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Sample records for underlying evolutionary driving

  1. Evolutionary algorithm for vehicle driving cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhinschi, Mario G; Marlowe, Christopher; Tamayo, Sergio; Tu, Jun; Wayne, W Scott

    2011-09-01

    Modeling transit bus emissions and fuel economy requires a large amount of experimental data over wide ranges of operational conditions. Chassis dynamometer tests are typically performed using representative driving cycles defined based on vehicle instantaneous speed as sequences of "microtrips", which are intervals between consecutive vehicle stops. Overall significant parameters of the driving cycle, such as average speed, stops per mile, kinetic intensity, and others, are used as independent variables in the modeling process. Performing tests at all the necessary combinations of parameters is expensive and time consuming. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for building driving cycles at prescribed independent variable values using experimental data through the concatenation of "microtrips" isolated from a limited number of standard chassis dynamometer test cycles. The selection of the adequate "microtrips" is achieved through a customized evolutionary algorithm. The genetic representation uses microtrip definitions as genes. Specific mutation, crossover, and karyotype alteration operators have been defined. The Roulette-Wheel selection technique with elitist strategy drives the optimization process, which consists of minimizing the errors to desired overall cycle parameters. This utility is part of the Integrated Bus Information System developed at West Virginia University.

  2. Evolutionary games under incompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleshnina, Maria; Filar, Jerzy A; Ejov, Vladimir; McKerral, Jody C

    2018-02-26

    The adaptation process of a species to a new environment is a significant area of study in biology. As part of natural selection, adaptation is a mutation process which improves survival skills and reproductive functions of species. Here, we investigate this process by combining the idea of incompetence with evolutionary game theory. In the sense of evolution, incompetence and training can be interpreted as a special learning process. With focus on the social side of the problem, we analyze the influence of incompetence on behavior of species. We introduce an incompetence parameter into a learning function in a single-population game and analyze its effect on the outcome of the replicator dynamics. Incompetence can change the outcome of the game and its dynamics, indicating its significance within what are inherently imperfect natural systems.

  3. Ecological interactions drive evolutionary loss of traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellers, Jacintha; Kiers, E Toby; Currie, Cameron R; McDonald, Bradon R; Visser, Bertanne

    2012-10-01

    Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species interactions. This is important because trait loss can tighten the ecological relationship between partners, affecting the maintenance of species interactions. Here, we develop a new perspective on so-called `compensated trait loss' and how this type of trait loss may affect the evolutionary dynamics between interacting organisms. We argue that: (1) the frequency of compensated trait loss is currently underestimated because it can go unnoticed as long as ecological interactions are maintained; (2) by analysing known cases of trait loss, specific factors promoting compensated trait loss can be identified and (3) genomic sequencing is a key way forwards in detecting compensated trait loss. We present a comprehensive literature survey showing that compensated trait loss is taxonomically widespread, can involve essential traits, and often occurs as replicated evolutionary events. Despite its hidden nature, compensated trait loss is important in directing evolutionary dynamics of ecological relationships and has the potential to change facultative ecological interactions into obligatory ones. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics under interactive diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qi; Li, Aming; Wang, Long

    2017-10-01

    As evidenced by many cases in human societies, individuals often make different behavior decisions in different interactions, and adaptively adjust their behavior in changeable interactive scenarios. However, up to now, how such diverse interactive behavior affects cooperation dynamics has still remained unknown. Here we develop a general framework of interactive diversity, which models individuals’ separated behavior against distinct opponents and their adaptive adjustment in response to opponents’ strategies, to explore the evolution of cooperation. We find that interactive diversity enables individuals to reciprocate every single opponent, and thus sustains large-scale reciprocal interactions. Our work witnesses an impressive boost of cooperation for a notably extensive range of parameters and for all pairwise games. These results are robust against well-mixed and various networked populations, and against degree-normalized and cumulative payoff patterns. From the perspective of network dynamics, distinguished from individuals competing for nodes in most previous work, in this paper, the system evolves in the form of behavior disseminating along edges. We propose a theoretical method based on evolution of edges, which predicts well both the frequency of cooperation and the compact cooperation clusters. Our thorough investigation clarifies the positive role of interactive diversity in resolving social dilemmas and highlights the significance of understanding evolutionary dynamics from the viewpoint of edge dynamics.

  5. Driving under the influence of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-05

    As more states decriminalize and legalize medical and recreational use of cannabis (marijuana), traffic safety leaders and public health advocates have growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). How do we understand the cu...

  6. Towards the measurement of sex drive as an evolutionary supremacy:

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    Waterink, Wim

    2011-01-01

    If the human sex drive is an evolutionarily-instigated motivation towards procreation, then the strength of men and women’s sex drive should be dependent on factors affecting offspring. In this study, the effect of gender was investigated among 534 participants by means of a survey that was based on

  7. An Evolutionary Approach to Driving Tendency Recognition for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving tendency recognition is important for constructing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS. However, it had not been a lot of research using vehicle sensing data, due to the high difficulty to define it. In this paper, we attempt to improve the learning capability of a machine learning method using evolutionary computation. We propose a driving tendency recognition method, with consideration of data characteristics. Comparison of our classification system with conventional methods demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy over 92% in our system. Our proposed evolutionary approach is confirmed that improve the classification accuracy of the learning method through evolution in the experiment.

  8. Driving under the influence of alcohol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol is a threat to road safety. In 2013, the estimated number of road deaths in the Netherlands due to alcohol was between 60 and 135. The legal limit for novice drivers in the Netherlands is a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.2 g/l and a BAC of 0.5 g/l for

  9. Mate Choice Drives Evolutionary Stability in a Hybrid Complex.

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    Miguel Morgado-Santos

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that assortative mating acts as a driver of speciation by countering hybridization between two populations of the same species (pre-zygotic isolation or through mate choice among the hybrids (hybrid speciation. In both speciation types, assortative mating promotes speciation over a transient hybridization stage. We studied mate choice in a hybrid vertebrate complex, the allopolyploid fish Squalius alburnoides. This complex is composed by several genomotypes connected by an intricate reproductive dynamics. We developed a model that predicts the hybrid complex can persist when females exhibit particular mate choice patterns. Our model is able to reproduce the diversity of population dynamic outcomes found in nature, namely the dominance of the triploids and the dominance of the tetraploids, depending on female mate choice patterns and frequency of the parental species. Experimental mate choice trials showed that females exhibit the preferences predicted by the model. Thus, despite the known role of assortative mating in driving speciation, our findings suggest that certain mate choice patterns can instead hinder speciation and support the persistence of hybrids over time without speciation or extinction.

  10. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Arne; Piškur, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that were semi-anaerobic.

  11. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hagman

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that

  12. A single evolutionary innovation drives the deep evolution of symbiotic N2-fixation in angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Cornwell, William K.; Sprent, Janet I.; Kattge, Jens; Kiers, E. Toby

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic associations occur in every habitat on earth, but we know very little about their evolutionary histories. Current models of trait evolution cannot adequately reconstruct the deep history of symbiotic innovation, because they assume homogenous evolutionary processes across millions of years. Here we use a recently developed, heterogeneous and quantitative phylogenetic framework to study the origin of the symbiosis between angiosperms and nitrogen-fixing (N2) bacterial symbionts housed in nodules. We compile the largest database of global nodulating plant species and reconstruct the symbiosis’ evolution. We identify a single, cryptic evolutionary innovation driving symbiotic N2-fixation evolution, followed by multiple gains and losses of the symbiosis, and the subsequent emergence of ‘stable fixers’ (clades extremely unlikely to lose the symbiosis). Originating over 100 MYA, this innovation suggests deep homology in symbiotic N2-fixation. Identifying cryptic innovations on the tree of life is key to understanding the evolution of complex traits, including symbiotic partnerships. PMID:24912610

  13. Fixation times in evolutionary games under weak selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altrock, Philipp M; Traulsen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    In evolutionary game dynamics, reproductive success increases with the performance in an evolutionary game. If strategy A performs better than strategy B, strategy A will spread in the population. Under stochastic dynamics, a single mutant will sooner or later take over the entire population or go extinct. We analyze the mean exit times (or average fixation times) associated with this process. We show analytically that these times depend on the payoff matrix of the game in an amazingly simple way under weak selection, i.e. strong stochasticity: the payoff difference Δπ is a linear function of the number of A individuals i, Δπ=u i+v. The unconditional mean exit time depends only on the constant term v. Given that a single A mutant takes over the population, the corresponding conditional mean exit time depends only on the density dependent term u. We demonstrate this finding for two commonly applied microscopic evolutionary processes.

  14. Estimating true evolutionary distances under the DCJ model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Moret, Bernard M E

    2008-07-01

    Modern techniques can yield the ordering and strandedness of genes on each chromosome of a genome; such data already exists for hundreds of organisms. The evolutionary mechanisms through which the set of the genes of an organism is altered and reordered are of great interest to systematists, evolutionary biologists, comparative genomicists and biomedical researchers. Perhaps the most basic concept in this area is that of evolutionary distance between two genomes: under a given model of genomic evolution, how many events most likely took place to account for the difference between the two genomes? We present a method to estimate the true evolutionary distance between two genomes under the 'double-cut-and-join' (DCJ) model of genome rearrangement, a model under which a single multichromosomal operation accounts for all genomic rearrangement events: inversion, transposition, translocation, block interchange and chromosomal fusion and fission. Our method relies on a simple structural characterization of a genome pair and is both analytically and computationally tractable. We provide analytical results to describe the asymptotic behavior of genomes under the DCJ model, as well as experimental results on a wide variety of genome structures to exemplify the very high accuracy (and low variance) of our estimator. Our results provide a tool for accurate phylogenetic reconstruction from multichromosomal gene rearrangement data as well as a theoretical basis for refinements of the DCJ model to account for biological constraints. All of our software is available in source form under GPL at http://lcbb.epfl.ch.

  15. 49 CFR 384.203 - Driving while under the influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driving while under the influence. 384.203 Section... § 384.203 Driving while under the influence. (a) The State must have in effect and enforce through... apply its criminal or other sanctions for driving under the influence to a person found to have operated...

  16. Defensive traits exhibit an evolutionary trade-off and drive diversification in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Benjamin D; Moreau, Corrie S

    2017-02-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long predicted that evolutionary trade-offs among traits should constrain morphological divergence and species diversification. However, this prediction has yet to be tested in a broad evolutionary context in many diverse clades, including ants. Here, we reconstruct an expanded ant phylogeny representing 82% of ant genera, compile a new family-wide trait database, and conduct various trait-based analyses to show that defensive traits in ants do exhibit an evolutionary trade-off. In particular, the use of a functional sting negatively correlates with a suite of other defensive traits including spines, large eye size, and large colony size. Furthermore, we find that several of the defensive traits that trade off with a sting are also positively correlated with each other and drive increased diversification, further suggesting that these traits form a defensive suite. Our results support the hypothesis that trade-offs in defensive traits significantly constrain trait evolution and influence species diversification in ants. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Driving Under the Influence (of Language).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Daniel Paul; Bronikowski, Scott Alan; Yu, Haonan; Siskind, Jeffrey Mark

    2017-06-09

    We present a unified framework which supports grounding natural-language semantics in robotic driving. This framework supports acquisition (learning grounded meanings of nouns and prepositions from human sentential annotation of robotic driving paths), generation (using such acquired meanings to generate sentential description of new robotic driving paths), and comprehension (using such acquired meanings to support automated driving to accomplish navigational goals specified in natural language). We evaluate the performance of these three tasks by having independent human judges rate the semantic fidelity of the sentences associated with paths. Overall, machine performance is 74.9%, while the performance of human annotators is 83.8%.

  18. Evolutionary bottlenecks in brackish water habitats drive the colonization of fresh water by stingrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, K N; Hauffe, T; Stelbrink, B; Albrecht, C; Wilke, T

    2017-08-01

    Species richness in freshwater bony fishes depends on two main processes: the transition into and the diversification within freshwater habitats. In contrast to bony fishes, only few cartilaginous fishes, mostly stingrays (Myliobatoidei), were able to colonize fresh water. Respective transition processes have been mainly assessed from a physiological and morphological perspective, indicating that the freshwater lifestyle is strongly limited by the ability to perform osmoregulatory adaptations. However, the transition history and the effect of physiological constraints on the diversification in stingrays remain poorly understood. Herein, we estimated the geographic pathways of freshwater colonization and inferred the mode of habitat transitions. Further, we assessed habitat-related speciation rates in a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework to understand factors driving the transition of stingrays into and the diversification within fresh water. Using South American and Southeast Asian freshwater taxa as model organisms, we found one independent freshwater colonization event by stingrays in South America and at least three in Southeast Asia. We revealed that vicariant processes most likely caused freshwater transition during the time of major marine incursions. The habitat transition rates indicate that brackish water species switch preferably back into marine than forth into freshwater habitats. Moreover, our results showed significantly lower diversification rates in brackish water lineages, whereas freshwater and marine lineages exhibit similar rates. Thus, brackish water habitats may have functioned as evolutionary bottlenecks for the colonization of fresh water by stingrays, probably because of the higher variability of environmental conditions in brackish water. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. The Impact of Evolutionary Driving Forces on Human Complex Diseases: A Population Genetics Approach

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    Amr T. M. Saeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the molecular evolution of human genome has paved the way to understand genetic adaptation of humans to the environmental changes and corresponding complex diseases. In this review, we discussed the historical origin of genetic diversity among human populations, the evolutionary driving forces that can affect genetic diversity among populations, and the effects of human movement into new environments and gene flow on population genetic diversity. Furthermore, we presented the role of natural selection on genetic diversity and complex diseases. Then we reviewed the disadvantageous consequences of historical selection events in modern time and their relation to the development of complex diseases. In addition, we discussed the effect of consanguinity on the incidence of complex diseases in human populations. Finally, we presented the latest information about the role of ancient genes acquired from interbreeding with ancient hominids in the development of complex diseases.

  20. Driving behaviors and accident risk under lifetime license revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Woo, T Hugh; Tseng, Chien-Ming; Tseng, I-Yen

    2011-07-01

    This study explored the driving behaviors and crash risk of 768 drivers who were under administrative lifetime driver's license revocation (ALLR). It was found that most of the ALLR offenders (83.2%) were still driving and only a few (16.8%) of them gave up driving completely. Of the offenders still driving, 67.6% experienced encountering a police roadside check, but were not detained or ticketed by the police. Within this group, 50.6% continued driving while encountering a police check, 18.0% of them made an immediate U-turn and 9.5% of them parked and exited their car. As to crash risk, 15.2% of the ALLR offenders had at least one crash experience after the ALLR had been imposed. The results of the logistic regression models showed that the offenders' crash risk while under the ALLR was significantly correlated with their personal characteristics (personal income), penalty status (incarceration, civil compensation and the time elapsed since license revocation), annual distance driven, and needs for driving (working, commuting and driving kids). Low-income offenders were more inclined to have a crash while driving under the ALLR. Offenders penalized by being incarcerated or by paying a high civil compensation drove more carefully and were less of a crash risk under the ALLR. The results also showed there were no differences in crash risk under the ALLR between hit-and-run offences and drunk driving offences or for offenders with a professional license or an ordinary license. Generally, ALLR offenders drove somewhat more carefully and were less of a crash risk (4.3 crashes per million km driven) than legal licensed drivers (23.1 crashes per million km driven). Moreover, they seemed to drive more carefully than drivers who were under short-term license suspension/revocation which previous studies have found. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The 2006 National Labor Day impaired driving enforcement crackdown : Drunk driving. Over the limit. Under arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administrations 2006 Drunk Driving. Over the Limit. Under Arrest. Labor Day holiday campaign had three main components: (1) DWI enforcement, (2) public awareness efforts, and (3) evaluation. The 2006 program use...

  2. Sex differences in life history drive evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2013-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care have been common in many animal groups. We use a mathematical model to examine the effect of male and female life-history characteristics (stage-specific maturation and mortality) on evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. When males and females are relatively similar - that is, when females initially invest relatively little into eggs and both sexes have similar mortality and maturation - transitions among different patterns of care are unlikely to be strongly favored. As males and females become more different, transitions are more likely. If females initially invest heavily into eggs and this reduces their expected future reproductive success, transitions to increased maternal care (paternal → maternal, paternal → bi-parental, bi-parental → maternal) are favored. This effect of anisogamy (i.e., the fact that females initially invest more into each individual zygote than males) might help explain the predominance of maternal care in nature and differs from previous work that found no effect of anisogamy on the origin of different sex-specific patterns of care from an ancestral state of no care. When male mortality is high or male egg maturation rate is low, males have reduced future reproductive potential and transitions to increased paternal care (maternal → paternal, bi-parental → paternal, maternal → bi-parental) are favored. Offspring need (i.e., low offspring survival in the absence of care) also plays a role in transitions to paternal care. In general, basic life-history differences between the sexes can drive evolutionary transitions among different sex-specific patterns of care. The finding that simple life-history differences can alone lead to transitions among maternal and paternal care suggests that the effect of inter-sexual life-history differences should be considered as a baseline scenario when attempting to understand how other

  3. Random and non-random mating populations: Evolutionary dynamics in meiotic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Game theoretic tools are utilized to analyze a one-locus continuous selection model of sex-specific meiotic drive by considering nonequivalence of the viabilities of reciprocal heterozygotes that might be noticed at an imprinted locus. The model draws attention to the role of viability selections of different types to examine the stable nature of polymorphic equilibrium. A bridge between population genetics and evolutionary game theory has been built up by applying the concept of the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. In addition to pointing out the influences of male and female segregation ratios on selection, configuration structure reveals some noted results, e.g., Hardy-Weinberg frequencies hold in replicator dynamics, occurrence of faster evolution at the maximized variance fitness, existence of mixed Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS) in asymmetric games, the tending evolution to follow not only a 1:1 sex ratio but also a 1:1 different alleles ratio at particular gene locus. Through construction of replicator dynamics in the group selection framework, our selection model introduces a redefining bases of game theory to incorporate non-random mating where a mating parameter associated with population structure is dependent on the social structure. Also, the model exposes the fact that the number of polymorphic equilibria will depend on the algebraic expression of population structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pattern-formation under acoustic driving forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Chemical and metallurgical processes enhanced by high intensity acoustic waves, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, fuel rods in nuclear reactors, heat exchanger tubes, offshore and vibrating structures, solar thermal collectors, acoustic levitators, microfluidic devices, cycling, musical acoustics, blood flow through veins/arteries, hearing in the mammalian ear, carbon nanotube loudspeakers, etc. The evolution of a myriad of processes involving the oscillation of viscous fluids in the presence of solid boundaries is up to a certain extent influenced by acoustic streaming. In addition to the sound field, viscous energy dissipation at the fluid-solid boundary causes a time-independent fluid circulation, which can lead to a significant enhancement of heat, mass and momentum transfer at large oscillation amplitudes. A particularly relevant phenomenon that can be notably affected by acoustic streaming is the promotion of sound waves by temperature gradients or viceversa (thermoacoustics), which is at the basis of potentially efficient and environmental friendly engines and refrigerators that have attracted a renewed interest in the last years. In the present manuscript, historical developments and the underlying basic physics behind acoustic streaming and thermoacoustics are reviewed from an unifying perspective.

  5. Establishing legal limits for driving under the influence of marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Kristin; Brady, Joanne E; Li, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana has become the most commonly detected non-alcohol substance among drivers in the United States and Europe. Use of marijuana has been shown to impair driving performance and increase crash risk. Due to the lack of standardization in assessing marijuana-induced impairment and limitations of zero tolerance legislation, more jurisdictions are adopting per se laws by specifying a legal limit of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) at or above which drivers are prosecuted for driving under the i...

  6. Neurocognitive Correlates in Driving Under the Influence of Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco P; Pellegrini, Manuela; Klein, Julia; di Luca, Natale M

    2017-01-01

    Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis and is frequently identified in blood samples from apprehended drivers suspected for driving under the influence of drugs. Changing social norms towards cannabis and higher acceptability towards the drug emphasize the need for in-depth understanding of the acute neurocognitive and psychomotor effects caused by cannabis and how these effects are correlated to driving skills and performance. In this review, PubMed, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases were used to identify and select publications up to January 2017 dealing with acute and chronic neurocognitive effects induced by cannabis and ability to drive. Thirty-six publications were selected for this review. The studies conducted were experimental, using simulators or on-road studies and brain imaging (structural and functional) to better understand the acute and chronic effects on cognitive functions comprised in the short and long-term fitness to drive after cannabis consumption. In a case-crossover self-report study a significant odds ratio increase was found for driving- related injury after combined exposure to cannabis and alcohol compared to cannabis alone (OR of 10.9 and 5.8 respectively). Both, experimental and epidemiological studies have revealed that THC affects negatively both, psychomotor skills and cognitive functions. Studies of the acute effects of cannabis on driving have shown that drivers under the influence of this substance are impaired. Indeed, driving under the influence of cannabis doubles or triples the risk of a crash. Specifically, cannabis use impairs critical-tracking tasks, increases lane weaving, decreases reaction time, and divided attention. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Addiction, drinking behavior, and driving under the influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Davis, Dontrell V

    2014-05-01

    Using a survey of drinkers (N = 1,634), we evaluated alternative explanations of heavy and binge drinking, driving under the influence (DUI), DUI arrests, speeding citations, and chargeable accidents. Explanations included socializing, short-term decision-making, unrealistic optimism, risk preferring behavior, and addiction. Most consistent relationships were between substance use and alcohol addiction and dependent variables for (1) binge drinking and (2) DUI episodes. Respondent characteristics (age, marital and employment status, race, etc.) had important roles for DUI arrests. Drinker-drivers and those arrested for DUI are partially overlapping groups with implications for treatment and policies detecting and incapacitating persons from drinking and driving.

  8. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linbin Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.

  9. Sex ratio meiotic drive as a plausible evolutionary mechanism for hybrid male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linbin; Sun, Tianai; Woldesellassie, Fitsum; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun

    2015-03-01

    Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.

  10. Driving under the influence of alcohol. [Formerly known as: Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol is a threat to road safety. In 2015, the estimated number of road deaths in the Netherlands due to alcohol was between 75 and 140. The legal limit for novice drivers in the Netherlands is a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.2 g/l and a BAC of 0.5 g/l for

  11. An Evolutionary Algorithm for Feature Subset Selection in Hard Disk Drive Failure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Harpreet

    2011-01-01

    Hard disk drives are used in everyday life to store critical data. Although they are reliable, failure of a hard disk drive can be catastrophic, especially in applications like medicine, banking, air traffic control systems, missile guidance systems, computer numerical controlled machines, and more. The use of Self-Monitoring, Analysis and…

  12. Evolutionary Conservation in Genes Underlying Human Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Michelle Ogawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many psychiatric diseases observed in humans have tenuous or absent analogs in other species. Most notable among these are schizophrenia and autism. One hypothesis has posited that these diseases have arisen as a consequence of human brain evolution, for example, that the same processes that led to advances in cognition, language, and executive function also resulted in novel diseases in humans when dysfunctional. Here, the molecular evolution of genes associated with these and other psychiatric disorders are compared among species. Genes associated with psychiatric disorders are drawn from the literature and orthologous sequences are collected from eleven primate species (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, macaque, baboon, marmoset, squirrel monkey, and galago and thirty one non-primate mammalian species. Evolutionary parameters, including dN/dS, are calculated for each gene and compared between disease classes and among species, focusing on humans and primates compared to other mammals and on large-brained taxa (cetaceans, rhinoceros, walrus, bear, and elephant compared to their small-brained sister species. Evidence of differential selection in primates supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia and autism are a cost of higher brain function. Through this work a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the human brain, the pathophysiology of disease, and the genetic basis of human psychiatric disease is gained.

  13. Emotional labour underlying caring: an evolutionary concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Truc; Alderson, Marie; Thompson, Mary

    2008-10-01

    This paper is a report of a concept analysis of emotional labour. Caring is considered as the essence of nursing. Underpinning caring, the internal regulation of emotions or the emotional labour of nurses is invisible. The concept of emotional labour is relatively underdeveloped in nursing. A literature search using keywords 'emotional labour', 'emotional work' and 'emotions' was performed in CINAHL, PsycINFO and REPERE from 1990 to January 2008. We analysed 72 papers whose main focus of inquiry was on emotional labour. We followed Rodgers' evolutionary method of concept analysis. Emotional labour is a process whereby nurses adopt a 'work persona' to express their autonomous, surface or deep emotions during patient encounters. Antecedents to this adoption of a work persona are events occurring during patient-nurse encounters, and which consist of three elements: organization (i.e. social norms, social support), nurse (i.e. role identification, professional commitment, work experience and interpersonal skills) and job (i.e. autonomy, task routine, degree of emotional demand, interaction frequency and work complexity). The attributes of emotional labour have two dimensions: nurses' autonomous response and their work persona strategies (i.e. surface or deep acts). The consequences of emotional labour include organizational (i.e. productivity, 'cheerful environment') and nurse aspects (i.e. negative or positive). The concept of emotional labour should be introduced into preregistration programmes. Nurses also need to have time and a supportive environment to reflect, understand and discuss their emotional labour in caring for 'difficult' patients to deflate the dominant discourse about 'problem' patients.

  14. Stochastic noncooperative and cooperative evolutionary game strategies of a population of biological networks under natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Yeh, Chin-Hsun

    2017-12-01

    We review current static and dynamic evolutionary game strategies of biological networks and discuss the lack of random genetic variations and stochastic environmental disturbances in these models. To include these factors, a population of evolving biological networks is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic biological system with Poisson-driven genetic variations and random environmental fluctuations (stimuli). To gain insight into the evolutionary game theory of stochastic biological networks under natural selection, the phenotypic robustness and network evolvability of noncooperative and cooperative evolutionary game strategies are discussed from a stochastic Nash game perspective. The noncooperative strategy can be transformed into an equivalent multi-objective optimization problem and is shown to display significantly improved network robustness to tolerate genetic variations and buffer environmental disturbances, maintaining phenotypic traits for longer than the cooperative strategy. However, the noncooperative case requires greater effort and more compromises between partly conflicting players. Global linearization is used to simplify the problem of solving nonlinear stochastic evolutionary games. Finally, a simple stochastic evolutionary model of a metabolic pathway is simulated to illustrate the procedure of solving for two evolutionary game strategies and to confirm and compare their respective characteristics in the evolutionary process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PRDM9 drives evolutionary erosion of hotspots in Mus musculus through haplotype-specific initiation of meiotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher L; Kajita, Shimpei; Walker, Michael; Saxl, Ruth L; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Choi, Kwangbom; Petkov, Petko M; Paigen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination generates new genetic variation and assures the proper segregation of chromosomes in gametes. PRDM9, a zinc finger protein with histone methyltransferase activity, initiates meiotic recombination by binding DNA at recombination hotspots and directing the position of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). The DSB repair mechanism suggests that hotspots should eventually self-destruct, yet genome-wide recombination levels remain constant, a conundrum known as the hotspot paradox. To test if PRDM9 drives this evolutionary erosion, we measured activity of the Prdm9Cst allele in two Mus musculus subspecies, M.m. castaneus, in which Prdm9Cst arose, and M.m. domesticus, into which Prdm9Cst was introduced experimentally. Comparing these two strains, we find that haplotype differences at hotspots lead to qualitative and quantitative changes in PRDM9 binding and activity. Using Mus spretus as an outlier, we found most variants affecting PRDM9Cst binding arose and were fixed in M.m. castaneus, suppressing hotspot activity. Furthermore, M.m. castaneus×M.m. domesticus F1 hybrids exhibit novel hotspots, with large haplotype biases in both PRDM9 binding and chromatin modification. These novel hotspots represent sites of historic evolutionary erosion that become activated in hybrids due to crosstalk between one parent's Prdm9 allele and the opposite parent's chromosome. Together these data support a model where haplotype-specific PRDM9 binding directs biased gene conversion at hotspots, ultimately leading to hotspot erosion.

  16. The Association of Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity to Driving while under the Influence of Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Matthew F.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Hennessy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drunk driving. Results showed significant differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity among 160 individuals convicted of impaired or intoxicated driving and individuals who had never been arrested for driving while under the influence/driving while intoxicated…

  17. Insect herbivores drive real-time ecological and evolutionary change in plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Hastings, Amy P; Johnson, Marc T J; Maron, John L; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2012-10-05

    Insect herbivores are hypothesized to be major factors affecting the ecology and evolution of plants. We tested this prediction by suppressing insects in replicated field populations of a native plant, Oenothera biennis, which reduced seed predation, altered interspecific competitive dynamics, and resulted in rapid evolutionary divergence. Comparative genotyping and phenotyping of nearly 12,000 O. biennis individuals revealed that in plots protected from insects, resistance to herbivores declined through time owing to changes in flowering time and lower defensive ellagitannins in fruits, whereas plant competitive ability increased. This independent real-time evolution of plant resistance and competitive ability in the field resulted from the relaxation of direct selective effects of insects on plant defense and through indirect effects due to reduced herbivory on plant competitors.

  18. Relationships between frequency of driving under the influence of cannabis, self-reported reckless driving and risk-taking behavior observed in a driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Jacques; Paquette, Martin

    2014-06-01

    The role of cannabis consumption in traffic crashes is unclear and the causal link between cannabis and collisions is still to be demonstrated. While cannabis use is very likely to impair driving ability, there is as yet no overwhelming evidence that cannabis use in isolation contributes more to collisions than other characteristics inherent to cannabis users. As noted in a growing body of literature, individuals driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) seem to exhibit a general reckless driving style putting them at higher risk to be involved in traffic crashes. This study aims at investigating the relationship between self-reported DUIC and reckless driving by means of self-reported measures and direct observations made in a driving simulator. Participants (n=72) were required to be between 18 and 25 years of age, to hold a valid driver's license, and to drive at least twice a week. They completed standard driving simulation tasks recreating everyday on-road trivial conditions. Results show that people admitting that they commit more real-life dangerous driving behaviors reached higher maximum speed and demonstrated more reckless driving behaviors on the driving simulation tasks. Self-reported DUIC is associated with a risky driving style including a broad range of reckless on-road behaviors and support the problem driving behavior theory. Moreover, beyond confounding factors, both self-report DUIC and observed dangerous behaviors are associated with real-life traffic violations. Since DUIC appears to be related to an overall reckless style of driving, it is proposed that public safety policies should be more holistic, simultaneously targeting multiple on-road dangerous behaviors for intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Under pressure: evolutionary engineering of yeast strains for improved performance in fuels and chemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Robert; Daran, Jean-Marc G; Pronk, Jack T

    2018-04-01

    Evolutionary engineering, which uses laboratory evolution to select for industrially relevant traits, is a popular strategy in the development of high-performing yeast strains for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. By integrating whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, classical genetics and genome-editing techniques, evolutionary engineering has also become a powerful approach for identification and reverse engineering of molecular mechanisms that underlie industrially relevant traits. New techniques enable acceleration of in vivo mutation rates, both across yeast genomes and at specific loci. Recent studies indicate that phenotypic trade-offs, which are often observed after evolution under constant conditions, can be mitigated by using dynamic cultivation regimes. Advances in research on synthetic regulatory circuits offer exciting possibilities to extend the applicability of evolutionary engineering to products of yeasts whose synthesis requires a net input of cellular energy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A dynamic parking charge optimal control model under perspective of commuters' evolutionary game behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, XuXun; Yuan, PengCheng

    2018-01-01

    In this research we consider commuters' dynamic learning effect by modeling the trip mode choice behavior from a new perspective of dynamic evolutionary game theory. We explore the behavior pattern of different types of commuters and study the evolution path and equilibrium properties under different traffic conditions. We further establish a dynamic parking charge optimal control (referred to as DPCOC) model to alter commuters' trip mode choice while minimizing the total social cost. Numerical tests show. (1) Under fixed parking fee policy, the evolutionary results are completely decided by the travel time and the only method for public transit induction is to increase the parking charge price. (2) Compared with fixed parking fee policy, DPCOC policy proposed in this research has several advantages. Firstly, it can effectively turn the evolutionary path and evolutionary stable strategy to a better situation while minimizing the total social cost. Secondly, it can reduce the sensitivity of trip mode choice behavior to traffic congestion and improve the ability to resist interferences and emergencies. Thirdly, it is able to control the private car proportion to a stable state and make the trip behavior more predictable for the transportation management department. The research results can provide theoretical basis and decision-making references for commuters' mode choice prediction, dynamic setting of urban parking charge prices and public transit induction.

  1. Strategies to reduce driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, W; Hingson, R

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to update research on the prevention of alcohol-related traffic deaths since the 1988 Surgeon General's Workshop on Drunk Driving. Four primary areas of research are reviewed here: (a) general deterrence policies, (b) alcohol control policies, (c) mass communications campaigns, including advertising restrictions, and (d) community traffic safety programs. Modern efforts to combat drunk driving in the United States began with specific deterrence strategies to punish convicted drunk drivers, and then evolved to include general deterrence strategies that were targeted to the population as a whole. Efforts next expanded to include the alcohol side of the problem, with measures installed to decrease underage drinking and excessive alcohol consumption. In the next several years, greater efforts are needed on all these fronts. Also needed, however, are programs that integrate drunk driving prevention with other traffic safety initiatives.

  2. Design Preliminaries for Direct Drive under Water Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Argeseanu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the preliminary design process of a 20 MW electric generator. The application calls for an offshore, vertical axis, direct drive wind turbine. Arguments for selecting the type of electric machine for the application are presented and discussed. Comparison criteria for deciding...... on a type of machine are listed. Additional constraints emerging from the direct drive, vertical axis concepts are considered. General rules and a preliminary algorithm are discussed for the machine selected to be most suitable for the imposed conditions....

  3. Driving under the influence…..”Of social factors”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Robert M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of the research that seeks to understand driving behavior and decision making has been performed by behavioral psychologists and engineers. These studies have a tendency to focus on the individual driver, examining such topics as road and vehicle design, cognitive skills, and the effects of collisions on the human body. This disparate research has produced a wealth of knowledge but with little unifying theory. The act of driving occurs within social environments that exist at many levels; the same act can be viewed through multiple lenses. In its exploration of the social context, this paper moves from an analysis of the global scale to the regional to the local. Our roads are monitored by police services and illegal acts are punished by judicial systems; these social institutions attempt to modify behavior through punitive measures. These punitive measures are derived from social theories of deviance and deterrence, methods shown here to be flawed. Empirical data derived from observations in Al Ain, UAE, are used in a quasi-experimental design that describes how drivers alter their choice of speed based on their observations of other drivers. This paper concludes by suggesting that, both by examining and legislating for driver behavior, there is a pressing need to situate the driver within his/her social environment.

  4. Environmental Policy and Technology Diffusion under Imperfect Competition. An Evolutionary Game Theoretical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, F.P.

    2003-05-01

    is the start of the actual evolutionary game modelling and analysis of diffusion of an abatement technology within an imperfect competitive product market. A parametric Cournot model is introduced that allows for both heterogeneous and homogeneous products, which can be produced by means of a dirty technology with high emissions per unit of production or with a clean technology which generates lower emissions per unit of output. We shall, however, mainly emphasize the case of product differentiation. The model in chapter 6 abstracts from any form of environmental regulation and will serve as a benchmark. The model as presented in chapter 6 is adjusted for environmental policy in chapters 7 and 8. Chapter 7 analyzes the diffusion process of clean technology under the policy regimes emission taxation and subsidies per unit of emission reduction. The instruments tradable emission permits and tradable emission credits are examined in chapter 8. In chapter 9, the four instruments will be compared to each other on the basis of their corresponding diffusion incentives and welfare. Moreover, a scenario study is conducted in order to explore the effects of differences in the technologies' pollution intensiveness and the cost structure of the firms. The thesis is finalized by chapter 10, which contains a synthesis of the major results and conclusions.

  5. Multi-objective optimization of an arch dam shape under static loads using an evolutionary game method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rui; Cheong, Kang Hao; Bao, Wei; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Wang, Lu; Xie, Neng-gang

    2018-06-01

    This article attempts to evaluate the safety and economic performance of an arch dam under the action of static loads. The geometric description of a crown cantilever section and the horizontal arch ring is presented. A three-objective optimization model of arch dam shape is established based on the arch dam volume, maximum principal tensile stress and total strain energy. The evolutionary game method is then applied to obtain the optimal solution. In the evolutionary game technique, a novel and more efficient exploration method of the game players' strategy space, named the 'sorting partition method under the threshold limit', is presented, with the game profit functions constructed according to both competitive and cooperative behaviour. By way of example, three optimization goals have all shown improvements over the initial solutions. In particular, the evolutionary game method has potentially faster convergence. This demonstrates the preliminary proof of principle of the evolutionary game method.

  6. Evolutionary History Underlies Plant Physiological Responses to Global Change Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, K. M.; Medeiros, J. S.; Sale, K. R.; Ward, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Assessing family and species-level variation in physiological responses to global change across geologic time is critical for understanding factors that underlie changes in species distributions and community composition. Ancient plant specimens preserved within packrat middens are invaluable in this context since they allow for comparisons between co-occurring plant lineages. Here we used modern and ancient plant specimens preserved within packrat middens from the Snake Range, NV to investigate the physiological responses of a mixed montane conifer community to global change since the last glacial maximum. We used a conceptual model to infer relative changes in stomatal conductance and maximum photosynthetic capacity from measures of leaf carbon isotopes, stomatal characteristics, and leaf nitrogen content. Our results indicate that most of the sampled taxa decreased stomatal conductance and/or photosynthetic capacity from glacial to modern times. However, plant families differed in the timing and magnitude of these physiological responses. Additionally, leaf-level responses were more similar within plant families than within co-occurring species assemblages. This suggests that adaptation at the level of leaf physiology may not be the main determinant of shifts in community composition, and that plant evolutionary history may drive physiological adaptation to global change over recent geologic time.

  7. Phylogenetic and Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of Mitophagy Receptors under Hypoxic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As animals evolved to use oxygen as the main strategy to produce ATP through the process of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, the ability to adapt to fluctuating oxygen concentrations is a crucial component of evolutionary pressure. Three mitophagy receptors, FUNDC1, BNIP3 and NIX, induce the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria (mitophagy under prolonged hypoxic conditions in mammalian cells, to maintain oxygen homeostasis and prevent cell death. However, the evolutionary origins and structure-function relationships of these receptors remain poorly understood. Here, we found that FUN14 domain-containing proteins are present in archaeal, bacterial and eukaryotic genomes, while the family of BNIP3 domain-containing proteins evolved from early animals. We investigated conservation patterns of the critical amino acid residues of the human mitophagy receptors. These residues are involved in receptor regulation, mainly through phosphorylation, and in interaction with LC3 on the phagophore. Whereas FUNDC1 may be able to bind to LC3 under the control of post-translational regulations during the early evolution of vertebrates, BINP3 and NIX had already gained the ability for LC3 binding in early invertebrates. Moreover, FUNDC1 and BNIP3 each lack a layer of phosphorylation regulation in fishes that is conserved in land vertebrates. Molecular evolutionary analysis revealed that BNIP3 and NIX, as the targets of oxygen sensing HIF-1α, showed higher rates of substitution in fishes than in mammals. Conversely, FUNDC1 and its regulator MARCH5 showed higher rates of substitution in mammals. Thus, we postulate that the structural traces of mitophagy receptors in land vertebrates and fishes may reflect the process of vertebrate transition from water onto land, during which the changes in atmospheric oxygen concentrations acted as a selection force in vertebrate evolution. In conclusion, our study, combined with previous experimental results, shows that

  8. Evolutionary and Comparative Genomics to Drive Rational Drug Design, with Particular Focus on Neuropeptide Seven-Transmembrane Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael; Seong, Jae Young

    2017-01-01

    Seven transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), also known as G protein-coupled receptors, are popular targets of drug development, particularly 7TMR systems that are activated by peptide ligands. Although many pharmaceutical drugs have been discovered via conventional bulk analysis techniques the increasing availability of structural and evolutionary data are facilitating change to rational, targeted drug design. This article discusses the appeal of neuropeptide-7TMR systems as drug targets and provides an overview of concepts in the evolution of vertebrate genomes and gene families. Subsequently, methods that use evolutionary concepts and comparative analysis techniques to aid in gene discovery, gene function identification, and novel drug design are provided along with case study examples.

  9. Heritability of DUI convictions: a twin study of driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anum, Emmanuel A; Silberg, Judy; Retchin, Sheldon M

    2014-02-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences on drunk-driving. Driving records of a cohort of male and female twins (N = 17,360) from the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry were examined. Structural equation models were used to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on male and female phenotypes, and test for gender differences. There were significant gender and age effects. Compared with females, males were five times more likely to engage in driving under the influence. Among persons aged 21-49 years, the risk for drunk-driving was eight times that for those aged 50+ years and five times greater than those ≤20 years. In both males and females, aged 21-49 years, a large proportion (57%) of the variance in drunk-driving was due to genetic factors and the remaining 43% due to individual specific environmental influences. Drunk-driving is under significant genetic influence in both males and females. Our findings suggest that a different set of genes influence DUIs in men and women.

  10. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisdi, E; Geritz, S A

    2001-12-22

    Competitive asymmetry, which is the advantage of having a larger body or stronger weaponry than a contestant, drives spectacular evolutionary arms races in intraspecific competition. Similar asymmetries are well documented in interspecific competition, yet they seldom lead to exaggerated traits. Here we demonstrate that two species with substantially different size may undergo parallel coevolution towards a smaller size under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race. We show that disarmament occurs for a wide range of parameters in an ecologically explicit model of competition for a single shared resource; disarmament also occurs in a simple Lotka-Volterra competition model. A key property of both models is the interplay between evolutionary dynamics and population density. The mechanism does not rely on very specific features of the model. Thus, evolutionary disarmament may be widespread and may help to explain the lack of interspecific arms races.

  11. Psychological Factors related with Driving under the Influence of Alcohol and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Budak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol and substance use is an important traffic problem that caused many people in the world to lose their lieves. Many features that are important in terms of driving adversely affected under the influence of alcohol and substance and therefore impaired driving behavior arises in drivers. The most effective way to fight for prevent this impaired driver behavier is the restrictions and regulations imposed on drivers in traffic related to alcohol and drug use. Nevertheless, in the literature, some drivers continue to impaired driving function with a risky traffic behavior, in which the driver personality (risk-taking, thrill-seeking, self-control, psychopathological (substance abuse, personality disorders, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, anger and aggression, and many other neuropsychological features are considered to have a relationship with this situation. In this article psychological, psychopathological and neuropsychological studies have examined regarding drive under the influence of alcohol and drug. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 333-347

  12. Use of a driving simulator to assess performance under adverse weather conditions in adults with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Gwen M; Summers, C Gail; Ward, Nicholas; Bhargava, Esha; Rakauskas, Michael E; Holleschau, Ann M

    2012-04-01

    Participants with albinism have reduced vision and nystagmus with reduced foveation times. This prospective study evaluated driving in 12 participants with albinism and 12 matched controls. Participants drove a vehicle simulator through a virtual rural course in sunny and foggy conditions. Under sunny conditions, participants with albinism showed a narrower preferred minimum safety boundary during car-following tasks than did controls, but there was no difference under foggy conditions. Their driving did not differ significantly from that of controls when approaching a stop sign or when choosing gap size between oncoming vehicles when crossing an intersection. However, when compared to control drivers, participants with albinism had a decreased minimum safety boundary for car-following that should be included in counseling regarding driving safety.

  13. Driving under the influence behaviours among high school students who mix alcohol with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N; Cumming, Tammy; Burkhalter, Robin; Langille, Donald B; Ogilvie, Rachel; Asbridge, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol and energy drinks are commonly used substances by youth in Canada, and are often mixed (AmED). While several studies have shown that AmED can have dangerous effects, less well understood is how AmED is associated with driving under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. This study sought to determine whether youth who use AmED were more likely to engage in driving, or being a passenger of a driver, under the influence of alcohol or cannabis compared to youth who use either alcohol or energy drinks alone. This study used data from grade 10-12 students who took part in the 2014/2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (N=17,450). The association of past-year AmED use with past-30day: driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, and riding with an alcohol- or cannabis-influenced driver, was assessed using logistic regression. One in four youth had consumed AmED in the previous 12months. AmED users were more likely to engage in all risk behaviours except riding with a drinking driver, relative to youth who only consumed alcohol. No association was observed for youth who consumed alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions. Youth who use AmED demonstrate a higher risk profile for driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, than youth who use alcohol alone. Future research should explore the biopsychosocial pathways that may explain why using energy drinks enhances the already heightened risk posed by alcohol on other health-related behaviours such as driving under the influence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges based on our review of the attributes of aquati...

  15. Production bias: A proposed modification of the driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.; Garner, F.A.

