WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying disease process

  1. iPSC-Based Models to Unravel Key Pathogenetic Processes Underlying Motor Neuron Disease Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Faravelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases (MNDs are neuromuscular disorders affecting rather exclusively upper motor neurons (UMNs and/or lower motor neurons (LMNs. The clinical phenotype is characterized by muscular weakness and atrophy leading to paralysis and almost invariably death due to respiratory failure. Adult MNDs include sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS-fALS, while the most common infantile MND is represented by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. No effective treatment is ccurrently available for MNDs, as for the vast majority of neurodegenerative disorders, and cures are limited to supportive care and symptom relief. The lack of a deep understanding of MND pathogenesis accounts for the difficulties in finding a cure, together with the scarcity of reliable in vitro models. Recent progresses in stem cell field, in particular in the generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs has made possible for the first time obtaining substantial amounts of human cells to recapitulate in vitro some of the key pathogenetic processes underlying MNDs. In the present review, recently published studies involving the use of iPSCs to unravel aspects of ALS and SMA pathogenesis are discussed with an overview of their implications in the process of finding a cure for these still orphan disorders.

  2. Obsolescence : The underlying processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.; Nieboer, N.E.T.; Van der Flier, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Obsolescence, defined as the process of declining performance of buildings, is a serious threat for the value, the usefulness and the life span of housing properties. Thomsen and van der Flier (2011) developed a model in which obsolescence is categorised on the basis of two distinctions, namely

  3. Component processes underlying future thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Ortoleva, Claudia; Jumentier, Sabrina; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the component processes underlying the ability to imagine future events, using an individual-differences approach. Participants completed several tasks assessing different aspects of future thinking (i.e., fluency, specificity, amount of episodic details, phenomenology) and were also assessed with tasks and questionnaires measuring various component processes that have been hypothesized to support future thinking (i.e., executive processes, visual-spatial processing, relational memory processing, self-consciousness, and time perspective). The main results showed that executive processes were correlated with various measures of future thinking, whereas visual-spatial processing abilities and time perspective were specifically related to the number of sensory descriptions reported when specific future events were imagined. Furthermore, individual differences in self-consciousness predicted the subjective feeling of experiencing the imagined future events. These results suggest that future thinking involves a collection of processes that are related to different facets of future-event representation.

  4. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with

  5. Interactions of landscape disturbances and climate change dictate ecological pattern and process: spatial modeling of wildfire, insect, and disease dynamics under future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, Rachel A.; Keane, Robert E.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Wu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    ContextInteractions among disturbances, climate, and vegetation influence landscape patterns and ecosystem processes. Climate changes, exotic invasions, beetle outbreaks, altered fire regimes, and human activities may interact to produce landscapes that appear and function beyond historical analogs.ObjectivesWe used the mechanistic ecosystem-fire process model FireBGCv2 to model interactions of wildland fire, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) under current and future climates, across three diverse study areas.MethodsWe assessed changes in tree basal area as a measure of landscape response over a 300-year simulation period for the Crown of the Continent in north-central Montana, East Fork of the Bitterroot River in western Montana, and Yellowstone Central Plateau in western Wyoming, USA.ResultsInteracting disturbances reduced overall basal area via increased tree mortality of host species. Wildfire decreased basal area more than beetles or rust, and disturbance interactions modeled under future climate significantly altered landscape basal area as compared with no-disturbance and current climate scenarios. Responses varied among landscapes depending on species composition, sensitivity to fire, and pathogen and beetle suitability and susceptibility.ConclusionsUnderstanding disturbance interactions is critical for managing landscapes because forest responses to wildfires, pathogens, and beetle attacks may offset or exacerbate climate influences, with consequences for wildlife, carbon, and biodiversity.

  6. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, Lien; Bonato, Mario; Fias, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right) hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM) load are discussed.

  7. Convergence of macrostates under reproducible processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    I show that whenever a system undergoes a reproducible macroscopic process the mutual distinguishability of macrostates, as measured by their relative entropy, diminishes. This extends the second law which regards only ordinary entropies, and hence only the distinguishability between macrostates and one specific reference state (equidistribution). The new result holds regardless of whether the process is linear or nonlinear. Its proof hinges on the monotonicity of quantum relative entropy under arbitrary coarse grainings, even those that cannot be represented by trace-preserving completely positive maps.

  8. Fuel corrosion processes under waste disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The release of the majority of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel under permanent disposal conditions will be controlled by the rate of dissolution of the UO 2 fuel matrix. In this manuscript the mechanism of the coupled anodic (fuel dissolution) and cathodic (oxidant reduction) reactions which constitute the overall fuel corrosion process is reviewed, and the many published observations on fuel corrosion under disposal conditions discussed. The primary emphasis is on summarizing the overall mechanistic behaviour and establishing the primary factors likely to control fuel corrosion. Included are discussions on the influence of various oxidants including radiolytic ones, pH, temperature, groundwater composition, and the formation of corrosion product deposits. The relevance of the data recorded on unirradiated UO 2 to the interpretation of spent fuel behaviour is included. Based on the review, the data used to develop fuel corrosion models under the conditions anticipated in Yucca Mountain (NV, USA) are evaluated

  9. Asymmetric Spatial Processing Under Cognitive Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Naert

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial attention allows us to selectively process information within a certain location in space. Despite the vast literature on spatial attention, the effect of cognitive load on spatial processing is still not fully understood. In this study we added cognitive load to a spatial processing task, so as to see whether it would differentially impact upon the processing of visual information in the left versus the right hemispace. The main paradigm consisted of a detection task that was performed during the maintenance interval of a verbal working memory task. We found that increasing cognitive working memory load had a more negative impact on detecting targets presented on the left side compared to those on the right side. The strength of the load effect correlated with the strength of the interaction on an individual level. The implications of an asymmetric attentional bias with a relative disadvantage for the left (vs the right hemispace under high verbal working memory (WM load are discussed.

  10. Neural correlates underlying micrographia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Jiarong; Hallett, Mark; Feng, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Chan, Piu

    2016-01-01

    Micrographia is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease, which manifests as either a consistent or progressive reduction in the size of handwriting or both. Neural correlates underlying micrographia remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate micrographia-related neural activity and connectivity modulations. In addition, the effect of attention and dopaminergic administration on micrographia was examined. We found that consistent micrographia was associated with decreased activity and connectivity in the basal ganglia motor circuit; while progressive micrographia was related to the dysfunction of basal ganglia motor circuit together with disconnections between the rostral supplementary motor area, rostral cingulate motor area and cerebellum. Attention significantly improved both consistent and progressive micrographia, accompanied by recruitment of anterior putamen and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Levodopa improved consistent micrographia accompanied by increased activity and connectivity in the basal ganglia motor circuit, but had no effect on progressive micrographia. Our findings suggest that consistent micrographia is related to dysfunction of the basal ganglia motor circuit; while dysfunction of the basal ganglia motor circuit and disconnection between the rostral supplementary motor area, rostral cingulate motor area and cerebellum likely contributes to progressive micrographia. Attention improves both types of micrographia by recruiting additional brain networks. Levodopa improves consistent micrographia by restoring the function of the basal ganglia motor circuit, but does not improve progressive micrographia, probably because of failure to repair the disconnected networks. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Fuel corrosion processes under waste disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    1999-09-01

    Under the oxidizing conditions likely to be encountered in the Yucca Mountain Repository, fuel dissolution is a corrosion process involving the coupling of the anodic dissolution of the fuel with the cathodic reduction of oxidants available within the repository. The oxidants potentially available to drive fuel corrosion are environmental oxygen, supplied by the transport through the permeable rock of the mountain and molecular and radical species produced by the radiolysis of available aerated water. The mechanism of these coupled anodic and cathodic reactions is reviewed in detail. While gaps in understanding remain, many kinetic features of these reactions have been studied in considerable detail, and a reasonably justified mechanism for fuel corrosion is available. The corrosion rate is determined primarily by environmental factors rather than the properties of the fuel. Thus, with the exception of increase in rate due to an increase in surface area, pre-oxidation of the fuel has little effect on the corrosion rate

  12. Fuel corrosion processes under waste disposal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Under the oxidizing conditions likely to be encountered in the Yucca Mountain Repository, fuel dissolution is a corrosion process involving the coupling of the anodic dissolution of the fuel with the cathodic reduction of oxidants available within the repository. The oxidants potentially available to drive fuel corrosion are environmental oxygen, supplied by the transport through the permeable rock of the mountain and molecular and radical species produced by the radiolysis of available aerated water. The mechanism of these coupled anodic and cathodic reactions is reviewed in detail. While gaps in understanding remain, many kinetic features of these reactions have been studied in considerable detail, and a reasonably justified mechanism for fuel corrosion is available. The corrosion rate is determined primarily by environmental factors rather than the properties of the fuel. Thus, with the exception of increase in rate due to an increase in surface area, pre-oxidation of the fuel has little effect on the corrosion rate.

  13. Cognitive Processes Underlying the Artistic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Wah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the field of aesthetics, for centuries philosophers and more recently scientists have been concerned with understanding the artistic experience focusing on emotional responses to the perception of artworks. By contrast, in the last decades, evolutionary biology has been concerned with explaining the artistic experience by focusing on the cognitive processes underlying this experience. Up until now, the cognitive mechanisms that allow humans to experience objects and events as art remain largely unexplored and there is still no conventional use of terms for referring to the processes which may explain why the artistic experience is characteristically human and universal to human beings (Dissanayake, 1992, p. 24; Donald, 2006, p. 4. In this paper, I will first question whether it is productive to understand the artistic experience in terms of perception and emotion, and I will subsequently propose a possible alternative explanation to understand this experience. Drawing upon the work of Ellen Dissanayake (1992, 2000, 2015, Merlin Donald (2001, 2006, 2013, Antonio Damasio (1994, 2000, 2003, 2010, Barend van Heusden (2004, 2009, 2010, and Alejandra Wah (2014, I will argue that this experience is characterized by particular degrees of imagination and consciousness.

  14. Asymmetric pain processing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Y; Schlesinger, I; Fadel, S; Erikh, I; Sprecher, E; Yarnitsky, D

    2013-10-01

    Reduced endogenous pain inhibition, as part of the degenerative process, is presumed to be the mechanism underlying the common presence of pain in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study aimed to assess an endogenous pain inhibitory system in PD using the conditioned pain modulation paradigm. Twenty-six predominantly unilateral PD patients and 19 controls underwent psychophysical pain assessment before and after patients' morning dopaminergic medication. An unexpected increase in several parameters of pain perception for PD patients was found after dopaminergic medication (e.g. for 49°C noxious heat stimulation an increase from 70.6 ± 4.0 to 77.6 ± 4.0 on the numerical pain scale, P < 0.001). This increase was seen in patients with predominantly left-sided PD, regardless of the stimulated side (for 49°C noxious heat stimulation, predominantly left-sided PD patients, pain perception increased from 73.5 ± 6.8 to 85.0 ± 6.8, P < 0.001, whereas predominantly right-sided PD patients did not show a significant increase, 68.3 ± 6.8 to 70.4 ± 6.5, P = 0.777). Baseline efficiency of conditioned pain modulation inversely correlated with age at disease onset (r = -0.522; P = 0.009) and disease severity (Unified PD Rating Scale, r = 0.447; P = 0.032) but did not differ between patients and controls. Increased sensory response causing hyperalgesia occurs after dopaminergic medication in patients with predominantly left-sided PD. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  15. Exploration of Disease Markers under Translational Medicine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease markers are defined as the biomarkers with specific characteristics during the general physical, pathological or therapeutic process, the detection of which can inform the progression of present biological process of organisms. However, the exploration of disease markers is complicated and difficult, and only a few markers can be used in clinical practice and there is no significant difference in the mortality of cancers before and after biomarker exploration. Translational medicine focuses on breaking the blockage between basic medicine and clinical practice. In addition, it also establishes an effective association between researchers engaged on basic scientific discovery and clinical physicians well informed of patients' requirements, and gives particular attentions on how to translate the basic molecular biological research to the most effective and appropriate methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, hoping to translate basic research into the new therapeutic methods in clinic. Therefore, this study mainly summarized the exploration of disease markers under translational medicine model so as to provide a basis for the translation of basic research results into clinical application.

  16. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...

  17. Emotion and Object Processing in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Henri; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Hess, Ursula; Pourcher, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological literature on the processing of emotions in Parkinson's disease (PD) reveals conflicting evidence about the role of the basal ganglia in the recognition of facial emotions. Hence, the present study had two objectives. One was to determine the extent to which the visual processing of emotions and objects differs in PD. The…

  18. Characteristics of a Dairy Process under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2007-01-01

    set of physical property models for diary products were developed and built into PRO/II system. Milk products viscosity and process system pressure drop were employed as the process characteristic parameters to determine a process operation window. The flexibility of the operation window vertexes...... was evaluated with a minimization of the process pasteurization and cooling temperatures through vertex enumeration method. The quantitative analysis of the dairy process established a framework in developing of different flexible units, such as integrated milk and milk-based product productions, multi...

  19. Influence of religious leaders in the health-disease process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Lima Macêdo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Religion has helped the lower classes to raise the perspective of "divine justice" in the struggle for survival by allowing their believers to seek, in their practices, under the influence of religious leaders, the main guidelines to alleviate the suffering from the health-disease process. Objective: Unveil the limits and potentialities of religious leaders' influence on the health-disease process. Materials and Methods: Exploratory-type research, with a qualitative approach, based methodologically on the Historical Dialectical Materialism. For the data analysis, one used the discourse analysis technique proposed by Fiorin. Results: From the empirical universe, two analytical categories emerged: (1. Limits and possibilities of religious influence in relation to the health-disease process; 2. Vulnerabilities of the Unified Health System and the complementarity of religion: Interfaces of the health-disease process in postmodernity, in which religious practices, institutions and leaders express positively health care in the face of the disease process. However, the religious leader's power relations over the community and religious fanaticism make the search for religion to have a negative influence on people's health-disease process. Conclusion: Religious leaders encourage the complementarity between religion and medicine only at times when their believers need medium and high-complexity assistance, showing little attention to the preventive aspects of self-care, which reinforces the need to invest in new studies in the area.

  20. The underlying event in hard scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.

    2002-01-01

    The authors study the behavior of the underlying event in hard scattering proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV and compare with the QCD Monte-Carlo models. The underlying event is everything except the two outgoing hard scattered jets and receives contributions from the beam-beam remnants plus initial and final-state radiation. The data indicate that neither ISAJET or HERWIG produce enough charged particles (with p T > 0.5 GeV/c) from the beam-beam remnant component and that ISAJET produces too many charged particles from initial-state radiation. PYTHIA which uses multiple parton scattering to enhance the underlying event does the best job describing the data

  1. Disease processes as hybrid dynamical systems

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    Pietro Liò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of hybrid techniques in complex processes of infectious diseases. Since predictive disease models in biomedicine require a multiscale approach for understanding the molecule-cell-tissue-organ-body interactions, heterogeneous methodologies are often employed for describing the different biological scales. Hybrid models provide effective means for complex disease modelling where the action and dosage of a drug or a therapy could be meaningfully investigated: the infection dynamics can be classically described in a continuous fashion, while the scheduling of multiple treatment discretely. We define an algebraic language for specifying general disease processes and multiple treatments, from which a semantics in terms of hybrid dynamical system can be derived. Then, the application of control-theoretic tools is proposed in order to compute the optimal scheduling of multiple therapies. The potentialities of our approach are shown in the case study of the SIR epidemic model and we discuss its applicability on osteomyelitis, a bacterial infection affecting the bone remodelling system in a specific and multiscale manner. We report that formal languages are helpful in giving a general homogeneous formulation for the different scales involved in a multiscale disease process; and that the combination of hybrid modelling and control theory provides solid grounds for computational medicine.

  2. Working under the PJVA gas processing agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S.

    1996-01-01

    The trend in the natural gas industry is towards custom processing. New gas reserves tend to be smaller and in tighter reservoirs than in the past. This has resulted in plants having processing and transportation capacity available to be leased to third parties. Major plant operators and owners are finding themselves in the business of custom processing in a more focused way. Operators recognize that the dilution of operating costs can result in significant benefits to the plant owners as well as the third party processor. The relationship between the gas processor and the gas producer as they relate to the Petroleum Joint Venture Association (PJVA) Gas Processing Agreement were discussed. Details of the standard agreement that clearly defines the responsibilities of the third party producer and the processor were explained. In addition to outlining obligations of the parties, it also provides a framework for fee negotiation. It was concluded that third party processing can lower facility operating costs, extend facility life, and keep Canadian gas more competitive in holding its own in North American gas markets

  3. Obsolescence – understanding the underlying processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.

    2017-01-01

    Obsolescence, defined as the process of declining performance of buildings, is a serious threat for the value, the usefulness and the life span of built properties. Thomsen and van der Flier (2011) developed a model in which obsolescence is categorised on the basis of two distinctions, i.e. between

  4. Depression and Chronic Liver Diseases: Are There Shared Underlying Mechanisms?

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    Xiaoqin Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of depression is higher in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD than that in the general population. The mechanism described in previous studies mainly focused on inflammation and stress, which not only exists in CLD, but also emerges in common chronic diseases, leaving the specific mechanism unknown. This review was to summarize the prevalence and risk factors of depression in CLD including chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and to point out the possible underlying mechanism of this potential link. Clarifying the origins of this common comorbidity (depression and CLD may provide more information to understand both diseases.

  5. Motivational Processes Underlying Substance Abuse Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher P.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a syndrome of dysregulated motivation, evidenced by intense drug craving and compulsive drug-seeking behavior. In the search for common neurobiological substrates of addiction to different classes of drugs, behavioral neuroscientists have attempted to determine the neural basis for a number of motivational concepts and describe how they are changed by repeated drug use. Here, we describe these concepts and summarize previous work describing three major neural systems that play distinct roles in different conceptual aspects of motivation: (1) a nigrostriatal system that is involved in two forms of instrumental learning, (2) a ventral striatal system that is involved in Pavlovian incentive motivation and negative reinforcement, and (3) frontal cortical areas that regulate decision making and motivational processes. Within striatal systems, drug addiction can involve a transition from goal-oriented, incentive processes to automatic, habit-based responding. In the cortex, weak inhibitory control is a predisposing factor to, as well as a consequence of, repeated drug intake. However, these transitions are not absolute, and addiction can occur without a transition to habit-based responding, occurring as a result of the overvaluation of drug outcomes and hypersensitivity to incentive properties of drug-associated cues. Finally, we point out that addiction is not monolithic and can depend not only on individual differences between addicts, but also on the neurochemical action of specific drug classes. PMID:26475159

  6. Does a carpal tunnel syndrome predict an underlying disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. de Rijk (Maarten); F.H. Vermeij (Frederique); M. Suntjens (Maartje); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may be the presenting symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism or connective tissue disease (CTD). It was investigated whether additional blood tests (glucose level, thyroid-stimulating hormone level and erythrocyte

  7. Mechanisms Underlying HIV-Associated Noninfectious Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Rachel M; Flores, Sonia C; Palmer, Brent E; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Lesko, Catherine R; Lau, Bryan; Fontenot, Andrew P; Roman, Jesse; McDyer, John F; Twigg, Homer L

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary disease remains a primary source of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH), although the advent of potent combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a shift from predominantly infectious to noninfectious pulmonary complications. PLWH are at high risk for COPD, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. The underlying mechanisms of this are incompletely understood, but recent research in both human and animal models suggests that oxidative stress, expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and genetic instability may result in lung damage, which predisposes PLWH to these conditions. Some of the factors that drive these processes include tobacco and other substance use, direct HIV infection and expression of specific HIV proteins, inflammation, and shifts in the microbiome toward pathogenic and opportunistic organisms. Further studies are needed to understand the relative importance of these factors to the development of lung disease in PLWH. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation process of Malaysian modern architecture under influence of nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    宇高, 雄志; 山崎, 大智

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the Formation Process of Malaysian Modern Architecture under Influence of Nationalism,through the process of independence of Malaysia. The national style as "Malaysian national architecture" which hasengaged on background of political environment under the post colonial situation. Malaysian urban design is alsodetermined under the balance of both of ethnic culture and the national culture. In Malaysia, they decided to choosethe Malay ethnic culture as the national culture....

  9. Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato; Lepe-Lopez, Manuel A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-12-01

    More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian regions to the Andes Mountains; however, a detailed characterization of the distribution of their vectors has never been carried out. We estimate the distribution of 14 vectors of the above vector-borne diseases under present-day and future climates. Our results consistently suggest that climate warming is likely threatening some vector species with extinction, locally or completely. These results suggest that climate change could reduce the burden of specific vector species. Other vector species are likely to shift and constrain their geographic range to the highlands in Ecuador potentially affecting novel areas and populations. These forecasts show the need for development of early prevention strategies for vector species currently absent in areas projected as suitable under future climate conditions. Informed interventions could reduce the risk of human exposure to vector species with distributional shifts, in response to current and future climate changes. Based on the mixed effects of future climate on human exposure to disease vectors, we argue that research on vector-borne diseases should be cross-scale and include climatic, demographic, and landscape factors, as well as forces facilitating disease transmission at fine scales.

  10. Inflammatory Process in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO ANTONIO eMERAZ RIOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer Disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Histopathologically is characterized by the presence of two major hallmarks, the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs and extracellular neuritic plaques (NPs surrounded by activated astrocytes and microglia. NFTs consist of paired helical filaments of truncated tau protein that is abnormally hyperphosphorylated. The main component in the NP is the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ, a small fragment of 40-42 amino acids with a molecular weight of 4kD. It has been proposed that the amyloid aggregates and microglia activation are able to favor the neurodegenerative process observed in AD patients. However, the role of inflammation in AD is controversial, because in early stages the inflammation could have a beneficial role in the pathology, since it has been thought that the microglia and astrocytes activated could be involved in Aβ clearance. Nevertheless the chronic activation of the microglia has been related with an increase of Aβ and possibly with tau phosphorylation. Studies in AD brains have shown an upregulation of complement molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute phase reactants and other inflammatory mediators that could contribute with the neurodegenerative process. Clinical trials and animal models with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs indicate that these drugs may decrease the risk of developing AD and apparently reduce Aβ deposition. Finally, further studies are needed to determine whether treatment with anti-inflammatory strategies, may decrease the neurodegenerative process that affects these patients.

  11. Deficient symbol processing in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepper, Max; Steuwe, Carolin; Beblo, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Boedeker, Sebastian; Thomas, Christine; Markowitsch, Hans J; Driessen, Martin; Sammer, Gebhard

    2014-01-01

    Symbols and signs have been suggested to improve the orientation of patients suffering from Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there are hardly any studies that confirm whether AD patients benefit from signs or symbols and which symbol characteristics might improve or impede their symbol comprehension. To address these issues, 30 AD patients and 30 matched healthy controls performed a symbol processing task (SPT) with 4 different item categories. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was run to identify impact of different item categories on performance accuracy in both the experimental groups. Moreover, SPT scores were correlated with neuropsychological test scores in a broad range of other cognitive domains. Finally, diagnostic accuracy of the SPT was calculated by a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Results revealed a global symbol processing dysfunction in AD that was associated with semantic memory and executive deficits. Moreover, AD patients showed a disproportional performance decline at SPT items with visual distraction. Finally, the SPT total score showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between AD patients and healthy controls. The present findings suggest that specific symbol features impede symbol processing in AD and argue for a diagnostic benefit of the SPT in neuropsychological assessment.

  12. Metabolic epidermal necrosis in two dogs with different underlying diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R; McNeil, P E; Evans, H; Srebernik, N

    1995-05-06

    Two dogs with metabolic epidermal necrosis had hyperkeratosis of the footpads accompanied by erythematous, erosive and crusting lesions affecting the muzzle, external genitalia, perineum and periocular regions. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a superficial hydropic dermatitis with marked parakeratosis. Both dogs had high plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase and high concentrations of glucose, and also a marked hypoaminoacidaemia. Despite these similarities, the cutaneous eruptions were associated with different underlying diseases. One dog had a pancreatic carcinoma which had metastasised widely; the primary tumour and the metastases showed glucagon immunoreactivity on immunocytochemical staining, and the dog's plasma glucagon concentration was markedly greater than that of control dogs. The other dog had diffuse hepatic disease; its plasma glucagon concentration was similar to that of control samples and cirrhosis was identified post mortem. Metabolic epidermal necrosis in dogs is a distinct cutaneous reaction pattern which may be associated with different underlying systemic diseases; however, the pathogenesis of the skin lesions remains unclear.

  13. Stability of prebiotic, laminaran oligosaccharide under food processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamidah, A.

    2018-04-01

    Prebiotic stability tests on laminaran oligosaccharide under food processing conditions were urgently performed to determine the ability of prebiotics deal with processing. Laminaran, oligosaccharide is produced from enzymatic hydrolysis. To further apply this prebiotic, it is necessary to test its performance on food processing. Single prebiotic or in combination with probiotic can improve human digestive health. The effectiveness evaluation of prebiotic should be taken into account in regards its chemical and functional stabilities. This study aims to investigate the stability of laminaran, oligosaccharide under food processing condition.

  14. [Advances on pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine under disease states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zi-peng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Rui-jie; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Xiao-xin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, more and more research shows that the pharmacokinetic parameter of traditional Chinese medicine can be affected by the disease states. It's possible that drug metabolic enzymes, transporters, cell membrane permeability and the change of microbes group could be interfered with physiological and pathological changes, which enables the pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine in the body to be altered, including the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and then the pharmacokinetic parameters of traditional chinese medicine are altered. It's found that investigating the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the pathological state is more useful than that of in normal state because the great part of traditional Chinese medicine is mainly used to treat disease. This article reflects the latest research on the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the disease state such as diabete, cerebral ischemia, liver injury, inflammatory disease, nervous system disorders and fever in order to provide certain reference for clinicians designing reasonable administration dose.

  15. Processes underlying treatment success and failure in assertive community treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Laura G; McGrew, John H; Salyers, Michelle P

    2012-02-01

    Processes underlying success and failure in assertive community treatment (ACT), a widely investigated treatment model for persons with severe mental illness, are poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to examine processes in ACT by (1) understanding how consumers and staff describe the processes underlying treatment success and failure and (2) comparing processes identified by staff and consumers. Investigators conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 staff and 23 consumers from four ACT teams. Both staff and consumers identified aspects of the ACT team itself as the most critical in the process of consumer success. For failure, consumers identified consumer characteristics as most critical and staff identified lack of social relationships. Processes underlying failure were not viewed as merely the opposite of processes underlying success. In addition, there was notable disagreement between staff and consumers on important processes. Findings overlap with critical ingredients identified in previous studies, including aspects of the ACT team, social involvement and employment. In contrast to prior studies, there was little emphasis on hospitalizations and greater emphasis on not abusing substances, obtaining wants and desires, and consumer characteristics.

  16. Dispute settlement process under GATT/WTO diplomatic or judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper probes the mechanisms of the dispute resolution process under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT). It tries to analyse the evolution of the dispute process which was initially based on diplomatic procedures and gives an account of its evolution and ...

  17. [Scientific connotation of processing Bombyx Batryticatus under high temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Wang, Xuan; Ma, Lin; Wang, Man-yuan; Qiu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the scientific connotation of Bombyx Batryticatus processing with wheat bran under high temperature. The contents of soluble protein extracted from Bombyx Batryticatus and its processed products and the limited content of AFT in Bombyx Batryticatus and the processed one were compared. The concentration of protein was measured with the Bradford methods and the difference of protein between Bombyx Batryticatus and its processed products was compared by SDS-PAGE analysis. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 were determined by reversed-phase HPLC. The results showed that the soluble protein content of Bombyx Batryticatus and its processed products were (47.065 +/- 0.249), (29.756 +/- 1.961) mg x g(-1), correspondingly. Analysis of protein gel electrophoresis showed that there were no significant differences between the crude and processed one in protein varieties. 6 bands were detected: 31.90, 26.80, 18.71, 15.00, 10.18, 8.929 kDa. Below 10 kDa, the color of bands of the processed one was deeper than the crude one, which demonstrate that macromolecular protein was degradated into micromolecule. The content of AFG1, AFB1, AFG2, AFB2 were 0.382, 0.207, 0.223, 0.073 g x kg(-1), not exceeded 5 microg x kg(-1) while the processed one was not detected. Through processing with wheat bran under high temperature, the content of soluble protein in Bombyx Batryticatus decreased, the processing purpose for alleviating drug property was achieved. Meanwhile, the limited content of aflatoxins were reduced or cleared by processing procedure or absorbed by processing auxillary material, adding the safety of the traditional Chinese Medicine. In conclusion, as a traditional processing method, bran frying Bombyx Batryticatus was scientific and reasonable.

  18. Optimization of Wireless Transceivers under Processing Energy Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaojian; Ascheid, Gerd; Wang, Yanlu; Hanay, Oner; Negra, Renato; Herrmann, Matthias; Wehn, Norbert

    2017-09-01

    Focus of the article is on achieving maximum data rates under a processing energy constraint. For a given amount of processing energy per information bit, the overall power consumption increases with the data rate. When targeting data rates beyond 100 Gb/s, the system's overall power consumption soon exceeds the power which can be dissipated without forced cooling. To achieve a maximum data rate under this power constraint, the processing energy per information bit must be minimized. Therefore, in this article, suitable processing efficient transmission schemes together with energy efficient architectures and their implementations are investigated in a true cross-layer approach. Target use cases are short range wireless transmitters working at carrier frequencies around 60 GHz and bandwidths between 1 GHz and 10 GHz.

  19. The levels of processing effect under nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Wendy; Hobbs, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated that inert gas (nitrogen) narcosis affects free recall but not recognition memory in the depth range of 30 to 50 meters of sea water (msw), possibly as a result of narcosis preventing processing when learned material is encoded. The aim of the current research was to test this hypothesis by applying a levels of processing approach to the measurement of free recall under narcosis. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of depth (0-2 msw vs. 37-39 msw) and level of processing (shallow vs. deep) on free recall memory performance in 67 divers. When age was included as a covariate, recall was significantly worse in deep water (i.e., under narcosis), compared to shallow water, and was significantly higher in the deep processing compared to shallow processing conditions in both depth conditions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this effect was not simply due to the different underwater environments used for the depth conditions in Experiment 1. It was concluded memory performance can be altered by processing under narcosis and supports the contention that narcosis affects the encoding stage of memory as opposed to self-guided search (retrieval).

  20. The effects of divided attention on encoding processes under incidental and intentional learning instructions: underlying mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Guez, Jonathan; Hara, Yoko; Brubaker, Matthew S; Lowenschuss-Erlich, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Divided attention (DA) at encoding has been shown to significantly disrupt later memory for the studied information. However, what type of processing gets disrupted during DA remains unresolved. In this study, we assessed the degree to which strategic effortful processes are affected under DA by comparing the effects of DA at encoding under intentional and pure incidental learning instructions. In three experiments, participants studied list of words or word pairs under either full or divided attention. Results of three experiments, which used different methodologies, converged to show that the effects of DA at encoding reduce memory performance to the same degree under incidental and intentional learning. Secondary task performance indicated that encoding under intentional learning instructions was more effortful than under incidental learning instructions. In addition, the results indicated enhanced attention to the initial appearance of the words under both types of learning instructions. Results are interpreted to imply that other processes, rather than only strategic effortful ones, might be affected by DA at encoding.

  1. Eye Movement Analysis of Information Processing under Different Testing Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Ronna F.

    1985-01-01

    Undergraduates were given complex figural analogies items, and eye movements were observed under three types of feedback: (1) elaborate feedback; (2) subjects verbalized their thinking and application of rules; and (3) no feedback. Both feedback conditions enhanced the rule-governed information processing during inductive reasoning. (Author/GDC)

  2. Dynamic Processes in Nanostructured Crystals Under Ion Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglov, V. V.; Kvasov, N. T.; Shimanski, V. I.; Safronov, I. V.; Komarov, N. D.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents detailed investigations of dynamic processes occurring in nanostructured Si(Fe) material under the radiation exposure, namely: heating, thermoelastic stress generation, elastic disturbances of the surrounding medium similar to weak shock waves, and dislocation generation. The performance calculations are proposed for elastic properties of the nanostructured material with a glance to size effects in nanoparticles.

  3. [Emerging infectious diseases: complex, unpredictable processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guégan, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    In the light of a double approach, at first empirical, later theoretical and comparative, illustrated by the example of the Buruli ulcer and its mycobacterial agent Mycobacterium ulcerans on which I focused my research activity these last ten years by studying determinants and factors of emerging infectious or parasitic diseases, the complexity of events explaining emerging diseases will be presented. The cascade of events occurring at various levels of spatiotemporal scales and organization of life, which lead to the numerous observed emergences, nowadays requires better taking into account the interactions between host(s), pathogen(s) and the environment by including the behavior of both individuals and the population. In numerous research studies on emerging infectious diseases, microbial hazard is described rather than infectious disease risk, the latter resulting from the confrontation between an association of threatening phenomena, or hazards, and a susceptible population. Beyond, the theme of emerging infectious diseases and its links with global environmental and societal changes leads to reconsider some well-established knowledge in infectiology and parasitology. © Société de Biologie, 2017.

  4. [Underlying Mechanisms and Management of Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in South Korea has increased over the past 10 years. Patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) shows better response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) than those with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). NERD is a heterogeneous condition, showing pathological gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal hypersensitivity to reflux contents. NERD patients with pathological gastroesophageal reflux or hypersensitivity to acid may respond to PPIs. However, many patients with esophageal hypersensitivity to nonacid or functional heartburn do not respond to PPIs. Therefore, careful history and investigations are required when managing patients with refractory GERD who show poor response to conventional dose PPIs. Combined pH-impedance studies and a PPI diagnostic trial are recommended to reveal underlying mechanisms of refractory symptoms. For those with ongoing reflux-related symptoms, split dose administration, change to long-acting PPIs or PPIs less influenced by CYP2C19 genotypes, increasing dose of PPIs, and the addition of alginate preparations, prokinetics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants can be considered. Pain modulators, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants are more likely to be effective for those with reflux-unrelated symptoms. Surgery or endoscopic per oral fundoplication may be effective in selected patients.

  5. Concentration processes under tubesheet sludge piles in nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, F.; Spekkens, P.

    1987-01-01

    The process by which bulk water solutes are concentrated under tubesheet sludge piles in nuclear steam generators was investigated in the laboratory under simulated CANDU operating conditions. Concentration rates were found to depend on the tube heat flux and pile depth, although beyond a critical depth the concentration efficiency decreased. This efficiency could be expressed by a concentration coefficient, and was found to depend also on the sludge pile porosity. Solute concentration profiles in the sludge pile suggested that the concentration mechanism in a high-porosity/permeability pile is characterized by boiling mainly near or at the tube surface, while in low-porosity piles, the change of phase may also become important in the body of the sludge pile. In all cases, the full depth of the pile was active to some extent in the concentration process. As long as the heat transfer under the pile was continued, the solute remained under the pile and slowly migrated toward the bottom. When the heat transfer was stopped, the solute diffused back into the bulk solution at a rate slower than that of the concentration process

  6. Ultrasonic signal processing for sizing under-clad flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, R.; Paradiso, T.J.; Lane, S.S.; Quinn, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonic digital data were collected from underclad cracks in sample pressure vessel specimen blocks. These blocks were weld cladded under different processes to simulate actual conditions in US Pressure Water Reactors. Each crack was represented by a flaw-echo dynamic curve which is a plot of the transducer motion on the surface as a function of the ultrasonic response into the material. Crack depth sizing was performed by identifying in the dynamic curve the crack tip diffraction signals from the upper and lower tips. This paper describes the experimental procedure, digital signal processing methods used and algorithms developed for crack depth sizing

  7. Learning process mapping heuristics under stochastic sampling overheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieumwananonthachai, Arthur; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1991-01-01

    A statistical method was developed previously for improving process mapping heuristics. The method systematically explores the space of possible heuristics under a specified time constraint. Its goal is to get the best possible heuristics while trading between the solution quality of the process mapping heuristics and their execution time. The statistical selection method is extended to take into consideration the variations in the amount of time used to evaluate heuristics on a problem instance. The improvement in performance is presented using the more realistic assumption along with some methods that alleviate the additional complexity.

  8. Shared activity patterns arising at genetic susceptibility loci reveal underlying genomic and cellular architecture of human disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baillie, J Kenneth; Bretherick, Andrew; Haley, Christopher S

    2018-01-01

    Genetic variants underlying complex traits, including disease susceptibility, are enriched within the transcriptional regulatory elements, promoters and enhancers. There is emerging evidence that regulatory elements associated with particular traits or diseases share similar patterns...... the regulation of the OCT1 cation transporter and genetic variants underlying circulating cholesterol levels. NDA strongly implicates particular cell types and tissues in disease pathogenesis. For example, distinct groupings of disease-associated regulatory regions implicate two distinct biological processes...... in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; a further two separate processes are implicated in Crohn's disease. Thus, our functional analysis of genetic predisposition to disease defines new distinct disease endotypes. We predict that patients with a preponderance of susceptibility variants in each group are likely...

  9. Group-buying inventory policy with demand under Poisson process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammarat Kleebmek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The group-buying is the modern business of selling in the uncertain market. With an objective to minimize costs for sellers arising from ordering and reordering, we present in this paper the group buying inventory model, with the demand governed by a Poisson process and the product sale distributed as Binomial distribution. The inventory level is under continuous review, while the lead time is fixed. A numerical example is illustrated.

  10. Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome in a Child without Underlying Systemic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seung Dohn; Ko, Hye Soo; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Kang, Min Ji; Byun, Ji Won; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun

    2017-10-01

    Sweet syndrome (acute, febrile, neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterized by the acute onset of an eruption of painful nodules or erythematous or violaceous plaques on the limbs, face and neck. These symptoms are accompanied by fever. The diagnostic features include histopathological findings of dermal neutrophilic infiltration without leukocytoclastic vasculitis or peripheral blood leukocytosis. Sweet syndrome is associated with infection, malignancies, autoimmune disease, pregnancy, and drugs. Patients with Sweet syndrome demonstrate a complete and rapid response to systemic steroid administration. Recently, a distinct variant of Sweet syndrome was reported, termed "histiocytoid Sweet syndrome", in which the infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive histiocytoid mononuclear cells are observed (in contrast to the infiltration of neutrophils). The other clinical features are similar to those of classic Sweet syndrome. Pediatric Sweet syndrome is uncommon, and the histiocytoid type is even rarer. To date, four cases of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome have been reported in children. Herein, we describe a case of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome in an otherwise healthy 10-year-old boy with no underlying systemic disease in whom non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug treatment was successful.

  11. Redox processes at a nanostructured interface under strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Wolfram; Surnev, Svetlozar; Netzer, Falko P; Sementa, Luca; Negreiros, Fabio R; Barcaro, Giovanni; Durante, Nicola; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2014-09-21

    Manipulation of chemistry and film growth via external electric fields is a longstanding goal in surface science. Numerous systems have been predicted to show such effects but experimental evidence is sparse. Here we demonstrate in a custom-designed UHV apparatus that the application of spatially extended, homogeneous, very high (>1 V nm(-1)) DC-fields not only changes the system energetics but triggers dynamic processes which become important much before static contributions appreciably modify the potential energy landscape. We take a well characterized ultrathin NiO film on a Ag(100) support as a proof-of-principle test case, and show how it gets reduced to supported Ni clusters under fields exceeding the threshold of +0.9 V nm(-1). Using an effective model, we trace the observed interfacial redox process down to a dissociative electron attachment resonant mechanism. The proposed approach can be easily implemented and generally applied to a wide range of interfacial systems, thus opening new opportunities for the manipulation of film growth and reaction processes at solid surfaces under strong external fields.

  12. Efficient Option Pricing under Levy Processes, with CVA and FVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy eLaw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the Piterbarg (2010 model to include 1 bilateral default risk as in Burgard and Kjaer (2012, and 2 jumps in the dynamics of the underlying asset using general classes of L'evy processes of exponential type. We develop an efficient explicit-implicit scheme for European options and barrier options taking CVA-FVA into account. We highlight the importance of this work in the context of trading, pricing and management a derivative portfolio given the trajectory of regulations.

  13. Neural correlates underlying micrographia in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiarong; Hallett, Mark; Feng, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Chan, Piu

    2016-01-01

    Micrographia is a common symptom in Parkinson’s disease, which manifests as either a consistent or progressive reduction in the size of handwriting or both. Neural correlates underlying micrographia remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate micrographia-related neural activity and connectivity modulations. In addition, the effect of attention and dopaminergic administration on micrographia was examined. We found that consistent micrographia was associated with decreased activity and connectivity in the basal ganglia motor circuit; while progressive micrographia was related to the dysfunction of basal ganglia motor circuit together with disconnections between the rostral supplementary motor area, rostral cingulate motor area and cerebellum. Attention significantly improved both consistent and progressive micrographia, accompanied by recruitment of anterior putamen and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Levodopa improved consistent micrographia accompanied by increased activity and connectivity in the basal ganglia motor circuit, but had no effect on progressive micrographia. Our findings suggest that consistent micrographia is related to dysfunction of the basal ganglia motor circuit; while dysfunction of the basal ganglia motor circuit and disconnection between the rostral supplementary motor area, rostral cingulate motor area and cerebellum likely contributes to progressive micrographia. Attention improves both types of micrographia by recruiting additional brain networks. Levodopa improves consistent micrographia by restoring the function of the basal ganglia motor circuit, but does not improve progressive micrographia, probably because of failure to repair the disconnected networks. PMID:26525918

  14. Fungal diseases of tree stands under urbanized conditions of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Oksana G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytosanitary and ecological estimation of tree-stands has been con­ducted at the Forest Experimental Station of Moscow Agricultural Academy and parks of Northeast of Moscow in 2007-2011. Fomes fomentarius was proved to be a very serious pathogen of trees under conditions of Moscow, Piptoporus betulinus, Phellinus igniarius, and Fomitopsis pinicola also occurred and caused damage to trees. This rather bad phytosanitary situation depends on alarming ecological situation in Moscow. At the Forest Experimental Station of Moscow Agricultural Academy a number and cover of lichens decreased. In general, all trees in Moscow are in dynamic equilibrium with the urbanized environment. In connection with this, the following classification of tree-stands was proposed for the urbanized environment: 1 - healthy trees, 2 - affected trees which can be managed, 3 - dry woods, 3a - very diseased. Many tree-stands in investigated regions of Moscow are found to belong to the groups 2 and 3c. All tree-stands must be carefully monitored and managed in order to provide a well-timed decision on the support system for preservation of trees as ‘lungs of city’ and avoid unpredictable tree falling which put people and traffic at risk.

  15. Forest pathogens and diseases under changing climate-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Aslam, H. M. U.; Riaz, K.

    2015-01-01

    Changing climate threatens tree health by affecting the likelihood, frequency of occurrence, types and severity of forest diseases caused by diverse pests, resultantly altering the forest ecosystems. The present review covers the relationship between climate and diverse cases of forest diseases and potential shocks of climate change on pathogens and diseases. Biotic diseases, cankers, decays, declines, foliar diseases, root diseases and stem rust of pine have been reviewed with some illustrations of potential disease effects with predicted changing climate. The impact of changing climate on host, pathogen, and their interaction will have frequent and mostly unsympathetic outcomes to forest ecosystems. By employing the proactive and modern scientific management strategies like monitoring, modeling prediction, risk rating, planning, genetic diversity and facilitated migration, genetic protection and breeding for disease resistance and relating results to forest policy, planning as well as decision making, the suspicions innate to climate change effects can be minimized. (author)

  16. Divided Attention and Processes Underlying Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eWen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of controlling events through one’s behavior or will. Sense of agency results from matching predictions of one’s own actions with actual feedback regarding the action. Furthermore, when an action involves a cued goal, performance-based inference contributes to sense of agency. That is, if people achieve their goal, they would believe themselves to be in control. Previous studies have shown that both action-effect comparison and performance-based inference contribute to sense of agency; however, the dominance of one process over the other may shift based on task conditions such as the presence or absence of specific goals. In this study, we examined the influence of divided attention on these two processes underlying sense of agency in two conditions. In the experimental task, participants continuously controlled a moving dot for 10 s while maintaining a string of three or seven digits in working memory. We found that when there was no cued goal (no-cued-goal condition, sense of agency was impaired by high cognitive load. Contrastingly, when participants controlled the dot based on a cued goal (cued-goal-directed condition, their sense of agency was lower than in the no-cued-goal condition and was not affected by cognitive load. The results suggest that the action-effect comparison process underlying sense of agency requires attention. On the other hand, the weaker influence of divided attention in the cued-goal-directed condition could be attributed to the dominance of performance-based inference, which is probably automatic.

  17. Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian...

  18. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    evidence that oral vaccines fail in populations with disturbed microbiota, poor nutrition , and high intestinal inflammation [102-104]. Additionally...countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public- health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate...members of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae) cause two diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO): Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be

  19. Attention Modulates the Neural Processes Underlying Multisensory Integration of Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tam Ho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrating emotional information from multiple sensory modalities is generally assumed to be a pre-attentive process (de Gelder et al., 1999. This assumption, however, presupposes that the integrative process occurs independent of attention. Using event-potentials (ERP the present study investigated whether the neural processes underlying the integration of dynamic facial expression and emotional prosody is indeed unaffected by attentional manipulations. To this end, participants were presented with congruent and incongruent face-voice combinations (eg, an angry face combined with a neutral voice and performed different two-choice tasks in four consecutive blocks. Three of the tasks directed the participants' attention to emotion expressions in the face, the voice or both. The fourth task required participants to attend to the synchronicity between voice and lip movements. The results show divergent modulations of early ERP components by the different attentional manipulations. For example, when attention was directed to the face (or the voice, incongruent stimuli elicited a reduced N1 as compared to congruent stimuli. This effect was absent, when attention was diverted away from the emotionality in both face and voice suggesting that the detection of emotional incongruence already requires attention. Based on these findings, we question whether multisensory integration of emotion occurs indeed pre-attentively.

