikler og forsker UCSJ og RUC i en gratis og fleksibel måde at udbyde uddannelse på, inspireret af flere universiteter i USA – via MOOCs (Multiple Open Online Courses). MOOC-projektet er en del af et større...... innovationsprojekt “Læring Uden Grænser” - støttet af den Den Europæiske Fond for Regionaludvikling. Projektet undersøger hvordan digitale teknologier og nye koblinger i form af netværk- og institutionssamarbejde kan mindske grænser for læring i Region Sjælland. Den næste år udvikles og udbydes en række MOOCs, der...... skal generere og formidle ny viden om, hvordan MOOCs kan udvikles på måder, så også regionale hensyn tages. Projektet arbejder designbaseret og der vil derfor gennem input fra brugere, partnere, arrangerede workshops, og lignende foregå en løbende redesignproces. Projektet vil munde ud i en række...

  13. Memory dynamics under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-03-01

    Stressful events have a major impact on memory. They modulate memory formation in a time-dependent manner, closely linked to the temporal profile of action of major stress mediators, in particular catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Shortly after stressor onset, rapidly acting catecholamines and fast, non-genomic glucocorticoid actions direct cognitive resources to the processing and consolidation of the ongoing threat. In parallel, control of memory is biased towards rather rigid systems, promoting habitual forms of memory allowing efficient processing under stress, at the expense of "cognitive" systems supporting memory flexibility and specificity. In this review, we discuss the implications of this shift in the balance of multiple memory systems for the dynamics of the memory trace. Specifically, stress appears to hinder the incorporation of contextual details into the memory trace, to impede the integration of new information into existing knowledge structures, to impair the flexible generalisation across past experiences, and to hamper the modification of memories in light of new information. Delayed, genomic glucocorticoid actions might reverse the control of memory, thus restoring homeostasis and "cognitive" control of memory again.

  14. Waste form qualification program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saverot, P.; Sombret, C.

    1987-01-01

    To meet waste acceptance specifications, it is necessary to demonstrate that the glass produced at the site is suitable for long-term disposal. The experimental studies carried out in France for such a demonstration have been performed according to the following strategy: (1) selection, definition, and characterization of a reference glass; (2) performance of sensitivity tests to quality a sufficiently broad compositional region that covers all credible compositions to be produced; (3) demonstration that the inevitable process disturbances taking place in the glass-making process can be detected and corrected in time to avoid any additional modification of glass formulations from those obtained in the range tested during the sensitivity test; and (4) implementation of a quality control plan guaranteeing the control of the process parameters under normal and degraded operating conditions

  15. Dosage form design and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2008-11-01

    Drugs must be properly formulated for administration to patients, regardless of age. Pediatric patients provide some additional challenges to the formulator in terms of compliance and therapeutic efficacy. Due to the lack of sufficient drug products for the pediatric population, the pharmaceutical industry and compounding pharmacies must develop and provide appropriate medications designed for children. The purpose of this article was to review the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of drug substances and pharmaceutical ingredients to be used in preparing a drug product. In addition, stability, appearance, palatability, flavoring, sweetening, coloring, preservation, packaging, and storage are discussed. Information for the current article was gathered from a literature review; from presentations at professional and technical meetings; and from lectures, books, and publications of the author, as well as from his professional experience. Professional society meetings and standards-setting bodies were also used as a resource. The proper design and formulation of a dosage form requires consideration of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of all of the drug substances and pharmaceutical ingredients (excipients) to be used in fabricating the product. The drug and pharmaceutical materials utilized must be compatible and produce a drug product that is stable, efficacious, palatable, easy to administer, and well tolerated. Preformulation factors include physical properties such as particle size, crystalline structure, melting point, solubility, partition coefficient, dissolution, membrane permeability, dissociation constants, and drug stability. Successful development of a formulation includes multiple considerations involving the drug, excipients, compliance, storage, packaging, and stability, as well as patient considerations of taste, appearance, and palatability.

  16. Faith and Form on Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bacon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To understand any aspect of being-in-the-world in general or cinematic experience in particular, both reductionist and holistic approaches are needed. Psychological accounts can give us only functional explanations of human behaviour or responses to signifying artifacts such as art. To understand the significance of these experiences the psychological must be complemented by a study on a level which may be termed spiritual. This line of thought is applied to analyses of Robert Bresson’s Pickpocket, starting from David Bordwell’s formalist and cognitive account of why many people experience this film as religious despite there being no explicit reference to religion. Paul Schrader’s analysis of the formal structure of this film in terms of his notion of transcendental style in film goes a step forward by explaining how the formal structure as he analyses it suggests a transcendental dimension which cannot be addressed directly. This approach connects in an illuminating way with Slavoj Žižek’s notions of the imaginary and the symbolic sphere. Bordwell’s approach, functioning on the psychological level, is basically reductionist, while Schrader’s, boosted with Žižek’s ideas as appropriated for the purposes of this article, is holistic and operative on the spiritual level. This two-tiered analysis reveals how cinematic form in Pickpocket serves as an indirect expression of faith.