    1991-11-01

    A new concept of point-defect production as the main driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions is proposed. This concept takes into account the recombination and formation of immobile clusters and loops of vacancies and interstitials in the cascade region. The life times of the clusters and loops due to desolution are strong functions of the temperature, as well as their vacancy and interstitial nature. The resulting biased production of free point defects from the internal sources is shown to be a strong driving force for void swelling. The characteristics of void swelling due to production bias are described and compared with experimental results. We conclude that the production bias concept provides a good description of void swelling under cascade damage conditions

  16. Production bias: A proposed modification of the driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.; Singh, B.N.; Garner, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    A new concept of point defect production as the main driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions is proposed. This concept takes into account the recombination and formation of immobile clusters and loops of vacancies and interstitials in the cascade region. The lifetimes of the clusters and loops due to desolution are strong functions of the temperature, as well as their vacancy and interstitial nature. The resulting biased production of free point defects from the internal sources is shown to be a strong driving force for void swelling. The characteristics of void swelling due to production bias are described and compared with experimental results. We conclude that the production bias concept provides a good description of void swelling under cascade damage conditions. (orig.)

  17. Impact of alcohol checks and social norm on driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesmann, Uta; Martensen, Heike; Dupont, Emmanuelle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of alcohol checks and social norm on self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol above the legal limit (DUI). The analysis was based on the responses of 12,507 car drivers from 19 European countries to the SARTRE-4 survey (2010). The data were analysed by means of a multiple logistic regression-model on two levels: (1) individual and (2) national level. On the individual level the results revealed that driving under the influence (DUI) was positively associated with male gender, young age (17-34), personal experience with alcohol checks, the perceived likelihood of being checked for alcohol, perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends (social norm) and was negatively associated with higher age (55+). On a national level, the results showed a negative association with a lower legal alcohol limit (BAC 0.2g/l compared with BAC 0.5g/l) and the percentage of drivers checked for alcohol. DUI was positively associated with the percentage of respondents in the country that reported that their friends drink and drive (social norm). The comparison of the results obtained on national and individual levels shows a paradoxical effect of alcohol checks: Countries with more alcohol checks show lower DUI (negative association) but respondents who have been personally checked for alcohol show a higher chance of DUI (positive association). Possible explanations of this paradox are discussed. The effects of the social norm variable (perceived drunk driving behaviour of friends) are positively associated with DUI on both levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Under pressure: evolutionary engineering of yeast strains for improved performance in fuels and chemicals production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, R.; Daran, J.G.; Pronk, J.T.

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary engineering, which uses laboratory evolution to select for industrially relevant traits, is a popular strategy in the development of high-performing yeast strains for industrial production of fuels and chemicals. By integrating whole-genome sequencing, bioinformatics, classical

  19. Selection of energy source and evolutionary stable strategies for power plants under financial intervention of government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Currently, many socially responsible governments adopt economic incentives and deterrents to manage environmental impacts of electricity suppliers. Considering the Stackelberg leadership of the government, the government's role in the competition of power plants in an electricity market is investigated. A one-population evolutionary game model of power plants is developed to study how their production strategy depends on tariffs levied by the government. We establish that a unique evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) for the population exists. Numerical examples demonstrate that revenue maximization and environment protection policies of the government significantly affect the production ESS of competitive power plants. The results reveal that the government can introduce a green energy source as an ESS of the competitive power plants by imposing appropriate tariffs.

  20. Evolutionary Game Model Study of Construction Green Supply Chain Management under the Government Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuanzhi; Deng, Xiaoyi

    2017-11-01

    The paper first has defined the concepts of green supply chain management and evolution game theory, and pointed out the characteristics of green supply chain management in construction. The main participants and key links of the construction green supply chain management are determined by constructing the organization framework. This paper established the evolutionary game model between construction enterprises and recycling enterprises for the green supply chain closed-loop structure. The waste recycling evolutionary stability equilibrium solution is obtained to explore the principle and effective scope of government policy intervention. This paper put forward the relevant countermeasures to the green supply chain management in construction recycling stage from the government point of view. The conclusion has reference value and guidance to the final product construction enterprises, recycling enterprises and the government during green supply chain.

  1. Evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges: key concepts for conserving Australian arid zone freshwater biodiversity under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenny; Pavlova, Alexandra; Thompson, Ross; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Refugia have been suggested as priority sites for conservation under climate change because of their ability to facilitate survival of biota under adverse conditions. Here, we review the likely role of refugial habitats in conserving freshwater biota in arid Australian aquatic systems where the major long-term climatic influence has been aridification. We introduce a conceptual model that characterizes evolutionary refugia and ecological refuges based on our review of the attributes of aquatic habitats and freshwater taxa (fishes and aquatic invertebrates) in arid Australia. We also identify methods of recognizing likely future refugia and approaches to assessing the vulnerability of arid-adapted freshwater biota to a warming and drying climate. Evolutionary refugia in arid areas are characterized as permanent, groundwater-dependent habitats (subterranean aquifers and springs) supporting vicariant relicts and short-range endemics. Ecological refuges can vary across space and time, depending on the dispersal abilities of aquatic taxa and the geographical proximity and hydrological connectivity of aquatic habitats. The most important are the perennial waterbodies (both groundwater and surface water fed) that support obligate aquatic organisms. These species will persist where suitable habitats are available and dispersal pathways are maintained. For very mobile species (invertebrates with an aerial dispersal phase) evolutionary refugia may also act as ecological refuges. Evolutionary refugia are likely future refugia because their water source (groundwater) is decoupled from local precipitation. However, their biota is extremely vulnerable to changes in local conditions because population extinction risks cannot be abated by the dispersal of individuals from other sites. Conservation planning must incorporate a high level of protection for aquifers that support refugial sites. Ecological refuges are vulnerable to changes in regional climate because they have little

  2. The evolutionary dynamics of variant antigen genes in Babesia reveal a history of genomic innovation underlying host-parasite interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Jackson, Andrew P.

    2014-05-05

    Babesia spp. are tick-borne, intraerythrocytic hemoparasites that use antigenic variation to resist host immunity, through sequential modification of the parasite-derived variant erythrocyte surface antigen (VESA) expressed on the infected red blood cell surface. We identified the genomic processes driving antigenic diversity in genes encoding VESA (ves1) through comparative analysis within and between three Babesia species, (B. bigemina, B. divergens and B. bovis). Ves1 structure diverges rapidly after speciation, notably through the evolution of shortened forms (ves2) from 5? ends of canonical ves1 genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that ves1 genes are transposed between loci routinely, whereas ves2 genes are not. Similarly, analysis of sequence mosaicism shows that recombination drives variation in ves1 sequences, but less so for ves2, indicating the adoption of different mechanisms for variation of the two families. Proteomic analysis of the B. bigemina PR isolate shows that two dominant VESA1 proteins are expressed in the population, whereas numerous VESA2 proteins are co-expressed, consistent with differential transcriptional regulation of each family. Hence, VESA2 proteins are abundant and previously unrecognized elements of Babesia biology, with evolutionary dynamics consistently different to those of VESA1, suggesting that their functions are distinct. 2014 The Author(s) 2014.

  3. The evolutionary dynamics of variant antigen genes in Babesia reveal a history of genomic innovation underlying host-parasite interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Jackson, Andrew P.; Otto, Thomas D.; Darby, Alistair; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Xia, Dong; Echaide, Ignacio Eduardo; Farber, Marisa; Gahlot, Sunayna; Gamble, John; Gupta, Dinesh; Gupta, Yask; Jackson, Louise; Malandrin, Laurence; Malas, Tareq B.; Moussa, Ehab; Nair, Mridul; Reid, Adam J.; Sanders, Mandy; Sharma, Jyotsna; Tracey, Alan; Quail, Mike A.; Weir, William; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Hall, Neil; Willadsen, Peter; Lingelbach, Klaus; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Berriman, Matt; Allred, David R.; Pain, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Babesia spp. are tick-borne, intraerythrocytic hemoparasites that use antigenic variation to resist host immunity, through sequential modification of the parasite-derived variant erythrocyte surface antigen (VESA) expressed on the infected red blood cell surface. We identified the genomic processes driving antigenic diversity in genes encoding VESA (ves1) through comparative analysis within and between three Babesia species, (B. bigemina, B. divergens and B. bovis). Ves1 structure diverges rapidly after speciation, notably through the evolution of shortened forms (ves2) from 5? ends of canonical ves1 genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that ves1 genes are transposed between loci routinely, whereas ves2 genes are not. Similarly, analysis of sequence mosaicism shows that recombination drives variation in ves1 sequences, but less so for ves2, indicating the adoption of different mechanisms for variation of the two families. Proteomic analysis of the B. bigemina PR isolate shows that two dominant VESA1 proteins are expressed in the population, whereas numerous VESA2 proteins are co-expressed, consistent with differential transcriptional regulation of each family. Hence, VESA2 proteins are abundant and previously unrecognized elements of Babesia biology, with evolutionary dynamics consistently different to those of VESA1, suggesting that their functions are distinct. 2014 The Author(s) 2014.

  4. The evolutionary dynamics of variant antigen genes in Babesia reveal a history of genomic innovation underlying host–parasite interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew P.; Otto, Thomas D.; Darby, Alistair; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Xia, Dong; Echaide, Ignacio Eduardo; Farber, Marisa; Gahlot, Sunayna; Gamble, John; Gupta, Dinesh; Gupta, Yask; Jackson, Louise; Malandrin, Laurence; Malas, Tareq B.; Moussa, Ehab; Nair, Mridul; Reid, Adam J.; Sanders, Mandy; Sharma, Jyotsna; Tracey, Alan; Quail, Mike A.; Weir, William; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Hall, Neil; Willadsen, Peter; Lingelbach, Klaus; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Berriman, Matt; Allred, David R.; Pain, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Babesia spp. are tick-borne, intraerythrocytic hemoparasites that use antigenic variation to resist host immunity, through sequential modification of the parasite-derived variant erythrocyte surface antigen (VESA) expressed on the infected red blood cell surface. We identified the genomic processes driving antigenic diversity in genes encoding VESA (ves1) through comparative analysis within and between three Babesia species, (B. bigemina, B. divergens and B. bovis). Ves1 structure diverges rapidly after speciation, notably through the evolution of shortened forms (ves2) from 5′ ends of canonical ves1 genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that ves1 genes are transposed between loci routinely, whereas ves2 genes are not. Similarly, analysis of sequence mosaicism shows that recombination drives variation in ves1 sequences, but less so for ves2, indicating the adoption of different mechanisms for variation of the two families. Proteomic analysis of the B. bigemina PR isolate shows that two dominant VESA1 proteins are expressed in the population, whereas numerous VESA2 proteins are co-expressed, consistent with differential transcriptional regulation of each family. Hence, VESA2 proteins are abundant and previously unrecognized elements of Babesia biology, with evolutionary dynamics consistently different to those of VESA1, suggesting that their functions are distinct. PMID:24799432

  5. The evolutionary dynamics of variant antigen genes in Babesia reveal a history of genomic innovation underlying host-parasite interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew P; Otto, Thomas D; Darby, Alistair; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Xia, Dong; Echaide, Ignacio Eduardo; Farber, Marisa; Gahlot, Sunayna; Gamble, John; Gupta, Dinesh; Gupta, Yask; Jackson, Louise; Malandrin, Laurence; Malas, Tareq B; Moussa, Ehab; Nair, Mridul; Reid, Adam J; Sanders, Mandy; Sharma, Jyotsna; Tracey, Alan; Quail, Mike A; Weir, William; Wastling, Jonathan M; Hall, Neil; Willadsen, Peter; Lingelbach, Klaus; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Berriman, Matt; Allred, David R; Pain, Arnab

    2014-06-01

    Babesia spp. are tick-borne, intraerythrocytic hemoparasites that use antigenic variation to resist host immunity, through sequential modification of the parasite-derived variant erythrocyte surface antigen (VESA) expressed on the infected red blood cell surface. We identified the genomic processes driving antigenic diversity in genes encoding VESA (ves1) through comparative analysis within and between three Babesia species, (B. bigemina, B. divergens and B. bovis). Ves1 structure diverges rapidly after speciation, notably through the evolution of shortened forms (ves2) from 5' ends of canonical ves1 genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that ves1 genes are transposed between loci routinely, whereas ves2 genes are not. Similarly, analysis of sequence mosaicism shows that recombination drives variation in ves1 sequences, but less so for ves2, indicating the adoption of different mechanisms for variation of the two families. Proteomic analysis of the B. bigemina PR isolate shows that two dominant VESA1 proteins are expressed in the population, whereas numerous VESA2 proteins are co-expressed, consistent with differential transcriptional regulation of each family. Hence, VESA2 proteins are abundant and previously unrecognized elements of Babesia biology, with evolutionary dynamics consistently different to those of VESA1, suggesting that their functions are distinct. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Emotional dysregulation and anxiety control in the psychopathological mechanism underlying drive for thinness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eFiore

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotional dysregulation is a process which consists in mitigating, intensifying or maintaining a given emotion and is the trigger for some psychological disorders. Research has shown that a anxiety control plays an important role in emotional expression and regulation and, in addition, for anorexia nervosa and, more in general, in drive for thinness. Scientific literature suggests that in anorexia nervosa there is a core of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control as independent or third variables in a mediational regression model related to drive for thinness. 154 clinical individuals with anorexia participated in the study and all completed a set of self-report questionnaires: eating disorders inventory version 3 (EDI-3, DERS, and the anxiety control questionnaire (ACQ. The data confirmed a mediational model in which the relation between emotional dysregulation and drive for thinness is mediated by anxiety control. The current study partially supports a clinical model in which emotional dysregulation is a distal factor in eating disorders while the mediator variable anxiety control is a proximal factor in the psychopathological process underlying it.

  7. Model Development for Risk Assessment of Driving on Freeway under Rainy Weather Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Cai

    Full Text Available Rainy weather conditions could result in significantly negative impacts on driving on freeways. However, due to lack of enough historical data and monitoring facilities, many regions are not able to establish reliable risk assessment models to identify such impacts. Given the situation, this paper provides an alternative solution where the procedure of risk assessment is developed based on drivers' subjective questionnaire and its performance is validated by using actual crash data. First, an ordered logit model was developed, based on questionnaire data collected from Freeway G15 in China, to estimate the relationship between drivers' perceived risk and factors, including vehicle type, rain intensity, traffic volume, and location. Then, weighted driving risk for different conditions was obtained by the model, and further divided into four levels of early warning (specified by colors using a rank order cluster analysis. After that, a risk matrix was established to determine which warning color should be disseminated to drivers, given a specific condition. Finally, to validate the proposed procedure, actual crash data from Freeway G15 were compared with the safety prediction based on the risk matrix. The results show that the risk matrix obtained in the study is able to predict driving risk consistent with actual safety implications, under rainy weather conditions.

  8. [Driving under the influence of benzodiazepines and antidepressants: prescription and abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Daniel; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; Teixeira, Helena M

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are drugs usually used in anxiety disorders, dyssomnias, convulsions, muscle disorders, alcohol and other drugs detoxification, as well as in preoperative sedation/amnesia. Moreover, antidepressants are mainly indicated in depression and as co-therapeutic drugs in other psychiatric disorders. The use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants is associated with some health and public safety problems. Decreased of attention, concentration, reflexes, visual capacity, motor coordination and reasoning, associated with increased reaction time and lack of awareness of driving impairment among these drug users, contributes to the increased risk on traffic safety linked with these drugs. This risk may further increase with non-compliance of medical prescription, drug abuse or concomitant use of alcohol. The relationship between the use of psychoactive drugs and road traffic safety is, however, an extremely complex subject and has a primordial importance in the clarification of the role of benzodiazepine and antidepressant effects on driving skills. The prevention of driving under the influence of these drugs depends on the awareness, among doctors, of the risks associated with their use. Thus, the consciousness of medical prescription, as well as providing clear information to patients is extremely important.

  9. Driving under the influence of khat--alkaloid concentrations and observations in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toennes, Stefan W; Kauert, Gerold F

    2004-02-10

    The use of the herbal stimulant khat (Catha edulis FORSK) is maintained by immigrants from countries where it is part of their cultural life (Arabian Peninsula and eastern Africa). In western countries the drug and its effects are largely unknown and no experience in evaluating impairment symptoms due to the khat-alkaloids, e.g. cathinone, cathine and norephedrine exists. Blood and urine samples from khat users involved in 19 cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs were analysed and correlated with the results of medical examination and police officer reports. In 3 cases impaired driving and in 10 cases marked impairment of psychophysical functions was observed such as effects on the nervous system (slow pupil reaction to light, dry mouth, increased heart-rate), trembling, restlessness/nervousness, daze/apathy/dullness, impairment of attention, walking and standing on one leg. However, the alkaloid concentrations assayed in blood did not correlate with the impairment symptoms. Apart from an acute phase of indirect sympathomimetic action the development of habituation and withdrawal symptoms must also be considered in explaining the diversity of effects observed. From these results it can be concluded that chewing khat may severely impair driving ability, but may also be without noticeable effects.

  10. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source

  11. Driver exposure to volatile organic compounds, CO, ozone, and NO2 under different driving conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changchuan Chan; Oezkaynak, H.; Spengler, J.D.; Sheldon, L.

    1991-01-01

    The in-vehicle concentrations of 24 gasoline-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and three criteria air pollutants, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide, were measured in the summer of 1988, in Raleigh, NC. Two four-door sedan of different ages were used to evaluate in-vehicle concentrations of these compounds under different driving conditions. Factors that could influence driver exposure, such as different traffic patterns, car model, vehicle ventilation conditions, and driving periods, were evaluated. Isopentane was the most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon and toluene was the most abundant aromatic VOC measured inside the vehicles. In-vehicle VOC and CO concentrations were highest for the urban roadway, second highest for the interstate highway, and lowest for the rural road. The median concentration ratio of urban/interstate/rural for each VOC was about 10/6/1. No differences in in-vehicle VOC concentrations were found between morning and afternoon rush hour driving, but higher in-vehicle ozone and NO 2 concentrations were found during afternoon driving. In-vehicle VOC levels were lowest with the air conditioner on and highest when the vent was open with the fan on. The in-vehicle/car exterior concentration ratio for VOCs, CO, and NO 2 was slightly higher than 1. The VOC concentration measured by a pedestrian on the urban sidewalk was lower than the in-vehicle measurements but higher than the fixed-site measurements but higher than the fixed-site measurements on urban roadways 50 m from streets. The VOC measurements were positively correlated with the CO measurement and negatively correlated with the ozone measurement

  12. Opportunities to Investigate the Steering System for Improvement of Truck Driving Properties under Critical Road Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlewski, Mirosław

    2011-09-01

    Application of an electric steering system in a truck gives new opportunities to obtain desirable and safe motion path under critical road conditions. Analysis of the opportunity to take advantage of the steering system for improvement of truck driving properties will be carried out on the basis of the results of model tests. The paper describes model of the vehicle applied in simulation tests and methodology as well as anticipated results. The scheduled tests will be carried out within the framework of an research project No. NN509 568439 headed by the author.

  13. Assessment of wind turbine drive-train fatigue loads under torsional excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego Calderon, Juan Felipe; Natarajan, Anand

    2015-01-01

    allows the computation of the bearing and gear-mesh loads. The proposed models are validated by experiments from a 750 kW test-rig. The drive-train model is configured for a 5 MW power capacity and coupled to the corresponding wind turbine and load simulations are carried out under turbulent wind...... model is used in comparison to a simplified approach for load calculation. It is found that some of the wind turbine modes can have negative consequences on the life-time of the planetary bearings. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Attractive evolutionary equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.; Roorda, Berend

    2011-01-01

    We present attractiveness, a refinement criterion for evolutionary equilibria. Equilibria surviving this criterion are robust to small perturbations of the underlying payoff system or the dynamics at hand. Furthermore, certain attractive equilibria are equivalent to others for certain evolutionary

  15. Identification of common features of vehicle motion under drowsy/distracted driving: A case study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhong, Ming; Lyu, Nengchao; Huang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Drowsy/distracted driving has become one of the leading causes of traffic crash. Only certain particular drowsy/distracted driving behaviors have been studied by previous studies, which are mainly based on dedicated sensor devices such as bio and visual sensors. The objective of this study is to extract the common features for identifying drowsy/distracted driving through a set of common vehicle motion parameters. An intelligent vehicle was used to collect vehicle motion parameters. Fifty licensed drivers (37 males and 13 females, M=32.5 years, SD=6.2) were recruited to carry out road experiments in Wuhan, China and collecting vehicle motion data under four driving scenarios including talking, watching roadside, drinking and under the influence of drowsiness. For the first scenario, the drivers were exposed to a set of questions and asked to repeat a few sentences that had been proved valid in inducing driving distraction. Watching roadside, drinking and driving under drowsiness were assessed by an observer and self-reporting from the drivers. The common features of vehicle motions under four types of drowsy/distracted driving were analyzed using descriptive statistics and then Wilcoxon rank sum test. The results indicated that there was a significant difference of lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration between "normal driving" and drowsy/distracted driving. Study results also shown that, under drowsy/distracted driving, the lateral acceleration rates and yaw rate acceleration were significantly larger from the normal driving. The lateral acceleration rates were shown to suddenly increase or decrease by more than 2.0m/s(3) and the yaw rate acceleration by more than 2.5°/s(2). The standard deviation of acceleration rate (SDA) and standard deviation of yaw rate acceleration (SDY) were identified to as the common features of vehicle motion for distinguishing the drowsy/distracted driving from the normal driving. In order to identify a time window for

  16. An accelerated life test model for harmonic drives under a segmental stress history and its parameter optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic drives have various distinctive advantages and are widely used in space drive mechanisms. Accelerated life test (ALT is commonly conducted to shorten test time and reduce associated costs. An appropriate ALT model is needed to predict the lifetime of harmonic drives with ALT data. However, harmonic drives which are used in space usually work under a segmental stress history, and traditional ALT models can hardly be used in this situation. This paper proposes a dedicated ALT model for harmonic drives applied in space systems. A comprehensive ALT model is established and genetic algorithm (GA is adopted to obtain optimal parameters in the model using the Manson fatigue damage rule to describe the fatigue failure process and a cumulative damage method to calculate and accumulate the damage caused by each segment in the stress history. An ALT of harmonic drives was carried out and experimental results show that this model is acceptable and effective.

  17. Driving under the influence of alcohol: frequency, reasons, perceived risk and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Francisco; Pastor, Juan C; Montoro, Luis; Esteban, Cristina

    2015-03-12

    The aim of this study was to gain information useful to improve traffic safety, concerning the following aspects for DUI (Driving Under the Influence): frequency, reasons, perceived risk, drivers' knowledge of the related penalties, perceived likelihood of being punished, drivers' perception of the harshness of punitive measures and drivers' perception of the probability of behavioral change after punishment for DUI. A sample of 1100 Spanish drivers, 678 men and 422 women aged from 14 to 65 years old, took part in a telephone survey using a questionnaire to gather sociodemographic and psychosocial information about drivers, as well as information on enforcement, clustered in five related categories: "Knowledge and perception of traffic norms"; "Opinions on sanctions"; "Opinions on policing"; "Opinions on laws" (in general and on traffic); and "Assessment of the effectiveness of various punitive measures". Results showed around 60% of respondents believe that driving under the influence of alcohol is maximum risk behavior. Nevertheless, 90.2% of the sample said they never or almost never drove under the influence of alcohol. In this case, the main reasons were to avoid accidents (28.3%) as opposed to avoiding sanctions (10.4%). On the contrary, the remaining 9.7% acknowledged they had driven after consuming alcohol. It is noted that the main reasons for doing so were "not having another way to return home" (24.5%) and alcohol consumption being associated with meals (17.3%). Another important finding is that the risk perception of traffic accident as a result of DUI is influenced by variables such as sex and age. With regard to the type of sanctions, 90% think that DUI is punishable by a fine, 96.4% that it may result in temporary or permanent suspension of driving license, and 70% that it can be punished with imprisonment. Knowing how alcohol consumption impairs safe driving and skills, being aware of the associated risks, knowing the traffic regulations concerning

  18. Passing thoughts on the evolutionary stability of implicit motor behaviour: performance retention under physiological fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolton, J M; Masters, R S W; Maxwell, J P

    2007-06-01

    Heuristics of evolutionary biology (e.g., survival of the fittest) dictate that phylogenetically older processes are inherently more stable and resilient to disruption than younger processes. On the grounds that non-declarative behaviour emerged long before declarative behaviour, Reber (1992) argues that implicit (non-declarative) learning is supported by neural processes that are evolutionarily older than those supporting explicit learning. Reber suggested that implicit learning thus leads to performance that is more robust than explicit learning. Applying this evolutionary framework to motor performance, we examined whether implicit motor learning, relative to explicit motor learning, conferred motor output that was resilient to physiological fatigue and durable over time. In Part One of the study a fatigued state was induced by a double Wingate Anaerobic test protocol. Fatigue had no affect on performance of participants in the implicit condition; whereas, performance of participants in the explicit condition deteriorated significantly. In Part Two of the study a convenience sample of participants was recalled following a one-year hiatus. In both the implicit and the explicit condition retention of performance was seen and, contrary to the findings in Part One, so was resilience to fatigue. The resilient performance in the explicit condition after one year may have resulted from forgetting (the decay of declarative knowledge) or from consolidation of declarative knowledge as implicit memories. In either case, implicit processes were left to more effectively support motor performance.

  19. Changing pattern in the basal ganglia: motor switching under reduced dopaminergic drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Vincenzo G.; Rigoli, Francesco; Stenner, Max-Philipp; Zaehle, Tino; Hirth, Frank; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Action selection in the basal ganglia is often described within the framework of a standard model, associating low dopaminergic drive with motor suppression. Whilst powerful, this model does not explain several clinical and experimental data, including varying therapeutic efficacy across movement disorders. We tested the predictions of this model in patients with Parkinson’s disease, on and off subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS), focussing on adaptive sensory-motor responses to a changing environment and maintenance of an action until it is no longer suitable. Surprisingly, we observed prolonged perseverance under on-stimulation, and high inter-individual variability in terms of the motor selections performed when comparing the two conditions. To account for these data, we revised the standard model exploring its space of parameters and associated motor functions and found that, depending on effective connectivity between external and internal parts of the globus pallidus and saliency of the sensory input, a low dopaminergic drive can result in increased, dysfunctional, motor switching, besides motor suppression. This new framework provides insight into the biophysical mechanisms underlying DBS, allowing a description in terms of alteration of the signal-to-baseline ratio in the indirect pathway, which better account of known electrophysiological data in comparison with the standard model. PMID:27004463

  20. Drivers under the influence of drugs of abuse: quantification of cocaine and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Amparo; Sánchez, Marta; Barberia, Eneko; Barbal, Maria; Marrón, M Teresa; Mora, Agustí

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in oral fluid as a biological matrix has significantly increased, particularly for detecting driving under the influence of drugs. In this study, the concentration of cocaine and its relationship with clinical symptoms in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs was evaluated. A total of 154 samples of oral fluid, which tested positive for cocaine in previous immunoassay screening, Cozart Drug Detector System, were confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. In Catalonia, during 2007-2010, there were 1791 samples positive for cocaine among a total of 3468 samples taken from drivers who tested positive for any drug of abuse. The evaluation of clinical symptoms was through a questionnaire that was filled in by the police officers who collected the samples. The mean concentration of cocaine was 4.11 mg/l and median concentration was 0.38 mg/l (range 0.01-345.64 mg/l). Clinical impairment symptoms such as motor coordination, walking, speech, mood and state of pupils were not significant. The testing of oral fluids presents fewer ethical problems than blood or urine.

  1. Undocumented Immigration, Drug Problems, and Driving Under the Influence in the United States, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Michael T; Miller, Ty; Kelly, Brian C

    2017-09-01

    To examine the influence of undocumented immigration in the United States on 4 different metrics of drug and alcohol problems: drug arrests, drug overdose fatalities, driving under the influence (DUI) arrests, and DUI deaths. We combined newly developed state-level estimates of the undocumented population between 1990 and 2014 from the Center for Migration Studies with arrest data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports and fatality information from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Underlying Cause of Death database. We used fixed-effects regression models to examine the longitudinal association between increased undocumented immigration and drug problems and drunk driving. Increased undocumented immigration was significantly associated with reductions in drug arrests, drug overdose deaths, and DUI arrests, net of other factors. There was no significant relationship between increased undocumented immigration and DUI deaths. This study provides evidence that undocumented immigration has not increased the prevalence of drug or alcohol problems, but may be associated with reductions in these public health concerns.

  2. Comparison of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms for Operations Scheduling under Machine Availability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frutos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the problems that arise in production systems can be handled with multiobjective techniques. One of those problems is that of scheduling operations subject to constraints on the availability of machines and buffer capacity. In this paper we analyze different Evolutionary multiobjective Algorithms (MOEAs for this kind of problems. We consider an experimental framework in which we schedule production operations for four real world Job-Shop contexts using three algorithms, NSGAII, SPEA2, and IBEA. Using two performance indexes, Hypervolume and R2, we found that SPEA2 and IBEA are the most efficient for the tasks at hand. On the other hand IBEA seems to be a better choice of tool since it yields more solutions in the approximate Pareto frontier.

  3. Shrimps down under: evolutionary relationships of subterranean crustaceans from Western Australia (Decapoda: Atyidae: Stygiocaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Page

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the large and small scale evolutionary relationships of the endemic Western Australian subterranean shrimp genus Stygiocaris (Atyidae using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Stygiocaris is part of the unique cave biota of the coastal, anchialine, limestones of the Cape Range and Barrow Island, most of whose nearest evolutionary relations are found in coastal caves of the distant North Atlantic. The dominance of atyids in tropical waters and their food resources suggest they are pivotal in understanding these groundwater ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Our nuclear and mitochondrial analyses all recovered the Mexican cave genus Typhlatya as the sister taxon of Stygiocaris, rather than any of the numerous surface and cave atyids from Australia or the Indo-Pacific region. The two described Stygiocaris species were recovered as monophyletic, and a third, cryptic, species was discovered at a single site, which has very different physiochemical properties from the sites hosting the two described species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that Stygiocaris and Typhlatya may descend from a common ancestor that lived in the coastal marine habitat of the ancient Tethys Sea, and were subsequently separated by plate tectonic movements. This vicariant process is commonly thought to explain the many disjunct anchialine faunas, but has rarely been demonstrated using phylogenetic techniques. The Cape Range's geological dynamism, which is probably responsible for the speciation of the various Stygiocaris species, has also led to geographic population structure within species. In particular, Stygiocaris lancifera is split into northern and southern groups, which correspond to population splits within other sympatric subterranean taxa.

  4. A discrete role for alternative oxidase under hypoxia to increase nitric oxide and drive energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Abhaypratap; Kumari, Aprajita; Mur, Luis A J; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis

    2018-03-28

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is an integral part of the mitochondrial electron transport and can prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production under non-stressed, normoxic conditions. Here we assessed the roles of AOX by imposing stress under normoxia in comparison to hypoxic conditions using AOX over expressing (AOX OE) and anti-sense (AOX AS) transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and roots. Under normoxic conditions stress was induced with the defence elicitor flagellin (flg22). AOX OE reduced NO production whilst this was increased in AOX AS. Moreover AOX AS also exhibited an increase in superoxide and therefore peroxynitrite, tyrosine nitration suggesting that scavenging of NO by AOX can prevent toxic peroxynitrite formation under normoxia. In contrast, during hypoxia interestingly we found that AOX is a generator of NO. Thus, the NO produced during hypoxia, was enhanced in AOX OE and suppressed in AOX AS. Additionally, treatment of WT or AOX OE with the AOX inhibitor SHAM inhibited hypoxic NO production. The enhanced levels of NO correlated with expression of non-symbiotic haemoglobin, increased NR activity and ATP production. The ATP generation was suppressed in nia1,2 mutant and non symbiotic haemoglobin antisense line treated with SHAM. Taken together these results suggest that hypoxic NO generation mediated by AOX has a discrete role by feeding into the haemoglobin-NO cycle to drive energy efficiency under conditions of low oxygen tension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trajectory control of an articulated robot with a parallel drive arm based on splines under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seung-Jong

    Today's industrial robots controlled by mini/micro computers are basically simple positioning devices. The positioning accuracy depends on the mathematical description of the robot configuration to place the end-effector at the desired position and orientation within the workspace and on following the specified path which requires the trajectory planner. In addition, the consideration of joint velocity, acceleration, and jerk trajectories are essential for trajectory planning of industrial robots to obtain smooth operation. The newly designed 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism which permits the joint actuators to be placed in the same horizontal line to reduce the arm inertia and to increase load capacity and stiffness is selected. First, the forward kinematic and inverse kinematic problems are examined. The forward kinematic equations are successfully derived based on Denavit-Hartenberg notation with independent joint angle constraints. The inverse kinematic problems are solved using the arm-wrist partitioned approach with independent joint angle constraints. Three types of curve fitting methods used in trajectory planning, i.e., certain degree polynomial functions, cubic spline functions, and cubic spline functions under tension, are compared to select the best possible method to satisfy both smooth joint trajectories and positioning accuracy for a robot trajectory planner. Cubic spline functions under tension is the method selected for the new trajectory planner. This method is implemented for a 6 DOF articulated robot with a parallel drive arm mechanism to improve the smoothness of the joint trajectories and the positioning accuracy of the manipulator. Also, this approach is compared with existing trajectory planners, 4-3-4 polynomials and cubic spline functions, via circular arc motion simulations. The new trajectory planner using cubic spline functions under tension is implemented into the microprocessor based robot controller and

  6. Switches in Genomic GC Content Drive Shifts of Optimal Codons under Sustained Selection on Synonymous Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Tamarit, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The major codon preference model suggests that codons read by tRNAs in high concentrations are preferentially utilized in highly expressed genes. However, the identity of the optimal codons differs between species although the forces driving such changes are poorly understood. We suggest that these questions can be tackled by placing codon usage studies in a phylogenetic framework and that bacterial genomes with extreme nucleotide composition biases provide informative model systems. Switches in the background substitution biases from GC to AT have occurred in Gardnerella vaginalis (GC = 32%), and from AT to GC in Lactobacillus delbrueckii (GC = 62%) and Lactobacillus fermentum (GC = 63%). We show that despite the large effects on codon usage patterns by these switches, all three species evolve under selection on synonymous sites. In G. vaginalis, the dramatic codon frequency changes coincide with shifts of optimal codons. In contrast, the optimal codons have not shifted in the two Lactobacillus genomes despite an increased fraction of GC-ending codons. We suggest that all three species are in different phases of an on-going shift of optimal codons, and attribute the difference to a stronger background substitution bias and/or longer time since the switch in G. vaginalis. We show that comparative and correlative methods for optimal codon identification yield conflicting results for genomes in flux and discuss possible reasons for the mispredictions. We conclude that switches in the direction of the background substitution biases can drive major shifts in codon preference patterns even under sustained selection on synonymous codon sites. PMID:27540085

  7. View Problems with Driving the YPR-765 Under Armour (Uitzichtproblemen bij onderluiks besturen van de YPR-765).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-17

    Through interviews with drivers and instructors of the YPR-765, an inventory was made of view problems with driving under armour . Problems with...beginning drivers was worse if executed under armour . Suggestions for improvement are given. The problems signalled appear to conflict with the

  8. Long-time cavitation threshold of silica water mixture under acoustic drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussonniére, Adrien; Liu, Qingxia; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2017-11-01

    The low cavitation threshold of water observed experimentally has been attributed to the presence of pre-existing tiny bubbles stabilized by impurities. However, the origin and stability of these cavitation nuclei remain unresolved. We therefore investigate the long-time cavitation evolution of water seeded with micron-sized silica particles under the influences of several parameters. Experimentally, cavitation is induced by a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound and subsequently detected by monitoring the backscattered sound. Degassed or aerated solutions of different concentrations are subjected to acoustic pulses (with the amplitude ranging from 0.1 to 1.7 MPa and a fixed repetition frequency between 0.1 and 6.5 Hz). The cavitation threshold was measured by fitting the cavitation probability curve, averaged over 1000 pulses. Surprisingly, our results shown that the cavitation threshold stabilizes at a reproducible value after a few thousand pulses. Moreover, this long-time threshold was found to decrease with increasing particle concentration, pulse period, and initial oxygen level. In contrast to the depletion of nuclei expected under long acoustic cavitation, the results suggest stabilized nuclei population depending on concentration, oxygen level, and driving period.

  9. A State-by-State Analysis of Laws Dealing With Driving Under the Influence of Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study reviewed each State statute regarding drug-impaired driving as of December 2008. There : is a high degree of variability across the States in the ways they approach drug-impaired driving. : Current laws in many States contain provisions ma...

  10. Reconstruction of the drive underlying food intake and its control by leptin and dieting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of food and the expenditure of calories is modelled by a system of differential equations. The state variables are the amount of calories stored in adipose tissue and the level of plasma leptin. The model has as input a drive that controls the intake of food. This drive consists of a

  11. Coupled superconducting qudit-resonator system: Energy spectrum, state population, and state transition under microwave drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Y.; Xu, H. K.; Su, F. F.; Li, Z. Y.; Tian, Ye; Han, Siyuan; Zhao, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    Superconducting quantum multilevel systems coupled to resonators have recently been considered in some applications such as microwave lasing and high-fidelity quantum logical gates. In this work, using an rf-SQUID type phase qudit coupled to a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator, we study both theoretically and experimentally the energy spectrum of the system when the qudit level spacings are varied around the resonator frequency by changing the magnetic flux applied to the qudit loop. We show that the experimental result can be well described by a theoretical model that extends from the usual two-level Jaynes-Cummings system to the present four-level system. It is also shown that due to the small anharmonicity of the phase device a simplified model capturing the leading state interactions fits the experimental spectra very well. Furthermore we use the Lindblad master equation containing various relaxation and dephasing processes to calculate the level populations in the simpler qutrit-resonator system, which allows a clear understanding of the dynamics of the system under the microwave drive. Our results help to better understand and perform the experiments of coupled multilevel and resonator systems and can be applied in the case of transmon or Xmon qudits having similar anharmonicity to the present phase device.

  12. Effects of an attractive wall on the translocation of polymer under driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Weiping; Wang Chao; Sun Lizhen; Luo Mengbo

    2012-01-01

    The effects of an attractive wall at the trans side on the translocation of an eight-site bond-fluctuation model (BFM) polymer through a pore in a membrane under driving are simulated by the dynamic Monte Carlo method. The attractive wall shows two contrary effects: its excluded volume effect reduces configuration entropy and thus hinders the translocation of the polymer, while its attraction decreases the energy and thus accelerates the translocation. At a critical polymer-wall interaction ε* ≈- 1, we find that the two effects compensate each other and the translocation time τ is roughly independent of the separation distance between the wall and the pore. The value ε* ≈- 1 is roughly equal to the critical adsorption point for the BFM polymer. Moreover, the value of the critical attraction is roughly independent of chain length N and chemical potential difference Δμ. At last, a scaling relation τ ∼ N α is observed for polymer translocation at a high value of NΔμ. Though the translocation time is highly dependent on the polymer-wall interaction and pore-wall separation distance, the exponent α is always about 1.30 ± 0.05 so long as NΔμ is large enough. (paper)

  13. Decision-making in people who relapsed to driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Muzaffer; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Keskinkilic, Cahit; Tabo, Abdulkadir; Manes, Facundo F

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol use has been previously associated with neurocognitive impairments, especially in decision-making cognition. However, some studies have shown little to no decision-making deficits in relation to different characteristics of people with drinking problems. Relapsing to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol is an important issue with legal and psychosocial aspects. We evaluated decision-making performance in second-time DUI offenders by using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Thirty-four male second-time DUI offenders who had been selected for an official psychoeducational rehabilitation program and 31 healthy controls that were matched for age, education, and alcohol use were included. Along with psychiatric assessment, we applied conventional neuropsychological testing comprising cognitive set-shifting, response inhibition, attention, and visuospatial abilities. Also, we used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to assess personality patterns. A computerized version of IGT was used. No significant differences were found between the groups in regard to sociodemographics and conventional neuropsychological testing. DUI participants had significantly higher scores only in "self-transcendence" subdomain of TCI. On the fifth block of the IGT, DUI participants had significantly lower net scores than controls (U = 380.0, p decision-making deficits in DUI participants, which goes undetected on conventional neuropsychological testing and which is not correlated with TCI subdomains related with impulsivity patterns. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. International approaches to driving under the influence of cannabis: A review of evidence on impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tara Marie; Mann, Robert E

    2016-12-01

    There are knowledge gaps regarding the effectiveness of different approaches designed to prevent and deter driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). Policymakers are increasingly interested in evidence-based responses to DUIC as numerous jurisdictions worldwide have legally regulated cannabis or are debating such regulation. We contribute a comprehensive review of international literature on countermeasures that address DUIC, and identify where and how such measures have been evaluated. The following databases were systematically searched from 1995 to present: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, and Criminal Justice Abstracts. Hand searching of relevant documents, internet searches for grey literature, and review of ongoing email alerts were conducted to capture any emerging literature and relevant trends. Numerous international jurisdictions have introduced a variety of measures designed to deter DUIC. Much interest has been generated regarding non-zero per se laws that set fixed legal limits for tetrahydrocannabinol and/or its metabolites detected in drivers. Other approaches include behavioural impairment laws, zero-tolerance per se laws, roadside drug testing, graduated licensing system restrictions, and remedial programs. However, very few evaluations have appeared in the literature. Although some promising results have been reported (e.g., roadside testing), it is premature to draw firm conclusions regarding the broader impacts of general deterrent approaches to DUIC. This review points to the need for a long-term commitment to rigorously evaluate, using multiple methods, the impact of general and specific deterrent DUIC countermeasures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Brief Communication: Quantitative- and molecular-genetic differentiation in humans and chimpanzees: implications for the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Estimates of the amount of genetic differentiation in humans among major geographic regions (e.g., Eastern Asia vs. Europe) from quantitative-genetic analyses of cranial measurements closely match those from classical- and molecular-genetic markers. Typically, among-region differences account for ∼10% of the total variation. This correspondence is generally interpreted as evidence for the importance of neutral evolutionary processes (e.g., genetic drift) in generating among-region differences in human cranial form, but it was initially surprising because human cranial diversity was frequently assumed to show a strong signature of natural selection. Is the human degree of similarity of cranial and DNA-sequence estimates of among-region genetic differentiation unusual? How do comparisons with other taxa illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification? Chimpanzees provide a useful starting point for placing the human results in a broader comparative context, because common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are the extant species most closely related to humans. To address these questions, I used 27 cranial measurements collected on a sample of 861 humans and 263 chimpanzees to estimate the amount of genetic differentiation between pairs of groups (between regions for humans and between species or subspecies for chimpanzees). Consistent with previous results, the human cranial estimates are quite similar to published DNA-sequence estimates. In contrast, the chimpanzee cranial estimates are much smaller than published DNA-sequence estimates. It appears that cranial differentiation has been limited in chimpanzees relative to humans. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Driving simulator and neuropsychological [corrected] testing in OSAS before and under CPAP therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, M; Duchna, H-W; Leidag, M; Widdig, W; Rasche, K; Bauer, T T; Walther, J W; de Zeeuw, J; Malin, J-P; Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Kotterba, S

    2005-11-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) have an increased car accident rate. Investigations on accident frequency are based on case history, insurance reports and driving simulator studies. The present study combines neuropsychological testing of different attention aspects engaged in driving a car and driving simulation to evaluate a suitable instrument for assessing therapeutic effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Driving simulator investigation and neuropsychological testing of alertness, vigilance and divided attention were performed in 31 patients with polysomnographically confirmed OSAS (apnoea-hypopnoea index 24.8+/-21.5.h(-1)) before, and 2 and 42 days after initiation of CPAP. Divided attention and alertness improved significantly during CPAP, whereas vigilance remained unchanged. However, accident frequency (OSAS before therapy: 2.7+/-2.0; 2 days after CPAP: 1.5+/-1.4; 42 days after CPAP: 0.9+/-1.3) and frequency of concentration faults (OSAS before therapy: 12.4+/-5.1; 2 days after CPAP: 6.5+/-3.9; 42 days after CPAP: 4.9+/-3.3) decreased in the simulated driving situation after 2 and 42 days of therapy. There was no relation between accident frequency, concentration faults and daytime sleepiness, as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and polysomnographic or neuropsychological findings, respectively. In conclusion, the present results suggest that driving simulation is a possible benchmark parameter of driving performance in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients.

  17. Evolutionary experimentation through hybridization under laboratory condition in Drosophila: Evidence for Recombinational Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Nallur B

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila nasuta nasuta (2n = 8 and Drosophila nasuta albomicans (2n = 6 are a pair of sibling allopatric chromosomal cross-fertile races of the nasuta subgroup of immigrans species group of Drosophila. Interracial hybridization between these two races has given rise to new karyotypic strains called Cytorace 1 and Cytorace 2 (first phase. Further hybridization between Thailand strain of D. n. albomicans and D. n. nasuta of Coorg strain has resulted in the evolution of two more Cytoraces, namely Cytorace 3 and Cytorace 4 (second phase. The third phase Cytoraces (Cytorace 5 to Cytorace 16 have evolved through interracial hybridization among first, second phase Cytoraces along with parental races. Each of these Cytoraces is composed of recombined genomes of the parental races. Here, we have made an attempt to systematically assess the impact of hybridization on karyotypes, morphometric and life history traits in all 16 Cytoraces. Results The results reveal that in most cases, the newly evolved Cytoraces, with different chromosome constitutions, exhibit decreased body size, better fitness and live longer than their parents. Particularly, Cytorace 5, 6 and 8 have evolved with very much higher range values of quantitative traits than the parents and other Cytoraces, which suggests the role of transgressive segregation in the evolution of these Cytoraces. Conclusion Thus, the rapid divergence recorded in the chromosomes, karyotypes, body size and fitness traits of Cytoraces exhibit the early event of recombinational raciation / speciation in the evolution of the Cytoraces under laboratory conditions.