  20. Independent component processes underlying emotions during natural music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogenmoser, Lars; Zollinger, Nina; Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the brain processes underlying emotions during natural music listening. To address this, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from 22 subjects while presenting a set of individually matched whole musical excerpts varying in valence and arousal. Independent component analysis was applied to decompose the EEG data into functionally distinct brain processes. A k-means cluster analysis calculated on the basis of a combination of spatial (scalp topography and dipole location mapped onto the Montreal Neurological Institute brain template) and functional (spectra) characteristics revealed 10 clusters referring to brain areas typically involved in music and emotion processing, namely in the proximity of thalamic-limbic and orbitofrontal regions as well as at frontal, fronto-parietal, parietal, parieto-occipital, temporo-occipital and occipital areas. This analysis revealed that arousal was associated with a suppression of power in the alpha frequency range. On the other hand, valence was associated with an increase in theta frequency power in response to excerpts inducing happiness compared to sadness. These findings are partly compatible with the model proposed by Heller, arguing that the frontal lobe is involved in modulating valenced experiences (the left frontal hemisphere for positive emotions) whereas the right parieto-temporal region contributes to the emotional arousal. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Natural progression of premature pubarche and underlying diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho Rodríguez, María Luisa; Bueno Lozano, Gloria; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio

    2018-04-25

    Premature pubarche (PP) is generally thought to be a benign condition, but it can also be the first sign of underlying disease. To analyse the aetiology and the evolution of the anthropometric, analytical and metabolic risk parameters of a group of patients with PP. A descriptive and analytical retrospective study of 92 patients affected by PP. Anthropometry, analyses, bone age and indicators of lipid metabolism were all evaluated. The sample included 92 patients with PP (67 female and 25 male), with a mean age of 7.1±0.6 for girls and 8.3±0.7 for boys. Small for gestational age was recorded in 7.7%. There was an accelerated bone age (1.20±0.1 years). A total of 21 patients were classified as idiopathic (23%), 60 as idiopathic premature adrenarche (65%), and 11 with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (12%). Puberty was reached early (11+0.9 years old in boys and 9.9±0.8 in girls), as was menstruation age (11.8+1.1 years old), P<.001. The stature finally reached was close to their genetic stature. There is a positive correlation between body mass index, blood glucose and LDL cholesterol, as well as a tendency towards hyperinsulinaemia. The present study shows that PP is a benign condition in the majority of cases, but non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (12%) is not uncommon. Menstruation and puberty started early and bone age was accelerated. Growth was normal, and more or less in line with genetic size. PP associated with obesity is linked with analytical variations of metabolic risks. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. Multiple systemic embolism in infective endocarditis underlying in Barlow's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ziqing; Fan, Bing; Wu, Hongyi; Wang, Xiangfei; Li, Chenguang; Xu, Rende; Su, Yangang; Ge, Junbo

    2016-08-11

    Systemic embolism, especially septic embolism, is a severe complication of infective endocarditis (IE). However, concurrent embolism to the brain, coronary arteries, and spleen is very rare. Because of the risk of hemorrhage or visceral rupture, anticoagulants are recommended only if an indication is present, e.g. prosthetic valve. Antiplatelet therapy in IE is controversial, but theoretically, this therapy has the potential to prevent and treat thrombosis and embolism in IE. Unfortunately, clinical trial results have been inconclusive. We describe a previously healthy 50-year-old man who presented with dysarthria secondary to bacterial endocarditis with multiple cerebral, coronary, splenic, and peripheral emboli; antibiotic therapy contributed to the multiple emboli. Emergency splenectomy was performed, with subsequent mitral valve repair. Pathological examination confirmed mucoid degeneration and mitral valve prolapse (Barlow's disease) as the underlying etiology of the endocardial lesion. Continuous antibiotics were prescribed, postoperatively. Transthoracic echocardiography at 1.5, 3, and 6 months after the onset of his illness showed no severe regurgitation, and there was no respiratory distress, fever, or lethargy during follow-up. Although antibiotic use in IE carries a risk of septic embolism, these drugs have bactericidal and antithrombotic benefits. It is important to consider that negative blood culture and symptom resolution do not confirm complete elimination of bacteria. However, vegetation size and Staphylococcus aureus infection accurately predict embolization. It is also important to consider that bacteria can be segregated from the microbicide when embedded in platelets and fibrin. Therefore, antimicrobial therapy with concurrent antiplatelet therapy should be considered carefully.

  3. Stochastic analysis in production process and ecology under uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Bieda, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    The monograph addresses a problem of stochastic analysis based on the uncertainty assessment by simulation and application of this method in ecology and steel industry under uncertainty. The first chapter defines the Monte Carlo (MC) method and random variables in stochastic models. Chapter two deals with the contamination transport in porous media. Stochastic approach for Municipal Solid Waste transit time contaminants modeling using MC simulation has been worked out. The third chapter describes the risk analysis of the waste to energy facility proposal for Konin city, including the financial aspects. Environmental impact assessment of the ArcelorMittal Steel Power Plant, in Kraków - in the chapter four - is given. Thus, four scenarios of the energy mix production processes were studied. Chapter five contains examples of using ecological Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) - a relatively new method of environmental impact assessment - which help in preparing pro-ecological strategy, and which can lead to reducing t...

  4. Cognitive Processes in Decisions Under Risk Are Not the Same As in Decisions Under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten G Volz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We deal with risk versus uncertainty, a distinction that is of fundamental importance for cognitive neuroscience yet largely neglected. In a world of risk (small world, all alternatives, consequences, and probabilities are known. In uncertain (large worlds, some of this information is unknown or unknowable. Most of cognitive neuroscience studies exclusively study the neural correlates for decisions under risk (e.g., lotteries, with the tacit implication that understanding these would lead to an understanding of decision making in general. First, we show that normative strategies for decisions under risk do not generalize to uncertain worlds, where simple heuristics are often the more accurate strategies. Second, we argue that the cognitive processes for making decisions in a world of risk are not the same as those for dealing with uncertainty. Because situations with known risks are the exception rather than the rule in human evolution, it is unlikely that our brains are adapted to them. We therefore suggest a paradigm shift towards studying decision processes in uncertain worlds and provide first examples.

  5. Frying process in the relation fat/degenerative diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the various components of the diet, fat receives very dose attention because of its relationship to several chronic degenerative diseases (CDD. Currently most of the available information on these relationships is derived from epidemiologic or experimental studies in which lipid intake is calculated using food composition tables. In most of these tables the quoted lipid content is that of raw food, whereas most foods are usually consumed only after being subjected to several culinary processes. Often there is no indication of the type of fat used in food processing in general or in frying in particular. But as it known, in the course of these processes the lipid content undergoes important qualitative and quantitative changes and not keeping them in mind may be the underlying cause of the difficulties an the confounding results in studies trying to establish the relationship between lipid intake an health. In the Mediterranean diet, about 50% of total dietary fat is derived not from the food itself but from the cooking fat, of which only a small fraction is eaten raw (as dressings and the greatest proportion is used in thermal culinary processes, mainly deep-frying. The scientific study of the process whereby fat penetrates into fried foods has shown the benefits of this cooking method. If the process is correctly carried out, the amount of fat ingested with fried foodstuffs is not greater than when other procedures involving fat are used (for example, sautening, stewing or canning in oil. Very schematically deep-frying is a technique that replaces a fraction of the water content of food by cooking fat. Consecuently, the fat composition of the fried lean foods will be the same as that cooking fat. The process is more complex with fatty foods, and there are not great changes in the total quantity of fat in the fried food before and after frying. However, there are notable quality changes and these depend on the concentration gradients

  6. A combined disease management and process modeling approach for assessing and improving care processes: a fall management case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Marjan; Westerhof, Richard; Eslami, Saied; Medlock, Stephanie; de Rooij, Sophia E; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2013-10-01

    To propose a combined disease management and process modeling approach for evaluating and improving care processes, and demonstrate its usability and usefulness in a real-world fall management case study. We identified essential disease management related concepts and mapped them into explicit questions meant to expose areas for improvement in the respective care processes. We applied the disease management oriented questions to a process model of a comprehensive real world fall prevention and treatment program covering primary and secondary care. We relied on interviews and observations to complete the process models, which were captured in UML activity diagrams. A preliminary evaluation of the usability of our approach by gauging the experience of the modeler and an external validator was conducted, and the usefulness of the method was evaluated by gathering feedback from stakeholders at an invitational conference of 75 attendees. The process model of the fall management program was organized around the clinical tasks of case finding, risk profiling, decision making, coordination and interventions. Applying the disease management questions to the process models exposed weaknesses in the process including: absence of program ownership, under-detection of falls in primary care, and lack of efficient communication among stakeholders due to missing awareness about other stakeholders' workflow. The modelers experienced the approach as usable and the attendees of the invitational conference found the analysis results to be valid. The proposed disease management view of process modeling was usable and useful for systematically identifying areas of improvement in a fall management program. Although specifically applied to fall management, we believe our case study is characteristic of various disease management settings, suggesting the wider applicability of the approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural processes underlying cultural differences in cognitive persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C

    2017-08-01

    Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Polycystic ovary syndrome and periodontal disease: Underlying links- A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Chandana Tanguturi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, which negatively affects various health systems. There is an extensive literature regarding the association of PCOS and other systemic conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and psychological disorders. However, there is a lack of literature in associating PCOS and periodontal disease. Hence, PubMed search was done for various articles related to PCOS and its association with other comorbidities, including periodontal diseases. Analysis was done and data were synthesized and compiled in a sequential and presentable paradigm. This literature review of the pathophysiological mechanisms linking the two diseases suggests a positive relation between the two comorbidities. However, multicenter studies, with larger sample sizes, are to be conducted to establish a clearer and stronger association.

  9. Renal microvascular disease in an aging population: a reversible process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrakul, Narisa; Futrakul, Prasit

    2008-01-01

    Renal microvascular disease and tubulointerstitial fibrosis are usually demonstrated in aging in humans and animals. It has recently been proposed that renal microvascular disease is the crucial determinant of tubulointerstitial disease or fibrosis. Enhanced circulating endothelial cell loss is a biomarker that reflects glomerular endothelial injury or renal microvascular disease, and fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg) is a sensitive biomarker that reflects an early stage of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In aging in humans, both of these biomarkers are abnormally elevated. In addition, a glomerular endothelial dysfunction determined by altered hemodynamics associated with peritubular capillary flow reduction is substantiated. A correction of such hemodynamic alteration with vasodilators can effectively improve renal perfusion and restore renal function. Thus, anti-aging therapy can reverse the renal microvascular disease and dysfunction associated with the aging process.

  10. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish

    2012-03-21

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design and operation a challenging task. This work presents a detailed optimization-based approach for simultaneously incorporating PSA design, operational, and control aspects under the effect of time variant and invariant disturbances. It is applied to a two-bed, six-step PSA system represented by a rigorous mathematical model, where the key optimization objective is to maximize the expected H2 recovery while achieving a closed loop product H2 purity of 99.99%, for separating 70% H2, 30% CH4 feed. The benefits over sequential design and control approach are shown in terms of closed-loop recovery improvement of more than 3%, while the incorporation of explicit/multiparametric model predictive controllers improves the closed loop performance. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  11. Creative Industries: Development Processes Under Contemporary Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Kontrimienė

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the processes of developing creative industries under conditions of a growth in the worldwide economy and globalization, discloses the role of the sector of creative industries and shows its place in the system of the modern global economy. The paper presents a comparative analysis of theories and theoretical approaches intended for the sector of creative industries and its development as well as defines regularities and specificities characteristic of the development of creative industries. Particular attention is shifted on the growth and development of creative industries considering the current challenges of globalization and on the most important specificities of the developing sector in the context of the challenges of economic globalization. The paper examines the trends reflecting the place of the sector of creative industries in the economy of the modern world, including the tendencies indicating changes in the export of the products created in this sector. The article considers the issues of developing creative industries and reveals priorities of future research.

  12. Gaussian process regression for sensor networks under localization uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaliha, M.; Xu, Yunfei; Choi, Jongeun; Johnson, N.S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate Gaussian process regression with observations under the localization uncertainty due to the resource-constrained sensor networks. In our formulation, effects of observations, measurement noise, localization uncertainty, and prior distributions are all correctly incorporated in the posterior predictive statistics. The analytically intractable posterior predictive statistics are proposed to be approximated by two techniques, viz., Monte Carlo sampling and Laplace's method. Such approximation techniques have been carefully tailored to our problems and their approximation error and complexity are analyzed. Simulation study demonstrates that the proposed approaches perform much better than approaches without considering the localization uncertainty properly. Finally, we have applied the proposed approaches on the experimentally collected real data from a dye concentration field over a section of a river and a temperature field of an outdoor swimming pool to provide proof of concept tests and evaluate the proposed schemes in real situations. In both simulation and experimental results, the proposed methods outperform the quick-and-dirty solutions often used in practice.

  13. Behavioral processes underlying the decline of narcissists' popularity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckelt, Marius; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Nestler, Steffen; Back, Mitja D

    2015-11-01

    Following a dual-pathway approach to the social consequences of grandiose narcissism, we investigated the behavioral processes underlying (a) the decline of narcissists' popularity in social groups over time and (b) how this is differentially influenced by the 2 narcissism facets admiration and rivalry. In a longitudinal laboratory study, participants (N = 311) first provided narcissism self-reports using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire, and subsequently interacted with each other in small groups in weekly sessions over the course of 3 weeks. All sessions were videotaped and trained raters coded participants' behavior during the interactions. Within the sessions participants provided mutual ratings on assertiveness, untrustworthiness, and likability. Results showed that (a) over time narcissists become less popular and (b) this is reflected in an initially positive but decreasing effect of narcissistic admiration as well as an increasing negative effect of narcissistic rivalry. As hypothesized, these patterns of results could be explained by means of 2 diverging behavioral pathways: The negative narcissistic pathway (i.e., arrogant-aggressive behavior and being seen as untrustworthy) plays an increasing role and is triggered by narcissistic rivalry, whereas the relevance of the positive narcissistic pathway (i.e., dominant-expressive behavior and being seen as assertive) triggered by narcissistic admiration decreases over time. These findings underline the utility of a behavioral pathway approach for disentangling the complex effects of personality on social outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Sexual picture processing interferes with decision-making under ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use.

  15. Blind signal processing algorithms under DC biased Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namyong; Byun, Hyung-Gi; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Distortions caused by the DC-biased laser input can be modeled as DC biased Gaussian noise and removing DC bias is important in the demodulation process of the electrical signal in most optical communications. In this paper, a new performance criterion and a related algorithm for unsupervised equalization are proposed for communication systems in the environment of channel distortions and DC biased Gaussian noise. The proposed criterion utilizes the Euclidean distance between the Dirac-delta function located at zero on the error axis and a probability density function of biased constant modulus errors, where constant modulus error is defined by the difference between the system out and a constant modulus calculated from the transmitted symbol points. From the results obtained from the simulation under channel models with fading and DC bias noise abruptly added to background Gaussian noise, the proposed algorithm converges rapidly even after the interruption of DC bias proving that the proposed criterion can be effectively applied to optical communication systems corrupted by channel distortions and DC bias noise.

  16. Imaging of Brain Connectivity in Dementia: Clinical Implications for Diagnosis of its Underlying Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Meijboom (Rozanna)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis we investigated the use of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in identifying subtle brain abnormalities, associating brain abnormalities with disease symptomatology, and improving early (differential) diagnosis in several diseases underlying dementia.

  17. Underlying congenital heart disease in Nigerian children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Abstract. Background: Pneumonia is a common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Some congenital heart disease. (CHD) may predispose their sufferer to bronchopneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the contribution of CHD to pneumonia in children seen in a tertiary hospital. Methods: Over ...

  18. Underlying congenital heart disease in Nigerian children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pneumonia is a common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Some congenital heart disease(CHD) may predispose their sufferer to bronchopneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the contribution of CHD to pneumonia in children seen in a tertiary hospital. Methods: Over a year, consecutive ...

  19. High-utilizing Crohn's disease patients under psychosomatic therapy*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantschek Günther

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Few studies have been published on health care utilization in Crohn's disease and the influence of psychological treatment on high utilizers. Methods The present sub study of a prospective multi center investigation conducted in 87 of 488 consecutive Crohn's disease (CD patients was designed to investigate the influence of the course of Crohn's disease on health care utilization (hospital days (HD and sick leave days (SLD collected by German insurance companies and to examine the conditions of high-utilizing patients. Predictors of health care utilization should be selected. Based on a standardized somatic treatment, high health care utilizing patients of the psychotherapy and control groups should be compared before and after a one-year treatment. Results Multivariate regression analysis identified disease activity at randomization as an important predictor of the clinical course (r2 = 0.28, p 2 = 0.15, p = 0.09. The patients' level of anxiety, depression and lack of control at randomization predicted their health-related quality of life at the end of the study (r2 = 0.51, p 2 = 0.22, p Among high utilizers, a significantly greater drop in HD (p Conclusion The course of Crohn's disease is influenced by psychological as well as somatic factors; especially depression seems important here. A significant drop of health care utilization demonstrates the benefit of psychological treatment in the subgroup of high-utilizing CD patients. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings of the clinical outcome in this CD subgroup.

  20. The role of the amygdala during emotional processing in Huntington's disease: from pre-manifest to late stage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sarah L; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Begeti, Faye; Guzman, Natalie Valle; Lazar, Alpar S; Rowe, James B; Barker, Roger A; Hampshire, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Deficits in emotional processing can be detected in the pre-manifest stage of Huntington's disease and negative emotion recognition has been identified as a predictor of clinical diagnosis. The underlying neuropathological correlates of such deficits are typically established using correlative structural MRI studies. This approach does not take into consideration the impact of disruption to the complex interactions between multiple brain circuits on emotional processing. Therefore, exploration of the neural substrates of emotional processing in pre-manifest HD using fMRI connectivity analysis may be a useful way of evaluating the way brain regions interrelate in the period prior to diagnosis. We investigated the impact of predicted time to disease onset on brain activation when participants were exposed to pictures of faces with angry and neutral expressions, in 20 pre-manifest HD gene carriers and 23 healthy controls. On the basis of the results of this initial study went on to look at amygdala dependent cognitive performance in 79 Huntington's disease patients from a cross-section of disease stages (pre-manifest to late disease) and 26 healthy controls, using a validated theory of mind task: "the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test" which has been previously been shown to be amygdala dependent. Psychophysiological interaction analysis identified reduced connectivity between the left amygdala and right fusiform facial area in pre-manifest HD gene carriers compared to controls when viewing angry compared to neutral faces. Change in PPI connectivity scores correlated with predicted time to disease onset (r=0.45, pneural networks underlying social cognition and emotional processing can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis in Huntington's disease. Connectivity between the amygdala and other brain regions is impacted by the disease process in pre-manifest HD and may therefore be a useful way of identifying participants who are approaching a clinical diagnosis

  1. The interaction of host genetics and disease processes in chronic livestock disease: a simulation model of ovine footrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, V N L; Green, L E; Bishop, S C; Medley, G F

    2013-03-01

    A stochastic, individual-based, simulation model of footrot in a flock of 200 ewes was developed that included flock demography, disease processes, host genetic variation for traits influencing infection and disease processes, and bacterial contamination of the environment. Sensitivity analyses were performed using ANOVA to examine the contribution of unknown parameters to outcome variation. The infection rate and bacterial death rate were the most significant factors determining the observed prevalence of footrot, as well as the heritability of resistance. The dominance of infection parameters in determining outcomes implies that observational data cannot be used to accurately estimate the strength of genetic control of underlying traits describing the infection process, i.e. resistance. Further work will allow us to address the potential for genetic selection to control ovine footrot. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Dual process in large number estimation under uncertainty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumuro, Miki; Miwa, Kazuhisa; Terai, Hitoshi; Yamada, Kento

    2016-08-01

    According to dual process theory, there are two systems in the mind: an intuitive and automatic System 1 and a logical and effortful System 2. While many previous studies about number estimation have focused on simple heuristics and automatic processes, the deliberative System 2 process has not been sufficiently studied. This study focused on the System 2 process for large number estimation. First, we described an estimation process based on participants’ verbal reports. The task, corresponding to the problem-solving process, consisted of creating subgoals, retrieving values, and applying operations. Second, we investigated the influence of such deliberative process by System 2 on intuitive estimation by System 1, using anchoring effects. The results of the experiment showed that the System 2 process could mitigate anchoring effects.

  3. Starch hydrolysis under low water conditions: a conceptual process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der M.E.; Veelaert, S.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    A process concept is presented for the hydrolysis of starch to glucose in highly concentrated systems. Depending on the moisture content, the process consists of two or three stages. The two-stage process comprises combined thermal and enzymatic liquefaction, followed by enzymatic saccharification.

  4. Robust collaborative process interactions under system crash and network failures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Lei; Wombacher, Andreas; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Chi, Chihung

    2013-01-01

    With the possibility of system crashes and network failures, the design of robust client/server interactions for collaborative process execution is a challenge. If a business process changes its state, it sends messages to the relevant processes to inform about this change. However, server crashes

  5. Aerobic storage under dynamic conditions in activated sludge processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majone, M.; Dircks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes, several plant configurations (like plug-flow configuration of the aeration tanks, systems with selectors, contact-stabilization processes or SBR processes) impose a concentration gradient of the carbon sources to the biomass. As a consequence, the biomass grows unde...

  6. Disruption of Relational Processing Underlies Poor Memory for Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Tanya R.; MacLeod, Colin M.

    2015-01-01

    McDaniel and Bugg (2008) proposed that relatively uncommon stimuli and encoding tasks encourage elaborative encoding of individual items (item-specific processing), whereas relatively typical or common encoding tasks encourage encoding of associations among list items (relational processing). It is this relational processing that is thought to…

  7. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2009-08-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.

  8. Chagas disease study using satellite image processing: A Bolivian case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Cuentas, Natalia I.; Roman-Gonzalez, Avid; Mantari, Alicia Alva; Muñoz, Luis AnthonyAucapuma

    2018-03-01

    Remote sensing is the technology that has enabled us to obtain information about the Earth's surface without directly contacting it. For this reason, currently, the Bolivian state has considered a list of interesting applications of remote sensing in the country, including the following: biodiversity and environment monitoring, mining and geology, epidemiology, agriculture, water resources and land use planning. The use of satellite images has become a great tool for epidemiology because with this technological advance we can determine the environment in which transmission occurs, the distribution of the disease and its evolution over time. In that context, one of the important diseases related to public health in Bolivia is Chagas disease, also known as South American Trypanosomiasis. Chagas is caused by a blood-sucking bug or Vinchuca, which causes serious intestinal and heart long term problems and affects 33.4% of the Bolivian population. This disease affects mostly humble people, so the Bolivian state invests millions of dollars to acquire medicine and distribute it for free. Due to the above reasons, the present research aims to analyze some areas of Bolivia using satellite images for developing an epidemiology study. The primary objective is to understand the environment in which the transmission of the disease happens, and the climatic conditions under which occurs, observe the behavior of the blood-sucking bug, identify in which months occur higher outbreaks, in which months the bug leaves its eggs, and under which weather conditions this happens. All this information would be contrasted with information extracted from the satellite images and data from the Ministry of Health, and the Institute of Meteorology in Bolivia. All this data will allow us to have a more integrated understanding of this disease and promote new possibilities to prevent and control it.

  9. Involution of categorical thinking processes in Alzheimer's disease: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Berlim de Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD is a degenerative brain disorder characterized by progressive losses in cognitive functions, including memory. The sequence of these losses may correspond to the inverse order of the normal sequence of ontogenetic cognitive acquisitions, a process named retrogenesis. One of the acquisitions that improve in normal development is the ability to retrieve previously acquired categorical knowledge from semantic memory in order to guide associative thinking and memory processes; consequently, children become able to associate verbal stimuli in more complex taxonomic ways and to use this knowledge to improve their recall. Objective: In this study, we investigated if AD-related deterioration of semantic memory involves a decrease in categorical thinking processes with progression of the disease, according to the retrogenesis hypothesis. Methods: We compared the performance of AD patients at mild and moderate stages, and of groups of 7, 10 and 14-year-old children in tasks of free association along with recall tasks of perceptually and semantically related stimuli. Results: ANOVAS showed a decrease in taxonomic associations and an increase in diffuse associations between mild and moderate stages, corresponding to the inverse order shown by the child groups. At the moderate AD stage, the pattern was similar to that of 7-year-old children. Both groups of patients performed worse than child groups in recall tasks. Conclusions: These results corroborate the hypothesis of an involution of the processes of categorical associative thinking in the course of the disease.

  10. Physicochemical processes occurring under action of ionizing radiation in sarcophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, S.I.; Pshenichny, V.A.; Vilenskaya, L.N.; Korchevnaya, O.V.; Martseniuk, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    The result of analysis of environment ionization process inside Sarcophagus owing to alpha-, beta- and gamma-radiation processes with forming of ions. It is shown that as a result of ionization and physicochemical transformations gaseous mixtures, which are dangerous for personnel's health and can influence upon general technical safety of Sarcophagus, can release into atmosphere

  11. 75 FR 65707 - Notice Regarding Consideration and Processing of Applications for Financial Assistance Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... consideration and processing of applications for financial assistance under the RRIF Program. FOR FURTHER...) regarding FRA's consideration and processing of applications for financial assistance under the RRIF Program... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Notice Regarding Consideration and...

  12. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide under plasma DBD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amouroux, Jacques; Cavadias, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide can be converted, by reaction with hydrogen, into fine chemicals and liquid fuels such as methanol and DME. Methane production by the Sabatier reaction opens the way of carbon recycling for a circular economy of carbon resources. The catalytic process of methanation of carbon dioxide produces two molecules of water as a by-product. A current limitation in the CO 2 methanation is the ageing of catalysts, mainly due to water adsorption during the process. To avoid this adsorption, the process is operated at high temperature (300 °C–400 °C), leading to carbon deposition on the catalyst and its deactivation. To overcome this problem, a methanation plasma-catalytic process has been developed, which achieves high CO 2 conversion rate (80%), and a selectivity close to 100%, working from room temperature to 150 °C, instead of 300 °C–400 °C for the thermal catalytic process. The main characteristics of this process are high-voltage pulses of few nanoseconds duration, activating the adsorption of CO 2 in bent configuration and the polarization of the catalyst. The key step in this process is the desorption of water from the polarized catalyst. The high CO 2 conversion at low temperature could be explained by the creation of a plasma inside the nanopores of the catalyst. (paper)

  13. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide under plasma DBD process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouroux, Jacques; Cavadias, Simeon

    2017-11-01

    Carbon dioxide can be converted, by reaction with hydrogen, into fine chemicals and liquid fuels such as methanol and DME. Methane production by the Sabatier reaction opens the way of carbon recycling for a circular economy of carbon resources. The catalytic process of methanation of carbon dioxide produces two molecules of water as a by-product. A current limitation in the CO2 methanation is the ageing of catalysts, mainly due to water adsorption during the process. To avoid this adsorption, the process is operated at high temperature (300 °C-400 °C), leading to carbon deposition on the catalyst and its deactivation. To overcome this problem, a methanation plasma-catalytic process has been developed, which achieves high CO2 conversion rate (80%), and a selectivity close to 100%, working from room temperature to 150 °C, instead of 300 °C-400 °C for the thermal catalytic process. The main characteristics of this process are high-voltage pulses of few nanoseconds duration, activating the adsorption of CO2 in bent configuration and the polarization of the catalyst. The key step in this process is the desorption of water from the polarized catalyst. The high CO2 conversion at low temperature could be explained by the creation of a plasma inside the nanopores of the catalyst.

  14. Decision-making under Ambiguity in Neurodegenerative Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Decision-making is a complex skill that is essential for daily life. Yet the complexities of this process are often overlooked in favour of more obvious cognitive deficits during neuropsychological assessment, such as memory or attention impairments. Decision-making involves affective and motivational aspects of executive functions (Happaney, Zelazo & Stuss, 2004). Executive functions include a range of abilities that can be divided into three categories: 1) goal setting and planning, 2) acti...

  15. The treatment of neurological diseases under a new light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokaia, M; Sørensen, A T

    2011-01-01

    inhibition of action potentials can be obtained in NpHR-expressing neurons, thus allowing for powerful control of neural activity. Optogenetics is now intensively used in laboratory animals, both in vitro and in vivo, for exploring functions of complex neural circuits and information processing in the normal....... Restoration of dopamine-related movement dysfunction in parkinsonian animals, amelioration of blindness and recovery of breathing after spinal cord injury are a few examples of such perspectives....

  16. Ecological Risk Assessment Process under the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) ecological risk assessment process for the evaluation of potential risk to endangered and threatened (listed) species from exposure to pesticides.

  17. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design

  18. Cerebro-cerebellar interactions underlying temporal information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Kenji; Hanakawa, Takashi; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-12-01

    The neural basis of temporal information processing remains unclear, but it is proposed that the cerebellum plays an important role through its internal clock or feed-forward computation functions. In this study, fMRI was used to investigate the brain networks engaged in perceptual and motor aspects of subsecond temporal processing without accompanying coprocessing of spatial information. Direct comparison between perceptual and motor aspects of time processing was made with a categorical-design analysis. The right lateral cerebellum (lobule VI) was active during a time discrimination task, whereas the left cerebellar lobule VI was activated during a timed movement generation task. These findings were consistent with the idea that the cerebellum contributed to subsecond time processing in both perceptual and motor aspects. The feed-forward computational theory of the cerebellum predicted increased cerebro-cerebellar interactions during time information processing. In fact, a psychophysiological interaction analysis identified the supplementary motor and dorsal premotor areas, which had a significant functional connectivity with the right cerebellar region during a time discrimination task and with the left lateral cerebellum during a timed movement generation task. The involvement of cerebro-cerebellar interactions may provide supportive evidence that temporal information processing relies on the simulation of timing information through feed-forward computation in the cerebellum.

  19. Bayesian analysis of log Gaussian Cox processes for disease mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Viktor; Bodlák, Karel; Møller, Jesper

    We consider a data set of locations where people in Central Bohemia have been infected by tick-borne encephalitis, and where population census data and covariates concerning vegetation and altitude are available. The aims are to estimate the risk map of the disease and to study the dependence...... of the risk on the covariates. Instead of using the common area level approaches we consider a Bayesian analysis for a log Gaussian Cox point process with covariates. Posterior characteristics for a discretized version of the log Gaussian Cox process are computed using markov chain Monte Carlo methods...

  20. Under-reporting of notifiable infectious disease hospitalizations in a health board region in Ireland: room for improvement?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brabazon, E D

    2008-02-01

    health board region in Ireland, which is a cause for concern from a surveillance point of view. If this under-reporting is similar in other health boards, then it would appear that the epidemiology of some notifiable diseases is incomplete both regionally and nationally. This under-reporting negatively impacts on the effectiveness of the notification process as a \\'real-time\\' surveillance tool and an early warning system for outbreaks.

  1. Disease prevention policy under Medicare: a historical and political analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauffler, H H

    1993-01-01

    I review the history and politics of Medicare disease prevention policy and identify factors associated with the success or failure of legislative initiatives to add preventive services benefits to Medicare. Between 1965 and 1990, 453 bills for Medicare preventive services were introduced in the U.S. Congress, but not until 1980, after 350 bills had failed, was the first preventive service added to the Medicare program. Medicare currently pays for only four of the 44 preventive services recommended for the elderly by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (pneumococcal and hepatitis B vaccinations, Pap smears, and mammography). In addition, Congress has funded demonstration programs for the influenza vaccine and comprehensive preventive services. The preventive services added to Medicare reflect the bias of the biomedical model toward screening and immunizations. Counseling services have received the least legislative attention. Factors associated with successful enactment include single-benefit bills, incorporation into budget-deficit reduction legislation, documented evidence of cost-effectiveness, public hearings, sponsorship by chairs of key congressional committees, and persistent congressional leadership. Factors associated with failure include lack of support from Medicare beneficiaries, lack of professional support, impact on total Medicare expenditures, disagreement over or failure to address payment and financing mechanisms, and competing congressional priorities.

  2. Disease course and management strategy of pouch neoplasia in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-Rui; Remzi, Feza H; Liu, Xiu-Li; Lian, Lei; Stocchi, Luca; Ashburn, Jean; Shen, Bo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the disease course and management strategy for pouch neoplasia. Patients undergoing ileal pouch surgery for underlying ulcerative colitis who developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia, or adenocarcinoma in the pouch were identified. All eligible 44 patients were evaluated. Of the 22 patients with initial diagnosis of pouch LGD, 6 (27.3%) had persistence or progression after a median follow-up of 9.5 (4.1-17.6) years. Family history of colorectal cancer was shown to be a risk factor associated with persistence or progression of LGD (P = 0.03). Of the 12 patients with pouch high-grade dysplasia, 5 (41.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 16.7%) or synchronous (n = 4, 33.3%) pouch LGD. Pouch high-grade dysplasia either persisted or progressed in 3 patients (25.0%) after the initial management, during a median time interval of 5.4 (2.2-9.2) years. Of the 14 patients with pouch adenocarcinoma, 12 (85.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 14.3%) or synchronous dysplasia (n = 12, 85.7%). After a median follow-up of 2.1 (0.6-5.2) years, 6 patients with pouch cancer (42.9%) died. Comparison of patients with a final diagnosis of pouch adenocarcinoma (14, 32.6%), and those with dysplasia (29, 67.4%) showed that patients with adenocarcinoma were older (P = 0.04) and had a longer duration from IBD diagnosis or pouch construction to the detection of pouch neoplasia (P = 0.007 and P = 0.0013). The risk for progression of pouch dysplasia can be stratified. The presence of family history of colorectal cancer seemed to increase the risk for persistence or progression for patients with pouch LGD. The prognosis for pouch adenocarcinoma was poor.

  3. Delayed pneumothorax after laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy in a patient without underlying lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richie K Huynh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of a delayed pneumothorax occurring approximately 72 h post-operatively in a patient without any underlying lung disease who had undergone laparoscopic sigmoid colon resection. The patient was in her mid-40s with a body mass index of 28.0 and had no history of smoking. Her spontaneous pneumothorax manifested without any precipitating events or complications during recovery. There was no evidence of any infectious process. There were no central line attempts and all ports were placed intra-peritoneally, and there was no evidence of any subcutaneous emphysema. One possible mechanism of injury that we propose is barotrauma from an extended period of time in Trendelenburg position. Notably, the only abnormal finding throughout the entire post-operative period preceding the delayed pneumothorax was a PO 2 desaturation the day before. This case highlights the necessity to examine and investigate any desaturation post-operatively and deliberate its possible significance. Furthermore, it demonstrates that, even during a normal recovery period for a patient without any underlying lung disease or risk factors, spontaneous pneumothorax could still develop in a delayed fashion multiple days post-operatively from a laparoscopic procedure.

  4. Endocrine processes underlying victory and defeat in the male rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Teunis

    1981-01-01

    The central questions of the present study were:1. does base line hormonal state determine agonistic behavior in male-male encounters? 2. does agonistic behavior affect hormonal state? Such an interrelationship between agonistic behavior and hormonal processes might serve as a regulatory system for

  5. Minimization of water consumption under uncertainty for PC process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, J.; Diwekar, U.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology is becoming increasingly important for the development of advanced power generation systems. As an emerging technology different process configurations have been heuristically proposed for IGCC processes. One of these schemes combines water-gas shift reaction and chemical-looping combustion for the CO2 removal prior the fuel gas is fed to the gas turbine reducing its size (improving economic performance) and producing sequestration-ready CO2 (improving its cleanness potential). However, these schemes have not been energetically integrated and process synthesis techniques can be used to obtain optimal flowsheets and designs. This work studies the heat exchange network synthesis (HENS) for the water-gas shift reaction train employing a set of alternative designs provided by Aspen energy analyzer (AEA) and combined in a process superstructure that was simulated in Aspen Plus (AP). For the alternative designs, large differences in the performance parameters (for instance, the utility requirements) predictions from AEA and AP were observed, suggesting the necessity of solving the HENS problem within the AP simulation environment and avoiding the AEA simplifications. A CAPE-OPEN compliant capability which makes use of a MINLP algorithm for sequential modular simulators was employed to obtain a heat exchange network that provided a cost of energy that was 27% lower than the base case.

  6. Characterizing the monaural and binaural processes underlying reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    for the two RMTs, it is shown that forward masking effects only have a significant effect on reflection masking for delays above 7–10 ms. Moreover, binaural mechanisms were revealed which deteriorate auditory detection of test reflections for delays below 7–10 ms and enhance detection for larger delays....... The monaural and binaural processes that may underlie reflection masking are discussed in terms of auditory-modelling concepts....

  7. Category Specific Spatial Dissociations of Parallel Processes Underlying Visual Naming

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Christopher R.; Chen, Gang; Pieters, Thomas A.; Tandon, Nitin

    2013-01-01

    The constituent elements and dynamics of the networks responsible for word production are a central issue to understanding human language. Of particular interest is their dependency on lexical category, particularly the possible segregation of nouns and verbs into separate processing streams. We applied a novel mixed-effects, multilevel analysis to electrocorticographic data collected from 19 patients (1942 electrodes) to examine the activity of broadly disseminated cortical networks during t...

  8. Neural Correlates of Feedback Processing in Decision Making under Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate eSchuermann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Event-related brain potentials (ERP provide important information about the sensitivity of the brain to process varying risks. The aim of the present study was to determine how different risk levels are reflected in decision-related ERPs, namely the feedback-related negativity (FRN and the P300. Material and Methods. 20 participants conducted a probabilistic two-choice gambling task while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Choices were provided between a low-risk option yielding low rewards and low losses and a high-risk option yielding high rewards and high losses. While options differed in expected risks, they were equal in expected values and in feedback probabilities. Results. At the behavioral level, participants were generally risk-averse but modulated their risk-taking behavior according to reward history. An early positivity (P200 was enhanced on negative feedbacks in high-risk compared to low-risk options. With regard to the FRN, there were significant amplitude differences between positive and negative feedbacks in high-risk options, but not in low-risk options. While the FRN on negative feedbacks did not vary with decision riskiness, reduced amplitudes were found for positive feedbacks in high-risk relative to low-risk choices. P300 amplitudes were larger in high-risk decisions, and in an additive way, after negative compared to positive feedback. Discussion. The present study revealed significant influences of risk and valence processing on ERPs. FRN findings suggest that the reward prediction error signal is increased after high-risk decisions. The increased P200 on negative feedback in risky decisions suggests that large negative prediction errors are processed as early as in the P200 time range. The later P300 amplitude is sensitive to feedback valence as well as to the risk of a decision. Thus, the P300 carries additional information for reward processing, mainly the enhanced motivational significance of risky

  9. A model for optimization of process integration investments under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Elin; Stroemberg, Ann-Brith; Patriksson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The long-term economic outcome of energy-related industrial investment projects is difficult to evaluate because of uncertain energy market conditions. In this article, a general, multistage, stochastic programming model for the optimization of investments in process integration and industrial energy technologies is proposed. The problem is formulated as a mixed-binary linear programming model where uncertainties are modelled using a scenario-based approach. The objective is to maximize the expected net present value of the investments which enables heat savings and decreased energy imports or increased energy exports at an industrial plant. The proposed modelling approach enables a long-term planning of industrial, energy-related investments through the simultaneous optimization of immediate and later decisions. The stochastic programming approach is also suitable for modelling what is possibly complex process integration constraints. The general model formulation presented here is a suitable basis for more specialized case studies dealing with optimization of investments in energy efficiency. -- Highlights: → Stochastic programming approach to long-term planning of process integration investments. → Extensive mathematical model formulation. → Multi-stage investment decisions and scenario-based modelling of uncertain energy prices. → Results illustrate how investments made now affect later investment and operation opportunities. → Approach for evaluation of robustness with respect to variations in probability distribution.

  10. Category specific spatial dissociations of parallel processes underlying visual naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Christopher R; Chen, Gang; Pieters, Thomas A; Tandon, Nitin

    2014-10-01

    The constituent elements and dynamics of the networks responsible for word production are a central issue to understanding human language. Of particular interest is their dependency on lexical category, particularly the possible segregation of nouns and verbs into separate processing streams. We applied a novel mixed-effects, multilevel analysis to electrocorticographic data collected from 19 patients (1942 electrodes) to examine the activity of broadly disseminated cortical networks during the retrieval of distinct lexical categories. This approach was designed to overcome the issues of sparse sampling and individual variability inherent to invasive electrophysiology. Both noun and verb generation evoked overlapping, yet distinct nonhierarchical processes favoring ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively. Notable differences in activity patterns were noted in Broca's area and superior lateral temporo-occipital regions (verb > noun) and in parahippocampal and fusiform cortices (noun > verb). Comparisons with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results yielded a strong correlation of blood oxygen level-dependent signal and gamma power and an independent estimate of group size needed for fMRI studies of cognition. Our findings imply parallel, lexical category-specific processes and reconcile discrepancies between lesional and functional imaging studies. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Impact of intermittent fasting on health and disease processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Mark P; Longo, Valter D; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Humans in modern societies typically consume food at least three times daily, while laboratory animals are fed ad libitum. Overconsumption of food with such eating patterns often leads to metabolic morbidities (insulin resistance, excessive accumulation of visceral fat, etc.), particularly when associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Because animals, including humans, evolved in environments where food was relatively scarce, they developed numerous adaptations that enabled them to function at a high level, both physically and cognitively, when in a food-deprived/fasted state. Intermittent fasting (IF) encompasses eating patterns in which individuals go extended time periods (e.g., 16-48h) with little or no energy intake, with intervening periods of normal food intake, on a recurring basis. We use the term periodic fasting (PF) to refer to IF with periods of fasting or fasting mimicking diets lasting from 2 to as many as 21 or more days. In laboratory rats and mice IF and PF have profound beneficial effects on many different indices of health and, importantly, can counteract disease processes and improve functional outcome in experimental models of a wide range of age-related disorders including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease Parkinson's disease and stroke. Studies of IF (e.g., 60% energy restriction on 2days per week or every other day), PF (e.g., a 5day diet providing 750-1100kcal) and time-restricted feeding (TRF; limiting the daily period of food intake to 8h or less) in normal and overweight human subjects have demonstrated efficacy for weight loss and improvements in multiple health indicators including insulin resistance and reductions in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which IF improves health and counteracts disease processes involve activation of adaptive cellular stress response signaling pathways that enhance mitochondrial health, DNA repair

  12. Shared activity patterns arising at genetic susceptibility loci reveal underlying genomic and cellular architecture of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, J Kenneth; Bretherick, Andrew; Haley, Christopher S; Clohisey, Sara; Gray, Alan; Neyton, Lucile P A; Barrett, Jeffrey; Stahl, Eli A; Tenesa, Albert; Andersson, Robin; Brown, J Ben; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Lizio, Marina; Schaefer, Ulf; Daub, Carsten; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kondo, Naoto; Lassmann, Timo; Kawai, Jun; Mole, Damian; Bajic, Vladimir B; Heutink, Peter; Rehli, Michael; Kawaji, Hideya; Sandelin, Albin; Suzuki, Harukazu; Satsangi, Jack; Wells, Christine A; Hacohen, Nir; Freeman, Thomas C; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Hume, David A

    2018-03-01

    Genetic variants underlying complex traits, including disease susceptibility, are enriched within the transcriptional regulatory elements, promoters and enhancers. There is emerging evidence that regulatory elements associated with particular traits or diseases share similar patterns of transcriptional activity. Accordingly, shared transcriptional activity (coexpression) may help prioritise loci associated with a given trait, and help to identify underlying biological processes. Using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) profiles of promoter- and enhancer-derived RNAs across 1824 human samples, we have analysed coexpression of RNAs originating from trait-associated regulatory regions using a novel quantitative method (network density analysis; NDA). For most traits studied, phenotype-associated variants in regulatory regions were linked to tightly-coexpressed networks that are likely to share important functional characteristics. Coexpression provides a new signal, independent of phenotype association, to enable fine mapping of causative variants. The NDA coexpression approach identifies new genetic variants associated with specific traits, including an association between the regulation of the OCT1 cation transporter and genetic variants underlying circulating cholesterol levels. NDA strongly implicates particular cell types and tissues in disease pathogenesis. For example, distinct groupings of disease-associated regulatory regions implicate two distinct biological processes in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; a further two separate processes are implicated in Crohn's disease. Thus, our functional analysis of genetic predisposition to disease defines new distinct disease endotypes. We predict that patients with a preponderance of susceptibility variants in each group are likely to respond differently to pharmacological therapy. Together, these findings enable a deeper biological understanding of the causal basis of complex traits.

  13. Modeling treatment of ischemic heart disease with partially observable Markov decision processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauskrecht, M; Fraser, H

    1998-01-01

    Diagnosis of a disease and its treatment are not separate, one-shot activities. Instead they are very often dependent and interleaved over time, mostly due to uncertainty about the underlying disease, uncertainty associated with the response of a patient to the treatment and varying cost of different diagnostic (investigative) and treatment procedures. The framework of Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) developed and used in operations research, control theory and artificial intelligence communities is particularly suitable for modeling such a complex decision process. In the paper, we show how the POMDP framework could be used to model and solve the problem of the management of patients with ischemic heart disease, and point out modeling advantages of the framework over standard decision formalisms.

  14. Planning treatment of ischemic heart disease with partially observable Markov decision processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauskrecht, M; Fraser, H

    2000-03-01

    Diagnosis of a disease and its treatment are not separate, one-shot activities. Instead, they are very often dependent and interleaved over time. This is mostly due to uncertainty about the underlying disease, uncertainty associated with the response of a patient to the treatment and varying cost of different diagnostic (investigative) and treatment procedures. The framework of partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) developed and used in the operations research, control theory and artificial intelligence communities is particularly suitable for modeling such a complex decision process. In this paper, we show how the POMDP framework can be used to model and solve the problem of the management of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), and demonstrate the modeling advantages of the framework over standard decision formalisms.

  15. Dissociable neural processes underlying risky decisions for self versus other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun eJung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies on decision making have mainly focused on decisions on behalf of oneself. Considering that people often make decisions on behalf of others, it is intriguing that there is little neurobiological evidence on how decisions for others differ from those for self. Thus, the present study focused on the direct comparison between risky decisions for self and those for other using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants (N = 23 were asked to perform a gambling task for themselves (decision-for-self condition or for another person (decision-for-other condition while in the scanner. Their task was to choose between a low-risk option (i.e., win or lose 10 points and a high-risk option (i.e., win or lose 90 points. The winning probabilities of each option varied from 17% to 83%. Compared to choices for others, choices for self were more risk-averse at lower winning probability and more risk-seeking at higher winning probability, perhaps due to stronger affective process during risky decision for self compared to other. The brain activation pattern changed according to the target of the decision, such that reward-related regions were more active in the decision-for-self condition than in the decision-for-other condition, whereas brain regions related to the theory of mind (ToM showed greater activation in the decision-for-other condition than in the decision-for-self condition. A parametric modulation analysis reflecting each individual’s decision model revealed that activation of the amygdala and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC were associated with value computation for self and for other, respectively, during a risky financial decision. The present study suggests that decisions for self and other may recruit fundamentally distinctive neural processes, which can be mainly characterized by dominant affective/impulsive and cognitive/regulatory processes, respectively.