  17. Filtrating forms of soil bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van'kova, A. A.; Ivanov, P. I.; Emtsev, V. T.

    2013-03-01

    Filtrating (ultramicroscopic) forms (FF) of bacteria were studied in a soddy-podzolic soil and the root zone of alfalfa plants as part of populations of the most widespread physiological groups of soil bacteria. FF were obtained by filtering soil solutions through membrane filters with a pore diameter of 0.22 μm. It was established that the greater part of the bacteria in the soil and in the root zone of the plants has an ultramicroscopic size: the average diameter of the cells is 0.3 μm, and their length is 0.6 μm, which is significantly less than the cell size of banal bacteria. The number of FF varies within a wide range depending on the physicochemical conditions of the habitat. The FF number's dynamics in the soil is of a seasonal nature; i.e., the number of bacteria found increases in the summer and fall and decreases in the winter-spring period. In the rhizosphere of the alfalfa, over the vegetation period, the number of FF and their fraction in the total mass of the bacteria increase. A reverse tendency is observed in the rhizoplane. The morphological particularities (identified by an electron microscopy) and the nature of the FF indicate their physiological activity.

  18. XPS investigations of tribofilms formed on CrN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandrino, Djordje, E-mail: djordje.mandrino@imt.si; Podgornik, Bojan

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Formation of tribofilms from lubricant additives on CrN surfaces during tribological contact confirmed by XPS. • Chemistry & chemical state of tribofilms obtained by XPS. • Thin sulphate film forms at the top of sulphide tribofilm. • Final type of sulphide in tribolayer depends on additive chemistry and testing temperature. - Abstract: Action of lubrication additives in the case of uncoated steel surfaces, including the type and mechanism of tribofilm formation is well known and understood. However, contact type of tribofilms which might form under the tribological contact between CrN coated surfaces, remains more or less unexplored. The aim of this investigation was to study the type of tribofilms formed on the CrN coated steel samples subjected to lubricated reciprocating sliding contact under different contact conditions Contact surface and tribofilms formed were studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Sample surfaces were first imaged by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine areas of tribofilm formation as well as areas not affected by tribological contact. In these areas survey and high resolution (HR) XPS measurements were performed to obtain information about surface chemistry and oxidation states of the constituent elements. It was found that differences between different samples, observed by the XPS measurements, may reflect differences in chemistry of tribofilms formed under different contact conditions.

  19. Perdas de solo e caracterização física e micromorfológica de crostas formadas em solos sob chuva simulada Soil losses and physical and micromorphological characterization of formed crusts in soils under simulated rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane dos S. Brandão

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido aos prejuízos provocados pela erosão sobre sistemas agrários e urbanos, foi desenvolvido este artigo para que se possa estabelecer relação entre a erosão e o selamento formado pelo impacto das gotas de chuva. Para avaliar as perdas de solo e as características físicas e micromorfólogicas das crostas desenvolvidas pelo impacto das gotas de água, foi realizado experimento, utilizando simulador de chuvas, num esquema fatorial 5 x 6, sendo cinco solos (Argissolo Vermelho, Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Neossolo Flúvico e Neossolo Quartzarênico e seis energias cinéticas de chuva simulada (0; 525; 1.051; 2.102; 3.153 e 4.204 J m-2, com três repetições. As perdas de solo foram determinadas por amostragem do volume total de escoamento superficial e as características físicas e micromorfológicas da crosta, tais como distribuição e continuidade dos poros, por meio de técnicas de micromorfometria. Em todos os solos avaliados, as perdas de solo aumentaram progressivamente com a energia cinética aplicada, sendo essas perdas menos acentuadas nos solos com textura grossa ou argilosos com estrutura microgranular. Foi evidenciada a formação de crostas estruturais e erosionais, e suas características apresentaram variação temporal dependente da energia cinética da chuva e da tensão cisalhante do escoamento superficial.Due to the damage caused by erosions in land and urban systems, this article has been developed to establish the relation between soil losses and superficial sealing formed by rain drop impact. In order to evaluate soil losses and physical and micromorphological characteristics of soil crusts developed by water drop impact, an experiment was carried out using a rainfall simulator in a factorial scheme of 5 x 6. Five soils (Red Ultisol, Red-Yellow Ultisol, Red-Yellow Oxisol, Fluvic Entisol and Arenic Entisol and six rainfall kinetic energy (0; 525; 1,051; 2,102; 3,153 and 4,204 J m-2 with

  20. Method for forming microspheres for encapsulation of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Peter; Caputo, Anthony J.; Hutchens, Richard E.; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.

    1984-01-01

    Microspheres for nuclear waste storage are formed by gelling droplets containing the waste in a gelation fluid, transferring the gelled droplets to a furnace without the washing step previously used, and heating the unwashed gelled droplets in the furnace under temperature or humidity conditions that result in a substantially linear rate of removal of volatile components therefrom.