  18. Investigating the Electromechanical Coupling in Piezoelectric Actuator Drive Motor Under Heavy Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) is an accurate, high-torque rotary piezoelectric motor that employs piezoelectric stack actuators and inverse hypocycloidal motion to generate rotation. Important factors that determine motor performance are the proper concentric alignment between the motor...

  19. Visual search and urban driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, C. T. J.; Ramaekers, J. G.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of low doses of marijuana and alcohol, and their combination, on visual search at intersections and on general driving proficiency in the City Driving Test. Sixteen recreational users of alcohol and marijuana (eight males and eight females) were treated with these substances or placebo according to a balanced, 4-way, cross-over, observer- and subject-blind design. On separate evenings, subjects received weight-calibrated doses of THC, alcohol or placebo in each of the following treatment conditions: alcohol placebo + THC placebo, alcohol + THC placebo, THC 100 &mgr;g/kg + alcohol placebo, THC 100 &mgr;g/kg + alcohol. Alcohol doses administered were sufficient for achieving a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of about 0.05 g/dl. Initial drinking preceded smoking by one hour. The City Driving Test commenced 15 minutes after smoking and lasted 45 minutes. The test was conducted over a fixed route within the city limits of Maastricht. An eye movement recording system was mounted on each subject's head for providing relative frequency measures of appropriate visual search at intersections. General driving quality was rated by a licensed driving instructor on a shortened version of the Royal Dutch Tourist Association's Driving Proficiency Test. After placebo treatment subjects searched for traffic approaching from side streets on the right in 84% of all cases. Visual search frequency in these subjects did not change when they were treated with alcohol or marijuana alone. However, when treated with the combination of alcohol and marijuana, the frequency of visual search dropped by 3%. Performance as rated on the Driving Proficiency Scale did not differ between treatments. It was concluded that the effects of low doses of THC (100 &mgr;g/kg) and alcohol (BAC < 0.05 g/dl) on higher-level driving skills as measured in the present study are minimal. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Driving and off-road impairments underlying failure on road testing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Hannes; Vandenberghe, Wim; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; De Weerdt, Willy; Nieuwboer, Alice; Uc, Ergun Y

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects driving ability. We aimed to determine the most critical impairments in specific road skills and in clinical characteristics leading to failure on a road test in PD. In this cross-sectional study, certified driving assessment experts evaluated specific driving skills in 104 active, licensed drivers with PD using a standardized, on-road checklist and issued a global decision of pass/fail. Participants also completed an off-road evaluation assessing demographic features, disease characteristics, motor function, vision, and cognition. The most important driving skills and off-road predictors of the pass/fail outcome were identified using multivariate stepwise regression analyses. Eighty-six (65%) passed and 36 (35%) failed the on-road driving evaluation. Persons who failed performed worse on all on-road items. When adjusted for age and gender, poor performances on lateral positioning at low speed, speed adaptations at high speed, and left turning maneuvers yielded the best model that determined the pass/fail decision (R(2) = 0.56). The fail group performed poorer on all motor, visual, and cognitive tests. Measures of visual scanning, motor severity, PD subtype, visual acuity, executive functions, and divided attention were independent predictors of pass/fail decisions in the multivariate model (R(2) = 0.60). Our study demonstrated that failure on a road test in PD is determined by impairments in specific driving skills and associated with deficits in motor, visual, executive, and visuospatial functions. These findings point to specific driving and off-road impairments that can be targeted in multimodal rehabilitation programs for drivers with PD. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  1. The mean and variance of climate change in the oceans: hidden evolutionary potential under stochastic environmental variability in marine sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Lisa N S

    2017-08-21

    Increasing climate variability may pose an even greater risk to species than climate warming because temperature fluctuations can amplify adverse impacts of directional warming on fitness-related traits. Here, the influence of directional warming and increasing climate variability on marine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) offspring size variation was investigated by simulating changes to the mean and variance of ocean temperatures predicted under climate change. Reproductive traits of mothers and offspring size reaction norms across four climate scenarios were examined to assess the roles of standing genetic variation, transgenerational and within-generation plasticity in adaptive potential. Mothers acclimated to directional warming produced smaller eggs than mothers in constant, ambient temperatures, whereas mothers in a predictably variable environment (weekly change between temperatures) produced a range of egg sizes, possibly reflecting a diversified bet hedging strategy. Offspring size post-hatch was mostly influenced by genotype by environment interactions and not transgenerational effects. Offspring size reaction norms also differed depending on the type of environmental predictability (predictably variable vs. stochastic), with offspring reaching the largest sizes in the stochastic environment. Release of cryptic genetic variation for offspring size in the stochastic environment suggests hidden evolutionary potential in this wild population to respond to changes in environmental predictability.

  2. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Sáez, Aida; Viana, Mar; Barrios, Carmen C; Rubio, Jose R; Amato, Fulvio; Pujadas, Manuel; Querol, Xavier

    2012-10-16

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source apportionment by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was carried out to interpret the real-world driving conditions. Three emission patterns were identified: (F1) cruise conditions, with medium-high speeds, contributing in this circuit with 60% of total particle number and a particle size distribution dominated by particles >52 nm and around 60 nm; (F2) transient conditions, stop-and-go conditions at medium-high speed, contributing with 25% of the particle number and mainly emitting particles in the nucleation mode; and (F3) creep-idle conditions, representing traffic congestion and frequent idling periods, contributing with 14% to the total particle number and with particles in the nucleation mode (emissions depending on particle size and driving conditions. Differences between real-world emission patterns and regulatory cycles (NEDC) are also presented, which evidence that detecting particle number emissions real-world driving conditions.

  3. Driver’s Cognitive Workload and Driving Performance under Traffic Sign Information Exposure in Complex Environments: A Case Study of the Highways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengchao Lyu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex traffic situations and high driving workload are the leading contributing factors to traffic crashes. There is a strong correlation between driving performance and driving workload, such as visual workload from traffic signs on highway off-ramps. This study aimed to evaluate traffic safety by analyzing drivers’ behavior and performance under the cognitive workload in complex environment areas. First, the driving workload of drivers was tested based on traffic signs with different quantities of information. Forty-four drivers were recruited to conduct a traffic sign cognition experiment under static controlled environment conditions. Different complex traffic signs were used for applying the cognitive workload. The static experiment results reveal that workload is highly related to the amount of information on traffic signs and reaction time increases with the information grade, while driving experience and gender effect are not significant. This shows that the cognitive workload of subsequent driving experiments can be controlled by the amount of information on traffic signs. Second, driving characteristics and driving performance were analyzed under different secondary task driving workload levels using a driving simulator. Drivers were required to drive at the required speed on a designed highway off-ramp scene. The cognitive workload was controlled by reading traffic signs with different information, which were divided into four levels. Drivers had to make choices by pushing buttons after reading traffic signs. Meanwhile, the driving performance information was recorded. Questionnaires on objective workload were collected right after each driving task. The results show that speed maintenance and lane deviations are significantly different under different levels of cognitive workload, and the effects of driving experience and gender groups are significant. The research results can be used to analyze traffic safety in highway

  4. Frequency and irregularity of heart rate in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiabani, Hassan Z; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2008-12-01

    Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major active component of cannabis. Cardiovascular effects of THC have previously been reported: tachycardia after intake, but also bradycardia at higher doses. The purpose of this study was, firstly, to investigate the frequency and irregularity of heart rate in a group of cannabis users in their natural surroundings. We also compared THC-positive drivers with a regular pulse with THC-positive drivers with an irregular pulse. The division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse (DFTDA) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Heath analyzes blood samples from all drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. We studied pulse rate and regularity in 502 THC-positive drivers who tested negative for other substances. As a control group, we randomly selected 125 drug-negative cases from the database of the DFTDA; no alcohol, narcotics, or medicinal drugs of abuse were detected. The Delta9-THC-positive drivers had a higher mean pulse rate than the control group [82.8 beats/min (SD 16.3) versus 75.6 beats/min (SD 9.2)] and more cases with tachycardia were detected in the Delta9-THC-positive group (19.4% versus 1.6%). There was only one driver with an irregular heart beat in the control group, while there were nine among the Delta9-THC-positive drivers. The drivers with an irregular pulse were over-represented amongst those with the lowest blood Delta9-THC concentrations. This report represents a large study of subjects in a real-life situation and includes observations on pulse frequency, regularity, and blood Delta9-THC concentration. A substantial fraction of Delta9-THC-positive drivers had tachycardia, but there was no correlation between blood Delta9-THC concentration and pulse rate in the present study. We had no further diagnostic information on the cause of the pulse irregularities, but our results indicate that occasional users of cannabis tend to have irregular heart rates at low THC concentrations and at low

  5. Benchmarking of codes for electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive under ITER conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prater, R.; Farina, D.; Gribov, Y.; Harvey, R. W.; Ram, A. K.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Poli, E.; Smirnov, A. P.; Volpe, F.; Westerhof, E.; Zvonkovo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal design and use of electron cyclotron heating requires that accurate and relatively quick computer codes be available for prediction of wave coupling, propagation, damping and current drive at realistic levels of EC power. To this end, a number of codes have been developed in laboratories

  6. Attractive evolutionary equilibria

    OpenAIRE

    Roorda, Berend; Joosten, Reinoud

    2011-01-01

    We present attractiveness, a refinement criterion for evolutionary equilibria. Equilibria surviving this criterion are robust to small perturbations of the underlying payoff system or the dynamics at hand. Furthermore, certain attractive equilibria are equivalent to others for certain evolutionary dynamics. For instance, each attractive evolutionarily stable strategy is an attractive evolutionarily stable equilibrium for certain barycentric ray-projection dynamics, and vice versa.

  7. Dynamic behavior of Rankine cycle system for waste heat recovery of heavy duty diesel engines under driving cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hui; Yang, Can

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat recovery behavior of the RCS during driving cycle was investigated. • Four operating modes were defined to describe the operating process of the RCS under driving cycle. • The operating mode switching is the crucial reason for on-road inefficiency. • The dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet ones on the adaptability to unsteady ExGE. • The effects of the vapor parameters on RCT-E and power mode percentage are opposite. - Abstract: The RCS (Rankine cycle system) used to recover the WHE (waste heat energy) from engines has been regarded as one of the most potential ways of achieving higher efficiency. However, it is of great challenge to keep the RCS still in good performance under driving cycle. This paper tries to reveal and explain its on-road inefficiency. The operating process of the RCS under driving cycle was analyzed in advance. Afterwards, four basic operating modes were defined, including startup mode, turbine turning mode, power mode and protection mode. Then, a RCS model was established and operating performances of the RCS under an actual driving cycle were discussed based on this model. The results indicate that the on-road RCS-E (Rankine cycle system efficiency) is as low as 3.63%, which is less than half of the design RCS-E (7.77%) at the rated operating point. Despite the inevitable vapor state fluctuation, it is the operating mode switching during the driving cycle that leads to the on-road inefficiency. Further investigations indicate that the expander safety temperature and its safety margin affected by the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure are the main factors determining the operating mode switching. Finally, the effects of the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure on the operating mode switching and RC (Rankine cycle) efficiencies were profoundly investigated. The study shows that the dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet

  8. Transcriptome analysis deciphers evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic differentiation between coastal and offshore anchovy populations in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe; Zarraonaindia, Iratxe; Iriondo, Mikel; Grant, W. Stewart; Manzano, Carmen; Cotano, Unai; Conklin, Darrell; Irigoien, Xabier; Estonba, Andone

    2016-01-01

    Morphometry and otolith microchemistry point to the existence of two populations of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay: one in open seawaters, and a yet unidentified population in coastal waters. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a large number of samples from the region, including 587 juveniles and spawning adults from offshore and coastal waters, and 264 fish from other locations covering most of the species’ European range. These samples were genotyped for 456 exonic SNPs that provide a robust way to decipher adaptive processes in these populations. Two genetically differentiated populations of anchovy inhabit the Bay of Biscay with different population dynamics: (1) a large offshore population associated with marine waters included in the wide-shelf group, and (2) a coastal metapopulation adapted to estuarine environments in the Bay of Biscay and North Sea included in the narrow-shelf group. Transcriptome analysis identified neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes underlying differentiation between these populations. Reduced gene flow between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay appears to result from divergence between two previously isolated gene pools adapted to contrasting habitats and now in secondary contact. Eleven molecular markers appear to mark divergent selection between the ecotypes, and a majority of these markers are associated with salinity variability. Ecotype differences at two outlier genes, TSSK6 and basigin, may hinder gamete compatibility between the ecotypes and reinforce reproductive isolation. Additionally, possible convergent evolution between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay has been detected for the syntaxin1B-otoferlin gene system, which is involved in the control of larval buoyancy. Further study of exonic markers opens the possibility of understanding the mechanisms of adaptive divergence between European anchovy populations. © 2016, Springer

  9. Transcriptome analysis deciphers evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic differentiation between coastal and offshore anchovy populations in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-09-13

    Morphometry and otolith microchemistry point to the existence of two populations of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay: one in open seawaters, and a yet unidentified population in coastal waters. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a large number of samples from the region, including 587 juveniles and spawning adults from offshore and coastal waters, and 264 fish from other locations covering most of the species’ European range. These samples were genotyped for 456 exonic SNPs that provide a robust way to decipher adaptive processes in these populations. Two genetically differentiated populations of anchovy inhabit the Bay of Biscay with different population dynamics: (1) a large offshore population associated with marine waters included in the wide-shelf group, and (2) a coastal metapopulation adapted to estuarine environments in the Bay of Biscay and North Sea included in the narrow-shelf group. Transcriptome analysis identified neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes underlying differentiation between these populations. Reduced gene flow between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay appears to result from divergence between two previously isolated gene pools adapted to contrasting habitats and now in secondary contact. Eleven molecular markers appear to mark divergent selection between the ecotypes, and a majority of these markers are associated with salinity variability. Ecotype differences at two outlier genes, TSSK6 and basigin, may hinder gamete compatibility between the ecotypes and reinforce reproductive isolation. Additionally, possible convergent evolution between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay has been detected for the syntaxin1B-otoferlin gene system, which is involved in the control of larval buoyancy. Further study of exonic markers opens the possibility of understanding the mechanisms of adaptive divergence between European anchovy populations. © 2016, Springer

  10. Dissipative two-level system under strong ac driving: A combination of Floquet and Van Vleck perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausinger, Johannes; Grifoni, Milena

    2010-01-01

    We study the dissipative dynamics of a two-level system (TLS) exposed to strong ac driving. By combining Floquet theory with Van Vleck perturbation theory in the TLS tunneling matrix element, we diagonalize the time-dependent Hamiltonian and provide corrections to the renormalized Rabi frequency of the TLS, which are valid for both a biased and unbiased TLS and go beyond the known high-frequency and rotating-wave results. In order to mimic environmental influences on the TLS, we couple the system weakly to a thermal bath and solve analytically the corresponding Floquet-Bloch-Redfield master equation. We give a closed expression for the relaxation and dephasing rates of the TLS and discuss their behavior under variation of the driving amplitude. Further, we examine the robustness of coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) and driving-induced tunneling oscillations (DITO). We show that also for a moderate driving frequency an almost complete suppression of tunneling can be achieved for short times and demonstrate the sensitiveness of DITO to a change of the external parameters.

  11. Railway crossings: driving the structure under the railway by means of oleodinamic jacks

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano Méndez, Ramón; López Palomar, Rafael; Ruiz Viedma, Andrés J.

    1991-01-01

    "The best level crossing is a dead crossing", those involved are accustomed to say Yet, until a short time ago, eliminating these conflictive crossings not only implied a great deal of money but prolonged building work, with the all too familiar sequel of precautions, speed restrictions and problems for rail traffic. However, a brand new system, based on using hydraulic jacks to drive the concrete structure of the crossing to a different level in the track embankment, allows the execution in ...

  12. Sulfur driven nucleation mode formation in diesel exhaust under transient driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Panu; Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-02-18

    Sulfur driven diesel exhaust nucleation particle formation processes were studied in an aerosol laboratory, on engine dynamometers, and on the road. All test engines were equipped with a combination of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a partial diesel particulate filter (pDPF). At steady operating conditions, the formation of semivolatile nucleation particles directly depended on SO2 conversion in the catalyst. The nucleation particle emission was most significant after a rapid increase in engine load and exhaust gas temperature. Results indicate that the nucleation particle formation at transient driving conditions does not require compounds such as hydrocarbons or sulfated hydrocarbons, however, it cannot be explained only by the nucleation of sulfuric acid. A real-world exhaust study with a heavy duty diesel truck showed that the nucleation particle formation occurs even with ultralow sulfur diesel fuel, even at downhill driving conditions, and that nucleation particles can contribute 60% of total particle number emissions. In general, due to sulfur storage and release within the exhaust aftertreatment systems and transients in driving, emissions of nucleation particles can even be the dominant part of modern diesel vehicle exhaust particulate number emissions.

  13. Helical Face Gear Development Under the Enhanced Rotorcraft Drive System Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Gregory F.; Slaughter, Stephen C.; Fisher, David J.; Lewicki, David G.; Fetty, Jason

    2011-01-01

    U.S. Army goals for the Enhanced Rotorcraft Drive System Program are to achieve a 40 percent increase in horsepower to weight ratio, a 15 dB reduction in drive system generated noise, 30 percent reduction in drive system operating, support, and acquisition cost, and 75 percent automatic detection of critical mechanical component failures. Boeing s technology transition goals are that the operational endurance level of the helical face gearing and related split-torque designs be validated to a TRL 6, and that analytical and manufacturing tools be validated. Helical face gear technology is being developed in this project to augment, and transition into, a Boeing AH-64 Block III split-torque face gear main transmission stage, to yield increased power density and reduced noise. To date, helical face gear grinding development on Northstar s new face gear grinding machine and pattern-development tests at the NASA Glenn/U.S. Army Research Laboratory have been completed and are described.

  14. Altered cingulo-striatal function underlies reward drive deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il Ho; Chun, Ji Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Koo, Min-Seong; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Seok-Hyeong; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-02-01

    Amotivation in schizophrenia is assumed to involve dysfunctional dopaminergic signaling of reward prediction or anticipation. It is unclear, however, whether the translation of neural representation of reward value to behavioral drive is affected in schizophrenia. In order to examine how abnormal neural processing of response valuation and initiation affects incentive motivation in schizophrenia, we conducted functional MRI using a deterministic reinforcement learning task with variable intervals of contingency reversals in 20 clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. Behaviorally, the advantage of positive over negative reinforcer in reinforcement-related responsiveness was not observed in patients. Patients showed altered response valuation and initiation-related striatal activity and deficient rostro-ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation during reward approach initiation. Among these neural abnormalities, rostro-ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation was correlated with positive reinforcement-related responsiveness in controls and social anhedonia and social amotivation subdomain scores in patients. Our findings indicate that the central role of the anterior cingulate cortex is in translating action value into driving force of action, and underscore the role of the cingulo-striatal network in amotivation in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cooling Performance Characteristics of the Stack Thermal Management System for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles under Actual Driving Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Seong Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooling performance of the stack radiator of a fuel cell electric vehicle was evaluated under various actual road driving conditions, such as highway and uphill travel. The thermal stability was then optimized, thereby ensuring stable operation of the stack thermal management system. The coolant inlet temperature of the radiator in the highway mode was lower than that associated with the uphill mode because the corresponding frontal air velocity was higher than obtained in the uphill mode. In both the highway and uphill modes, the coolant temperatures of the radiator, operated under actual road driving conditions, were lower than the allowable limit (80 °C; this is the maximum temperature at which stable operation of the stack thermal management system of the fuel cell electric vehicle could be maintained. Furthermore, under actual road driving conditions in uphill mode, the initial temperature difference (ITD between the coolant temperature and air temperature of the system was higher than that associated with the highway mode; this higher ITD occurred even though the thermal load of the system in uphill mode was greater than that corresponding to the highway mode. Since the coolant inlet temperature is expected to exceed the allowable limit (80 °C in uphill mode under higher ambient temperature with air conditioning system operation, the FEM design layout should be modified to improve the heat capacity. In addition, the overall volume of the stack cooling radiator is 52.2% higher than that of the present model and the coolant inlet temperature of the improved radiator is 22.7% lower than that of the present model.

  16. An empirical assessment of driver motivation and emotional states in perceived safety margins under varied driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Kaber, David B

    2013-01-01

    Motivation models in driving behaviour postulate that driver motives and emotional states dictate risk tolerance under various traffic conditions. The present study used time and driver performance-based payment systems to manipulate motivation and risk-taking behaviour. Ten participants drove to a predefined location in a simulated driving environment. Traffic patterns (density and velocity) were manipulated to cause driver behaviour adjustments due to the need to conform with the social norms of the roadway. The driving environment complexity was investigated as a mediating factor in risk tolerance. Results revealed the performance-based payment system to closely relate to risk-taking behaviour as compared with the time-based payment system. Drivers conformed with social norms associated with specific traffic patterns. Higher roadway complexity led to a more conservative safety margins and speeds. This research contributes to the further development of motivational models of driver behaviour. This study provides empirical justification for two motivation factors in driver risk-taking decisions, including compliance with social norm and emotions triggered by incentives. Environment complexity was identified as a mediating factor in motivational behaviour model. This study also recommended safety margin measures sensitive to changes in driver risk tolerance.

  17. Driving force of PCMI failure under reactivity initiated accident conditions and influence of hydrogen embrittlement on failure limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Kunihiko; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Takehiko; Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2005-09-01

    In order to clarify the driving force of PCMI (Pellet/Cladding Mechanical Interaction) failure on high burnup fuels and to investigate the influence of hydrogen embrittlement on failure limit under RIA (Reactivity Initiated Accident) conditions, RIA-simulation experiments were performed on fresh fuel rods in the NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor). The driving force of PCMI was restricted only to thermal expansion of pellet by using fresh UO 2 pellets. Fresh claddings were pre-hydrided to simulate hydrogen absorption of high burnup fuel rods. In seven experiments out of fourteen, test rods resulted in PCMI failure, which has been observed in the NSRR tests on high burnup PWR fuels, in terms of the transient behavior and the fracture configuration. This indicates that the driving force of PCMI failure is sufficiently explained with thermal expansion of pellet and a contribution of fission gas on it is small. A large number of incipient cracks were generated in the outer surface of the cladding even on non-failed fuel rods, and they stopped at the boundary between hydride rim, which was a hydride layer localized in the periphery of the cladding, and metallic layer. It suggests that the integrity of the metallic layer except for the hydride rim has particular importance for failure limit. Fuel enthalpy at failure correlates with the thickness of hydride rim, and tends to decrease with thicker hydride layer. (author)

  18. Factors Shaping the Decision of College Students to Walk or Drive under the Influence of Alcohol: A Test of Rational Choice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…

  19. Evolutionary Nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Robert L

    2017-05-01

    Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as "maladaptive." In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic) adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ~40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons), evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (that provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff), and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension). Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), developmental programming and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  20. Photon correlations in a two-site nonlinear cavity system under coherent drive and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, Sara; Andreani, Lucio Claudio; Tuereci, Hakan E.; Gerace, Dario

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the normalized second-order correlation function for a system of two tunnel-coupled photonic resonators, each one exhibiting a single-photon nonlinearity of the Kerr type. We employ a full quantum formulation: The master equation for the model, which takes into account both a coherent continuous drive and radiative as well as nonradiative dissipation channels, is solved analytically in steady state through a perturbative approach, and the results are compared to exact numerical simulations. The degree of second-order coherence displays values between 0 and 1, and divides the diagram identified by the two energy scales of the system - the tunneling and the nonlinear Kerr interaction - into two distinct regions separated by a crossover. When the tunneling term dominates over the nonlinear one, the system state is delocalized over both cavities, and the emitted light is coherent. In the opposite limit, photon blockade sets in, and the system shows an insulatorlike state with photons locked on each cavity, identified by antibunching of emitted light.

  1. Statistical and time domain signal analysis of the thermal behaviour of wind turbine drive train components under dynamic operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhaus, K; Baltes, R; Bernet, C; Hilbert, M

    2012-01-01

    Gearboxes and generators are fundamental components of all electrical machines and the backbone of all electricity generation. Since the wind energy represents one of the key energy sources of the future, the number of wind turbines installed worldwide is rapidly increasing. Unlike in the past wind turbines are more often positioned in arctic as well as in desert like regions, and thereby exposed to harsh environmental conditions. Especially the temperature in those regions is a key factor that defines the design and choice of components and materials of the drive train. To optimize the design and health monitoring under varying temperatures it is important to understand the thermal behaviour dependent on environmental and machine parameters. This paper investigates the behaviour of the stator temperature of the double fed induction generator of a wind turbine. Therefore, different scenarios such as start of the turbine after a long period of no load, stop of the turbine after a long period of full load and others are isolated and analysed. For each scenario the dependences of the temperature on multiple wind turbine parameters such as power, speed and torque are studied. With the help of the regression analysis for multiple variables, it is pointed out which parameters have high impact on the thermal behaviour. Furthermore, an analysis was done to study the dependences in the time domain. The research conducted is based on 10 months of data of a 2 MW wind turbine using an adapted data acquisition system for high sampled data. The results appear promising, and lead to a better understanding of the thermal behaviour of a wind turbine drive train. Furthermore, the results represent the base of future research of drive trains under harsh environmental conditions, and it can be used to improve the fault diagnosis and design of electrical machines.

  2. Effect of supporting structure stiffness on the drive train assembly of an induced draft cooling tower under seismic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, N.; Ramasubramanian, S.; Khan, K.

    2005-01-01

    In a nuclear power project an induced draft cooling tower, as a safety-related structure and part of the main cooling system, has to perform satisfactorily under designated seismic effects. While the structural elements can be designed by conventional methods to ensure adequate safety, the seismic qualification of the mechanical components poses a challenge. The paper describes a methodology adopted for the seismic qualification of a typical Drive Train Assembly for the axial flow fan of an induced draft cooling tower, to ensure the structural integrity and functional operability of the assembly during Operating Base Earthquake and Safe Shutdown Earthquake conditions. This is achieved by performing a detailed finite element analysis of the rotating equipment assembly consisting of the electric motor, gear box and fan along with the drive shaft between the motor and the gear box. The various components are modeled using beam elements, plate elements and spring elements to idealize the flexible connections and supports. The floor response spectra derived from a dynamic analysis of the overall structure under stipulated seismic acceleration spectra are the main excitation inputs into the system. The results validate the adequacy of gaps for movement and the strengths of the couplings and bolts to withstand the applied loads. The assumed modeling and analysis methodology are seen to be acceptable procedures for seismic qualification of important components of the cooling tower. (authors)

  3. PBX1 Genomic Pioneer Function Drives ERα Signaling Underlying Progression in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Luca; Ballantyne, Elizabeth B.; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Lupien, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    Altered transcriptional programs are a hallmark of diseases, yet how these are established is still ill-defined. PBX1 is a TALE homeodomain protein involved in the development of different types of cancers. The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is central to the development of two-thirds of all breast cancers. Here we demonstrate that PBX1 acts as a pioneer factor and is essential for the ERα-mediated transcriptional response driving aggressive tumors in breast cancer. Indeed, PBX1 expression correlates with ERα in primary breast tumors, and breast cancer cells depleted of PBX1 no longer proliferate following estrogen stimulation. Profiling PBX1 recruitment and chromatin accessibility across the genome of breast cancer cells through ChIP-seq and FAIRE-seq reveals that PBX1 is loaded and promotes chromatin openness at specific genomic locations through its capacity to read specific epigenetic signatures. Accordingly, PBX1 guides ERα recruitment to a specific subset of sites. Expression profiling studies demonstrate that PBX1 controls over 70% of the estrogen response. More importantly, the PBX1-dependent transcriptional program is associated with poor-outcome in breast cancer patients. Correspondingly, PBX1 expression alone can discriminate a priori the outcome in ERα-positive breast cancer patients. These features are markedly different from the previously characterized ERα-associated pioneer factor FoxA1. Indeed, PBX1 is the only pioneer factor identified to date that discriminates outcome such as metastasis in ERα-positive breast cancer patients. Together our results reveal that PBX1 is a novel pioneer factor defining aggressive ERα-positive breast tumors, as it guides ERα genomic activity to unique genomic regions promoting a transcriptional program favorable to breast cancer progression. PMID:22125492

  4. Transitions in Land Use Architecture under Multiple Human Driving Forces in a Semi-Arid Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Ouedraogo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to detect the main shifts in land-use architecture and assess the factors behind the changes in typical tropical semi-arid land in Burkina Faso. Three sets of time-series LANDSAT data over a 23-year period were used to detect land use changes and their underpinning drivers in multifunctional but vulnerable ecologies. Group discussions in selected villages were organized for mapping output interpretation and collection of essential drivers of change as perceived by local populations. Results revealed profound changes and transitions during the study period. During the last decade, shrub and wood savannahs exhibited high net changes (39% and −37% respectively with a weak net positive change for cropland (only 2%, while cropland and shrub savannah exhibited high swap (8% and 16%. This suggests that the area of cropland remained almost unchanged but was subject to relocation, wood savannah decreased drastically, and shrub savannah increased exponentially. Cropland exhibited a null net persistence while shrub and wood savannahs exhibited positive and negative net persistence (1.91 and −10.24, respectively, indicating that there is movement toward agricultural intensification and wood savannah tended to disappear to the benefit of shrub savannah. Local people are aware of the changes that have occurred and support the idea that illegal wood cutting and farming are inappropriate farming practices associated with immigration; absence of alternative cash generation sources, overgrazing and increasing demand for wood energy are driving the changes in their ecosystems. Policies that integrate restoration and conservation of natural ecosystems and promote sustainable agroforestry practices in the study zone are highly recommended.

  5. Evaluation of the Ride-Through Capability of an Active-Front-End Adjustable Speed Drive under Real Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liserre, Marco; Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Better quality of the input currents, unity power factor and regenerative capability are not the only benefits of equipping an Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) with an active front-end-stage. Controlling the power inflow may enable also the reduction of the dc-link energy storage, which will then lead...... to the replacement of the electrolytic capacitors with film capacitors, which have lower energy density meaning that the volume is similar, but will increase the ASD lifetime. In these circumstances, operation under unbalanced and distorted supply voltage as well as high dynamic operation of the ASD makes...... the control task more challenging. The aim of this paper is to investigate the ride-through capability of an ASD with active front-end under real grid conditions and in view of the minimum dc-link storage. Experiments validate the theoretical analysis....

  6. Evolutionary Nephrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Chevalier

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as “maladaptive.” In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or from evolutionary tradeoffs. Evolutionary adaptation to a terrestrial environment resulted in a vulnerable energy-consuming renal tubule and a hypoxic, hyperosmolar microenvironment. Natural selection favors successful energy investment strategy: energy is allocated to maintenance of nephron integrity through reproductive years, but this declines with increasing senescence after ∼40 years of age. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease include restricted fetal growth or preterm birth (life history tradeoff resulting in fewer nephrons, evolutionary selection for APOL1 mutations (which provide resistance to trypanosome infection, a tradeoff, and modern life experience (Western diet mismatch leading to diabetes and hypertension. Current advances in genomics, epigenetics, and developmental biology have revealed proximate causes of kidney disease, but attempts to slow kidney disease remain elusive. Evolutionary medicine provides a complementary approach by addressing ultimate causes of kidney disease. Marked variation in nephron number at birth, nephron heterogeneity, and changing susceptibility to kidney injury throughout the life history are the result of evolutionary processes. Combined application of molecular genetics, evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo, developmental programming, and life history theory may yield new strategies for prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  7. Risk of injury by driving with alcohol and other drugs. Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines DRUID, Deliverable 2.3.5.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hels, T. Bernhoft, I.M. Lyckegaard, A. Houwing, S. Hagenzieker, M.P. Legrand, S.-A. Isalberti, C. Van der Linden, T. & Verstraete, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this deliverable is to assess the risk of driving with alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines in various European countries. In total nine countries participated in the study on relative risk of serious injury/fatality while positive for psychoactive substances. Six countries

  8. Developing a theoretical foundation to change road user behavior and improve traffic safety: Driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas J; Schell, William; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Otto, Jay; Finley, Kari

    2018-05-19

    This study explored a theoretical model to assess the influence of culture on willingness and intention to drive under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). This model is expected to guide the design of strategies to change future DUIC behavior in road users. This study used a survey methodology to obtain a nationally representative sample (n = 941) from the AmeriSpeak Panel. Survey items were designed to measure aspects of a proposed definition of traffic safety culture and a predictive model of its relationship to DUIC. Although the percentage of reported past DUIC behaviors was relatively low (8.5%), this behavior is still a significant public health issue-especially for younger drivers (18-29 years), who reported more DUIC than expected. Findings suggest that specific cultural components (attitudes, norms) reliably predict past DUIC behavior, general DUIC willingness, and future DUIC intention. Most DUIC behavior appears to be deliberate, related significantly to willingness and intention. Intention and willingness both appear to fully moderate the relationship between traffic safety culture and DUIC behavior. This study explored a theoretical model to understand road user behavior involving drug (cannabis)-impaired driving as a significant risk factor for traffic safety. By understanding the cultural factors that increase DUIC behavior, we can create strategies to transform this culture and sustain safer road user behavior.

  9. Risk, control and self-identity: Young drunk drivers’ experiences with driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fynbo Lars

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM - This article explores how young Danish drunk (and drug drivers relate to the risk of driving under the influence (DUI. DESIGN - The study is based on qualitative interviews with 25 convicted drunk drivers who in 2010 participated in mandatory alcohol and traffic safety courses. The analysis follows Stephen Lyng’s concept of “edgework”, focusing on volitional risk taking and its effect on the acting individual’s self-identity. RESULTS - Drawing on the interviewees’ accounts of being arrested for drunk driving, the analysis discusses three different categories of young drunk drivers. Those in the first category view a DUI arrest as a loss of control and a reminder of the risk of DUI. Those in the second present DUI as a reaction to what they perceive as untenable social demands. Those in the third see loss of control - such as causing a traffic accident - as the ultimate way of claiming control over their lives. CONCLUSION - The study shows that young drunk drivers have different associations with DUI-related risks. The more constrained they feel in relation to society, the more likely it is that they will divorce negative experiences related to DUI such as being arrested or causing a traffic accident.

  10. Saturating light and not increased carbon dioxide under ocean acidification drives photosynthesis and growth in Ulva rigida (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberger, Ralf; Fernández, Pamela A; Strittmatter, Martina; Heesch, Svenja; Cornwall, Christopher E; Hurd, Catriona L; Roleda, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Carbon physiology of a genetically identified Ulva rigida was investigated under different CO2(aq) and light levels. The study was designed to answer whether (1) light or exogenous inorganic carbon (Ci) pool is driving growth; and (2) elevated CO2(aq) concentration under ocean acidification (OA) will downregulate CAext-mediated dehydration and alter the stable carbon isotope (δ13C) signatures toward more CO2 use to support higher growth rate. At pHT 9.0 where CO2(aq) is Ulva found putative light-dependent transporters to which the remaining NPS can be attributed. The shift in δ13C signatures from –22‰ toward –10‰ under saturating light but not under elevated CO2(aq) suggest preference and substantial use to support photosynthesis and growth. U. rigida is Ci saturated, and growth was primarily controlled by light. Therefore, increased levels of CO2(aq) predicted for the future will not, in isolation, stimulate Ulva blooms. PMID:25750714

  11. Dispersal limitation drives successional pathways in Central Siberian forests under current and intensified fire regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautenhahn, Susanne; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Jung, Martin; Kattge, Jens; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Heilmeier, Hermann; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kahl, Anja; Wirth, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Fire is a primary driver of boreal forest dynamics. Intensifying fire regimes due to climate change may cause a shift in boreal forest composition toward reduced dominance of conifers and greater abundance of deciduous hardwoods, with potential biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks to regional and global climate. This shift has already been observed in some North American boreal forests and has been attributed to changes in site conditions. However, it is unknown if the mechanisms controlling fire-induced changes in deciduous hardwood cover are similar among different boreal forests, which differ in the ecological traits of the dominant tree species. To better understand the consequences of intensifying fire regimes in boreal forests, we studied postfire regeneration in five burns in the Central Siberian dark taiga, a vast but poorly studied boreal region. We combined field measurements, dendrochronological analysis, and seed-source maps derived from high-resolution satellite images to quantify the importance of site conditions (e.g., organic layer depth) vs. seed availability in shaping postfire regeneration. We show that dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers was the main factor determining postfire regeneration composition and density. Site conditions had significant but weaker effects. We used information on postfire regeneration to develop a classification scheme for successional pathways, representing the dominance of deciduous hardwoods vs. evergreen conifers at different successional stages. We estimated the spatial distribution of different successional pathways under alternative fire regime scenarios. Under intensified fire regimes, dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers is predicted to become more severe, primarily due to reduced abundance of surviving seed sources within burned areas. Increased dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers, in turn, is predicted to increase the prevalence of successional pathways dominated by deciduous hardwoods

  12. An enhanced model for minimizing fuel consumption under block-queuing in a drive-through service system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, C.H.; Berglin, J. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems

    2004-05-01

    We present a new model for determining the optimal block-size under block-queuing in a simple, single-channel queue at a drive-through service facility. With block-queuing, a queue is partitioned into an active section and a passive section, where drivers are asked to turn off their engines until the active section clears. Our model prescribes a block-size, i.e., a maximum number of vehicles in the active section, which minimizes the expected amount of fuel consumed in the queue. It can assess the effects of the traffic intensity, the service-time variance, and the proportion of compliant drivers in the passive section on the optimal block- size and on fuel consumption in the queue. (author)

  13. Evolutionary thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tam

    2014-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this debate is now devoted to examining how evolutionary thinking affects areas outside of biology. How do our lives change when we recognize that all is in flux? What can we learn about life more generally if we study change instead of stasis? Carter Phipps’ book, Evolutionaries: Unlocking the Spiritual and Cultural Potential of Science's Greatest Idea, delves deep into this relatively new development. Phipps generally takes as a given the validity of the Modern Synthesis of evolutionary biology. His story takes us into, as the subtitle suggests, the spiritual and cultural implications of evolutionary thinking. Can religion and evolution be reconciled? Can evolutionary thinking lead to a new type of spirituality? Is our culture already being changed in ways that we don't realize by evolutionary thinking? These are all important questions and Phipps book is a great introduction to this discussion. Phipps is an author, journalist, and contributor to the emerging “integral” or “evolutionary” cultural movement that combines the insights of Integral Philosophy, evolutionary science, developmental psychology, and the social sciences. He has served as the Executive Editor of EnlightenNext magazine (no longer published) and more recently is the co-founder of the Institute for Cultural Evolution, a public policy think tank addressing the cultural roots of America's political challenges. What follows is an email interview with Phipps. PMID:26478766

  14. Evolutionary Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    of biological and cultural evolution. Demographic variation within and among human populations is influenced by our biology, and therefore by natural selection and our evolutionary background. Demographic methods are necessary for studying populations of other species, and for quantifying evolutionary fitness......Demography is the quantitative study of population processes, while evolution is a population process that influences all aspects of biological organisms, including their demography. Demographic traits common to all human populations are the products of biological evolution or the interaction...

  15. Microscopic Driving Parameters-Based Energy-Saving Effect Analysis under Different Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid motorization over the recent years, China's transportation sector has been facing an increasing environmental pressure. Compared with gasoline vehicle (GV, electric vehicle (EV is expected to play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 and other pollution emissions, and urban air quality improvement, for its zero emission during use and higher energy efficiency. This paper aims to estimate the energy saving efficiency of EV, especially under different EV penetration and road traffic conditions. First, based on the emission and electricity consumption data collected by a light-duty EV and a light duty GV, a set of electricity consumption rate models and gasoline consumption rate models are established. Then, according to the conversion formula of coal equivalent, these models are transformed into coal equivalent consumption models, which make gasoline consumption and electricity consumption comparable. Finally, the relationship between the EV penetration and the reduction of energy consumption is explored based on the simulation undertaken on the North Second Ring Road in Beijing. The results show that the coal equivalent consumption will decrease by about 5% with the increases of EV penetration by 10% and the maximum energy-saving effect can be achieved when the traffic volume is about 4000 pcu/h.

  16. VapC toxins drive cellular dormancy under uranium stress for the extreme thermoacidophile Metallosphaera prunae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arpan; Wheaton, Garrett H; Counts, James A; Ijeomah, Brenda; Desai, Jigar; Kelly, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    When abruptly exposed to toxic levels of hexavalent uranium, the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera prunae, originally isolated from an abandoned uranium mine, ceased to grow, and concomitantly exhibited heightened levels of cytosolic ribonuclease activity that corresponded to substantial degradation of cellular RNA. The M. prunae transcriptome during 'uranium-shock' implicated VapC toxins as possible causative agents of the observed RNA degradation. Identifiable VapC toxins and PIN-domain proteins encoded in the M. prunae genome were produced and characterized, three of which (VapC4, VapC7, VapC8) substantially degraded M. prunae rRNA in vitro. RNA cleavage specificity for these VapCs mapped to motifs within M. prunae rRNA. Furthermore, based on frequency of cleavage sequences, putative target mRNAs for these VapCs were identified; these were closely associated with translation, transcription, and replication. It is interesting to note that Metallosphaera sedula, a member of the same genus and which has a nearly identical genome sequence but not isolated from a uranium-rich biotope, showed no evidence of dormancy when exposed to this metal. M. prunae utilizes VapC toxins for post-transcriptional regulation under uranium stress to enter a cellular dormant state, thereby providing an adaptive response to what would otherwise be a deleterious environmental perturbation. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evolutionary trade-offs in kidney injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yutian; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease. In this review we extend the concept of evolutionary nephrology by discussing how the physiologic adaptations (danger responses) to tissue injury create evolutionary trade-offs that drive histopathological changes underlying acute and chronic kidney diseases. The evolution of multicellular organisms positively selected a number of danger response programs for their overwhelming benefits in assuring survival such as clotting, inflammation, epithelial healing and mesenchymal healing, i.e. fibrosis and sclerosis. Upon kidney injury these danger programs often present as pathomechanisms driving persistent nephron loss and renal failure. We explore how classic kidney disease entities involve insufficient or overshooting activation of these danger response programs for which the underlying genetic basis remains largely to be defined. Dissecting the causative and hierarchical relationships between danger programs should help to identify molecular targets to control kidney injury and to improve disease outcomes.

  18. The effects of a new traffic safety law in the Republic of Serbia on driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Lukić, Vera; Zivadinović, Nenad; Babić, Dragan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study presented here has been to see what the effects of the new traffic safety law are, 2 years into its initial implementation, on driving under the influence of alcohol. Until the end of 2009, the legal limit for blood concentration for drivers in Serbia was 0.5g/l; however, the new traffic safety law stipulates the new limit to be 0.3g/l. A retrospective autopsy study was performed over a 6-year period (from 2006 to 2011) whose sample covered cases of fatally injured drivers who had died at the scene of the incident, before being admitted to hospital. A total of 161 fatally injured drivers were examined for their blood alcohol concentration. The average age for these drivers was 40.2±15.4 years, with a significant male predominance of 152 men to 9 women (χ(2)=152.000, pdriving under the influence of alcohol, which still remains one of the major human factors, responsible for road-traffic crashes in Serbia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overview of condition monitoring and operation control of electric power conversion systems in direct-drive wind turbines under faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shoudao; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Xiao; Gao, Jian; He, Yunze

    2017-09-01

    Electric power conversion system (EPCS), which consists of a generator and power converter, is one of the most important subsystems in a direct-drive wind turbine (DD-WT). However, this component accounts for the most failures (approximately 60% of the total number) in the entire DD-WT system according to statistical data. To improve the reliability of EPCSs and reduce the operation and maintenance cost of DD-WTs, numerous researchers have studied condition monitoring (CM) and fault diagnostics (FD). Numerous CM and FD techniques, which have respective advantages and disadvantages, have emerged. This paper provides an overview of the CM, FD, and operation control of EPCSs in DD-WTs under faults. After introducing the functional principle and structure of EPCS, this survey discusses the common failures in wind generators and power converters; briefly reviewed CM and FD methods and operation control of these generators and power converters under faults; and discussed the grid voltage faults related to EPCSs in DD-WTs. These theories and their related technical concepts are systematically discussed. Finally, predicted development trends are presented. The paper provides a valuable reference for developing service quality evaluation methods and fault operation control systems to achieve high-performance and high-intelligence DD-WTs.

  20. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    , they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical...... cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...

  1. [Evolutionary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wjst, M

    2013-12-01

    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Evolutionary Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Gorelik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we advance the concept of “evolutionary awareness,” a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities—which we refer to as “intergenerational extended phenotypes”—by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment.