  16. Dissociable Neural Processes Underlying Risky Decisions for Self Versus Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daehyun; Sul, Sunhae; Kim, Hackjin

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies on decision making have mainly focused on decisions on behalf of oneself. Considering that people often make decisions on behalf of others, it is intriguing that there is little neurobiological evidence on how decisions for others differ from those for oneself. The present study directly compared risky decisions for self with those for another person using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were asked to perform a gambling task on behalf of themselves (decision-for-self condition) or another person (decision-for-other condition) while in the scanner. Their task was to choose between a low-risk option (i.e., win or lose 10 points) and a high-risk option (i.e., win or lose 90 points) with variable levels of winning probability. Compared with choices regarding others, those regarding oneself were more risk-averse at lower winning probabilities and more risk-seeking at higher winning probabilities, perhaps due to stronger affective process during risky decisions for oneself compared with those for other. The brain-activation pattern changed according to the target, such that reward-related regions were more active in the decision-for-self condition than in the decision-for-other condition, whereas brain regions related to the theory of mind (ToM) showed greater activation in the decision-for-other condition than in the decision-for-self condition. Parametric modulation analysis using individual decision models revealed that activation of the amygdala and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) were associated with value computations for oneself and for another, respectively, during risky financial decisions. The results of the present study suggest that decisions for oneself and for other may recruit fundamentally distinct neural processes, which can be mainly characterized as dominant affective/impulsive and cognitive/regulatory processes, respectively. PMID:23519016

  17. Introductory Biology Textbooks Under-Represent Scientific Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara B. Duncan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of undergraduates from Biology majors is a long-standing problem. Introductory courses that fail to engage students or spark their curiosity by emphasizing the open-ended and creative nature of biological investigation and discovery could contribute to student detachment from the field. Our hypothesis was that introductory biology books devote relatively few figures to illustration of the design and interpretation of experiments or field studies, thereby de-emphasizing the scientific process.To investigate this possibility, we examined figures in six Introductory Biology textbooks published in 2008. On average, multistep scientific investigations were presented in fewer than 5% of the hundreds of figures in each book. Devoting such a small percentage of figures to the processes by which discoveries are made discourages an emphasis on scientific thinking. We suggest that by increasing significantly the illustration of scientific investigations, textbooks could support undergraduates’ early interest in biology, stimulate the development of design and analytical skills, and inspire some students to participate in investigations of their own.

  18. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Emnova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the intensity of certain soil biochemical processes (e.g. soil organic C mineralization at Organic and mixed Mineral+Organic fertilization of typical chernozem in crop rotation dynamics (for 6 years by use of eco-physiological indicators of biological soil quality: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, as well as, microbial and metabolic quotients. Soil sampling was performed from a long-term field crop experiment, which has been established in 1971 at the Balti steppe (Northern Moldova. The crop types had a more considerable impact on the soil microbial biomass accumulation and community biochemical activity compared to long-term Organic or mixed Mineral + Organic fertilizers amendments. The Org fertilization system doesn’t make it possible to avoid the loss of organic C in arable typical chernozem. The organic fertilizer (cattle manure is able to mitigate the negative consequences of long-term mineral fertilization.

  19. Finite element simulation of ironing process under warm conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swadesh Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal forming is one of the most important steps in manufacturing of a large variety of products. Ironing in deep drawing is done by adjusting the clearance between the punch and the die and allow the material flow over the punch. In the present investigation effect of extent of ironing behavior on the characteristics of the product like thickness distribution with respect to temperature was studied. With the help of finite element simulation using explicit finite element code LS-DYNA the stress in the drawn cup were predicted in the drawn cup. To increase the accuracy in the simulation process, numbers of integration points were increased in the thickness direction and it was found that there is very close prediction of finite element results to that of experimental ones.

  20. Flux behaviour under different operational conditions in osmosis process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Zarebska, Agata; Buksek, Hermina

    the active membrane layer is facing draw solution. Osmosis process can be affected by several factors, such as operating conditions (temperature and cross flow velocity), feed and draw solution properties, and membrane characteristics. These factors can significantly contribute to the efficiency......, and total dissolved solids. Taken together our results can contribute understanding of the how performance of asymmetric FO membranes can be enhanced by feed and draw properties, membrane characteristics and operational conditions.......The transport of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane is driven by the osmotic pressure difference between feed and draw solution. Two different operational modes can be distinguished, namely FO mode when the active membrane layer is facing the wastewater (feed), and PRO mode when...

  1. Modelling soil carbon fate under erosion process in vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Scalenghe, Riccardo; Minacapilli, Mario; Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Borgogno Mondino, Enrico; Gristina, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion processes in vineyards beyond water runoff and sediment transport have a strong effect on soil organic carbon loss (SOC) and redistribution along the slope. The variation of SOC across the landscape determines a difference in soil fertility and vine productivity. The aim of this research was to study erosion of a Mediterranean vineyard, develop an approach to estimate the SOC loss, correlate the vines vigor with sediment and carbon erosion. The study was carried out in a Sicilian (Italy) vineyard, planted in 2011. Along the slope, six pedons were studied by digging 6 pits up to 60cm depth. Soil was sampled in each pedon every 10cm and SOC was analyzed. Soil erosion, detachment and deposition areas were measured by pole height method. The vigor of vegetation was expressed in term of NDVI (Normalized difference Vegetation Index) derived from a satellite image (RapidEye) acquired at berry pre-veraison stage (July) and characterized by 5 spectral bands in the shortwave region, including a band in the red wavelength (R, 630-685 nm) and in the near infrared (NIR, 760-850 nm) . Results showed that soil erosion, sediments redistribution and SOC across the hill was strongly affected by topographic features, slope and curvature. The erosion rate was 46Mg ha-1 y-1 during the first 6 years since planting. The SOC redistribution was strongly correlated with the detachment or deposition area as highlighted by pole height measurements. The approach developed to estimate the SOC loss showed that during the whole study period the off-farm SOC amounts to 1.6Mg C ha-1. As highlighted by NDVI results, the plant vigor is strong correlated with SOC content and therefore, developing an accurate NDVI approach could be useful to detect the vineyard areas characterized by low fertility due to erosion process.

  2. The synaptic pharmacology underlying sensory processing in the superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, K E

    1999-10-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) is one of the most ancient regions of the vertebrate central sensory system. In this hub afferents from several sensory pathways converge, and an extensive range of neural circuits enable primary sensory processing, multi-sensory integration and the generation of motor commands for orientation behaviours. The SC has a laminar structure and is usually considered in two parts; the superficial visual layers and the deep multi-modal/motor layers. Neurones in the superficial layers integrate visual information from the retina, cortex and other sources, while the deep layers draw together data from many cortical and sub-cortical sensory areas, including the superficial layers, to generate motor commands. Functional studies in anaesthetized subjects and in slice preparations have used pharmacological tools to probe some of the SC's interacting circuits. The studies reviewed here reveal important roles for ionotropic glutamate receptors in the mediation of sensory inputs to the SC and in transmission between the superficial and deep layers. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors appear to have special responsibility for the temporal matching of retinal and cortical activity in the superficial layers and for the integration of multiple sensory data-streams in the deep layers. Sensory responses are shaped by intrinsic inhibitory mechanisms mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors and influenced by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These sensory and motor-command activities of SC neurones are modulated by levels of arousal through extrinsic connections containing GABA, serotonin and other transmitters. It is possible to naturally stimulate many of the SC's sensory and non-sensory inputs either independently or simultaneously and this brain area is an ideal location in which to study: (a) interactions between inputs from the same sensory system; (b) the integration of inputs from several sensory systems; and (c) the influence of non-sensory systems on

  3. Foveal Processing Under Concurrent Peripheral Load in Profoundly Deaf Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of the visual system typically proceeds in concert with the development of audition. One result is that the visual system of profoundly deaf individuals differs from that of those with typical auditory systems. While past research has suggested deaf people have enhanced attention in the visual periphery, it is still unclear whether or not this enhancement entails deficits in central vision. Profoundly deaf and typically hearing adults were administered a variant of the useful field of view task that independently assessed performance on concurrent central and peripheral tasks. Identification of a foveated target was impaired by a concurrent selective peripheral attention task, more so in profoundly deaf adults than in the typically hearing. Previous findings of enhanced performance on the peripheral task were not replicated. These data are discussed in terms of flexible allocation of spatial attention targeted towards perceived task demands, and support a modified “division of labor” hypothesis whereby attentional resources co-opted to process peripheral space result in reduced resources in the central visual field. PMID:26657078

  4. A regional process under the international initiative for IFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murase Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events including floods. The International Flood Initiative (IFI, initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO and voluntary partner organizations has promoted an integrated flood management (IFM to take advantage of floods and use of floodplains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks. After its initial decade, the initiative is providing a stepping-stone for the implementation of Sendai Framework by revitalizing its activities aimed at building on the sucess of the past, while addressing existing gaps in integrated flood managemnet strategies comprising of optimal structural and nonstructural measures thereby mainstreaming disaster risk reduction and targeting sustainable development. In this context, a new mechanism try to facilitate monitoring, assessment and capacity building in the Asia Pacific region. The primary outcomes of the mechanism are demand-driven networking and related documentations of best practices for 1 hazard assessment, 2 exposure assessment, 3 vulnerability assessment and coping capacity to identify the gaps, and 4 follow-ups and monitoring of the IFM process.

  5. A process-model based approach to prospective memory impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegel, Matthias; Altgassen, Mareike; Hering, Alexandra; Rose, Nathan S

    2011-07-01

    The present review discusses the current state of research on the clinical neuropsychology of prospective memory in Parkinson's disease. To do so the paper is divided in two sections. In the first section, we briefly outline key features of the (partly implicit) rationale underlying the available literature on the clinical neuropsychology of prospective memory. Here, we present a conceptual model that guides our approach to the clinical neuropsychology of prospective memory in general and to the effects of Parkinson's disease on prospective memory in particular. In the second section, we use this model to guide our review of the available literature and suggest some open issues and future directions motivated by previous findings and the proposed conceptual model. The review suggests that certain phases of the prospective memory process (intention formation und initiation) are particularly impaired by Parkinson's disease. In addition, it is argued that prospective memory may be preserved when tasks involve specific features (e.g., focal cues) that reduce the need for strategic monitoring processes. In terms of suggestions for future directions, it is noted that intervention studies are needed which target the specific phases of the prospective memory process that are impaired in Parkinson's disease, such as planning interventions. Moreover, it is proposed that prospective memory deficits in Parkinson's disease should be explored in the context of a general impairment in the ability to form an intention and plan or coordinate an appropriate series of actions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 22 CFR 92.92 - Service of legal process under provisions of State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of legal process under provisions of... AND RELATED SERVICES Quasi-Legal Services § 92.92 Service of legal process under provisions of State law. It may be found that a State statue purporting to regulate the service of process in foreign...

  7. Sequential inflammatory processes define human progression from M. tuberculosis infection to tuberculosis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Thomas J; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Shankar, Smitha; Hraha, Tom; Thompson, Ethan G; Sterling, David; Nemes, Elisa; Darboe, Fatoumatta; Suliman, Sara; Amon, Lynn M; Mahomed, Hassan; Erasmus, Mzwandile; Whatney, Wendy; Johnson, John L; Boom, W Henry; Hatherill, Mark; Valvo, Joe; De Groote, Mary Ann; Ochsner, Urs A; Aderem, Alan; Hanekom, Willem A; Zak, Daniel E

    2017-11-01

    Our understanding of mechanisms underlying progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to pulmonary tuberculosis disease in humans remains limited. To define such mechanisms, we followed M. tuberculosis-infected adolescents longitudinally. Blood samples from forty-four adolescents who ultimately developed tuberculosis disease (“progressors”) were compared with those from 106 matched controls, who remained healthy during two years of follow up. We performed longitudinal whole blood transcriptomic analyses by RNA sequencing and plasma proteome analyses using multiplexed slow off-rate modified DNA aptamers. Tuberculosis progression was associated with sequential modulation of immunological processes. Type I/II interferon signalling and complement cascade were elevated 18 months before tuberculosis disease diagnosis, while changes in myeloid inflammation, lymphoid, monocyte and neutrophil gene modules occurred more proximally to tuberculosis disease. Analysis of gene expression in purified T cells also revealed early suppression of Th17 responses in progressors, relative to M. tuberculosis-infected controls. This was confirmed in an independent adult cohort who received BCG re-vaccination; transcript expression of interferon response genes in blood prior to BCG administration was associated with suppression of IL-17 expression by BCG-specific CD4 T cells 3 weeks post-vaccination. Our findings provide a timeline to the different immunological stages of disease progression which comprise sequential inflammatory dynamics and immune alterations that precede disease manifestations and diagnosis of tuberculosis disease. These findings have important implications for developing diagnostics, vaccination and host-directed therapies for tuberculosis. Clincialtrials.gov, NCT01119521.

  8. Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchithra Naish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases are climate sensitive and there has been increasing concern over the impact of climate change on future disease risk. This paper projected the potential future risk of Barmah Forest virus (BFV disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained data on notified BFV cases, climate (maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall, socio-economic and tidal conditions for current period 2000-2008 for coastal regions in Queensland. Grid-data on future climate projections for 2025, 2050 and 2100 were also obtained. Logistic regression models were built to forecast the otential risk of BFV disease distribution under existing climatic, socio-economic and tidal conditions. The model was applied to estimate the potential geographic distribution of BFV outbreaks under climate change scenarios. The predictive model had good model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Maps on potential risk of future BFV disease indicated that disease would vary significantly across coastal regions in Queensland by 2100 due to marked differences in future rainfall and temperature projections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the results of this study demonstrate that the future risk of BFV disease would vary across coastal regions in Queensland. These results may be helpful for public health decision making towards developing effective risk management strategies for BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  9. Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are climate sensitive and there has been increasing concern over the impact of climate change on future disease risk. This paper projected the potential future risk of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia. We obtained data on notified BFV cases, climate (maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall), socio-economic and tidal conditions for current period 2000-2008 for coastal regions in Queensland. Grid-data on future climate projections for 2025, 2050 and 2100 were also obtained. Logistic regression models were built to forecast the otential risk of BFV disease distribution under existing climatic, socio-economic and tidal conditions. The model was applied to estimate the potential geographic distribution of BFV outbreaks under climate change scenarios. The predictive model had good model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Maps on potential risk of future BFV disease indicated that disease would vary significantly across coastal regions in Queensland by 2100 due to marked differences in future rainfall and temperature projections. We conclude that the results of this study demonstrate that the future risk of BFV disease would vary across coastal regions in Queensland. These results may be helpful for public health decision making towards developing effective risk management strategies for BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  10. Novelty processing and memory formation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Berendse, H W; Foncke, E M J; van der Werf, Y D; van den Heuvel, O A; Theeuwes, J; Meeter, M

    2014-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic cells, resulting in dopamine depletion. This depletion is counteracted through dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). Dopamine has been suggested to affect novelty processing and memory, which suggests that these processes are also implicated in PD and that DRT could affect them. To investigate word learning and novelty processing in patients with PD as indexed by the P2 and P3 event-related potential components, and the role of DRT in these processes. 21 patients with PD and 21 matched healthy controls were included. Patients with PD were tested on and off DRT in two sessions in a counterbalanced design, and healthy controls were tested twice without intervention. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured while participants performed a word learning Von Restorff task. Healthy controls showed the typical Von Restorff effect, with better memory for words that were presented in novel fonts, than for words presented in standard font. Surprisingly, this effect was reversed in the patients with PD. In line with the behavioral findings, the P3 was larger for novel than for standard font words in healthy controls, but not in patients with PD. For both groups the P2 and P3 event-related components were larger for recalled versus forgotten words. DRT did not affect these processes. Learning of novel information is compromised in patients with PD. Likewise, the P2 and P3 components that predict successful memory encoding are reduced in PD patients. This was true both on and off DRT, suggesting that these findings reflect abnormalities in learning and memory in PD that are not resolved by dopaminergic medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J; Myers, Christopher R

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  12. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  13. Altered brain mechanisms of emotion processing in pre-manifest Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Marianne J U; Warren, Jason D; Henley, Susie M D; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard S; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2012-04-01

    Huntington's disease is an inherited neurodegenerative disease that causes motor, cognitive and psychiatric impairment, including an early decline in ability to recognize emotional states in others. The pathophysiology underlying the earliest manifestations of the disease is not fully understood; the objective of our study was to clarify this. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate changes in brain mechanisms of emotion recognition in pre-manifest carriers of the abnormal Huntington's disease gene (subjects with pre-manifest Huntington's disease): 16 subjects with pre-manifest Huntington's disease and 14 control subjects underwent 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance scanning while viewing pictures of facial expressions from the Ekman and Friesen series. Disgust, anger and happiness were chosen as emotions of interest. Disgust is the emotion in which recognition deficits have most commonly been detected in Huntington's disease; anger is the emotion in which impaired recognition was detected in the largest behavioural study of emotion recognition in pre-manifest Huntington's disease to date; and happiness is a positive emotion to contrast with disgust and anger. Ekman facial expressions were also used to quantify emotion recognition accuracy outside the scanner and structural magnetic resonance imaging with voxel-based morphometry was used to assess the relationship between emotion recognition accuracy and regional grey matter volume. Emotion processing in pre-manifest Huntington's disease was associated with reduced neural activity for all three emotions in partially separable functional networks. Furthermore, the Huntington's disease-associated modulation of disgust and happiness processing was negatively correlated with genetic markers of pre-manifest disease progression in distributed, largely extrastriatal networks. The modulated disgust network included insulae, cingulate cortices, pre- and postcentral gyri, precunei, cunei, bilateral putamena

  14. Beyond dual-process models: A categorisation of processes underlying intuitive judgement and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glöckner, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear

  15. Emotion Processing for Arousal and Neutral Content in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Satler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients to perceive emotional information and to assign subjective emotional rating scores to audiovisual presentations. Materials and Methods. 24 subjects (14 with AD, matched to controls for age and educational levels were studied. After neuropsychological assessment, they watched a Neutral story and then a story with Emotional content. Results. Recall scores for both stories were significantly lower in AD (Neutral and Emotional: P=.001. CG assigned different emotional scores for each version of the test, P=.001, while ratings of AD did not differ, P=.32. Linear regression analyses determined the best predictors of emotional rating and recognition memory for each group among neuropsychological tests battery. Conclusions. AD patients show changes in emotional processing on declarative memory and a preserved ability to express emotions in face of arousal content. The present findings suggest that these impairments are due to general cognitive decline.

  16. Emotion processing for arousal and neutral content in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satler, Corina; Uribe, Carlos; Conde, Carlos; Da-Silva, Sergio Leme; Tomaz, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Objective. To assess the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients to perceive emotional information and to assign subjective emotional rating scores to audiovisual presentations. Materials and Methods. 24 subjects (14 with AD, matched to controls for age and educational levels) were studied. After neuropsychological assessment, they watched a Neutral story and then a story with Emotional content. Results. Recall scores for both stories were significantly lower in AD (Neutral and Emotional: P = .001). CG assigned different emotional scores for each version of the test, P = .001, while ratings of AD did not differ, P = .32. Linear regression analyses determined the best predictors of emotional rating and recognition memory for each group among neuropsychological tests battery. Conclusions. AD patients show changes in emotional processing on declarative memory and a preserved ability to express emotions in face of arousal content. The present findings suggest that these impairments are due to general cognitive decline.

  17. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  18. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant–pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:25657213

  19. Impaired visuospatial transformation but intact sequence processing in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, E Charles; Kerai, Julie H; Johnston, Stephen J; Hindle, John V; Bracewell, R Martyn

    2014-09-01

    We examined whether visuospatial deficits in Parkinson disease (PD) can be explained by a domain-general, nonspatial impairment in the sequencing or serial chaining of mental operations. PD has been shown to be associated with impaired visuospatial processing, but the mechanisms of this impairment remain unclear. Thirteen patients with PD and 20 age-matched, neurologically normal controls performed a visuospatial grid navigation task requiring sequential spatial transformations. The participants also performed a control task of serial number subtraction designed to assess their nonvisuospatial sequencing. The tasks were matched in structure and difficulty. The patients were impaired on the visuospatial task but not in serial number subtraction. This finding suggests that visuospatial processing impairments in PD do not derive from a general impairment affecting sequencing or serial chaining. We argue that visuospatial deficits in PD result from impairments to spatial transformation routines involved in the computation of mappings between spatial locations. These routines are mediated by dopaminergic pathways linking the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, and parietal cortex.

  20. A CASE STUDY ON POINT PROCESS MODELLING IN DISEASE MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Beneš

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider a data set of locations where people in Central Bohemia have been infected by tick-borne encephalitis (TBE, and where population census data and covariates concerning vegetation and altitude are available. The aims are to estimate the risk map of the disease and to study the dependence of the risk on the covariates. Instead of using the common area level approaches we base the analysis on a Bayesian approach for a log Gaussian Cox point process with covariates. Posterior characteristics for a discretized version of the log Gaussian Cox process are computed using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. A particular problem which is thoroughly discussed is to determine a model for the background population density. The risk map shows a clear dependency with the population intensity models and the basic model which is adopted for the population intensity determines what covariates influence the risk of TBE. Model validation is based on the posterior predictive distribution of various summary statistics.

  1. Mashing of Rice with Barley Malt Under Nonconventional Process Conditions for Use in Food Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, T.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Non-conventional mashing conditions are relevant in the development of a lactic acid-fermented soymilk beverage where mashed rice is the source of carbohydrates for the fermentation and sweetness of the beverage. Advantages in the process layout could be achieved by mashing at higher pH and lower...... conditions when a mashing step is integrated in other food processes....

  2. Proteins Encoded in Genomic Regions Associated with Immune-Mediated Disease Physically Interact and Suggest Underlying Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Lage, Kasper; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Tatar, Diana; Benita, Yair

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed by these risk variants. It has previously been observed that different genes harboring causal mutations for the same Mendelian disease often physically interact. We sought to evaluate the degree to which this is true of genes within strongly associated loci in complex disease. Using sets of loci defined in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD) GWAS, we build protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks for genes within associated loci and find abundant physical interactions between protein products of associated genes. We apply multiple permutation approaches to show that these networks are more densely connected than chance expectation. To confirm biological relevance, we show that the components of the networks tend to be expressed in similar tissues relevant to the phenotypes in question, suggesting the network indicates common underlying processes perturbed by risk loci. Furthermore, we show that the RA and CD networks have predictive power by demonstrating that proteins in these networks, not encoded in the confirmed list of disease associated loci, are significantly enriched for association to the phenotypes in question in extended GWAS analysis. Finally, we test our method in 3 non-immune traits to assess its applicability to complex traits in general. We find that genes in loci associated to height and lipid levels assemble into significantly connected networks but did not detect excess connectivity among Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) loci beyond chance. Taken together, our results constitute evidence that, for many of the complex diseases studied here, common genetic associations implicate regions encoding proteins that physically interact in a preferential manner, in

  3. The impact of Parkinson's disease and subthalamic deep brain stimulation on reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Ricarda; Stankevich, Yuliya; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Storch, Alexander; Wolz, Martin; Reichmann, Heinz; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Goschke, Thomas; Lueken, Ulrike

    2015-08-01

    Due to its position in cortico-subthalamic and cortico-striatal pathways, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is considered to play a crucial role not only in motor, but also in cognitive and motivational functions. In the present study we aimed to characterize how different aspects of reward processing are affected by disease and deep brain stimulation of the STN (DBS-STN) in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared 33 PD patients treated with DBS-STN under best medical treatment (DBS-on, medication-on) to 33 PD patients without DBS, but optimized pharmacological treatment and 34 age-matched healthy controls. We then investigated DBS-STN effects using a postoperative stimulation-on/ -off design. The task set included a delay discounting task, a task to assess changes in incentive salience attribution, and the Iowa Gambling Task. The presence of PD was associated with increased incentive salience attribution and devaluation of delayed rewards. Acute DBS-STN increased risky choices in the Iowa Gambling Task under DBS-on condition, but did not further affect incentive salience attribution or the evaluation of delayed rewards. Findings indicate that acute DBS-STN affects specific aspects of reward processing, including the weighting of gains and losses, while larger-scale effects of disease or medication are predominant in others reward-related functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in some coronary disease risk factors under influence of treatment with Swieradow radon waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczeklik, E; Halawa, B; Kwiatkowski, J

    1977-01-01

    In 66 patients subbivided into group of patients with coronary disease and group of control subjects the effect of radioactive waterbath and climatotherapy in Swieradow upon coronary disease risk factors was studied. The following risk factors were taken into account: cholesterol level, triglicerides, LDL, uric acid, the serum glucose level, arterial tension and weight. The results obtained indicate that the therapy with radon waters of Swieradow complexed with climatotherapy decreases the content of some coronary disease risk factors. The decrease of the urin acid in the serum, the lowering of arterial tension and decrease of body weight was noted. The lipid level in the serum did not change under effect of radioactive waters.

  5. Theory of mind and decision-making processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Chunhua; Zhu, Youling; Mu, Yanfang; Chen, Bing; Dong, Bin; Cheng, Huaidong; Hu, Panpan; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2015-02-15

    Prefrontal cortex plays a vital role in the theory of mind (ToM) and decision making, as shown in functional brain imaging and lesion studies. Considering the primary neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the frontal lobe system, patients with PD are expected to exhibit deficits in ToM and social decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate affective ToM and decision making in patients with PD and healthy controls (HC) in a task assessing affective ToM (Reading the Mind in the Eyes, RME) and two decision-making tasks (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT; Game of Dice Task, GDT). Consistent with previous findings, patients with PD were impaired in the affective ToM task, and when making decisions under ambiguity and in risk situations. The score of emotion recognition in the RME task was negatively correlated with the severity of the disease and positively correlated with the total number of advantageous cards chosen in the IGT. However, the final capital in the GDT was correlated with memory impairment. The present study implies that affective ToM and decision making under ambiguity may share similar neural mechanisms, while decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may involve processing within different neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-homogeneous Markov process models with informative observations with an application to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baojiang; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Identifying risk factors for transition rates among normal cognition, mildly cognitive impairment, dementia and death in an Alzheimer's disease study is very important. It is known that transition rates among these states are strongly time dependent. While Markov process models are often used to describe these disease progressions, the literature mainly focuses on time homogeneous processes, and limited tools are available for dealing with non-homogeneity. Further, patients may choose when they want to visit the clinics, which creates informative observations. In this paper, we develop methods to deal with non-homogeneous Markov processes through time scale transformation when observation times are pre-planned with some observations missing. Maximum likelihood estimation via the EM algorithm is derived for parameter estimation. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method works well under a variety of situations. An application to the Alzheimer's disease study identifies that there is a significant increase in transition rates as a function of time. Furthermore, our models reveal that the non-ignorable missing mechanism is perhaps reasonable. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Genome Sequencing Reveals Loci under Artificial Selection that Underlie Disease Phenotypes in the Laboratory Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanur, Santosh S.; Diaz, Ana Garcia; Maratou, Klio; Sarkis, Allison; Rotival, Maxime; Game, Laurence; Tschannen, Michael R.; Kaisaki, Pamela J.; Otto, Georg W.; Ma, Man Chun John; Keane, Thomas M.; Hummel, Oliver; Saar, Kathrin; Chen, Wei; Guryev, Victor; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Garrett, Michael R.; Joe, Bina; Citterio, Lorena; Bianchi, Giuseppe; McBride, Martin; Dominiczak, Anna; Adams, David J.; Serikawa, Tadao; Flicek, Paul; Cuppen, Edwin; Hubner, Norbert; Petretto, Enrico; Gauguier, Dominique; Kwitek, Anne; Jacob, Howard; Aitman, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of inbred laboratory rat strains have been developed for a range of complex disease phenotypes. To gain insights into the evolutionary pressures underlying selection for these phenotypes, we sequenced the genomes of 27 rat strains, including 11 models of hypertension, diabetes, and

  8. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying postural instability in Parkinson's disease using dynamic posturography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, J.H.; Kam, D. de; Geurts, A.C.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    Postural instability, one of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), has devastating consequences for affected patients. Better strategies to prevent falls are needed, but this calls for an improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying postural instability. We must also

  9. Impact of gender and genetics on emotion processing in Parkinson's disease - A multimodal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Heller

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease (PD has been suggested to affect males and females differently. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and disabling in PD. However, previous studies focusing on emotion recognition in PD have neglected the confounder of gender and lack evidence on the underlying endocrinal and genetic mechanisms. Moreover, while there are many imaging studies on emotion processing in PD, gender-related analyses of neural data are scarce. We therefore aimed at exploring the interplay of the named factors on emotion recognition and processing in PD. Methods: 51 non-demented PD patients (26 male and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC; 25 male were examined clinically and neuropsychologically including an emotion recognition task (Ekman 60faces test. A subsample of 25 patients and 31 HC underwent task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI comprised of videos of emotional facial expressions. To examine the impact of hormones and genetics on emotion processing, blood samples were taken for endocrinal (testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and genetic testing (5-HTTLPR, Val158Met COMT polymorphisms. Results: No group or gender differences emerged regarding cognitive abilities. Male but not female PD patients exhibited confined impairments in recognizing the emotion anger accompanied by diminished neural response to facial expressions (e.g. in the putamen and insula. Endocrinologically, fear recognition was positively correlated with estrogen levels in female patients, while on the genetic level we found an effect of Val158Met COMT genotype on the recognition of fear in PD patients. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that impaired emotion processing in PD specifically affects male patients, and that hormones and genetics contribute to emotion recognition performance. Further research on the underlying neural, endocrinological and genetic mechanisms of specific symptoms in PD is of clinical relevance, as it

  10. [Myths and taboos of motherhood: focusing on the health-disease process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Berni, Neiva Iolanda de Oliveira; Selli, Lucilda

    2007-01-01

    To learn about myths and taboos related with motherhood and their implications in the health/disease process. Study carried out using a qualitative approach, in a natural setting, with women of poor classes who experienced motherhood. The selection of subjects was performed intentionally, and data collection was made by means of semi-structured interviews and participant observation at the moment those women were given healthcare attention. Data analysis followed the content analysis. The topic under study permeates, as an ideology, the women's lives. The myths and taboos are related to health/disease: postpartum hygiene; protection of the newborn's integrity; menses; alternatives for a solution of health problems; and gender issues, the conducts the women follow to avoid becoming "saucy" being evidenced. In the research, it was possible to capture elements that translate the cultural values of the women's daily lives and the need for associating scientific knowledge with popular practices.

  11. Impaired Processing of Serial Order Determines Working Memory Impairments in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Belder, Maya; Santens, Patrick; Sieben, Anne; Fias, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Working memory (WM) problems are commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the affected mechanisms leading to impaired WM are still insufficiently understood. The ability to efficiently process serial order in WM has been demonstrated to be fundamental to fluent daily life functioning. The decreased capability to mentally process serial position in WM has been put forward as the underlying explanation for generally compromised WM performance. Determine which mechanisms, such as order processing, are responsible for deficient WM functioning in AD. A group of AD patients (n = 32) and their partners (n = 25), assigned to the control group, were submitted to an extensive battery of neuropsychological and experimental tasks, assessing general cognitive state and functioning of several aspects related to serial order WM. The results revealed an impaired ability to bind item information to serial position within WM in AD patients compared to controls. It was additionally observed that AD patients experienced specific difficulties with directing spatial attention when searching for item information stored in WM. The processing of serial order and the allocation of attentional resources are both disrupted, explaining the generally reduced WM functioning in AD patients. Further studies should now clarify whether this observation could explain disease-related problems for other cognitive functions such as verbal expression, auditory comprehension, or planning.

  12. Exploring the Use of Design of Experiments in Industrial Processes Operating Under Closed-Loop Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaci, Francesca; Kulahci, Murat; Vanhatalo, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing processes often operate under closed-loop control, where automation aims to keep important process variables at their set-points. In process industries such as pulp, paper, chemical and steel plants, it is often hard to find production processes operating in open loop....... Instead, closed-loop control systems will actively attempt to minimize the impact of process disturbances. However, we argue that an implicit assumption in most experimental investigations is that the studied system is open loop, allowing the experimental factors to freely affect the important system...... responses. This scenario is typically not found in process industries. The purpose of this article is therefore to explore issues of experimental design and analysis in processes operating under closed-loop control and to illustrate how Design of Experiments can help in improving and optimizing...

  13. Shared activity patterns arising at genetic susceptibility loci reveal underlying genomic and cellular architecture of human disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baillie, J. Kenneth; Bretherick, Andrew; Haley, Christopher S.

    2018-01-01

    Genetic variants underlying complex traits, including disease susceptibility, are enriched within the transcriptional regulatory elements, promoters and enhancers. There is emerging evidence that regulatory elements associated with particular traits or diseases share similar patterns of transcrip...

  14. Variations in cardiovascular disease under-diagnosis in England: national cross-sectional spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walford Hannah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is under-diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the English population, despite financial incentives to encourage general practices to register new cases. We compared the modelled (expected and diagnosed (observed prevalence of three cardiovascular conditions- coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension and stroke- at local level, their geographical variation, and population and healthcare predictors which might influence diagnosis. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in all English local authorities (351 and general practices (8,372 comparing model-based expected prevalence with diagnosed prevalence on practice disease registers. Spatial analyses were used to identify geographic clusters and variation in regression relationships. Results A total of 9,682,176 patients were on practice CHD, stroke and transient ischaemic attack, and hypertension registers. There was wide spatial variation in observed: expected prevalence ratios for all three diseases, with less than five per cent of expected cases diagnosed in some areas. London and the surrounding area showed statistically significant discrepancies in observed: expected prevalence ratios, with observed prevalence much lower than the epidemiological models predicted. The addition of general practitioner supply as a variable yielded stronger regression results for all three conditions. Conclusions Despite almost universal access to free primary healthcare, there may be significant and highly variable under-diagnosis of CVD across England, which can be partially explained by persistent inequity in GP supply. Disease management studies should consider the possible impact of under-diagnosis on population health outcomes. Compared to classical regression modelling, spatial analytic techniques can provide additional information on risk factors for under-diagnosis, and can suggest where healthcare resources may be most needed.

  15. Measuring underreporting and under-ascertainment in infectious disease datasets: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Cheryl L; Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Plass, Dietrich; Havelaar, Arie H; Brooke, Russell John; Kramarz, Piotr; Peterson, Karen L; Stuurman, Anke L; Cassini, Alessandro; Fèvre, Eric M; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E

    2014-02-11

    Efficient and reliable surveillance and notification systems are vital for monitoring public health and disease outbreaks. However, most surveillance and notification systems are affected by a degree of underestimation (UE) and therefore uncertainty surrounds the 'true' incidence of disease affecting morbidity and mortality rates. Surveillance systems fail to capture cases at two distinct levels of the surveillance pyramid: from the community since not all cases seek healthcare (under-ascertainment), and at the healthcare-level, representing a failure to adequately report symptomatic cases that have sought medical advice (underreporting). There are several methods to estimate the extent of under-ascertainment and underreporting. Within the context of the ECDC-funded Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE)-project, an extensive literature review was conducted to identify studies that estimate ascertainment or reporting rates for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis in European Union Member States (MS) plus European Free Trade Area (EFTA) countries Iceland, Norway and Switzerland and four other OECD countries (USA, Canada, Australia and Japan). Multiplication factors (MFs), a measure of the magnitude of underestimation, were taken directly from the literature or derived (where the proportion of underestimated, under-ascertained, or underreported cases was known) and compared for the two pathogens. MFs varied between and within diseases and countries, representing a need to carefully select the most appropriate MFs and methods for calculating them. The most appropriate MFs are often disease-, country-, age-, and sex-specific. When routine data are used to make decisions on resource allocation or to estimate epidemiological parameters in populations, it becomes important to understand when, where and to what extent these data represent the true picture of disease, and in some instances (such as priority setting) it is necessary to adjust for underestimation

  16. Cases of Trichohepatoenteric Syndrome (Syndromic Diarrhea with Underlying Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. А. Roslavtseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (syndromic, phenotypic diarrhea, SD/THES is a rare inborn disease, which affects bowels. It is caused by the mutation of genes SKIV2L or TTC37. Manifestations include intrauterine hypotrophy, severe chronic diarrhea, which starts in infancy, characteristic facial features and hair growth abnormalities, immune disorders. There are data on two patients dealing with tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome with underlying Crohn’s disease. This is the first description of cases of aggravated tricho-hepatoenteric syndrome ever found in Russian medical literature. 

  17. Anthesis, the infectious process and disease progress curves for fusarium head blight in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fusarium head blight of wheat (Triticum aestivum, caused by the fungus Gibberella zeae, is a floral infecting disease that causes quantitative and qualitative losses to winter cereals. In Brazil, the sanitary situation of wheat has led to research in order to develop strategies for sustainable production, even under adverse weather conditions. To increase the knowledge of the relationship among the presence of anthesis, the infectious process, the disease progress and the saprophytic fungi present in wheat anthers, studies were conducted in the experimental field of University of Passo Fundo (UPF, using the cultivar Marfim, in the 2011 growing season. The disease incidence in spikes and spikelets was evaluated. The presence of exserted anthers increased the spike exposure time to the inoculum. The final incidence of fusarium head blight, in the field, was dependent on the presence of exserted anthers. The disease followed an aggregation pattern and its evolution increased with time, apparently showing growth according to secondary cycles. The fungi isolated from exserted anthers (Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Drechslera spp. and Epicoccum sp. did not compete for the infection site of fusarium head blight in wheat, not interfering with the incidence of F. graminearum.

  18. Land cover variation and West Nile virus prevalence: Patterns, processes, and implications for disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Milheim, L.E.; Coffey, M.F.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying links between environmental variables and infectious disease risk is essential to understanding how human-induced environmental changes will effect the dynamics of human and wildlife diseases. Although land cover change has often been tied to spatial variation in disease occurrence, the underlying factors driving the correlations are often unknown, limiting the applicability of these results for disease prevention and control. In this study, we described associations between land cover composition and West Nile virus (WNV) infection prevalence, and investigated three potential processes accounting for observed patterns: (1) variation in vector density; (2) variation in amplification host abundance; and (3) variation in host community composition. Interestingly, we found that WNV infection rates among Culex mosquitoes declined with increasing wetland cover, but wetland area was not significantly associated with either vector density or amplification host abundance. By contrast, wetland area was strongly correlated with host community composition, and model comparisons suggested that this factor accounted, at least partially, for the observed effect of wetland area on WNV infection risk. Our results suggest that preserving large wetland areas, and by extension, intact wetland bird communities, may represent a valuable ecosystem-based approach for controlling WNV outbreaks. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  19. An image processing technique for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Mahmoudian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD reportedly hibit hypersensitivity to much diluted tropicam solution (0.005%, a M4 muscarinic receptor antagonist. Therefore aocular application of 0.005% tropicamide ma be useful for screening dementia. The aim of this study was to simplify the pupil response test by using a new image analyzing system, which consists of a cheap, simple, and easy to use web-camera and a computer.
    • METHODS: Intraocular tropicamide of 0.005% concentration was administered in 3 groups: Alzheimer's disease patients (n = 8, average age = 76 ± 5, non-Alzheimer's disease elderly (n = 6, average age = 65 ± 7, and young subjects (n = 8, average age = 28 ± 5. Every 5 minutes for 60 minutes, image of the eye's shape were taken, and the diameter of the pupils was measured.
    • RESULTS: The results showed that differences in pupil dilation rate between Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's disease subjects were statistically significant. ROC analysis showed that after 35 minutes the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 100%.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, we concluded that this recording system might be an appropriate and reliable tool for pupil response diagnosis test of Alzheimer's disease.
    • KEYWORDS: Alzheimer’s Disease, Tropicamide, Pupil.

  20. 20 CFR 10.7 - What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What forms are needed to process claims under the FECA? 10.7 Section 10.7 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED General Provisions Definitions and Forms § 10.7 What forms are needed to process...

  1. A quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators under input information overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators. The aim of this work is to derive the amount of the information processed during a certain control task under input information overload. We primarily develop the information processing model having multiple stages, which contains information flow. Then the uncertainty of the information is quantified using the Conant's model, a kind of information theory. We also investigate the applicability of this approach to quantifying the information reduction of operators under the input information overload

  2. BURDEN OF PROOF IN CONSTITUTIONAL PROCESS UNDER CONSIDERATION OF DEMOCRATIC STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Mendanha Dias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the aegis of the democratic rule of law, the contradictory it appears as a fundamental premise of constitutionalised process. In this view, the contradictory, more than just right party to exercise its right of defense, it should be seen as a form of compartipação in the process, allowing the parties to the probative production as an effective influence on acertamento right. Thus, it should be disproved the right mitigation attempts contradictory in the evidentiary phase and imposing aside the need to produce proofimpossible or difficult to perform, under penalty of offending the process understood in the modern normative framework.

  3. Theoretical Background for the Decision-Making Process Modelling under Controlled Intervention Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bakanauskienė Irena; Baronienė Laura

    2017-01-01

    This article is intended to theoretically justify the decision-making process model for the cases, when active participation of investing entities in controlling the activities of an organisation and their results is noticeable. Based on scientific literature analysis, a concept of controlled conditions is formulated, and using a rational approach to the decision-making process, a model of the 11-steps decision-making process under controlled intervention is presented. Also, there have been u...

  4. Altered kinematics of arm swing in Parkinson's disease patients indicates declines in gait under dual-task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Elise I; Miller Koop, Mandy; Streicher, Matthew C; Rosenfeldt, Anson B; Alberts, Jay L

    2018-03-01

    Declines in simultaneous performance of a cognitive and motor task are present in Parkinson's disease due to compromised basal ganglia function related to information processing. The aim of this project was to determine if biomechanical measures of arm swing could be used as a marker of gait function under dual-task conditions in Parkinson's disease patients. Twenty-three patients with Parkinson's disease completed single and dual-task cognitive-motor tests while walking on a treadmill at a self-selected rate. Multiple cognitive domains were evaluated with five cognitive tests. Cognitive tests were completed in isolation (single-task) and simultaneously with gait (dual-task). Upper extremity biomechanical data were gathered using the Motek CAREN system. Primary outcomes characterizing arm swing were: path length, normalized jerk, coefficient of variation of arm swing time, and cognitive performance. Performance on the cognitive tasks were similar across single and dual-task conditions. However, biomechanical measures exhibited significant changes between single and dual-task conditions, with the greatest changes occurring in the most challenging conditions. Arm swing path length decreased significantly from single to dual-task, with the greatest decrease of 21.16%. Jerk, characterizing smoothness, increased significantly when moving from single to dual-task conditions. The simultaneous performance of a cognitive and gait task resulted in decrements in arm swing while cognitive performance was maintained. Arm swing outcomes provide a sensitive measure of declines in gait function in Parkinson's disease under dual-task conditions. The quantification of arm swing is a feasible approach to identifying and evaluating gait related declines under dual-task conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Non-linear increase of respiratory diseases and their costs under severe air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; Wu, Yiyun; Chen, Guangdi; Van Grinsven, Hans J M; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Baojing; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-05-01

    China is experiencing severe and persistent air pollution, with concentrations of fine particulate matters (PM 2.5 ) reaching unprecedentedly high levels in many cities. Quantifying the detrimental effects on health and their costs derived from high PM 2.5 levels is crucial because of the unsolved challenges to mitigate air pollution in the following decades. Using the daily monitoring data on PM 2.5 concentrations and clinic visits, we found a non-linear increase of respiratory diseases, but not for other diseases (e.g., digestive diseases) under severe air pollution. We found an increase of respiratory diseases by 1% for each 10 μg m -3 increase in PM 2.5 when the annual average daily PM 2.5 concentration was less than 50 μg m -3 ; while this ratio was doubled (around 2%) with the daily PM 2.5 concentration larger than 50 μg m -3 . Under severe air pollution (PM 2.5 concentration >150 μg m -3 ), the respiratory diseases increased by over 50% compared to that in clean days. Children are more sensitive to the severe air pollution. The increase of clinic visits, especially for adults, was observed mainly in bigger (>500 beds) hospitals. Re-allocating medical resources (e.g., doctors) from big hospitals to community hospitals can benefit the respiratory patients due to air pollution. The total medical cost of clinic visits of respiratory diseases derived from PM 2.5 pollution was estimated at 17.2-57.0 billion Yuan in 2014 in China, accounting for 0.5-1.6% of national total health expenditure. Because these medical costs only represent a small part of total health cost derived from air pollution, the reduction of associated health costs would be an important co-benefit of implementation of air pollution preventive strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  7. DNA repair processes and their impairment in some human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Some human diseases show enhanced sensitivity to the action of environmental mutagens, and among these several are known which are defective in the repair of damaged DNA. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is mainly defective in excision repair of a large variety of damaged DNA bases caused by ultraviolet light and chemical mutagens. XP involves at least 6 distinct groups, some of which may lack cofactors required for excising damage from chromatin. As a result of these defects the sensitivity of XP cells to many mutagens is increased 5- to 10-fold. Ataxia telangiectasia and Fanconi's anemia may similarly involve defects in repair of certain DNA base damage or cross-links, respectively. But most of these and other mutagen-sensitive diseases only show increases of about 2-fold in sensitivity to mutagens, and the biochemical defects in the diseases may be more complex and less directly involved in DNA repair than in XP. (Auth.)

  8. Processes Underlying Rabies Virus Incursions across US-Canada Border as Revealed by Whole-Genome Phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewby, Hannah; Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Real, Leslie A; Biek, Roman

    2017-09-01

    Disease control programs aim to constrain and reduce the spread of infection. Human disease interventions such as wildlife vaccination play a major role in determining the limits of a pathogen's spatial distribution. Over the past few decades, a raccoon-specific variant of rabies virus (RRV) has invaded large areas of eastern North America. Although expansion into Canada has been largely prevented through vaccination along the US border, several outbreaks have occurred in Canada. Applying phylogeographic approaches to 289 RRV whole-genome sequences derived from isolates collected in Canada and adjacent US states, we examined the processes underlying these outbreaks. RRV incursions were attributable predominantly to systematic virus leakage of local strains across areas along the border where vaccination has been conducted but also to single stochastic events such as long-distance translocations. These results demonstrate the utility of phylogeographic analysis of pathogen genomes for understanding transboundary outbreaks.

  9. Internal mechanisms underlying anticipatory language processing: Evidence from event-related-potentials and neural oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yuping; Xia, Jinyan; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2017-07-28

    Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the language processing system can predict upcoming content during comprehension, there is still no clear picture of the anticipatory stage of predictive processing. This electroencephalograph study examined the cognitive and neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying anticipatory processing during language comprehension, and the consequences of this prediction for bottom-up processing of predicted/unpredicted content. Participants read Mandarin Chinese sentences that were either strongly or weakly constraining and that contained critical nouns that were congruent or incongruent with the sentence contexts. We examined the effects of semantic predictability on anticipatory processing prior to the onset of the critical nouns and on integration of the critical nouns. The results revealed that, at the integration stage, the strong-constraint condition (compared to the weak-constraint condition) elicited a reduced N400 and reduced theta activity (4-7Hz) for the congruent nouns, but induced beta (13-18Hz) and theta (4-7Hz) power decreases for the incongruent nouns, indicating benefits of confirmed predictions and potential costs of disconfirmed predictions. More importantly, at the anticipatory stage, the strongly constraining context elicited an enhanced sustained anterior negativity and beta power decrease (19-25Hz), which indicates that strong prediction places a higher processing load on the anticipatory stage of processing. The differences (in the ease of processing and the underlying neural oscillatory activities) between anticipatory and integration stages of lexical processing were discussed with regard to predictive processing models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Theoretical Background for the Decision-Making Process Modelling under Controlled Intervention Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakanauskienė Irena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to theoretically justify the decision-making process model for the cases, when active participation of investing entities in controlling the activities of an organisation and their results is noticeable. Based on scientific literature analysis, a concept of controlled conditions is formulated, and using a rational approach to the decision-making process, a model of the 11-steps decision-making process under controlled intervention is presented. Also, there have been unified conditions, describing the case of controlled interventions thus providing preconditions to ensure the adequacy of the proposed decision-making process model.

  11. Maremar, prevalence of chronic kidney disease, how to avoid over-diagnosis and under-diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Broe, Marc E; Gharbi, Mohammed Benghanem; Elseviers, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered as a major public health problem. Recent studies mention a prevalence rate between 8%-12%. Several editorials, comments, short reviews described the weaknesses (lack of confirmation of proteinuria, and of chronicity of decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate) of a substantial number of studies and the irrational of using a single arbitrary set point, i.e. diagnosis of chronic kidney disease whenever the estimated glomerular filtration rate is less than 60mL/min/1.73m(2). Maremar (Maladies rénales chroniques au Maroc) is a prevalence study of chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes and obesity in a randomized, representative, high response rate (85%), sample of the adult population of Morocco, strictly applying the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Compared to the vast majority of the available studies, Maremar has a low prevalence of chronic kidney disease (2.9% adjusted to the actual adult population of Morocco). The population pyramid, and particularly the confirmation of proteinuria and "chronicity" of the decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate are the main reasons for this low prevalence of chronic kidney disease. The choice of arbitrary single threshold of estimated glomerular filtration rate for classifying stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease inevitably leads to "over-diagnosis" (false positives) of the disease in the elderly, particularly those without proteinuria, hematuria or hypertension, and to "under-diagnosed" (false negatives) in younger individuals with an estimated glomerular filtration rate above 60mL/min/1.73m(2) and below the 3rd percentile of their age/gender category. There is an urgent need for quality studies using in a correct way the recent KDIGO guidelines when investigating the prevalence of chronic kidney disease, in order to avoid a 50 to 100% overestimation of a disease state with potential dramatic consequences. The combination of the general population

  12. Neural activities during affective processing in people with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Sun, Delin; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chu, Leung-Wing; Keysers, Christian

    This study examined brain activities in people with Alzheimer's disease when viewing happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions of others. A functional magnetic resonance imaging and a voxel-based morphometry methodology together with a passive viewing of emotional faces paradigm were employed to

  13. Quality assessment of baby food made of different pre-processed organic raw materials under industrial processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Kathrin; Kahl, Johannes; Paoletti, Flavio; Birlouez, Ines; Busscher, Nicolaas; Kretzschmar, Ursula; Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Seljåsen, Randi; Sinesio, Fiorella; Torp, Torfinn; Baiamonte, Irene

    2015-02-01

    The market for processed food is rapidly growing. The industry needs methods for "processing with care" leading to high quality products in order to meet consumers' expectations. Processing influences the quality of the finished product through various factors. In carrot baby food, these are the raw material, the pre-processing and storage treatments as well as the processing conditions. In this study, a quality assessment was performed on baby food made from different pre-processed raw materials. The experiments were carried out under industrial conditions using fresh, frozen and stored organic carrots as raw material. Statistically significant differences were found for sensory attributes among the three autoclaved puree samples (e.g. overall odour F = 90.72, p processed from frozen carrots show increased moisture content and decrease of several chemical constituents. Biocrystallization identified changes between replications of the cooking. Pre-treatment of raw material has a significant influence on the final quality of the baby food.

  14. Combined heat and gamma-irradiation treatments for the control of strawberry diseases under market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thomas, A.C.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Terblanche, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    The spoilage of strawberries under local market conditions was investigated. It was confirmed that the major losses are due to 'leak' disease caused by Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.) Lind. It was also established that further fruit losses in summer are due to anthracnose caused by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds. This is the first time that the latter pathogen has been isolated and identified and recognised as a problem on strawberries in South Africa. Studies with R. stolonifer in culture showed that 46 degrees Celsius for 20 min (the previous international standard heat treatment for fruit) was disappointing, while a treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 min effectively inhibited spore germination. Irradiation studies with cultures of R. stolonifer and C. acutatum showed that a dose of 200 and 100 krad, respectively, resulted in excellent inhibition of spore germination. However, irradiating in nitrogen gas resulted in a tenfold reduction in the effectiveness of the irradiation treatments. The use of nitrogen during irradiation, therefore, cannot be considered, especially where an effective control of the fungal pathogens is desired. Investigations with different cultivars clearly demonstrated the synergistic effect on disease control obtained when combining heat and irradiation treatments. The combination treatment (moist heat at 50-52 degrees Celsius for 10 min plus 200 krad), besides effectively controlling both diseases in strawberries, did not adversely affect berry quality. In simulated transport tests it was shown that a minimal amount of berry softening did occur with this treatment, but this adverse effect was negligible compared with the beneficial effect obtained from disease control. In semi-commercial experiments it was shown that the combination heat and irradiation treatment effectively controlled spoilage diseases for a period of several days from picking, thus allowing sufficient time to market the fruit under local market

  15. Decisions under risk in Parkinson's disease: preserved evaluation of probability and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Madeleine E; Viswanathan, Jayalakshmi; McKeown, Martin J; Appel-Cresswell, Silke; Stoessl, A Jon; Barton, Jason J S

    2013-11-01

    Unmedicated Parkinson's disease patients tend to be risk-averse while dopaminergic treatment causes a tendency to take risks. While dopamine agonists may result in clinically apparent impulse control disorders, treatment with levodopa also causes shift in behaviour associated with an enhanced response to rewards. Two important determinants in decision-making are how subjects perceive the magnitude and probability of outcomes. Our objective was to determine if patients with Parkinson's disease on or off levodopa showed differences in their perception of value when making decisions under risk. The Vancouver Gambling task presents subjects with a choice between one prospect with larger outcome and a second with higher probability. Eighteen age-matched controls and eighteen patients with Parkinson's disease before and after levodopa were tested. In the Gain Phase subjects chose between one prospect with higher probability and another with larger reward to maximize their gains. In the Loss Phase, subjects played to minimize their losses. Patients with Parkinson's disease, on or off levodopa, were similar to controls when evaluating gains. However, in the Loss Phase before levodopa, they were more likely to avoid the prospect with lower probability but larger loss, as indicated by the steeper slope of their group psychometric function (t(24) = 2.21, p = 0.04). Modelling with prospect theory suggested that this was attributable to a 28% overestimation of the magnitude of loss, rather than an altered perception of its probability. While pre-medicated patients with Parkinson's disease show risk-aversion for large losses, patients on levodopa have normal perception of magnitude and probability for both loss and gain. The finding of accurate and normally biased decisions under risk in medicated patients with PD is important because it indicates that, if there is indeed anomalous risk-seeking behaviour in such a cohort, it may derive from abnormalities in components of

  16. Probabilistic Design in a Sheet Metal Stamping Process under Failure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buranathiti, Thaweepat; Cao, Jian; Chen, Wei; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    Sheet metal stamping processes have been widely implemented in many industries due to its repeatability and productivity. In general, the simulations for a sheet metal forming process involve nonlinearity, complex material behavior and tool-material interaction. Instabilities in terms of tearing and wrinkling are major concerns in many sheet metal stamping processes. In this work, a sheet metal stamping process of a mild steel for a wheelhouse used in automobile industry is studied by using an explicit nonlinear finite element code and incorporating failure analysis (tearing and wrinkling) and design under uncertainty. Margins of tearing and wrinkling are quantitatively defined via stress-based criteria for system-level design. The forming process utilizes drawbeads instead of using the blank holder force to restrain the blank. The main parameters of interest in this work are friction conditions, drawbead configurations, sheet metal properties, and numerical errors. A robust design model is created to conduct a probabilistic design, which is made possible for this complex engineering process via an efficient uncertainty propagation technique. The method called the weighted three-point-based method estimates the statistical characteristics (mean and variance) of the responses of interest (margins of failures), and provide a systematic approach in designing a sheet metal forming process under the framework of design under uncertainty

  17. Dynamics of cardiovascular parameters in combined aortic malformations under the influence of a physical therapy program during the rehabilitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Kalmykov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study hemodynamic parameters and the reaction of the cardiovascular system to the dosed physical load of patients combined aortic defect with heart failure of the I degree under the influence of the complex physical therapy program developed by us during the rehabilitation process. Material & Methods: the study involved 26 middle-aged men with a diagnosis: combined aortic valve disease, HF I st. Result: dynamics of functional parameters of the cardiovascular system of patients under the influence of the physical therapy program is analyzed. Conclusion: the combination of morning hygienic gymnastics, therapeutic gymnastics, independent activities and dosed walking with a therapeutic massage contributes to the normalization of vascular tone, motor-vascular reflexes and blood pressure, increasing the tolerance of the cardiovascular system to physical activity.

  18. Methodology for optimization of process integration schemes in a biorefinery under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Facultad de Química y Farmacia. Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" >González-Cortés, Meilyn; Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Facultad de Química y Farmacia. Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" >Martínez-Martínez, Yenisleidys; Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Facultad de Química y Farmacia. Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" >Albernas-Carvajal, Yailet; Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Facultad de Química y Farmacia. Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" >Pedraza-Garciga, Julio; Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química. Facultad de Química y Farmacia. Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas (Cuba))" >Morales-Zamora, Marlen

    2017-01-01

    The uncertainty has a great impact in the investment decisions, operability of the plants and in the feasibility of integration opportunities in the chemical processes. This paper, presents the steps to consider the optimization of process investment in the processes integration under conditions of uncertainty. It is shown the potentialities of the biomass cane of sugar for the integration with several plants in a biorefinery scheme for the obtaining chemical products, thermal and electric energy. Among the factories with potentialities for this integration are the pulp and paper and sugar factories and other derivative processes. Theses factories have common resources and also have a variety of products that can be exchange between them so certain products generated in a one of them can be raw matter in another plant. The methodology developed guide to obtaining of feasible investment projects under uncertainty. As objective function was considered the maximization of net profitable value in different scenarios that are generated from the integration scheme. (author)

  19. Effect of Maize Hybrid and Foliar Fungicides on Yield Under Low Foliar Disease Severity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallowa, Sally O; Esker, Paul D; Paul, Pierce A; Bradley, Carl A; Chapara, Venkata R; Conley, Shawn P; Robertson, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    Foliar fungicide use in the U.S. Corn Belt increased in the last decade; however, questions persist pertaining to its value and sustainability. Multistate field trials were established from 2010 to 2012 in Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin to examine how hybrid and foliar fungicide influenced disease intensity and yield. The experimental design was in a split-split plot with main plots consisting of hybrids varying in resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) and northern corn leaf blight (caused by Setosphaera turcica), subplots corresponding to four application timings of the fungicide pyraclostrobin, and sub-subplots represented by inoculations with either C. zeae-maydis, S. turcica, or both at two vegetative growth stages. Fungicide application (VT/R1) significantly reduced total disease severity relative to the control in five of eight site-years (P<0.05). Disease was reduced by approximately 30% at Wisconsin in 2011, 20% at Illinois in 2010, 29% at Iowa in 2010, and 32 and 30% at Ohio in 2010 and 2012, respectively. These disease severities ranged from 0.2 to 0.3% in Wisconsin in 2011 to 16.7 to 22.1% in Illinois in 2010. The untreated control had significantly lower yield (P<0.05) than the fungicide-treated in three site-years. Fungicide application increased the yield by approximately 6% at Ohio in 2010, 5% at Wisconsin in 2010 and 6% in 2011. Yield differences ranged from 8,403 to 8,890 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2011 to 11,362 to 11,919 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2010. Results suggest susceptibility to disease and prevailing environment are important drivers of observed differences. Yield increases as a result of the physiological benefits of plant health benefits under low disease were not consistent.

  20. Fundus characterization for automatic disease screening through retinal image processing

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Martínez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The World Health Organization estimates that in 2010 there were 285 million people visually impaired in the world. It is calculated that the 80\\% of these cases are preventable or treatable. In addition, aging population and chronic disease increase are two factors that predict a higher number of blindness cases in the future. Hypertension, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma are the most common pathologies in the current society that provoke re...

  1. Tritium test of the tritium processing components under the Annex III US-Japan Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Naruse, Yuji; Binning, K.E.; Carlson, R.V.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    The process ready components for Fuel Cleanup System were tested at the TSTA under the US-Japan Collaboration program. Palladium diffuser for tritium purification and Ceramic Electrolysis Cell for decomposition of tritiated water respectively were tested with pure tritium for years. The characteristics of the components with hydrogen isotopes, effects of impurities, and long-term reliability of the components were studied. It was concluded that these components are suitable and attractive for fusion fuel processing systems. (author)

  2. Training processes in under 6s football competition: The transition from ingenuity to institutionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Merino Orozco; Ana Arraiz Pérez; Fernando Sabirón Sierra

    2016-01-01

    Under 6s football competition is a school sport that has inherent educational implications. Moreover, it is a booming non-formal socio-educational framework where families and children lay training expectations and dreams. The aim is to comprehend the emerging learning processes promoted in this environment for 6 years-old children, when the child starts the institutionalization process in the ruled sport. The research uses a case study design, the ethnographic mode, through participant obser...

  3. Factors associated with chronic diseases among the elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Fernanda Batista; Pinho, Lucinéia; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    The profile of a sample population of elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Teófilo Otoni, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described, and the factors associated with diseases prevalence examined. Using simple random sampling, 385 elderly were interviewed using Form A and Elderly Form from the Primary Health Care Information System. The majority of the sample (83.1%) self-reported at least one disease, 69.9% had hypertension, and 17.7% had diabetes. Poisson regression analysis showed that the main factors associated with hypertension and other diseases were being non-white, having a low level of education, medication use, dental prosthesis use, and lack of a private health plan. The prevalence of diabetes was greater among women and individuals who depended on other people to live. It can be concluded that this sample population of elderly has a generally low socioeconomic status and are more susceptible to developing diseases, particularly hypertension. Diabetes should be controlled although had relatively low prevalence. It is suggested investments in structuring the health system network to provide adequate care for the elderly and in training health professionals to play an effective role in improving the quality of life of the elderly in Brazil.

  4. A neural network underlying intentional emotional facial expression in neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Gola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intentional facial expression of emotion is critical to healthy social interactions. Patients with neurodegenerative disease, particularly those with right temporal or prefrontal atrophy, show dramatic socioemotional impairment. This was an exploratory study examining the neural and behavioral correlates of intentional facial expression of emotion in neurodegenerative disease patients and healthy controls. One hundred and thirty three participants (45 Alzheimer's disease, 16 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, 8 non-fluent primary progressive aphasia, 10 progressive supranuclear palsy, 11 right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, 9 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia patients and 34 healthy controls were video recorded while imitating static images of emotional faces and producing emotional expressions based on verbal command; the accuracy of their expression was rated by blinded raters. Participants also underwent face-to-face socioemotional testing and informants described participants' typical socioemotional behavior. Patients' performance on emotion expression tasks was correlated with gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM across the entire sample. We found that intentional emotional imitation scores were related to fundamental socioemotional deficits; patients with known socioemotional deficits performed worse than controls on intentional emotion imitation; and intentional emotional expression predicted caregiver ratings of empathy and interpersonal warmth. Whole brain VBMs revealed a rightward cortical atrophy pattern homologous to the left lateralized speech production network was associated with intentional emotional imitation deficits. Results point to a possible neural mechanisms underlying complex socioemotional communication deficits in neurodegenerative disease patients.

  5. [Psychosocial analysis of the health-disease process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaia, B B

    1994-04-01

    This article is a reflection about the transdisciplinary paradigmas of the health-illness process noting the symbolic mediation between the reactions of the biological organism and the socio-environment factors including the pathogenic ones. The symbolic-affective mediation is analyzed from the perspective of Social Representation theory allowing one to comprehend the references of individual and collective actions in the health-illness process.

  6. Are the educational differences in incidence of cardiovascular disease explained by underlying familial factors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette

    2014-01-01

    To isolate the effect of education from the influence of potential underlying factors, we investigated the association of education with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) using twin data to adjust for familial factors shared within twins, including genetic...... make-up and childhood environment. The study was based on data from the Danish Twin Registry linked to administrative and heath registers in Statistics Denmark. A total of 11,968 monozygotic and 20,464 dizygotic same sexed twins were followed from 1980 to 2009, including more than 8000 events of CVD....... Unpaired and intra-pair analyses were compared. In the unpaired analyses, an inverse educational gradient in CVD- and IHD risk was observed. This association was not replicated in the intra-pair analyses that control for shared familial factors exploiting that twins share their intrauterine- and childhood...

  7. Stochastic stability of mechanical systems under renewal jump process parametric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Larsen, Jesper Winther

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic system under parametric excitation in the form of a non-Erlang renewal jump process is considered. The excitation is a random train of nonoverlapping rectangular pulses with equal, deterministic heights. The time intervals between two consecutive jumps up (or down), are the sum of two...

  8. The Orexin Component of Fasting Triggers Memory Processes Underlying Conditioned Food Selection in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion…

  9. A cyano-terminated dithienyldiketopyrrolopyrrole dimer as a solution processable ambipolar semiconductor under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Xiaojie; Tian, Hongkun; Lu, Yunfeng; Geng, Yanhou; Wang, Fosong

    2013-12-14

    A cyano-terminated dimer of dithienyldiketopyrrolopyrrole (TDPP), DPP2-CN, is a solution processable ambipolar semiconductor with field-effect hole and electron mobilities of 0.066 and 0.033 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), respectively, under ambient conditions.

  10. High paraffin Kumkol petroleum processing under fuel and lubricant petroleum scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadirov, N.K.; Konaev, Eh.N.

    1997-01-01

    Technological opportunity of high paraffin Kumkol petroleum processing under the fuel and lubricant scheme with production of lubricant materials in short supply, combustible materials and technical paraffin is shown. Mini petroleum block putting into operation on Kumkol deposit is reasonable economically and raises profitableness of hydrocarbon raw material production. (author)

  11. 77 FR 43492 - Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ..., or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404 and 416 [Docket No. SSA-2010-0060] RIN 0960-AH26 Expedited Vocational Assessment Under the Sequential Evaluation Process AGENCY: Social Security...

  12. 78 FR 70088 - Agency Proposed Business Process Vision Under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2013-0042] Agency Proposed Business Process Vision Under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of...

  13. Autophagy as a Molecular Target of Flavonoids Underlying their Protective Effects in Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Domínguez, Nestor; Garcia-Mediavilla, Maria V; Sanchez-Campos, Sonia; Mauriz, Jose L; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular pathway with the ability to maintain cell homeostasis through the elimination of damaged or useless cellular components, and its deregulation may initiate or aggravate different human diseases. Flavonoids, a group of plant metabolites, are able to modulate different molecular and cellular processes including autophagy. To review the effects of flavonoids on autophagy pathway in both invasive and noninvasive human diseases, focusing on the global outcomes in their progression. Moreover, the efficacy of the combination of flavonoids with drugs or other natural nontoxic compounds was also reviewed. A literature search was performed to identify and analyze peer-reviewed publications containing in vitro and in vivo studies focused on autophagy deregulation in different proliferative and non-proliferative pathologies and the potential protective effects of flavonoids. Analyzed publications indicated that imbalance between cell death and survival induced by changes in autophagy play an important role in the pathophysiology of a number of human diseases. The use of different flavonoids as autophagy modulators, alone or in combination with other molecules, might be a worthy strategy in the treatment of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, hepatic diseases, leishmaniasis, influenza, gastric ulcers produced by Helicobacter pylori infection, diabetes, asthma, age-related macular degeneration or osteoporosis. Flavonoids could potentially constitute important adjuvant agents of conventional therapies in the treatment of autophagy deregulation-related diseases. Moreover, combined therapy may help to diminish the doses of those conventional treatments, leading to reduced drug-derivative side effects and to improved patients' survival. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Kernel-imbedded Gaussian processes for disease classification using microarray gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Leo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Designing appropriate machine learning methods for identifying genes that have a significant discriminating power for disease outcomes has become more and more important for our understanding of diseases at genomic level. Although many machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the area of microarray gene expression data analysis, the majority of them are based on linear models, which however are not necessarily appropriate for the underlying connection between the target disease and its associated explanatory genes. Linear model based methods usually also bring in false positive significant features more easily. Furthermore, linear model based algorithms often involve calculating the inverse of a matrix that is possibly singular when the number of potentially important genes is relatively large. This leads to problems of numerical instability. To overcome these limitations, a few non-linear methods have recently been introduced to the area. Many of the existing non-linear methods have a couple of critical problems, the model selection problem and the model parameter tuning problem, that remain unsolved or even untouched. In general, a unified framework that allows model parameters of both linear and non-linear models to be easily tuned is always preferred in real-world applications. Kernel-induced learning methods form a class of approaches that show promising potentials to achieve this goal. Results A hierarchical statistical model named kernel-imbedded Gaussian process (KIGP is developed under a unified Bayesian framework for binary disease classification problems using microarray gene expression data. In particular, based on a probit regression setting, an adaptive algorithm with a cascading structure is designed to find the appropriate kernel, to discover the potentially significant genes, and to make the optimal class prediction accordingly. A Gibbs sampler is built as the core of the algorithm to make

  15. Human diseases with genetically altered DNA repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Bootsma, D.; Friedberg, E.

    1975-01-01

    DNA repair of single-strand breaks (produced by ionizing radiation) and of base damage (produced by ultraviolet (uv) light) are two repair mechanisms that most mammalian cells possess. Genetic defects in these repair mechanisms are exemplified by cells from the human premature-aging disease, progeria, which fail to rejoin single-strand breaks, and the skin disease, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), which exhibits high actinic carcinogenesis and involves failure to repair base damage. In terms of the response of XP cells, many chemical carcinogens can be classified as either x-ray-like (i.e., they cause damage that XP cells can repair) or uv-like (i.e., they cause damage that XP cells cannot repair). The first group contains some of the more strongly carcinogenic chemicals (e.g., alkylating agents). XP occurs in at least two clinical forms, and somatic cell hybridization indicates at least three complementation groups. In order to identify cell lines from various different laboratories unambiguously, a modified nomenclature of XP lines is proposed. (U.S.)

  16. Human diseases with genetically altered DNA repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Bootsma, D.; Friedberg, E.

    1975-01-01

    DNA repair of single-strand breaks (produced by ionizing radiation) and of base damage (produced by ultraviolet (UV) light) are two repair mechanisms that most mammalian cells possess. Genetic defects in these repair mechanisms are exemplified by cells from the human premature-aging disease, progeria, which fail to rejoin single-strand breaks, and the skin disease, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), which exhibits high actinic carcinogenesis and involves failure to repair base damage. In terms of the response of XP cells, many chemical carcinogens can be classified as either X-ray-like (i.e., they cause damage that XP cells can repair) or UV-like (i.e., they cause damage that XP cells cannot repair). The first group contains some of the more strongly carcinogenic chemicals (e.g., alkylating agents). XP occurs in at least two clinical forms, and somatic cell hybridization indicates at least three complementation groups. In order to identify cell lines from various different laboratories unambiguously, a modified nomenclature of XP lines is proposed

  17. A case study on point process modelling in disease mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Benes, Viktor

    2005-01-01

    of the risk on the covariates. Instead of using the common areal level approaches we base the analysis on a Bayesian approach for a log Gaussian Cox point process with covariates. Posterior characteristics for a discretized version of the log Gaussian Cox process are computed using Markov chain Monte Carlo...... methods. A particular problem which is thoroughly discussed is to determine a model for the background population density. The risk map shows a clear dependency with the population intensity models and the basic model which is adopted for the population intensity determines what covariates influence...... the risk of TBE. Model validation is based on the posterior predictive distribution of various summary statistics....

  18. Music and Memory in Alzheimer's Disease and The Potential Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Katlyn J; Girard, Todd A; Russo, Frank A; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    With population aging and a projected exponential expansion of persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the development of treatment and prevention programs has become a fervent area of research and discovery. A growing body of evidence suggests that music exposure can enhance memory and emotional function in persons with AD. However, there is a paucity of research that aims to identify specific underlying neural mechanisms associated with music's beneficial effects in this particular population. As such, this paper reviews existing anecdotal and empirical evidence related to the enhancing effects of music exposure on cognitive function and further provides a discussion on the potential underlying mechanisms that may explain music's beneficial effect. Specifically, this paper will outline the potential role of the dopaminergic system, the autonomic nervous system, and the default network in explaining how music may enhance memory function in persons with AD.

  19. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  20. Modeling systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease in rats under the adverse weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegudina Ye.D.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the lungs, heart and kidneys are found in all animals with experimental systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease and respectively in 47%, 47% and 40% of cases of intact rats in a hostile environment with xenobiotics air pollution (ammonia + benzene + formalin, herewith in every third or fourth individual lesions of visceral vessels developed. The negative environmental situation increases the frequency of morphological signs of the disease, such as proliferation of endothelial vessels of the heart by 68% and renal arterioles by 52%, in addition, there are direct correlations of angiopathy degree in individual organs; this depends on the nature of pathological process modeling and demonstrates air pollution as a risk factor of disease in humans. The impact of pulmonary vessels sclerosis on the development of bronhosclerosis, perivascular infiltration of the heart muscle on the lymphocyte-macrophage infiltration of the stroma of the myocardium and sclerosis of renal arterioles on the degree of nephroslerosis of stroma is directly associated, with the model of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases whereas air pollution by xenobiotics determines dependences of the degree of cellular infiltration of alveolar septa from perivascular pulmonary infiltration, the development of cardiomyocytes hypertrophy from proliferation of the heart endothelial vessels, increase of kidney mesangial matrix from the proliferation of endothelial glomerular capillaries.

  1. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: Current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Matthew R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  2. Ultrasonic signal processing and B-SCAN imaging for nondestructive testing. Application to under - cladding - cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, G.

    1988-02-01

    Crack propagation under the stainless steel cladding of nuclear reactor vessels is monitored by ultrasonic testing. This work study signal processing to improve detection and sizing of defects. Two possibilities are examined: processing of each individual signal and simultaneous processing of all the signals giving a B-SCAN image. The bibliographic study of time-frequency methods shows that they are not suitable for pulses. Then decomposition in instantaneous frequency and envelope is used. Effect of interference of 2 close echoes on instantaneous frequency is studies. The deconvolution of B-SCAN images is obtained by the transducer field. A point-by-point deconvolution method, less noise sensitive, is developed. B-SCAN images are processed in 2 phases: interface signal processing and deconvolution. These calculations improve image accuracy and dynamics. Water-stell interface and ferritic-austenitic interface are separated. Echoes of crack top are visualized and crack-hole differentiation is improved [fr

  3. Working through the pain: working memory capacity and differences in processing and storage under pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Christopher A

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that pain perception and attention are closely linked at both a neural and a behavioural level. If pain and attention are so linked, it is reasonable to speculate that those who vary in working memory capacity (WMC) should be affected by pain differently. This study compares the performance of individuals who differ in WMC as they perform processing and memory span tasks while under mild pain and not. While processing performance under mild pain does not interact with WMC, the ability to store information for later recall does. This suggests that pain operates much like an additional processing burden, and that the ability to overcome this physical sensation is related to differences in WMC. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  4. A case study on point process modelling in disease mapping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Viktor; Bodlák, M.; Moller, J.; Waagepetersen, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2005), s. 159-168 ISSN 1580-3139 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 0021620839; GA ČR GA201/03/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : log Gaussian Cox point process * Bayesian estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  5. Mechanical and tribological behaviour of molten salt processed self-lubricated aluminium composite under different treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, C.; Ramanujam, R.

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this research work is to evaluate the mechanical and tribological behaviour of Al 7075 based self-lubricated hybrid nanocomposite under different treated conditions viz. as-cast, T6 and deep cryo treated. In order to overcome the drawbacks associated with conventional stir casting, a combinational approach that consists of molten salt processing, ultrasonic assistance and optimized mechanical stirring is adopted in this study to fabricate the nanocomposite. The mechanical characterisation tests carried out on this nanocomposite reveals an improvement of about 39% in hardness and 22% in ultimate tensile strength possible under T6 condition. Under specific conditions, the wear rate can be reduced to the extent of about 63% through the usage of self-lubricated hybrid nanocomposite under T6 condition.

  6. Building an ontology of pulmonary diseases with natural language processing tools using textual corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneyx, Audrey; Charlet, Jean; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2007-01-01

    Pathologies and acts are classified in thesauri to help physicians to code their activity. In practice, the use of thesauri is not sufficient to reduce variability in coding and thesauri are not suitable for computer processing. We think the automation of the coding task requires a conceptual modeling of medical items: an ontology. Our task is to help lung specialists code acts and diagnoses with software that represents medical knowledge of this concerned specialty by an ontology. The objective of the reported work was to build an ontology of pulmonary diseases dedicated to the coding process. To carry out this objective, we develop a precise methodological process for the knowledge engineer in order to build various types of medical ontologies. This process is based on the need to express precisely in natural language the meaning of each concept using differential semantics principles. A differential ontology is a hierarchy of concepts and relationships organized according to their similarities and differences. Our main research hypothesis is to apply natural language processing tools to corpora to develop the resources needed to build the ontology. We consider two corpora, one composed of patient discharge summaries and the other being a teaching book. We propose to combine two approaches to enrich the ontology building: (i) a method which consists of building terminological resources through distributional analysis and (ii) a method based on the observation of corpus sequences in order to reveal semantic relationships. Our ontology currently includes 1550 concepts and the software implementing the coding process is still under development. Results show that the proposed approach is operational and indicates that the combination of these methods and the comparison of the resulting terminological structures give interesting clues to a knowledge engineer for the building of an ontology.

  7. A Supervised Learning Process to Validate Online Disease Reports for Use in Predictive Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patching, Helena M M; Hudson, Laurence M; Cooke, Warrick; Garcia, Andres J; Hay, Simon I; Roberts, Mark; Moyes, Catherine L

    2015-12-01

    Pathogen distribution models that predict spatial variation in disease occurrence require data from a large number of geographic locations to generate disease risk maps. Traditionally, this process has used data from public health reporting systems; however, using online reports of new infections could speed up the process dramatically. Data from both public health systems and online sources must be validated before they can be used, but no mechanisms exist to validate data from online media reports. We have developed a supervised learning process to validate geolocated disease outbreak data in a timely manner. The process uses three input features, the data source and two metrics derived from the location of each disease occurrence. The location of disease occurrence provides information on the probability of disease occurrence at that location based on environmental and socioeconomic factors and the distance within or outside the current known disease extent. The process also uses validation scores, generated by disease experts who review a subset of the data, to build a training data set. The aim of the supervised learning process is to generate validation scores that can be used as weights going into the pathogen distribution model. After analyzing the three input features and testing the performance of alternative processes, we selected a cascade of ensembles comprising logistic regressors. Parameter values for the training data subset size, number of predictors, and number of layers in the cascade were tested before the process was deployed. The final configuration was tested using data for two contrasting diseases (dengue and cholera), and 66%-79% of data points were assigned a validation score. The remaining data points are scored by the experts, and the results inform the training data set for the next set of predictors, as well as going to the pathogen distribution model. The new supervised learning process has been implemented within our live site and is

  8. The scrapie disease process is unaffected by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, H.; Farquhar, C.F.; McConnell, I.; Davies, D.

    1989-01-01

    The incubation period of scrapie, its degenerative neuropathology and the replication of its causal unconventional virus are all tightly controlled parameters of the experimental disease in mice. Each parameter can vary depending on the strain and dose of virus, on the route of infection, and on the host genotype. Exposure to whole-body gamma-irradiation from Cesium 137 has no effect on the progress or development of the disease, based on the three independent indices of incubation period, neuropathology, or infectibility by high or low doses of virus. These results are based on an extensive series of experiments in many mouse strains and are consistent using different strains (ME7, 22A, 79A, 87V) and doses of virus, routes of infection, timing and dose of radiation (3-15 Gy) administered as single or fractionated exposures with or without bone-marrow (b.m.) replacement therapy. Levels of infection in the spleen are unaltered after lethal whole-body irradiation of the scrapie-infected host, despite several-fold reductions in tissue mass due to the loss of proliferating myeloid and lymphoid precursor cells and their progeny. Contrary to our earlier suggestion, scrapie infection with the 22A virus does not reduce the effectiveness of post-exposure bone-marrow replacements to recolonize an infected host after repeated ionizing radiation totalling 15Gy. This work narrows the search for the candidate cells and biosynthetic systems which replicate the virus in the lymphoreticular and central nervous systems. Many programmed cellular events are radiation sensitive but protein synthesis is extremely radioresistant

  9. Parkinson’s disease motor disorganization and temporal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Florio, Tiziana M.

    2017-01-01

    Motor control is essential for everyday life and highly contributes to the development and organisation of higher cognitive functions. Embodied cognition endemically approaches cognitive activities, grounding on sensory-motor processes and the ability to switch from each other in response to specific context and situations. In this view, it is possible to deliberate higher functions such as “expertise” and “decision making” as the ability to reactivate, deconstruct and reconstruct different m...

  10. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in pathogen transmission between the animals, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulent intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of an axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We show that for fan-generated turbulence the plume width is invariant with the mean airspeed and, close to the point source, increases linearly with downstream position. Importantly, the turbulent dispersivity is insensitive to the presence of meshes placed downstream from the point source, indicating that the fan length scale dictates the turbulent intensity and corresponding dispersivity.

  11. Proliferative kidney disease in brown trout: infection level, pathology and mortality under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Hirschi, Regula; Schneider, Ernst

    2015-05-21

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease threatening wild salmonid populations. In temperature-controlled aquaria, PKD can cause mortality rates of up to 85% in rainbow trout. So far, no data about PKD-related mortality in wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario are available. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rates and pathology in brown trout kept in a cage within a natural river habitat known to harbor Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout, free of T. bryosalmonae, were exposed in the River Wutach, in the northeast of Switzerland, during 3 summer months. Samples of wild brown trout caught by electrofishing near the cage location were examined in parallel. The incidence of PKD in cage-exposed animals (69%) was not significantly different to the disease prevalence of wild fish (82 and 80% in the upstream and downstream locations, respectively). The mortality in cage-exposed animals, however, was as low as 15%. At the termination of the exposure experiment, surviving fish showed histological lesions typical for PKD regression, suggesting that many YOY brown trout survive the initial infection. Our results at the River Wutach suggest that PKD in brown trout does not always result in high mortality under natural conditions.

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis and the Expression of Disease-Resistant Genes in Oryza meyeriana under Native Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    Full Text Available Oryza meyeriana (O. meyeriana, with a GG genome type (2n = 24, accumulated plentiful excellent characteristics with respect to resistance to many diseases such as rice shade and blast, even immunity to bacterial blight. It is very important to know if the diseases-resistant genes exist and express in this wild rice under native conditions. However, limited genomic or transcriptomic data of O. meyeriana are currently available. In this study, we present the first comprehensive characterization of the O. meyeriana transcriptome using RNA-seq and obtained 185,323 contigs with an average length of 1,692 bp and an N50 of 2,391 bp. Through differential expression analysis, it was found that there were most tissue-specifically expressed genes in roots, and next to stems and leaves. By similarity search against protein databases, 146,450 had at least a significant alignment to existed gene models. Comparison with the Oryza sativa (japonica-type Nipponbare and indica-type 93-11 genomes revealed that 13% of the O. meyeriana contigs had not been detected in O. sativa. Many diseases-resistant genes, such as bacterial blight resistant, blast resistant, rust resistant, fusarium resistant, cyst nematode resistant and downy mildew gene, were mined from the transcriptomic database. There are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes (Xa1 and Xa26 differentially or specifically expressed in O. meyeriana. The 4 Xa1 contigs were all only expressed in root, while three of Xa26 contigs have the highest expression level in leaves, two of Xa26 contigs have the highest expression profile in stems and one of Xa26 contigs was expressed dominantly in roots. The transcriptomic database of O. meyeriana has been constructed and many diseases-resistant genes were found to express under native condition, which provides a foundation for future discovery of a number of novel genes and provides a basis for studying the molecular mechanisms associated with disease

  13. Results of surgical treatment for secondary spontaneous pneumothorax according to underlying diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Junji; Nagayama, Kazuhiro; Hino, Haruaki; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Anraku, Masaki; Murakawa, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of surgical treatment for secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) has rarely been investigated. We retrospectively reviewed 183 patients who underwent surgery for SSP. We categorized the patients into three groups according to underlying diseases: Group A (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), Group B (interstitial pneumonia [IP]) and Group C (others). We defined treatment success as surgery without hospital mortality, postoperative complications, death within 6 months or ipsilateral recurrence of pneumothorax within 2 years. We assessed the risk factors for unsuccessful treatment using a Cox regression hazard model. There were 123 patients in Group A, 20 in Group B and 40 in Group C. The hospital mortality rates were 2, 15 and 0% in Groups A, B and C, respectively. The hospital mortality, morbidity and pneumothorax recurrence rates in the IP group were higher than in the other groups. The 5-year overall survival rates were 78, 32 and 84% in Groups A, B and C, respectively; the prognosis of the IP group was significantly poorer. The treatment success rates were 86, 45 and 83% in Groups A, B and C, respectively. SSPs caused by IP and SSPs requiring open surgery were identified as the risk factors for unsuccessful treatment. Surgery for SSP caused by underlying diseases other than IP yielded favourable results. However, a careful examination of surgical indication and a realistic disclosure for informed consent are required for patients with SSP caused by IP, because of the high treatment failure rate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping Common Aphasia Assessments to Underlying Cognitive Processes and Their Neural Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Xing, Shihui; Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the processes they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language process impairments. To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of commonly used aphasia tests. Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. The principal components analysis yielded 4 dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not commonly associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language processing. An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies 4 independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the processes underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual's specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities.

  15. X-ray microtomography study of the compaction process of rods under tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yang; Xi, Yan; Cao, Yixin; Wang, Yujie

    2012-05-01

    We present an x-ray microtomography study of the compaction process of cylindrical rods under tapping. The process is monitored by measuring the evolution of the orientational order parameter, local, and overall packing densities as a function of the tapping number for different tapping intensities. The slow relaxation dynamics of the orientational order parameter can be well fitted with a stretched-exponential law with stretching exponents ranging from 0.9 to 1.6. The corresponding relaxation time versus tapping intensity follows an Arrhenius behavior which is reminiscent of the slow dynamics in thermal glassy systems. We also investigated the boundary effect on the ordering process and found that boundary rods order faster than interior ones. In searching for the underlying mechanism of the slow dynamics, we estimated the initial random velocities of the rods under tapping and found that the ordering process is compatible with a diffusion mechanism. The average coordination number as a function of the tapping number at different tapping intensities has also been measured, which spans a range from 6 to 8.

  16. Nuclear structure and weak rates of heavy waiting point nuclei under rp-process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Böyükata, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    The structure and the weak interaction mediated rates of the heavy waiting point (WP) nuclei 80Zr, 84Mo, 88Ru, 92Pd and 96Cd along N = Z line were studied within the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1) and the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA). The energy levels of the N = Z WP nuclei were calculated by fitting the essential parameters of IBM-1 Hamiltonian and their geometric shapes were predicted by plotting potential energy surfaces (PESs). Half-lives, continuum electron capture rates, positron decay rates, electron capture cross sections of WP nuclei, energy rates of β-delayed protons and their emission probabilities were later calculated using the pn-QRPA. The calculated Gamow-Teller strength distributions were compared with previous calculation. We present positron decay and continuum electron capture rates on these WP nuclei under rp-process conditions using the same model. For the rp-process conditions, the calculated total weak rates are twice the Skyrme HF+BCS+QRPA rates for 80Zr. For remaining nuclei the two calculations compare well. The electron capture rates are significant and compete well with the corresponding positron decay rates under rp-process conditions. The finding of the present study supports that electron capture rates form an integral part of the weak rates under rp-process conditions and has an important role for the nuclear model calculations.

  17. Face processing pattern under top-down perception: a functional MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liang, Jimin; Tian, Jie; Liu, Jiangang; Zhao, Jizheng; Zhang, Hui; Shi, Guangming

    2009-02-01

    Although top-down perceptual process plays an important role in face processing, its neural substrate is still puzzling because the top-down stream is extracted difficultly from the activation pattern associated with contamination caused by bottom-up face perception input. In the present study, a novel paradigm of instructing participants to detect faces from pure noise images is employed, which could efficiently eliminate the interference of bottom-up face perception in topdown face processing. Analyzing the map of functional connectivity with right FFA analyzed by conventional Pearson's correlation, a possible face processing pattern induced by top-down perception can be obtained. Apart from the brain areas of bilateral fusiform gyrus (FG), left inferior occipital gyrus (IOG) and left superior temporal sulcus (STS), which are consistent with a core system in the distributed cortical network for face perception, activation induced by top-down face processing is also found in these regions that include the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC), right oribitofrontal cortex (OFC), left precuneus, right parahippocampal cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), right frontal pole, bilateral premotor cortex, left inferior parietal cortex and bilateral thalamus. The results indicate that making-decision, attention, episodic memory retrieving and contextual associative processing network cooperate with general face processing regions to process face information under top-down perception.

  18. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomando, Graciela; Cousiño, Blanca; Sanchez, Zunilda; Franco, Laura X; Nara, Eva M; Chena, Lilian; Martínez, Magaly; Galeano, María E; Benitez, Lucio

    2017-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41) were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country's rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  19. Estimating the total number of susceptibility variants underlying complex diseases from genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon-Cheong So

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous susceptibility variants for complex diseases. In this study we proposed several approaches to estimate the total number of variants underlying these diseases. We assume that the variance explained by genetic markers (Vg follow an exponential distribution, which is justified by previous studies on theories of adaptation. Our aim is to fit the observed distribution of Vg from GWAS to its theoretical distribution. The number of variants is obtained by the heritability divided by the estimated mean of the exponential distribution. In practice, due to limited sample sizes, there is insufficient power to detect variants with small effects. Therefore the power was taken into account in fitting. Besides considering the most significant variants, we also tried to relax the significance threshold, allowing more markers to be fitted. The effects of false positive variants were removed by considering the local false discovery rates. In addition, we developed an alternative approach by directly fitting the z-statistics from GWAS to its theoretical distribution. In all cases, the "winner's curse" effect was corrected analytically. Confidence intervals were also derived. Simulations were performed to compare and verify the performance of different estimators (which incorporates various means of winner's curse correction and the coverage of the proposed analytic confidence intervals. Our methodology only requires summary statistics and is able to handle both binary and continuous traits. Finally we applied the methods to a few real disease examples (lipid traits, type 2 diabetes and Crohn's disease and estimated that hundreds to nearly a thousand variants underlie these traits.

  20. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Russomando

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41 were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  1. Chaotic home environment is associated with reduced infant processing speed under high task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalski, Przemysław; Marczuk, Karolina; Pisula, Ewa; Malinowska, Anna; Kawa, Rafał; Niedźwiecka, Alicja

    2017-08-01

    Early adversity has profound long-term consequences for child development across domains. The effects of early adversity on structural and functional brain development were shown for infants under 12 months of life. However, the causal mechanisms of these effects remain relatively unexplored. Using a visual habituation task we investigated whether chaotic home environment may affect processing speed in 5.5 month-old infants (n=71). We found detrimental effects of chaos on processing speed for complex but not for simple visual stimuli. No effects of socio-economic status on infant processing speed were found although the sample was predominantly middle class. Our results indicate that chaotic early environment may adversely affect processing speed in early infancy, but only when greater cognitive resources need to be deployed. The study highlights an attractive avenue for research on the mechanisms linking home environment with the development of attention control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kazufumi; Nagai, Hideo; Runggaldier, Wolfgang J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

  3. Expected Power-Utility Maximization Under Incomplete Information and with Cox-Process Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Kazufumi, E-mail: m_fuji@kvj.biglobe.ne.jp [Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd., Corporate Risk Management Division (Japan); Nagai, Hideo, E-mail: nagai@sigmath.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Division of Mathematical Science for Social Systems, Graduate School of Engineering Science (Japan); Runggaldier, Wolfgang J., E-mail: runggal@math.unipd.it [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    We consider the problem of maximization of expected terminal power utility (risk sensitive criterion). The underlying market model is a regime-switching diffusion model where the regime is determined by an unobservable factor process forming a finite state Markov process. The main novelty is due to the fact that prices are observed and the portfolio is rebalanced only at random times corresponding to a Cox process where the intensity is driven by the unobserved Markovian factor process as well. This leads to a more realistic modeling for many practical situations, like in markets with liquidity restrictions; on the other hand it considerably complicates the problem to the point that traditional methodologies cannot be directly applied. The approach presented here is specific to the power-utility. For log-utilities a different approach is presented in Fujimoto et al. (Preprint, 2012).

  4. Decision Making under Risk Condition in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Behavioural and fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Labudda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study whether previously described impairment in decision making under risky conditions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD is affected by deficits in using information about potential incentives or by processing feedback (in terms of fictitious gains and losses following each decision. Additionally, we studied whether the neural correlates of using explicit information in decision making under risk differ between PD patients and healthy subjects. We investigated ten cognitively intact PD patients and twelve healthy subjects with the Game of Dice Task (GDT to assess risky decision making, and with an fMRI paradigm to analyse the neural correlates of information integration in the deliberative decision phase. Behaviourally, PD patients showed selective impairment in the GDT but not on the fMRI task that did not include a feedback component. Healthy subjects exhibited lateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate and parietal activations when integrating decision-relevant information. Despite similar behavioural patterns on the fMRI task, patients exhibited reduced parietal activation. Behavioural results suggest that PD patients’ deficits in risky decision making are dominated by impaired feedback utilization not compensable by intact cognitive functions. Our fMRI results suggest similarities but also differences in neural correlates when using explicit information for the decision process, potentially indicating different strategy application even if the interfering feedback component is excluded.