  3. Efficiency Evaluation of Five-Phase Outer-Rotor Fault-Tolerant BLDC Drives under Healthy and Open-Circuit Faulty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARASHLOO, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fault tolerant motor drives are an interesting subject for many applications such as automotive industries and wind power generation. Among different configurations of these systems, five-phase BLDC drives are gaining more importance which is because of their compactness and high efficiency. Due to replacement of field windings by permanent magnets in their rotor structure, the main sources of power losses in these drives are iron (core losses, copper (winding losses, and inverter unit (semiconductor losses. Although low amplitude of power losses in five-phase BLDC drives is an important aspect for many applications, but their efficiency under faulty conditions is not considered in previous studies. In this paper, the efficiency of an outer-rotor five phase BLDC drive is evaluated under normal and different faulty conditions. Open-circuit fault is considered for one, two adjacent and two non-adjacent faulty phases. Iron core losses are calculated via FEM simulations in Flux-Cedrat software, and moreover, inverter losses and winding copper losses are simulated in MATLAB� environment. Experimental evaluations are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the entire BLDC drive which verifies the theoretical developments.

  4. A review of suspected cases of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) involved in traffic accidents in Istanbul (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Fatih; Asirdizer, Mahmut; Aker, Rezzan Gulhan; Kucukibrahimoglu, E Esra; Ates, Ismail; Erol, Yeter; Sahin, Aysegul

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays traffic accidents, which have high mortality and morbidity, are an important public health problem. The association between the use of alcohol and/or drugs by drivers and the increased risk of traffic accidents with a high risk of death and injury has been well described in the literature. This study aimed to review the incidence of cases of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) among all cases of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol and/or other drugs involved in traffic accidents and to evaluate the type of the psychoactive drugs (with or without alcohol) detected in blood samples in Istanbul and its surrounding area. This study is the first investigation on the subject of DUID cases in Turkey. The reports of the Istanbul Toxicology Department of the Council of Forensic Medicine (Turkey) on suspected DUID cases involved in traffic accidents between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011 were retrospectively reviewed for alcohol and/or drug use. Alcohol analysis was requested in 4274 suspected DUI cases, whereas drug along with alcohol analysis was requested in only 91. The rate of suspected DUID cases (n = 91) among the suspected DUI cases (n = 4274) was only 2.1% and in this study, we evaluated only the DUID cases in detail. Alcohol was present in 44% of suspected DUID cases. Psychoactive drugs were present in 15.4% of cases. The incidence among 46 confirmed DUID cases was found to be 17.4% for cannabis, 8.7% for benzodiazepines, 4.3% for barbiturates, 4.3% for antidepressants, 2.2% for cocaine and 2.2% for amphetamines. Although there is a zero-tolerance approach for DUID in the Turkish regulations, it is not well recognised and not inspected by police and legal authorities who are responsible for taking measures in traffic accidents and for routine traffic controls in Turkey. It is concluded that psychoactive drugs should be checked as well as alcohol in all traffic accident cases and roadside controls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty

  5. Sex drives intracellular conflict in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, E; MacLean, R C; Koufopanou, V; Burt, A

    2014-08-01

    Theory predicts that sex can drive the evolution of conflict within the cell. During asexual reproduction, genetic material within the cell is inherited as a single unit, selecting for cooperation both within the genome as well as between the extra-genomic elements within the cell (e.g. plasmids and endosymbionts). Under sexual reproduction, this unity is broken down as parental genomes are distributed between meiotic progeny. Genetic elements able to transmit to more than 50% of meiotic progeny have a transmission advantage over the rest of the genome and are able to spread, even where they reduce the fitness of the individual as a whole. Sexual reproduction is therefore expected to drive the evolution of selfish genetic elements (SGEs). Here, we directly test this hypothesis by studying the evolution of two independent SGEs, the 2-μm plasmid and selfish mitochondria, in populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following 22 rounds of sexual reproduction, 2-μm copy number increased by approximately 13.2 (±5.6) copies per cell, whereas in asexual populations copy number decreased by approximately 5.1 (±1.5) copies per cell. Given that the burden imposed by this parasite increases with copy number, these results support the idea that sex drives the evolution of increased SGE virulence. Moreover, we found that mitochondria that are respiratory-deficient rapidly invaded sexual but not asexual populations, demonstrating that frequent outcrossed sex can drive the de novo evolution of genetic parasites. Our study highlights the genomic perils of sex and suggests that SGEs may play a key role in driving major evolutionary transitions, such as uniparental inheritance. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Ecological interactions drive evolutionary loss of traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellers, J.; Kiers, E.T.; Currie, C.R.; McDonald, B.R.; Visser, B.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of traits can dramatically alter the fate of species. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that the prevalence of trait loss is grossly underestimated. New findings demonstrate that traits can be lost without affecting the external phenotype, provided the lost function is compensated for by species

  7. A comparison of drivers with high versus low perceived risk of being caught and arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Fell, James C; Yan, Alice F

    2009-08-01

    To examine the beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge of drivers concerning drunk driving and to compare those with greater or lesser perceptions of risk of being caught driving while impaired. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted of 850 licensed drivers throughout Maryland who reported their driving behaviors, crash history, beliefs about various alcohol countermeasures, and their knowledge of state alcohol laws. Most drivers (72%) did not feel that it was very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they drove after having too much to drink (low-risk perceivers). High-risk perceivers (28%) felt that it was very likely that they would be stopped and most (70%) felt that it was very likely that they would be arrested and convicted. Less than half (45%) of the low-risk perceivers felt that they would be arrested and convicted if they drove impaired. High-risk perceivers were significantly more likely to be non-white, less likely to drive 10 mph above the speed limit, but were more likely have five or more tickets in their lifetime and believed that sobriety checkpoints are effective. They were also more aware of laws regarding mandatory use of ignition interlocks for repeat driving under the influence (DUI) offenders and the zero tolerance law for under-21-year-old drivers. There is a need to elevate the perceived risk of being caught when driving while alcohol impaired. Despite several years of prevention programs, a substantial portion of Maryland drivers do not feel it very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they were to drive after drinking too much. Drivers who perceive these risks are more accepting of enforcement and treatment countermeasures and are more likely to report safer driving behaviors.

  8. Random and systematic errors in case–control studies calculating the injury risk of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2010, six population based case-control studies were conducted as part of the European research-project DRUID (DRiving Under the Influence of Drugs, alcohol and medicines). The aim of these case-control studies was to calculate odds ratios indicating the relative risk of serious....... The list of indicators that was identified in this study is useful both as guidance for systematic reviews and meta-analyses and for future epidemiological studies in the field of driving under the influence to minimize sources of errors already at the start of the study. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  9. Evolutionary robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to ...

  10. A three-dimensional model for lubricant depletion under sliding condition on bit patterned media of hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we model the depletion dynamics of the molecularly thin layer of lubricants on a bit patterned media disk of hard disk drives under a sliding air bearing head. The dominant physics and consequently, the lubricant depletion dynamics on a patterned disk are shown to be significantly different from the well-studied cases of a smooth disk. Our results indicate that the surface tension effect, which is negligible on a flat disk, apparently suppresses depletion by enforcing a bottleneck effect around the disk pattern peak regions to thwart the migration of lubricants. When the disjoining pressure is relatively small, it assists the depletion. But, when the disjoining pressure becomes dominant, the disjoining pressure resists depletion. Disk pattern orientation plays a critical role in the depletion process. The effect of disk pattern orientation on depletion originates from its complex interaction with other intermingled factors of external air shearing stress distribution and lubricant particle trajectory. Patterning a disk surface with nanostructures of high density, large height/pitch ratio, and particular orientation is demonstrated to be one efficient way to alleviate the formation of lubricant depletion tracks.

  11. Driving under the influence among frequent ecstasy consumers in Australia: trends over time and the role of risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Allison Jane; Bruno, Raimondo; Dietze, Paul; Butler, Kerryn; Burns, Lucy

    2014-11-01

    Driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol and illicit drugs is a serious road safety concern. This research aimed to examine trends in DUI across time and changes in attitudes towards the risks (crash and legal) associated with DUI among regular ecstasy users (REU) interviewed in Australia. Participants were regular (at least monthly) ecstasy users surveyed in 2007 (n=573) or 2011 (n=429) who had driven a car in the last six months. Face to face interviews comprised questions about recent engagement of DUI and roadside breath (alcohol) and saliva (drug) testing. Participants also reported the risk of crash and of being apprehended by police if DUI of alcohol, cannabis, ecstasy, and methamphetamine. There were significant reductions in DUI of psychostimulants (ecstasy, methamphetamine, cocaine, LSD) but not alcohol or cannabis between 2007 and 2011. This was accompanied by increased experience of roadside saliva testing and increases in crash and legal risk perceptions for ecstasy and methamphetamine, but not alcohol or cannabis. When the relationship between DUI and risk variables was examined, low crash risk perceptions were associated with DUI of all substances and low legal risk perceptions were associated with DUI of ecstasy. The observed reduction in DUI of psychostimulants among frequent ecstasy consumers may be related to increased risk awareness stemming from educational campaigns and the introduction of saliva testing on Australian roads. Such countermeasures may be less effective in relation to deterring or changing attitudes towards DUI of cannabis and alcohol among this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Driving Simulator Based Interactive Experiments : Understanding Driver Behavior, Cognition and Technology Uptake under Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) are becoming an integral part of the current driving experience. Although information through in-vehicle technologies provides assistance to drivers with diverse t...

  13. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  14. Do arms races punctuate evolutionary stasis? Unified insights from phylogeny, phylogeography and microevolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2009-09-01

    One of the major controversies in evolutionary biology concerns the processes underlying macroevolutionary patterns in which prolonged stasis is disrupted by rapid, short-term evolution that leads species to new adaptive zones. Recent advances in the understanding of contemporary evolution have suggested that such rapid evolution can occur in the wild as a result of environmental changes. Here, we examined a novel hypothesis that evolutionary stasis is punctuated by co-evolutionary arms races, which continuously alter adaptive peaks and landscapes. Based on the phylogeny of long-mouthed weevils in the genus Curculio, likelihood ratio tests showed that the macroevolutionary pattern of the weevils coincides with the punctuational evolution model. A coalescent analysis of a species, Curculio camelliae, the mouthpart of which has diverged considerably among populations because of an arms race with its host plant, further suggested that major evolutionary shifts had occurred within 7000 generations. Through a microevolutionary analysis of the species, we also found that natural selection acting through co-evolutionary interactions is potentially strong enough to drive rapid evolutionary shifts between adaptive zones. Overall, we posit that co-evolution is an important factor driving the history of organismal evolution.

  15. Sexual antagonism and meiotic drive cause stable linkage disequilibrium and favour reduced recombination on the X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzewski, W T; Carioscia, S A; Liévano, G; Lynch, V D; Patten, M M

    2016-06-01

    Sexual antagonism and meiotic drive are sex-specific evolutionary forces with the potential to shape genomic architecture. Previous theory has found that pairing two sexually antagonistic loci or combining sexual antagonism with meiotic drive at linked autosomal loci augments genetic variation, produces stable linkage disequilibrium (LD) and favours reduced recombination. However, the influence of these two forces has not been examined on the X chromosome, which is thought to be enriched for sexual antagonism and meiotic drive. We investigate the evolution of the X chromosome under both sexual antagonism and meiotic drive with two models: in one, both loci experience sexual antagonism; in the other, we pair a meiotic drive locus with a sexually antagonistic locus. We find that LD arises between the two loci in both models, even when the two loci freely recombine in females and that driving haplotypes will be enriched for male-beneficial alleles, further skewing sex ratios in these populations. We introduce a new measure of LD, Dz', which accounts for population allele frequencies and is appropriate for instances where these are sex specific. Both models demonstrate that natural selection favours modifiers that reduce the recombination rate. These results inform observed patterns of congealment found on driving X chromosomes and have implications for patterns of natural variation and the evolution of recombination rates on the X chromosome. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.Q.; Marr, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas emission reductions for EVs, including these important aspects. We select four US cities (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.) and six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and analyze greenhouse emission impacts of EVs in each city or country. We also select six driving cycles developed around the world (i.e., the US federal urban driving cycle, the Economic Community of Europe cycle 15, the Japanese 10-mode cycle, the Los Angeles 92 cycle, the New York City cycle, and the Sydney cycle). Note that we have not analyzed EVs in high-speed driving (e.g., highway driving), where the results would be less favorable to EVs; here, EVs are regarded as urban vehicles only. We choose one specific driving cycle for a given city or country and estimate the energy consumption of four-passenger compact electric and gasoline cars in the given city or country. Finally, we estimate total fuel cycle greenhouse gas emissions of both GVs and EVs by accounting for emissions from primary energy recovery, transportation, and processing; energy product transportation; and powerplant and vehicle operations

  17. Self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol and cannabis among Ontario students: Associations with graduated licensing, risk taking, and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Shank, Danielle; Bruno, Tara; Turner, Nigel E; Mann, Robert E

    2017-07-04

    This article describes the patterns of self-reported driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) and driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) among licensed Ontario students in 2009 and examines their associations with graduated licensing, risk taking, and substance use problems for understanding DUIA and DUIC behaviors. Ontario's graduated licensing system requires new drivers to hold a G1 license for a minimum of 8 months and a G2 license for a minimum of 12 months before a full and unrestricted G license can be obtained. Among other restrictions, G1 drivers must maintain a 0 blood alcohol content (BAC), have an experienced driver in the passenger seat, not drive on any high-speed expressways, and not drive between the hours of midnight and 5 a.m. A G2 license is more similar to a G license, with fewer restrictions. This study analyzed data from the 2009 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). The OSDUHS is a biennial population-based survey of students (grades 7 to 12) in Ontario, Canada. The results showed that 16.3% of licensed students in Ontario reported DUIC and 11.5% reported DUIA during the past year. After controlling for the effect of age, type of license emerged as a robust predictor for both DUIA and DUIC behavior, because students with a G2 and full license were significantly more likely to report DUIA and DUIC than drivers with a G1 license. Multivariate analyses suggested that risk-seeking behaviors were more important for understanding DUIA behavior than for DUIC behavior. Elevated problem indicators for alcohol and for cannabis were associated with DUIA and DUIC, respectively. Though much attention has been paid to drinking and driving among adolescents, this research shows that more Ontario students now report driving after cannabis use than after drinking alcohol. The results identify important correlates of both behaviors that may be useful for prevention purposes.

  18. Improvement of d-Lactic Acid Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Under Acidic Conditions by Evolutionary and Rational Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-Ho; Kwon, Eunice Y; Bae, Sang-Jeong; Cho, Bo-Ram; Kim, Seon-Young; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2017-10-01

    Microbial lactic acid (LA) production under acidic fermentation conditions is favorable to reduce the production cost, but circumventing LA toxicity is a major challenge. A d-LA-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain JHY5610 is generated by expressing d-lactate dehydrogenase gene (Lm. ldhA) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while deleting genes involved in ethanol production (ADH1, ADH2, ADH3, ADH4, and ADH5), glycerol production (GPD1 and GPD2), and degradation of d-LA (DLD1). Adaptive laboratory evolution of JHY5610 lead to a strain JHY5710 having higher LA tolerance and d-LA-production capability. Genome sequencing of JHY5710 reveal that SUR1 I245S mutation increases LA tolerance and d-LA-production, whereas a loss-of-function mutation of ERF2 only contributes to increasing d-LA production. Introduction of both SUR1 I245S and erf2Δ mutations into JHY5610 largely mimic the d-LA-production capability of JHY5710, suggesting that these two mutations, which could modulate sphingolipid production and protein palmitoylation, are mainly responsible for the improved d-LA production in JHY5710. JHY5710 is further improved by deleting PDC1 encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and additional integration of Lm. ldhA gene. The resulting strain JHY5730 produce up to 82.6 g L -1 of d-LA with a yield of 0.83 g g -1 glucose and a productivity of 1.50 g/(L · h) in fed-batch fermentation at pH 3.5. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Determination of safety margins for whole blood concentrations of alcohol and nineteen drugs in driving under the influence cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Lena; Strand, Dag Helge; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Vindenes, Vigdis; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Aldrin, Magne

    2016-02-01

    Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances. Diazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol were used as model substances to establish a new model for estimating the safety margins. The model was compared with a previous used model established several years ago, by a similar yet much simpler model, and they were found to be in agreement. The measurement uncertainties depend on the standard batch used, the work list and the measurements' replicate. A Bayesian modelling approach was used to determine the parameters in the model, using a dataset of 4700 diazepam positive specimens and 5400 THC positive specimens. Different safety margins were considered for low and high concentration levels of diazepam (≤2μM (0.6mg/L) and >2μM) and THC (≤0.01μM (0.003mg/L) and >0.01μM). The safety margins were for diazepam 19.5% (≤2μM) and 34% (>2μM), for THC 19.5% (≤0.01μM) and 24.9% (>0.01μM). Concentration dependent safety margins for BAC were based on a dataset of 29500 alcohol positive specimens, and were in the range 10.4% (0.1g/kg) to 4.0% (4.0g/kg) at a 99% safety level. A simplified approach was used to establish safety margins for the compounds amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, alprazolam, phenazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, buprenorphine, GHB, methadone, ketamine, cocaine, morphine, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  20. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  1. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  2. Analysis of field-oriented controlled induction motor drives under sensor faults and an overview of sensorless schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Dominic, D; Chelliah, Thanga Raj

    2014-09-01

    To obtain high dynamic performance on induction motor drives (IMD), variable voltage and variable frequency operation has to be performed by measuring speed of rotation and stator currents through sensors and fed back them to the controllers. When the sensors are undergone a fault, the stability of control system, may be designed for an industrial process, is disturbed. This paper studies the negative effects on a 12.5 hp induction motor drives when the field oriented control system is subjected to sensor faults. To illustrate the importance of this study mine hoist load diagram is considered as shaft load of the tested machine. The methods to recover the system from sensor faults are discussed. In addition, the various speed sensorless schemes are reviewed comprehensively. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Meiotic drive influences the outcome of sexually antagonistic selection at a linked locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, M M

    2014-11-01

    Most meiotic drivers, such as the t-haplotype in Mus and the segregation distorter (SD) in Drosophila, act in a sex-specific manner, gaining a transmission advantage through one sex although suffering only the fitness costs associated with the driver in the other. Their inheritance is thus more likely through one of the two sexes, a property they share with sexually antagonistic alleles. Previous theory has shown that pairs of linked loci segregating for sexually antagonistic alleles are more likely to remain polymorphic and that linkage disequilibrium accrues between them. I probe this similarity between drive and sexual antagonism and examine the evolution of chromosomes experiencing these selection pressures simultaneously. Reminiscent of previous theory, I find that: the opportunity for polymorphism increases for a sexually antagonistic locus that is physically linked to a driving locus; the opportunity for polymorphism at a driving locus also increases when linked to a sexually antagonistic locus; and stable linkage disequilibrium accompanies any polymorphic equilibrium. Additionally, I find that drive at a linked locus favours the fixation of sexually antagonistic alleles that benefit the sex in which drive occurs. Further, I show that under certain conditions reduced recombination between these two loci is selectively favoured. These theoretical results provide clear, testable predictions about the nature of sexually antagonistic variation on driving chromosomes and have implications for the evolution of genomic architecture. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Violent behavior and driving under the influence of alcohol: prevalence and association with impulsivity among individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Bohnert, Amy; Ilgen, Mark A; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated or under the influence (DUI; for the purposes of this paper, we use the following terms synonymously: driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, and drunk driving) and engaging in interpersonal violence are two injury-related problems of high public health importance that have both been linked to alcohol consumption. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of DUI and violence in a sample of individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland. Patient characteristics associated with DUI and violence involvement, with a particular focus on impulsivity, were examined. Three hundred and sixty-four patients consecutively admitted to four alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland participated in this study. Questions concerning history of interpersonal violence as well as those about DUI were derived from the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Impulsivity level was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the stop-signal task. Among all participants in the study, 148 (40.1%) had been arrested in the past for DUI, and 196 (55%) reported involvement in a fight under the influence of alcohol (FUI). The DUI group had a significantly earlier onset of alcohol problems, a longer period of heavy alcohol use, and fewer women in comparison to participants without a DUI history. FUI patients were significantly younger, with a younger average age of onset of drinking problems, longer period of heavy drinking, and lower percentage of women than the non-FUI group. Both of the self-reported measures of impulsivity indicated a higher level of impulsivity among participants from the FUI group than those from the non-FUI group. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have to give up driving. Many people associate driving with self-reliance and freedom; the loss of driving privileges ... familiar roads and avoid long distances. Avoid heavy traffic and heavily traveled roads. Avoid driving at night and in bad weather. Reduce the ...

  6. The evolutionary fate of phenotypic plasticity and functional traits under domestication in manioc: changes in stem biomechanics and the appearance of stem brittleness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Léa; McKey, Doyle; Mühlen, Gilda S; Clair, Bruno; Rowe, Nick P

    2013-01-01

    discuss the different selective pressures that could explain evolutionary modifications of stem biomechanical properties under domestication in manioc.

  7. The evolutionary fate of phenotypic plasticity and functional traits under domestication in manioc: changes in stem biomechanics and the appearance of stem brittleness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Ménard

    perturbation. We discuss the different selective pressures that could explain evolutionary modifications of stem biomechanical properties under domestication in manioc.

  8. The impact of the thermal conductivities of the color conversion elements of phosphor converted LEDs under different current driving schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulmek, Paul; Nicolics, Johann [Institute of Sensor & Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstraße 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Nemitz, Wolfgang; Schweitzer, Susanne; Sommer, Christian; Hartmann, Paul [Institute of Surface Technologies and Photonics, Joanneum Research Forschungsges mbH, Franz-Pichler Straße 30, A-8160 Weiz (Austria); Schrank, Franz [Tridonic Jennersdorf GmbH, Technologiepark 10, A-8380 Jennersdorf (Austria); Wenzl, Franz P., E-mail: Franz-Peter.Wenzl@joanneum.at [Institute of Sensor & Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstraße 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-01-15

    For a systematic approach to improve the reliability and the white light quality of phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) it is imperative to gain a better understanding of the individual parameters that affect color temperature constancy and maintenance. By means of a combined optical and thermal simulation procedure, in this contribution we give a comprehensive discussion on the impact of different thermal conductivities of the color conversion elements (CCE) of phosphor converted LEDs on their respective thermal load for different current driving schemes. In particular we show that, while for the thermal load of CCEs with low thermal conductivities also effects due to the non-linearity between the blue radiant flux and the current have to be considered, these effects are largely diminished in case of CCEs with higher thermal conductivities. - Highlights: • We discuss the thermal load of phosphor based LEDs for different current driving. • We report on the time scales for the thermal load of phosphor based LEDs. • We report on the impact of the non-linearity of the radiant flux on the thermal load. • We discuss the impact of the thermal conductivity on the thermal load.

  9. On the evolutionary relationship between chondrocytes and osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsy eGomez-Picos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates are the only animals that produce bone, but the molecular genetic basis for this evolutionary novelty remains obscure. Here, we synthesize information from traditional evolutionary and modern molecular genetic studies in order to generate a working hypothesis on the evolution of the gene regulatory network (GRN underlying bone formation. To make this argument, we focus on three skeletal tissues that comprise the majority of the vertebrate skeleton: immature cartilage, mature cartilage, and bone. Immature cartilage is produced during early stages of cartilage differentiation and can persist into adulthood, whereas mature cartilage undergoes additional stages of differentiation, including hypertrophy and mineralization. Functionally, histologically, and embryologically, these three skeletal tissues are very similar, yet unique, suggesting that one might have evolved from another. Traditional studies of the fossil record, comparative anatomy and embryology demonstrate clearly that immature cartilage evolved before mature cartilage or bone. Modern molecular approaches show that the GRNs regulating differentiation of these three skeletal cell fates are similar, yet unique, just like the functional and histological features of the tissues themselves. Intriguingly, the Sox9 GRN driving cartilage formation appears to be dominant to the Runx2 GRN of bone. Emphasizing an embryological and evolutionary transcriptomic view, we hypothesize that the Runx2 GRN underlying bone formation was co-opted from mature cartilage. We discuss how modern molecular genetic experiments, such as comparative transcriptomics, can test this hypothesis directly, meanwhile permitting levels of constraint and adaptation to be evaluated quantitatively. Therefore, comparative transcriptomics may revolutionize understanding of not only the clade-specific evolution of skeletal cells, but also the generation of evolutionary novelties, providing a modern paradigm for the

  10. Evolutionary games on graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Fáth, Gábor

    2007-07-01

    Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to those applied in non-equilibrium statistical physics. This review gives a tutorial-type overview of the field for physicists. The first four sections introduce the necessary background in classical and evolutionary game theory from the basic definitions to the most important results. The fifth section surveys the topological complications implied by non-mean-field-type social network structures in general. The next three sections discuss in detail the dynamic behavior of three prominent classes of models: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Rock-Scissors-Paper game, and Competing Associations. The major theme of the review is in what sense and how the graph structure of interactions can modify and enrich the picture of long term behavioral patterns emerging in evolutionary games.

  11. The motivation underlying adolescents׳ intended time-frame for driving licensure and car ownership: A socio-ecological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the adolescents׳ intended time-frame for obtaining a driving license and purchasing a car, as the delay of these decisions will likely affect the amount of travel and transport externalities. Semi-structured interviews with 50 Danish adolescents were analyzed by means...... are car enthusiasts who associate cars with high instrumental, affective, symbolic, and relational values, have car-oriented social networks, and imagine a car-oriented lifestyle. The second group are car pragmatists, who associate cars with high instrumental and relational values, perceive car expenses...... as a barrier, and imagine a car-oriented lifestyle only in the long-term. The third group are car skeptics, who have low interest in cars and imagine a cycling-oriented future. Policy implications concern (i) promoting shared-responsibility among individuals, public bodies, communities and policy makers...

  12. Degradation of selected industrial dyes using Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales under natural sun light as an alternative driving energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraju, H. P.; Midhun, G.; Anil Kumar, K. M.; Pallavi, S.; Pallavi, N.; Behzad, Shahmoradi

    2017-11-01

    Designing photocatalytic materials with modified functionalities for the utilization of renewable energy sources as an alternative driving energy has attracted much attention in the area of sustainable wastewater treatment applications. Catalyst-assisted advanced oxidation process is an emerging treatment technology for organic pollutants and toxicants in industrial wastewater. Preparation of visible-light-responsive photocatalyst such as Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales was carried out under mild sol-gel technique. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were characterized by powder XRD, SEM, FTIR, and optical and photocatalytic activity techniques. The Mg-doped TiO2 showed a mixed phase of anatase and rutile with an excellent crystallinity, structural elucidations, polyscales morphology, consequent shifting of bandgap energy and adequate photocatalytic activities under visible range of light. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were investigated for their efficiencies in the degradation of most commonly used industrial dyes in the real-time textile wastewater. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales showed excellent photocatalytic degradation efficiency in both model industrial dyes (65-95%) and textile wastewater (92%) under natural sunlight as an alternative and renewable driving energy.

  13. Distracted driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including maps) The Dangers of Talking on the Phone While Driving You are four times more likely to get ... of reach. If you are caught using a phone while driving, you may risk a ticket or fine. Most ...

  14. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increased awareness of distracted driving using radio advertisements, news stories, and similar media. After the projects ... available at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov . Distracted Driving Enforcement – TV Ads (Paid). For re-tagging, go to: www. ...

  15. Paleontological Studies Integrated into a New Evolutionary Zoology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Fukatsu, Takema

    2017-02-01

    Zoological Letters, an open access online journal launched in 2015 is entering its third year of publication, and now seeks to drive new insights in evolutionary and comparative zoology by the inclusion of paleontological studies into its scope.

  16. Comparison of emissions from on-road sources using a mobile laboratory under various driving and operational sampling modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile sources produce a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions burden in large cities and have harmful effects on air quality at multiple spatial scales. Mobile emissions are intrinsically difficult to estimate due to the large number of parameters affecting the emissions variability within and across vehicles types. The MCMA-2003 Campaign in Mexico City has showed the utility of using a mobile laboratory to sample and characterize specific classes of motor vehicles to better quantify their emissions characteristics as a function of their driving cycles. The technique clearly identifies "high emitter" vehicles via individual exhaust plumes, and also provides fleet average emission rates. We have applied this technique to Mexicali during the Border Ozone Reduction and Air Quality Improvement Program (BORAQIP for the Mexicali-Imperial Valley in 2005. We analyze the variability of measured emission ratios for emitted NOx, CO, specific VOCs, NH3, and some primary fine particle components and properties by deploying a mobile laboratory in roadside stationary sampling, chase and fleet average operational sampling modes. The measurements reflect various driving modes characteristic of the urban fleets. The observed variability for all measured gases and particle emission ratios is greater for the chase and roadside stationary sampling than for fleet average measurements. The fleet average sampling mode captured the effects of traffic conditions on the measured on-road emission ratios, allowing the use of fuel-based emission ratios to assess the validity of traditional "bottom-up" emissions inventories. Using the measured on-road emission ratios, we estimate CO and NOx mobile emissions of 175±62 and 10.4±1.3 metric tons/day, respectively, for the gasoline vehicle fleet in Mexicali. Comparisons with similar on-road emissions data from Mexico City indicated that fleet average NO emission ratios were

  17. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  18. Evolutionary rescue and local adaptation under different rates of temperature increase: a combined analysis of changes in phenotype expression and genotype frequency in Paramecium microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Joshua; Gougat-Barbera, Claire; Krenek, Sascha; Kaltz, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Evolutionary rescue (ER) occurs when populations, which have declined due to rapid environmental change, recover through genetic adaptation. The success of this process and the evolutionary trajectory of the population strongly depend on the rate of environmental change. Here we investigated how different rates of temperature increase (from 23 to 32 °C) affect population persistence and evolutionary change in experimental microcosms of the protozoan Paramecium caudatum. Consistent with theory on ER, we found that those populations experiencing the slowest rate of temperature increase were the least likely to become extinct and tended to be the best adapted to the new temperature environment. All high-temperature populations were more tolerant to severe heat stress (35, 37 °C), indicating a common mechanism of heat protection. High-temperature populations also had superior growth rates at optimum temperatures, leading to the absence of a pattern of local adaptation to control (23 °C) and high-temperature (32 °C) environments. However, high-temperature populations had reduced growth at low temperatures (5-9 °C), causing a shift in the temperature niche. In part, the observed evolutionary change can be explained by selection from standing variation. Using mitochondrial markers, we found complete divergence between control and high-temperature populations in the frequencies of six initial founder genotypes. Our results confirm basic predictions of ER and illustrate how adaptation to an extreme local environment can produce positive as well as negative correlated responses to selection over the entire range of the ecological niche. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Nitrate-nitrogen contamination in groundwater: Spatiotemporal variation and driving factors under cropland in Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Jiang, L. H.; Zhang, C. J.; Li, P.; Zhao, T. K.

    2017-08-01

    High groundwater nitrate-N is a serious problem especially in highly active agricultural areas. In study, the concentration and spatialtemporal distribution of groundwater nitrate-N under cropland in Shandong province were assessed by statistical and geostatistical techniques. Nitrate-N concentration reached a maximum of 184.60 mg L-1 and 29.5% of samples had levels in excess of safety threshold concentration (20 mg L-1). The median nitrate-N contents after rainy season were significantly higher than those before rainy season, and decreased with increasing groundwater depth. Nitrate-N under vegetable and orchard area are significantly higher than ones under grain. The kriging map shows that groundwater nitrate-N has a strong spatial variability. Many districts, such as Weifang, Linyi in Shandong province are heavily contaminated with nitrate-N. However, there are no significant trends of NO3 --N for most cities. Stepwise regression analysis showed influencing factors are different for the groundwater in different depth. But overall, vegetable yield per unit area, percentages of orchard area, per capita agricultural production, unit-area nitrogen fertilizer, livestock per unit area, percentages of irrigation areas, population per unit area and annual mean temperature are significant variables for groundwater nitrate-N variation.

  20. Polarization-dependent force driving the Eg mode in bismuth under optical excitation: comparison of first-principles theory with ultra-fast x-ray experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Eamonn

    2015-03-01

    Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of a ultrafast pulse of polarized light. To compare the results with recent ultra-fast, time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we include the decay of the force due to carrier scattering, as measured in optical Raman scattering experiments, and simulate the optical absorption process, depth-dependent atomic driving forces, and x-ray diffraction in the experimental geometry. We find excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed oscillations of the x-ray diffraction signal, indicating that first-principles theory of optical absorption is well suited to the calculation of initial atomic driving forces in photo-excited materials following ultrafast excitation. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland (Grant No. 12/IA/1601) and EU Commission under the Marie Curie Incoming International Fellowships (Grant No. PIIF-GA-2012-329695).

  1. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  2. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  3. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  4. Simulating phenological shifts in French temperate forests under two climatic change scenarios and four driving global circulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebourgeois, François; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Perez, Vincent; Piedallu, Christian; Cecchini, Sébastien; Ulrich, Erwin

    2010-09-01

    After modeling the large-scale climate response patterns of leaf unfolding, leaf coloring and growing season length of evergreen and deciduous French temperate trees, we predicted the effects of eight future climate scenarios on phenological events. We used the ground observations from 103 temperate forests (10 species and 3,708 trees) from the French Renecofor Network and for the period 1997-2006. We applied RandomForest algorithms to predict phenological events from climatic and ecological variables. With the resulting models, we drew maps of phenological events throughout France under present climate and under two climatic change scenarios (A2, B2) and four global circulation models (HadCM3, CGCM2, CSIRO2 and PCM). We compared current observations and predicted values for the periods 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. On average, spring development of oaks precedes that of beech, which precedes that of conifers. Annual cycles in budburst and leaf coloring are highly correlated with January, March-April and October-November weather conditions through temperature, global solar radiation or potential evapotranspiration depending on species. At the end of the twenty-first century, each model predicts earlier budburst (mean: 7 days) and later leaf coloring (mean: 13 days) leading to an average increase in the growing season of about 20 days (for oaks and beech stands). The A2-HadCM3 hypothesis leads to an increase of up to 30 days in many areas. As a consequence of higher predicted warming during autumn than during winter or spring, shifts in leaf coloring dates appear greater than trends in leaf unfolding. At a regional scale, highly differing climatic response patterns were observed.

  5. Evolutionary foundations for cancer biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M

    2013-01-01

    New applications of evolutionary biology are transforming our understanding of cancer. The articles in this special issue provide many specific examples, such as microorganisms inducing cancers, the significance of within-tumor heterogeneity, and the possibility that lower dose chemotherapy may sometimes promote longer survival. Underlying these specific advances is a large-scale transformation, as cancer research incorporates evolutionary methods into its toolkit, and asks new evolutionary questions about why we are vulnerable to cancer. Evolution explains why cancer exists at all, how neoplasms grow, why cancer is remarkably rare, and why it occurs despite powerful cancer suppression mechanisms. Cancer exists because of somatic selection; mutations in somatic cells result in some dividing faster than others, in some cases generating neoplasms. Neoplasms grow, or do not, in complex cellular ecosystems. Cancer is relatively rare because of natural selection; our genomes were derived disproportionally from individuals with effective mechanisms for suppressing cancer. Cancer occurs nonetheless for the same six evolutionary reasons that explain why we remain vulnerable to other diseases. These four principles-cancers evolve by somatic selection, neoplasms grow in complex ecosystems, natural selection has shaped powerful cancer defenses, and the limitations of those defenses have evolutionary explanations-provide a foundation for understanding, preventing, and treating cancer.

  6. Driving under the influence of drugs -- evaluation of analytical data of drugs in oral fluid, serum and urine, and correlation with impairment symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toennes, Stefan W; Kauert, Gerold F; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Moeller, Manfred R

    2005-09-10

    A study was performed to acquire urine, serum and oral fluid samples in cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs of abuse. Oral fluid was collected using a novel sampling/testing device (Dräger DrugTest System). The aim of the study was to evaluate oral fluid and urine as a predictor of blood samples positive for drugs and impairment symptoms. Analysis for cannabinoids, amphetamine and its derivatives, opiates and cocaine was performed in urine using the Mahsan Kombi/DOA4-test, in serum using immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation and in oral fluid by GC-MS. Police and medical officer observations of impairment symptoms were rated and evaluated using a threshold value for the classification of driving inability. Accuracy in correlating drug detection in oral fluid and serum were >90% for all substances and also >90% in urine and serum except for THC (71.0%). Of the cases with oral fluid positive for any drug 97.1% of corresponding serum samples were also positive for at least one drug; of drug-positive urine samples this were only 82.4%. In 119 of 146 cases, impairment symptoms above threshold were observed (81.5%). Of the cases with drugs detected in serum, 19.1% appeared not impaired which were the same with drug-positive oral fluid while more persons with drug-positive urine samples appeared uninfluenced (32.7%). The data demonstrate that oral fluid is superior to urine in correlating with serum analytical data and impairment symptoms of drivers under the influence of drugs of abuse.

  7. Evolutionary Fates and Dynamic Functionalization of Young Duplicate Genes in Arabidopsis Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tao, Feng; Marowsky, Nicholas C; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2016-09-01

    Gene duplication is a primary means to generate genomic novelties, playing an essential role in speciation and adaptation. Particularly in plants, a high abundance of duplicate genes has been maintained for significantly long periods of evolutionary time. To address the manner in which young duplicate genes were derived primarily from small-scale gene duplication and preserved in plant genomes and to determine the underlying driving mechanisms, we generated transcriptomes to produce the expression profiles of five tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana and the closely related species Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella Based on the quantitative analysis metrics, we investigated the evolutionary processes of young duplicate genes in Arabidopsis. We determined that conservation, neofunctionalization, and specialization are three main evolutionary processes for Arabidopsis young duplicate genes. We explicitly demonstrated the dynamic functionalization of duplicate genes along the evolutionary time scale. Upon origination, duplicates tend to maintain their ancestral functions; but as they survive longer, they might be likely to develop distinct and novel functions. The temporal evolutionary processes and functionalization of plant duplicate genes are associated with their ancestral functions, dynamic DNA methylation levels, and histone modification abundances. Furthermore, duplicate genes tend to be initially expressed in pollen and then to gain more interaction partners over time. Altogether, our study provides novel insights into the dynamic retention processes of young duplicate genes in plant genomes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary Fates and Dynamic Functionalization of Young Duplicate Genes in Arabidopsis Genomes1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tao, Feng; Marowsky, Nicholas C.; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2016-01-01

    Gene duplication is a primary means to generate genomic novelties, playing an essential role in speciation and adaptation. Particularly in plants, a high abundance of duplicate genes has been maintained for significantly long periods of evolutionary time. To address the manner in which young duplicate genes were derived primarily from small-scale gene duplication and preserved in plant genomes and to determine the underlying driving mechanisms, we generated transcriptomes to produce the expression profiles of five tissues in Arabidopsis thaliana and the closely related species Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella. Based on the quantitative analysis metrics, we investigated the evolutionary processes of young duplicate genes in Arabidopsis. We determined that conservation, neofunctionalization, and specialization are three main evolutionary processes for Arabidopsis young duplicate genes. We explicitly demonstrated the dynamic functionalization of duplicate genes along the evolutionary time scale. Upon origination, duplicates tend to maintain their ancestral functions; but as they survive longer, they might be likely to develop distinct and novel functions. The temporal evolutionary processes and functionalization of plant duplicate genes are associated with their ancestral functions, dynamic DNA methylation levels, and histone modification abundances. Furthermore, duplicate genes tend to be initially expressed in pollen and then to gain more interaction partners over time. Altogether, our study provides novel insights into the dynamic retention processes of young duplicate genes in plant genomes. PMID:27485883

  9. Evolutionary molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2012-05-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but some major advances in evolutionary biology from the twentieth century that provide foundations for evolutionary medicine are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the need for both proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, competition between alleles, co-evolution, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are transforming evolutionary biology in ways that create even more opportunities for progress at its interfaces with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and related principles to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine.

  10. Multi types DG expansion dynamic planning in distribution system under stochastic conditions using Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolutionary Strategy and Monte-Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Mahmood; Kalantar, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Defining a DG dynamic planning problem. • Applying a new evolutionary algorithm called “CMAES” in planning process. • Considering electricity price and fuel price variation stochastic conditions. • Scenario generation and reduction with MCS and backward reduction programs. • Considering approximately all of the costs of the distribution system. - Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic DG planning problem considering uncertainties related to the intermittent nature of the DG technologies such as wind turbines and solar units in addition to the stochastic economic conditions. The stochastic economic situation includes the uncertainties related to the fuel and electricity price of each year. The Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate the possible scenarios of uncertain situations and the produced scenarios are reduced through backward reduction program. The aim of this paper is to maximize the revenue of the distribution system through the benefit cost analysis alongside the encouraging and punishment functions. In order to close to reality, the different growth rates for the planning period are selected. In this paper the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolutionary Strategy is introduced and is used to find the best planning scheme of the DG units. The different DG types are considered in the planning problem. The main assumption of this paper is that the DISCO is the owner of the distribution system and the DG units. The proposed method is tested on a 9 bus test distribution system and the results are compared with the known genetic algorithm and PSO methods to show the applicability of the CMAES method in this problem

  11. Evolutionary principles and their practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F; Carroll, Scott P

    2011-03-01

    Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology.

  12. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    A reactor core, one or more control rods, and a control rod drive are described for selectively inserting and withdrawing the one or more control rods into and from the reactor core, which consists of: a support structure secured beneath the reactor core; control rod positioning means supported by the support structure for movably supporting the control rod for movement between a lower position wherein the control rod is located substantially beneath the reactor core and an upper position wherein at least an upper portion of the control rod extends into the reactor core; transmission means; primary drive means connected with the control rod positioning means by the transmission means for positioning the control rod under normal operating conditions; emergency drive means for moving the control rod from the lower position to the upper position under emergency conditions, the emergency drive means including a weight movable between an upper and a lower position, means for movably supporting the weight, and means for transmitting gravitational force exerted on the weight to the control rod positioning means to move the control rod upwardly when the weight is pulled downwardly by gravity; the transmission means connecting the control rod positioning means with the emergency drive means so that the primary drive means effects movement of the weight and the control rod in opposite directions under normal conditions, thus providing counterbalancing to reduce the force required for upward movement of the control rod under normal conditions; and restraint means for restraining the fall of the weight under normal operating conditions and disengaging the primary drive means to release the weight under emergency conditions

  13. Determination of the Optimum Heat Transfer Coefficient and Temperature Rise Analysis for a Lithium-Ion Battery under the Conditions of Harbin City Bus Driving Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the heat problems that occur during the operation of power batteries, especially thermal runaway, which usually take place in high temperature environments. The study was conducted on a ternary polymer lithium-ion battery. In addition, a lumped parameter thermal model was established to analyze the thermal behavior of the electric bus battery system under the operation conditions of the driving cycles of the Harbin city electric buses. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between the optimum heat transfer coefficient of the battery and the ambient temperature was investigated. The relationship between the temperature rise (Tr, the number of cycles (c, and the heat transfer coefficient (h under three Harbin bus cycles have been investigated at 30 °C, because it can provide a basis for the design of the battery thermal management system. The results indicated that the heat transfer coefficient that meets the requirements of the battery thermal management system is the cubic power function of the ambient temperature. Therefore, if the ambient temperature is 30 °C, the heat transfer coefficient should be at least 12 W/m2K in the regular bus lines, 22 W/m2K in the bus rapid transit lines, and 32 W/m2K in the suburban lines.

  14. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  15. Remembering the evolutionary Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allan

    2006-03-01

    Throughout his career as a writer, Sigmund Freud maintained an interest in the evolutionary origins of the human mind and its neurotic and psychotic disorders. In common with many writers then and now, he believed that the evolutionary past is conserved in the mind and the brain. Today the "evolutionary Freud" is nearly forgotten. Even among Freudians, he is regarded to be a red herring, relevant only to the extent that he diverts attention from the enduring achievements of the authentic Freud. There are three ways to explain these attitudes. First, the evolutionary Freud's key work is the "Overview of the Transference Neurosis" (1915). But it was published at an inopportune moment, forty years after the author's death, during the so-called "Freud wars." Second, Freud eventually lost interest in the "Overview" and the prospect of a comprehensive evolutionary theory of psychopathology. The publication of The Ego and the Id (1923), introducing Freud's structural theory of the psyche, marked the point of no return. Finally, Freud's evolutionary theory is simply not credible. It is based on just-so stories and a thoroughly discredited evolutionary mechanism, Lamarckian use-inheritance. Explanations one and two are probably correct but also uninteresting. Explanation number three assumes that there is a fundamental difference between Freud's evolutionary narratives (not credible) and the evolutionary accounts of psychopathology that currently circulate in psychiatry and mainstream journals (credible). The assumption is mistaken but worth investigating.