  5. Removal of chlortetracycline from spiked municipal wastewater using a photoelectrocatalytic process operated under sunlight irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghrir, Rimeh, E-mail: rimeh.daghrir@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Drogui, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.drogui@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Delegan, Nazar, E-mail: delegan@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada); El Khakani, My Ali, E-mail: elkhakani@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of chlortetracycline in synthetic solution and in municipal effluent was investigated using a photoelectrocatalytic oxidation process under visible irradiation. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} used as photoanode with 3.4 at.% of nitrogen content was prepared by means of a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) process. Under visible irradiation, higher photoelectrocatalytic removal efficiency of CTC was recorded using N-doped TiO{sub 2} compared to the conventional electrochemical oxidation, direct photolysis and photocatalysis processes. The photoelectrocatalytic process operated at 0.6 A of current intensity during 180 min of treatment time promotes the degradation of 99.1 ± 0.1% of CTC. Under these conditions, removal rates of 85.4 ± 3.6%, 87.4 ± 3.1% and 55.7 ± 2.9% of TOC, TN and NH{sub 4}{sup +} have been recorded. During the treatment, CTC was mainly transformed into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The process was also found to be effective in removing indicator of pathogens such as fecal coliform (log-inactivation was higher than 1.2 units). - Highlights: •PECO process is a feasible technology for the treatment of MWW contaminated by CTC. •99.1% ± 0.1% of CTC was degraded by PECO using N-doped TiO{sub 2}. •85.4% ± 3.6% of TOC removal and 97.5% ± 1.2% of COD removal were achieved. •87.4% ± 3.1% of TN removal and 55.7% ± 2.9% of NH{sub 4}{sup +} removal were recorded. •More than 94% of fecal coliform was removed (abatement > 1.2-log units)

  6. Processing of self versus non-self in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Louise Bond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable evidence for abnormalities of self-awareness in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the cognitive mechanisms of altered self-processing in AD have not been fully defined. Here we addressed this issue in a detailed analysis of self/non-self-processing in three patients with AD. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery comprising tests of tactile body schema coding, attribution of tactile events to self versus external agents, and memory for self- versus non-self-generated vocal information, administered in conjunction with a daily life measure of self/non-self-processing (the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Three male AD patients (aged 54 to 68 years; one with a pathogenic mutation in the Presenilin 1 gene, one with a pathogenic mutation in the Amyloid Precursor Protein gene, and one with a CSF protein profile supporting underlying AD pathology were studied in relation to a group of eight healthy older male individuals (aged 58 to 74 years. Compared to healthy controls, all patients had relatively intact tactile body schema processing. In contrast, all patients showed impaired memory for words previously presented using the patient’s own voice whereas memory for words presented in other voices was less consistently affected. Two patients showed increased levels of emotional contagion and reduced perspective taking on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Our findings suggest that AD may be associated with deficient self /non-self differentiation over time despite a relatively intact body image: this profile of altered self-processing contrasts with the deficit of tactile body schema previously described in frontotemporal dementia associated with C9orf72 mutations. We present these findings as a preliminary rationale to direct future systematic study in larger patient cohorts.

  7. The Investigations of Friction under Die Surface Vibration in Cold Forging Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinming, Sha

    investigation, and the second stage is to design and manufacture a more practical tool system which can be used to forging some industrial components with larger capacity. The high performance and power piezoelectric actuator stack as the vibration source will be used for designing the vibration system in order...... to 50% with vibration being applied in forming process. Furthermore, by using finite element method, a series of the simulations of the cold forging process under die surface excitation have been implemented in order to further understand the influence of vibration on friction, especially the influence...

  8. Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process under micro-aerobic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Liu, Lihong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2010-07-15

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process with bio-granules comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide and acetate into di-nitrogen gas, elementary sulfur and carbon dioxide, respectively, at high loading rates. This study determines the reaction rate of sulfide oxidized into sulfur, as well as the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, would be enhanced under a micro-aerobic condition. The presence of limited oxygen mitigated the inhibition effects of sulfide on denitrifier activities, and enhanced the performance of DSR granules. The advantages and disadvantages of applying the micro-aerobic condition to the DSR process are discussed. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process under micro-aerobic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuan; Ren Nanqi; Wang Aijie; Liu Lihong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2010-01-01

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process with bio-granules comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide and acetate into di-nitrogen gas, elementary sulfur and carbon dioxide, respectively, at high loading rates. This study determines the reaction rate of sulfide oxidized into sulfur, as well as the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, would be enhanced under a micro-aerobic condition. The presence of limited oxygen mitigated the inhibition effects of sulfide on denitrifier activities, and enhanced the performance of DSR granules. The advantages and disadvantages of applying the micro-aerobic condition to the DSR process are discussed.

  10. Bi-Objective Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Energy Consumption under Stochastic Processing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zeng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Ruidong; Sun, Xueshan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method on the optimization of bi-objective Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP) under stochastic processing times. The robust counterpart model and the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) are used to solve the bi-objective FJSP with consideration of the completion time and the total energy consumption under stochastic processing times. The case study on GM Corporation verifies that the NSGA-II used in this paper is effective and has advantages to solve the proposed model comparing with HPSO and PSO+SA. The idea and method of the paper can be generalized widely in the manufacturing industry, because it can reduce the energy consumption of the energy-intensive manufacturing enterprise with less investment when the new approach is applied in existing systems.

  11. The orexin component of fasting triggers memory processes underlying conditioned food selection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Barbara; Duchamp-Viret, Patricia

    2014-03-14

    To test the selectivity of the orexin A (OXA) system in olfactory sensitivity, the present study compared the effects of fasting and of central infusion of OXA on the memory processes underlying odor-malaise association during the conditioned odor aversion (COA) paradigm. Animals implanted with a cannula in the left ventricle received ICV infusion of OXA or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) 1 h before COA acquisition. An additional group of intact rats were food-deprived for 24 h before acquisition. Results showed that the increased olfactory sensitivity induced by fasting and by OXA infusion was accompanied by enhanced COA performance. The present results suggest that fasting-induced central OXA release influenced COA learning by increasing not only olfactory sensitivity, but also the memory processes underlying the odor-malaise association.

  12. Synthesis of Optimal Processing Pathway for Microalgae-based Biorefinery under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    decision making, we propose a systematic framework for the synthesis and optimal design of microalgae-based processing network under uncertainty. By incorporating major uncertainties into the biorefinery superstructure model we developed previously, a stochastic mixed integer nonlinear programming (s......The research in the field of microalgae-based biofuels and chemicals is in early phase of the development, and therefore a wide range of uncertainties exist due to inconsistencies among and shortage of technical information. In order to handle and address these uncertainties to ensure robust......MINLP) problem is formulated for determining the optimal biorefinery structure under given parameter uncertainties modelled as sampled scenarios. The solution to the sMINLP problem determines the optimal decisions with respect to processing technologies, material flows, and product portfolio in the presence...

  13. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term ( 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation

  14. Understanding Nutrient Processing Under Similar Hydrologic Conditions Along a River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Mortensen, J.; Van Horn, D. J.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication is one of the main causes of water impairment across the US. The fate of nutrients in streams is typically described by the dynamic coupling of physical processes and biochemical processes. However, isolating each of these processes and determining its contribution to the whole system is challenging due to the complexity of the physical, chemical and biological domains. We conducted column experiments seeking to understand nutrient processing in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (eight stream orders), in New Mexico (USA). For each stream order, we used a set of 6 columns packed with 3 different sediments, i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (> 2mm) and native sediments from each site. We incubated the sediments for three months and performed tracer experiments in the laboratory under identical flow conditions, seeking to normalize the physical processes along the river continuum. We added a short-term pulse injection of NO3, resazurin and NaCl to each column and determined metabolism and NO3 processing using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization method (TASCC). Our methods allowed us to study how changes in bacterial communities and sediment composition along the river continuum define nutrient processing.

  15. An Electrochemical Processing Strategy for Improving Tribological Performance of Aisi 316 Stainless Steel Under Grease Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiaojuan; Li, Maolin; Lin, Naiming; Zhang, Xiangyu; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve the tribological performance of AISI 316 stainless steel (316 SS) under grease lubrication, electrochemical processing was conducted on it to obtain a rough (surface texturing-like) surface by making use of the high sensitivity of austenitic stainless steel to pitting corrosion in Cl--rich environment. Numerous corrosion pits or micro-ditches acted as micro-reservoirs on the obtained surface. While the grease could offer consistent lubrication, and then improve the tribological performance of 316 SS. Tribological behaviors of raw 316 SS and the treated sample were measured using a reciprocating type tribometer sliding against GCr15 steel counterpart under dry and grease lubrication conditions. The results showed that the mass losses of the two samples were in the same order of magnitude, and the raw sample exhibited lower friction coefficient in dry sliding. When the tests were conducted under grease lubrication condition, the friction coefficients and mass losses of the treated sample were far lower than those of the raw 316 SS. The tribological performance of 316 SS under grease lubrication was drastically improved after electrochemical processing.

  16. Age-dependent impairment of auditory processing under spatially focused and divided attention: an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild-Wall, Nele; Falkenstein, Michael

    2010-01-01

    By using event-related potentials (ERPs) the present study examines if age-related differences in preparation and processing especially emerge during divided attention. Binaurally presented auditory cues called for focused (valid and invalid) or divided attention to one or both ears. Responses were required to subsequent monaurally presented valid targets (vowels), but had to be suppressed to non-target vowels or invalidly cued vowels. Middle-aged participants were more impaired under divided attention than young ones, likely due to an age-related decline in preparatory attention following cues as was reflected in a decreased CNV. Under divided attention, target processing was increased in the middle-aged, likely reflecting compensatory effort to fulfill task requirements in the difficult condition. Additionally, middle-aged participants processed invalidly cued stimuli more intensely as was reflected by stimulus ERPs. The results suggest an age-related impairment in attentional preparation after auditory cues especially under divided attention and latent difficulties to suppress irrelevant information.

  17. Potential distribution of pine wilt disease under future climate change scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hirata

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD constitutes a serious threat to pine forests. Since development depends on temperature and drought, there is a concern that future climate change could lead to the spread of PWD infections. We evaluated the risk of PWD in 21 susceptible Pinus species on a global scale. The MB index, which represents the sum of the difference between the mean monthly temperature and 15 when the mean monthly temperatures exceeds 15°C, was used to determine current and future regions vulnerable to PWD (MB ≥ 22. For future climate conditions, we compared the difference in PWD risks among four different representative concentration pathways (RCPs 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 and two time periods (2050s and 2070s. We also evaluated the impact of climate change on habitat suitability for each Pinus species using species distribution models. The findings were then integrated and the potential risk of PWD spread under climate change was discussed. Within the natural Pinus distribution area, southern parts of North America, Europe, and Asia were categorized as vulnerable regions (MB ≥ 22; 16% of the total Pinus distribution area. Representative provinces in which PWD has been reported at least once overlapped with the vulnerable regions. All RCP scenarios showed expansion of vulnerable regions in northern parts of Europe, Asia, and North America under future climate conditions. By the 2070s, under RCP 8.5, an estimated increase in the area of vulnerable regions to approximately 50% of the total Pinus distribution area was revealed. In addition, the habitat conditions of a large portion of the Pinus distribution areas in Europe and Asia were deemed unsuitable by the 2070s under RCP 8.5. Approximately 40% of these regions overlapped with regions deemed vulnerable to PWD, suggesting that Pinus forests in these areas are at risk of serious damage due to habitat shifts and spread of PWD.

  18. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... § 413.210 Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system... prospective payment system described in § 413.215 through § 413.235 of this part. (a) Qualifications for...

  19. The Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine Underlying the Prevention and Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, characterized with bradykinesia, static tremor, rigidity and disturbances in balance, is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Along with the largely aging population in the world, the incidence is increasing year by year, which imposes the negative impacts on patients, their families and the whole society. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has a positive prospect for the prevention and cure of PD due to its advantages of less side effects and multi-target effects. At present, the pathogenesis of PD is not yet fully discovered. This paper elaborates the mechanisms of TCM underlying the prevention and treatment of PD with regards to the inhibition of oxidative stress, the regulation of mitochondrial dysfunction, the reduction of toxic excitatory amino acids (EAA, the inhibition of neuroinflammation, the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, and the inhibition of abnormal protein aggregation.

  20. Exploring the genetics underlying autoimmune diseases with network analysis and link prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alanis Lobato, Gregorio; Cannistraci, Carlo; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the first Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was carried out we have seen an important number of discoveries of biological and clinical relevance. However, there are some scientists that consider that these research outcomes and their utility are far from what was expected from this experimental design. We instead believe that the thousands of genetic variants associated with complex disorders by means of GWASs are an extremely valuable source of information that needs to be mined in a different way. Based on this philosophy, we followed a holistic perspective to analyze GWAS data and explored the structural properties of the network representation of one of these datasets with the aim to advance our understanding of the genetic intricacies underlying autoimmune human diseases. The simplicity, computational efficiency and precision of the tools proposed in this paper represent a new means to address GWAS data and contribute to the better exploitation of these rich sources of information. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying postural instability in Parkinson's disease using dynamic posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnekes, Jorik; de Kam, Digna; Geurts, Alexander C H; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2013-12-01

    Postural instability, one of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), has devastating consequences for affected patients. Better strategies to prevent falls are needed, but this calls for an improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying postural instability. We must also improve our ability to timely identify patients at risk of falling. Dynamic posturography is a promising avenue to achieve these goals. The latest moveable platforms can deliver 'real-life' balance perturbations, permitting study of everyday fall circumstances. Dynamic posturography studies have shown that PD patients have fundamental problems in scaling their postural responses in accordance with the need of the actual balance task at hand. On-going studies evaluate the predictive ability of impaired posturography performance for daily life falls. We also review recent work aimed at exploring balance correcting steps in PD, and the presumed interaction between startle pathways and postural responses.

  2. Exploring the genetics underlying autoimmune diseases with network analysis and link prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alanis Lobato, Gregorio

    2014-02-01

    Ever since the first Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was carried out we have seen an important number of discoveries of biological and clinical relevance. However, there are some scientists that consider that these research outcomes and their utility are far from what was expected from this experimental design. We instead believe that the thousands of genetic variants associated with complex disorders by means of GWASs are an extremely valuable source of information that needs to be mined in a different way. Based on this philosophy, we followed a holistic perspective to analyze GWAS data and explored the structural properties of the network representation of one of these datasets with the aim to advance our understanding of the genetic intricacies underlying autoimmune human diseases. The simplicity, computational efficiency and precision of the tools proposed in this paper represent a new means to address GWAS data and contribute to the better exploitation of these rich sources of information. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amer F; Hassan, Mohamed I; Amein, Karam A

    2015-12-01

    Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  4. An optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Elin; Berntsson, Thore; Stroemberg, Ann-Brith; Patriksson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainties in future energy prices and policies strongly affect decisions on investments in process integration measures in industry. In this paper, we present a five-step methodology for the identification of robust investment alternatives incorporating explicitly such uncertainties in the optimization model. Methods for optimization under uncertainty (or, stochastic programming) are thus combined with a deep understanding of process integration and process technology in order to achieve a framework for decision-making concerning the investment planning of process integration measures under uncertainty. The proposed methodology enables the optimization of investments in energy efficiency with respect to their net present value or an environmental objective. In particular, as a result of the optimization approach, complex investment alternatives, allowing for combinations of energy efficiency measures, can be analyzed. Uncertainties as well as time-dependent parameters, such as energy prices and policies, are modelled using a scenario-based approach, enabling the identification of robust investment solutions. The methodology is primarily an aid for decision-makers in industry, but it will also provide insight for policy-makers into how uncertainties regarding future price levels and policy instruments affect the decisions on investments in energy efficiency measures. (author)

  5. An optimization methodology for identifying robust process integration investments under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Elin; Berntsson, Thore [Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Heat and Power Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Stroemberg, Ann-Brith [Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Chalmers Science Park, SE-412 88 Gothenburg (Sweden); Patriksson, Michael [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Uncertainties in future energy prices and policies strongly affect decisions on investments in process integration measures in industry. In this paper, we present a five-step methodology for the identification of robust investment alternatives incorporating explicitly such uncertainties in the optimization model. Methods for optimization under uncertainty (or, stochastic programming) are thus combined with a deep understanding of process integration and process technology in order to achieve a framework for decision-making concerning the investment planning of process integration measures under uncertainty. The proposed methodology enables the optimization of investments in energy efficiency with respect to their net present value or an environmental objective. In particular, as a result of the optimization approach, complex investment alternatives, allowing for combinations of energy efficiency measures, can be analyzed. Uncertainties as well as time-dependent parameters, such as energy prices and policies, are modelled using a scenario-based approach, enabling the identification of robust investment solutions. The methodology is primarily an aid for decision-makers in industry, but it will also provide insight for policy-makers into how uncertainties regarding future price levels and policy instruments affect the decisions on investments in energy efficiency measures. (author)

  6. Investigation of hydrogen isotopes interaction processes with lithium under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaurbekova, Zhanna, E-mail: zaurbekova@nnc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Skakov, Mazhyn; Ponkratov, Yuriy; Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Tazhibayeva, Irina; Baklanov, Viktor; Barsukov, Nikolay [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Chikhray, Yevgen [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics of Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The experiments on study of helium and tritium generation and release processes under neutron irradiation from lithium saturated with deuterium are described in paper. ​ • The values of relative tritium and helium yield from lithium sample at different levels of neutron irradiation is calculated. • It was concluded that the main affecting process on tritium release from lithium is its interaction with lithium atoms with formation of lithium tritide. - Abstract: The paper describes the experiments on study of helium and tritium generation and release processes from lithium saturated with deuterium under neutron irradiation (in temperature range from 473 to 773 K). The diagrams of two reactor experiments show the time dependences of helium, DT, T{sub 2}, and tritium water partial pressures changes in experimental chamber with investigated lithium sample. According to experimental results, the values of relative tritium and helium yield from lithium sample at different levels of neutron irradiation were calculated. The time dependences of relative tritium and helium yield from lithium sample were plotted. It was concluded that the main affecting process on tritium release from lithium is its interaction with lithium atoms with formation of lithium tritide.

  7. Evidence of different underlying processes in pattern recall and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The visual search characteristics of expert and novice basketball players were recorded during pattern recall and decision-making tasks to determine whether the two tasks shared common visual-perceptual processing strategies. The order in which participants entered the pattern elements in the recall task was also analysed to further examine the nature of the visual-perceptual strategies and the relative emphasis placed upon particular pattern features. The experts demonstrated superior performance across the recall and decision-making tasks [see also Gorman, A. D., Abernethy, B., & Farrow, D. (2012). Classical pattern recall tests and the prospective nature of expert performance. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 1151-1160; Gorman, A. D., Abernethy, B., & Farrow, D. (2013a). Is the relationship between pattern recall and decision-making influenced by anticipatory recall? The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 2219-2236)] but a number of significant differences in the visual search data highlighted disparities in the processing strategies, suggesting that recall skill may utilize different underlying visual-perceptual processes than those required for accurate decision-making performance in the natural setting. Performance on the recall task was characterized by a proximal-to-distal order of entry of the pattern elements with participants tending to enter the players located closest to the ball carrier earlier than those located more distal to the ball carrier. The results provide further evidence of the underlying perceptual processes employed by experts when extracting visual information from complex and dynamic patterns.

  8. Research on Collapse Process of Cable-Stayed Bridges under Strong Seismic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to present the collapse process and failure mechanism of long-span cable-stayed bridges under strong seismic excitations, a rail-cum-road steel truss cable-stayed bridge was selected as engineering background, the collapse failure numerical model of the cable-stayed bridge was established based on the explicit dynamic finite element method (FEM, and the whole collapse process of the cable-stayed bridge was analyzed and studied with three different seismic waves acted in the horizontal longitudinal direction, respectively. It can be found from the numerical simulation analysis that the whole collapse failure process and failure modes of the cable-stayed bridge under three different seismic waves are similar. Furthermore, the piers and the main pylons are critical components contributing to the collapse of the cable-stayed bridge structure. However, the cables and the main girder are damaged owing to the failure of piers and main pylons during the whole structure collapse process, so the failure of cable and main girder components is not the main reason for the collapse of cable-stayed bridge. The analysis results can provide theoretical basis for collapse resistance design and the determination of critical damage components of long-span highway and railway cable-stayed bridges in the research of seismic vulnerability analysis.

  9. Visuospatial processing in early Alzheimer’s disease: a multimodal neuroimaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, H.I.L.; Gronenschild, E. H. B. M.; Evers, E.A.T.; Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Hofman, P.A.M.; Backes, W. H.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F. R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Dorsal pathway dysfunctions are thought to underlie visuospatial processing problems in Alzheimer disease (AD). Prior studies reported compensatory mechanisms in the dorsal or ventral pathway in response to these functional changes. Since functional and structural connectivity are

  10. Underlying mechanism of antimicrobial activity of chitosan microparticles and implications for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Jeon

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms is a great public health concern and has triggered an urgent need to develop alternative antibiotics. Chitosan microparticles (CM, derived from chitosan, have been shown to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in a cattle model, indicating potential use as an alternative antimicrobial agent. However, the underlying mechanism of CM on reducing the shedding of this pathogen remains unclear. To understand the mode of action, we studied molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of CM using in vitro and in vivo methods. We report that CM are an effective bactericidal agent with capability to disrupt cell membranes. Binding assays and genetic studies with an ompA mutant strain demonstrated that outer membrane protein OmpA of E. coli O157:H7 is critical for CM binding, and this binding activity is coupled with a bactericidal effect of CM. This activity was also demonstrated in an animal model using cows with uterine diseases. CM treatment effectively reduced shedding of intrauterine pathogenic E. coli (IUPEC in the uterus compared to antibiotic treatment. Since Shiga-toxins encoded in the genome of bacteriophage is often overexpressed during antibiotic treatment, antibiotic therapy is generally not recommended because of high risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome. However, CM treatment did not induce bacteriophage or Shiga-toxins in E. coli O157:H7; suggesting that CM can be a potential candidate to treat infections caused by this pathogen. This work establishes an underlying mechanism whereby CM exert antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo, providing significant insight for the treatment of diseases caused by a broad spectrum of pathogens including antibiotic resistant microorganisms.

  11. Formal Specification and Automatic Analysis of Business Processes under Authorization Constraints: An Action-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando, Alessandro; Giunchiglia, Enrico; Ponta, Serena Elisa

    We present an approach to the formal specification and automatic analysis of business processes under authorization constraints based on the action language \\cal{C}. The use of \\cal{C} allows for a natural and concise modeling of the business process and the associated security policy and for the automatic analysis of the resulting specification by using the Causal Calculator (CCALC). Our approach improves upon previous work by greatly simplifying the specification step while retaining the ability to perform a fully automatic analysis. To illustrate the effectiveness of the approach we describe its application to a version of a business process taken from the banking domain and use CCALC to determine resource allocation plans complying with the security policy.

  12. Effect of multidisciplinary disease management for hospitalized heart failure under a national health insurance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chun-Tai; Liu, Min-Hui; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Huang, Yu-Yen; Yang, Ning-I; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2015-09-01

    Multidisciplinary disease management programmes (MDPs) for heart failure have been shown to be effective in Western countries. However, it is not known whether they improve outcomes in a high population density country with a national health insurance programme. In total, 349 patients hospitalized because of heart failure were randomized into control and MDP groups. All-cause death and re-hospitalization related to heart failure were analyzed. The median follow-up period was approximately 2 years. Mean patient age was 60 years; 31% were women; and 50% of patients had coronary artery disease. MDP was associated with fewer all-cause deaths [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27-0.91, P = 0.02] and heart failure-related re-hospitalizations (HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.25-0.77, P = 0.004). MDP was still associated with better outcomes for all-cause death (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.29-0.98, P = 0.04) and heart failure-related re-hospitalization (HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.26-0.81, P = 0.007), after adjusting for age, diuretics, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, sodium, and albumin. However, MDPs' effect on all-cause mortality and heart failure-related re-hospitalization was significantly attenuated after adjusting for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers or β-blockers. A stratified analysis showed that MDP combined with guideline-based medication had synergistic effects. MDP is effective in lowering all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization rates related to heart failure under a national health insurance programme. MDP synergistically improves the effectiveness of guidelines-based medications for heart failure.

  13. Hygiene and sanitation risk factors of diarrhoeal disease among under-five children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloruntoba, Elizabeth Omoladun; Folarin, Taiwo Bukola; Ayede, Adejumoke Idowu

    2014-12-01

    Diarrhoea diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in under-five-children (U-5C) in Nigeria. Inadequate safe water, sanitation, and hygiene account for the disease burden. Cases of diarrhoea still occur in high proportion in the study area despite government-oriented interventions. To determine the hygiene and sanitation risk factors predisposing U-5C to diarrhoea in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty pairs of children, matched on age, were recruited as cases and controls over a period of 5 months in Ibadan. Questionnaire and observation checklist were used to obtain information on hygiene practices from caregivers/mothers and sanitation conditions in the households of 30% of the consenting mothers/caregivers. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Caregivers/mothers' mean ages were 31.3 ±7.5 (cases) and 30.6 ±6.0(controls) years. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers did not wash hands with soap before food preparation (OR=3.0, pHygiene and sanitation conditions within households were risk factors for diarrhoea. This study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in sanitation in Ibadan, Nigeria.

  14. Proteases and proteolysis in Alzheimer disease: a multifactorial view on the disease process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Strooper, Bart

    2010-04-01

    Alzheimer disease is characterized by the accumulation of abnormally folded protein fragments, i.e., amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) and tau that precipitate in amyloid plaques and neuronal tangles, respectively. In this review we discuss the complicated proteolytic pathways that are responsible for the generation and clearance of these fragments, and how disturbances in these pathways interact and provide a background for a novel understanding of Alzheimer disease as a multifactorial disorder. Recent insights evolve from the static view that the morphologically defined plaques and tangles are disease driving towards a more dynamic, biochemical view in which the intermediary soluble Abeta oligomers and soluble tau fragments are considered as the main mediators of neurotoxicity. The relevance of proteolytic pathways, centered on the generation and clearance of toxic Abeta, on the cleavage and nucleation of tau, and on the general proteostasis of the neurons, then becomes obvious. Blocking or stimulating these pathways provide, or have the potential to provide, interesting drug targets, which raises the hope that we will be able to provide a cure for this dreadful disorder.

  15. An Integrated Framework for Process-Driven Model Construction in Disease Ecology and Animal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancy, Rebecca; Brock, Patrick M; Kao, Rowland R

    2017-01-01

    Process models that focus on explicitly representing biological mechanisms are increasingly important in disease ecology and animal health research. However, the large number of process modelling approaches makes it difficult to decide which is most appropriate for a given disease system and research question. Here, we discuss different motivations for using process models and present an integrated conceptual analysis that can be used to guide the construction of infectious disease process models and comparisons between them. Our presentation complements existing work by clarifying the major differences between modelling approaches and their relationship with the biological characteristics of the epidemiological system. We first discuss distinct motivations for using process models in epidemiological research, identifying the key steps in model design and use associated with each. We then present a conceptual framework for guiding model construction and comparison, organised according to key aspects of epidemiological systems. Specifically, we discuss the number and type of disease states, whether to focus on individual hosts (e.g., cows) or groups of hosts (e.g., herds or farms), how space or host connectivity affect disease transmission, whether demographic and epidemiological processes are periodic or can occur at any time, and the extent to which stochasticity is important. We use foot-and-mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis in cattle to illustrate our discussion and support explanations of cases in which different models are used to address similar problems. The framework should help those constructing models to structure their approach to modelling decisions and facilitate comparisons between models in the literature.

  16. The Number of Candidate Variants in Exome Sequencing for Mendelian Disease under No Genetic Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Nishino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been recent success in identifying disease-causing variants in Mendelian disorders by exome sequencing followed by simple filtering techniques. Studies generally assume complete or high penetrance. However, there are likely many failed and unpublished studies due in part to incomplete penetrance or phenocopy. In this study, the expected number of candidate single-nucleotide variants (SNVs in exome data for autosomal dominant or recessive Mendelian disorders was investigated under the assumption of “no genetic heterogeneity.” All variants were assumed to be under the “null model,” and sample allele frequencies were modeled using a standard population genetics theory. To investigate the properties of pedigree data, full-sibs were considered in addition to unrelated individuals. In both cases, particularly regarding full-sibs, the number of SNVs remained very high without controls. The high efficacy of controls was also confirmed. When controls were used with a relatively large total sample size (e.g., N=20, 50, filtering incorporating of incomplete penetrance and phenocopy efficiently reduced the number of candidate SNVs. This suggests that filtering is useful when an assumption of no “genetic heterogeneity” is appropriate and could provide general guidelines for sample size determination.

  17. Tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease under resting-state and stress-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Ji; Lee, Woong Woo; Kim, Sang Kyong; Park, Hyeyoung; Jeon, Hyo Seon; Kim, Han Byul; Jeon, Beom S; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-15

    Tremor characteristics-amplitude and frequency components-are primary quantitative clinical factors for diagnosis and monitoring of tremors. Few studies have investigated how different patient's conditions affect tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we analyzed tremor characteristics under resting-state and stress-state conditions. Tremor was recorded using an accelerometer on the finger, under resting-state and stress-state (calculation task) conditions, during rest tremor and postural tremor. The changes of peak power, peak frequency, mean frequency, and distribution of power spectral density (PSD) of tremor were evaluated across conditions. Patients whose tremors were considered more than "mild" were selected, for both rest (n=67) and postural (n=25) tremor. Stress resulted in both greater peak powers and higher peak frequencies for rest tremor (pstate condition. The distributions of PSD of tremor were symmetrical, regardless of conditions. Tremor is more evident and typical tremor characteristics, namely a lower frequency as amplitude increases, are different in stressful condition. Patient's conditions directly affect neural oscillations related to tremor frequencies. Therefore, tremor characteristics in PD should be systematically standardized across patient's conditions such as attention and stress levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Process antecedents of challenging, under-cover and readily-adopted innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard; Tranfield, David; Denyer, David

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to test the utility of a taxonomy of innovation based on perceived characteristics in the context of healthcare by exploring the extent to which discrete innovation types could be distinguished from each other in terms of process antecedents. A qualitative approach was adopted to explore the process antecedents of nine exemplar cases of "challenging", "under-cover" and "readily-adopted" healthcare innovations. Data were collected by semi-structured interview and from secondary sources, and content analysed according to a theoretically informed framework of innovation process. Cluster analysis was applied to determine whether innovation types could be distinguished on the basis of process characteristics. The findings provide moderate support for the proposition that innovations differentiated on the basis of the way they are perceived by potential users exhibit different process characteristics. Innovations exhibiting characteristics previously believed negatively to impact adoption may be successfully adopted but by a different configuration of processes than by innovations exhibiting a different set of characteristics. The findings must be treated with caution because the sample consists of self-selected cases of successful innovation and is limited by sample size. Nevertheless, the study sheds new light on important process differences in healthcare innovation. The paper offers a heuristic device to aid clinicians and managers to better understand the relatively novel task of promoting and managing innovation in healthcare. The paper advances the argument that there is under-exploited opportunity for cross-disciplinary organisational learning for innovation management in the NHS. If efficiency and quality improvement targets are to be met through a strategy of encouraging innovation, it may be advantageous for clinicians and managers to reflect on what this study found mostly to be absent from the processes of the innovations studied

  19. Non-sparking anodization process of AZ91D magnesium alloy under low AC voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weiping; Li, Wen; Zhu, Liqun; Liu, Huicong; Wang, Xiaofang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Four different processes appear on magnesium alloys with applied voltage increase. ► Non-sparking film formation process occurred in the range of 6–10 V AC. ► The film was composed of Mg 2 SiO 4 with a stable growth rate in 30 min. ► Film growth was a balance of electrochemical dissolution and chemical deposition. -- Abstract: Anodization is widely recognized as one of the most important surface treatments for magnesium alloys. However, since high voltage oxidation films are limited in some applications due to porosity and brittleness, it is worthwhile to explore the non-sparking oxidizing process. In this work, AZ91D was electrochemically anodized at different AC voltages in an electrolyte containing 120 g/L NaOH and 80 g/L Na 2 SiO 3 ·9H 2 O. The effects of voltage on the surface morphology, composition and reaction process, especially the non-sparking discharge anodic film formation process, were investigated. The results showed that four different processes would appear according to the applied voltage variation from 6 V to 40 V, and that the non-sparking film formation process occurred in the range of 6–10 V. The film formed on the AZ91D surface under 10 V AC was mainly composed of Mg 2 SiO 4 with a lamellar structure. The horizontal and vertical expansion of the lamellar structure resulted in the formation of a multi-layered structure with a stable, linear growth rate for 30 min. The non-sparking film formation process can be considered to be the result of a balance of electrochemical dissolution and chemical deposition reaction

  20. Non-sparking anodization process of AZ91D magnesium alloy under low AC voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weiping, E-mail: liweiping@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Wen [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institue, Beijing 100024 (China); Zhu, Liqun; Liu, Huicong; Wang, Xiaofang [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-04-20

    Highlights: ► Four different processes appear on magnesium alloys with applied voltage increase. ► Non-sparking film formation process occurred in the range of 6–10 V AC. ► The film was composed of Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} with a stable growth rate in 30 min. ► Film growth was a balance of electrochemical dissolution and chemical deposition. -- Abstract: Anodization is widely recognized as one of the most important surface treatments for magnesium alloys. However, since high voltage oxidation films are limited in some applications due to porosity and brittleness, it is worthwhile to explore the non-sparking oxidizing process. In this work, AZ91D was electrochemically anodized at different AC voltages in an electrolyte containing 120 g/L NaOH and 80 g/L Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O. The effects of voltage on the surface morphology, composition and reaction process, especially the non-sparking discharge anodic film formation process, were investigated. The results showed that four different processes would appear according to the applied voltage variation from 6 V to 40 V, and that the non-sparking film formation process occurred in the range of 6–10 V. The film formed on the AZ91D surface under 10 V AC was mainly composed of Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} with a lamellar structure. The horizontal and vertical expansion of the lamellar structure resulted in the formation of a multi-layered structure with a stable, linear growth rate for 30 min. The non-sparking film formation process can be considered to be the result of a balance of electrochemical dissolution and chemical deposition reaction.

  1. Neurophysiological processes and functional neuroanatomical structures underlying proactive effects of emotional conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, Marie Luise; Chmielewski, Witold; Beste, Christian

    2018-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relation of cognitive and emotional processes as evidenced by emotional conflict monitoring processes. In the cognitive domain, proactive effects of conflicts have widely been studied; i.e. effects of conflicts in the n-1 trial on trial n. Yet, the neurophysiological processes and associated functional neuroanatomical structures underlying such proactive effects during emotional conflicts have not been investigated. This is done in the current study combining EEG recordings with signal decomposition methods and source localization approaches. We show that an emotional conflict in the n-1 trial differentially influences processing of positive and negative emotions in trial n, but not the processing of conflicts in trial n. The dual competition framework stresses the importance of dissociable 'perceptual' and 'response selection' or cognitive control levels for interactive effects of cognition and emotion. Only once these coding levels were isolated in the neurophysiological data, processes explaining the behavioral effects were detectable. The data show that there is not only a close correspondence between theoretical propositions of the dual competition framework and neurophysiological processes. Rather, processing levels conceptualized in the framework operate in overlapping time windows, but are implemented via distinct functional neuroanatomical structures; the precuneus (BA31) and the insula (BA13). It seems that decoding of information in the precuneus, as well as the integration of information during response selection in the insula is more difficult when confronted with angry facial emotions whenever cognitive control resources have been highly taxed by previous conflicts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain); Sanroman, M.A., E-mail: sanroman@uvigo.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, Isaac Newton Building, Campus As Lagoas, Marcosende 36310, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2-8). Around 98-100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87-98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  3. Can we always sweep the details of RNA-processing under the carpet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klironomos, Filippos D; Berg, Johannes; De Meaux, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    RNA molecules follow a succession of enzyme-mediated processing steps from transcription to maturation. The participating enzymes, for example the spliceosome for mRNAs and Drosha and Dicer for microRNAs, are also produced in the cell and their copy-numbers fluctuate over time. Enzyme copy-number changes affect the processing rate of the substrate molecules; high enzyme numbers increase the processing rate, while low enzyme numbers decrease it. We study different RNA-processing cascades where enzyme copy-numbers are either fixed or fluctuate. We find that for the fixed enzyme copy-numbers, the substrates at steady-state are Poisson-distributed, and the whole RNA cascade dynamics can be understood as a single birth–death process of the mature RNA product. In this case, solely fluctuations in the timing of RNA processing lead to variation in the number of RNA molecules. However, we show analytically and numerically that when enzyme copy-numbers fluctuate, the strength of RNA fluctuations increases linearly with the RNA transcription rate. This linear effect becomes stronger as the speed of enzyme dynamics decreases relative to the speed of RNA dynamics. Interestingly, we find that under certain conditions, the RNA cascade can reduce the strength of fluctuations in the expression level of the mature RNA product. Finally, by investigating the effects of processing polymorphisms, we show that it is possible for the effects of transcriptional polymorphisms to be enhanced, reduced or even reversed. Our results provide a framework to understand the dynamics of RNA processing. (paper)

  4. Decolourisation of dyes under electro-Fenton process using Fe alginate gel beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, E.; Iglesias, O.; Pazos, M.; Sanromán, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater was tested. ► New electro-Fenton process for the remediation of polluted wastewater. ► Continuous dye treatment without operational problem with high removal. - Abstract: This study focuses on the application of electro-Fenton technique by use of catalytic activity of Fe alginate gel beads for the remediation of wastewater contaminated with synthetic dyes. The Fe alginate gel beads were evaluated for decolourisation of two typical dyes, Lissamine Green B and Azure B under electro-Fenton process. After characterization of Fe alginate gel beads, the pH effect on the process with Fe alginate beads and a comparative study of the electro-Fenton process with free Fe and Fe alginate bead was done. The results showed that the use of Fe alginate beads increases the efficiency of the process; moreover the developed particles show a physical integrity in a wide range of pH (2–8). Around 98–100% of dye decolourisation was obtained for both dyes by electro-Fenton process in successive batches. Therefore, the process was performed with Fe alginate beads in a bubble continuous reactor. High color removal (87–98%) was attained for both dyes operating at a residence time of 30 min, without operational problems and maintaining particle shapes throughout the oxidation process. Consequently, the stable performance of Fe alginate beads opens promising perspectives for fast and economical treatment of wastewater polluted by dyes or similar organic contaminants.

  5. Neural networks underlying language and social cognition during self-other processing in Autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Sartin, Emma B; Stevens, Carl; Deshpande, Hrishikesh D; Klein, Christopher; Klinger, Mark R; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2017-07-28

    The social communication impairments defining autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be built upon core deficits in perspective-taking, language processing, and self-other representation. Self-referential processing entails the ability to incorporate self-awareness, self-judgment, and self-memory in information processing. Very few studies have examined the neural bases of integrating self-other representation and semantic processing in individuals with ASD. The main objective of this functional MRI study is to examine the role of language and social brain networks in self-other processing in young adults with ASD. Nineteen high-functioning male adults with ASD and 19 age-sex-and-IQ-matched typically developing (TD) control participants made "yes" or "no" judgments of whether an adjective, presented visually, described them (self) or their favorite teacher (other). Both ASD and TD participants showed significantly increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during self and other processing relative to letter search. Analyses of group differences revealed significantly reduced activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), and left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) in ASD participants, relative to TD controls. ASD participants also showed significantly weaker functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) with several brain areas while processing self-related words. The LIFG and IPL are important regions functionally at the intersection of language and social roles; reduced recruitment of these regions in ASD participants may suggest poor level of semantic and social processing. In addition, poor connectivity of the ACC may suggest the difficulty in meeting the linguistic and social demands of this task in ASD. Overall, this study provides new evidence of the altered recruitment of the neural networks underlying language and social cognition in ASD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Application of computer picture processing to dynamic strain measurement under electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagawa, G.; Soneda, N.

    1987-01-01

    For the structural design of fusion reactors, it is very important to ensure the structural integrity of components under various dynamic loading conditions due to a solid-electromagnetic field interaction, an earthquake, MHD effects and so on. As one of the experimental approaches to assess the dynamic fracture, we consider the strain measurement near a crack tip under a transient electromagnetic field, which in general involves several experimental difficulties. The authors have developed a strain measurement method using a picture processing technique. In this method, locations of marks printed on a surface of specimen are determined by the picture processing. The displacement field is interpolated using the mark displacements and finite elements. Finally the strain distribution is calculated by differentiating the displacement field. In the present study, the method is improved and automated apply to the measurement of dynamic strain distribution under an electromagnetic field. Then the effects of dynamic loading on the strain distribution are investigated by comparing the dynamic results with the static ones. (orig./GL)

  7. Early Activation of Patients after Surgery for Coronary Heart Disease under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kozlov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the safety and clinical efficiency of early activation of patients operated on for coronary heart disease under extracorporeal circulation. Subjects and methods. The data available in the case histories of 673 patients aged 29—76 years, operated on in 1995, 2004, and 2006, were analyzed. The study excluded patients with severe intraoperative complications (acute myocardial infarction, a need for extracorporeal circulation, and surgical bleeding. Early activation was made on an operating table if there were no contraindications. Some sections of the study were performed in the matched patient groups. Results. With early activation, the dosages of fentanyl were reduced by 2.5-3 times as compared with the 1995 data; the use of ketamine and diazepam was stopped. Instead of the latter, the currently available inhalational agents are coming into use: midazolam has been introduced and the rate of propofol use has increased. The higher activation rate required the use of flumazenil, naloxone, and proserin. The goal-oriented study of central hemodynamics with emphasis on early activation has indicated that lower dosages of fentanyl have no negative impact on cardiac pump function or myocardial oxygen balance. When the trachea was extubated on the operating table, there was appropriate central hemodynamic stabilization. It was found that the incidence of postoperative myocardial infarctions did not depend on the rate of activation. The frequency of cardiovascular complications was 38.8±5.9% and 22.9±5.0% in the prolonged artificial ventilation (AV and early activation groups, respectively (p<0.05; that of pulmonary complications was 16.4±4.5% and 5.7±2.8%, respectively (p<0.05. Early activation halved the length of stay at an intensive care unit (p<0.05 and reduced postoperative hospitalization at surgery units by 5 days (p< 0.05. Introduction of early activation caused a decrease in the duration of postoperative AV in the

  8. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk in patients with Parkinson disease under levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydın, Zeki Yüksel; Özer, Fahriye Feriha; Karagöz, Ahmet; Bektaş, Osman; Karataş, Mehmet Baran; Vural, Aslı; Bayramoğlu, Adil; Çelik, Abdullah; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa is the indispensable choice of medial therapy in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Since L-dopa treatment was shown to increase serum homocysteine levels, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disorders, the patients with PD under L-dopa treatment will be at increased risk for future cardiovascular events. The objective of this study is to evaluate cardiovascular risk in patients with PD under levodopa treatment. The study population consisted of 65 patients with idiopathic PD under L-dopa treatment. The control group included 32 age and gender matched individuals who had no cognitive decline. Echocardiographic measurements, serum homocysteine levels and elastic parameters of the aorta were compared between the patients with PD and controls. As an expected feature of L-dopa therapy, the Parkinson group had significantly higher homocystein levels (15.1 ± 3.9 µmol/L vs. 11.5 ± 3.2 µmol/L, P = 0.02). Aortic distensibility was significantly lower in the patients with PD when compared to controls (4.8 ± 1.5 dyn/cm(2) vs. 6.2 ± 1.9 dyn/cm(2), P = 0.016). Additionally, the patients with PD had higher aortic strain and aortic stiffness index (13.4% ± 6.4% vs. 7.4% ± 3.6%, P homocysteine levels were found to be positively correlated with aortic stiffness index and there was a negative correlation between aortic distensibility and levels of serum homocysteine (r = 0.674, P homocysteine levels may be a possible pathophysiological mechanism.

  9. Do heart failure disease management programs make financial sense under a bundled payment system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Zubin J; Reed, Shelby D; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F; Peterson, Eric D

    2011-05-01

    Policy makers have proposed bundling payments for all heart failure (HF) care within 30 days of an HF hospitalization in an effort to reduce costs. Disease management (DM) programs can reduce costly HF readmissions but have not been economically attractive for caregivers under existing fee-for-service payment. Whether a bundled payment approach can address the negative financial impact of DM programs is unknown. Our study determined the cost-neutral point for the typical DM program and examined whether published HF DM programs can be cost saving under bundled payment programs. We used a decision analytic model using data from retrospective cohort studies, meta-analyses, 5 randomized trials evaluating DM programs, and inpatient claims for all Medicare beneficiaries discharged with an HF diagnosis from 2001 to 2004. We determined the costs of DM programs and inpatient care over 30 and 180 days. With a baseline readmission rate of 22.9%, the average cost for readmissions over 30 days was $2,272 per patient. Under base-case assumptions, a DM program that reduced readmissions by 21% would need to cost $477 per patient to be cost neutral. Among evaluated published DM programs, 2 of the 5 would increase provider costs (+$15 to $283 per patient), whereas 3 programs would be cost saving (-$241 to $347 per patient). If bundled payments were broadened to include care over 180 days, then program saving estimates would increase, ranging from $419 to $1,706 per patient. Proposed bundled payments for HF admissions provide hospitals with a potential financial incentive to implement DM programs that efficiently reduce readmissions. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Information processing in micro and meso-scale neural circuits during normal and disease states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Francisco

    Neural computation can occur at multiple spatial and temporal timescales. The sum total of all of these processes is to guide optimal behaviors within the context of the constraints imposed by the physical world. How the circuits of the brain achieves this goal represents a central question in systems neuroscience. Here I explore the many ways in which the circuits of the brain can process information at both the micro and meso scale. Understanding the way information is represented and processed in the brain could shed light on the neuropathology underlying complex neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia. Chapter 2 establishes an experimental paradigm for assaying patterns of microcircuit activity and examines the role of dopaminergic modulation on prefrontal microcircuits. We find that dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor activation results in an increase in spontaneous activity while dopamine type 1 (D1) activation does not. Chapter 3 of this dissertation presents a study that illustrates how cholingergic activation normally produces what has been suggested as a neural substrate of attention; pairwise decorrelation in microcircuit activity. This study also shows that in two etiologicall distinct mouse models of autism, FMR1 knockout mice and Valproic Acid exposed mice, this ability to decorrelate in the presence of cholinergic activation is lost. This represents a putative microcircuit level biomarker of autism. Chapter 4 examines the structure/function relationship within the prefrontal microcircuit. Spontaneous activity in prefrontal microcircuits is shown to be organized according to a small world architecture. Interestingly, this architecture is important for one concrete function of neuronal microcircuits; the ability to produce temporally stereotyped patterns of activation. In the final chapter, we identify subnetworks in chronic intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings using pairwise electrode coherence and dimensionality reduction

  11. An Intelligent Complex Event Processing with D Numbers under Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuan Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient matching of incoming mass events to persistent queries is fundamental to complex event processing systems. Event matching based on pattern rule is an important feature of complex event processing engine. However, the intrinsic uncertainty in pattern rules which are predecided by experts increases the difficulties of effective complex event processing. It inevitably involves various types of the intrinsic uncertainty, such as imprecision, fuzziness, and incompleteness, due to the inability of human beings subjective judgment. Nevertheless, D numbers is a new mathematic tool to model uncertainty, since it ignores the condition that elements on the frame must be mutually exclusive. To address the above issues, an intelligent complex event processing method with D numbers under fuzzy environment is proposed based on the Technique for Order Preferences by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method. The novel method can fully support decision making in complex event processing systems. Finally, a numerical example is provided to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  12. Fast simulation of reconstructed phylogenies under global time-dependent birth-death processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhna, Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    Diversification rates and patterns may be inferred from reconstructed phylogenies. Both the time-dependent and the diversity-dependent birth-death process can produce the same observed patterns of diversity over time. To develop and test new models describing the macro-evolutionary process of diversification, generic and fast algorithms to simulate under these models are necessary. Simulations are not only important for testing and developing models but play an influential role in the assessment of model fit. In the present article, I consider as the model a global time-dependent birth-death process where each species has the same rates but rates may vary over time. For this model, I derive the likelihood of the speciation times from a reconstructed phylogenetic tree and show that each speciation event is independent and identically distributed. This fact can be used to simulate efficiently reconstructed phylogenetic trees when conditioning on the number of species, the time of the process or both. I show the usability of the simulation by approximating the posterior predictive distribution of a birth-death process with decreasing diversification rates applied on a published bird phylogeny (family Cettiidae). The methods described in this manuscript are implemented in the R package TESS, available from the repository CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/TESS/). Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Detection and Correction of Under-/Overexposed Optical Soundtracks by Coupling Image and Audio Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Decenciere

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Film restoration using image processing, has been an active research field during the last years. However, the restoration of the soundtrack has been mainly performed in the sound domain, using signal processing methods, despite the fact that it is recorded as a continuous image between the images of the film and the perforations. While the very few published approaches focus on removing dust particles or concealing larger corrupted areas, no published works are devoted to the restoration of soundtracks degraded by substantial underexposure or overexposure. Digital restoration of optical soundtracks is an unexploited application field and, besides, scientifically rich, because it allows mixing both image and signal processing approaches. After introducing the principles of optical soundtrack recording and playback, this contribution focuses on our first approaches to detect and cancel the effects of under and overexposure. We intentionally choose to get a quantification of the effect of bad exposure in the 1D audio signal domain instead of 2D image domain. Our measurement is sent as feedback value to an image processing stage where the correction takes place, building up a “digital image and audio signal” closed loop processing. The approach is validated on both simulated alterations and real data.

  14. SIMULTANEOUS DEGRADATION OF SOME PHTHALATE ESTERS UNDER FENTON AND PHOTO-FENTON OXIDATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELDEAN-GALEA M.S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the assessment of the degradation efficiency of five phthalates, DEP, BBP, DEHP, DINP and DIDP, found in a mixture in a liquid phase, using the Fenton and Photo Fenton oxidation processes, was conducted. It was observed that the main parameters that influence the Fenton oxidative processes of phthalates were the concentration of the oxidizing agent, H2O2, the concentration of the catalyst used, Fe2+, the pH value, UV irradiation and the reaction time. For the Fenton oxidative process, the highest degradation efficiencies were 19% for DEP, 50% for BBP, 84% for DEHP, 90% for DINP and 48% for DIDP, when the experiments were carried out using concentrations of 20 mg L-1 phthalate mixture, 100 mg L-1 H2O2, 10 mg L-1 Fe2+ at a pH value of 3, with a total reaction time of 30 minutes. For the Photo-Fenton oxidative process carried out in the same conditions as Fenton oxidative process, it was observed that after an irradiation time of 90 minutes under UV radiation the degradation efficiencies of phthalates were improved, being 22% for DEP, 71% for BBP, 97% for DEHP, 97% for DINP and 81% for DIDP.

  15. Markov decision processes: a tool for sequential decision making under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, Oguzhan; Hsu, Heather; Schaefer, Andrew J; Roberts, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    We provide a tutorial on the construction and evaluation of Markov decision processes (MDPs), which are powerful analytical tools used for sequential decision making under uncertainty that have been widely used in many industrial and manufacturing applications but are underutilized in medical decision making (MDM). We demonstrate the use of an MDP to solve a sequential clinical treatment problem under uncertainty. Markov decision processes generalize standard Markov models in that a decision process is embedded in the model and multiple decisions are made over time. Furthermore, they have significant advantages over standard decision analysis. We compare MDPs to standard Markov-based simulation models by solving the problem of the optimal timing of living-donor liver transplantation using both methods. Both models result in the same optimal transplantation policy and the same total life expectancies for the same patient and living donor. The computation time for solving the MDP model is significantly smaller than that for solving the Markov model. We briefly describe the growing literature of MDPs applied to medical decisions.

  16. Depolarization current relaxation process of insulating dielectrics after corona poling under different charging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an insulating dielectric, polyimide is favorable for the application of optoelectronics, electrical insulation system in electric power industry, insulating, and packaging materials in space aircraft, due to its excellent thermal, mechanical and electrical insulating stability. The charge storage profile of such insulating dielectric is utmost important to its application, when it is exposed to electron irradiation, high voltage corona discharge or other treatments. These treatments could induce changes in physical and chemical properties of treated samples. To investigate the charge storage mechanism of the insulating dielectrics after high-voltage corona discharge, the relaxation processes responsible for corona charged polyimide films under different poling conditions were analyzed by the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Currents method (TSDC. In the results of thermal relaxation process, the appearance of various peaks in TSDC spectra provided a deep insight into the molecular status in the dielectric material and reflected stored space charge relaxation process in the insulating polymers after corona discharge treatments. Furthermore, the different space charge distribution status under various poling temperature and different discharge voltage level were also investigated, which could partly reflect the influence of the ambiance condition on the functional dielectrics after corona poling.

  17. Depolarization current relaxation process of insulating dielectrics after corona poling under different charging conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. W.; Zhou, T. C.; Wang, J. X.; Yang, X. F.; Zhu, F.; Tian, L. M.; Liu, R. T.

    2017-10-01

    As an insulating dielectric, polyimide is favorable for the application of optoelectronics, electrical insulation system in electric power industry, insulating, and packaging materials in space aircraft, due to its excellent thermal, mechanical and electrical insulating stability. The charge storage profile of such insulating dielectric is utmost important to its application, when it is exposed to electron irradiation, high voltage corona discharge or other treatments. These treatments could induce changes in physical and chemical properties of treated samples. To investigate the charge storage mechanism of the insulating dielectrics after high-voltage corona discharge, the relaxation processes responsible for corona charged polyimide films under different poling conditions were analyzed by the Thermally Stimulated Discharge Currents method (TSDC). In the results of thermal relaxation process, the appearance of various peaks in TSDC spectra provided a deep insight into the molecular status in the dielectric material and reflected stored space charge relaxation process in the insulating polymers after corona discharge treatments. Furthermore, the different space charge distribution status under various poling temperature and different discharge voltage level were also investigated, which could partly reflect the influence of the ambiance condition on the functional dielectrics after corona poling.

  18. The role of automaticity and attention in neural processes underlying empathy for happiness, sadness, and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia A. Morelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have examined the neural basis of experiencing empathy, relatively little is known about how empathic processes are affected by different attentional conditions. Thus, we examined whether instructions to empathize might amplify responses in empathy-related regions and whether cognitive load would diminish the involvement of these regions. 32 participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session assessing empathic responses to individuals experiencing happy, sad, and anxious events. Stimuli were presented under three conditions: watching naturally, while instructed to empathize, and under cognitive load. Across analyses, we found evidence for a core set of neural regions that support empathic processes (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, DMPFC; medial prefrontal cortex, MPFC; temporoparietal junction, TPJ; amygdala; ventral anterior insula, AI; septal area, SA. Two key regions – the ventral AI and SA – were consistently active across all attentional conditions, suggesting that they are automatically engaged during empathy. In addition, watching versus empathizing with targets was not markedly different and instead led to similar subjective and neural responses to others’ emotional experiences. In contrast, cognitive load reduced the subjective experience of empathy and diminished neural responses in several regions related to empathy (DMPFC, MPFC, TPJ, amygdala and social cognition. The current results reveal how attention impacts empathic processes and provides insight into how empathy may unfold in everyday interactions.

  19. Know the risk, take the win: how executive functions and probability processing influence advantageous decision making under risk conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Schiebener, Johannes; Pertl, Marie-Theres; Delazer, Margarete

    2014-01-01

    Recent models on decision making under risk conditions have suggested that numerical abilities are important ingredients of advantageous decision-making performance, but empirical evidence is still limited. The results of our first study show that logical reasoning and basic mental calculation capacities predict ratio processing and that ratio processing predicts decision making under risk. In the second study, logical reasoning together with executive functions predicted probability processing (numeracy and probability knowledge), and probability processing predicted decision making under risk. These findings suggest that increasing an individual's understanding of ratios and probabilities should lead to more advantageous decisions under risk conditions.

  20. [Process development for continuous ethanol fermentation by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Lihan; Liu, Chenguang; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-02-01

    Propionic acid, a major inhibitor to yeast cells, was accumulated during continuous ethanol fermentation from corn meal hydrolysate by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions. Based on its inhibition mechanism in yeast cells, strategies were developed for alleviating this effect. Firstly, high temperature processes such as medium sterilization generated more propionic acid, which should be avoided. Propionic acid was reduced significantly during ethanol fermentation without medium sterilization, and concentrations of biomass and ethanol increased by 59.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Secondly, the running time of stillage backset should be controlled so that propionic acid accumulated would be lower than its half inhibition concentration IC50 (40 mmol/L). Finally, because low pH augmented propionic acid inhibition in yeast cells, a higher pH of 5.5 was validated to be suitable for ethanol fermentation under the stillage backset condition.

  1. Stochastic Games for Continuous-Time Jump Processes Under Finite-Horizon Payoff Criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qingda, E-mail: weiqd@hqu.edu.cn [Huaqiao University, School of Economics and Finance (China); Chen, Xian, E-mail: chenxian@amss.ac.cn [Peking University, School of Mathematical Sciences (China)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper we study two-person nonzero-sum games for continuous-time jump processes with the randomized history-dependent strategies under the finite-horizon payoff criterion. The state space is countable, and the transition rates and payoff functions are allowed to be unbounded from above and from below. Under the suitable conditions, we introduce a new topology for the set of all randomized Markov multi-strategies and establish its compactness and metrizability. Then by constructing the approximating sequences of the transition rates and payoff functions, we show that the optimal value function for each player is a unique solution to the corresponding optimality equation and obtain the existence of a randomized Markov Nash equilibrium. Furthermore, we illustrate the applications of our main results with a controlled birth and death system.

  2. Using Pupil Diameter Changes for Measuring Mental Workload under Mental Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmaz, Ihsan; Ozturk, Mustafa

    In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the mental workload by using a practical way which based on measuring pupil diameter changes that occurs under mental processing. To determine the mental effort required for each task, the video record of subjects` eyes are taken while they are performed different tasks and pupils were measured from the records. A group of university student, one female 9 males participated to the experiment. Additionally, NASA-TLX questionnaire is applied for the related mental tasks. For verification of results obtained from both indices, the correlation coefficient is calculated task base. The results show that there is weak and negative correlation between the indices on task base except 3rd task. By investigating pupil diameter measurements data too, it is founded that pupil dilates under mental workload during performing related tasks. For all tasks, pupil diameters of response periods increased according to reference baseline period.

  3. Studies of Thermophysical Properties of Metals and Semiconductors by Containerless Processing Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A.; Soellner, W.; Stenzel, C.

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic levitation under microgravity provides unique opportunities for the investigation of liquid metals, alloys and semiconductors, both above and below their melting temperatures, with minimized disturbances of the sample under investigation. The opportunity to perform such experiments will soon be available on the ISS with the EML payload which is currently being integrated. With its high-performance diagnostics systems EML allows to measure various physical properties such as heat capacity, enthalpy of fusion, viscosity, surface tension, thermal expansion coefficient, and electrical conductivity. In studies of nucleation and solidification phenomena the nucleation kinetics, phase selection, and solidification velocity can be determined. Advanced measurement capabilities currently being studied include the measurement and control of the residual oxygen content of the process atmosphere and a complementary inductive technique to measure thermophysical properties.

  4. Sensitive maintenance: a cognitive process underlying individual differences in memory for threatening information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jan H; Hock, Michael; Krohne, Heinz Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dispositional styles of coping with threat influence memory for threatening information. In particular, sensitizers excel over repressors in their memory for threatening information after long retention intervals, but not after short ones. We therefore suggested that sensitizers, but not repressors, employ active maintenance processes during the retention interval to selectively retain threatening material. Sensitive maintenance was studied in 2 experiments in which participants were briefly exposed to threatening and nonthreatening pictures (Experiment 1, N = 128) or words (Experiment 2, N = 145). Following, we administered unannounced recognition tests before and after an intervening task that generated either high or low cognitive load, assuming that high cognitive load would impede sensitizers' memory maintenance of threatening material. Supporting our hypotheses, the same pattern of results was obtained in both experiments: Under low cognitive load, sensitizers forgot less threat material than repressors did; no such differences were observed under high cognitive load.

  5. Stochastic Games for Continuous-Time Jump Processes Under Finite-Horizon Payoff Criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Qingda; Chen, Xian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study two-person nonzero-sum games for continuous-time jump processes with the randomized history-dependent strategies under the finite-horizon payoff criterion. The state space is countable, and the transition rates and payoff functions are allowed to be unbounded from above and from below. Under the suitable conditions, we introduce a new topology for the set of all randomized Markov multi-strategies and establish its compactness and metrizability. Then by constructing the approximating sequences of the transition rates and payoff functions, we show that the optimal value function for each player is a unique solution to the corresponding optimality equation and obtain the existence of a randomized Markov Nash equilibrium. Furthermore, we illustrate the applications of our main results with a controlled birth and death system.

  6. Dissociable processes underlying decisions in the Iowa Gambling Task: a new integrative framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoli Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT is a common paradigm used to study the interactions between emotions and decision making, yet little consensus exists on the cognitive process determining participants' decisions, what affects them, and how these processes interact with each other. A novel conceptual framework is proposed according to which behavior in the IGT reflects a balance between two dissociable processes; a cognitively demanding process that tracks each option's long-term payoff, and a lower-level, automatic process that is primarily sensitive to loss frequency and magnitude. Methods A behavioral experiment was carried out with a modified version of IGT. In this modified version, participants went through an additional phase of interaction, designed to measure performance without further learning, in which no feedback on individual decisions was given. A secondary distractor task was presented in either the first or the second phase of the experiment. Behavioral measures of performance tracking both payoff and frequency sensitivity in choices were collected throughout the experiment. Results Consistent with our framework, the results confirmed that: (a the two competing cognitive processes can be dissociated; (b that learning from decision outcomes requires central cognitive resources to estimate long-term payoff; and (c that the decision phase itself can be carried out during an interfering task once learning has occurred. Conclusion The experimental results support our novel description of the cognitive processes underlying performance in the Iowa Gambling Task. They also suggest that patients' impairments in this and other gambling paradigms can originate from a number of different causes, including a failure in allocating resources among cognitive strategies. This latter interpretation might be particularly useful in explaining the impairments of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions and, by extension

  7. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  8. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  9. Imperfect Reworking Process Consideration in Integrated Inventory Model under Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Cheng Lo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an improved inventory model to help the enterprises to advance their profit increasing and cost reduction in a single vendor single-buyer environment with general demand curve, adjustable production rate, and imperfect reworking process under permissible delay in payments. For advancing practical use in a real world, we are concerned with the following strategy determining, which includes the buyer's optimal selling price, order quantity, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer. An algorithm and numerical analysis are used to illustrate the solution procedure.

  10. The Operator's Diagnosis Task under Abnormal Operating Conditions in Industrial Process Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodstein, L.P.; Pedersen, O.M.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of serious accidents in connection with the operation of technical installations demonstrate that the diagnosis task which confronts personnel under non-normal plant conditions is a critical one. This report presents a preliminary outline of characteristic traits connected with the task...... of diagnosis for use in discussions of (a) the studies which are necessary in order to formulate the operator's diagnostic procedures and (b) the possibilities which exists for supporting these procedures through appropriate data processing and display in the control system. At the same time, attempts are made...

  11. Optimal processing pathway selection for microalgae-based biorefinery under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Zaman, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a systematic framework for the selection of optimal processing pathways for a microalgaebased biorefinery under techno-economic uncertainty. The proposed framework promotes robust decision making by taking into account the uncertainties that arise due to inconsistencies among...... and shortage in the available technical information. A stochastic mixed integer nonlinear programming (sMINLP) problem is formulated for determining the optimal biorefinery configurations based on a superstructure model where parameter uncertainties are modeled and included as sampled scenarios. The solution...... the accounting of uncertainty are compared with respect to different objectives. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Modelling of space-charge accumulation process in dielectrics of MDS structures under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtov, V.A.; Nazarov, A.I.; Travkov, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    Results of numerical modelling of radiation-induced space charge (RISC) accumulation in MOS structure silicon dioxide are given. Diffusion-drift model which takes account of trap heterogeneous distribution within dielectric volume and channeling of carriers captured at traps represents basis for calculations. Main physical processes affecting RISC accumulation are picked out and character of capture filling in dielectric volume under stress in MOS structure shutter during irradiation on the basis of comparison of experimental results for different thickness oxides with calculation data are predicted

  13. Central Pain Processing in Early-Stage Parkinson's Disease: A Laser Pain fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Petschow

    Full Text Available Pain is a common non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. As dopaminergic dysfunction is suggested to affect intrinsic nociceptive processing, this study was designed to characterize laser-induced pain processing in early-stage Parkinson's disease patients in the dopaminergic OFF state, using a multimodal experimental approach at behavioral, autonomic, imaging levels.13 right-handed early-stage Parkinson's disease patients without cognitive or sensory impairment were investigated OFF medication, along with 13 age-matched healthy control subjects. Measurements included warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, and central pain processing with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (erfMRI during laser-induced pain stimulation at lower (E = 440 mJ and higher (E = 640 mJ target energies. Additionally, electrodermal activity was characterized during delivery of 60 randomized pain stimuli ranging from 440 mJ to 640 mJ, along with evaluation of subjective pain ratings on a visual analogue scale.No significant differences in warmth perception thresholds, heat pain thresholds, electrodermal activity and subjective pain ratings were found between Parkinson's disease patients and controls, and erfMRI revealed a generally comparable activation pattern induced by laser-pain stimuli in brain areas belonging to the central pain matrix. However, relatively reduced deactivation was found in Parkinson's disease patients in posterior regions of the default mode network, notably the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex.Our data during pain processing extend previous findings suggesting default mode network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, they argue against a genuine pain-specific processing abnormality in early-stage Parkinson's disease. Future studies are now required using similar multimodal experimental designs to examine pain processing in more advanced stages of Parkinson's disease.

  14. The genetic defect of fragmented coronoid process in Labrador retrievers and other skeletal diseases in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temwichitr, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP) is the main component of elbow dysplasia (ED) in dogs, which also includes osteochondrosis of the humeral condyle (OCD), elbow incongruity (INC), and ununited anconeal process (UAP). FCP is recognized as a hereditary disease in many breeds and is a major

  15. Location-Dependent Query Processing Under Soft Real-Time Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoubir Mammeri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mobile devices and applications achieved an increasing development. In database field, this development required methods to consider new query types like location-dependent queries (i.e. the query results depend on the query issuer location. Although several researches addressed problems related to location-dependent query processing, a few works considered timing requirements that may be associated with queries (i.e., the query results must be delivered to mobile clients on time. The main objective of this paper is to propose a solution for location-dependent query processing under soft real-time constraints. Hence, we propose methods to take into account client location-dependency and to maximize the percentage of queries respecting their deadlines. We validate our proposal by implementing a prototype based on Oracle DBMS. Performance evaluation results show that the proposed solution optimizes the percentage of queries meeting their deadlines and the communication cost.

  16. Guidelines regarding the review process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  17. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views.

  18. Reverse inference of memory retrieval processes underlying metacognitive monitoring of learning using multivariate pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiers, Peter; Falbo, Luciana; Goulas, Alexandros; van Gog, Tamara; de Bruin, Anique

    2016-05-15

    Monitoring of learning is only accurate at some time after learning. It is thought that immediate monitoring is based on working memory, whereas later monitoring requires re-activation of stored items, yielding accurate judgements. Such interpretations are difficult to test because they require reverse inference, which presupposes specificity of brain activity for the hidden cognitive processes. We investigated whether multivariate pattern classification can provide this specificity. We used a word recall task to create single trial examples of immediate and long term retrieval and trained a learning algorithm to discriminate them. Next, participants performed a similar task involving monitoring instead of recall. The recall-trained classifier recognized the retrieval patterns underlying immediate and long term monitoring and classified delayed monitoring examples as long-term retrieval. This result demonstrates the feasibility of decoding cognitive processes, instead of their content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views. [fr

  20. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views [fr

  1. Processing and Probability Analysis of Pulsed Terahertz NDE of Corrosion under Shuttle Tile Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Ely, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines data processing and probability analysis of pulsed terahertz NDE scans of corrosion defects under a Shuttle tile. Pulsed terahertz data collected from an aluminum plate with fabricated corrosion defects and covered with a Shuttle tile is presented. The corrosion defects imaged were fabricated by electrochemically etching areas of various diameter and depth in the plate. In this work, the aluminum plate echo signal is located in the terahertz time-of-flight data and a threshold is applied to produce a binary image of sample features. Feature location and area are examined and identified as corrosion through comparison with the known defect layout. The results are tabulated with hit, miss, or false call information for a probability of detection analysis that is used to identify an optimal processing threshold.

  2. Exploring Selective Exposure and Confirmation Bias as Processes Underlying Employee Work Happiness: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige; Kern, Margaret L; Waters, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Employee psychological capital (PsyCap), perceptions of organizational virtue (OV), and work happiness have been shown to be associated within and over time. This study examines selective exposure and confirmation bias as potential processes underlying PsyCap, OV, and work happiness associations. As part of a quasi-experimental study design, school staff (N = 69) completed surveys at three time points. After the first assessment, some staff (n = 51) completed a positive psychology training intervention. Results of descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses on the intervention group provide some support for selective exposure and confirmation bias as explanatory mechanisms. In focusing on the processes through which employee attitudes may influence work happiness this study advances theoretical understanding, specifically of selective exposure and confirmation bias in a field study context.

  3. Guidelines regarding the review process under the convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  4. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  5. Decision making under uncertainty and information processing in positive and negative mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sachi Nandan; Suar, Damodar

    2014-08-01

    This study examines whether mood states (a) influence decision making under uncertainty and (b) affect information processing. 200 students at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur participated in this study. Positive mood was induced by showing comedy movie clips to 100 participants and negative mood was induced by showing tragedy movie clips to another 100 participants. The participants were administered a questionnaire containing hypothetical situations of financial gains and losses, and a health risk problem. The participants selected a choice for each situation, and stated the reasons for their choice. Results suggested that the participants preferred cautious choices in the domain of gain and in health risk problems and risky choices in the domain of loss. Analysis of the reasons for the participants' choices suggested more fluency, originality, and flexibility of information in a negative mood compared to a positive mood. A negative (positive) mood state facilitated systematic (heuristic) information processing.

  6. Guidelines regarding the review process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  7. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views [es

  8. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views. [es

  9. Impulse control disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease under dopamine agonist therapy: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro J; Martinez Castrillo, Juan Carlos; Alonso-Canovas, Araceli; Herranz Barcenas, Antonio; Vela, Lydia; Sanchez Alonso, Pilar; Mata, Marina; Olmedilla Gonzalez, Nuria; Mahillo Fernandez, Ignacio

    2014-08-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) encompass a wide spectrum of abnormal behaviour frequently found in cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with dopamine agonists (DAs). The main aim of this study was to analyse ICD prevalence with different DAs. We carried out a multicentre transversal study to evaluate the presence of ICDs in patients with PD chronically treated (>6 months) with a single non-ergolinic DA (pramipexole, ropinirole, or rotigotine). Clinical assessment of ICD was performed using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease. Thirty-nine per cent of patients (91/233) fulfilled the clinical criteria for ICD. The group of patients with ICD symptoms (ICD+) differed from those without ICD symptoms (ICD-) in younger age and type of DA intake. Oral DA treatment (pramipexole and ropinirole) was associated with higher risk of ICDs compared with transdermal DA (rotigotine): 84/197 (42%) patients treated with oral DA developed ICD, versus 7/36 (19%) patients treated with transdermal DA (Fisher's exact text <0.01). In univariate analysis, a younger age (p<0.01), treatment with rasagiline (p<0.05), and especially treatment with an oral DA (pramipexole or ropinirole) (p<0.01) were significantly associated with ICD. Multivariate analysis confirmed that oral DA remained significantly associated with ICD (p: 0.014, OR: 3.14; 1.26-7.83). ICD was significantly associated with the use of the non-ergolinic oral DA (pramipexole and ropinirole) when compared with transdermal non-ergolinic DA (rotigotine). Since pramipexole, ropinirole and rotigotine are non-ergolinic DAs with very similar pharmacodynamic profiles, it is likely that other factors including route of administration (transdermal vs oral) explain the difference in risk of ICD development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Heterogeneity and loss of soil nutrient elements under aeolian processes in the Otindag Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danfeng; Wang, Xunming; Lou, Junpeng; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Hui; Ma, Wenyong; Jiao, Linlin

    2018-02-01

    The heterogeneity of the composition of surface soils that are affected by aeolian processes plays important roles in ecological evolution and the occurrence of aeolian desertification in fragile ecological zones, but the associated mechanisms are poorly understood. Using field investigation, wind tunnel experiments, and particle size and element analyses, we discuss the variation in the nutrient elements of surface soils that forms in the presence of aeolian processes of four vegetation species (Caragana microphylla Lam, Artemisia frigida Willd. Sp. Pl., Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. and Stipa grandis P. Smirn) growing in the Otindag Desert, China. These four vegetation communities correspond to increasing degrees of degradation. A total of 40 macro elements, trace elements, and oxides were measured in the surface soil and in wind-transported samples. The results showed that under the different degradation stages, the compositions and concentrations of nutrients in surface soils differed for the four vegetation species. Aeolian processes may cause higher heterogeneity and higher loss of soil nutrient elements for the communities of Artemisia frigida Willd. Sp. Pl., Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, and Stipa grandis P. Smirn than for the Caragana microphylla Lam community. There was remarkable variation in the loss of nutrients under different aeolian transportation processes. Over the past several decades, the highest loss of soil elements occurred in the 1970s, whereas the loss from 2011 to the present was generally 4.0% of that in the 1970s. These results indicate that the evident decrease in nutrient loss has played an important role in the rehabilitation that has occurred in the region recently.

  11. The underlying processes of a soil mite metacommunity on a small scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxu Dong

    Full Text Available Metacommunity theory provides an understanding of how ecological processes regulate local community assemblies. However, few field studies have evaluated the underlying mechanisms of a metacommunity on a small scale through revealing the relative roles of spatial and environmental filtering in structuring local community composition. Based on a spatially explicit sampling design in 2012 and 2013, this study aims to evaluate the underlying processes of a soil mite metacommunity on a small spatial scale (50 m in a temperate deciduous forest located at the Maoershan Ecosystem Research Station, Northeast China. Moran's eigenvector maps (MEMs were used to model independent spatial variables. The relative importance of spatial (including trend variables, i.e., geographical coordinates, and broad- and fine-scale spatial variables and environmental factors in driving the soil mite metacommunity was determined by variation partitioning. Mantel and partial Mantel tests and a redundancy analysis (RDA were also used to identify the relative contributions of spatial and environmental variables. The results of variation partitioning suggested that the relatively large and significant variance was a result of spatial variables (including broad- and fine-scale spatial variables and trend, indicating the importance of dispersal limitation and autocorrelation processes. The significant contribution of environmental variables was detected in 2012 based on a partial Mantel test, and soil moisture and soil organic matter were especially important for the soil mite metacommunity composition in both years. The study suggested that the soil mite metacommunity was primarily regulated by dispersal limitation due to broad-scale and neutral biotic processes at a fine-scale and that environmental filtering might be of subordinate importance. In conclusion, a combination of metacommunity perspectives between neutral and species sorting theories was suggested to be important

  12. The underlying processes of a soil mite metacommunity on a small scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuanwei; Lin, Lin; Wu, Donghui; Zhang, Limin

    2017-01-01

    Metacommunity theory provides an understanding of how ecological processes regulate local community assemblies. However, few field studies have evaluated the underlying mechanisms of a metacommunity on a small scale through revealing the relative roles of spatial and environmental filtering in structuring local community composition. Based on a spatially explicit sampling design in 2012 and 2013, this study aims to evaluate the underlying processes of a soil mite metacommunity on a small spatial scale (50 m) in a temperate deciduous forest located at the Maoershan Ecosystem Research Station, Northeast China. Moran’s eigenvector maps (MEMs) were used to model independent spatial variables. The relative importance of spatial (including trend variables, i.e., geographical coordinates, and broad- and fine-scale spatial variables) and environmental factors in driving the soil mite metacommunity was determined by variation partitioning. Mantel and partial Mantel tests and a redundancy analysis (RDA) were also used to identify the relative contributions of spatial and environmental variables. The results of variation partitioning suggested that the relatively large and significant variance was a result of spatial variables (including broad- and fine-scale spatial variables and trend), indicating the importance of dispersal limitation and autocorrelation processes. The significant contribution of environmental variables was detected in 2012 based on a partial Mantel test, and soil moisture and soil organic matter were especially important for the soil mite metacommunity composition in both years. The study suggested that the soil mite metacommunity was primarily regulated by dispersal limitation due to broad-scale and neutral biotic processes at a fine-scale and that environmental filtering might be of subordinate importance. In conclusion, a combination of metacommunity perspectives between neutral and species sorting theories was suggested to be important in the

  13. A Novel Ex Vivo Model to Investigate the Underlying Mechanisms in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Brai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is no widely accepted animal model reproducing the full pathological profile of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, since the basic mechanisms of neurodegeneration are still poorly understood. We have proposed that the interaction between the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR and a recently discovered toxic peptide, cleaved from the acetylcholinesterase (AChE C-terminus, could account for the aberrant processes occurring in AD. In this article we describe a new application on ex vivo model procedure, which combines the advantages of both in vivo and in vitro preparations, to study the effects of the AChE-derived peptide on the rat basal forebrain (BF. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of α7-nAChR, p-Tau and Aβ are differentially expressed upon the AChE-peptide administration, in a selective site-dependent manner. In conclusion, this methodology demonstrates the action of a novel peptide in triggering an AD-like phenotype and proposes a new ex vivo approach for manipulating and monitoring neurochemical processes contributing to neurodegeneration, in a time-dependent and site-specific manner.

  14. Training processes in under 6s football competition: The transition from ingenuity to institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Merino Orozco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under 6s football competition is a school sport that has inherent educational implications. Moreover, it is a booming non-formal socio-educational framework where families and children lay training expectations and dreams. The aim is to comprehend the emerging learning processes promoted in this environment for 6 years-old children, when the child starts the institutionalization process in the ruled sport. The research uses a case study design, the ethnographic mode, through participant observation. It uses the narrative and image data to understand the scenario from the perspective of its builder. The results show that the institutionalization process starts from the ingenuity and lack of understanding of the child, who develops training processes in a prescriptive environment, where the competitive performance of the team is pursued. Promoting certain types of learning which the participant himself consciously considers inappropriate undertakes the presence of different kinds of behaviour, which go against the positive values usually attributed to football. The study claims for the necessity of taking advantage of the training opportunities which football offers to children such as the enhancing of creativity, self-efficacy and self-esteem.

  15. Performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating structure under deuterium ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae-Min [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Changheui, E-mail: chjang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • D{sup +} irradiation performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Low-energy plasmas exposure of 100 eV D{sup +} with 1.17 × 10{sup 21} D/s{sup −1} m{sup 2} flux was applied. • After D ion irradiation, flakes were observed on the surface of the simple PS coating. • While, sub-μm size protrusions were observed for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. • Height of D spike in depth profile was lower for dual-process PVD/PS W coating. - Abstract: A dual-process coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the performance of the coating structure under anticipated operating condition of fusion devices. A thin multilayer W/Mo coating (6 μm) was deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method with a variation of Mo interlayer thickness on plasma spray (PS) W coating (160 μm) of a graphite substrate panel. The dual-process PVD/PS W coatings then were exposed to 3.08 × 10{sup 24} D m{sup −2} of 100 eV D ions with a flux of 1.71 × 10{sup 21} D m{sup −2} s{sup −1} in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) chamber. After irradiation, surface morphology and D depth profiles of the dual-process coating were analyzed and compared to those of the simple PS W coating. Both changes in surface morphology and D retention were strongly dependent on the microstructure of surface coating. Meanwhile, the existence of Mo interlayer seemed to have no significant effect on the retention of deuterium.

  16. Indirect Genetic Effects and the Spread of Infectious Disease: Are We Capturing the Full Heritable Variation Underlying Disease Prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, John A.; Bijma, Piter; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing disease prevalence through selection for host resistance offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment. Selection for host resistance has proven difficult, however, due to low heritability estimates. These low estimates may be caused by a failure to capture all the relevant genetic variance in disease resistance, as genetic analysis currently is not taylored to estimate genetic variation in infectivity. Host infectivity is the propensity of transmitting infection upon contact with a susceptible individual, and can be regarded as an indirect effect to disease status. It may be caused by a combination of physiological and behavioural traits. Though genetic variation in infectivity is difficult to measure directly, Indirect Genetic Effect (IGE) models, also referred to as associative effects or social interaction models, allow the estimation of this variance from more readily available binary disease data (infected/non-infected). We therefore generated binary disease data from simulated populations with known amounts of variation in susceptibility and infectivity to test the adequacy of traditional and IGE models. Our results show that a conventional model fails to capture the genetic variation in infectivity inherent in populations with simulated infectivity. An IGE model, on the other hand, does capture some of the variation in infectivity. Comparison with expected genetic variance suggests that there is scope for further methodological improvement, and that potential responses to selection may be greater than values presented here. Nonetheless, selection using an index of estimated direct and indirect breeding values was shown to have a greater genetic selection differential and reduced future disease risk than traditional selection for resistance only. These findings suggest that if genetic variation in infectivity substantially contributes to disease transmission, then breeding designs which explicitly incorporate IGEs might help reduce disease

  17. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED.

  18. In Situ Visualization of the Phase Behavior of Oil Samples Under Refinery Process Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde-Boutet, Cedric; McCaffrey, William C

    2017-02-21

    To help address production issues in refineries caused by the fouling of process units and lines, we have developed a setup as well as a method to visualize the behavior of petroleum samples under process conditions. The experimental setup relies on a custom-built micro-reactor fitted with a sapphire window at the bottom, which is placed over the objective of an inverted microscope equipped with a cross-polarizer module. Using reflection microscopy enables the visualization of opaque samples, such as petroleum vacuum residues, or asphaltenes. The combination of the sapphire window from the micro-reactor with the cross-polarizer module of the microscope on the light path allows high-contrast imaging of isotropic and anisotropic media. While observations are carried out, the micro-reactor can be heated to the temperature range of cracking reactions (up to 450 °C), can be subjected to H2 pressure relevant to hydroconversion reactions (up to 16 MPa), and can stir the sample by magnetic coupling. Observations are typically carried out by taking snapshots of the sample under cross-polarized light at regular time intervals. Image analyses may not only provide information on the temperature, pressure, and reactive conditions yielding phase separation, but may also give an estimate of the evolution of the chemical (absorption/reflection spectra) and physical (refractive index) properties of the sample before the onset of phase separation.

  19. CFD simulation of fluid dynamic and biokinetic processes within activated sludge reactors under intermittent aeration regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F; Rey, H; Viedma, A; Nicolás-Pérez, F; Kaiser, A S; Martínez, M

    2018-08-01

    Due to the aeration system, biological reactors are the most energy-consuming facilities of convectional WWTPs. Many biological reactors work under intermittent aeration regime; the optimization of the aeration process (air diffuser layout, air flow rate per diffuser, aeration length …) is necessary to ensure an efficient performance; satisfying the effluent requirements with the minimum energy consumption. This work develops a CFD modelling of an activated sludge reactor (ASR) which works under intermittent aeration regime. The model considers the fluid dynamic and biological processes within the ASR. The biological simulation, which is transient, takes into account the intermittent aeration regime. The CFD modelling is employed for the selection of the aeration system of an ASR. Two different aeration configurations are simulated. The model evaluates the aeration power consumption necessary to satisfy the effluent requirements. An improvement of 2.8% in terms of energy consumption is achieved by modifying the air diffuser layout. An analysis of the influence of the air flow rate per diffuser on the ASR performance is carried out. The results show a reduction of 14.5% in the energy consumption of the aeration system when the air flow rate per diffuser is reduced. The model provides an insight into the aeration inefficiencies produced within ASRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Cognitive Processes underlying Affective Decision-making Predicting Adolescent Smoking Behaviors in a Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eXiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.

  1. The spermatogenic process of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus under a histomorphometric view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Barbosa Morais

    Full Text Available Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic process of common vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic process duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy. Vampire bats showed higher investment in gonadal tissue (gonadosomatic index of 0.54% and in seminiferous tubules (tubulesomatic index of 0.49% when compared to larger mammals. They also showed a high tubular length per gram of testis (34.70 m. Approximately half of the intertubular compartment was found to be comprised by Leydig cells (51.20%, and an average of 23.77x106 of these cells was found per gram of testis. The germline cells showed 16.93% of mitotic index and 2.51% of meiotic index. The overall yield of spermatogenesis was 60% and the testicular spermatic reserve was 71.44x107 spermatozoa per gram of testis. With a total spermatogenesis duration estimated at 37.02 days, vampire bats showed a daily sperm production of 86.80x106 gametes per gram of testis. These findings demonstrate a high sperm production, which is commonly observed in species with promiscuous mating system.

  2. Experimental study and artificial neural network modeling of tartrazine removal by photocatalytic process under solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebti, Aicha; Souahi, Fatiha; Mohellebi, Faroudja; Igoud, Sadek

    2017-07-01

    This research focuses on the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the removal efficiency of tartrazine from simulated wastewater using a photocatalytic process under solar illumination. A program is developed in Matlab software to optimize the neural network architecture and select the suitable combination of training algorithm, activation function and hidden neurons number. The experimental results of a batch reactor operated under different conditions of pH, TiO 2 concentration, initial organic pollutant concentration and solar radiation intensity are used to train, validate and test the networks. While negligible mineralization is demonstrated, the experimental results show that under sunlight irradiation, 85% of tartrazine is removed after 300 min using only 0.3 g/L of TiO 2 powder. Therefore, irradiation time is prolonged and almost 66% of total organic carbon is reduced after 15 hours. ANN 5-8-1 with Bayesian regulation back-propagation algorithm and hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer function is found to be able to predict the response with high accuracy. In addition, the connection weights approach is used to assess the importance contribution of each input variable on the ANN model response. Among the five experimental parameters, the irradiation time has the greatest effect on the removal efficiency of tartrazine.

  3. Evaluation and prioritization of rice production practices and constraints under temperate climatic conditions using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir A. Mir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to overwhelming complex and vague nature of interactions between multiple factors describing agriculture, Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM methods are widely used from farm to fork to facilitate systematic and transparent decision support, figure out multiple decision outcomes and equip decision maker with confident decision choices in order to choose best alternative. This research proposes a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP based decision support to evaluate and prioritize important factors of rice production practices and constraints under temperate climatic conditions and provides estimate of weightings, which measure relative importance of critical factors of the crop under biotic, abiotic, socio-economic and technological settings. The results envisage that flood, drought, water logging, late sali, temperature and rainfall are important constraints. However, regulating transplantation time; maintaining planting density; providing training to the educated farmers; introducing high productive varieties like Shalimar Rice-1 and Jhelum; better management of nutrients, weeds and diseases are most important opportunities to enhance rice production in the region. Therefore, the proposed system supplements farmers with precise decision information about important rice production practices, opportunities and constraints.

  4. Evaluation and prioritization of rice production practices and constraints under temperate climatic conditions using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.A.; Padma, T.

    2016-01-01

    Due to overwhelming complex and vague nature of interactions between multiple factors describing agriculture, Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods are widely used from farm to fork to facilitate systematic and transparent decision support, figure out multiple decision outcomes and equip decision maker with confident decision choices in order to choose best alternative. This research proposes a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) based decision support to evaluate and prioritize important factors of rice production practices and constraints under temperate climatic conditions and provides estimate of weightings, which measure relative importance of critical factors of the crop under biotic, abiotic, socio-economic and technological settings. The results envisage that flood, drought, water logging, late sali, temperature and rainfall are important constraints. However, regulating transplantation time; maintaining planting density; providing training to the educated farmers; introducing high productive varieties like Shalimar Rice-1 and Jhelum; better management of nutrients, weeds and diseases are most important opportunities to enhance rice production in the region. Therefore, the proposed system supplements farmers with precise decision information about important rice production practices, opportunities and constraints.

  5. Evaluation and prioritization of rice production practices and constraints under temperate climatic conditions using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mir, S.A.; Padma, T.

    2016-07-01

    Due to overwhelming complex and vague nature of interactions between multiple factors describing agriculture, Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods are widely used from farm to fork to facilitate systematic and transparent decision support, figure out multiple decision outcomes and equip decision maker with confident decision choices in order to choose best alternative. This research proposes a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) based decision support to evaluate and prioritize important factors of rice production practices and constraints under temperate climatic conditions and provides estimate of weightings, which measure relative importance of critical factors of the crop under biotic, abiotic, socio-economic and technological settings. The results envisage that flood, drought, water logging, late sali, temperature and rainfall are important constraints. However, regulating transplantation time; maintaining planting density; providing training to the educated farmers; introducing high productive varieties like Shalimar Rice-1 and Jhelum; better management of nutrients, weeds and diseases are most important opportunities to enhance rice production in the region. Therefore, the proposed system supplements farmers with precise decision information about important rice production practices, opportunities and constraints.

  6. [CO2 response process and its simulation of Prunus sibirica photosynthesis under different soil moisture conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Zhang, Guang-Can; Pei, Bin; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Yu; Fang, Li-Dong

    2013-06-01

    Taking the two-year old potted Prunus sibirica seedlings as test materials, and using CIRAS-2 photosynthetic system, this paper studied the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis in semi-arid loess hilly region under eight soil moisture conditions. The CO2 response data of P. sibirica were fitted and analyzed by rectangular hyperbola model, exponential equation, and modified rectangular hyperbola model. Meanwhile, the quantitative relationships between the photosynthesis and the soil moisture were discussed. The results showed that the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis had obvious response characteristics to the soil moisture threshold. The relative soil water content (RWC) required to maintain the higher photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of P. sibirica was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%. In this RWC range, the photosynthesis did not appear obvious CO2 saturated inhibition phenomenon. When the RWC exceeded this range, the photosynthetic capacity (P(n max)), CE, and CO2 saturation point (CSP) decreased evidently. Under different soil moisture conditions, there existed obvious differences among the three models in simulating the CO2 response data of P. sibirica. When the RWC was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%, the CO2 response process and the characteristic parameters such as CE, CO2 compensation point (see symbol), and photorespiration rate (R(p)) could be well fitted by the three models, and the accuracy was in the order of modified rectangular hyperbola model > exponential equation > rectangular hyperbola model. When the RWC was too high or too low, namely, the RWC was > 81.9% or CO2 response process and the characteristic parameters. It was suggested that when the RWC was from 46.3% to 81.9%, the photosynthetic efficiency of P. sibirica was higher, and, as compared with rectangular hyperbola model and exponential equation, modified rectangular hyperbola model had more applicability to fit the CO2 response data of

  7. Identification and intensity of disgust: Distinguishing visual, linguistic and facial expressions processing in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Anna; Petito, Sara; Guarino, Maria; Stracciari, Andrea

    2017-07-14

    Most of the studies since now show an impairment for facial displays of disgust recognition in Parkinson disease. A general impairment in disgust processing in patients with Parkinson disease might adversely affect their social interactions, given the relevance of this emotion for human relations. However, despite the importance of faces, disgust is also expressed through other format of visual stimuli such as sentences and visual images. The aim of our study was to explore disgust processing in a sample of patients affected by Parkinson disease, by means of various tests tackling not only facial recognition but also other format of visual stimuli through which disgust can be recognized. Our results confirm that patients are impaired in recognizing facial displays of disgust. Further analyses show that patients are also impaired and slower for other facial expressions, with the only exception of happiness. Notably however, patients with Parkinson disease processed visual images and sentences as controls. Our findings show a dissociation within different formats of visual stimuli of disgust, suggesting that Parkinson disease is not characterized by a general compromising of disgust processing, as often suggested. The involvement of the basal ganglia-frontal cortex system might spare some cognitive components of emotional processing, related to memory and culture, at least for disgust. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mitochondrial mislocalization underlies Abeta42-induced neuronal dysfunction in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Iijima-Ando

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid-beta 42 (Abeta42 is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Abeta42 induces neuronal dysfunction and degeneration remain elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunctions are implicated in AD brains. Whether mitochondrial dysfunctions are merely a consequence of AD pathology, or are early seminal events in AD pathogenesis remains to be determined. Here, we show that Abeta42 induces mitochondrial mislocalization, which contributes to Abeta42-induced neuronal dysfunction in a transgenic Drosophila model. In the Abeta42 fly brain, mitochondria were reduced in axons and dendrites, and accumulated in the somata without severe mitochondrial damage or neurodegeneration. In contrast, organization of microtubule or global axonal transport was not significantly altered at this stage. Abeta42-induced behavioral defects were exacerbated by genetic reductions in mitochondrial transport, and were modulated by cAMP levels and PKA activity. Levels of putative PKA substrate phosphoproteins were reduced in the Abeta42 fly brains. Importantly, perturbations in mitochondrial transport in neurons were sufficient to disrupt PKA signaling and induce late-onset behavioral deficits, suggesting a mechanism whereby mitochondrial mislocalization contributes to Abeta42-induced neuronal dysfunction. These results demonstrate that mislocalization of mitochondria underlies the pathogenic effects of Abeta42 in vivo.