  16. Evolutionary biology and life histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, C. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The demographic processes that drive the spread of populations through environments and in turn determine the abundance of organisms are the same demographic processes that drive the spread of genes through populations and in turn determine gene frequencies and fitness. Conceptually, marked similarities exist in the dynamic processes underlying population ecology and those underlying evolutionary biology. Central to an understanding of both disciplines is life history and its component demographic rates, such as survival, fecundity, and age of first breeding, and biologists from both fields have a vested interest in good analytical machinery for the estimation and analysis of these demographic rates. In the EURING conferences, we have been striving since the mid 1980s to promote a quantitative understanding of demographic rates through interdisciplinary collaboration between ecologists and statisticians. From the ecological side, the principal impetus has come from population biology, and in particular from wildlife biology, but the importance of good quantitative insights into demographic processes has long been recognized by a number of evolutionary biologists (e.g., Nichols & Kendall, 1995; Clobert, 1995; Cooch et al., 2002. In organizing this session, we have aimed to create a forum for those committed to gaining the best possible understanding of evolutionary processes through the application of modern quantitative methods for the collection and interpretation of data on marked animal populations. Here we present a short overview of the material presented in the session on evolutionary biology and life histories. In a plenary talk, Brown & Brown (2004 explored how mark–recapture methods have allowed a better understanding of the evolution of group–living and alternative reproductive tactics in colonial cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota. By estimating the number of transient birds passing through colonies of different sizes, they

  17. Analysis of the repeatability of the exhaust pollutants emission research results for cold and hot starts under controlled driving cycle conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Artur; Kuszewski, Hubert; Ustrzycki, Adam; Balawender, Krzysztof; Lejda, Kazimierz; Woś, Paweł

    2018-04-20

    Measurement of car engines exhaust pollutants emissions is very important because of their harmful effects on the environment. This article presents the assessment of repeatability of the passenger car engine exhaust pollutants emission research results obtained in the conditions of a chassis dynamometer. The research was conducted in a climate chamber, enabling the temperature conditions to be determined from - 20 to + 30 °C. The emission of CO, CH 4 , CO 2 , NO X , THC, and NMHC was subjected to the analysis. The aim of the research is to draw attention to the accuracy of the pollutant emission research results in driving cycles, and the comparison of pollutant emission results and their repeatability obtained in successive NEDC cycles under cold and hot start conditions. The results of the analysis show that, in the case of a small number of measurements, the results repeatability analysis is necessary for a proper interpretation of the pollutant emission results on the basis of the mean value. According to the authors' judgment, it is beneficial to determine the coefficient of variation for a more complete assessment of exhaust emission result repeatability obtained from a small number of measurements. This parameter is rarely presented by the authors of papers on exhaust components emission research.

  18. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals...... 2004, Haddington et al. 2012). I focus here especially on how the practical and interactional work of locating, seeing, placing, handling, hearing, and relinquishing, is ordered and accomplished relative to the emerging and contingent demands of both driving and social participation......, such that involvement with objects is constituted as secondary to driving in a multiactivity setting (e.g. Haddington et al. 2014). We see how events with, for, of, and even by objects can occur as predictable, planned and even designed for (e.g. changing glasses, applying body lotion), or might be unexpected...

  19. The Genetics Underlying Natural Variation in the Biotic Interactions of Arabidopsis thaliana: The Challenges of Linking Evolutionary Genetics and Community Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F; Bergelson, J

    2016-01-01

    In the context of global change, predicting the responses of plant communities in an ever-changing biotic environment calls for a multipronged approach at the interface of evolutionary genetics and community ecology. However, our understanding of the genetic basis of natural variation involved in mediating biotic interactions, and associated adaptive dynamics of focal plants in their natural communities, is still in its infancy. Here, we review the genetic and molecular bases of natural variation in the response to biotic interactions (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, herbivores, and plants) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as the adaptive value of these bases. Among the 60 identified genes are a number that encode nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR)-type proteins, consistent with early examples of plant defense genes. However, recent studies have revealed an extensive diversity in the molecular mechanisms of defense. Many types of genetic variants associate with phenotypic variation in biotic interactions, even among the genes of large effect that tend to be identified. In general, we found that (i) balancing selection rather than directional selection explains the observed patterns of genetic diversity within A. thaliana and (ii) the cost/benefit tradeoffs of adaptive alleles can be strongly dependent on both genomic and environmental contexts. Finally, because A. thaliana rarely interacts with only one biotic partner in nature, we highlight the benefit of exploring diffuse biotic interactions rather than tightly associated host-enemy pairs. This challenge would help to improve our understanding of coevolutionary quantitative genetics within the context of realistic community complexity. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-07

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission from gasoline and diesel vehicles under real-world driving test cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Ha T; Imanishi, Katsuma; Morikawa, Tazuko; Hagino, Hiroyuki; Takenaka, Norimichi

    2017-04-01

    Reactive nitrogen species emission from the exhausts of gasoline and diesel vehicles, including nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and nitrous acid (HONO), contributes as a significant source of photochemical oxidant precursors in the ambient air. Multiple laboratory and on-road exhaust measurements have been performed to estimate the NO x emission factors from various vehicles and their contribution to atmospheric pollution. Meanwhile, HONO emission from vehicle exhaust has been under-measured despite the fact that HONO can contribute up to 60% of the total hydroxyl budget during daytime and its formation pathway is not fully understood. A profound traffic-induced HONO to NO x ratio of 0.8%, established by Kurtenbach et al. since 2001, has been widely applied in various simulation studies and possibly linked to under-estimation of HONO mixing ratios and OH radical budget in the morning. The HONO/NO x ratios from direct traffic emission have become debatable when it lacks measurements for direct HONO emission from vehicles upon the fast-changing emission reduction technology. Several recent studies have reported updated values for this ratio. This study has reported the measurement of HONO and NO x emission as well as the estimation of exhaust-induced HONO/NO x ratios from gasoline and diesel vehicles using different chassis dynamometer tests under various real-world driving cycles. For the tested gasoline vehicle, which was equipped with three-way catalyst after-treatment device, HONO/NO x ratios ranged from 0 to 0.95 % with very low average HONO concentrations. For the tested diesel vehicle equipped with diesel particulate active reduction device, HONO/NO x ratios varied from 0.16 to 1.00 %. The HONO/NO x ratios in diesel exhaust were inversely proportional to the average speeds of the tested vehicles. Photolysis of HONO is a dominant source of morning OH radicals. Conventional traffic-induced HONO/NO x ratio of 0.8% has possibly linked to underestimation of the total HONO

  2. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  3. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  4. Evolutionary Effects on Morphology and Agronomic Performance of Three Winter Wheat Composite Cross Populations Maintained for Six Years under Organic and Conventional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brumlop

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. composite cross populations (CCPs that had been maintained in repeated parallel populations under organic and conventional conditions from the F5 to the F10 were compared in a two-year replicated field trial under organic conditions. The populations were compared to each other, to a mixture of the parental varieties used to establish the CCPs, and to three winter wheat varieties currently popular in organic farming. Foot and foliar diseases, straw length, ear length, yield parameters, and baking quality parameters were assessed. The overall performance of the CCPs differed clearly from each other due to differences in their parental genetics and not because of their conventional or organic history. The CCPs with high yielding background (YCCPs also yielded higher than the CCPs with a high baking quality background (QCCPs; in the absence of extreme winter stress. The QCCPs performed equally well in comparison to the reference varieties, which were also of high baking quality. Compared to the parental mixture the CCPs proved to be highly resilient, recovering much better from winter kill in winter 2011/12. Nevertheless, they were out yielded by the references in that year. No such differences were seen in 2013, indicating that the CCPs are comparable with modern cultivars in yielding ability under organic conditions. We conclude that—especially when focusing on traits that are not directly influenced by natural selection (e.g. quality traits—the choice of parents to establish a CCP is crucial. In the case of the QCCPs the establishment of a reliable high-quality population worked very well and quality traits were successfully maintained over time. However, in the YCCPs lack of winter hardiness in the YCCP parents also became clearly visible under relevant winter conditions.

  5. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... ... of events: 'Entities that were capable of independent replication ... There have been many major evolutionary events that this definition of .... selection at level x to exclusive selection at x – will probably require a multiplicity ...

  6. Evolutionary relationships among Astroviridae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukashov, Vladimir V.; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    To study the evolutionary relationships among astroviruses, all available sequences for members of the family Astroviridae were collected. Phylogenetic analysis distinguished two deep-rooted groups: one comprising mammalian astroviruses, with ovine astrovirus being an outlier, and the other

  7. Evolutionary Multiplayer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S.; Traulsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory has become one of the most diverse and far reaching theories in biology. Applications of this theory range from cell dynamics to social evolution. However, many applications make it clear that inherent non-linearities of natural systems need to be taken into account. One way of introducing such non-linearities into evolutionary games is by the inclusion of multiple players. An example is of social dilemmas, where group benefits could e.g.\\ increase less than linear wi...

  8. Electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Several electric vehicles have been tested in long-term tests, i.e. an electric passenger car (maximum speed 115 km/h) and several busses for use in pedestrians' zones, spas, airports, natural reserves, and urban transportation (DUO busses). The ICE high-speed train is discussed in some detail, i.e. its aeroacoustic and aerodynamic design, running gear, computer-controlled drives and brakes, diagnostic systems, and electrical equipment. The Berlin Maglev system is mentioned as well as current inverters in rail vehicles. (HWJ).

  9. Effects of Clonal Reproduction on Evolutionary Lag and Evolutionary Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orive, Maria E; Barfield, Michael; Fernandez, Carlos; Holt, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary lag-the difference between mean and optimal phenotype in the current environment-is of keen interest in light of rapid environmental change. Many ecologically important organisms have life histories that include stage structure and both sexual and clonal reproduction, yet how stage structure and clonality interplay to govern a population's rate of evolution and evolutionary lag is unknown. Effects of clonal reproduction on mean phenotype partition into two portions: one that is phenotype dependent, and another that is genotype dependent. This partitioning is governed by the association between the nonadditive genetic plus random environmental component of phenotype of clonal offspring and their parents. While clonality slows phenotypic evolution toward an optimum, it can dramatically increase population survival after a sudden step change in optimal phenotype. Increased adult survival slows phenotypic evolution but facilitates population survival after a step change; this positive effect can, however, be lost given survival-fecundity trade-offs. Simulations indicate that the benefits of increased clonality under environmental change greatly depend on the nature of that change: increasing population persistence under a step change while decreasing population persistence under a continuous linear change requiring de novo variation. The impact of clonality on the probability of persistence for species in a changing world is thus inexorably linked to the temporal texture of the change they experience.

  10. A rear-end collision risk assessment model based on drivers' collision avoidance process under influences of cell phone use and gender-A driving simulator based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-12-01

    Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in

  11. The ecological and evolutionary implications of merging different types of networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, C.; Guimaraes, P.R.; Kéfi, S.; Loeuille, N.; Memmott, J.; Putten, van der W.H.; Veen, F.J.; Thébault, E.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions among species drive the ecological and evolutionary processes in ecological communities. These interactions are effectively key components of biodiversity. Studies that use a network approach to study the structure and dynamics of communities of interacting species have revealed many

  12. Molluscan Evolutionary Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    In the last 20 years there have been dramatic advances in techniques of high-throughput DNA sequencing, most recently accelerated by the Human Genome Project, a program that has determined the three billion base pair code on which we are based. Now this tremendous capability is being directed at other genome targets that are being sampled across the broad range of life. This opens up opportunities as never before for evolutionary and organismal biologists to address questions of both processes and patterns of organismal change. We stand at the dawn of a new 'modern synthesis' period, paralleling that of the early 20th century when the fledgling field of genetics first identified the underlying basis for Darwin's theory. We must now unite the efforts of systematists, paleontologists, mathematicians, computer programmers, molecular biologists, developmental biologists, and others in the pursuit of discovering what genomics can teach us about the diversity of life. Genome-level sampling for mollusks to date has mostly been limited to mitochondrial genomes and it is likely that these will continue to provide the best targets for broad phylogenetic sampling in the near future. However, we are just beginning to see an inroad into complete nuclear genome sequencing, with several mollusks and other eutrochozoans having been selected for work about to begin. Here, we provide an overview of the state of molluscan mitochondrial genomics, highlight a few of the discoveries from this research, outline the promise of broadening this dataset, describe upcoming projects to sequence whole mollusk nuclear genomes, and challenge the community to prepare for making the best use of these data.

  13. Proteomics in evolutionary ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, B; Millar, A H

    2016-03-01

    Evolutionary ecologists are traditionally gene-focused, as genes propagate phenotypic traits across generations and mutations and recombination in the DNA generate genetic diversity required for evolutionary processes. As a consequence, the inheritance of changed DNA provides a molecular explanation for the functional changes associated with natural selection. A direct focus on proteins on the other hand, the actual molecular agents responsible for the expression of a phenotypic trait, receives far less interest from ecologists and evolutionary biologists. This is partially due to the central dogma of molecular biology that appears to define proteins as the 'dead-end of molecular information flow' as well as technical limitations in identifying and studying proteins and their diversity in the field and in many of the more exotic genera often favored in ecological studies. Here we provide an overview of a newly forming field of research that we refer to as 'Evolutionary Proteomics'. We point out that the origins of cellular function are related to the properties of polypeptide and RNA and their interactions with the environment, rather than DNA descent, and that the critical role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution is more about coopting new proteins to impact cellular processes than it is about modifying gene function. Furthermore, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes generate a remarkable diversity of mature proteins from a single gene, and the properties of these mature proteins can also influence inheritance through genetic and perhaps epigenetic mechanisms. The influence of post-transcriptional diversification on evolutionary processes could provide a novel mechanistic underpinning for elements of rapid, directed evolutionary changes and adaptations as observed for a variety of evolutionary processes. Modern state-of the art technologies based on mass spectrometry are now available to identify and quantify peptides, proteins, protein

  14. Bursts of transposable elements as an evolutionary driving force

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belyayev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 12 (2014), s. 2573-2584 ISSN 1010-061X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : evolution * genome * marginal populations * speciation * transposable elements Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.232, year: 2014

  15. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Applying Evolutionary Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. PMID:25684561

  17. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  18. Grand challenges in evolutionary and population genetics: The importance of integrating epigenetics, genomics, modeling, and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2014-01-01

    This is a time of explosive growth in the fields of evolutionary and population genetics, with whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics driving a transformative paradigm shift (Morozova and Marra, 2008). At the same time, advances in epigenetics are thoroughly transforming our understanding of evolutionary processes and their implications for populations, species and...

  19. Archaeogenetics in evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Abigail; Rühli, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Archaeogenetics is the study of exploration of ancient DNA (aDNA) of more than 70 years old. It is an important part of the wider studies of many different areas of our past, including animal, plant and pathogen evolution and domestication events. Hereby, we address specifically the impact of research in archaeogenetics in the broader field of evolutionary medicine. Studies on ancient hominid genomes help to understand even modern health patterns. Human genetic microevolution, e.g. related to abilities of post-weaning milk consumption, and specifically genetic adaptation in disease susceptibility, e.g. towards malaria and other infectious diseases, are of the upmost importance in contributions of archeogenetics on the evolutionary understanding of human health and disease. With the increase in both the understanding of modern medical genetics and the ability to deep sequence ancient genetic information, the field of archaeogenetic evolutionary medicine is blossoming.

  20. Part E: Evolutionary Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    of Computational Intelligence. First, comprehensive surveys of genetic algorithms, genetic programming, evolution strategies, parallel evolutionary algorithms are presented, which are readable and constructive so that a large audience might find them useful and – to some extent – ready to use. Some more general...... kinds of evolutionary algorithms, have been prudently analyzed. This analysis was followed by a thorough analysis of various issues involved in stochastic local search algorithms. An interesting survey of various technological and industrial applications in mechanical engineering and design has been...... topics like the estimation of distribution algorithms, indicator-based selection, etc., are also discussed. An important problem, from a theoretical and practical point of view, of learning classifier systems is presented in depth. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms, which constitute one of the most...

  1. EDEN: evolutionary dynamics within environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Philipp C.; Stecher, Bärbel; McHardy, Alice C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Summary Metagenomics revolutionized the field of microbial ecology, giving access to Gb-sized datasets of microbial communities under natural conditions. This enables fine-grained analyses of the functions of community members, studies of their association with phenotypes and environments, as well as of their microevolution and adaptation to changing environmental conditions. However, phylogenetic methods for studying adaptation and evolutionary dynamics are not able to cope with big data. EDEN is the first software for the rapid detection of protein families and regions under positive selection, as well as their associated biological processes, from meta- and pangenome data. It provides an interactive result visualization for detailed comparative analyses. Availability and implementation EDEN is available as a Docker installation under the GPL 3.0 license, allowing its use on common operating systems, at http://www.github.com/hzi-bifo/eden. Contact alice.mchardy@helmholtz-hzi.de Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28637301

  2. Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, S; Feldman, A; Kratochvíl, L

    2015-02-01

    Although fecundity selection is ubiquitous, in an overwhelming majority of animal lineages, small species produce smaller number of offspring per clutch. In this context, egg, hatchling and neonate sizes are absolutely larger, but smaller relative to adult body size in larger species. The evolutionary causes of this widespread phenomenon are not fully explored. The negative offspring size allometry can result from processes limiting maximal egg/offspring size forcing larger species to produce relatively smaller offspring ('upper limit'), or from a limit on minimal egg/offspring size forcing smaller species to produce relatively larger offspring ('lower limit'). Several reptile lineages have invariant clutch sizes, where females always lay either one or two eggs per clutch. These lineages offer an interesting perspective on the general evolutionary forces driving negative offspring size allometry, because an important selective factor, fecundity selection in a single clutch, is eliminated here. Under the upper limit hypotheses, large offspring should be selected against in lineages with invariant clutch sizes as well, and these lineages should therefore exhibit the same, or shallower, offspring size allometry as lineages with variable clutch size. On the other hand, the lower limit hypotheses would allow lineages with invariant clutch sizes to have steeper offspring size allometries. Using an extensive data set on the hatchling and female sizes of > 1800 species of squamates, we document that negative offspring size allometry is widespread in lizards and snakes with variable clutch sizes and that some lineages with invariant clutch sizes have unusually steep offspring size allometries. These findings suggest that the negative offspring size allometry is driven by a constraint on minimal offspring size, which scales with a negative allometry. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary

  3. Evolutionary Statistical Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Baragona, Roberto; Poli, Irene

    2011-01-01

    This proposed text appears to be a good introduction to evolutionary computation for use in applied statistics research. The authors draw from a vast base of knowledge about the current literature in both the design of evolutionary algorithms and statistical techniques. Modern statistical research is on the threshold of solving increasingly complex problems in high dimensions, and the generalization of its methodology to parameters whose estimators do not follow mathematically simple distributions is underway. Many of these challenges involve optimizing functions for which analytic solutions a

  4. Adolescents' alcohol use and strength of policy relating to youth access, trading hours and driving under the influence: findings from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria; Azar, Denise; Faulkner, Agatha; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah; Livingston, Michael; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Room, Robin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2018-06-01

    To determine (i) whether the strength of Australian alcohol control policy in three domains (youth access, trading hours and drink driving) changed during the 2000s; and (ii) estimate associations between these policies and adolescent drinking after adjusting for television alcohol advertising exposures, alcohol outlet density, alcohol price changes, exposure to negative articles about alcohol in daily newspapers and adult drinking prevalence. Repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted triennially from 2002 to 2011. Multi-level modelling examined the association between alcohol control policies and drinking prevalence after adjusting for covariates. Four Australian capital cities between 2002 and 2011. Students aged 12-17 years participating in a triennial national representative school-based survey (sample size range/survey: 9805-13 119). Outcome measures were: past month drinking and risky drinking (5+ drinks on a day) in the past 7 days. Policy strength in each of three domains (youth access, trading hours, drink-driving) were the key predictor variables. Covariates included: past 3-month television alcohol and alcohol-control advertising, alcohol outlet density, alcohol price change, negatively framed newspaper alcohol articles, adult drinking prevalence and student demographic characteristics. During the study period, the strength of youth access policies increased by 10%, trading hours policies by 14% and drink-driving policies by 58%. Past-month and risky drinking prevalence decreased (e.g. past-month: 2002: 47.4% to 2011: 26.3%). Multivariable analyses that included all policy variables and adjusted for year, student and other covariates showed past-month drinking to be associated inversely with stronger trading hours policies [odds ratio (OR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69, 0.94], but not youth access (OR = 0.92 95% CI = 0.81, 1.04) or drink-driving (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.93, 1.09). Risky drinking was associated inversely with

  5. EVOLUTIONARY FOUNDATIONS FOR MOLECULAR MEDICINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T. Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but many major advances in evolutionary biology from the 20th century are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are further transforming evolutionary biology and creating yet more opportunities for progress at the interface of evolution with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and others to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine. PMID:22544168

  6. Evolutionary Models for Simple Biosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    The concept of evolutionary development of structures constituted a real revolution in biology: it was possible to understand how the very complex structures of life can arise in an out-of-equilibrium system. The investigation of such systems has shown that indeed, systems under a flux of energy or matter can self-organize into complex patterns, think for instance to Rayleigh-Bernard convection, Liesegang rings, patterns formed by granular systems under shear. Following this line, one could characterize life as a state of matter, characterized by the slow, continuous process that we call evolution. In this paper we try to identify the organizational level of life, that spans several orders of magnitude from the elementary constituents to whole ecosystems. Although similar structures can be found in other contexts like ideas (memes) in neural systems and self-replicating elements (computer viruses, worms, etc.) in computer systems, we shall concentrate on biological evolutionary structure, and try to put into evidence the role and the emergence of network structure in such systems.

  7. Selecting the Best: Evolutionary Engineering of Chemical Production in Microbes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepelin, Denis; Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    , we focus primarily on a more challenging problem-the use of evolutionary engineering for improving the production of chemicals in microbes directly. We describe recent developments in evolutionary engineering strategies, in general, and discuss, in detail, case studies where production of a chemical......Microbial cell factories have proven to be an economical means of production for many bulk, specialty, and fine chemical products. However, we still lack both a holistic understanding of organism physiology and the ability to predictively tune enzyme activities in vivo, thus slowing down rational...... engineering of industrially relevant strains. An alternative concept to rational engineering is to use evolution as the driving force to select for desired changes, an approach often described as evolutionary engineering. In evolutionary engineering, in vivo selections for a desired phenotype are combined...

  8. Profiling evolutionary landscapes underlying drug resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickman, Rachel

    bacterial communities i.e. biofilms or dormant metabolic states. Antibiotic drugs are currently our best medicine to treat (against) bacterial pathogens due to antibiotics unique properties of being small molecules that are soluble and act systemically. These qualities allow for many modern medical...

  9. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, R.H.

    1968-01-01

    1. This work, the first volume of a series dealing with evolutionary trends in Heteroptera, is concerned with the egg system of about 400 species. The data are presented systematically in chapters 1 and 2 with a critical review of the literature after each family.

    2. Chapter 3 evaluates facts

  10. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E.; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R.

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these

  11. Applications of Evolutionary Computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, Antonio M.; Squillero, Giovanni; Di Chio, C; Agapitos, Alexandros; Cagnoni, Stefano; Cotta, Carlos; Fernández De Vega, F; Di Caro, G A; Drechsler, R.; Ekárt, A; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I.; Farooq, M; Langdon, W B; Merelo-Guervós, J.J.; Preuss, M; Richter, O.-M.H.; Silva, Sara; Sim$\\$~oes, A; Squillero, Giovanni; Tarantino, Ernesto; Tettamanzi, Andrea G B; Togelius, J; Urquhart, Neil; Uyar, A S; Yannakakis, G N; Smith, Stephen L; Caserta, Marco; Ramirez, Adriana; Voß, Stefan; Squillero, Giovanni; Burelli, Paolo; Mora, Antonio M.; Squillero, Giovanni; Jan, Mathieu; Matthias, M; Di Chio, C; Agapitos, Alexandros; Cagnoni, Stefano; Cotta, Carlos; Fernández De Vega, F; Di Caro, G A; Drechsler, R.; Ekárt, A; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I.; Farooq, M; Langdon, W B; Merelo-Guervós, J.J.; Preuss, M; Richter, O.-M.H.; Silva, Sara; Sim$\\$~oes, A; Squillero, Giovanni; Tarantino, Ernesto; Tettamanzi, Andrea G B; Togelius, J; Urquhart, Neil; Uyar, A S; Yannakakis, G N; Caserta, Marco; Ramirez, Adriana; Voß, Stefan; Squillero, Giovanni; Burelli, Paolo; Esparcia-Alcazar, Anna I; Silva, Sara; Agapitos, Alexandros; Cotta, Carlos; De Falco, Ivanoe; Cioppa, Antonio Della; Diwold, Konrad; Ekart, Aniko; Tarantino, Ernesto; Vega, Francisco Fernandez De; Burelli, Paolo; Sim, Kevin; Cagnoni, Stefano; Simoes, Anabela; Merelo, J.J.; Urquhart, Neil; Haasdijk, Evert; Zhang, Mengjie; Squillero, Giovanni; Eiben, A E; Tettamanzi, Andrea G B; Glette, Kyrre; Rohlfshagen, Philipp; Schaefer, Robert; Caserta, Marco; Ramirez, Adriana; Voß, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The application of genetic and evolutionary computation to problems in medicine has increased rapidly over the past five years, but there are specific issues and challenges that distinguish it from other real-world applications. Obtaining reliable and coherent patient data, establishing the clinical

  12. Evolutionary perspectives on ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Martin

    2017-10-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, ageing is a decrease in fitness with chronological age - expressed by an increase in mortality risk and/or decline in reproductive success and mediated by deterioration of functional performance. While this makes ageing intuitively paradoxical - detrimental to individual fitness - evolutionary theory offers answers as to why ageing has evolved. In this review, I first briefly examine the classic evolutionary theories of ageing and their empirical tests, and highlight recent findings that have advanced our understanding of the evolution of ageing (condition-dependent survival, positive pleiotropy). I then provide an overview of recent theoretical extensions and modifications that accommodate those new discoveries. I discuss the role of indeterminate (asymptotic) growth for lifetime increases in fecundity and ageing trajectories. I outline alternative views that challenge a universal existence of senescence - namely the lack of a germ-soma distinction and the ability of tissue replacement and retrogression to younger developmental stages in modular organisms. I argue that rejuvenation at the organismal level is plausible, but includes a return to a simple developmental stage. This may exempt a particular genotype from somatic defects but, correspondingly, removes any information acquired during development. A resolution of the question of whether a rejuvenated individual is the same entity is central to the recognition of whether current evolutionary theories of ageing, with their extensions and modifications, can explain the patterns of ageing across the Tree of Life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  14. Biochemistry and evolutionary biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biochemical information has been crucial for the development of evolutionary biology. On the one hand, the sequence information now appearing is producing a huge increase in the amount of data available for phylogenetic analysis; on the other hand, and perhaps more fundamentally, it allows understanding of the ...

  15. Evolutionary Biology Today

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hindi and English. Port 1. Resonance, Vo1.7 ... they use. Of course, many evolutionary biologists do work with fossils or DNA, or both, but there are also large numbers of ... The first major division that I like to make is between studies focussed ...

  16. Learning: An Evolutionary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws on the philosophy of Karl Popper to present a descriptive evolutionary epistemology that offers philosophical solutions to the following related problems: "What happens when learning takes place?" and "What happens in human learning?" It provides a detailed analysis of how learning takes place without any direct transfer of…

  17. Complex systems, evolutionary planning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolini, L.; de Roo, G.; Silva, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Coping with uncertainty is a defining challenge for spatial planners. Accordingly, most spatial planning theories and methods are aimed at reducing uncertainty. However, the question is what should be done when this seems impossible? This chapter proposes an evolutionary interpretation of spatial

  18. Molluscan Evolutionary Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg; Koop, Damien; Moshel-Lynch, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Brought together by Winston F. Ponder and David R. Lindberg, thirty-six experts on the evolution of the Mollusca provide an up-to-date review of its evolutionary history. The Mollusca are the second largest animal phylum and boast a fossil record of over 540 million years. They exhibit remarkable...

  19. Static and evolutionary quantum public goods games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Zeyang; Qin Gan; Hu Lingzhi; Li Songjian; Xu Nanyang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)], E-mail: djf@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-05-12

    We apply the continuous-variable quantization scheme to quantize public goods game and find that new pure strategy Nash equilibria emerge in the static case. Furthermore, in the evolutionary public goods game, entanglement can also contribute to the persistence of cooperation under various population structures without altruism, voluntary participation, and punishment.

  20. Evolutionary cost management in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.G.; Mazzini, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The reader is urged to consider the material in ''The Evolutionary Theory of Cost Management'' carefully before proceeding with the material in this paper. The recommendations in this paper flow from the revised line of thinking generated by the evolutionary approach. The suggestions will be difficult to accept in the absence of an understanding of the underlying theory. Although the authors briefly discuss some of the theory, it is nevertheless recommended that the reader develop a fuller understanding of the concepts by studying the prior paper

  1. Climatic and evolutionary drivers of phase shifts in the plague epidemics of colonial India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewnard, Joseph A; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2016-12-20

    Immune heterogeneity in wild host populations indicates that disease-mediated selection is common in nature. However, the underlying dynamic feedbacks involving the ecology of disease transmission, evolutionary processes, and their interaction with environmental drivers have proven challenging to characterize. Plague presents an optimal system for interrogating such couplings: Yersinia pestis transmission exerts intense selective pressure driving the local persistence of disease resistance among its wildlife hosts in endemic areas. Investigations undertaken in colonial India after the introduction of plague in 1896 suggest that, only a decade after plague arrived, a heritable, plague-resistant phenotype had become prevalent among commensal rats of cities undergoing severe plague epidemics. To understand the possible evolutionary basis of these observations, we developed a mathematical model coupling environmentally forced plague dynamics with evolutionary selection of rats, capitalizing on extensive archival data from Indian Plague Commission investigations. Incorporating increased plague resistance among rats as a consequence of intense natural selection permits the model to reproduce observed changes in seasonal epidemic patterns in several cities and capture experimentally observed associations between climate and flea population dynamics in India. Our model results substantiate Victorian era claims of host evolution based on experimental observations of plague resistance and reveal the buffering effect of such evolution against environmental drivers of transmission. Our analysis shows that historical datasets can yield powerful insights into the transmission dynamics of reemerging disease agents with which we have limited contemporary experience to guide quantitative modeling and inference.

  2. Historical change and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Roger D

    2007-09-01

    Despite advances in fields like genetics, evolutionary psychology, and human behavior and evolution--which generally focus on individual or small group behavior from a biological perspective--evolutionary biology has made little impact on studies of political change and social history. Theories of natural selection often seem inapplicable to human history because our social behavior is embedded in language (which makes possible the concepts of time and social identity on which what we call "history" depends). Peter Corning's Holistic Darwinism reconceptualizes evolutionary biology, making it possible to go beyond the barriers separating the social and natural sciences. Corning focuses on two primary processes: "synergy" (complex multivariate interactions at multiple levels between a species and its environment) and "cybernetics" (the information systems permitting communication between individuals and groups over time). Combining this frame of reference with inclusive fitness theory, it is possible to answer the most important (and puzzling) question in human history: How did a species that lived for millennia in hunter-gatherer bands form centralized states governing large populations of non-kin (including multi-ethnic empires as well as modern nation-states)? The fragility and contemporary ethnic violence in Kenya and the Congo should suffice as evidence that these issues need to be taken seriously. To explain the rise and fall of states as well as changes in human laws and customs--the core of historical research--it is essential to show how the provision of collective goods can overcome the challenge of self-interest and free-riding in some instances, yet fail to do so in others. To this end, it is now possible to consider how a state providing public goods can--under circumstances that often include effective leadership--contribute to enhanced inclusive fitness of virtually all its members. Because social behavior needs to adapt to ecology, but ecological

  3. Human compulsivity: A perspective from evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Hermesh, Haggai; Eilam, David; Segalas, Cosi; Zohar, Joseph; Menchon, Jose; Nesse, Randolph M

    2016-05-01

    Biological explanations address not only proximal mechanisms (for example, the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder), but also distal mechanisms (that is, a consideration of how particular neurobiological mechanisms evolved). Evolutionary medicine has emphasized a series of explanations for vulnerability to disease, including constraints, mismatch, and tradeoffs. The current paper will consider compulsive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and behavioral addictions from this evolutionary perspective. It will argue that while obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is typically best conceptualized as a dysfunction, it is theoretically and clinically valuable to understand some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in terms of useful defenses. The symptoms of behavioral addictions can also be conceptualized in evolutionary terms (for example, mismatch), which in turn provides a sound foundation for approaching assessment and intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Multiobjective Multifactorial Optimization in Evolutionary Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek; Ong, Yew-Soon; Feng, Liang; Tan, Kay Chen

    2016-05-03

    In recent decades, the field of multiobjective optimization has attracted considerable interest among evolutionary computation researchers. One of the main features that makes evolutionary methods particularly appealing for multiobjective problems is the implicit parallelism offered by a population, which enables simultaneous convergence toward the entire Pareto front. While a plethora of related algorithms have been proposed till date, a common attribute among them is that they focus on efficiently solving only a single optimization problem at a time. Despite the known power of implicit parallelism, seldom has an attempt been made to multitask, i.e., to solve multiple optimization problems simultaneously. It is contended that the notion of evolutionary multitasking leads to the possibility of automated transfer of information across different optimization exercises that may share underlying similarities, thereby facilitating improved convergence characteristics. In particular, the potential for automated transfer is deemed invaluable from the standpoint of engineering design exercises where manual knowledge adaptation and reuse are routine. Accordingly, in this paper, we present a realization of the evolutionary multitasking paradigm within the domain of multiobjective optimization. The efficacy of the associated evolutionary algorithm is demonstrated on some benchmark test functions as well as on a real-world manufacturing process design problem from the composites industry.

  5. Evolutionary constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2015-01-01

    This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...

  6. A study on the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingjian; Zhao, Xiaohua; Du, Hongji; Rong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics; to analyze the differences in drivers' physical characteristics affected by different kinds of fatigue; and to compare the differences in the effects of the 2 driving states, fatigue driving and drunk driving. Twenty-five participants' physical characteristics were collected under 5 controlled situations: normal, tired driving, drowsy driving, drowsiness + tired driving, and drunk driving. In this article, fatigue driving refers to tiredness and drowsiness and includes 3 situations: tired driving, drowsy driving, and drowsiness + tired driving. The drivers' physical characteristics were measured in terms of 9 parameters: systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), eyesight, dynamic visual acuity (DVA), time for dark adaption (TDA), reaction time to sound (RTS), reaction time to light (RTL), deviation of depth perception (DDP), and time deviation of speed anticipation (TDSA). They were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Binary logistical regression analysis was used to explain the relationship between drivers' physical characteristics and the two driving states. Most of the drivers' physical characteristic parameters were found to be significantly different under the influence of different situations. Four indicators are significantly affected by fatigue driving during deep fatigue (in decreasing order of influence): HR, RTL, SBP and RTS. HR and RTL are significant in the logistical regression model of the drowsiness + tired driving situation and normal situations. Six indicators of the drivers' physical characteristics are significantly affected by drunk driving (in decreasing order of influence): SBP, RTL, DDP, eyesight, RTS, and TDSA. SBP and DDP have a significant effect in the logistical regression model of the drunk driving situation and the normal situation. Both fatigue driving and drunk driving

  7. Introduction to Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xinjie

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are becoming increasingly attractive for researchers from various disciplines, such as operations research, computer science, industrial engineering, electrical engineering, social science, economics, etc. This book presents an insightful, comprehensive, and up-to-date treatment of EAs, such as genetic algorithms, differential evolution, evolution strategy, constraint optimization, multimodal optimization, multiobjective optimization, combinatorial optimization, evolvable hardware, estimation of distribution algorithms, ant colony optimization, particle swarm opti

  8. The First Joke: Exploring the Evolutionary Origins of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Polimeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is a complex cognitive function which often leads to laughter. Contemporary humor theorists have begun to formulate hypotheses outlining the possible innate cognitive structures underlying humor. Humor's conspicuous presence in the behavioral repertoire of humankind invites adaptive explanations. This article explores the possible adaptive features of humor and ponders its evolutionary path through hominid history. Current humor theories and previous evolutionary ideas on humor are reviewed. In addition, scientific fields germane to the evolutionary study of humor are examined: animal models, genetics, children's humor, humor in pathological conditions, neurobiology, humor in traditional societies and cognitive archeology. Candidate selection pressures and associated evolutionary mechanisms are considered. The authors conclude that several evolutionary-related topics such as the origins of language, cognition underlying spiritual feelings, hominid group size, and primate teasing could have special relevance to the origins of humor.

  9. Driving forces of redistribution of elements during quasicrystalline phase formation under heating of mechanically alloyed Al65Cu23Fe12 powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherdyntsev, V. V.; Kaloshkin, S. D.; Shelekhov, E. V.; Principi, G.; Rodin, A. O.

    2008-02-01

    Al65Cu23Fe12 alloys were prepared by ball milling of the elemental powders mixture. Phase and structural transformations at heating of as-milled powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Precision analysis of Mössbauer spectra was performed to check the adequacy of the fitting of X-ray diffraction patterns. The results were compared with the data of differential scanning and solution calorimetry, as well as with the thermodynamic literature data, in order to estimate the driving forces of redistribution of elements that preceded the formation of single-phase quasicrystalline structure. The heat of elements mixing, which is positive for Cu-Fe system and negative for Al-Fe and Al-Cu systems, was supposed to be a decisive factor for phase transformations during heating of the alloy. The correlation between sequence of phase transformations during heating and the thermodynamic data was discussed and the scheme describing phase transformations observed was proposed.

  10. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R

    2016-10-19

    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these often 'weird' features. We discuss the origin of meiosis (origin of ploidy reduction and recombination, two-step meiosis), its secondary modifications (in polyploids or asexuals, inverted meiosis), its importance in punctuating life cycles (meiotic arrests, epigenetic resetting, meiotic asymmetry, meiotic fairness) and features associated with recombination (disjunction constraints, heterochiasmy, crossover interference and hotspots). We present the various evolutionary scenarios and selective pressures that have been proposed to account for these features, and we highlight that their evolutionary significance often remains largely mysterious. Resolving these mysteries will likely provide decisive steps towards understanding why sex and recombination are found in the majority of eukaryotes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326

  12. Evolutionary Computation and Its Applications in Neural and Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biaobiao Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks and fuzzy systems are two soft-computing paradigms for system modelling. Adapting a neural or fuzzy system requires to solve two optimization problems: structural optimization and parametric optimization. Structural optimization is a discrete optimization problem which is very hard to solve using conventional optimization techniques. Parametric optimization can be solved using conventional optimization techniques, but the solution may be easily trapped at a bad local optimum. Evolutionary computation is a general-purpose stochastic global optimization approach under the universally accepted neo-Darwinian paradigm, which is a combination of the classical Darwinian evolutionary theory, the selectionism of Weismann, and the genetics of Mendel. Evolutionary algorithms are a major approach to adaptation and optimization. In this paper, we first introduce evolutionary algorithms with emphasis on genetic algorithms and evolutionary strategies. Other evolutionary algorithms such as genetic programming, evolutionary programming, particle swarm optimization, immune algorithm, and ant colony optimization are also described. Some topics pertaining to evolutionary algorithms are also discussed, and a comparison between evolutionary algorithms and simulated annealing is made. Finally, the application of EAs to the learning of neural networks as well as to the structural and parametric adaptations of fuzzy systems is also detailed.

  13. Numerical and Evolutionary Optimization Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo, Leonardo; Legrand, Pierrick; Maldonado, Yazmin

    2017-01-01

    This volume comprises a selection of works presented at the Numerical and Evolutionary Optimization (NEO) workshop held in September 2015 in Tijuana, Mexico. The development of powerful search and optimization techniques is of great importance in today’s world that requires researchers and practitioners to tackle a growing number of challenging real-world problems. In particular, there are two well-established and widely known fields that are commonly applied in this area: (i) traditional numerical optimization techniques and (ii) comparatively recent bio-inspired heuristics. Both paradigms have their unique strengths and weaknesses, allowing them to solve some challenging problems while still failing in others. The goal of the NEO workshop series is to bring together people from these and related fields to discuss, compare and merge their complimentary perspectives in order to develop fast and reliable hybrid methods that maximize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of the underlying paradigms. Throu...

  14. Phylogenetic niche conservatism and the evolutionary basis of ecological speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyron, R Alexander; Costa, Gabriel C; Patten, Michael A; Burbrink, Frank T

    2015-11-01

    Phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC) typically refers to the tendency of closely related species to be more similar to each other in terms of niche than they are to more distant relatives. This has been implicated as a potential driving force in speciation and other species-richness patterns, such as latitudinal gradients. However, PNC has not been very well defined in most previous studies. Is it a pattern or a process? What are the underlying endogenous (e.g. genetic) and exogenous (e.g. ecological) factors that cause niches to be conserved? What degree of similarity is necessary to qualify as PNC? Is it possible for the evolutionary processes causing niches to be conserved to also result in niche divergence in different habitats? Here, we revisit these questions, codifying a theoretical and operational definition of PNC as a mechanistic evolutionary process resulting from several factors. We frame this both from a macroevolutionary and population-genetic perspective. We discuss how different axes of physical (e.g. geographic) and environmental (e.g. climatic) heterogeneity interact with the fundamental process of PNC to produce different outcomes of ecological speciation. We also review tests for PNC, and suggest ways that these could be improved or better utilized in future studies. Ultimately, PNC as a process has a well-defined mechanistic basis in organisms, and future studies investigating ecological speciation would be well served to consider this, and frame hypothesis testing in terms of the processes and expected patterns described herein. The process of PNC may lead to patterns where niches are conserved (more similar than expected), constrained (divergent within a limited subset of available niches), or divergent (less similar than expected), based on degree of phylogenetic relatedness between species. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. Dual role of an ac driving force and the underlying two distinct order–disorder transitions in the vortex phase diagram of Ca3Ir4Sn13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Ravi P.; Thamizhavel, A.; Tomy, C.V.; Grover, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This work pertains to new findings related to a broad SMP anomaly. • Broad SMP prima facie encompasses two phase transformations in vortex matter. • We demarcated two phase boundaries pertaining to order–disorder transitions which have quasi first-order nature. - Abstract: We present distinct demarcation of the Bragg glass (BG) to multi-domain vortex glass (VG) transition line and the eventual amorphization of the VG phase in a weakly pinned single crystal of the superconducting compound Ca 3 Ir 4 Sn 13 on the basis of comprehension of the different yields about the second magnetization peak (SMP) anomaly in the dc magnetization and the corresponding anomalous feature in the ac susceptibility measurements. The shaking by a small ac magnetic field, inevitably present in the ac susceptibility measurements, is seen to result in contrasting responses in two different portions of the field-temperature (H, T) phase space of the multi-domain VG. In one of the portions, embracing the BG to VG transition across the onset of the SMP anomaly, the ac drive is surprisingly seen to assist the transformation of the well ordered BG phase to a lesser ordered VG phase. The BG phase exists as a superheated state over a small portion of the VG space and this attests to the first order nature of the BG to VG transition

  16. Traffic Offences: Planned or Habitual? Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and habit strength to explain frequency and magnitude of speeding and driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lheureux, Florent; Auzoult, Laurent; Charlois, Colette; Hardy-Massard, Sandrine; Minary, Jean-Pierre

    2016-02-01

    This study addresses the socio-cognitive determinants of traffic offences, in particular of speeding and drinking and driving. It has two aims: (1) to test the hypothesis of a direct effect of habits on offences (i.e., independent of intentions) by employing a specific measure of habits (i.e., the SRIH) and (2) to analyse the offences by taking account of three distinct parameters: Frequency, usual magnitude (i.e., the most frequent deviation from the law) and maximal magnitude (i.e., the greatest deviation occasionally adopted) in order to represent more accurately the variability of the offending behaviours. A total of 642 drivers replied to a questionnaire. The results corroborate the idea that intention and habit are distinct and direct determinants of offences. The use of the SRIH dismisses the criticisms made with regard to the measure of past behaviour. The distinction between the three behavioural parameters proves to be relevant, as their determinants are not exactly similar. Finally, attitude and subjective norm had direct effects on the maximal magnitude and/or on the frequency of the offence. The discussion concerns the contribution of this study to the analysis of offences as well as its limitations and addresses the theoretical plausibility of the direct effects of attitude and the subjective norm. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Selecting the Best: Evolutionary Engineering of Chemical Production in Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelin, Denis; Hansen, Anne Sofie Lærke; Lennen, Rebecca; Luo, Hao; Herrgård, Markus J

    2018-05-11

    Microbial cell factories have proven to be an economical means of production for many bulk, specialty, and fine chemical products. However, we still lack both a holistic understanding of organism physiology and the ability to predictively tune enzyme activities in vivo, thus slowing down rational engineering of industrially relevant strains. An alternative concept to rational engineering is to use evolution as the driving force to select for desired changes, an approach often described as evolutionary engineering. In evolutionary engineering, in vivo selections for a desired phenotype are combined with either generation of spontaneous mutations or some form of targeted or random mutagenesis. Evolutionary engineering has been used to successfully engineer easily selectable phenotypes, such as utilization of a suboptimal nutrient source or tolerance to inhibitory substrates or products. In this review, we focus primarily on a more challenging problem-the use of evolutionary engineering for improving the production of chemicals in microbes directly. We describe recent developments in evolutionary engineering strategies, in general, and discuss, in detail, case studies where production of a chemical has been successfully achieved through evolutionary engineering by coupling production to cellular growth.

  18. Computational intelligence synergies of fuzzy logic, neural networks and evolutionary computing

    CERN Document Server

    Siddique, Nazmul

    2013-01-01

    Computational Intelligence: Synergies of Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Evolutionary Computing presents an introduction to some of the cutting edge technological paradigms under the umbrella of computational intelligence. Computational intelligence schemes are investigated with the development of a suitable framework for fuzzy logic, neural networks and evolutionary computing, neuro-fuzzy systems, evolutionary-fuzzy systems and evolutionary neural systems. Applications to linear and non-linear systems are discussed with examples. Key features: Covers all the aspect

  19. Studies in evolutionary agroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke

    of population performance will increase in frequency. Yield, one of the fundamental agronomic variables, is not an individual, but a population characteristic. A farmer wants a high yield per hectare; he is not interested in the performance of individual plants. When individual selection and population...... of Evolutionary Agroecology that the highest yielding individuals do not necessarily perform best as a population. The investment of resources into strategies and structures increasing individual competitive ability carries a cost. If a whole population consists of individuals investing resources to compete...

  20. Towards Adaptive Evolutionary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Sebastian HOlt; Rask, Nina; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents first results from an interdisciplinary project, in which the fields of architecture, philosophy and artificial life are combined to explore possible futures of architecture. Through an interactive evolutionary installation, called EvoCurtain, we investigate aspects of how...... to the development of designs tailored to the individual preferences of inhabitants, changing the roles of architects and designers entirely. Architecture-as-it-could-be is a philosophical approach conducted through artistic methods to anticipate the technological futures of human-centered development within...

  1. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  2. Quantifying Selective Pressures Driving Bacterial Evolution Using Lineage Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Guillaume; Kussell, Edo

    2015-01-01

    Organisms use a variety of strategies to adapt to their environments and maximize long-term growth potential, but quantitative characterization of the benefits conferred by the use of such strategies, as well as their impact on the whole population's rate of growth, remains challenging. Here, we use a path-integral framework that describes how selection acts on lineages—i.e., the life histories of individuals and their ancestors—to demonstrate that lineage-based measurements can be used to quantify the selective pressures acting on a population. We apply this analysis to Escherichia coli bacteria exposed to cyclical treatments of carbenicillin, an antibiotic that interferes with cell-wall synthesis and affects cells in an age-dependent manner. While the extensive characterization of the life history of thousands of cells is necessary to accurately extract the age-dependent selective pressures caused by carbenicillin, the same measurement can be recapitulated using lineage-based statistics of a single surviving cell. Population-wide evolutionary pressures can be extracted from the properties of the surviving lineages within a population, providing an alternative and efficient procedure to quantify the evolutionary forces acting on a population. Importantly, this approach is not limited to age-dependent selection, and the framework can be generalized to detect signatures of other trait-specific selection using lineage-based measurements. Our results establish a powerful way to study the evolutionary dynamics of life under selection and may be broadly useful in elucidating selective pressures driving the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the evolution of survival strategies in biological systems.

  3. Leaf area index drives soil water availability and extreme drought-related mortality under elevated CO2 in a temperate grassland model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, are predicted to increase under future climate change conditions. However, little is known about how other factors such as CO2 concentration will modify plant community responses to these extreme climatic events, even though such modifications are highly likely. We asked whether the response of grasslands to repeat extreme drought events is modified by elevated CO2, and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms? We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of 10 co-occurring grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney under ambient and elevated CO2 and subjected them to repeated extreme drought treatments. The 10 species included a mix of C3, C4, native and exotic species. We hypothesized that a reduction in the stomatal conductance of the grasses under elevated CO2 would be offset by increases in the leaf area index thus the retention of soil water and the consequent vulnerability of the grasses to extreme drought would not differ between the CO2 treatments. Our results did not support this hypothesis: soil water content was significantly lower in the mesocosms grown under elevated CO2 and extreme drought-related mortality of the grasses was greater. The C4 and native grasses had significantly higher leaf area index under elevated CO2 levels. This offset the reduction in the stomatal conductance of the exotic grasses as well as increased rainfall interception, resulting in reduced soil water content in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Our results suggest that projected increases in net primary productivity globally of grasslands in a high CO2 world may be limited by reduced soil water availability in the future.

  4. Improved Control of an Active-Front-End Adjustable Speed Drive with a Small dc-link Capacitor under Real Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    capacitors will be replaced by film capacitors in order to increase the ASD lifetime, but as this has lower energy density, the dc-link capacitance is expected to decrease. In these circumstances, operation under unbalanced and distorted supply voltage as well as high dynamic operation of the ASD makes...... the control task more challenging. This paper discusses problems related to the ASD dc-link both in respect to its stability (under regeneration as well as in the case of constant power absorbed by the inverter stage) both also in respect to the dc voltage ripple generated by the grid unbalance and made more...

  5. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  6. Practical advantages of evolutionary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, David B.

    1997-10-01

    Evolutionary computation is becoming a common technique for solving difficult, real-world problems in industry, medicine, and defense. This paper reviews some of the practical advantages to using evolutionary algorithms as compared with classic methods of optimization or artificial intelligence. Specific advantages include the flexibility of the procedures, as well as their ability to self-adapt the search for optimum solutions on the fly. As desktop computers increase in speed, the application of evolutionary algorithms will become routine.

  7. Proactive vs. reactive car driving: EEG evidence for different driving strategies of older drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Edmund; Getzmann, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Aging is associated with a large heterogeneity in the extent of age-related changes in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. All these functions can influence the performance in complex tasks like car driving. The present study aims to identify potential differences in underlying cognitive processes that may explain inter-individual variability in driving performance. Younger and older participants performed a one-hour monotonous driving task in a driving simulator under varying crosswind conditions, while behavioral and electrophysiological data were recorded. Overall, younger and older drivers showed comparable driving performance (lane keeping). However, there was a large difference in driving lane variability within the older group. Dividing the older group in two subgroups with low vs. high driving lane variability revealed differences between the two groups in electrophysiological correlates of mental workload, consumption of mental resources, and activation and sustaining of attention: Older drivers with high driving lane variability showed higher frontal Alpha and Theta activity than older drivers with low driving lane variability and—with increasing crosswind—a more pronounced decrease in Beta activity. These results suggest differences in driving strategies of older and younger drivers, with the older drivers using either a rather proactive and alert driving strategy (indicated by low driving lane variability and lower Alpha and Beta activity), or a rather reactive strategy (indicated by high driving lane variability and higher Alpha activity). PMID:29352314

  8. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  9. Achieving sustainable plant disease management through evolutionary principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    Plants and their pathogens are engaged in continuous evolutionary battles and sustainable disease management requires novel systems to create environments conducive for short-term and long-term disease control. In this opinion article, we argue that knowledge of the fundamental factors that drive host-pathogen coevolution in wild systems can provide new insights into disease development in agriculture. Such evolutionary principles can be used to guide the formulation of sustainable disease management strategies which can minimize disease epidemics while simultaneously reducing pressure on pathogens to evolve increased infectivity and aggressiveness. To ensure agricultural sustainability, disease management programs that reflect the dynamism of pathogen population structure are essential and evolutionary biologists should play an increasing role in their design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How Quasar Feedback May Shape the Co-evolutionary Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Wako, E-mail: wako.ishibashi@physik.uzh.ch [Physik-Institut, University of Zurich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-17

    Observations point toward some form of “co-evolutionary sequence,” from dust-enshrouded starbursts to luminous unobscured quasars. Active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback is generally invoked to expel the obscuring dusty gas in a blow-out event, eventually revealing the hidden central quasar. However, the physical mechanism driving AGN feedback, either due to winds or radiation, remains uncertain and is still a source of much debate. We consider quasar feedback, based on radiation pressure on dust, which directly acts on the obscuring dusty gas. We show that AGN radiative feedback is capable of efficiently removing the obscuring cocoon, and driving powerful outflows on galactic scales, consistent with recent observations. I will discuss how such quasar feedback may provide a natural physical interpretation of the observed evolutionary path, and the physical implications in the broader context of black hole-host galaxy co-evolution.

  11. BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Alexei J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary analysis of molecular sequence variation is a statistical enterprise. This is reflected in the increased use of probabilistic models for phylogenetic inference, multiple sequence alignment, and molecular population genetics. Here we present BEAST: a fast, flexible software architecture for Bayesian analysis of molecular sequences related by an evolutionary tree. A large number of popular stochastic models of sequence evolution are provided and tree-based models suitable for both within- and between-species sequence data are implemented. Results BEAST version 1.4.6 consists of 81000 lines of Java source code, 779 classes and 81 packages. It provides models for DNA and protein sequence evolution, highly parametric coalescent analysis, relaxed clock phylogenetics, non-contemporaneous sequence data, statistical alignment and a wide range of options for prior distributions. BEAST source code is object-oriented, modular in design and freely available at http://beast-mcmc.googlecode.com/ under the GNU LGPL license. Conclusion BEAST is a powerful and flexible evolutionary analysis package for molecular sequence variation. It also provides a resource for the further development of new models and statistical methods of evolutionary analysis.

  12. Development of the methodology of exhaust emissions measurement under RDE (Real Driving Emissions) conditions for non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkisz, J.; Lijewski, P.; Fuc, P.; Siedlecki, M.; Ziolkowski, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper analyzes the exhaust emissions from farm vehicles based on research performed under field conditions (RDE) according to the NTE procedure. This analysis has shown that it is hard to meet the NTE requirements under field conditions (engine operation in the NTE zone for at least 30 seconds). Due to a very high variability of the engine conditions, the share of a valid number of NTE windows in the field test is small throughout the entire test. For this reason, a modification of the measurement and exhaust emissions calculation methodology has been proposed for farm vehicles of the NRMM group. A test has been developed composed of the following phases: trip to the operation site (paved roads) and field operations (including u-turns and maneuvering). The range of the operation time share in individual test phases has been determined. A change in the method of calculating the real exhaust emissions has also been implemented in relation to the NTE procedure.

  13. Growth or reproduction: emergence of an evolutionary optimal strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilli, J; Suweis, S; Maritan, A

    2013-01-01

    Modern ecology has re-emphasized the need for a quantitative understanding of the original ‘survival of the fittest theme’ based on analysis of the intricate trade-offs between competing evolutionary strategies that characterize the evolution of life. This is key to the understanding of species coexistence and ecosystem diversity under the omnipresent constraint of limited resources. In this work we propose an agent-based model replicating a community of interacting individuals, e.g. plants in a forest, where all are competing for the same finite amount of resources and each competitor is characterized by a specific growth–reproduction strategy. We show that such an evolution dynamics drives the system towards a stationary state characterized by an emergent optimal strategy, which in turn depends on the amount of available resources the ecosystem can rely on. We find that the share of resources used by individuals is power-law distributed with an exponent directly related to the optimal strategy. The model can be further generalized to devise optimal strategies in social and economical interacting systems dynamics. (paper)

  14. Evolutionary developments of advanced PWR nuclear fuels and cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are provided. • Evolution of PWR advanced fuel in U.S.A. and in Korea is described. • Cutting-edge design features against grid-to-rod fretting and debris are explained. • High performance data of advanced grids, debris filters and claddings are given. -- Abstract: The evolutionary developments of advanced PWR fuels and cladding materials are explained with outstanding design features of nuclear fuel assembly components and zirconium-base cladding materials. The advanced PWR fuel and cladding materials development processes are also provided along with verification tests, which can be used as guidelines for newcomers planning to develop an advanced fuel for the first time. The up-to-date advanced fuels with the advanced cladding materials may provide a high level of economic utilization and reliable performance even under current and upcoming aggressive operating conditions. To be specific, nuclear fuel vendors may achieve high fuel burnup capability of between 45,000 and 65,000 MWD/MTU batch average, overpower thermal margin of as much as 15% and longer cycle length up to 24 months on the one hand and fuel failure rates of around 10 −6 on the other hand. However, there is still a need for better understanding of grid-to-rod fretting wear mechanisms leading to major PWR fuel defects in the world and subsequently a driving force for developing innovative spacer grid designs with zero fretting wear-induced fuel failure

  15. Probability Weighting as Evolutionary Second-best

    OpenAIRE

    Herold, Florian; Netzer, Nick

    2011-01-01

    The economic concept of the second-best involves the idea that multiple simultaneous deviations from a hypothetical first-best optimum may be optimal once the first-best itself can no longer be achieved, since one distortion may partially compensate for another. Within an evolutionary framework, we translate this concept to behavior under uncertainty. We argue that the two main components of prospect theory, the value function and the probability weighting function, are complements in the sec...

  16. Evolutionary dynamics on infinite strategy spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Oechssler, Jörg; Riedel, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The study of evolutionary dynamics was so far mainly restricted to finite strategy spaces. In this paper we show that this unsatisfying restriction is unnecessary. We specify a simple condition under which the continuous time replicator dynamics are well defined for the case of infinite strategy spaces. Furthermore, we provide new conditions for the stability of rest points and show that even strict equilibria may be unstable. Finally, we apply this general theory to a number of applications ...

  17. Software testing for evolutionary iterative rapid prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Edward V., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Rapid prototyping is emerging as a promising software development paradigm. It provides a systematic and automatable means of developing a software system under circumstances where initial requirements are not well known or where requirements change frequently during development. To provide high software quality assurance requires sufficient software testing. The unique nature of evolutionary iterative prototyping is not well-suited for ...

  18. Naturalistic drive cycle synthesis for pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zifan; Ivanco, Andrej; Filipi, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    Future pick-up trucks are meeting much stricter fuel economy and exhaust emission standards. Design tradeoffs will have to be carefully evaluated to satisfy consumer expectations within the regulatory and cost constraints. Boundary conditions will obviously be critical for decision making: thus, the understanding of how customers are driving in naturalistic settings is indispensable. Federal driving schedules, while critical for certification, do not capture the richness of naturalistic cycles, particularly the aggressive maneuvers that often shape consumer perception of performance. While there are databases with large number of drive cycles, applying all of them directly in the design process is impractical. Therefore, representative drive cycles that capture the essence of the naturalistic driving should be synthesized from naturalistic driving data. Naturalistic drive cycles are firstly categorized by investigating their micro-trip components, defined as driving activities between successive stops. Micro-trips are expected to characterize underlying local traffic conditions, and separate different driving patterns. Next, the transitions from one vehicle state to another vehicle state in each cycle category are captured with Transition Probability Matrix (TPM). Candidate drive cycles can subsequently be synthesized using Markov Chain based on TPMs for each category. Finally, representative synthetic drive cycles are selected through assessment of significant cycle metrics to identify the ones with smallest errors. This paper provides a framework for synthesis of representative drive cycles from naturalistic driving data, which can subsequently be used for efficient optimization of design or control of pick-up truck powertrains. Manufacturers will benefit from representative drive cycles in several aspects, including quick assessments of vehicle performance and energy consumption in simulations, component sizing and design, optimization of control strategies, and

  19. Complexity in Evolutionary Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, P.

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's principle of evolution by natural selection is readily casted into a mathematical formalism. Molecular biology revealed the mechanism of mutation and provides the basis for a kinetic theory of evolution that models correct reproduction and mutation as parallel chemical reaction channels. A result of the kinetic theory is the existence of a phase transition in evolution occurring at a critical mutation rate, which represents a localization threshold for the population in sequence space. Occurrence and nature of such phase transitions depend critically on fitness landscapes. The fitness landscape being tantamount to a mapping from sequence or genotype space into phenotype space is identified as the true source of complexity in evolution. Modeling evolution as a stochastic process is discussed and neutrality with respect to selection is shown to provide a major challenge for understanding evolutionary processes (author)

  20. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  1. Evolutionary impact assessment: accounting for evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Ane T; Engelhard, Georg H; Whitlock, Rebecca; Arlinghaus, Robert; Dankel, Dorothy J; Dunlop, Erin S; Eikeset, Anne M; Enberg, Katja; Jørgensen, Christian; Matsumura, Shuichi; Nusslé, Sébastien; Urbach, Davnah; Baulier, Loїc; Boukal, David S; Ernande, Bruno; Johnston, Fiona D; Mollet, Fabian; Pardoe, Heidi; Therkildsen, Nina O; Uusi-Heikkilä, Silva; Vainikka, Anssi; Heino, Mikko; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2014-03-01

    Managing fisheries resources to maintain healthy ecosystems is one of the main goals of the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF). While a number of international treaties call for the implementation of EAF, there are still gaps in the underlying methodology. One aspect that has received substantial scientific attention recently is fisheries-induced evolution (FIE). Increasing evidence indicates that intensive fishing has the potential to exert strong directional selection on life-history traits, behaviour, physiology, and morphology of exploited fish. Of particular concern is that reversing evolutionary responses to fishing can be much more difficult than reversing demographic or phenotypically plastic responses. Furthermore, like climate change, multiple agents cause FIE, with effects accumulating over time. Consequently, FIE may alter the utility derived from fish stocks, which in turn can modify the monetary value living aquatic resources provide to society. Quantifying and predicting the evolutionary effects of fishing is therefore important for both ecological and economic reasons. An important reason this is not happening is the lack of an appropriate assessment framework. We therefore describe the evolutionary impact assessment (EvoIA) as a structured approach for assessing the evolutionary consequences of fishing and evaluating the predicted evolutionary outcomes of alternative management options. EvoIA can contribute to EAF by clarifying how evolution may alter stock properties and ecological relations, support the precautionary approach to fisheries management by addressing a previously overlooked source of uncertainty and risk, and thus contribute to sustainable fisheries.

  2. Where Evolutionary Psychology Meets Cognitive Neuroscience: A Précis to Evolutionary Cognitive Neuroscience1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austen L. Krill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience, the study of brain-behavior relationships, has long attempted to map the brain. The discipline is flourishing, with an increasing number of functional neuroimaging studies appearing in the scientific literature daily. Unlike biology and even psychology, the cognitive neurosciences have only recently begun to apply evolutionary meta-theory and methodological guidance. Approaching cognitive neuroscience from an evolutionary perspective allows scientists to apply biologically based theoretical guidance to their investigations and can be conducted in both humans and nonhuman animals. In fact, several investigations of this sort are underway in laboratories around the world. This paper and two new volumes (Platek, Keenan, and Shackelford [Eds.], 2007; Platek and Shackelford [Eds.], under contract represent the first formal attempts to document the burgeoning field of evolutionary cognitive neuroscience. Here, we briefly review the current state of the science of evolutionary cognitive neuroscience, the methods available to the evolutionary cognitive neuroscientist, and what we foresee as the future directions of the discipline.

  3. Evolutionary economics and industry location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide the outlines of an evolutionary economic geography of industry location. We discuss two evolutionary explanations of industry location, that is, one that concentrates on spin-offs, and one that focuses attention on knowledge and agglomeration economies. We claim that both

  4. Contemporary issues in evolutionary biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These discussions included, among others, the possible consequences of nonDNA-based inheritance—epigenetics and cultural evolution, niche construction, and developmental mechanisms on our understanding of the evolutionary process, speciation, complexity in biology, and constructing a formal evolutionary theory.

  5. Contemporary issues in evolutionary biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We are delighted to bring to the readers, a set of peer-reviewed papers on evolutionary biology, published as a special issue of the Journal of Genetics. These papers emanated from ruminations upon and discussions at the Foundations of. Evolutionary Theory: the Ongoing Synthesis meeting at Coorg, India, in February ...

  6. Fixation Time for Evolutionary Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

    Evolutionary graph theory (EGT) is recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. EGT is successful for explaining biological evolution and some social phenomena. It is extremely important to consider the time of fixation for EGT in many practical problems, including evolutionary theory and the evolution of cooperation. This study characterizes the time to asymptotically reach fixation.

  7. Applications of evolutionary economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.; Puranam, Krishna Kishore; Ravi Kumar Jain B., xx

    2008-01-01

    This paper is written as the first chapter of an edited volume on evolutionary economics and economic geography (Frenken, K., editor, Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, expected publication date February 2007). The paper reviews empirical applications of

  8. Drive-By-Wire Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-29

    Symposium Intelligent Systems for the Objective Fleet uTransmission controls uSteering (both on-transmission and under-carriage) uBraking (service and...parking) uTransmission select uThrottle uOther Electromechanical Opportunities uTurret drives (elevation, traverse) uAutomatic propellant handling systems

  9. Hurried driving: Relationship to distress tolerance, driver anger, aggressive and risky driving in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Daughters, Stacey B; Ali, Bina

    2013-03-01

    Being a hurried driver is associated with a variety of risky driving behaviors, yet the mechanisms underlying this behavior remain unknown. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was examined as a predictor of hurried driving among 769 college students. Results indicate that after controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, the student's year in school, their grade point average, driving frequency, angry driving, aggressive driving as well as other forms of self-reported risky driving; hurried driving was significantly associated with lower levels of distress tolerance. Hurried drivers also reported greater levels of frustration and impatience with other drivers, suggesting that they have difficulty in withstanding or coping with negative psychological states when driving. Traditional traffic safety campaigns that emphasize enforcement may be less successful with these drivers. The need to develop campaigns that address the affective coping abilities that contribute to this behavioral pattern is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  11. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Biofuel Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I propose to push the frontier of global value chain (GVC) governance analysis through the concept of ‘polarity’. Much of the existing GVC literature has focused on ‘unipolar’ value chains, where one group of ‘lead firms’ inhabiting a specific function in a chain plays a dominant role...... in governing it. Some scholars have explored the dynamics of governance in GVCs characterized as ‘bipolar’, where two sets of actors in different functional positions both drive the chain. I expand this direction further to suggest conceptualizing governance within a continuum between unipolarity...... and multipolarity. Empirically, I do so by examining the evolutionary dynamics of governance in biofuel value chains, with specific focus on the key regulatory and institutional features that facilitated their emergence and expansion. First, I examine the formation, evolution, and governance of three national/regional...

  12. Human Behavior and Cognition in Evolutionary Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard R

    2011-12-01

    My brand of evolutionary economics recognizes, highlights, that modern economies are always in the process of changing, never fully at rest, with much of the energy coming from innovation. This perspective obviously draws a lot from Schumpeter. Continuing innovation, and the creative destruction that innovation engenders, is driving the system. There are winners and losers in the process, but generally the changes can be regarded as progress. The processes through which economic activity and performance evolve has a lot in common with evolution in biology. In particular, at any time the economy is marked by considerable variety, there are selection forces winnowing on that variety, but also continuing emergence of new ways of doing things and often economic actors. But there also are important differences from biological evolution. In particular, both innovation and selection are to a considerable degree purposive activities, often undertaken on the basis of relatively strong knowledge.

  13. Evolutionary design assistants for architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onur Sönmez

    2015-04-01

    existing literature and the proposals and applications of the thesis; secondly, proposals for descriptive and prescriptive models, mappings, summary illustrations, task structures, decomposition schemes, and integratory frameworks; and finally, experimental applications of these proposals. This tripartite progression allows an evaluation of each proposal both conceptually and practically; thereby, enabling a progressive improvement of the understanding regarding the research question, while producing concrete outputs on the way. Besides theoretical and interpretative examinations, the thesis investigates its subject through a set of practical and speculative proposals, which function as both research instruments and the outputs of the study. The first main output of the study is the “design_proxy” approach (d_p, which is an integrated approach for draft making design assistants. It is an outcome of both theoretical examinations and experimental applications, and proposes an integration of, (1 flexible and relaxed task definitions and representations (instead of strict formalisms, (2 intuitive interfaces that make use of usual design media, (3 evaluation of solution proposals through their similarity to given examples, and (4 a dynamic evolutionary approach for solution generation. The design_proxy approach may be useful for AD researchers that aim at developing practical design assistants, as has been examined and demonstrated with the two applications, i.e., design_proxy.graphics and design_proxy.layout. The second main output, the “Interleaved Evolutionary Algorithm” (IEA, or Interleaved EA is a novel evolutionary algorithm proposed and used as the underlying generative mechanism of design_proxybased design assistants. The Interleaved EA is a dynamic, adaptive, and multi-objective EA, in which one of the objectives leads the evolution until its fitness progression stagnates; in the sense that the settings and fitness values of this objective is used for most

  14. Evolutionary origins and diversification of proteobacterial mutualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Joel L; Skophammer, Ryan G; Bansal, Nidhanjali; Stajich, Jason E

    2014-01-22

    Mutualistic bacteria infect most eukaryotic species in nearly every biome. Nonetheless, two dilemmas remain unresolved about bacterial-eukaryote mutualisms: how do mutualist phenotypes originate in bacterial lineages and to what degree do mutualists traits drive or hinder bacterial diversification? Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the hyperdiverse phylum Proteobacteria to investigate the origins and evolutionary diversification of mutualistic bacterial phenotypes. Our ancestral state reconstructions (ASRs) inferred a range of 34-39 independent origins of mutualist phenotypes in Proteobacteria, revealing the surprising frequency with which host-beneficial traits have evolved in this phylum. We found proteobacterial mutualists to be more often derived from parasitic than from free-living ancestors, consistent with the untested paradigm that bacterial mutualists most often evolve from pathogens. Strikingly, we inferred that mutualists exhibit a negative net diversification rate (speciation minus extinction), which suggests that mutualism evolves primarily via transitions from other states rather than diversification within mutualist taxa. Moreover, our ASRs infer that proteobacterial mutualist lineages exhibit a paucity of reversals to parasitism or to free-living status. This evolutionary conservatism of mutualism is contrary to long-standing theory, which predicts that selection should often favour mutants in microbial mutualist populations that exploit or abandon more slowly evolving eukaryotic hosts.

  15. Evolutionary change in physiological phenotypes along the human lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Alexander Q; Nunn, Charles L

    2016-01-01

    Research in evolutionary medicine provides many examples of how evolution has shaped human susceptibility to disease. Traits undergoing rapid evolutionary change may result in associated costs or reduce the energy available to other traits. We hypothesize that humans have experienced more such changes than other primates as a result of major evolutionary change along the human lineage. We investigated 41 physiological traits across 50 primate species to identify traits that have undergone marked evolutionary change along the human lineage. We analysed the data using two Bayesian phylogenetic comparative methods. One approach models trait covariation in non-human primates and predicts human phenotypes to identify whether humans are evolutionary outliers. The other approach models adaptive shifts under an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of evolution to assess whether inferred shifts are more common on the human branch than on other primate lineages. We identified four traits with strong evidence for an evolutionary increase on the human lineage (amylase, haematocrit, phosphorus and monocytes) and one trait with strong evidence for decrease (neutrophilic bands). Humans exhibited more cases of distinct evolutionary change than other primates. Human physiology has undergone increased evolutionary change compared to other primates. Long distance running may have contributed to increases in haematocrit and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, while dietary changes are likely related to increases in amylase. In accordance with the pathogen load hypothesis, human monocyte levels were increased, but many other immune-related measures were not. Determining the mechanisms underlying conspicuous evolutionary change in these traits may provide new insights into human disease. The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  16. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  17. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  18. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  19. Wet-dry seasonal and vertical geochemical variations in soil water and their driving forces under different land covers in southwest China karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Hu, Bill X.; Wu, Chuanhao; Xu, Kai

    2017-04-01

    Karst aquifers supply drinking water for 25% of the world's population, and they are, however, vulnerable to climate change. Bimonthly hydrochemical data in karst soil water samples from July 2010 to July 2011 were obtained to reveal the seasonal and vertical geochemical variations in soil water under five vegetation types in Qingmuguan, a small karst catchment in southwest China. Soil water chemistry was dominated by Ca2+, HCO3-, and SO42- because of the dissolution of limestone, dolomite, and gypsum minerals in the strata. The predominant hydrochemical types in soil water were Ca2+-HCO3-, Ca2+-SO42-, and mixed Ca2+-HCO3-SO42-. Ca2+ and HCO3- concentrations ranked in the following order: shrub land > dry land > afforestation farmland > bamboo land > grassland. In warm and wet seasons, the main ion concentrations in soil water from grasslands were low. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations in soil water from other lands were high. An opposite trend was observed in cold and dry seasons. Marked seasonal variations were observed in Ca2+, HCO3-, and NO3- in soil water from dry land. The main ion concentrations in soil water from bamboo lands decreased as soil depth increased. By contrast, the chemistry of soil water from other lands increased as soil depth increased. Their ions were accumulated in depth. A consistent high and low variation between the main ions in soil water and the contents of carbonate and CO2 was found in the soil. Hydrochemical changes in soil water were regulated by the effects of dilution and soil CO2.

  20. Evolutionary Dynamics and Diversity in Microbial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joel; Fisher, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Diseases such as flu and cancer adapt at an astonishing rate. In large part, viruses and cancers are so difficult to prevent because they are continually evolving. Controlling such ``evolutionary diseases'' requires a better understanding of the underlying evolutionary dynamics. It is conventionally assumed that adaptive mutations are rare and therefore will occur and sweep through the population in succession. Recent experiments using modern sequencing technologies have illuminated the many ways in which real population sequence data does not conform to the predictions of conventional theory. We consider a very simple model of asexual evolution and perform simulations in a range of parameters thought to be relevant for microbes and cancer. Simulation results reveal complex evolutionary dynamics typified by competition between lineages with different sets of adaptive mutations. This dynamical process leads to a distribution of mutant gene frequencies different than expected under the conventional assumption that adaptive mutations are rare. Simulated gene frequencies share several conspicuous features with data collected from laboratory-evolved yeast and the worldwide population of influenza.

  1. [Epilepsy and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masato

    2014-05-01

    In Japan, the Road Traffic Act was amended in June 2013, including new penalty to false statement in a disease condition declaration form, and new voluntary notification system for a doctor who is aware that a person is at high risk for traffic accident and in possession of a driver license. Moreover, New Criminal Law Act was established in November 2013, including a prison sentence of up to 15 years for persons, who under the influence of specific drugs or diseases, causing death or injury to other persons by driving a motor vehicle. Both laws are supposed to be enforced during 2014, after additional resolutions including the review of the laws after five years, considerations so as not to create discrimination due to diseases, etc are examined.

  2. Driving with head-slaved camera system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2001-01-01

    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in

  3. Antihistamines and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, J F

    1988-10-27

    The results of two placebo-controlled driving performance studies confirm laboratory data showing that the nonsedating antihistamine terfenadine does not influence the driving performance of users. The amplitude of vehicle weaving calculated for drivers who received this agent did not differ from control values. Neither terfenadine nor loratadine, another nonsedating antihistamine, potentiated the adverse effects of alcohol on driving performance.

  4. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23,2015 Can I drive after a stroke? Driving is often a major concern after someone has a stroke. It’s not unusual for stroke survivors to want to drive. Being able to get around after a stroke is important. Safety behind the wheel is even more important after ...

  5. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  6. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  7. Chemical evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristotelous, Andreas C; Durrett, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Inspired by the use of hybrid cellular automata in modeling cancer, we introduce a generalization of evolutionary games in which cells produce and absorb chemicals, and the chemical concentrations dictate the death rates of cells and their fitnesses. Our long term aim is to understand how the details of the interactions in a system with n species and m chemicals translate into the qualitative behavior of the system. Here, we study two simple 2×2 games with two chemicals and revisit the two and three species versions of the one chemical colicin system studied earlier by Durrett and Levin (1997). We find that in the 2×2 examples, the behavior of our new spatial model can be predicted from that of the mean field differential equation using ideas of Durrett and Levin (1994). However, in the three species colicin model, the system with diffusion does not have the coexistence which occurs in the lattices model in which sites interact with only their nearest neighbors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Review of current drive theory: selected topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    Two themes in current drive theory in tokamaks are reviewed, both relevant to the progression of tokamak experiments toward the reactor regime. First, the physics of the tail electrons is reviewed. These electrons are capable of carrying enormous rf-driven electric current, and, in the course of current-drive experiments worldwide not only has the current drive effect been demonstrated, but the underlying physical description of these tail electrons has been established. Second, anticipating the presence of the energetic alpha particles that result from D-T reactions in a reactor, certain mechanisms through which these alpha particles can be used to facilitate current-drive are reviewed. (Author)

  9. Industrial Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Ernesto; Tonda, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference both for experienced users of evolutionary algorithms and for researchers that are beginning to approach these fascinating optimization techniques. Experienced users will find interesting details of real-world problems, and advice on solving issues related to fitness computation, modeling and setting appropriate parameters to reach optimal solutions. Beginners will find a thorough introduction to evolutionary computation, and a complete presentation of all evolutionary algorithms exploited to solve different problems. The book could fill the gap between the

  10. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment. (paper)

  11. Convergent Metabolic Specialization through Distinct Evolutionary Paths in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Ruggero; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Molin, Søren

    2018-04-10

    Evolution by natural selection under complex and dynamic environmental conditions occurs through intricate and often counterintuitive trajectories affecting many genes and metabolic solutions. To study short- and long-term evolution of bacteria in vivo , we used the natural model system of cystic fibrosis (CF) infection. In this work, we investigated how and through which trajectories evolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs when migrating from the environment to the airways of CF patients, and specifically, we determined reduction of growth rate and metabolic specialization as signatures of adaptive evolution. We show that central metabolic pathways of three distinct Pseudomonas aeruginosa lineages coevolving within the same environment become restructured at the cost of versatility during long-term colonization. Cell physiology changes from naive to adapted phenotypes resulted in (i) alteration of growth potential that particularly converged to a slow-growth phenotype, (ii) alteration of nutritional requirements due to auxotrophy, (iii) tailored preference for carbon source assimilation from CF sputum, (iv) reduced arginine and pyruvate fermentation processes, and (v) increased oxygen requirements. Interestingly, although convergence was evidenced at the phenotypic level of metabolic specialization, comparative genomics disclosed diverse mutational patterns underlying the different evolutionary trajectories. Therefore, distinct combinations of genetic and regulatory changes converge to common metabolic adaptive trajectories leading to within-host metabolic specialization. This study gives new insight into bacterial metabolic evolution during long-term colonization of a new environmental niche. IMPORTANCE Only a few examples of real-time evolutionary investigations in environments outside the laboratory are described in the scientific literature. Remembering that biological evolution, as it has progressed in nature, has not taken place in test tubes, it is not

  12. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  13. Evolutionary genetics: the Drosophila model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Evolutionary genetics straddles the two fundamental processes of life, ... of the genus Drosophila have been used extensively as model systems in experimental ... issue will prove interesting, informative and thought-provoking for both estab-.

  14. Integrating genomics into evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Marigorta, Urko M; Navarro, Arcadi

    2014-12-01

    The application of the principles of evolutionary biology into medicine was suggested long ago and is already providing insight into the ultimate causes of disease. However, a full systematic integration of medical genomics and evolutionary medicine is still missing. Here, we briefly review some cases where the combination of the two fields has proven profitable and highlight two of the main issues hindering the development of evolutionary genomic medicine as a mature field, namely the dissociation between fitness and health and the still considerable difficulties in predicting phenotypes from genotypes. We use publicly available data to illustrate both problems and conclude that new approaches are needed for evolutionary genomic medicine to overcome these obstacles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolutionary robotics – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    a need for a technique by which the robot is able to acquire new behaviours automatically .... Evolutionary robotics is a comparatively new field of robotics research, which seems to ..... Technical Report: PCIA-94-04, Institute of Psychology,.

  16. Invisible hand effect in an evolutionary minority game model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysi-Aho, Marko; Saramäki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we study the properties of a minority game with evolution realized by using genetic crossover to modify fixed-length decision-making strategies of agents. Although the agents in this evolutionary game act selfishly by trying to maximize their own performances only, it turns out that the whole society will eventually be rewarded optimally. This “invisible hand” effect is what Adam Smith over two centuries ago expected to take place in the context of free market mechanism. However, this behaviour of the society of agents is realized only under idealized conditions, where all agents are utilizing the same efficient evolutionary mechanism. If on the other hand part of the agents are adaptive, but not evolutionary, the system does not reach optimum performance, which is also the case if part of the evolutionary agents form a uniformly acting “cartel”.

  17. Evolutionary Game Theory: A Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Newton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic agents are not always rational or farsighted and can make decisions according to simple behavioral rules that vary according to situation and can be studied using the tools of evolutionary game theory. Furthermore, such behavioral rules are themselves subject to evolutionary forces. Paying particular attention to the work of young researchers, this essay surveys the progress made over the last decade towards understanding these phenomena, and discusses open research topics of importance to economics and the broader social sciences.

  18. Freud: the first evolutionary psychologist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCroy, D

    2000-04-01

    An evolutionary perspective on attachment theory and psychoanalytic theory brings these two fields together in interesting ways. Application of the evolutionary principle of parent-offspring conflict to attachment theory suggests that attachment styles represent context-sensitive, evolved (adaptive) behaviors. In addition, an emphasis on offspring counter-strategies to adult reproductive strategies leads to consideration of attachment styles as overt manifestations of psychodynamic mediating processes, including the defense mechanisms of repression and reaction formation.

  19. Ecological divergence and evolutionary transition of resprouting types in Banksia attenuata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tianhua

    2014-08-01

    Resprouting is a key functional trait that allows plants to survive diverse disturbances. The fitness benefits associated with resprouting include a rapid return to adult growth, early flowering, and setting seed. The resprouting responses observed following fire are varied, as are the ecological outcomes. Understanding the ecological divergence and evolutionary pathways of different resprouting types and how the environment and genetics interact to drive such morphological evolution represents an important, but under-studied, topic. In the present study, microsatellite markers and microevolutionary approaches were used to better understand: (1) whether genetic differentiation is related to morphological divergence among resprouting types and if so, whether there are any specific genetic variations associated with morphological divergence and (2) the evolutionary pathway of the transitions between two resprouting types in Banksia attenuata (epicormic resprouting from aerial stems or branch; resprouting from a underground lignotuber). The results revealed an association between population genetic differentiation and the morphological divergence of postfire resprouting types in B. attenuata. A microsatellite allele has been shown to be associated with epicormic populations. Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis revealed a likely evolutionary transition from epicormic to lignotuberous resprouting in B. attenuata. It is concluded that the postfire resprouting type in B. attenuata is likely determined by the fire's characteristics. The differentiated expression of postfire resprouting types in different environments is likely a consequence of local genetic adaptation. The capacity to shift the postfire resprouting type to adapt to diverse fire regimes is most likely the key factor explaining why B. attenuata is the most widespread member of the Banksia genus.

  20. Short- and long-term evolutionary dynamics of bacterial insertion sequences: insights from Wolbachia endosymbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveau, Nicolas; Leclercq, Sébastien; Leroy, Elodie; Bouchon, Didier; Cordaux, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Transposable elements (TE) are one of the major driving forces of genome evolution, raising the question of the long-term dynamics underlying their evolutionary success. Long-term TE evolution can readily be reconstructed in eukaryotes, thanks to many degraded copies constituting genomic fossil records of past TE proliferations. By contrast, bacterial genomes usually experience high sequence turnover and short TE retention times, thereby obscuring ancient TE evolutionary patterns. We found that Wolbachia bacterial genomes contain 52-171 insertion sequence (IS) TEs. IS account for 11% of Wolbachia wRi, which is one of the highest IS genomic coverage reported in prokaryotes to date. We show that many IS groups are currently expanding in various Wolbachia genomes and that IS horizontal transfers are frequent among strains, which can explain the apparent synchronicity of these IS proliferations. Remarkably, >70% of Wolbachia IS are nonfunctional. They constitute an unusual bacterial IS genomic fossil record providing direct empirical evidence for a long-term IS evolutionary dynamics following successive periods of intense transpositional activity. Our results show that comprehensive IS annotations have the potential to provide new insights into prokaryote TE evolution and, more generally, prokaryote genome evolution. Indeed, the identification of an important IS genomic fossil record in Wolbachia demonstrates that IS elements are not always of recent origin, contrary to the conventional view of TE evolution in prokaryote genomes. Our results also raise the question whether the abundance of IS fossils is specific to Wolbachia or it may be a general, albeit overlooked, feature of prokaryote genomes.

  1. Investigating intertemporal choice through experimental evolutionary robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieri, Fabio; Parisi, Domenico; Patacchiola, Massimiliano; Petrosino, Giancarlo

    2015-06-01

    In intertemporal choices, subjects face a trade-off between value and delay: achieving the most valuable outcome requires a longer time, whereas the immediately available option is objectively poorer. Intertemporal choices are ubiquitous, and comparative studies reveal commonalities and differences across species: all species devalue future rewards as a function of delay (delay aversion), yet there is a lot of inter-specific variance in how rapidly such devaluation occurs. These differences are often interpreted in terms of ecological rationality, as depending on environmental factors (e.g., feeding ecology) and the physiological and morphological constraints of different species (e.g., metabolic rate). Evolutionary hypotheses, however, are hard to verify in vivo, since it is difficult to observe precisely enough real environments, not to mention ancestral ones. In this paper, we discuss the viability of an approach based on evolutionary robotics: in Study 1, we evolve robots without a metabolism in five different ecologies; in Study 2, we evolve metabolic robots (i.e., robots that consume energy over time) in three different ecologies. The intertemporal choices of the robots are analyzed both in their ecology and under laboratory conditions. Results confirm the generality of delay aversion and the usefulness of studying intertemporal choice through experimental evolutionary robotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise B. Paaby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes—processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  3. Helminths and Cancers From the Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Larissa L S; Pascoal-Xavier, Marcelo A; Nahum, Laila A

    2018-01-01

    Helminths include free-living and parasitic Platyhelminthes and Nematoda which infect millions of people worldwide. Some Platyhelminthes species of blood flukes ( Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum , and Schistosoma mansoni ) and liver flukes ( Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini ) are known to be involved in human cancers. Other helminths are likely to be carcinogenic. Our main goals are to summarize the current knowledge of human cancers caused by Platyhelminthes, point out some helminth and human biomarkers identified so far, and highlight the potential contributions of phylogenetics and molecular evolution to cancer research. Human cancers caused by helminth infection include cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal hepatocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and urinary bladder cancer. Chronic inflammation is proposed as a common pathway for cancer initiation and development. Furthermore, different bacteria present in gastric, colorectal, and urogenital microbiomes might be responsible for enlarging inflammatory and fibrotic responses in cancers. Studies have suggested that different biomarkers are involved in helminth infection and human cancer development; although, the detailed mechanisms remain under debate. Different helminth proteins have been studied by different approaches. However, their evolutionary relationships remain unsolved. Here, we illustrate the strengths of homology identification and function prediction of uncharacterized proteins from genome sequencing projects based on an evolutionary framework. Together, these approaches may help identifying new biomarkers for disease diagnostics and intervention measures. This work has potential applications in the field of phylomedicine (evolutionary medicine) and may contribute to parasite and cancer research.

  4. Helminths and Cancers From the Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa L. S. Scholte

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Helminths include free-living and parasitic Platyhelminthes and Nematoda which infect millions of people worldwide. Some Platyhelminthes species of blood flukes (Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma mansoni and liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini are known to be involved in human cancers. Other helminths are likely to be carcinogenic. Our main goals are to summarize the current knowledge of human cancers caused by Platyhelminthes, point out some helminth and human biomarkers identified so far, and highlight the potential contributions of phylogenetics and molecular evolution to cancer research. Human cancers caused by helminth infection include cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal hepatocellular carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and urinary bladder cancer. Chronic inflammation is proposed as a common pathway for cancer initiation and development. Furthermore, different bacteria present in gastric, colorectal, and urogenital microbiomes might be responsible for enlarging inflammatory and fibrotic responses in cancers. Studies have suggested that different biomarkers are involved in helminth infection and human cancer development; although, the detailed mechanisms remain under debate. Different helminth proteins have been studied by different approaches. However, their evolutionary relationships remain unsolved. Here, we illustrate the strengths of homology identification and function prediction of uncharacterized proteins from genome sequencing projects based on an evolutionary framework. Together, these approaches may help identifying new biomarkers for disease diagnostics and intervention measures. This work has potential applications in the field of phylomedicine (evolutionary medicine and may contribute to parasite and cancer research.

  5. Evolutionary games on multilayer networks: a colloquium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-05-01

    Networks form the backbone of many complex systems, ranging from the Internet to human societies. Accordingly, not only is the range of our interactions limited and thus best described and modeled by networks, it is also a fact that the networks that are an integral part of such models are often interdependent or even interconnected. Networks of networks or multilayer networks are therefore a more apt description of social systems. This colloquium is devoted to evolutionary games on multilayer networks, and in particular to the evolution of cooperation as one of the main pillars of modern human societies. We first give an overview of the most significant conceptual differences between single-layer and multilayer networks, and we provide basic definitions and a classification of the most commonly used terms. Subsequently, we review fascinating and counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes that emerge due to different types of interdependencies between otherwise independent populations. The focus is on coupling through the utilities of players, through the flow of information, as well as through the popularity of different strategies on different network layers. The colloquium highlights the importance of pattern formation and collective behavior for the promotion of cooperation under adverse conditions, as well as the synergies between network science and evolutionary game theory.