  9. [Automutilation with indistinct underlying disease--difficulties of care in the community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehb, Iris; Reuhl, Joachim; Volk, Stephan; Urban, Reinhard

    2009-11-01

    Self-mutilation is well-known in various psychiatric diseases and represents a challenge for forensic pathologists as regards the differentiation of accidental versus self-inflicted injuries, especially when a criminal charge is likely to emerge. A case of extraordinarily severe self-inflicted injuries is presented as well as the related implications concerning clinical and ambulatory care for patients, whose underlying motivation remains unknown. A 60 year-old worker exhibited an open scull fracture and 14 abdominal wounds with protrusion of small intestine, from which a part of 160 cm length was completely removed beforehand. The patient claimed the wounds having been caused accidentally. When examined by a psychiatrist, disturbances in orientation, unrest and ill concentration were found, but no symptoms related to psychosis, depression or suicidal behaviour. Although the need for more detailed examination seemed to be clearly evident, the medical authorities did not take action. Consequently, no further psychiatric treatment was initiated. The implications of this case on the background of the literature are discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  10. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.612 Section 285.612 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management...

  11. 30 CFR 285.647 - How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? 285.647 Section 285.647 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Activities Plan § 285.647 How will my GAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone...

  12. Subcortical processing of speech regularities underlies reading and music aptitude in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities supports fundamental human behaviors such as hearing in noise and reading. Although the failure to encode acoustic regularities in ongoing speech has been associated with language and literacy deficits, how auditory expertise, such as the expertise that is associated with musical skill, relates to the brainstem processing of speech regularities is unknown. An association between musical skill and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities would not be surprising given the importance of repetition and regularity in music. Here, we aimed to define relationships between the subcortical processing of speech regularities, music aptitude, and reading abilities in children with and without reading impairment. We hypothesized that, in combination with auditory cognitive abilities, neural sensitivity to regularities in ongoing speech provides a common biological mechanism underlying the development of music and reading abilities. Methods We assessed auditory working memory and attention, music aptitude, reading ability, and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities in 42 school-aged children with a wide range of reading ability. Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities was assessed by recording brainstem responses to the same speech sound presented in predictable and variable speech streams. Results Through correlation analyses and structural equation modeling, we reveal that music aptitude and literacy both relate to the extent of subcortical adaptation to regularities in ongoing speech as well as with auditory working memory and attention. Relationships between music and speech processing are specifically driven by performance on a musical rhythm task, underscoring the importance of rhythmic regularity for both language and music. Conclusions These data indicate common brain mechanisms underlying reading and music abilities that relate to how the nervous system responds to regularities in auditory input

  13. Subcortical processing of speech regularities underlies reading and music aptitude in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strait Dana L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities supports fundamental human behaviors such as hearing in noise and reading. Although the failure to encode acoustic regularities in ongoing speech has been associated with language and literacy deficits, how auditory expertise, such as the expertise that is associated with musical skill, relates to the brainstem processing of speech regularities is unknown. An association between musical skill and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities would not be surprising given the importance of repetition and regularity in music. Here, we aimed to define relationships between the subcortical processing of speech regularities, music aptitude, and reading abilities in children with and without reading impairment. We hypothesized that, in combination with auditory cognitive abilities, neural sensitivity to regularities in ongoing speech provides a common biological mechanism underlying the development of music and reading abilities. Methods We assessed auditory working memory and attention, music aptitude, reading ability, and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities in 42 school-aged children with a wide range of reading ability. Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities was assessed by recording brainstem responses to the same speech sound presented in predictable and variable speech streams. Results Through correlation analyses and structural equation modeling, we reveal that music aptitude and literacy both relate to the extent of subcortical adaptation to regularities in ongoing speech as well as with auditory working memory and attention. Relationships between music and speech processing are specifically driven by performance on a musical rhythm task, underscoring the importance of rhythmic regularity for both language and music. Conclusions These data indicate common brain mechanisms underlying reading and music abilities that relate to how the nervous system responds to

  14. Subcortical processing of speech regularities underlies reading and music aptitude in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Hornickel, Jane; Kraus, Nina

    2011-10-17

    Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities supports fundamental human behaviors such as hearing in noise and reading. Although the failure to encode acoustic regularities in ongoing speech has been associated with language and literacy deficits, how auditory expertise, such as the expertise that is associated with musical skill, relates to the brainstem processing of speech regularities is unknown. An association between musical skill and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities would not be surprising given the importance of repetition and regularity in music. Here, we aimed to define relationships between the subcortical processing of speech regularities, music aptitude, and reading abilities in children with and without reading impairment. We hypothesized that, in combination with auditory cognitive abilities, neural sensitivity to regularities in ongoing speech provides a common biological mechanism underlying the development of music and reading abilities. We assessed auditory working memory and attention, music aptitude, reading ability, and neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities in 42 school-aged children with a wide range of reading ability. Neural sensitivity to acoustic regularities was assessed by recording brainstem responses to the same speech sound presented in predictable and variable speech streams. Through correlation analyses and structural equation modeling, we reveal that music aptitude and literacy both relate to the extent of subcortical adaptation to regularities in ongoing speech as well as with auditory working memory and attention. Relationships between music and speech processing are specifically driven by performance on a musical rhythm task, underscoring the importance of rhythmic regularity for both language and music. These data indicate common brain mechanisms underlying reading and music abilities that relate to how the nervous system responds to regularities in auditory input. Definition of common biological underpinnings

  15. Evaluation of electron beam irradiation under heating process on vulcanized EPDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Leandro; Cardoso, Jessica R.; Moura, Eduardo; Geraldo, Aurea B.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Global consumption of rubber is estimated around 30.5 million tons in 2015, when it is expected an increase of 4.3% of this volume in the coming of years. This demand is mainly attributed to the production of elastomeric accessories for the automotive sector. However, the generation of this type of waste also reaches major proportions at the end of its useful life, when it is necessary to dispose the environmental liability. Rubber reprocessing is an alternative where it can be used as filler in other polymer matrices or in other types of materials. The devulcanization process is another alternative and it includes the study of methods that allow economic viability and waste reduction. Therefore, this study aims to recycle vulcanized EPDM rubber with the use of ionizing radiation. In this work we are using the electron beam irradiation process with simultaneous heating at absorbed doses from 150 kGy to 800 kGy, under high dose rate of 22.3 kGy/s on vulcanized EPDM powder and on samples about 4 mm thick. Their characterization, before and after the irradiation process, have been realized by thermal analysis and their changes have been discussed. (author)

  16. Model of the heat load under dynamic abrasive processing of food material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Аlеksееv

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern stage of the improvement food production is conditioned by tense fight for their cost-performance that is defined in significant measure by maximum efficiency of the use agricultural cheese. At the same time problems with disadvantage ecological condition, accompanying life our society, require from taken person of the food different influences on recovery of the organism. For decision of this problem to researchers most different countries unite their own efforts on decision of the touched questions. The improvement and development technology must rest in study existing. In base of the studies can lie the mathematical product models of the feeding and corresponding to processes created in different exploratory organization. The development qualitative, claimed, competitive products – a purpose of each modern producer, choosing for itself most idle time, effective and economic justified way of the decision given problems. Modern prospecting in theories and practical person of the checking quality and analysis allow to use in principal new methods at determination of the possible negative changes to product of the feeding happened in them, in particular, under heat processing. The given methods, except traditional touch component, take into account else and complex of the analytical models of the models, for positioning undesirable warm-up mode for processing the product in target group of the consumers (for instance for integer medical-preventive feeding.

  17. Evaluation of electron beam irradiation under heating process on vulcanized EPDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Leandro; Cardoso, Jessica R.; Moura, Eduardo; Geraldo, Aurea B.C., E-mail: lgabriell@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The Global consumption of rubber is estimated around 30.5 million tons in 2015, when it is expected an increase of 4.3% of this volume in the coming of years. This demand is mainly attributed to the production of elastomeric accessories for the automotive sector. However, the generation of this type of waste also reaches major proportions at the end of its useful life, when it is necessary to dispose the environmental liability. Rubber reprocessing is an alternative where it can be used as filler in other polymer matrices or in other types of materials. The devulcanization process is another alternative and it includes the study of methods that allow economic viability and waste reduction. Therefore, this study aims to recycle vulcanized EPDM rubber with the use of ionizing radiation. In this work we are using the electron beam irradiation process with simultaneous heating at absorbed doses from 150 kGy to 800 kGy, under high dose rate of 22.3 kGy/s on vulcanized EPDM powder and on samples about 4 mm thick. Their characterization, before and after the irradiation process, have been realized by thermal analysis and their changes have been discussed. (author)

  18. Under-diagnosis of rickettsial disease in clinical practice: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, Louise E.; de Vries, Sophia G.; Wagenaar, Jiri F. P.; Spijker, René; Grobusch, Martin P.; Goorhuis, Abraham

    2018-01-01

    Rickettsial diseases present as acute febrile illnesses, sometimes with inoculation eschars. We performed a systematic review of studies published between 1997 and 2017 to assess the underestimation of non-eschar rickettsial disease (NERD) relative to eschar rickettsial disease (ERD), as a cause of

  19. Not all sounds sound the same: Parkinson's disease affects differently emotion processing in music and in speech prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, César F; Garrett, Carolina; Castro, São Luís

    2013-01-01

    Does emotion processing in music and speech prosody recruit common neurocognitive mechanisms? To examine this question, we implemented a cross-domain comparative design in Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-four patients and 25 controls performed emotion recognition tasks for music and spoken sentences. In music, patients had impaired recognition of happiness and peacefulness, and intact recognition of sadness and fear; this pattern was independent of general cognitive and perceptual abilities. In speech, patients had a small global impairment, which was significantly mediated by executive dysfunction. Hence, PD affected differently musical and prosodic emotions. This dissociation indicates that the mechanisms underlying the two domains are partly independent.

  20. A process-model based approach to prospective memory impairment in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliegel, M.; Altgassen, A.M.; Hering, A.; Rose, N.S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review discusses the current state of research on the clinical neuropsychology of prospective memory in Parkinson's disease. To do so the paper is divided in two sections. In the first section, we briefly outline key features of the (partly implicit) rationale underlying the available

  1. Distinct neural systems underlying reduced emotional enhancement for positive and negative stimuli in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistridis, Panagiota; Taylor, Kirsten I; Kissler, Johanna M; Monsch, Andreas U; Kressig, Reto W; Kivisaari, Sasa L

    2013-01-01

    Emotional information is typically better remembered than neutral content, and previous studies suggest that this effect is subserved particularly by the amygdala together with its interactions with the hippocampus. However, it is not known whether amygdala damage affects emotional memory performance at immediate and delayed recall, and whether its involvement is modulated by stimulus valence. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent more distributed neocortical regions involved in e.g., autobiographical memory, also contribute to emotional processing. We investigated these questions in a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects the amygdala, hippocampus and neocortical regions. Healthy controls (n = 14), patients with AD (n = 15) and its putative prodrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 11) completed a memory task consisting of immediate and delayed free recall of a list of positive, negative and neutral words. Memory performance was related to brain integrity in region of interest and whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses. In the brain-behavioral analyses, the left amygdala volume predicted the immediate recall of both positive and negative material, whereas at delay, left and right amygdala volumes were associated with performance with positive and negative words, respectively. Whole-brain analyses revealed additional associations between left angular gyrus integrity and the immediate recall of positive words as well as between the orbitofrontal cortex and the delayed recall of negative words. These results indicate that emotional memory impairments in AD may be underpinned by damage to regions implicated in emotional processing as well as frontoparietal regions, which may exert their influence via autobiographical memories and organizational strategies.

  2. Evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Serena Christine

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the present thesis was the evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases. It was to be examined whether a change in the parathyroid function would arise within the first week on treatment. So far there are some minor studies existing describing significant changes in the parathyroid hormone serum level within the first months after radioactive iodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Moreover, it is a fact that external beam-radiotherapy can induce neoplasia and that the risk for the subsequent development of primary hyperparathyroidism doubles or triples after external beam-radiotherapy of the head and neck. Up to now, however, an increased incidence for primary hyperparathyroidism following treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I) could not be proved. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university hospital Giessen-Marburg GmbH, location Marburg, a prospective cohort study was executed on radioactive iodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases with 105 probands (75 women / 30 men, mean age 60.62 ± 14.3 years). According to their thyroid diseases these 105 probands were classified into following subgroups: thyroid adenoma with 23 patients, multifocal thyroid autonomy with 8 patients, disseminated thyroid autonomy with 37 patients as well as the subgroup Graves' hyperthyroidism (without Graves' ophtalmopathy) and accordingly Graves' disease (with Graves' ophtalmopathy) with 37 patients. The serum level of the intact parathyroid hormone was determined directly before starting the radioactive iodine therapy on the admission day and on day 1, 3 and 5 of the radioactive iodine therapy as well as at the ambulant follow-up examination one month after the start of the therapy. In case of 99 of 105 probands the serum level of parathyroid hormone declined on treatment with 131 I with its nadir on day 3 of therapy (decline by 15.71 ng/l or 27

  3. FOOT ROT DISEASE IDENTIFICATION FOR VELLAIKODI VARIETY OF BETELVINE PLANTS USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vijayakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Betelvine plants are infected variety of diseases in the complete plantation without any premature warning of the diseases. The aim of this paper is to detection of foot rot disease in the vellaikodi variety of betelvine plants using digital image processing techniques. The digital images of the uninfected or normal betelvine leaves and the digital images of the infected in foot rot diseased betelvine leaves at different stages are collected from different Betelvine plants using a high resolution digital camera and collected betelvine images are stored with JPEG format. The digital images of the betelvine leaves analyses are done using the image processing toolbox in MATLAB which gives the normal patterns of the digital images. Using RGB encoding process, the RGB components of the betelvine leaves are separated. The mean and median values for all sample leaves are computed and calculated values are stored in the system. The mean and median values of test leaves are computed and compared with the stored values. As the result of this comparison, it is identified whether test leaves are affected by foot rot disease or not. Finally this analysis helps to recognize the foot rot disease can be identified before it spreads to entire crop.

  4. Indirect Genetic Effects and the Spread of Infectious Disease: Are We Capturing the Full Heritable Variation Underlying Disease Prevalence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipschutz-Powell, D.; Woolliams, J.A.; Bijma, P.; Doeschl-Wilson, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing disease prevalence through selection for host resistance offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment. Selection for host resistance has proven difficult, however, due to low heritability estimates. These low estimates may be caused by a failure to capture all the relevant genetic

  5. An Integrated Framework for Process-Driven Model Construction in Disease Ecology and Animal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mancy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Process models that focus on explicitly representing biological mechanisms are increasingly important in disease ecology and animal health research. However, the large number of process modelling approaches makes it difficult to decide which is most appropriate for a given disease system and research question. Here, we discuss different motivations for using process models and present an integrated conceptual analysis that can be used to guide the construction of infectious disease process models and comparisons between them. Our presentation complements existing work by clarifying the major differences between modelling approaches and their relationship with the biological characteristics of the epidemiological system. We first discuss distinct motivations for using process models in epidemiological research, identifying the key steps in model design and use associated with each. We then present a conceptual framework for guiding model construction and comparison, organised according to key aspects of epidemiological systems. Specifically, we discuss the number and type of disease states, whether to focus on individual hosts (e.g., cows or groups of hosts (e.g., herds or farms, how space or host connectivity affect disease transmission, whether demographic and epidemiological processes are periodic or can occur at any time, and the extent to which stochasticity is important. We use foot-and-mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis in cattle to illustrate our discussion and support explanations of cases in which different models are used to address similar problems. The framework should help those constructing models to structure their approach to modelling decisions and facilitate comparisons between models in the literature.

  6. Study on acoustic-electric-heat effect of coal and rock failure processes under uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Hui; Lou, Quan; Wang, En-Yuan; Liu, Shuai-Jie; Niu, Yue

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, coal and rock dynamic disasters are becoming more and more severe, which seriously threatens the safety of coal mining. It is necessary to carry out an depth study on the various geophysical precursor information in the process of coal and rock failure. In this paper, with the established acoustic-electric-heat multi-parameter experimental system of coal and rock, the acoustic emission (AE), surface potential and thermal infrared radiation (TIR) signals were tested and analyzed in the failure processes of coal and rock under the uniaxial compression. The results show that: (1) AE, surface potential and TIR have different response characteristics to the failure process of the sample. AE and surface potential signals have the obvious responses to the occurrence, extension and coalescence of cracks. The abnormal TIR signals occur at the peak and valley points of the TIR temperature curve, and are coincident with the abnormities of AE and surface potential to a certain extent. (2) The damage precursor points and the critical precursor points were defined to analyze the precursor characteristics reflected by AE, surface potential and TIR signals, and the different signals have the different precursor characteristics. (3) The increment of the maximum TIR temperature after the main rupture of the sample is significantly higher than that of the average TIR temperature. Compared with the maximum TIR temperature, the average TIR temperature has significant hysteresis in reaching the first peak value after the main rapture. (4) The TIR temperature contour plots at different times well show the evolution process of the surface temperature field of the sample, and indicate that the sample failure originates from the local destruction.

  7. Fed-batch and perfusion culture processes: economic, environmental, and operational feasibility under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates the current and future potential of batch and continuous cell culture technologies via a case study based on the commercial manufacture of monoclonal antibodies. The case study compares fed-batch culture to two perfusion technologies: spin-filter perfusion and an emerging perfusion technology utilizing alternating tangential flow (ATF) perfusion. The operational, economic, and environmental feasibility of whole bioprocesses based on these systems was evaluated using a prototype dynamic decision-support tool built at UCL encompassing process economics, discrete-event simulation and uncertainty analysis, and combined with a multi-attribute decision-making technique so as to enable a holistic assessment. The strategies were compared across a range of scales and titres so as to visualize how their ranking changes in different industry scenarios. The deterministic analysis indicated that the ATF perfusion strategy has the potential to offer cost of goods savings of 20% when compared to conventional fed-batch manufacturing processes when a fivefold increase in maximum viable cell densities was assumed. Savings were also seen when the ATF cell density dropped to a threefold increase over the fed-batch strategy for most combinations of titres and production scales. In contrast, the fed-batch strategy performed better in terms of environmental sustainability with a lower water and consumable usage profile. The impact of uncertainty and failure rates on the feasibility of the strategies was explored using Monte Carlo simulation. The risk analysis results demonstrated the enhanced robustness of the fed-batch process but also highlighted that the ATF process was still the most cost-effective option even under uncertainty. The multi-attribute decision-making analysis provided insight into the limited use of spin-filter perfusion strategies in industry. The resulting sensitivity spider plots enabled identification of the critical ratio of weightings of

  8. [Challenge and strategy of prevention and control of important parasitic diseases under the Belt and Road Initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Li, Cao; Jia-Gang, Guo

    2018-04-17

    China was once a country with the heaviest burden of parasitic diseases. Under the leadership of the Communist Party and national authority, after more than 60 years' efforts of prevention and control, the remarkable results have been achieved in China. However, affected by the social and economic development and environmental changes, the prevention and control of parasitic diseases, especially imported parasitic diseases, are facing new challenges, and the parasitic diseases, such as malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis, appear increasingly. With the development of the Belt and Road Initiative, the transmission risks of these diseases are more increased. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience and results of parasitic disease prevention and control in China, understand the present parasitic disease epidemic situation of the Belt and Road Initiative related countries, analyze the transmission risks of important parasitic diseases, and present some relevant suggestions, so as to provide the evidence for the health administrative department formulating the prevention and control strategies of such parasitic diseases timely and effectively.

  9. Atomic-Scale Simulation of Electrochemical Processes at Electrode/Water Interfaces under Referenced Bias Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Assil; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2018-04-19

    Based on constant Fermi-level molecular dynamics and a proper alignment scheme, we perform simulations of the Pt(111)/water interface under variable bias potential referenced to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). Our scheme yields a potential of zero charge μ pzc of ∼0.22 eV relative to the SHE and a double layer capacitance C dl of ≃19 μF cm -2 , in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. In addition, we study the structural reorganization of the electrical double layer for bias potentials ranging from -0.92 eV to +0.44 eV and find that O down configurations, which are dominant at potentials above the pzc, reorient to favor H down configurations as the measured potential becomes negative. Our modeling scheme allows one to not only access atomic-scale processes at metal/water interfaces, but also to quantitatively estimate macroscopic electrochemical quantities.

  10. Individual differences in impression management: an exploration of the psychological processes underlying faking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSE A. MUELLER-HANSON

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes and tests a model of psychological processes underlying faking, which integrates concepts from earlier models of faking by McFarland and Ryan (2000; 2001 and Snell, Sydell, and Lueke (1999. The results provided partial support for the model, suggesting personality factors and perceptions of situational factors contribute to faking behavior. The implications of these findings are (a people differ with regard to how much they will fake on a personality test in a simulated employment setting with some people faking substantially and others faking very little or not at all, and (b the extent to which an individual fakes is partially determined by the person’s attitudes and personality characteristics. The present findings are interpreted, discussed, and might be useful for the prevention and mitigation of faking by altering people's beliefs about their ability to fake and the appropriateness of faking.

  11. Observation of damage process in RC beams under cucle bending by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsu, Masayasu; Tsuji, Nobuyuki; Yasuoka, Daisuke

    1997-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are generally applied to construction of buildings and bridges, and are imposed on cyclic loading incessantly. It is considered that detected acoustic emission (AE) waveforms are associated with the damage degree and the fracture mechanisms of RC structures. Therefor, the cyclic bending tests are applied to damaged RC beam specimens. To evaluate the interior of the damaged RC beams, the AE source kinematics are determined by 'SiGMA' procedure for AE moment tensor analysis. By using 'SiGMA' procedure, AE source kinematics, such as source locations, crack types, crack orientations and crack motions, can be identified. The results show the applicability to observation of the fracture process under cyclic bending load and evaluation the degree of damage of RC beam.

  12. Thermally induced processes in mixtures of aluminum with organic acids after plastic deformations under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhorin, V. A.; Kiselev, M. R.; Roldugin, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    DSC is used to measure the thermal effects of processes in mixtures of solid organic dibasic acids with powdered aluminum, subjected to plastic deformation under pressures in the range of 0.5-4.0 GPa using an anvil-type high-pressure setup. Analysis of thermograms obtained for the samples after plastic deformation suggests a correlation between the exothermal peaks observed around the temperatures of degradation of the acids and the thermally induced chemical reactions between products of acid degradation and freshly formed surfaces of aluminum particles. The release of heat in the mixtures begins at 30-40°C. The thermal effects in the mixtures of different acids change according to the order of acid reactivity in solutions. The extreme baric dependences of enthalpies of thermal effects are associated with the rearrangement of the electron subsystem of aluminum upon plastic deformation at high pressures.

  13. Nonepileptic seizures under levetiracetam therapy: a case report of forced normalization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzellotti, Francesca; Franciotti, Raffaella; Zhuzhuni, Holta; D'Amico, Aurelio; Thomas, Astrid; Onofrj, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Nonepileptic seizures (NES) apparently look like epileptic seizures, but are not associated with ictal electrical discharges in the brain. NES constitute one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. They have been recognized as a distinctive clinical phenomenon for centuries, and video/electroencephalogram monitoring has allowed clinicians to make near-certain diagnoses. NES are supposedly unrelated to organic brain lesions, and despite the preponderance of a psychiatric/psychological context, they may have an iatrogenic origin. We report a patient with NES precipitated by levetiracetam therapy; in this case, NES was observed during the disappearance of epileptiform discharges from the routine video/electroencephalogram. We discuss the possible mechanisms underlying NES with regard to alternative psychoses associated with the phenomenon of the forced normalization process.

  14. Processes underlying the nutritional programming of embryonic development by iron deficiency in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Swali

    Full Text Available Poor iron status is a global health issue, affecting two thirds of the world population to some degree. It is a particular problem among pregnant women, in both developed and developing countries. Feeding pregnant rats a diet deficient in iron is associated with both hypertension and reduced nephron endowment in adult male offspring. However, the mechanistic pathway leading from iron deficiency to fetal kidney development remains elusive. This study aimed to establish the underlying processes associated with iron deficiency by assessing gene and protein expression changes in the rat embryo, focussing on the responses occurring at the time of the nutritional insult. Analysis of microarray data showed that iron deficiency in utero resulted in the significant up-regulation of 979 genes and down-regulation of 1545 genes in male rat embryos (d13. Affected processes associated with these genes included the initiation of mitosis, BAD-mediated apoptosis, the assembly of RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes and WNT signalling. Proteomic analyses highlighted 7 proteins demonstrating significant up-regulation with iron deficiency and the down-regulation of 11 proteins. The main functions of these key proteins included cell proliferation, protein transport and folding, cytoskeletal remodelling and the proteasome complex. In line with our recent work, which identified the perturbation of the proteasome complex as a generalised response to in utero malnutrition, we propose that iron deficiency alone leads to a more specific failure in correct protein folding and transport. Such an imbalance in this delicate quality-control system can lead to cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. Therefore these findings offer an insight into the underlying mechanisms associated with the development of the embryo during conditions of poor iron status, and its health in adult life.

  15. Thermalydraulic processes in the reactor coolant system of a BWR under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Boiling water reactors (BWRs) incorporate many unique structural features that make their expected response under severe accident conditions very different from that predicted in the case of pressurized water reactor accident sequences. Automatic main steam isolation valve (MIV) closure as the vessel water level approaches the top of the core would cause reactor vessel isolation while automatic recirculation pump trip would limit the in-vessel flows to those characteristic of natural circulation (as disturbed by vessel relief valve actuation). This paper provides a discussion of the BWR control blade, channel box, core plate, control rod guide tube, and reactor vessel safety relief valve (SRV) configuration and the effects of these structural components upon thermal hydraulic processes within the reactor vessel under severe accident conditions. The dominant BWR severe accident sequences as determined by probabilistic risk assessment are described and the expected timing of events for the unmitigated short-term station blackout severe accident sequence at the Peach Bottom atomic power station is presented

  16. Identifying blood biomarkers and physiological processes that distinguish humans with superior performance under psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Cooksey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Attrition of students from aviation training is a serious financial and operational concern for the U.S. Navy. Each late stage navy aviator training failure costs the taxpayer over $1,000,000 and ultimately results in decreased operational readiness of the fleet. Currently, potential aviators are selected based on the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTB, which is a series of multiple-choice tests that evaluate basic and aviation-related knowledge and ability. However, the ASTB does not evaluate a person's response to stress. This is important because operating sophisticated aircraft demands exceptional performance and causes high psychological stress. Some people are more resistant to this type of stress, and consequently better able to cope with the demands of naval aviation, than others.Although many psychological studies have examined psychological stress resistance none have taken advantage of the human genome sequence. Here we use high-throughput -omic biology methods and a novel statistical data normalization method to identify plasma proteins associated with human performance under psychological stress. We identified proteins involved in four basic physiological processes: innate immunity, cardiac function, coagulation and plasma lipid physiology.The proteins identified here further elucidate the physiological response to psychological stress and suggest a hypothesis that stress-susceptible pilots may be more prone to shock. This work also provides potential biomarkers for screening humans for capability of superior performance under stress.

  17. Light-induced magnetoresistance in solution-processed planar hybrid devices measured under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreetama Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report light-induced negative organic magnetoresistance (OMAR measured in ambient atmosphere in solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene planar hybrid devices with two different device architectures. Hybrid electronic devices with trench-isolated electrodes (HED-TIE having a channel length of ca. 100 nm fabricated in this work and, for comparison, commercially available pre-structured organic field-effect transistor (OFET substrates with a channel length of 20 µm were used. The magnitude of the photocurrent as well as the magnetoresistance was found to be higher for the HED-TIE devices because of the much smaller channel length of these devices compared to the OFETs. We attribute the observed light-induced negative magnetoresistance in TIPS-pentacene to the presence of electron–hole pairs under illumination as the magnetoresistive effect scales with the photocurrent. The magnetoresistance effect was found to diminish over time under ambient conditions compared to a freshly prepared sample. We propose that the much faster degradation of the magnetoresistance effect as compared to the photocurrent was due to the incorporation of water molecules in the TIPS-pentacene film.

  18. Light-induced magnetoresistance in solution-processed planar hybrid devices measured under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sreetama; Bülz, Daniel; Reuter, Danny; Hiller, Karla; Zahn, Dietrich R T; Salvan, Georgeta

    2017-01-01

    We report light-induced negative organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) measured in ambient atmosphere in solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) planar hybrid devices with two different device architectures. Hybrid electronic devices with trench-isolated electrodes (HED-TIE) having a channel length of ca. 100 nm fabricated in this work and, for comparison, commercially available pre-structured organic field-effect transistor (OFET) substrates with a channel length of 20 µm were used. The magnitude of the photocurrent as well as the magnetoresistance was found to be higher for the HED-TIE devices because of the much smaller channel length of these devices compared to the OFETs. We attribute the observed light-induced negative magnetoresistance in TIPS-pentacene to the presence of electron-hole pairs under illumination as the magnetoresistive effect scales with the photocurrent. The magnetoresistance effect was found to diminish over time under ambient conditions compared to a freshly prepared sample. We propose that the much faster degradation of the magnetoresistance effect as compared to the photocurrent was due to the incorporation of water molecules in the TIPS-pentacene film.

  19. Natural radionuclides in soils of a forest fragment of Atlantic Forest under ecological restoration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, F.S.; Lira, M.B.; Souza, E.M.; França, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    The natural radioactive isotopes come from the radioactive series of the 238 U (Uranium Series), the 235 U (Actinium Series) and the 232 Th (Thorium Series) series, or they can occur in isolation as is the case with the 40 K. Primordial radionuclides such as 40 K, 232 Th, 235 U and 238 U exist since the formation of the earth, being found in appreciable amounts in nature and in some cases may present a mass activity above the acceptable of environmental radiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the mass activity of 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra in the soils of a fragment of Atlantic Forest under ecological restoration process located in the Municipality of Paulista, PE, Brazil. Soil samples (0 - 15 cm) were collected under the projection of the treetops of the most abundant trees in the region. After drying and comminution, analytical portions of 40 g were transferred to polyethylene petri dishes, sealed and stored for 30 days to ensure secular equilibrium. Radioactivity was quantified by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry - EGAR. The mean physical activities of 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra were 12, 15 and 20 Bq kg -1 , respectively, for the surface soil of the Parque Natural Municipal Mata do Frio. The values found were lower than those found in mangroves in the state of Pernambuco and those considered normal for soils worldwide

  20. Model-based investigation of intracellular processes determining antibody Fc-glycosylation under mild hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Si Nga; Jedrzejewski, Philip M; Lee, Ken; Sellick, Christopher; Polizzi, Karen M; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2017-07-01

    Despite the positive effects of mild hypothermic conditions on monoclonal antibody (mAb) productivity (q mAb ) during mammalian cell culture, the impact of reduced culture temperature on mAb Fc-glycosylation and the mechanism behind changes in the glycan composition are not fully established. The lack of knowledge about the regulation of dynamic intracellular processes under mild hypothermia restricts bioprocess optimization. To address this issue, a mathematical model that quantitatively describes Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell behavior and metabolism, mAb synthesis and mAb N-linked glycosylation profile before and after the induction of mild hypothermia is constructed. Results from this study show that the model is capable of representing experimental results well in all of the aspects mentioned above, including the N-linked glycosylation profile of mAb produced under mild hypothermia. Most importantly, comparison between model simulation results for different culture temperatures suggests the reduced rates of nucleotide sugar donor production and galactosyltransferase (GalT) expression to be critical contributing factors that determine the variation in Fc-glycan profiles between physiological and mild hypothermic conditions in stable CHO transfectants. This is then confirmed using experimental measurements of GalT expression levels, thereby closing the loop between the experimental and the computational system. The identification of bottlenecks within CHO cell metabolism under mild hypothermic conditions will aid bioprocess optimization, for example, by tailoring feeding strategies to improve NSD production, or manipulating the expression of specific glycosyltransferases through cell line engineering. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1570-1582. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  1. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-01-01

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  2. Standardization of a model to study revaccination against Marek's disease under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Witter, Richard L; Cortes, Aneg L; Reddy, Sanjay M; Pandiri, Arun R

    2012-01-01

    Revaccination, the practice of administering Marek's disease (MD) vaccine a second time, has been used in commercial poultry flocks for many years. The rationale is largely anecdotal as the few published reports have failed to provide support for the value of the practice. In the present work, we have standardized a model to study MD revaccination under laboratory conditions. Nine bird experiments were conducted to evaluate homologous revaccination (same vaccine administered twice) and heterologous revaccination (administration of two different vaccines) with various challenge models. Our results demonstrated that heterologous revaccination (with a second vaccine more protective than the first vaccine) but not homologous revaccination provided a beneficial increase in protection. Administration of the first vaccine at 18 days of embryonation followed by a more protective second vaccine at hatch reproduced systematically the benefits of revaccination. In addition, our results show that revaccination protocols might aid in solving major drawbacks associated with various highly protective experimental MD vaccines; that is, lymphoid organ atrophy and residual virulence. Strain RM1 is one of the most protective vaccines against early challenge with highly virulent MD virus but it induces severe lymphoid atrophy in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MD virus. In this study, strain RM1 did not induce lymphoid organ atrophy when administered as second vaccine in a revaccination protocol. Similarly, strain 648A100/BP5 maintains residual virulence in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MD virus but did not induce any lesions when used as a second vaccine. Until now, arbitrary revaccination protocols have been occasionally proven useful to the poultry industry. The model developed in this study will allow for a better understanding of this phenomenon and its optimization. A more rational use of this practice will be of great help to control MD outbreaks

  3. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-02-26

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  4. New variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD disease and other human prion diseases under epidemiological surveillance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Gattás

    Full Text Available Abstract To increase the timeliness of detection of human cases of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and to reduce the risk of transmission, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has established and standardized rules and control measures. These include the definition of criteria for suspect cases, reporting, monitoring, and control measures for illness prevention and transmission. Guidelines to be used by the team of health care staff were published and distributed to health workers. A detailed proposal for a simplified system of surveillance for prion diseases was developed and mandatory reporting introduced. Additional effort is necessary to increase vCJD case detection, thus making it necessary to establish a partnership with health care services for best identification of suspected cases and dissemination of information to all involved in the service dealing with vCJD investigation.

  5. New variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) disease and other human prion diseases under epidemiological surveillance in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gattás, Vera Lúcia; Lima Neto, Antonio Silva; Dimech, George Santiago; Mancini, Denise; Cantarino, Ligia Maria; Marins, José Ricardo Pio; Luna, Expedito José Albuquerque

    2007-01-01

    Abstract To increase the timeliness of detection of human cases of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and to reduce the risk of transmission, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has established and standardized rules and control measures. These include the definition of criteria for suspect cases, reporting, monitoring, and control measures for illness prevention and transmission. Guidelines to be used by the team of health care staff were published and distributed to health wor...

  6. Ménière's Disease and Underlying Medical and Mental Conditions: Towards Factors Contributing to the Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shwan; Khan, Imran; Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Gaggini, Margaret; Kontorinis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relation of Ménière's disease (MD) with medical comorbidity or mental conditions. Demographic data, medical and mental comorbidities were retrospectively collected and compared from 3 groups of 30 patients each: a group with patients with definite MD, a second one with patients with vestibulopathies other than MD (non-Ménière's vertigo, NMV) and a third one with patients without any vestibular symptoms (control). The level of significance was set at 0.05. The prevalence of mental conditions was 26.7, 23.3 and 6.7% for the MD, the NMV and the control group, respectively. Medical comorbidity was found in 80% of patients in the MD, 63% in the NMV and 20% in the control group. Arthritis was encountered in 8 patients with MD, 3 with NMV and none from the control group. The differences in prevalence of mental disease, comorbidities and arthritis between the MD and the control group were statistically significant (p = 0.02, p disease. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Emerging new tools to study and treat muscle pathologies: genetics and molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in our body, is responsible for generating the force required for movement, and is also an important thermogenic organ. Skeletal muscle is an enigmatic tissue because while on the one hand, skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is arguably one of the best-studied stem cell-dependent regenerative processes, on the other hand, skeletal muscle is still subject to many degenerative disorders with few therapeutic options in the clinic. It is important to develop new regenerative medicine-based therapies for skeletal muscle. Future therapeutic strategies should take advantage of rapidly developing technologies enabling the differentiation of skeletal muscle from human pluripotent stem cells, along with precise genome editing, which will go hand in hand with a steady and focused approach to understanding underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease. In this review, I focus on highlighting the recent advances that particularly have relied on developmental and molecular biology approaches to understanding muscle development and stem cell function. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Diffusion Modelling Reveals the Decision Making Processes Underlying Negative Judgement Bias in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire A Hales

    Full Text Available Human decision making is modified by emotional state. Rodents exhibit similar biases during interpretation of ambiguous cues that can be altered by affective state manipulations. In this study, the impact of negative affective state on judgement bias in rats was measured using an ambiguous-cue interpretation task. Acute treatment with an anxiogenic drug (FG7142, and chronic restraint stress and social isolation both induced a bias towards more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue. The diffusion model was fit to behavioural data to allow further analysis of the underlying decision making processes. To uncover the way in which parameters vary together in relation to affective state manipulations, independent component analysis was conducted on rate of information accumulation and distances to decision threshold parameters for control data. Results from this analysis were applied to parameters from negative affective state manipulations. These projected components were compared to control components to reveal the changes in decision making processes that are due to affective state manipulations. Negative affective bias in rodents induced by either FG7142 or chronic stress is due to a combination of more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue, reduced anticipation of the high reward and increased anticipation of the low reward.

  9. Diffusion Modelling Reveals the Decision Making Processes Underlying Negative Judgement Bias in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Claire A; Robinson, Emma S J; Houghton, Conor J

    2016-01-01

    Human decision making is modified by emotional state. Rodents exhibit similar biases during interpretation of ambiguous cues that can be altered by affective state manipulations. In this study, the impact of negative affective state on judgement bias in rats was measured using an ambiguous-cue interpretation task. Acute treatment with an anxiogenic drug (FG7142), and chronic restraint stress and social isolation both induced a bias towards more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue. The diffusion model was fit to behavioural data to allow further analysis of the underlying decision making processes. To uncover the way in which parameters vary together in relation to affective state manipulations, independent component analysis was conducted on rate of information accumulation and distances to decision threshold parameters for control data. Results from this analysis were applied to parameters from negative affective state manipulations. These projected components were compared to control components to reveal the changes in decision making processes that are due to affective state manipulations. Negative affective bias in rodents induced by either FG7142 or chronic stress is due to a combination of more negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue, reduced anticipation of the high reward and increased anticipation of the low reward.

  10. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT under Neisseria meningitidis transformation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos Ives B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed at verifying the action of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT under the naturally transformable Neisseria meningitidis against two different DNA obtained from isogenic mutants of this microorganism, an important pathogen implicated in the genetic horizontal transfer of DNA, causing the escape of the principal vaccination measured worldwide by the capsular switching process. Materials and methods The bacterium receptor strain C2135 was cultivated and had its mutant DNA donor M2 and M6, which received a receptor strain and MWCNT at three different concentrations. The inhibition effect of DNAse on the DNA in contact with nanoparticles was evaluated. Results The results indicated an in increase in the transformation capacity of N. meninigtidis in different concentrations of MWCNT when compared with negative control without nanotubes. A final analysis of the interaction between DNA and MWCNT was carried out using Raman Spectroscopy. Conclusion These increases in the transformation capacity mediated by MWCNT, in meningococci, indicate the interaction of these particles with the virulence acquisition of these bacteria, as well as with the increase in the vaccination escape process.

  11. Numerical simulation of the shot peening process under previous loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Ángeles, B; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Torres-San Miguel, C R; Molina-Ballinas, A; Benítez-García, H A; Vargas-Bustos, J A; Urriolagoitia-Calderón, G

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a numerical simulation of the shot peening process and determines the residual stress field induced into a component with a previous loading history. The importance of this analysis is based on the fact that mechanical elements under shot peening are also subjected to manufacturing processes, which convert raw material into finished product. However, material is not provided in a virgin state, it has a previous loading history caused by the manner it is fabricated. This condition could alter some beneficial aspects of the residual stress induced by shot peening and could accelerate the crack nucleation and propagation progression. Studies were performed in beams subjected to strain hardening in tension (5ε y ) before shot peening was applied. Latter results were then compared in a numerical assessment of an induced residual stress field by shot peening carried out in a component (beam) without any previous loading history. In this paper, it is clearly shown the detrimental or beneficial effect that previous loading history can bring to the mechanical component and how it can be controlled to improve the mechanical behavior of the material

  12. Utilizing Virtual Reality to Understand Athletic Performance and Underlying Sensorimotor Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshitaka Kimura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In behavioral sports sciences, knowledge of athletic performance and underlying sensorimotor processing remains limited, because most data is obtained in the laboratory. In laboratory experiments we can strictly control the measurement conditions, but the action we can target may be limited and differ from actual sporting action. Thus, the obtained data is potentially unrealistic. We propose using virtual reality (VR technology to compensate for the lack of actual reality. We have developed a head mounted display (HMD-based VR system for application to baseball batting where the user can experience hitting a pitch in a virtual baseball stadium. The batter and the bat movements are measured using nine-axis inertial sensors attached to various parts of the body and bat, and they are represented by a virtual avatar in real time. The pitched balls are depicted by computer graphics based on previously recorded ball trajectories and are thrown in time with the motion of a pitcher avatar based on simultaneously recorded motion capture data. The ball bounces depending on its interaction with the bat. In a preliminary measurement where the VR system was combined with measurement equipment we found some differences between the behavioral and physiological data (i.e., the body movements and respiration of experts and beginners and between the types of pitches during virtual batting. This VR system with a sufficiently real visual experience will provide novel findings as regards athletic performance that were formerly hard to obtain and allow us to elucidate their sensorimotor processing in detail.

  13. Modulations of the processing of line discontinuities under selective attention conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giersch, Anne; Fahle, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    We examined whether the processing of discontinuities involved in figure-ground segmentation, like line ends, can be modulated under selective attention conditions. Subjects decided whether a gap in collinear or parallel lines was located to the right or left. Two stimuli were displayed in immediate succession. When the gaps were on the same side, reaction times (RTs) for the second stimulus increased when collinear lines followed parallel lines, or the reverse, but only when the two stimuli shared the same orientation and location. The effect did not depend on the global form of the stimuli or on the relative orientation of the gaps. A frame drawn around collinear elements affected the results, suggesting a crucial role of the "amodal" orthogonal lines produced when line ends are aligned. Including several gaps in the first stimulus also eliminated RT variations. By contrast, RT variations remained stable across several experimental blocks and were significant for interstimulus intervals from 50 to 600 msec between the two stimuli. These results are interpreted in terms of a modulation of the processing of line ends or the production of amodal lines, arising when attention is selectively drawn to a gap.

  14. Stability of zinc stearate under alpha irradiation in the manufacturing process of SFR nuclear fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, J.; Vermeulen, J.; Baux, D.; Sauvage, T.; Venault, L.; Audubert, F.; Colin, X.

    2018-03-01

    The manufacture of new fuels for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) will involve powders derived from recycling existing fuels in order to keep on producing electricity while saving natural resources and reducing the amount of waste produced by spent MOX fuels. Using recycled plutonium in this way will significantly increase the amount of 238Pu, a high energy alpha emitter, in the powders. The process of shaping powders by pressing requires the use of a solid lubricant, zinc stearate, to produce pellets with no defects compliant with the standards. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of alpha radiolysis on this additive and its lubrication properties. Experiments were conducted on samples in contact with PuO2, as well as under external helium ion beam irradiation, in order to define the kinetics of radiolytic gas generation. The yield results relating to the formation of these gases (G0) show that the alpha radiation of plutonium can be simulated using external helium ion beam irradiation. The isotopic composition of plutonium has little impact on the yield. However, an increased yield was globally observed with increasing the mean linear energy transfer (LET). A radiolytic degradation process is proposed.

  15. Aspects of Information Architecture involved in process mapping in Military Organizations under the semiotic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Amaral Cartaxo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The description of the processes to represent the activities in an organization has important call semiotic, It is the flowcharts of uses, management reports and the various forms of representation of the strategies used. The subsequent interpretation of the organization's employees involved in learning tasks and the symbols used to translate the meanings of management practices is essential role for the organization. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify evidence of conceptual and empirical, on aspects of information architecture involved in the mapping process carried out in military organizations under the semiotic perspective. Methodology: The research is characterized as qualitative, case study and the data collection technique was the semi-structured interview, applied to management advisors. Results: The main results indicate that management practices described with the use of pictorial symbols and different layouts have greater impact to explain the relevance of management practices and indicators. Conclusion: With regard to the semiotic appeal, it was found that the impact of a management report is significant due to the use of signs and layout that stimulate further reading by simplifying complex concepts in tables, diagrams summarizing lengthy descriptions.