  6. Evolutionary perspectives into placental biology and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B. Chuong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all mammals including humans, development takes place within the protective environment of the maternal womb. Throughout gestation, nutrients and waste products are continuously exchanged between mother and fetus through the placenta. Despite the clear importance of the placenta to successful pregnancy and the health of both mother and offspring, relatively little is understood about the biology of the placenta and its role in pregnancy-related diseases. Given that pre- and peri-natal diseases involving the placenta affect millions of women and their newborns worldwide, there is an urgent need to understand placenta biology and development. Here, we suggest that the placenta is an organ under unique selective pressures that have driven its rapid diversification throughout mammalian evolution. The high divergence of the placenta complicates the use of non-human animal models and necessitates an evolutionary perspective when studying its biology and role in disease. We suggest that diversifying evolution of the placenta is primarily driven by intraspecies evolutionary conflict between mother and fetus, and that many pregnancy diseases are a consequence of this evolutionary force. Understanding how maternal–fetal conflict shapes both basic placental and reproductive biology – in all species – will provide key insights into diseases of pregnancy.

  7. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics.

  8. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a simple and economical control rod drive using a control circuit requiring no pulse circuit. Constitution: Control rods in a BWR type reactor are driven by hydraulic pressure and inserted or withdrawn in the direction of applying the hydraulic pressure. The direction of the hydraulic pressure is controlled by a direction control valve. Since the driving for the control rod is extremely important in view of the operation, a self diagnosis function is disposed for rapid inspection of possible abnormality. In the present invention, two driving contacts are disposed each by one between the both ends of a solenoid valve of the direction control valve for driving the control rod and the driving power source, and diagnosis is conducted by alternately operating them. Therefore, since it is only necessary that the control circuit issues a driving instruction only to one of the two driving contacts, the pulse circuit is no more required. Further, since the control rod driving is conducted upon alignment of the two driving instructions, the reliability of the control rod drive can be improved. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  10. Exploring travelers' behavior in response to dynamic message signs (DMS) using a driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This research studies the effectiveness of a dynamic message sign (DMS) using a driving : simulator. Over 100 subjects from different socio-economic and age groups were recruited to : drive the simulator under different traffic and driving conditions...

  11. Exploring travelers' behavior in response to dynamic message signs (DMS) using a driving simulator : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This research studies the effectiveness of a dynamic message sign (DMS) using a driving : simulator. Over 100 subjects from different socio-economic and age groups were recruited to : drive the simulator under different traffic and driving conditions...

  12. Using driving simulators to assess driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Linda Ng; Lee, John D

    2010-05-01

    Changes in drivers, vehicles, and roadways pose substantial challenges to the transportation safety community. Crash records and naturalistic driving data are useful for examining the influence of past or existing technology on drivers, and the associations between risk factors and crashes. However, they are limited because causation cannot be established and technology not yet installed in production vehicles cannot be assessed. Driving simulators have become an increasingly widespread tool to understand evolving and novel technologies. The ability to manipulate independent variables in a randomized, controlled setting also provides the added benefit of identifying causal links. This paper introduces a special issue on simulator-based safety studies. The special issue comprises 25 papers that demonstrate the use of driving simulators to address pressing transportation safety problems and includes topics as diverse as neurological dysfunction, work zone design, and driver distraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Superluminal warp drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-09-20

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  14. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  15. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  16. Mouse Models as Predictors of Human Responses: Evolutionary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Elizabeth W; Warner, Natalie J

    Mice offer a number of advantages and are extensively used to model human diseases and drug responses. Selective breeding and genetic manipulation of mice have made many different genotypes and phenotypes available for research. However, in many cases, mouse models have failed to be predictive. Important sources of the prediction problem have been the failure to consider the evolutionary basis for species differences, especially in drug metabolism, and disease definitions that do not reflect the complexity of gene expression underlying disease phenotypes. Incorporating evolutionary insights into mouse models allow for unique opportunities to characterize the effects of diet, different gene expression profiles, and microbiomics underlying human drug responses and disease phenotypes.

  17. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of niche construction for its agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylafis, Grigoris; Loreau, Michel

    2008-10-01

    Niche construction can generate ecological and evolutionary feedbacks that have been underinvestigated so far. We present an eco-evolutionary model that incorporates the process of niche construction to reveal its effects on the ecology and evolution of the niche-constructing agent. We consider a simple plant-soil nutrient ecosystem in which plants have the ability to increase the input of inorganic nutrient as an example of positive niche construction. On an ecological time scale, the model shows that niche construction allows the persistence of plants under infertile soil conditions that would otherwise lead to their extinction. This expansion of plants' niche, however, requires a high enough rate of niche construction and a high enough initial plant biomass to fuel the positive ecological feedback between plants and their soil environment. On an evolutionary time scale, we consider that the rates of niche construction and nutrient uptake coevolve in plants while a trade-off constrains their values. Different evolutionary outcomes are possible depending on the shape of the trade-off. We show that niche construction results in an evolutionary feedback between plants and their soil environment such that plants partially regulate soil nutrient content. The direct benefit accruing to plants, however, plays a crucial role in the evolutionary advantage of niche construction.

  18. Evolutionary inference via the Poisson Indel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Côté, Alexandre; Jordan, Michael I

    2013-01-22

    We address the problem of the joint statistical inference of phylogenetic trees and multiple sequence alignments from unaligned molecular sequences. This problem is generally formulated in terms of string-valued evolutionary processes along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. The classic evolutionary process, the TKF91 model [Thorne JL, Kishino H, Felsenstein J (1991) J Mol Evol 33(2):114-124] is a continuous-time Markov chain model composed of insertion, deletion, and substitution events. Unfortunately, this model gives rise to an intractable computational problem: The computation of the marginal likelihood under the TKF91 model is exponential in the number of taxa. In this work, we present a stochastic process, the Poisson Indel Process (PIP), in which the complexity of this computation is reduced to linear. The Poisson Indel Process is closely related to the TKF91 model, differing only in its treatment of insertions, but it has a global characterization as a Poisson process on the phylogeny. Standard results for Poisson processes allow key computations to be decoupled, which yields the favorable computational profile of inference under the PIP model. We present illustrative experiments in which Bayesian inference under the PIP model is compared with separate inference of phylogenies and alignments.

  19. Integrating Evolutionary Game Theory into Mechanistic Genotype-Phenotype Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuli; Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Sun, Lidan; Gragnoli, Claudia; Wu, Rongling

    2016-05-01

    Natural selection has shaped the evolution of organisms toward optimizing their structural and functional design. However, how this universal principle can enhance genotype-phenotype mapping of quantitative traits has remained unexplored. Here we show that the integration of this principle and functional mapping through evolutionary game theory gains new insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits. By viewing phenotype formation as an evolutionary system, we formulate mathematical equations to model the ecological mechanisms that drive the interaction and coordination of its constituent components toward population dynamics and stability. Functional mapping provides a procedure for estimating the genetic parameters that specify the dynamic relationship of competition and cooperation and predicting how genes mediate the evolution of this relationship during trait formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phanerozoic changes in hardpart availability and utilization in benthic communities: evolutionary ecology or evolutionary stratigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Published experiments on modern communities and quantitative data from Miocene assemblages indicate that the accumulation of dead hardparts can drive specific changes in the composition of benthic communities (taphonomic feedback). Both opportunities and pathways of taphonomic feedback have changed over the Phanerozoic, however, owing to the evolution and environmental expansion of hardpart producers, utilizers, and destroyers. These changes were tracked using semi-quantitative estimates of hardpart availability based on familial diversity of the most abundant taxa, scored according to preservation potential at or near the seafloor. The data suggest a dramatic increase in hardpart availability from the Cambrian into the later Paleozoic, with a decline through the Mesozoic and Cenozoic related to the loss or dramatic reduction in calcitic epifauna, recliners on soft substrata, and large shelled nekton/plankton. The reduction in opportunities for taphonomic feedback among epifauna was accompanied by an increase in levels of infaunal interactions in the Cenozoic, which is characterized by fully three-dimensional shell gravels. In addition to evolutionary change in body sizes of hardpart producers and biotically-driven declines in certain benthic life habits, the change in pathways of taphonomic feedback was also a consequence of the large-scale shift from predominantly carbonate sedimentation in the Paleozoic to predominantly terrigenous sedimentation in the Cenozoic. For example, the waning of epifauna-dominated communities is closely associated with the restriction of level-bottom carbonate environments through the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The global evolution of sedimentary environments and their relative representation is important not only in its consequences for sampling but as a driving mechanism of evolutionary ecology of marine benthos.

  1. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  2. Wrong-way driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Wrong-way driving is a phenomenon that mainly happens on motorways. Although the number of wrong-way crashes is relatively limited, their consequences are much more severe than the consequences of other motorway injury crashes. The groups most often causing wrong-way driving accidents are young,

  3. Recognizing driving in haste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rendón-Vélez, E.

    2014-01-01

    One can often hear people discussing the reasons why a road accident has happened: “She had to pick up her kids in the school before four o’clock and she was driving in haste and careless”, “He was stressed, he wanted to reach the beginning of the football match, tried to drive faster and didn't

  4. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To secure the reactor operation safety by the provision of a fluid pressure detecting section for control rod driving fluid and a control rod interlock at the midway of the flow pass for supplying driving fluid to the control rod drives. Constitution: Between a driving line and a direction control valve are provided a pressure detecting portion, an alarm generating device, and a control rod inhibition interlock. The driving fluid from a driving fluid source is discharged by way of a pump and a manual valve into the reactor in which the control rods and reactor fuels are contained. In addition, when the direction control valve is switched and the control rods are inserted and extracted by the control rod drives, the pressure in the driving line is always detected by the pressure detection section, whereby if abnormal pressure is resulted, the alarm generating device is actuated to warn the abnormality and the control rod inhibition interlock is actuated to lock the direction control valve thereby secure the safety operation of the reactor. (Seki, T.)

  5. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  6. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  7. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  8. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  9. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  10. Evolutionary engineering for industrial microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanee, Niti; Fisher, Adam B; Fong, Stephen S

    2012-01-01

    Superficially, evolutionary engineering is a paradoxical field that balances competing interests. In natural settings, evolution iteratively selects and enriches subpopulations that are best adapted to a particular ecological niche using random processes such as genetic mutation. In engineering desired approaches utilize rational prospective design to address targeted problems. When considering details of evolutionary and engineering processes, more commonality can be found. Engineering relies on detailed knowledge of the problem parameters and design properties in order to predict design outcomes that would be an optimized solution. When detailed knowledge of a system is lacking, engineers often employ algorithmic search strategies to identify empirical solutions. Evolution epitomizes this iterative optimization by continuously diversifying design options from a parental design, and then selecting the progeny designs that represent satisfactory solutions. In this chapter, the technique of applying the natural principles of evolution to engineer microbes for industrial applications is discussed to highlight the challenges and principles of evolutionary engineering.

  11. The lifetime of the control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avet, B.; Cauquelin, C.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetime of the control rod drives is studied. Their function is to take out or to pull in the control rods. The drive and the experiments carried out, are described. The analysis of the behaviour under operation, the drive inspections and surveyance, are also considered. The results are obtained from: the investigations performed on the fatigue strength of the 900 MW and 1300 MW drives, which allowed to deduce a low of wear and to identify the important aspects to be studied, the measurements of the dynamical stresses of mobile elements and a dynamical calculation model. The study leads to the conclusion that a probabilistic approach is needed for the fatigue damage analysis of some elements. Moreover, a systematic examination is also needed, to verify the agreement betwem the drives calculated aging values and the measured ones [fr

  12. Analysis of Knowledge-Sharing Evolutionary Game in University Teacher Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Mingkui

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge-sharing activity is a major drive force behind the progress and innovation of university teacher team. Based on the evolutionary game theory, this article analyzes the knowledge-sharing process model of this team, studies the influencing mechanism of various factors such as knowledge aggregate gap, incentive coefficient and risk…

  13. High-risk driving attitudes and everyday driving violations of car and racing enthusiasts in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim-Yenier, Zümrüt; Vingilis, Evelyn; Wiesenthal, David L; Mann, Robert E; Seeley, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes and individual difference variables of car and racing enthusiasts regarding high-risk behaviors of street racing and stunt driving have recently been investigated. Positive attitudes toward high-risk driving, personality variables such as driver thrill seeking, and other self-reported risky driving acts were associated with these behaviors. However, probable relationships among high-risk driving tendencies, everyday driving behaviors, and negative road safety outcomes have remained largely unexamined. This study aimed to investigate the associations among car and racing enthusiasts' high-risk driving attitudes, self-reported everyday driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations), and self-reported negative outcomes (i.e., collisions and driving offense citations). A web-based survey was conducted with members and visitors of car club and racing websites in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from 366 participants. The questionnaire included 4 attitude measures-(1) attitudes toward new penalties for Ontario's Street Racers, Stunt and Aggressive Drivers Legislation; (2) attitudes toward new offenses of stunt driving under the same legislation; (3) general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving; (4) comparison of street racing with other risky driving behaviors-self-reported driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations); self-reported collisions and offense citations; and background and driving questions (e.g., age, driving frequency). Results revealed that attitudes toward stunt driving offenses negatively and general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted ordinary violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. Moreover, general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted aggressive violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. The findings indicate that positive high-risk driving attitudes may be transferring to driving violations in

  14. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  15. Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769

  16. Driving range estimation for electric vehicles based on driving condition identification and forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Dai, Wei; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Wang, Limei

    2017-10-01

    With the impact of serious environmental pollution in our cities combined with the ongoing depletion of oil resources, electric vehicles are becoming highly favored as means of transport. Not only for the advantage of low noise, but for their high energy efficiency and zero pollution. The Power battery is used as the energy source of electric vehicles. However, it does currently still have a few shortcomings, noticeably the low energy density, with high costs and short cycle life results in limited mileage compared with conventional passenger vehicles. There is great difference in vehicle energy consumption rate under different environment and driving conditions. Estimation error of current driving range is relatively large due to without considering the effects of environmental temperature and driving conditions. The development of a driving range estimation method will have a great impact on the electric vehicles. A new driving range estimation model based on the combination of driving cycle identification and prediction is proposed and investigated. This model can effectively eliminate mileage errors and has good convergence with added robustness. Initially the identification of the driving cycle is based on Kernel Principal Component feature parameters and fuzzy C referring to clustering algorithm. Secondly, a fuzzy rule between the characteristic parameters and energy consumption is established under MATLAB/Simulink environment. Furthermore the Markov algorithm and BP(Back Propagation) neural network method is utilized to predict the future driving conditions to improve the accuracy of the remaining range estimation. Finally, driving range estimation method is carried out under the ECE 15 condition by using the rotary drum test bench, and the experimental results are compared with the estimation results. Results now show that the proposed driving range estimation method can not only estimate the remaining mileage, but also eliminate the fluctuation of the

  17. Bigger Is Fitter? Quantitative Genetic Decomposition of Selection Reveals an Adaptive Evolutionary Decline of Body Mass in a Wild Rodent Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée Bonnet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In natural populations, quantitative trait dynamics often do not appear to follow evolutionary predictions. Despite abundant examples of natural selection acting on heritable traits, conclusive evidence for contemporary adaptive evolution remains rare for wild vertebrate populations, and phenotypic stasis seems to be the norm. This so-called "stasis paradox" highlights our inability to predict evolutionary change, which is especially concerning within the context of rapid anthropogenic environmental change. While the causes underlying the stasis paradox are hotly debated, comprehensive attempts aiming at a resolution are lacking. Here, we apply a quantitative genetic framework to individual-based long-term data for a wild rodent population and show that despite a positive association between body mass and fitness, there has been a genetic change towards lower body mass. The latter represents an adaptive response to viability selection favouring juveniles growing up to become relatively small adults, i.e., with a low potential adult mass, which presumably complete their development earlier. This selection is particularly strong towards the end of the snow-free season, and it has intensified in recent years, coinciding which a change in snowfall patterns. Importantly, neither the negative evolutionary change, nor the selective pressures that drive it, are apparent on the phenotypic level, where they are masked by phenotypic plasticity and a non causal (i.e., non genetic positive association between body mass and fitness, respectively. Estimating selection at the genetic level enabled us to uncover adaptive evolution in action and to identify the corresponding phenotypic selective pressure. We thereby demonstrate that natural populations can show a rapid and adaptive evolutionary response to a novel selective pressure, and that explicitly (quantitative genetic models are able to provide us with an understanding of the causes and consequences of

  18. Nucleotide Variability at Its Limit? Insights into the Number and Evolutionary Dynamics of the Sex-Determining Specificities of the Honey Bee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Sarah; Ferretti, Luca; Schöning, Caspar; Kinuthia, Wanja; Willemsen, David; Hasselmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the evolutionary processes driving nucleotide variation in multiallelic genes is limited by the number of genetic systems in which such genes occur. The complementary sex determiner (csd) gene in the honey bee Apis mellifera is an informative example for studying allelic diversity and the underlying evolutionary forces in a well-described model of balancing selection. Acting as the primary signal of sex determination, diploid individuals heterozygous for csd develop into females, whereas csd homozygotes are diploid males that have zero fitness. Examining 77 of the functional heterozygous csd allele pairs, we established a combinatorical criteria that provide insights into the minimum number of amino acid differences among those pairs. Given a data set of 244 csd sequences, we show that the total number of csd alleles found in A. mellifera ranges from 53 (locally) to 87 (worldwide), which is much higher than was previously reported (20). Using a coupon-collector model, we extrapolate the presence of in total 116–145 csd alleles worldwide. The hypervariable region (HVR) is of particular importance in determining csd allele specificity, and we provide for this region evidence of high evolutionary rate for length differences exceeding those of microsatellites. The proportion of amino acids driven by positive selection and the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions in the HVR-flanking regions reach values close to 1 but differ with respect to the HVR length. Using a model of csd coalescence, we identified the high originating rate of csd specificities as a major evolutionary force, leading to an origin of a novel csd allele every 400,000 years. The csd polymorphism frequencies in natural populations indicate an excess of new mutations, whereas signs of ancestral transspecies polymorphism can still be detected. This study provides a comprehensive view of the enormous diversity and the evolutionary forces shaping a multiallelic gene. PMID:24170493

  19. Nucleotide variability at its limit? Insights into the number and evolutionary dynamics of the sex-determining specificities of the honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Sarah; Ferretti, Luca; Schöning, Caspar; Kinuthia, Wanja; Willemsen, David; Hasselmann, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Deciphering the evolutionary processes driving nucleotide variation in multiallelic genes is limited by the number of genetic systems in which such genes occur. The complementary sex determiner (csd) gene in the honey bee Apis mellifera is an informative example for studying allelic diversity and the underlying evolutionary forces in a well-described model of balancing selection. Acting as the primary signal of sex determination, diploid individuals heterozygous for csd develop into females, whereas csd homozygotes are diploid males that have zero fitness. Examining 77 of the functional heterozygous csd allele pairs, we established a combinatorical criteria that provide insights into the minimum number of amino acid differences among those pairs. Given a data set of 244 csd sequences, we show that the total number of csd alleles found in A. mellifera ranges from 53 (locally) to 87 (worldwide), which is much higher than was previously reported (20). Using a coupon-collector model, we extrapolate the presence of in total 116-145 csd alleles worldwide. The hypervariable region (HVR) is of particular importance in determining csd allele specificity, and we provide for this region evidence of high evolutionary rate for length differences exceeding those of microsatellites. The proportion of amino acids driven by positive selection and the rate of nonsynonymous substitutions in the HVR-flanking regions reach values close to 1 but differ with respect to the HVR length. Using a model of csd coalescence, we identified the high originating rate of csd specificities as a major evolutionary force, leading to an origin of a novel csd allele every 400,000 years. The csd polymorphism frequencies in natural populations indicate an excess of new mutations, whereas signs of ancestral transspecies polymorphism can still be detected. This study provides a comprehensive view of the enormous diversity and the evolutionary forces shaping a multiallelic gene.

  20. Bigger Is Fitter? Quantitative Genetic Decomposition of Selection Reveals an Adaptive Evolutionary Decline of Body Mass in a Wild Rodent Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandeler, Peter; Camenisch, Glauco

    2017-01-01

    In natural populations, quantitative trait dynamics often do not appear to follow evolutionary predictions. Despite abundant examples of natural selection acting on heritable traits, conclusive evidence for contemporary adaptive evolution remains rare for wild vertebrate populations, and phenotypic stasis seems to be the norm. This so-called “stasis paradox” highlights our inability to predict evolutionary change, which is especially concerning within the context of rapid anthropogenic environmental change. While the causes underlying the stasis paradox are hotly debated, comprehensive attempts aiming at a resolution are lacking. Here, we apply a quantitative genetic framework to individual-based long-term data for a wild rodent population and show that despite a positive association between body mass and fitness, there has been a genetic change towards lower body mass. The latter represents an adaptive response to viability selection favouring juveniles growing up to become relatively small adults, i.e., with a low potential adult mass, which presumably complete their development earlier. This selection is particularly strong towards the end of the snow-free season, and it has intensified in recent years, coinciding which a change in snowfall patterns. Importantly, neither the negative evolutionary change, nor the selective pressures that drive it, are apparent on the phenotypic level, where they are masked by phenotypic plasticity and a non causal (i.e., non genetic) positive association between body mass and fitness, respectively. Estimating selection at the genetic level enabled us to uncover adaptive evolution in action and to identify the corresponding phenotypic selective pressure. We thereby demonstrate that natural populations can show a rapid and adaptive evolutionary response to a novel selective pressure, and that explicitly (quantitative) genetic models are able to provide us with an understanding of the causes and consequences of selection that is

  1. Evolutionary Aesthetics and Print Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.

  2. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity-Guided Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2002-01-01

    Population diversity is undoubtably a key issue in the performance of evolutionary algorithms. A common hypothesis is that high diversity is important to avoid premature convergence and to escape local optima. Various diversity measures have been used to analyze algorithms, but so far few...... algorithms have used a measure to guide the search. The diversity-guided evolutionary algorithm (DGEA) uses the wellknown distance-to-average-point measure to alternate between phases of exploration (mutation) and phases of exploitation (recombination and selection). The DGEA showed remarkable results...

  4. Comparison of electric drives for road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, C; Stephan, W [Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft m.b.H., Esslingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    The low energy-storage capacity of the electrolytic energy-storage apparatus available at the moment limits the practical use of electric vehicles to meeting the requirements for restricted areas. But in this field of application, conversion from drive with internal combustion engine to electric drive can be considered only if a reduction of costs is achieved with electric drive. From the wide range of possible drive units the most suitable is found to be the dc squirrelcage motor the speed of which is controlled by field weakening. In the case of a motor with conventional design, the controllable drive range is limited to about 1 : 3, so that generally additional measures are required for extending the drive range. But if the motor is fitted with a compensation winding, field weakening to give a controlled speed range of 1 : 8 can be obtained. To evaluate the different drive units under consideration use is made of the acceleration when, according to the drive system, advantages are obtained from the point of view of energy consumption with disadvantages in acceleration time, and vice versa. By using vehicles proven in practice with different drive systems, either with hydrodynamic transducer and battery switchover, or else with changeover gear and mechanical clutch, the overall construction of the different control and protective arrangements are demonstrated. It is then found that the extra cost of regulation in the case of automatic drive operation is partly compensated by the additional protective devices which are required to limit the effects of any incorrect operations with a manually-operated drive.

  5. DrivingSense: Dangerous Driving Behavior Identification Based on Smartphone Autocalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since pervasive smartphones own advanced computing capability and are equipped with various sensors, they have been used for dangerous driving behaviors detection, such as drunk driving. However, sensory data gathered by smartphones are noisy, which results in inaccurate driving behaviors estimations. Some existing works try to filter noise from sensor readings, but usually only the outlier data are filtered. The noises caused by hardware of the smartphone cannot be removed from the sensor reading. In this paper, we propose DrivingSense, a reliable dangerous driving behavior identification scheme based on smartphone autocalibration. We first theoretically analyze the impact of the sensor error on the vehicle driving behavior estimation. Then, we propose a smartphone autocalibration algorithm based on sensor noise distribution determination when a vehicle is being driven. DrivingSense leverages the corrected sensor parameters to identify three kinds of dangerous behaviors: speeding, irregular driving direction change, and abnormal speed control. We evaluate the effectiveness of our scheme under realistic environments. The results show that DrivingSense, on average, is able to detect the driving direction change event and abnormal speed control event with 93.95% precision and 90.54% recall, respectively. In addition, the speed estimation error is less than 2.1 m/s, which is an acceptable range.

  6. The evolutionary ecology of clonally propagated domesticated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKey, Doyle; Elias, Marianne; Pujol, Benoît; Duputié, Anne

    2010-04-01

    While seed-propagated crops have contributed many evolutionary insights, evolutionary biologists have often neglected clonally propagated crops. We argue that widespread notions about their evolution under domestication are oversimplified, and that they offer rich material for evolutionary studies. The diversity of their wild ancestors, the diverse ecologies of the crop populations themselves, and the intricate mix of selection pressures, acting not only on the parts harvested but also on the parts used by humans to make clonal propagules, result in complex and diverse evolutionary trajectories under domestication. We examine why farmers propagate some plants clonally, and discuss the evolutionary dynamics of sexual reproduction in clonal crops. We explore how their mixed clonal/sexual reproductive systems function, based on the sole example studied in detail, cassava (Manihot esculenta). Biotechnology is now expanding the number of clonal crops, continuing the 10 000-yr-old trend to increase crop yields by propagating elite genotypes. In an era of rapid global change, it is more important than ever to understand how the adaptive potential of clonal crops can be maintained. A key component of strategies for preserving this adaptive potential is the maintenance of mixed clonal/sexual systems, which can be achieved by encouraging and valuing farmer knowledge about the sexual reproductive biology of their clonal crops.

  7. Autoimmunity as a Driving Force of Cognitive Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Nataf

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated “brain superautoantigens” theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire. Such a selection pressure on immune genes has translated into the emergence of a finely tuned autoimmune T-cell repertoire that promotes cognition. In another hand, the evolutionary-determined emergence of brain-autoreactive T-cells has exerted a selection pressure on neural genes coding for brain superautoantigens. Such a selection pressure has translated into the emergence of a neural repertoire (defined here as the whole of neurons, synapses and non-neuronal cells involved in cognitive functions expressing brain superautoantigens. Overall, the brain superautoantigens theory suggests that cognitive evolution might have been primarily driven by internal cues rather than external environmental conditions. Importantly, while providing a unique molecular connection between neural and T-cell repertoires under physiological conditions, brain superautoantigens may also constitute an Achilles heel responsible for the particular susceptibility of Homo sapiens to “neuroimmune co-pathologies” i.e., disorders affecting both neural and T-cell repertoires. These may notably include paraneoplastic syndromes, multiple sclerosis as well as autism, schizophrenia and neurodegenerative diseases. In the context of this theoretical frame, a specific

  8. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  9. Darwinian foundations for evolutionary economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper engages with the methodological debate on the contribution of Darwinism to Veblen's (1898) evolutionary research program for economics. I argue that ontological continuity, generalized Darwinism, and multi-level selection are necessary building blocks for an explanatory framework that can

  10. Ernst Mayr and Evolutionary Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 7. Polemics and Synthesis: Ernst Mayr and Evolutionary Biology. Renee M Borges. General Article Volume 10 Issue 7 July 2005 pp 21-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Evolutionary Biology Research in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Evolutionary Biology Research in India. Information and Announcements Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 102-104. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/10/0102-0104 ...

  12. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  13. Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Prohaska, Ana; Racimo, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleo...

  14. Genetical Genomics for Evolutionary Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.C.P.; Smant, G.; Jansen, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Genetical genomics combines acquired high-throughput genomic data with genetic analysis. In this chapter, we discuss the application of genetical genomics for evolutionary studies, where new high-throughput molecular technologies are combined with mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) on the genome

  15. Evolutionary trends in directional hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Tympanic hearing is a true evolutionary novelty that arose in parallel within early tetrapods. We propose that in these tetrapods, selection for sound localization in air acted upon pre-existing directionally sensitive brainstem circuits, similar to those in fishes. Auditory circuits in birds...

  16. Evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of Cytogenetic and Genome Research (edited by Roscoe Stanyon, University of Florence and Alexander Graphodatsky, Siberian division of the Russian Academy of Sciences is dedicated to the fascinating long search of the forces behind the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes, revealed after the hypotonic miracle of the 1950s....

  17. Haldane and modern evolutionary genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brian Charlesworth

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... q(t) of an allele at a locus among the gametes produced at time t, to its .... the importance of disease as an evolutionary factor, which is now a ..... VII. Selection intensity as a function of mortality rate. Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc.

  18. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  19. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  20. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  1. Testing evolutionary hypotheses for phenotypic divergence using landscape genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W Chris; Murphy, Melanie A

    2010-02-01

    Understanding the evolutionary causes of phenotypic variation among populations has long been a central theme in evolutionary biology. Several factors can influence phenotypic divergence, including geographic isolation, genetic drift, divergent natural or sexual selection, and phenotypic plasticity. But the relative importance of these factors in generating phenotypic divergence in nature is still a tantalizing and unresolved problem in evolutionary biology. The origin and maintenance of phenotypic divergence is also at the root of many ongoing debates in evolutionary biology, such as the extent to which gene flow constrains adaptive divergence (Garant et al. 2007) and the relative importance of genetic drift, natural selection, and sexual selection in initiating reproductive isolation and speciation (Coyne & Orr 2004). In this issue, Wang & Summers (2010) test the causes of one of the most fantastic examples of phenotypic divergence in nature: colour pattern divergence among populations of the strawberry poison frog (Dendrobates pumilio) in Panama and Costa Rica (Fig. 1). This study provides a beautiful example of the use of the emerging field of landscape genetics to differentiate among hypotheses for phenotypic divergence. Using landscape genetic analyses, Wang & Summers were able to reject the hypotheses that colour pattern divergence is due to isolation-by-distance (IBD) or landscape resistance. Instead, the hypothesis left standing is that colour divergence is due to divergent selection, in turn driving reproductive isolation among populations with different colour morphs. More generally, this study provides a wonderful example of how the emerging field of landscape genetics, which has primarily been applied to questions in conservation and ecology, now plays an essential role in evolutionary research.

  2. Evolutionary Explanations for Antibiotic Resistance in Daily Press, Online Websites and Biology Textbooks in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Gustav; Höst, Gunnar E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study explores the extent and precision of evolutionary explanations for antibiotic resistance in communication directed toward the Swedish public. Bacterial resistance develops through evolutionary mechanisms and knowledge of these helps to explain causes underlying the growing prevalence of resistant strains, as well as important…

  3. Can Evolutionary Principles Explain Patterns of Family Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2013-01-01

    The article's aim is to evaluate the application of the evolutionary principles of kin selection, reproductive value, and resource holding power to the understanding of family violence. The principles are described in relation to specific predictions and the mechanisms underlying these. Predictions are evaluated for physical violence perpetrated…

  4. On the stability of the Cournot equilibrium: An evolutionary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.H.; Ochea, M.I.; Tuinstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    We construct an evolutionary version of Theocharis (1960)'s seminal work on the stability of equilibrium in multi-player quantity-setting oligopolies. Two sets of behavioral heuristics are investigated under fixed and endogenously evolving fractions: (myopic) Cournot firms vs. Nash firms and Cournot

  5. Reconstructing a hopeful theology in the context of evolutionary ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keogh, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to articulate a theological metaethic which accepts the nature of ethics as understood under the rubric of evolutionary theory. It will be argued that such a theological methaethic can be interpreted as hopeful and optimistic given the apparent evolution of the moral

  6. Modeling evolutionary games in populations with demographic structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Giaimo, Stefano; Baudisch, Annette

    2015-01-01

    interactions, but usually omits life history and the demographic structure of the population. Here we show how an integration of both aspects can substantially alter the underlying evolutionary dynamics. We study the replicator dynamics of strategy interactions in life stage structured populations. Individuals...

  7. Self-organized modularization in evolutionary algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauscher, Peter; Uthmann, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The principle of modularization has proven to be extremely successful in the field of technical applications and particularly for Software Engineering purposes. The question to be answered within the present article is whether mechanisms can also be identified within the framework of Evolutionary Computation that cause a modularization of solutions. We will concentrate on processes, where modularization results only from the typical evolutionary operators, i.e. selection and variation by recombination and mutation (and not, e.g., from special modularization operators). This is what we call Self-Organized Modularization. Based on a combination of two formalizations by Radcliffe and Altenberg, some quantitative measures of modularity are introduced. Particularly, we distinguish Built-in Modularity as an inherent property of a genotype and Effective Modularity, which depends on the rest of the population. These measures can easily be applied to a wide range of present Evolutionary Computation models. It will be shown, both theoretically and by simulation, that under certain conditions, Effective Modularity (as defined within this paper) can be a selection factor. This causes Self-Organized Modularization to take place. The experimental observations emphasize the importance of Effective Modularity in comparison with Built-in Modularity. Although the experimental results have been obtained using a minimalist toy model, they can lead to a number of consequences for existing models as well as for future approaches. Furthermore, the results suggest a complex self-amplification of highly modular equivalence classes in the case of respected relations. Since the well-known Holland schemata are just the equivalence classes of respected relations in most Simple Genetic Algorithms, this observation emphasizes the role of schemata as Building Blocks (in comparison with arbitrary subsets of the search space).

  8. Evolutionary Computing Methods for Spectral Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrile, Richard; Fink, Wolfgang; Huntsberger, Terrance; Lee, Seugwon; Tisdale, Edwin; VonAllmen, Paul; Tinetti, Geivanna

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for processing spectral images to retrieve information on underlying physical, chemical, and/or biological phenomena is based on evolutionary and related computational methods implemented in software. In a typical case, the solution (the information that one seeks to retrieve) consists of parameters of a mathematical model that represents one or more of the phenomena of interest. The methodology was developed for the initial purpose of retrieving the desired information from spectral image data acquired by remote-sensing instruments aimed at planets (including the Earth). Examples of information desired in such applications include trace gas concentrations, temperature profiles, surface types, day/night fractions, cloud/aerosol fractions, seasons, and viewing angles. The methodology is also potentially useful for retrieving information on chemical and/or biological hazards in terrestrial settings. In this methodology, one utilizes an iterative process that minimizes a fitness function indicative of the degree of dissimilarity between observed and synthetic spectral and angular data. The evolutionary computing methods that lie at the heart of this process yield a population of solutions (sets of the desired parameters) within an accuracy represented by a fitness-function value specified by the user. The evolutionary computing methods (ECM) used in this methodology are Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing, both of which are well-established optimization techniques and have also been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These are embedded in a conceptual framework, represented in the architecture of the implementing software, that enables automatic retrieval of spectral and angular data and analysis of the retrieved solutions for uniqueness.

  9. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  10. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, A.; Pulle, D.W.J.; de Doncker, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, user-friendly, color illustrated introductory text for electrical drive systems that simplifies the understanding of electrical machine principles Updated edition covers innovations in machine design, power semi-conductors, digital signal processors and simulation software Presents

  11. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  12. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  13. What Drives The Changes In The Gulf Oil Monarchies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kjurchiski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies four main events driving the current changes in thePersian Gulfoil monarchies. Located in a troubled and unstable region of the Middle East with the oil prices declining after the events of the “Arab spring” and election of Donald Trump as president of theUnited States, Gulf oil monarchies are under pressure from inside and outside to undergo significant changes. As a consequence, validity of the theory of «monarchical exclusiveness» is called into question. The political elites in the monarchies recognize the need to depart from the status quo, although the phenomenon of the «king’s dilemma» is still present there. The author argues that the monarchy should undergo conservative liberalization. To avoid political destabilization they should apply a gradual, evolutionary approach to liberalization providing their societies with enough time to adapt to new developments. Along with the gradual liberalisation process there is also need in institutional development to make institutions stronger and more independent.

  14. Towards a mechanistic foundation of evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebeli, Michael; Ispolatov, Yaroslav; Simon, Burt

    2017-02-15

    Most evolutionary thinking is based on the notion of fitness and related ideas such as fitness landscapes and evolutionary optima. Nevertheless, it is often unclear what fitness actually is, and its meaning often depends on the context. Here we argue that fitness should not be a basal ingredient in verbal or mathematical descriptions of evolution. Instead, we propose that evolutionary birth-death processes, in which individuals give birth and die at ever-changing rates, should be the basis of evolutionary theory, because such processes capture the fundamental events that generate evolutionary dynamics. In evolutionary birth-death processes, fitness is at best a derived quantity, and owing to the potential complexity of such processes, there is no guarantee that there is a simple scalar, such as fitness, that would describe long-term evolutionary outcomes. We discuss how evolutionary birth-death processes can provide useful perspectives on a number of central issues in evolution.

  15. Applied evolutionary economics and economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.

    2007-01-01

    Applied Evolutionary Economics and Economic Geography" aims to further advance empirical methodologies in evolutionary economics, with a special emphasis on geography and firm location. It does so by bringing together a select group of leading scholars including economists, geographers and

  16. Evolutionary biology of bacterial and fungal pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baquero, F

    2008-01-01

    ... and Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathogens * 21 Keith A. Crandall and Marcos Pérez-Losada II. Evolutionary Genetics of Microbial Pathogens 4. Environmental and Social Influences on Infectious Disea...

  17. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  18. Control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooshima, Yoshio.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To perform reliable scram operation, even if abnormality should occur in a system instructing scram operation in FBR type reactors. Constitution: An aluminum alloy member to be melt at a predetermined temperature (about 600sup(o)C) is disposed to a connection part between a control rod and a driving mechanism, whereby the control rod is detached from the driving mechanism and gravitationally fallen to the reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  19. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  20. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  1. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  2. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  4. The citation field of evolutionary economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary economics has developed into an academic field of its own, institutionalized around, amongst others, the Journal of Evolutionary Economics (JEE). This paper analyzes the way and extent to which evolutionary economics has become an interdisciplinary journal, as its aim was: a journal

  5. Essays on nonlinear evolutionary game dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochea, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory has been viewed as an evolutionary repair of rational actor game theory in the hope that a population of boundedly rational players may attain convergence to classic rational solutions, such as the Nash Equilibrium, via some learning or evolutionary process. In this thesis

  6. Evolutionary hypothesis for Chiari type I malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Yvens Barbosa; Ramina, Ricardo; Campos-Herrera, Cynthia Resende; Borges, Guilherme

    2013-10-01

    Chiari I malformation (CM-I) is classically defined as a cerebellar tonsillar herniation (≥5 mm) through the foramen magnum. A decreased posterior fossa volume, mainly due to basioccipital hypoplasia and sometimes platybasia, leads to posterior fossa overcrowding and consequently cerebellar herniation. Regardless of radiological findings, embryological genetic hypothesis or any other postulations, the real cause behind this malformation is yet not well-elucidated and remains largely unknown. The aim of this paper is to approach CM-I under a broader and new perspective, conjoining anthropology, genetics and neurosurgery, with special focus on the substantial changes that have occurred in the posterior cranial base through human evolution. Important evolutionary allometric changes occurred during brain expansion and genetics studies of human evolution demonstrated an unexpected high rate of gene flow interchange and possibly interbreeding during this process. Based upon this review we hypothesize that CM-I may be the result of an evolutionary anthropological imprint, caused by evolving species populations that eventually met each other and mingled in the last 1.7 million years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolutionary origins of mechanosensitive ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinac, Boris; Kloda, Anna

    2003-01-01

    According to the recent revision, the universal phylogenetic tree is composed of three domains: Eukarya (eukaryotes), Bacteria (eubacteria) and Archaea (archaebacteria). Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels have been documented in cells belonging to all three domains suggesting their very early appearance during evolution of life on Earth. The channels show great diversity in conductance, selectivity and voltage dependence, while sharing the property of being gated by mechanical stimuli exerted on cell membranes. In prokaryotes, MS channels were first documented in Bacteria followed by their discovery in Archaea. The finding of MS channels in archaeal cells helped to recognize and establish the evolutionary relationship between bacterial and archaeal MS channels and to show that this relationship extends to eukaryotic Fungi (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and Plants (Arabidopsis thaliana). Similar to their bacterial and archaeal homologues, MS channels in eukaryotic cell-walled Fungi and Plants may serve in protecting the cellular plasma membrane from excessive dilation and rupture that may occur during osmotic stress. This review summarizes briefly some of the recent developments in the MS channel research field that may ultimately lead to elucidation of the biophysical and evolutionary principles underlying the mechanosensory transduction in living cells.

  8. Evolutionary dynamics of cooperation in neutral populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2018-01-01

    Cooperation is a difficult proposition in the face of Darwinian selection. Those that defect have an evolutionary advantage over cooperators who should therefore die out. However, spatial structure enables cooperators to survive through the formation of homogeneous clusters, which is the hallmark of network reciprocity. Here we go beyond this traditional setup and study the spatiotemporal dynamics of cooperation in a population of populations. We use the prisoner's dilemma game as the mathematical model and show that considering several populations simultaneously gives rise to fascinating spatiotemporal dynamics and pattern formation. Even the simplest assumption that strategies between different populations are payoff-neutral with one another results in the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, where defectors of one population become prey of cooperators in the other population, and vice versa. Moreover, if social interactions within different populations are characterized by significantly different temptations to defect, we observe that defectors in the population with the largest temptation counterintuitively vanish the fastest, while cooperators that hang on eventually take over the whole available space. Our results reveal that considering the simultaneous presence of different populations significantly expands the complexity of evolutionary dynamics in structured populations, and it allows us to understand the stability of cooperation under adverse conditions that could never be bridged by network reciprocity alone.

  9. Emergence of structured communities through evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtilerman, Elad; Kessler, David A; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2015-10-21

    Species-rich communities, in which many competing species coexist in a single trophic level, are quite frequent in nature, but pose a formidable theoretical challenge. In particular, it is known that complex competitive systems become unstable and unfeasible when the number of species is large. Recently, many studies have attributed the stability of natural communities to the structure of the interspecific interaction network, yet the nature of such structures and the underlying mechanisms responsible for them remain open questions. Here we introduce an evolutionary model, based on the generic Lotka-Volterra competitive framework, from which a stable, structured, diverse community emerges spontaneously. The modular structure of the competition matrix reflects the phylogeny of the community, in agreement with the hierarchial taxonomic classification. Closely related species tend to have stronger niche overlap and weaker fitness differences, as opposed to pairs of species from different modules. The competitive-relatedness hypothesis and the idea of emergent neutrality are discussed in the context of this evolutionary model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toward an evolutionary definition of cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoul, Melanie; Griffin, Ashleigh S; West, Stuart A

    2014-02-01

    The term "cheating" is used in the evolutionary and ecological literature to describe a wide range of exploitative or deceitful traits. Although many find this a useful short hand, others have suggested that it implies cognitive intent in a misleading way, and is used inconsistently. We provide a formal justification of the use of the term "cheat" from the perspective of an individual as a maximizing agent. We provide a definition for cheating that can be applied widely, and show that cheats can be broadly classified on the basis of four distinctions: (i) whether cooperation is an option; (ii) whether deception is involved; (iii) whether members of the same or different species are cheated; and (iv) whether the cheat is facultative or obligate. Our formal definition and classification provide a framework that allow us to resolve and clarify a number of issues, regarding the detection and evolutionary consequences of cheating, as well as illuminating common principles and similarities in the underlying selection pressures. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Yin and yang surfaces: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, David

    2014-12-01

    A search of the Chinese medicine literature reveals several conflicting explanations of the division of the body into yin and yang surfaces. This paper attempts to clarify this basic concept and reconcile the differing descriptions of it through an exploration of material from other disciplines. A remarkable similarity exists between the surfaces on the human body that are defined by the pathways of the yin and yang meridians and those that have evolved from the ventral and the dorsal aspects of early vertebrate structure. Many of the evolutionary changes described have parallels in our embryological development and are evident in the underlying anatomy of our limbs. The degree of convergence between the two descriptions strongly supports the definition of the yin and yang surfaces as those traversed by the yin and yang meridians. It also goes a long way towards reconciling the conflicting definitions found in the literature. Finding a solution to this question of yin and yang surfaces that is based on anatomy and evolutionary theories has several advantages. It can throw light on differences in the clinical effects of points on the yin and yang meridians and enable the identification of anomalies in the pathways of the main meridian network. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Schroedinger operators and evolutionary strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselmeyer, T.

    1997-01-01

    First we introduce a simple model for the description of evolutionary algorithms, which is based on 2nd order partial differential equations for the distribution function of the individuals. Then we turn to the properties of Boltzmann's and Darwin's strategy. the next chapter is dedicated to the mathematical properties of Schroedinger operators. Both statements on the spectral density and their reproducibility during the simulation are summarized. The remaining of this chapter are dedicated to the analysis of the kernel as well as the dependence of the Schroedinger operator on the potential. As conclusion from the results of this chapter we obtain the classification of the strategies in dependence of the fitness. We obtain the classification of the evolutionary strategies, which are described by a 2nd order partial differential equation, in relation to their solution behaviour. Thereafter we are employed with the variation of the mutation distribution

  13. Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to solve current problems of conceptual fragmentation within the field of evolutionary economics. One of the problems, as noted by a number of observers, is that the field suffers from an assemblage of fragmented and scattered concepts (Boschma and Martin 2010). A solution...... to this problem is proposed in the form of a model of exponential expansion. The model outlines the overall structure and function of the economy as exponential expansion. The pictographic model describes four axiomatic concepts and their exponential nature. The interactive, directional, emerging and expanding...... concepts are described in detail. Taken together it provides the rudimentary aspects of an economic system within an analytical perspective. It is argued that the main dynamic processes of the evolutionary perspective can be reduced to these four concepts. The model and concepts are evaluated in the light...

  14. Preventive evolutionary medicine of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Michael E; Thomas, Frédéric; Assenat, Eric; Hibner, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that once an individual reaches an age of sufficiently low Darwinian fitness, (s)he will have reduced chances of keeping cancerous lesions in check. While we clearly need to better understand the emergence of precursor states and early malignancies as well as their mitigation by the microenvironment and tissue architecture, we argue that lifestyle changes and preventive therapies based in an evolutionary framework, applied to identified high-risk populations before incipient neoplasms become clinically detectable and chemoresistant lineages emerge, are currently the most reliable way to control or eliminate early tumours. Specifically, the relatively low levels of (epi)genetic heterogeneity characteristic of many if not most incipient lesions will mean a relatively limited set of possible adaptive traits and associated costs compared to more advanced cancers, and thus a more complete and predictable understanding of treatment options and outcomes. We propose a conceptual model for preventive treatments and discuss the many associated challenges.

  15. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu; Shamma, Jeff S.; Martins, Nuno C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  16. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu

    2018-03-21

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  17. [Evolutionary perspective in precocious puberty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2014-10-01

    Pubertal development is subject to substantial heritability, but much variation remains to be explained, including fast changes over the last 150 years, that cannot be explained by changes of gene frequency in the population. This article discusses the influence of environmental factors to adjust maturational tempo in the service of fitness goals. Utilizing evolutionary development thinking (evo-devo), the author examines adolescence as an evolutionary life-history stage in its developmental context. The transition from the preceding stage of juvenility entails adaptive plasticity in response to energy resources, social needs of adolescence and maturation toward youth and adulthood. Using Belsky's evolutionary theory of socialization, I show that familial psychosocial environment during the infancy-childhood and childhood-juvenility transitions foster a fast life-history and reproductive strategy rather than early maturation being just a risk factor for aggression and delinquency. The implications of the evo-devo framework for theory building, illuminates new directions in the understanding of precocious puberty other than a diagnosis of a disease.

  18. Incorporating Development Into Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Bjorklund

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental thinking is gradually becoming integrated within mainstream evolutionary psychology. This is most apparent with respect to the role of parenting, with proponents of life history theory arguing that cognitive and behavioral plasticity early in life permits children to select different life history strategies, with such strategies being adaptive solutions to different fitness trade-offs. I argue that adaptations develop and are based on the highly plastic nature of infants’ and children’s behavior/cognition/brains. The concept of evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms is introduced, defined as information processing mechanisms evolved to solve recurrent problems faced by ancestral populations that are expressed in a probabilistic fashion in each individual in a generation and are based on the continuous and bidirectional interaction over time at all levels of organization, from the genetic through the cultural. Early perceptual/cognitive biases result in behavior that, when occurring in a species-typical environment, produce continuous adaptive changes in behavior (and cognition, yielding adaptive outcomes. Examples from social learning and tool use are provided, illustrating the development of adaptations via evolved probabilistic cognitive mechanisms. The integration of developmental concepts into mainstream evolutionary psychology (and evolutionary concepts into mainstream developmental psychology will provide a clearer picture of what it means to be human.

  19. Testing evolutionary convergence on Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chela-Flores, Julian [Instituto de Estudios Avanzados, Caracas (Venezuela); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2002-11-01

    A major objective in solar system exploration is the insertion of appropriate biology-oriented experiments in future missions. We discuss various reasons for suggesting that this type of research be considered a high priority for feasibility studies and, subsequently, for technological development of appropriate melters and submersibles. Based on numerous examples, we argue in favour of the assumption that Darwin's theory is valid for the evolution of life anywhere in the universe. We have suggested how to obtain preliminary insights into the question of the distribution of life in the universe. Universal evolution of intelligent behaviour is at the end of an evolutionary pathway, in which evolution of ion channels in the membrane of microorganisms occurs in its early stages. Further, we have argued that a preliminary test of this conjecture is feasible with experiments on the Europan surface or ocean, involving evolutionary biosignatures (ion channels). This aspect of the exploration for life in the solar system should be viewed as a complement to the astronomical approach for the search of evidence of the later stages of the evolutionary pathways towards intelligent behaviour. (author)

  20. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Expanding the eco-evolutionary context of herbicide resistance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Paul; Busi, Roberto; Renton, Michael; Vila-Aiub, Martin M

    2014-09-01

    The potential for human-driven evolution in economically and environmentally important organisms in medicine, agriculture and conservation management is now widely recognised. The evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds is a classic example of rapid adaptation in the face of human-mediated selection. Management strategies that aim to slow or prevent the evolution of herbicide resistance must be informed by an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary factors that drive selection in weed populations. Here, we argue for a greater focus on the ultimate causes of selection for resistance in herbicide resistance studies. The emerging fields of eco-evolutionary dynamics and applied evolutionary biology offer a means to achieve this goal and to consider herbicide resistance in a broader and sometimes novel context. Four relevant research questions are presented, which examine (i) the impact of herbicide dose on selection for resistance, (ii) plant fitness in herbicide resistance studies, (iii) the efficacy of herbicide rotations and mixtures and (iv) the impacts of gene flow on resistance evolution and spread. In all cases, fundamental ecology and evolution have the potential to offer new insights into herbicide resistance evolution and management. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. An evolutionary framework for the Jovian and Saturnian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The position of the satellite within the protonebula, the influence of the parent planet, particularly the relative effects of tidal (gravitational) as opposed to radiogenic (internal) heat generating processes, as well as the type of ice, exert a control on the evolutionary histories of the Jovian and Saturnian satellites. The landscapes of the moons are modified by surface deformational processes (tectonic activity derived from within the body) and externally derived cratering. The geological history of the Galilean satellites is deduced from surface stratigraphic successions of geological units. Io and Europa, with crater-free surfaces, are tectonically more advanced than crater-saturated Callisto. Two thermal-drive models are proposed based on: an expression for externally derived gravitational influences between two bodies; and internal heat generation via radiogenic decay (expressed by surface area/volume ratio). Both parameters, for the Galilean satellites, are plotted against an inferred product of tectonic processes - the age of the surface terrain. From these diagrams, the tectonic evolutionary state of the more distant Saturnian system are predicted. These moons are fitted into an evolutionary framework for the Solar System. 34 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  3. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatarinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  4. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Salih, Bilal; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit; Bolshoy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  5. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  6. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mavrič

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy poses a risk for all participants in road traffic; therefore people with epilepsy do not meet the criteria for an unlimited driving license. Their driving is affected not only by epileptic seizures causing impaired consciousness and involuntary movements, but also by antiepileptic drugs with their many unwanted affects. The experts have not yet agreed on whether people with epilepsy have an increased risk of experiencing a road traffic accident. However, recent data suggests that the overall risk is lower compared to other medical conditions. Scientific evidence forms the basis of legislation, which by limiting people with epilepsy, enables all participants in road traffic to drive in the safest possible environment. The legislation that governs epilepsy and driving in Slovenia has been recently thoroughly reformed and thus allows a less discriminatory management of people with epilepsy. Although people with epilepsy experience many issues in their daily life, including their personal relationships and employment, they often list the need for driving as a top concern in surveys. General physicians play an important role in managing the issues of people with epilepsy.

  7. Sixty-Five Million Years of Change in Temperature and Topography Explain Evolutionary History in Eastern North American Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard; Clark, Adam Thomas

    2017-07-01

    For many taxa and systems, species richness peaks at midelevations. One potential explanation for this pattern is that large-scale changes in climate and geography have, over evolutionary time, selected for traits that are favored under conditions found in contemporary midelevation regions. To test this hypothesis, we use records of historical temperature and topographic changes over the past 65 Myr to construct a general simulation model of plethodontid salamander evolution in eastern North America. We then explore possible mechanisms constraining species to midelevation bands by using the model to predict plethodontid evolutionary history and contemporary geographic distributions. Our results show that models that incorporate both temperature and topographic changes are better able to predict these patterns, suggesting that both processes may have played an important role in driving plethodontid evolution in the region. Additionally, our model (whose annotated source code is included as a supplement) represents a proof of concept to encourage future work that takes advantage of recent advances in computing power to combine models of ecology, evolution, and earth history to better explain the abundance and distribution of species over time.

  8. Self-rated Driving and Driving Safety in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lesley A.; Dodson, Joan; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ackerman, Michelle L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults’ self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving...

  9. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  10. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  11. The evolutionary roots of human decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Laurie R; Rosati, Alexandra G

    2015-01-03

    Humans exhibit a suite of biases when making economic decisions. We review recent research on the origins of human decision making by examining whether similar choice biases are seen in nonhuman primates, our closest phylogenetic relatives. We propose that comparative studies can provide insight into four major questions about the nature of human choice biases that cannot be addressed by studies of our species alone. First, research with other primates can address the evolution of human choice biases and identify shared versus human-unique tendencies in decision making. Second, primate studies can constrain hypotheses about the psychological mechanisms underlying such biases. Third, comparisons of closely related species can identify when distinct mechanisms underlie related biases by examining evolutionary dissociations in choice strategies. Finally, comparative work can provide insight into the biological rationality of economically irrational preferences.

  12. Dual transcriptomics reveals co-evolutionary mechanisms of intestinal parasite infections in blue mussels Mytilus edulis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feis, M.E.; John, U.; Lokmer, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Wegner, K.M.

    2018-01-01

    On theoretical grounds, antagonistic co-evolution between hosts and their parasitesshould be a widespread phenomenon but only received little empirical support sofar. Consequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary stepsremain elusive, especially in nonmodel systems. Here, we

  13. Potential determinants of drink driving in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José António; Sobral, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to examine the usefulness of the variables of the theory of planned behavior (viz. attitudes, social norms, and self-efficacy) and to explore the relationship between optimism bias and drink driving in young adults. In addition, we explored gender differences in drink driving with provision for the effect of variables such as driving frequency and alcohol consumption. Data were collected via a questionnaire administered to 274 drivers (59.9% females) aged 18-30 years (24.36 ± 2.96). The results obtained with provision for driving frequency revealed substantial differences in driving behaviors between genders. Thus, males were more prone to drink driving, perceived less disapproval by their significant others (parents and peers), and felt less able to avoid drinking-and-driving situations. In addition, they self-reported more frequent alcohol consumption and driving under the influence. The results also confirm the significance of peers' subjective norms and attitudes to drink driving in males. Overconfidence in their own driving skills for driving drunk and perceived behavioral control were found to be significant predictors for drink driving in females. Optimism bias also played a slightly significant role in predicting drink driving but only in females. The important practical implications of these results with a view to designing effective interventions to prevent the risks associated with drink driving in the young population are discussed. Interventions should focus on young people's perceptions of group norms and promoting cautionary driving choices and alternatives to drink driving.

  14. Dialling and driving: factors influencing intentions to use a mobile phone while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Shari P; White, Katherine M; Hyde, Melissa K; Watson, Barry

    2008-11-01

    Despite being identified as an unsafe (and, in some jurisdictions, illegal) driving practice, the psychological factors underlying people's decision to use their mobile phone while driving have received little attention. The present study utilised the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to examine the role of attitudes, norms, control factors, and risk perceptions, in predicting people's intentions to use their mobile phone while driving. We examined the predictors of intentions to use a mobile phone while driving in general, and for calling and text messaging in 4 scenarios differing in descriptions of vehicle speed and time pressure. There was some support for the TPB given that attitudes consistently predicted intentions to drive while using a mobile phone and that pressure from significant others (norms) determined some phone use while driving intentions, although less support was found for the role of perceptions of control. Risk was not generally predictive of safer driving intentions. These findings indicate that different factors influence each form of mobile phone use while driving and, hence, a multi-strategy approach is likely to be required to address the issue.

  15. Driving skills after whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimse, R; Bjørgen, I A; Straume, A

    1997-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that some persons with longlasting problems after whiplash have changed eye movements. These changes have been related to disturbance of the posture control system. The question raised in the present study is whether such disturbances can influence daily life functions connected with balance, position and external movements, such as car driving. A group of 23 persons with disturbed eye movements due to whiplash injury, was tested in a driving simulator, together with a closely matched control group. The results revealed significant differences between the two groups with respect to response times to the traffic signs presented, identification of type of sign, as well as steering precision while the subjects' attention was directed to the process of identifying the signs. Alternative explanations such as driving experience, pain, medication or malingering are at least partly controlled for, but cannot completely be ruled out. A distorted posture control system leading to disturbance of eye movements seems to be the most likely primary causative factor, but these disturbances are most certainly complexly determined. Reduced attention capacity is considered to be a mediating secondary factor. Registration of eye movements may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate driving skill after whiplash.

  16. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  17. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  18. Chaos in drive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochvíl C.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an elementary introduction to the subject of chaos in the electromechanical drive systems. In this article, we explore chaotic solutions of maps and continuous time systems. These solutions are also bounded like equilibrium, periodic and quasiperiodic solutions.

  19. Electric Drive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    compound promises to reduce weight of future permanent magnet motors by 20 to 30 percent; a similar reduction is expected in size (approximately 20...drive systems. The AC permanent magnet (brushless DC motor) is rapidly evolving and will replace most electrically excited machines. Permanent magnet motors using

  20. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  1. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  2. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  3. Introduced species as evolutionary traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Martin A.; Sherman, P.W.; Blossey, B.; Runge, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species can alter environments in such a way that normal behavioural decision-making rules of native species are no longer adaptive. The evolutionary trap concept provides a useful framework for predicting and managing the impact of harmful invasive species. We discuss how native species can respond to changes in their selective regime via evolution or learning. We also propose novel management strategies to promote the long-term co-existence of native and introduced species in cases where the eradication of the latter is either economically or biologically unrealistic.

  4. Multidimensional extended spatial evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krześlak, Michał; Świerniak, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the classical hawk-dove model using mixed spatial evolutionary games (MSEG). In these games, played on a lattice, an additional spatial layer is introduced for dependence on more complex parameters and simulation of changes in the environment. Furthermore, diverse polymorphic equilibrium points dependent on cell reproduction, model parameters, and their simulation are discussed. Our analysis demonstrates the sensitivity properties of MSEGs and possibilities for further development. We discuss applications of MSEGs, particularly algorithms for modelling cell interactions during the development of tumours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feminist Encounters with Evolutionary Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This Section of Australian Feminist Studies is the product of an event that took place at King’s College London in January 2015, hosted as part of the UK-based ‘Critical Sexology’ seminar series. Participants at this event – feminist scholars working across the fields of lin- guistics, cultural studies, sociology, and psychology – were invited to reflect on their encounters with evolutionary psychology (EP). As the event organiser, I was interested to prompt a discussion about how EP shapes t...

  6. Improving processes through evolutionary optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Thomas R

    2011-09-01

    As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies on complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the 18th in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. In this article, I discuss methods to optimize complex healthcare processes through learning, adaptation, and evolutionary planning.

  7. Epidemiological, evolutionary and co-evolutionary implications of context-dependent parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Pedro F.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Best, Alex; Boots, Mike; Little, Tom J.

    2013-01-01

    Victims of infection are expected to suffer increasingly as parasite population growth increases. Yet, under some conditions, faster growing parasites do not appear to cause more damage and infections can be quite tolerable. We studied these conditions by assessing how the relationship between parasite population growth and host health is sensitive to environmental variation. In experimental infections of the crustacean Daphnia magna and its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa we show how easily an interaction can shift from a severe interaction, i.e. when host fitness declines substantially with each unit of parasite growth, to a tolerable relationship by changing only simple environmental variables: temperature and food availability. We explored the evolutionary and epidemiological implications of such a shift by modelling pathogen evolution and disease spread under different levels of infection severity, and find that environmental shifts that promote tolerance ultimately result in populations harbouring more parasitized individuals. We also find that the opportunity for selection, as indicated by the variance around traits, varied considerably with the environmental treatment. Thus our results suggest two mechanisms that could underlie co-evolutionary hot- and coldspots: spatial variation in tolerance and spatial variation in the opportunity for selection. PMID:21460572

  8. Measures for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of cars operated under real driving conditions; Massnahmen zur Reduktion der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen von PKW-Antrieben im realen Fahrzyklus - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, B.

    2006-11-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the development of a simulation tool for the evaluation of complex hybrid drive systems for cars in their conceptual phase. A library of all relevant component parts of vehicles with and without hybrid drives is introduced. Using this library of parts, virtual car variants can be quickly constructed and sent off on virtual test courses. The influence of the 'driver' can also be modelled. The tests made using eight different 'virtual' combinations are noted. These tests were carried out using the standard NEFZ cycle and also for acceleration to a speed of 100 km/h. The results, including fuel consumption figures, are presented and discussed.

  9. Rod drive and latching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic drive and latching mechanisms for driving reactivity control mechanisms in nuclear reactors are described. Preferably, the pressurized reactor coolant is utilized to raise the drive rod into contact with and to pivot the latching mechanism so as to allow the drive rod to pass the latching mechanism. The pressure in the housing may then be equalized which allows the drive rod to move downwardly into contact with the latching mechanism but to hold the shaft in a raised position with respect to the reactor core. Once again, the reactor coolant pressure may be utilized to raise the drive rod and thus pivot the latching mechanism so that the drive rod passes above the latching mechanism. Again, the mechanism pressure can be equalized which allows the drive rod to fall and pass by the latching mechanism so that the drive rod approaches the reactor core. (author)

  10. Conceptual Barriers to Progress Within Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N; Odling-Smee, John; Feldman, Marcus W; Kendal, Jeremy

    2009-08-01

    In spite of its success, Neo-Darwinism is faced with major conceptual barriers to further progress, deriving directly from its metaphysical foundations. Most importantly, neo-Darwinism fails to recognize a fundamental cause of evolutionary change, "niche construction". This failure restricts the generality of evolutionary theory, and introduces inaccuracies. It also hinders the integration of evolutionary biology with neighbouring disciplines, including ecosystem ecology, developmental biology, and the human sciences. Ecology is forced to become a divided discipline, developmental biology is stubbornly difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory, and the majority of biologists and social scientists are still unhappy with evolutionary accounts of human behaviour. The incorporation of niche construction as both a cause and a product of evolution removes these disciplinary boundaries while greatly generalizing the explanatory power of evolutionary theory.

  11. The efficiency of driving chemical reactions by a physical non-equilibrium is kinetically controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göppel, Tobias; Palyulin, Vladimir V; Gerland, Ulrich

    2016-07-27

    An out-of-equilibrium physical environment can drive chemical reactions into thermodynamically unfavorable regimes. Under prebiotic conditions such a coupling between physical and chemical non-equilibria may have enabled the spontaneous emergence of primitive evolutionary processes. Here, we study the coupling efficiency within a theoretical model that is inspired by recent laboratory experiments, but focuses on generic effects arising whenever reactant and product molecules have different transport coefficients in a flow-through system. In our model, the physical non-equilibrium is represented by a drift-diffusion process, which is a valid coarse-grained description for the interplay between thermophoresis and convection, as well as for many other molecular transport processes. As a simple chemical reaction, we consider a reversible dimerization process, which is coupled to the transport process by different drift velocities for monomers and dimers. Within this minimal model, the coupling efficiency between the non-equilibrium transport process and the chemical reaction can be analyzed in all parameter regimes. The analysis shows that the efficiency depends strongly on the Damköhler number, a parameter that measures the relative timescales associated with the transport and reaction kinetics. Our model and results will be useful for a better understanding of the conditions for which non-equilibrium environments can provide a significant driving force for chemical reactions in a prebiotic setting.

  12. Evolutionary epistemology a multiparadigm program

    CERN Document Server

    Pinxten, Rik

    1987-01-01

    This volume has its already distant origin in an inter­national conference on Evolutionary Epistemology the editors organized at the University of Ghent in November 1984. This conference aimed to follow up the endeavor started at the ERISS (Epistemologically Relevant Internalist Sociology of Science) conference organized by Don Campbell and Alex Rosen­ berg at Cazenovia Lake, New York, in June 1981, whilst in­ jecting the gist of certain current continental intellectual developments into a debate whose focus, we thought, was in danger of being narrowed too much, considering the still underdeveloped state of affairs in the field. Broadly speaking, evolutionary epistemology today con­ sists of two interrelated, yet qualitatively distinct inves­ tigative efforts. Both are drawing on Darwinian concepts, which may explain why many people have failed to discriminate them. One is the study of the evolution of the cognitive apparatus of living organisms, which is first and foremost the province of biologists and...

  13. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István

    2016-01-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the “equilibrium state” by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  14. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, György, E-mail: szabo@mfa.kfki.hu; Borsos, István, E-mail: borsos@mfa.kfki.hu

    2016-04-05

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the “equilibrium state” by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  15. The Evolutionary Puzzle of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Jean Aubin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of self-destruction are difficult to reconcile with evolution’s first rule of thumb: survive and reproduce. However, evolutionary success ultimately depends on inclusive fitness. The altruistic suicide hypothesis posits that the presence of low reproductive potential and burdensomeness toward kin can increase the inclusive fitness payoff of self-removal. The bargaining hypothesis assumes that suicide attempts could function as an honest signal of need. The payoff may be positive if the suicidal person has a low reproductive potential. The parasite manipulation hypothesis is founded on the rodent—Toxoplasma gondii host-parasite model, in which the parasite induces a “suicidal” feline attraction that allows the parasite to complete its life cycle. Interestingly, latent infection by T. gondii has been shown to cause behavioral alterations in humans, including increased suicide attempts. Finally, we discuss how suicide risk factors can be understood as nonadaptive byproducts of evolved mechanisms that malfunction. Although most of the mechanisms proposed in this article are largely speculative, the hypotheses that we raise accept self-destructive behavior within the framework of evolutionary theory.

  16. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István

    2016-04-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the "equilibrium state" by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  17. Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Prohaska, Ana; Racimo, Fernando; Welker, Frido; Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Allentoft, Morten E; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Gutenbrunner, Petra; Dunne, Julie; Hammann, Simon; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Ilardo, Melissa; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Wang, Yucheng; Sikora, Martin; Vinner, Lasse; Cox, Jürgen; Evershed, Richard P; Willerslev, Eske

    2018-04-25

    Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleotide and amino acid sequences, as well as lipid signatures, from progressively older samples, originating from geographic areas and depositional environments that, until recently, were regarded as hostile to long-term preservation of biomolecules. Sampling frequencies and the spatial and temporal scope of studies have also increased markedly, and with them the size and quality of the data sets generated. This progress has been made possible by continuous technical innovations in analytical methods, enhanced criteria for the selection of ancient samples, integrated experimental methods, and advanced computational approaches. Here, we discuss the history and current state of ancient biomolecule research, its applications to evolutionary inference, and future directions for this young and exciting field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 87 is June 20, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  18. Regional systems of innovation: an evolutionary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    P Cooke; M G Uranga; G Etxebarria

    1998-01-01

    The authors develop the concept of regional systems of innovation and relate it to preexisting research on national systems of innovation. They argue that work conducted in the 'new regional science' field is complementary to systems of innovation approaches. They seek to link new regional work to evolutionary economics, and argue for the development of evolutionary regional science. Common elements of interest to evolutionary innovation research and new regional science are important in unde...

  19. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  20. Alcohol and distraction interact to impair driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol+divided attention; placebo; and placebo+divided attention. As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurocognitive Correlates of Young Drivers' Performance in a Driving Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Schultheis, Maria T; Graefe, Anna C; Bishai, David M

    2016-04-01

    Differences in neurocognitive functioning may contribute to driving performance among young drivers. However, few studies have examined this relation. This pilot study investigated whether common neurocognitive measures were associated with driving performance among young drivers in a driving simulator. Young drivers (19.8 years (standard deviation [SD] = 1.9; N = 74)) participated in a battery of neurocognitive assessments measuring general intellectual capacity (Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient, FSIQ) and executive functioning, including the Stroop Color-Word Test (cognitive inhibition), Wisconsin Card Sort Test-64 (cognitive flexibility), and Attention Network Task (alerting, orienting, and executive attention). Participants then drove in a simulated vehicle under two conditions-a baseline and driving challenge. During the driving challenge, participants completed a verbal working memory task to increase demand on executive attention. Multiple regression models were used to evaluate the relations between the neurocognitive measures and driving performance under the two conditions. FSIQ, cognitive inhibition, and alerting were associated with better driving performance at baseline. FSIQ and cognitive inhibition were also associated with better driving performance during the verbal challenge. Measures of cognitive flexibility, orienting, and conflict executive control were not associated with driving performance under either condition. FSIQ and, to some extent, measures of executive function are associated with driving performance in a driving simulator. Further research is needed to determine if executive function is associated with more advanced driving performance under conditions that demand greater cognitive load. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychoanalysis and cognitive-evolutionary psychology: an attempt at integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migone, P; Liotti, G

    1998-12-01

    The authors argue that the abandonment of the theory of trauma in 1897 was a trauma for Freud himself, who was led to 'despair', and possibly reacted with an overemphasis on inner fantasies and drive discharge. They suggest that today we are facing a second trauma in the history of psychoanalysis that we might call the 'abandonment of drive theory', i.e. the notion that human beings strive not primarily to reduce sexual and aggressive drives but rather seek objects, assign meanings, test previous beliefs and assimilate new schemes. Our task is to recover as Freud was able to do, giving a new impetus to psychoanalysis. The current challenge is, on the one hand, a revision of the psychoanalytic conception of inherited information, and, on the other, a theory of motivation based on converging evidence from cognitive science, ethology, infant research and psychotherapy research. Many clinical models are current in contemporary psychoanalysis. Only as one example among these models, some concepts used in Weiss & Sampson's 'Control-Mastery Theory' will be discussed in light of cognitive science and evolutionary epistemology within the framework of (a) the 1960 classic, 'Plans and Structure of Behavior' by Miller, Galanter and Pribram (b) Edelman's neurobiological theory and (c) Bowlby's attachment theory.

  3. Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes present major reliability issues, leading to great interest in the current development of gearless direct-drive wind energy systems. Offering high reliability, high efficiency and low maintenance, developments in these direct-drive systems point the way to the next generation of wind power, and Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems is an authoritative guide to their design, development and operation. Part one outlines electrical drive technology, beginning with an overview of electrical generators for direct drive systems. Principles of electrical design for permanent magnet generators are discussed, followed by electrical, thermal and structural generator design and systems integration. A review of power electronic converter technology and power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications is then conducted. Part two then focuses on wind and marine applications, beginning with a commercial overview of wind turbine drive systems and a...

  4. Evolutionary Acquisition and Spiral Development Tutorial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hantos, P

    2005-01-01

    .... NSS Acquisition Policy 03-01 provided some space-oriented customization and, similarly to the original DOD directives, also positioned Evolutionary Acquisition and Spiral Development as preferred...

  5. Driving towards ecotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Devora A; Normandin, Avery M; Strait, Elizabeth A; Esvelt, Kevin M

    2017-12-01

    The prospect of using genetic methods to target vector, parasite, and reservoir species offers tremendous potential benefits to public health, but the use of genome editing to alter the shared environment will require special attention to public perception and community governance in order to benefit the world. Public skepticism combined with the media scrutiny of gene drive systems could easily derail unpopular projects entirely, especially given the potential for trade barriers to be raised against countries that employ self-propagating gene drives. Hence, open and community-guided development of thoughtfully chosen applications is not only the most ethical approach, but also the most likely to overcome the economic, social, and diplomatic barriers. Here we review current and past attempts to alter ecosystems using biological methods, identify key determinants of social acceptance, and chart a stepwise path for developers towards safe and widely supported use.

  6. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hiromitsu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To drive control rods at an optimum safety speed corresponding to the reactor core output. Constitution: The reactor power is detected by a neutron detector and the output signal is applied to a process computer. The process computer issues a signal representing the reactor core output, which is converted through a function generator into a signal representing the safety speed of control rods. The converted signal is further supplied to a V/F converter and converted into a pulse signal. The pulse signal is inputted to a step motor driving circuit, which actuates a step motor to operate the control rods always at a safety speed corresponding to the reactor core power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  7. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  8. Safety rod driving device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Kurosaki, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly insert safety rods for a criticality experiment device into a reactor core container to stop the criticality reaction thereby prevent reactivity accidents. Constitution: A cylinder device having a safety rod as a cylinder rod attached with a piston at one end is constituted. The piston is elevated by pressurized air and attracted and fixed by an electromagnet which is a stationary device disposed at the upper portion of the cylinder. If the current supply to the electromagnet is disconnected, the safety rod constituting the cylinder rod is fallen together with the piston to the lower portion of the cylinder. Since the cylinder rod driving device has neither electrical motor nor driving screw as in the conventional device, necessary space can be reduced and the weight is decreased. In addition, since the inside of the nuclear reactor can easily be shielded completely from the external atmosphere, leakage of radioactive materials can be prevented. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao; Goto, Mikihiko.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a control rod drive mechanism using water as an operating source, which prevents a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the neighbourhood of a return nozzle in a reactor to limit formation of excessive thermal stress to improve a safety. Constitution: In the control rod drive mechanism of the present invention, a heating device is installed in the neighbourhood of a pressure container for a reactor. This heating device is provided to heat return water in the reactor to a level equal to the temperature of reactor water thereby preventing a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the reactor. This limits formation of thermal stress in the return nozzle in the reactor. Accordingly, it is possible to minimize damages in the return nozzle portion and yet a possibility of failure in reactor water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. A rotary drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causer, R.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary drive for a manipulator or teleoperator comprises a ring member freely rotatable about an eccentric boss extending from an input driver shaft. The ring member has a tapered rim portion wedged between two resiliently biassed friction rings of larger diameter than the ring member and coaxial with the driver shaft, and the ring member is rotatably connected to an output driven shaft. The rotary drive provides a considerable velocity ratio, and also provides a safety feature in that friction between the rim portion and the friction rings only causes rotation of the driven shaft if the load on the driven shaft is less than a certain limiting value. This limiting value may be varied by adjusting the resilient bias on the friction rings. (author)

  11. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  12. Differential survival between visual environments supports a role of divergent sensory drive in cichlid fish speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Seehausen, Ole; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    Identifying the selective forces that initiate ecological speciation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Sensory drive has been implicated in speciation in various taxa, largely based on phenotype-environment correlations and signatures of selection in sensory genes. Here, we present a

  13. From genes to games: cooperation and cyclic dominance in meiotic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, Arne; Reed, Floyd A

    2012-04-21

    Evolutionary change can be described on a genotypic level or a phenotypic level. Evolutionary game theory is typically thought of as a phenotypic approach, although it is frequently argued that it can also be used to describe population genetic evolution. Interpreting the interaction between alleles in a diploid genome as a two player game leads to interesting alternative perspectives on genetic evolution. Here we focus on the case of meiotic drive and illustrate how meiotic drive can be directly and precisely interpreted as a social dilemma, such as the prisoners dilemma or the snowdrift game, in which the drive allele takes more than its fair share. Resistance to meiotic drive can lead to the well understood cyclic dominance found in the rock-paper-scissors game. This perspective is well established for the replicator dynamics, but there is still considerable ground for mutual inspiration between the two fields. For example, evolutionary game theorists can benefit from considering the stochastic evolutionary dynamics arising from finite population size. Population geneticists can benefit from game theoretic tools and perspectives on genetic evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  15. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  16. Treatment resistance in urothelial carcinoma: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachostergios, Panagiotis J; Faltas, Bishoy M

    2018-05-02

    The emergence of treatment-resistant clones is a critical barrier to cure in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Setting the stage for the evolution of resistance, urothelial carcinoma is characterized by extensive mutational heterogeneity, which is detectable even in patients with early stage disease. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy both act as selective pressures that shape the evolutionary trajectory of urothelial carcinoma throughout the course of the disease. A detailed understanding of the dynamics of evolutionary drivers is required for the rational development of curative therapies. Herein, we describe the molecular basis of the clonal evolution of urothelial carcinomas and the use of genomic approaches to predict treatment responses. We discuss various mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy with a focus on the mutagenic effects of the DNA dC->dU-editing enzymes APOBEC3 family of proteins. We also review the evolutionary mechanisms underlying resistance to immunotherapy, such as the loss of clonal tumour neoantigens. By dissecting treatment resistance through an evolutionary lens, the field will advance towards true precision medicine for urothelial carcinoma.

  17. Evolutionary rescue of a parasite population by mutation rate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspoon, Philip B; Mideo, Nicole

    2017-10-01

    The risk of antibiotic resistance evolution in parasites is a major problem for public health. Identifying factors which promote antibiotic resistance evolution is thus a priority in evolutionary medicine. The rate at which new mutations enter the parasite population is one important predictor; however, mutation rate is not necessarily a fixed quantity, as is often assumed, but can itself evolve. Here we explore the possible impacts of mutation rate evolution on the fate of a disease circulating in a host population, which is being treated with drugs, the use of which varies over time. Using an evolutionary rescue framework, we find that mutation rate evolution provides a dramatic increase in the probability that a parasite population survives treatment in only a limited region, while providing little or no advantage in other regions. Both epidemiological features, such as the virulence of infection, and population genetic parameters, such as recombination rate, play important roles in determining the probability of evolutionary rescue and whether mutation rate evolution enhances the probability of evolutionary rescue or not. While efforts to curtail mutation rate evolution in parasites may be worthwhile under some circumstances, our results suggest that this need not always be the case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To restrict the reduction in performance due to stress corrosion cracks by making use of condensate produced in a turbine steam condenser. Structure: Water produced in a turbine steam condenser is forced into a condensed water desalting unit by low pressure condensate pump. The condensate is purified and then forced by a high pressure condensate pump into a feedwater heater for heating before it is returned to the reactor by a feedwater pump. Part of the condensate issuing from the condensate desalting unit is branched from the remaining portion at a point upstream the pump and is withdrawn into a control rod drive water pump after passing through a motordriven bypass valve, an orifice and a condenser water level control valve, is pressurized in the control rod drive water desalting unit and supplied to a control rod drive water pressure system. The control rod is vertically moved by the valve operation of the water pressure system. Since water of high oxygen concentration does not enter during normal operation, it is possible to prevent the stress cracking of the stainless steel apparatus. (Nakamura, S.)

  19. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  20. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Long-term social dynamics drive loss of function in pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum Andersen, Sandra; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Molin, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that social interactions between bacterial cells can drive evolutionary change at the population level, but significant challenges limit attempts to assess the relevance of these findings to natural populations, where selection pressures are unknown. We have increasingly...... sophisticated methods for monitoring phenotypic and genotypic dynamics in bacteria causing infectious disease, but in contrast, we lack evidence-based adaptive explanations for those changes. Evolutionary change during infection is often interpreted as host adaptation, but this assumption neglects to consider...... social dynamics shown to drive evolutionary change in vitro. We provide evidence to show that long-term behavioral dynamics observed in a pathogen are driven by selection to outcompete neighboring conspecific cells through social interactions. We find that Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, causing lung...

  2. Self-rated driving and driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lesley A; Dodson, Joan E; Edwards, Jerri D; Ackerman, Michelle L; Ball, Karlene

    2012-09-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults' self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older adults (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65-91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, older adults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14-0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>0.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in older adults

  3. Batu Pahat Driving Cycle for Light Duty Gasoline Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainul Abidin, Zainul Ameerul Ikhsan B.; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Ahmad, Osman Bin

    2017-08-01

    Driving cycle is a series of data points that represents the vehicle speed versus time. Transient driving cycles involve many changes such as frequent speed changes during typical on-road driving condition [2]. Model driving cycles involve protracted periods at constant speeds. The Batu Pahat Driving Cycle (BPDC) developed to represent the driving pattern of people in a district of Batu Pahat. Based on this driving cycle, it will be a reference to other researchers to study about the gases emission release and fuel consumption by the vehicle on the dynamometer or automotive simulation based on this driving cycle. Existing driving cycles used such as the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-72/75, and Japan 10-15 Mode Cycle is not appropriate for Batu Pahat district because of different road conditions, driving habits and environmental of developed driving cycle countries are not same [2][14]. Batu Pahat drive cycle was developed for low-capacity gasoline engine under 150 cc and operating on urban roads, rural roads and road around Universiti Tun Hussein Onn. The importance of these driving cycle as the reference for other research to measure and do automotive simulation regarding fuel consumption and gas emission release from the motorcycle for these three type of driving cycle area. Another use for driving cycles is in vehicle simulations [3]. More specifically, they are used in propulsion system simulations to predict the performance of internal combustion engines, transmissions, electric drive systems, batteries, fuel cell systems, and similar components [18]. Data collection methods used in this study is the use of Global Positioning System (GPS). The results obtained are not similar to each other due to differences in congestion on data taken. From the driving cycle graph obtained, such as the average velocity, maximum velocity, the duration and Positive Acceleration Kinetic Energy (PKE) can be determined. In addition, the best

  4. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  5. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  6. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  7. State-Dependent Risk Preferences in Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Patrick; Nau, Dana

    There is much empirical evidence that human decision-making under risk does not correspond the decision-theoretic notion of "rational" decision making, namely to make choices that maximize the expected value. An open question is how such behavior could have arisen evolutionarily. We believe that the answer to this question lies, at least in part, in the interplay between risk-taking and sequentiality of choice in evolutionary environments.

  8. Context dependent DNA evolutionary models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ledet

    This paper is about stochastic models for the evolution of DNA. For a set of aligned DNA sequences, connected in a phylogenetic tree, the models should be able to explain - in probabilistic terms - the differences seen in the sequences. From the estimates of the parameters in the model one can...... start to make biologically interpretations and conclusions concerning the evolutionary forces at work. In parallel with the increase in computing power, models have become more complex. Starting with Markov processes on a space with 4 states, and extended to Markov processes with 64 states, we are today...... studying models on spaces with 4n (or 64n) number of states with n well above one hundred, say. For such models it is no longer possible to calculate the transition probability analytically, and often Markov chain Monte Carlo is used in connection with likelihood analysis. This is also the approach taken...

  9. Quantum Mechanics predicts evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S

    2018-07-01

    Nowhere are the shortcomings of conventional descriptive biology more evident than in the literature on Quantum Biology. In the on-going effort to apply Quantum Mechanics to evolutionary biology, merging Quantum Mechanics with the fundamentals of evolution as the First Principles of Physiology-namely negentropy, chemiosmosis and homeostasis-offers an authentic opportunity to understand how and why physics constitutes the basic principles of biology. Negentropy and chemiosmosis confer determinism on the unicell, whereas homeostasis constitutes Free Will because it offers a probabilistic range of physiologic set points. Similarly, on this basis several principles of Quantum Mechanics also apply directly to biology. The Pauli Exclusion Principle is both deterministic and probabilistic, whereas non-localization and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle are both probabilistic, providing the long-sought after ontologic and causal continuum from physics to biology and evolution as the holistic integration recognized as consciousness for the first time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G; Strogatz, Steven H

    2017-12-21

    The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease.

  11. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    -defined metaphors of individual learning and social imitation processes, from which a revised theory of convention may be erected (see Sugden 2004, Binmore 1993 and Young 1998). This paper makes a general argument in support of the evolutionary turn in the theory of convention by a progressive exposition of its...... in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around......Some thirty years ago Lewis published his Convention: A Philosophical Study (Lewis, 2002). This laid the foundation for a game-theoretic approach to social conventions, but became more famously known for its seminal analysis of common knowledge; the concept receiving its canonical analysis...

  12. Bacterial Actins? An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F.; York, Amanda L.

    2003-01-01

    According to the conventional wisdom, the existence of a cytoskeleton in eukaryotes and its absence in prokaryotes constitute a fundamental divide between the two domains of life. An integral part of the dogma is that a cytoskeleton enabled an early eukaryote to feed upon prokaryotes, a consequence of which was the occasional endosymbiosis and the eventual evolution of organelles. Two recent papers present compelling evidence that actin, one of the principal components of a cytoskeleton, has a homolog in Bacteria that behaves in many ways like eukaryotic actin. Sequence comparisons reveml that eukaryotic actin and the bacterial homolog (mreB protein), unlike many other proteins common to eukaryotes and Bacteria, have very different and more highly extended evolutionary histories.

  13. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  14. Steps towards an evolutionary physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiezzi, E

    2006-01-01

    If thermodynamics is to physics as logic is to philosophy, recent theoretical advancements lend new coherence to the marvel and dynamism of life on Earth. Enzo Tiezzi's "Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics" is a primer and guide, to those who would to stand on the shoulders of giants to attain this view: Heisenberg, Planck, Bateson, Varela, and Prigogine as well as notable contemporary scientists. The adventure of such a free and enquiring spirit thrives not so much on answers as on new questions. The book offers a new gestalt on the uncertainty principle and concept of probability. A wide range of examples, enigmas, and paradoxes lead one's imagination on an exquisite dance. Among the applications are: songs and shapes of nature, oscillatory reactions, orientors, goal functions and configurations of processes, and "dissipative structures and the city". Ecodynamics is a new science, which proposes a cross-fertilization between Charles Darwin and Ilya Prigogine. As an enigma in thermodynamics, Entropy forms ...

  15. Markov Networks in Evolutionary Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Shakya, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    Markov networks and other probabilistic graphical modes have recently received an upsurge in attention from Evolutionary computation community, particularly in the area of Estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs).  EDAs have arisen as one of the most successful experiences in the application of machine learning methods in optimization, mainly due to their efficiency to solve complex real-world optimization problems and their suitability for theoretical analysis. This book focuses on the different steps involved in the conception, implementation and application of EDAs that use Markov networks, and undirected models in general. It can serve as a general introduction to EDAs but covers also an important current void in the study of these algorithms by explaining the specificities and benefits of modeling optimization problems by means of undirected probabilistic models. All major developments to date in the progressive introduction of Markov networks based EDAs are reviewed in the book. Hot current researc...

  16. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  17. Ecological theatre and the evolutionary game: how environmental and demographic factors determine payoffs in evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argasinski, K; Broom, M

    2013-10-01

    In the standard approach to evolutionary games and replicator dynamics, differences in fitness can be interpreted as an excess from the mean Malthusian growth rate in the population. In the underlying reasoning, related to an analysis of "costs" and "benefits", there is a silent assumption that fitness can be described in some type of units. However, in most cases these units of measure are not explicitly specified. Then the question arises: are these theories testable? How can we measure "benefit" or "cost"? A natural language, useful for describing and justifying comparisons of strategic "cost" versus "benefits", is the terminology of demography, because the basic events that shape the outcome of natural selection are births and deaths. In this paper, we present the consequences of an explicit analysis of births and deaths in an evolutionary game theoretic framework. We will investigate different types of mortality pressures, their combinations and the possibility of trade-offs between mortality and fertility. We will show that within this new approach it is possible to model how strictly ecological factors such as density dependence and additive background fitness, which seem neutral in classical theory, can affect the outcomes of the game. We consider the example of the Hawk-Dove game, and show that when reformulated in terms of our new approach new details and new biological predictions are produced.

  18. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.R.; Faulstich, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means

  19. Evolutionary Structure Prediction of Stoichiometric Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem

    2014-03-01

    In general, for a given ionic compound AmBn\\ at ambient pressure condition, its stoichiometry reflects the valence state ratio between per chemical specie (i.e., the charges for each anion and cation). However, compounds under high pressure exhibit significantly behavior, compared to those analogs at ambient condition. Here we developed a method to solve the crystal structure prediction problem based on the evolutionary algorithms, which can predict both the stable compounds and their crystal structures at arbitrary P,T-conditions, given just the set of chemical elements. By applying this method to a wide range of binary ionic systems (Na-Cl, Mg-O, Xe-O, Cs-F, etc), we discovered a lot of compounds with brand new stoichimetries which can become thermodynamically stable. Further electronic structure analysis on these novel compounds indicates that several factors can contribute to this extraordinary phenomenon: (1) polyatomic anions; (2) free electron localization; (3) emergence of new valence states; (4) metallization. In particular, part of the results have been confirmed by experiment, which warrants that this approach can play a crucial role in new materials design under extreme pressure conditions. This work is funded by DARPA (Grants No. W31P4Q1210008 and W31P4Q1310005), NSF (EAR-1114313 and DMR-1231586).

  20. VEHICLE DRIVING CYCLE OPTIMISATION ON THE HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy STOTSKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the problem of reducing vehicle energy consumption. The authors consider the optimisation of highway driving cycle a way to use the kinetic energy of a car more effectively at various road conditions. The model of a vehicle driving control at the highway which consists of elementary cycles, such as accelerating, free rolling and deceleration under forces of external resistance, was designed. Braking, as an energy dissipation regime, was not included. The influence of the various longitudinal profiles of the road was taken into consideration and included in the model. Ways to use the results of monitoring road and traffic conditions are presented. The method of non-linear programming is used to design the optimal vehicle control function and phase trajectory. The results are presented by improved typical driving cycles that present energy saving as a subject of choice at a specified schedule.