  16. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990-2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribe, Kebede; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Lakew, Yihunie; Amare, Azmeraw T; Abera, Semaw F; Mohammed, Mesoud; Hiruye, Abiy; Teklay, Efrem; Misganaw, Awoke; Kassebaum, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013. We used Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 data. Spatiotemporal Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) was applied to generate best estimates of child mortality with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI). Causes of death by age groups, sex, and year were measured using Cause of Death Ensemble modeling (CODEm). For estimation of HIV/AIDS mortality rate, the modified UNAIDS EPP-SPECTRUM suite model was used. Between 1990 and 2013 the under-5 mortality rate declined from 203.9 deaths/1000 live births to 74.4 deaths/1000 live births with an annual rate of change of 4.6%, yielding a total reduction of 64%. Similarly, child (1-4 years), post-neonatal, and neonatal mortality rates declined by 75%, 64%, and 52%, respectively, between 1990 and 2013. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRI), diarrheal diseases, and neonatal syndromes (preterm birth complications, neonatal encephalopathy, neonatal sepsis, and other neonatal disorders) accounted for 54% of the total under-5 deaths in 2013. Under-5 mortality rates due to measles, diarrhea, malaria, protein-energy malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anemia declined by more than two-thirds between 1990 and 2013. Among the causes of under-5 deaths, neonatal syndromes such as sepsis, preterm birth complications, and birth asphyxia ranked third to fifth in 2013. Of all risk-attributable deaths in 1990, 25% of the total under-5 deaths (112,288/435,962) and 48% (112,288/232,199) of the deaths due to diarrhea, LRI, and other common infections were

  17. ERP evidence of distinct processes underlying semantic facilitation and interference in word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Python, Grégoire; Fargier, Raphaël; Laganaro, Marina

    2018-02-01

    In everyday conversations, we take advantage of lexical-semantic contexts to facilitate speech production, but at the same time, we also have to reduce interference and inhibit semantic competitors. The blocked cyclic naming paradigm (BCNP) has been used to investigate such context effects. Typical results on production latencies showed semantic facilitation (or no effect) during the first presentation cycle, and interference emerging in subsequent cycles. Even if semantic contexts might be just as facilitative as interfering, previous BCNP studies focused on interference, which was interpreted as reflecting lemma selection and self-monitoring processes. Facilitation in the first cycle was rarely considered/analysed, although it potentially informs on word production to the same extent as interference. Here we contrasted the event-related potential (ERP) signatures of both semantic facilitation and interference in a BCNP. ERPs differed between homogeneous and heterogeneous blocks from about 365 msec post picture onset in the first cycle (facilitation) and in an earlier time-window (270 msec post picture onset) in the third cycle (interference). Three different analyses of the ERPs converge towards distinct processes underlying semantic facilitation and interference (post-lexical vs lexical respectively). The loci of semantic facilitation and interference are interpreted in the context of different theoretical frameworks of language production: the post-lexical locus of semantic facilitation involves interactive phonological-semantic processes and/or self-monitoring, whereas the lexical locus of semantic interference is in line with selection through increased lexical competition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Implicit Social Cognitive Processes Underlying Victim Self and Identity: Evidence With College-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Nicole M; Veysey, Bonita M; Rivera, Luis M

    2017-11-01

    Past research on victimization has relied predominantly on individuals' awareness of and willingness to self-report a victimization experience and its effect on self and identity processes. The present research adopts theoretical and methodological innovations in implicit social cognition research to provide a new perspective on how a violent victimization experience might influence identity processes outside of conscious awareness. Our main goal was to test whether individuals who have victimization experience implicitly associate the self with victims (implicit victim identity) and their stereotypes (implicit victim self-stereotyping), and the relation of these associations to explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. Two pretests with undergraduate student participants ( Ns = 122 and 72) identified victim-related word stimuli for two Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) measures of implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping. In Pretest Study A, participants read crime vignettes and listed words that described a victim, then in Pretest Study B, participants rated these words on victim relatedness and valence. The Main Study recruited undergraduate student participants ( N = 101) who completed the SC-IATs, self-report measures of explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, and victimization experiences. Three of our five hypotheses were supported. Individuals with past victimization experience exhibited strong explicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, but not implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping, relative to those with no victimization experience. Explicit and implicit victim identity and self-stereotyping were unrelated. Finally, among individuals with victimization experience, a strong implicit victim identity was associated with strong implicit victim self-stereotyping. This research has implications for understanding the processes underlying revictimization and for preventing further victimization.

  19. Functional integration processes underlying the instruction-based learning of novel goal-directed behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Hannes; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2013-03-01

    How does the human brain translate symbolic instructions into overt behavior? Previous studies suggested that this process relies on a rapid control transition from the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) to the anterior striatum (aSTR) and premotor cortex (PMC). The present fMRI study investigated whether the transfer from symbolic to pragmatic stimulus-response (S-R) rules relies on changes in the functional coupling among these and other areas and to which extent action goal representations might get integrated within this symbolic-pragmatic transfer. Goal integration processes were examined by manipulating the contingency between actions and differential outcomes (i.e. action goals). We observed a rapid strengthening of the functional coupling between the LPFC and the basal ganglia (aSTR and putamen) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as between the LPFC and the anterior dorsal PMC (pre-PMd), the anterior inferior parietal lobule (aIPL), and the posterior superior parietal lobule (pSPL). Importantly, only some of these functional integration processes were sensitive to the outcome contingency manipulation, including LPFC couplings with aSTR, OFC, aIPL, and pre-PMd. This suggests that the symbolic-pragmatic rule transfer is governed by principles of both, instrumental learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aSTR/OFC) and ideomotor learning (increasingly tighter coupling between LPFC and aIPL/pre-PMd). By contrast, increased functional coupling between LPFC and putamen was insensitive to outcome contingency possibly indicating an early stage of habit formation under instructed learning conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Event-related cortical processing in neuropathic pain under long-term spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Ralf; Capelle, H Holger; Flor, Herta; Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms were suggested in the past to explain the beneficial effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in patients suffering from neuropathic pain. Little is known about potential supraspinal mechanisms. In this study cortical signaling of patients with neuropathic pain and successful long-term treatment with SCS was analyzed. Observational study. University hospital, neurosurgical department, outpatient clinic for movement disorders and pain, institute for cognitive and clinical neuroscience. Nine patients with neuropathic pain of a lower extremity with a lasting response to chronic SCS were included. Cortical activity was analyzed using event-related potentials of the electroencephalogram after non-painful and painful stimulation. Each patient was tested under the effect of long-term SCS and 24 hours after cessation of SCS. Cortical areas involved in the peaks of evoked potentials were localized using a source localization method based on a fixed dipole model. Detection threshold and intensity of non-painful stimulation did not differ significantly on both sides. Pain threshold was significantly lower on the neuropathic side under the effect of SCS (P = 0.03). Bilateral pain thresholds were significantly lower (P = 0.03 healthy side, P = 0.003 neuropathic side) in 5 patients with increased pain after cessation of SCS. Under the effect of SCS cortical negativities (N1, N2, N3) and positivities (P1) demonstrated bilaterally comparable amplitudes. After cessation of SCS, decreased threshold for peripheral stimulation resulted in lowered negativities on both sides. The positivity P1 was differentially regulated and was reduced more contralateral to the unaffected side. N2 was localized at the sensory representation of the leg within the homunculus. The main vector of P1 was localized within the cingular cortex (CC) and moved more anteriorly under the effect of SCS. The exact time span that SCS continues to have an effect is not known. However, due to patient

  1. Involvement of the Warburg effect in non-tumor diseases processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Meiqing; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Linxi

    2018-04-01

    Warburg effect, as an energy shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, is extensively found in various cancers. Interestingly, increasing researchers show that Warburg effect plays a crucial role in non-tumor diseases. For instance, inhibition of Warburg effect can alleviate pulmonary vascular remodeling in the process of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Interference of Warburg effect improves mitochondrial function and cardiac function in the process of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Additionally, the Warburg effect induces vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and contributes to atherosclerosis. Warburg effect may also involve in axonal damage and neuronal death, which are related with multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, Warburg effect significantly promotes cell proliferation and cyst expansion in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Besides, Warburg effect relieves amyloid β-mediated cell death in Alzheimer's disease. And Warburg effect also improves the mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Finally, we also introduce some glycolytic agonists. This review focuses on the newest researches about the role of Warburg effect in non-tumor diseases, including PH, tuberculosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), failing heart, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, and PKD. Obviously, Warburg effect may be a potential therapeutic target for those non-tumor diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Controlled but not cured: Structural processes and explanatory models of Chagas disease in tropical Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Dressler (2001:456) characterizes medical anthropology as divided between two poles: the constructivist, which focuses on the "meaning and significance that events have for people," and the structuralist, which emphasizes socioeconomic processes and relationships. This study synthesizes structuralist and constructivist perspectives by investigating how structural processes impact explanatory models of Chagas disease in a highly endemic area. The research took place from March-June 2013 through the Centro Medico Humberto Parra, a non-profit clinic servicing low income populations in Palacios, Bolivia and surrounding communities. Semistructured interviews (n = 68) and consensus analysis questionnaires (n = 48) were administered to people dealing with Chagas disease. In the interview narratives, respondents link Chagas disease with experiences of marginalization and rural poverty, and describe multilayered impediments to accessing treatment. They often view the disease as incurable, but this reflects inconsistent messages from the biomedical system. The consensus analysis results show strong agreement on knowledge of the vector, ethnomedical treatment, and structural factors related to Chagas disease. In interpreting Chagas disease, respondents account for the structural factors which place them at risk and impede access to care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. From Performance to Decision Processes in 33 Years: A History of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes under James C. Naylor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber

    1998-12-01

    For the past 33 years, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes has thrived under a single editor. That editor, James C. Naylor, is retiring from his long stewardship. This article chronicles the course of the journal under Jim's direction and marks some of the accomplishments and changes over the past three decades that go to his credit. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  4. Development of the Paris Definition of Early Crohn's Disease for Disease-Modification Trials: Results of an International Expert Opinion Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Billioud, Vincent; D'Haens, Geert; Panaccione, Remo; Feagan, Brian; Panés, Julian; Danese, Silvio; Schreiber, Stefan; Ogata, Haruhiko; Hibi, Toshifumi; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Beaugerie, Laurent; Chowers, Yehuda; Louis, Edouard; Steinwurz, Flávio; Reinisch, Walter; Rutgeerts, Paul; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Travis, Simon; Sandborn, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the findings and outputs of an international expert opinion process to develop a definition of early Crohn's disease (CD) that could be used in future disease-modification trials. Nineteen experts on inflammatory bowel diseases held an international expert opinion meeting to discuss and

  5. Radiographic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult diabetic patients: comparison of diabetics with nondiabetics of no other underlying diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Mee; Shin, Cheol Yong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Young Shin So; Lee, Shin Hyung; Lee, Chang Joon; Gang, Hye Jung

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to evaluate the plain radiographic features of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult diabetic patients compared with those in patients without any underlying diseases. We analyzed the chest PA and lateral views of 100 patients having active pulmonary tuberculosis; 14 patients had diabetes mellitus and 60 patients had no other underlying diseases. Their images were assesed for anatomical distributions, extents of lesions, size and number of cavity and patterns of radiographic findings. Diabetic tuberculosis had higher prevalence and wider involvement of unusual segments for the tuberculosis such as anterior segment, lingular segment of upper lobe and basal segment of the lower lobe, and they showed the tendency of having more cavities than those who had no other underlying diseases, but there were no meaningful differences in the cavity size between the two groups. Pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetic patients tends to have wider extent with unusual segmental involvement and multiple cavities than in the patients who had no other underlying diseases

  6. Age-dependent branching processes for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases with incubation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia N Bojkova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the recent results of the authors in the area of infectious disease modelling by means of branching stochastic processes. This is a new approach involving age-dependent branching models, which turned out to be more appropriate and flexible for describing the spread of an infection in a given population, than discrete time ones. Concretely, Bellman-Harris and Sevast’yanov’s branching processes are investigated. It is justified that the proposed models are proper candidates as models of infectious diseases with incubation period like measles, mumps, avian flu, etc. It is worth to notice that in general the developed methodology is applicable to the diseases that follow the so-called SIR (susceptible- infected-removed scheme in terms of epidemiological models. Two policies of extra-vaccination level are proposed and compared on the ground of simulation examples.

  7. Verb Agreements during On-Line Sentence Processing in Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.C.; Grossman, M.

    2005-01-01

    An on-line ''word detection'' paradigm was used to assess the comprehension of thematic and transitive verb agreements during sentence processing in individuals diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD, n=15) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD, n=14). AD, FTD, and control participants (n=17) were asked to listen for a word in a sentence.…

  8. Empowering employees with chronic diseases: process evaluation of an intervention aimed at job retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, Inge; Krol, Boudien; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Employees with a chronic disease may experience work-related problems that contribute to the risk of job loss. We developed a group-based intervention programme aimed at clarifying problems, making these a subject of discussion at work, and realizing solutions. This process evaluation

  9. Empowering employees with chronic diseases : process evaluation of an intervention aimed at job retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, Inge; Krol, Boudien; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    Purpose Employees with a chronic disease may experience work-related problems that contribute to the risk of job loss. We developed a group-based intervention programme aimed at clarifying problems, making these a subject of discussion at work, and realizing solutions. This process evaluation

  10. Preattentive processing of heart cues and the perception of heart symptoms in congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsdorp, Petra A.; Kindt, Merel; Everaerd, Walter; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was aimed at clarifying whether preattentive processing of heart cues results in biased perception of heart sensations in patients with congenital heart disease (ConHD) who are also highly trait anxious. Twenty-six patients with ConHD and 22 healthy participants categorized

  11. Economically optimal timing for crop disease control under uncertainty: an options approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndeffo Mbah, M.L.; Forster, G.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Gilligan, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Severe large-scale disease and pest infestations in agricultural regions can cause significant economic damage. Understanding if and when disease control measures should be taken in the presence of risk and uncertainty is a key issue. We develop a framework to examine the economically optimal timing

  12. Molecular mechanisms underlying the potential antiobesity-related diseases effect of cocoa polyphenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, F.; Ismail, A.; Kersten, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension) are the most prevailing nutrition-related issues in the world. An emerging feature of obesity is their relationship with chronic inflammation that begins in white adipose tissue and eventually

  13. Health-related needs of people with multiple chronic diseases: differences and underlying factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Rijken, M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the health-related needs of people with multiple chronic diseases in the Netherlands compared to people with one chronic disease, and to identify different subgroups of multimorbid patients based on differences in their health problems. Methods: Participants were 1092 people with

  14. Total-Evidence Dating under the Fossilized Birth-Death Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Stadler, Tanja; Klopfstein, Seraina; Heath, Tracy A; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2016-03-01

    Bayesian total-evidence dating involves the simultaneous analysis of morphological data from the fossil record and morphological and sequence data from recent organisms, and it accommodates the uncertainty in the placement of fossils while dating the phylogenetic tree. Due to the flexibility of the Bayesian approach, total-evidence dating can also incorporate additional sources of information. Here, we take advantage of this and expand the analysis to include information about fossilization and sampling processes. Our work is based on the recently described fossilized birth-death (FBD) process, which has been used to model speciation, extinction, and fossilization rates that can vary over time in a piecewise manner. So far, sampling of extant and fossil taxa has been assumed to be either complete or uniformly at random, an assumption which is only valid for a minority of data sets. We therefore extend the FBD process to accommodate diversified sampling of extant taxa, which is standard practice in studies of higher-level taxa. We verify the implementation using simulations and apply it to the early radiation of Hymenoptera (wasps, ants, and bees). Previous total-evidence dating analyses of this data set were based on a simple uniform tree prior and dated the initial radiation of extant Hymenoptera to the late Carboniferous (309 Ma). The analyses using the FBD prior under diversified sampling, however, date the radiation to the Triassic and Permian (252 Ma), slightly older than the age of the oldest hymenopteran fossils. By exploring a variety of FBD model assumptions, we show that it is mainly the accommodation of diversified sampling that causes the push toward more recent divergence times. Accounting for diversified sampling thus has the potential to close the long-discussed gap between rocks and clocks. We conclude that the explicit modeling of fossilization and sampling processes can improve divergence time estimates, but only if all important model aspects

  15. Processing bimodal stimulus information under alcohol: is there a risk to being redundant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Mark T

    2010-10-01

    The impairing effects of alcohol are especially pronounced in environments that involve dividing attention across two or more stimuli. However, studies in cognitive psychology have identified circumstances in which the presentation of multiple stimuli can actually facilitate performance. The "redundant signal effect" (RSE) refers to the observation that individuals respond more quickly when information is presented as redundant, bimodal stimuli (e.g., aurally and visually), rather than as a single stimulus presented to either modality alone. The present study tested the hypothesis that the response facilitation attributed to RSE could reduce the degree to which alcohol slows information processing. Two experiments are reported. Experiment 1 demonstrated the validity of a reaction time model of RSE by showing that adults (N = 15) responded more quickly to redundant, bimodal stimuli (visual + aural) versus either stimuli presented individually. Experiment 2 used the RSE model to test the reaction time performance of 20 adults following three alcohol doses (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg). Results showed that alcohol slowed reaction time in a general dose-dependent manner in all three stimulus conditions with the reaction time (RT) speed-advantage of the redundant signal being maintained, even under the highest dose of alcohol. Evidence for an RT advantage to bimodal stimuli under alcohol challenges the general assumption that alcohol impairment is intensified in multistimulus environments. The current study provides a useful model to investigate how drug effects on behavior might be altered in contexts that involve redundant response signals.

  16. Prevalence of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis by underlying cause in understudied ethnic groups: The multiethnic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Stram, Daniel O; Porcel, Jacqueline; Lu, Shelly C; Le Marchand, Loïc; Noureddin, Mazen

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis are major sources of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Little is known about the epidemiology of these two diseases in ethnic minority populations in the United States. We examined the prevalence of CLD and cirrhosis by underlying etiologies among African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites in the Multiethnic Cohort. CLD and cirrhosis cases were identified using Medicare claims between 1999 and 2012 among the fee-for-service participants (n = 106,458). We used International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes, body mass index, history of diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption from questionnaires to identify underlying etiologies. A total of 5,783 CLD (3,575 CLD without cirrhosis and 2,208 cirrhosis) cases were identified. The prevalence of CLD ranged from 3.9% in African Americans and Native Hawaiians to 4.1% in whites, 6.7% in Latinos, and 6.9% in Japanese. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was the most common cause of CLD in all ethnic groups combined (52%), followed by alcoholic liver disease (21%). NAFLD was the most common cause of cirrhosis in the entire cohort. By ethnicity, NAFLD was the most common cause of cirrhosis in Japanese Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Latinos, accounting for 32% of cases. Alcoholic liver disease was the most common cause of cirrhosis in whites (38.2%), while hepatitis C virus was the most common cause in African Americans (29.8%). We showed racial/ethnic variations in the prevalence of CLD and cirrhosis by underlying etiology; NAFLD was the most common cause of CLD and cirrhosis in the entire cohort, and the high prevalence of NAFLD among Japanese Americans and Native Hawaiians is a novel finding, warranting further studies to elucidate the causes. (Hepatology 2016;64:1969-1977). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Evolution of the fracture process zone in high-strength concrete under different loading rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cámara M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For cementitious materials, the inelastic zone around a crack tip is termed as fracture process zone (FPZ and dominated by complicated mechanism, such as microcracking, crack deflection, bridging, crack face friction, crack tip blunting by voids, crack branching, and so on. Due to the length of the FPZ is related with the characteristic length of the cementitious materials, the size, extent and location of the FPZ has been the object of countless research efforts for several decades. For instance, Cedolin et al. [1] have used an optical method based on the moiré interferometry to determine FPZ in concrete. Castro-Montero et al. [2] have applied the method of holographic interferometry to mortar to study the extension of the FPZ. The advantage of the interferometry method is that the complete FPZ can be directly observed on the surface of the sample. Swartz et al. [3] has adopted the dye penetration technique to illustrate the changing patterns observed as the crack progress from the tensile side to the compression side of the beam. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE is also an experimental technique well suited for monitoring fracture process. Haidar et al. [4] and Maji et al. [5] have studied the relation between acoustic emission characteristics and the properties of the FPZ. Compared with the extensive research on properties of the FPZ under quasi-static loading conditions, much less information is available on its dynamic characterization, especially for high-strength concrete (HSC. This paper presents the very recent results of an experimental program aimed at disclosing the loading rate effect on the size and velocity of the (FPZ in HSC. Eighteen three-point bending specimens were conducted under a wide range of loading rates from from 10-4 mm/s to 103 mm/s using either a servo-hydraulic machine or a self-designed drop-weight impact device. The beam dimensions were 100 mm 100 mm in cross section, and 420 mm in length. The initial notch

  18. Processes underlying the effects of adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material: the role of perceived realism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated a link between adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and sexual attitudes, the processes underlying this association are not well understood. More specifically, studies have pointed to a mediating role of perceived realism,

  19. Notification: Preliminary Research on EPA's Decision Making Process to Release Information Under the Freedom of Information Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    July 19, 2013. The Office of Inspector General plans to begin preliminary research on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s process for deciding to release information requested under the Freedom of Information Act.

  20. Process evaluation of community monitoring under national health mission at Chandigarh, union territory: Methodology and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community monitoring was introduced on a pilot mode in 36 selected districts of India in a phased manner. In Chandigarh, it was introduced in the year 2009-2010. A preliminary evaluation of the program was undertaken with special emphasis on the inputs and the processes. Methodology: Quantitative methods included verification against checklists and record reviews. Nonparticipant observation was used to evaluate the conduct of trainings, interviews, and group discussions. Health system had trained health system functionaries (nursing students and Village Health Sanitation Committee [VHSC] members to generate village-based scorecards for assessing community needs. Community needs were assessed independently for two villages under the study area to validate the scores generated by the health system. Results: VHSCs were formed in all 22 villages but without a chairperson or convener. The involvement of VHSC members in the community monitoring process was minimal. The conduct of group discussions was below par due to poor moderation and unequal responses from the group. The community monitoring committees at the state level had limited representation from the non-health sector, lower committees, and the nongovernmental organizations/civil societies. Agreement between the report cards generated by the investigator and the health system in the selected villages was found to be to be fair (0.369 whereas weighted kappa (0.504 was moderate. Conclusion: In spite of all these limitations and challenges, the government has taken a valiant step by trying to involve the community in the monitoring of health services. The dynamic nature of the community warrants incorporation of an evaluation framework into the planning of such programs.

  1. Distributed cognition and process management enabling individualized translational research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Links

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similarly complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team therefore built the NIH UDP Integrated Collaboration System (UDPICS to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  2. Distributed Cognition and Process Management Enabling Individualized Translational Research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Amanda E; Draper, David; Lee, Elizabeth; Guzman, Jessica; Valivullah, Zaheer; Maduro, Valerie; Lebedev, Vlad; Didenko, Maxim; Tomlin, Garrick; Brudno, Michael; Girdea, Marta; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Haendel, Melissa A; Mungall, Christopher J; Smedley, Damian; Hochheiser, Harry; Arnold, Andrew M; Coessens, Bert; Verhoeven, Steven; Bone, William; Adams, David; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Gahl, William A; Sincan, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP) applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similar complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team, therefore, built the NIH UDP integrated collaboration system (UDPICS) to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  3. Respiratory disease associated with occupational inhalation to hop (Humulus lupulus) during harvest and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K

    2014-11-01

    There is little published evidence for occupational respiratory disease caused by hop dust inhalation. In the United States, hops are commercially produced in the Pacific Northwest region. To describe occupational respiratory disease in hop workers. Washington State workers' compensation claims filed by hop workers for respiratory disease were systematically identified and reviewed. Incidence rates of respiratory disease in hop workers were compared with rates in field vegetable crop farm workers. Fifty-seven cases of respiratory disease associated with hop dust inhalation were reported from 1995 to 2011. Most cases (61%) were diagnosed by the attending health care practitioner as having work-related asthma. Seven percent of cases were diagnosed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the remaining cases were diagnosed as allergic respiratory disorders (eg, allergic rhinitis) or asthma-associated symptoms (eg, dyspnea). Cases were associated with hop harvesting, secondary hop processing, and indirect exposure. The incidence rate of respiratory disease in hop workers was 15 cases per 10,000 full-time workers, which was 30 times greater than the incidence rate for field vegetable crop workers. A strong temporal association between hop dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and a clear association between an increase in hop dust concentrations and the clinical onset of symptoms were apparent in 3 cases. Occupational exposure to hop dust is associated with respiratory disease. Respiratory disease rates were higher in hop workers than in a comparison group of agricultural workers. Additional research is needed before hop dust can be confirmed as a causative agent for occupational asthma. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral-Fluid Thiol-Detection Test Identifies Underlying Active Periodontal Disease Not Detected by the Visual Awake Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queck, Katherine E; Chapman, Angela; Herzog, Leslie J; Shell-Martin, Tamara; Burgess-Cassler, Anthony; McClure, George David

    Periodontal disease in dogs is highly prevalent but can only be accurately diagnosed by performing an anesthetized oral examination with periodontal probing and dental radiography. In this study, 114 dogs had a visual awake examination of the oral cavity and were administered an oral-fluid thiol-detection test prior to undergoing a a full-mouth anesthetized oral examination and digital dental radiographs. The results show the visual awake examination underestimated the presence and severity of active periodontal disease. The thiol-detection test was superior to the visual awake examination at detecting the presence and severity of active periodontal disease and was an indicator of progression toward alveolar bone loss. The thiol-detection test detected active periodontal disease at early stages of development, before any visual cues were present, indicating the need for intervention to prevent periodontal bone loss. Early detection is important because without intervention, dogs with gingivitis (active periodontal disease) progress to irreversible periodontal bone loss (stage 2+). As suggested in the current AAHA guidelines, a thiol-detection test administered in conjunction with the visual awake examination during routine wellness examinations facilitates veterinarian-client communication and mitigates under-diagnosis of periodontal disease and underutilization of dental services. The thiol-detection test can be used to monitor the periodontal health status of the conscious patient during follow-up examinations based on disease severity.

  5. Auditory post-processing in a passive listening task is deficient in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Stephan; Bluschke, Annet; Dippel, Gabriel; Rupp, André; Weisbrod, Matthias; Thomas, Christine

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether automatic auditory post-processing is deficient in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is related to sensory gating. Event-related potentials were recorded during a passive listening task to examine the automatic transient storage of auditory information (short click pairs). Patients with Alzheimer's disease were compared to a healthy age-matched control group. A young healthy control group was included to assess effects of physiological aging. A bilateral frontal negativity in combination with deep temporal positivity occurring 500 ms after stimulus offset was reduced in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but was unaffected by physiological aging. Its amplitude correlated with short-term memory capacity, but was independent of sensory gating in healthy elderly controls. Source analysis revealed a dipole pair in the anterior temporal lobes. Results suggest that auditory post-processing is deficient in Alzheimer's disease, but is not typically related to sensory gating. The deficit could neither be explained by physiological aging nor by problems in earlier stages of auditory perception. Correlations with short-term memory capacity and executive control tasks suggested an association with memory encoding and/or overall cognitive control deficits. An auditory late negative wave could represent a marker of auditory working memory encoding deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The health-disease process and the family health strategy: the user's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Débora de Souza; Tenório, Elainey de Albuquerque; Brêda, Mércia Zeviane; Mishima, Silvana Martins

    2014-01-01

    to analyze the meanings Primary Health Care users attribute to their health-disease process and the services used. this qualitative research uses the focus group technique to interview two groups of users the service monitors. The first is a group of elderly people and the second of pregnant women. To analyze the meanings, the discourse analysis technique and the reference framework of health promotion are used. the group of elderly, being mostly female arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus patients, visualizes the health-disease process as the evolution of human existence controlled by divine power, signifying the health service as a blessing in the control of the disease. The Group of young pregnant women signified health as the ability for self-care and disease as the disability for that purposes, considering the Primary Health Care service as responsible for the recovery of individual and family health. the users demonstrated dissatisfaction with bureaucratic and vertical relations present at the health services. In each group, it was observed that the meanings for health and disease and meanings of the health service the users elaborated can be related.

  7. Divergent functional connectivity during attentional processing in Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kobeleva, Xenia; Firbank, Michael; Peraza, Luis; Gallagher, Peter; Thomas, Alan; Burn, David J.; O'Brien, John; Taylor, John-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Attention and executive dysfunction are features of Lewy body dementia (LBD) but their neuroanatomical basis is poorly understood. To investigate underlying dysfunctional attention-executive network (EXEC) interactions, we examined functional connectivity (FC) in 30 patients with LBD, 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 21 healthy controls during an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment. Participants performed a modified Attention Network Test (ANT),...

  8. Swarm motility inhibitory and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel processed under three drying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Luthria, Devanand L

    2017-11-15

    During processing of ready-to-eat fresh fruits, large amounts of peel and seeds are discarded as waste. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) peels contain high amounts of bioactive compounds which inhibit migration of Salmonella on wet surfaces. The metabolic distribution of bioactives in pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion was investigated under three different drying conditions along with the anti-swarming activity against Citrobacter rodentium. Based on the multivariate analysis, 29 metabolites discriminated the pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion, as well as the three different drying methods. Punicalagins (∼38.6-50.3mg/g) were detected in higher quantities in all fractions as compared to ellagic acid (∼0.1-3.2mg/g) and punicalins (∼0-2.4mg/g). The bioactivity (antioxidant, anti-swarming) and phenolics content was significantly higher in peels than the edible aril portion. Natural anti-swarming agents from food waste may have promising potential for controlling food borne pathogens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Changes in health perceptions after exposure to human suffering: using discrete emotions to understand underlying processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia A Paschali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality, as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An experimental group (N = 47 was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N = 47 was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

  10. The interactive biotic and abiotic processes of DDT transformation under dissimilatory iron-reducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Wang, Fang; Gu, Chenggang; Yang, Xinglun; Kengara, Fredrick O; Bian, Yongrong; Song, Yang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to elucidate the biotic and abiotic processes under dissimilatory iron reducing conditions involved in reductive dechlorination and iron reduction. DDT transformation was investigated in cultures of Shewanella putrefaciens 200 with/without α-FeOOH. A modified first-order kinetics model was developed and described DDT transformation well. Both the α-FeOOH reduction rate and the dechlorination rate of DDT were positively correlated to the biomass. Addition of α-FeOOH enhanced reductive dechlorination of DDT by favoring the cell survival and generating Fe(II) which was absorbed on the surface of bacteria and iron oxide. 92% of the absorbed Fe(II) was Na-acetate (1M) extractable. However, α-FeOOH also played a negative role of competing for electrons as reflected by the dechlorination rate of DDT was inhibited when increasing the α-FeOOH from 1 g L(-1) to 5 g L(-1). DDT was measured to be toxic to S. putrefaciens 200. The metabolites DDD, DDE and DDMU were recalcitrant to S. putrefaciens 200. The results suggested that iron oxide was not the key factor to promote the dissipation of DDX (DDT and the metabolites), whereas the one-electron reduction potential (E1) of certain organochlorines is the main factor and that the E1 higher than the threshold of the reductive driving forces of DIRB probably ensures the occur of reductive dechlorination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo studies of microchemical evolutions driven by diffusion processes under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soisson, F.; Becquart, C. S.; Castin, N.; Domain, C.; Malerba, L.; Vincent, E.

    2010-11-01

    Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) simulations are a powerful tool to study the microstructural and microchemical evolution of alloys controlled by diffusion processes, under irradiation and during thermal ageing. In the framework of the FP6 Perfect program, two main approaches have been applied to binary and multicomponent iron based alloys. The first one is based on a diffusion model which takes into account vacancy and self-interstitial jumps, using simple rigid lattice approximation and broken-bond models to compute the point-defect jump frequencies. The corresponding parameters are fitted on ab initio calculations of a few typical configurations and migration barriers. The second method uses empirical potentials to compute a much larger number of migration barriers, including atomic relaxations, and Artificial Intelligence regression methods to predict the other ones. It is somewhat less rapid than the first one, but significantly more than simulations using "on-the-fly" calculations of all the barriers. We review here the recent advances and perspectives concerning these techniques.

  12. Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo studies of microchemical evolutions driven by diffusion processes under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soisson, F.; Becquart, C.S.; Castin, N.; Domain, C.; Malerba, L.; Vincent, E.

    2010-01-01

    Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) simulations are a powerful tool to study the microstructural and microchemical evolution of alloys controlled by diffusion processes, under irradiation and during thermal ageing. In the framework of the FP6 Perfect program, two main approaches have been applied to binary and multicomponent iron based alloys. The first one is based on a diffusion model which takes into account vacancy and self-interstitial jumps, using simple rigid lattice approximation and broken-bond models to compute the point-defect jump frequencies. The corresponding parameters are fitted on ab initio calculations of a few typical configurations and migration barriers. The second method uses empirical potentials to compute a much larger number of migration barriers, including atomic relaxations, and Artificial Intelligence regression methods to predict the other ones. It is somewhat less rapid than the first one, but significantly more than simulations using 'on-the-fly' calculations of all the barriers. We review here the recent advances and perspectives concerning these techniques.

  13. Processes Underlying 50 Years of Local Forest-Cover Change in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Frayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the importance of forests for local livelihoods, biodiversity and the climate system has spurred a growing interest in understanding the factors that drive forest-cover change. Forest transitions, the change from net deforestation to net reforestation, may follow different pathways depending on a complex interplay of driving forces. However, most studies on forest transitions focus on the national level rather than the local level. Here, case studies from 10 villages in Yunnan, China, are used to clarify the complex interactions among various pathways of forest transitions, derive insights on the underlying drivers that shaped the forest transitions, and determine the importance of changes in drivers over time. The results demonstrate that China’s recent forest transition was caused by a range of interrelated pathways that were mediated by local circumstances. The degradation of forest ecosystem services caused by rampant deforestation and forest degradation created a scarcity of forest products and triggered state-initiated afforestation efforts, particularly in the 1990s, which continue to be important. More recently, economic development concomitant with smallholder intensification spurred reforestation, while the importance of state forest policy declined. The complexity of local land-use changes demonstrates the difficulty of identifying distinct transition pathways and calls for a more diverse approach that recognizes the interdependence of local processes.

  14. Waste minimization of a process fluid through effective control under various controllers tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younas, M.; Gul, S.; Naveed, S.

    2005-01-01

    Whenever a process is disturbed either by servo system or regulatory system, the control action is applied to trace the desired point. An efficient controller setting should be selected in order to get speedy response under the pattern or constraints of quality of the product. The effective control action is desired to utilize the maximum of raw material and to minimize the waste. This is a critical problem in cases where the raw material or product is valuable and costly, e.g. pharmaceuticals. This problem has been addressed in this work on a laboratory scale plant. The plant consists of feed tank, pumps, plate and frame heat exchanger and hot water re-circulator tank. The system responses were logged with computer while the controller was tuned with Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) and Cohen-Coon (C-C) tunings. A detailed study indicates that Ziegler-Nichols Controller tunings is better than Cohen-Coon as waste production was minimized. (author)

  15. Underlying Processes of an Inverted Personalization Effect in Multimedia Learning – An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Zander

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the frequently examined design principles in multimedia learning is the personalization principle. Based on empirical evidence this principle states that using personalized messages in multimedia learning is more beneficial than using formal language (e.g., using ‘you’ instead of ‘the’. Although there is evidence that these slight changes in regard to the language style affect learning, motivation and the perceived cognitive load, it remains unclear, (1 whether the positive effects of personalized language can be transferred to all kinds of content of learning materials (e.g., specific potentially aversive health issues and (2 which are the underlying processes (e.g., attention allocation of the personalization effect. German university students (N = 37 learned symptoms and causes of cerebral hemorrhages either with a formal or a personalized version of the learning material. Analysis revealed comparable results to the few existing previous studies, indicating an inverted personalization effect for potentially aversive learning material. This effect was specifically revealed in regard to decreased average fixation duration and the number of fixations exclusively on the images in the personalized compared to the formal version. These results can be seen as indicators for an inverted effect of personalization on the level of visual attention.

  16. Phenol Photocatalytic Degradation by Advanced Oxidation Process under Ultraviolet Radiation Using Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nickheslat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The main objective of this study was to examine the photocatalytic degradation of phenol from laboratory samples and petrochemical industries wastewater under UV radiation by using nanoparticles of titanium dioxide coated on the inner and outer quartz glass tubes. Method. The first stage of this study was conducted to stabilize the titanium dioxide nanoparticles in anatase crystal phase, using dip-coating sol-gel method on the inner and outer surfaces of quartz glass tubes. The effect of important parameters including initial phenol concentration, TiO2 catalyst dose, duration of UV radiation, pH of solution, and contact time was investigated. Results. In the dip-coat lining stage, the produced nanoparticles with anatase crystalline structure have the average particle size of 30 nm and are uniformly distributed over the tube surface. The removal efficiency of phenol was increased with the descending of the solution pH and initial phenol concentration and rising of the contact time. Conclusion. Results showed that the light easily passes through four layers of coating (about 105 nm. The highest removal efficiency of phenol with photocatalytic UV/TiO2 process was 50% at initial phenol concentration of 30 mg/L, solution pH of 3, and 300 min contact time. The comparison of synthetic solution and petrochemical wastewater showed that at same conditions the phenol removal efficiency was equal.

  17. Nonepileptic seizures under levetiracetam therapy: a case report of forced normalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzellotti F

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Anzellotti, Raffaella Franciotti, Holta Zhuzhuni, Aurelio D'Amico, Astrid Thomas, Marco Onofrj Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, Aging Research Centre, Gabriele d'Annunzio University Foundation, Gabriele d'Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy Abstract: Nonepileptic seizures (NES apparently look like epileptic seizures, but are not associated with ictal electrical discharges in the brain. NES constitute one of the most important differential diagnoses of epilepsy. They have been recognized as a distinctive clinical phenomenon for centuries, and video/electroencephalogram monitoring has allowed clinicians to make near-certain diagnoses. NES are supposedly unrelated to organic brain lesions, and despite the preponderance of a psychiatric/psychological context, they may have an iatrogenic origin. We report a patient with NES precipitated by levetiracetam therapy; in this case, NES was observed during the disappearance of epileptiform discharges from the routine video/electroencephalogram. We discuss the possible mechanisms underlying NES with regard to alternative psychoses associated with the phenomenon of the forced normalization process. Keywords: nonepileptic seizures, forced normalization, levetiracetam, behavioral side effects

  18. Cognitive Development in Infantile-Onset Pompe Disease Under Very Early Enzyme Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chuang, Ya-Chin; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Most patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease die in early infancy before beginning enzyme replacement therapy, which has made it difficult to evaluate the impact of Pompe disease on cognitive development. Patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease can survive with enzyme replacement therapy, and physicians can evaluate cognitive development in these patients. We established an effective newborn screening program with quick clinical diagnostic criteria. Cognitive and motor development were evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. The patients who were treated very early demonstrate normal cognitive development with no significant change in cognition during this period (P = .18 > .05). The cognitive development was positively correlated with motor development (r = 0.533, P = .011). The results indicated that very early enzyme replacement therapy could protect cognitive development in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease up to 24 months of age. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The resistance response of sunflower genotypes to black stem disease under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza DARVISHZADEH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phoma black stem, caused by Phoma macdonaldii, is one of the most important diseases of sunflower in the world. The sources of resistance to Phoma black stem were investigated. A total of 184 genotypes, including some recombinant inbred lines (RILs, several M6 mutant lines obtained by gamma irradiation of seed of the genotype AS 613, and other genotypes from different countries, were evaluated against an aggressive French isolate (MP6 in controlled conditions. The study was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Each replicate consisted of 10–12 seedlings. Twenty μL of spore suspension (106 pycnidiospores mL-1 were deposited on the intersection of the cotyledon petiole and the hypocotyl of sunflower plantlets at the two-leaf stage. The percentage of the area exhibiting disease symptoms was scored on the two cotyledon petioles of each of the plantlets three, five and seven days after inoculation. The disease progress rate (rd, as the slope of the regression line for disease severity against time, was also calculated. Analysis of variance detected significant differences among sunflower genotypes for disease severity 7 days after inoculation,as well as for the disease progress rate. A strong correlation (r=0.96, P<0.01 was found between disease severity 7 days after inoculation and the disease progress rate. The inbred lines F1250/03 (origin: Hungary, M5-54-1, M6-862-1 (mutant lines, SDR 18 (origin: USA and two wild Helianthus accessions, 1012 Nebraska and 211 Illinois, (wild type were highly resistant to Phoma black stem. These findings will assist breeders in choosing parent plants for breeding durable resistance to Phoma black stem.

  20. An autopsy case of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia under hemodialysis due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Shiori; Furuichi, Kengo; Sagara, Akihiro; Shinozaki, Yasuyuki; Kitajima, Shinji; Toyama, Tadashi; Hara, Akinori; Iwata, Yasunori; Sakai, Norihiko; Shimizu, Miho; Matsui, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Shuichi; Toyama, Tatsuhiko; Wada, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    A 60-year-old male with end-stage kidney disease due to autosomal polycystic kidney disease began maintenance hemodialysis in 2005. A brain CT scan showed dilatation of left vertebral artery, basilar artery, bilateral post cerebral artery, and middle cerebral artery. At the time, he was diagnosed as vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia. He was once admitted to our hospital for ischemic stroke. After discharge, he was treated with anticoagulant agent from 2010 to 2012 without any new stroke events. ...

  1. The epidemiologic study of children diseases under one year in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaeei Gh

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Infant mortality and morbidity present important challenges to those concerned with community health. We did this research to study epidemiology of diseases of infancy in city of Tehran. During 15 days, of 6395 deliveries in Tehran hospitals a cohort of 6267 live births entered this study. Follow up data were gathered in 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of birth. In this period, 5382 occurrence of disease were reported. The most frequent were cardiopulmonary (52.3% and Gastrointestinal (26.6% diseases. Most of the events were seen in 6-12 months age group (30.5%. The lowest frequencies of infant diseases were seen in 19-35 years of maternal age (15.3%, as compared with >35 (35.4% and <19 (49.3% groups. Mortality ratio was 32/1000 live birth (198 death. The most common causes of death were cardiopulmonary (38%, infectious (21% and gastrointestinal (18% diseases. Control of infectious disease, development of educational programs for breast feeding and planning of proper age and interval of pregnancy are effective measures for reducing infant mortality and morbidity.

  2. Follow up of Crohn's disease under therapy with hydro-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganten, M.; Flosdorff, P.; Grueber-Hoffmann, B.; Erb, G.; Hansmann, J.; Encke, J.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of typical MRI-findings in patients with Crohn's disease receiving therapy.Correlation with the course of disease.Patients and methods 81 follow-up MRI-studies in 25 patients conducted within a period of 3 weeks to 4 years were evaluated retrospectively.Therapy consisted in various combinations of antibiotics and immunosuppressive agents and if necessary operation. The findings of the MRI-studies were correlated with clinical data (e.g.operation of Crohn's complications) and the subjective perception during therapy. The morphological substrate of Crohn's disease in the Hydro-MRI images is reliably detected. Especially in a delineation of extraluminal changes MRI is superior to endoscopy and enteroclysis.Independent from clinical symptoms short- and middleterm follow-up showed inflammatory changes of the intestinal wall in all 25 patients. In 24/81 studies there was persistence or even progression of Crohn's disease in the MRI-studies, although patients were free of symptoms by the time of image acquisition. Hydro-MRI is a modality for the evaluation of inflammatory changes in patients with Crohn's disease.Independent from clinical symptoms persistence of Crohn's disease is detectable. (orig.) [de

  3. Molecular Processes Underlying the Structure and Assembly of Thin Films and Nanoparticles at Complex interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Geraldine [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2016-06-03

    Since 1995 we have pursued a number of different studies that are quite diverse in nature but with the common theme of using novel laser based methods to study important processes at buried interfaces. Studies of Corrosion, Passivation on n-GaAs(100)Methanol Photoelectrochemical Cell In these studies we have used picosecond photoluminescence and electrochemical studies to understand the GaAs/methanol interface. In our most extensive set of studies we conducted photo-illumination and XPS experiments to understand the chemistry occurring in the GaAs/methanol photoelectrochemical during photoexcitation. An important distinction between photocorrosion and photoetching of GaAs is elucidated by these studies. The dependence of GaAs photocorrosion on light intensity has been explored to better understand intrinsic differences between the lamplight studies and the picosecond photoluminescence studies. The effect of coating the GaAs with a sulfide layer prior to immersion in the cell has also been explored. This last result has led us to examine n-GaAs as a function of crystallographic orientation after exposure to aqueous Na2S containing solutions has been studied as a function of crystallographic orientation of the GaAs surface. The (100) and (110) surfaces are relatively similar, with significant amounts of As-S species present at the interface. The (111)B surface lacks this constituent, but shows significant amounts of metallic As. The XPS results have been correlated with the results of previous photocorrosion and passivation studies conducted in a photoelectrochemical cell. The studies indicate that the metallic As present at (111)B surface contributes strongly to the large surface recombination velocity found there, and to the inability of Na2S to passivate the (111)B surface. SAMS Under Water: Water Molecular Structure and Bonding at Hydrophobic Surfaces In these DOE sponsored studies we have been interested in learning the similarities and

  4. Proteins Encoded in Genomic Regions Associated with Immune-Mediated Disease Physically Interact and Suggest Underlying Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed by these r......Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed...... in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD) GWAS, we build protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for genes within associated loci and find abundant physical interactions between protein products of associated genes. We apply multiple permutation approaches to show that these networks are more...... that the RA and CD networks have predictive power by demonstrating that proteins in these networks, not encoded in the confirmed list of disease associated loci, are significantly enriched for association to the phenotypes in question in extended GWAS analysis. Finally, we test our method in 3 non...

  5. Coping processes and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucks, R. S.; Cruise, K. E.; Skinner, T. C.

    2011-01-01

    (WCQ), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), quality of life (PDQ-39), and socio-demographic and clinical variables. Results Greater use of planful problem solving coping was found to be significantly associated with better HRQoL in relation to cognitive impairment, communication and bodily......Objective This study investigated the predictive value of various coping processes for the psychological and disease specific aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Method Cross-sectional study of 85 participants with PD using the Ways of Coping Questionnaire...

  6. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important fungal disease in rice which infects the plant during the rice growing season from the nursery period up to farm growth stage and productivity phase. The later the disease is diagnosed the higher the amount of chemicals is needed for treatment. Due to high costs and harmful environmental impacts of chemical toxins, the accurate early detection and treatment of plant disease is seemed to be necessary. In general, observation with the naked eye is used for disease detection. However, the results are indeed depend on the intelligence of the person performing the operation. So usually the accurate determination of the severity and progression of the disease can’t be achieved. On the other side, the use of experts for continuous monitoring of large farms might be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Thus, investigating the new approaches for rapid, automated, inexpensive and accurate plant disease diagnosis is very important. Machine vision and image processing is a new technique which can capture images from a scene of interest, analyze the images and accurately extract the desired information. Studies show that image processing techniques have been successfully used for plant disease detection. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of image processing techniques for diagnosing the rice blast and rice brown spot. Materials and Methods: The samples of rice leaf infected by brown spot and rice blast diseases were collected from rice fields and

  7. Mortality in East African shorthorn zebu cattle under one year: predictors of infectious-disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumbi, Samuel M; Bronsvoort, Mark B M de C; Kiara, Henry; Toye, P G; Poole, Jane; Ndila, Mary; Conradie, Ilana; Jennings, Amy; Handel, Ian G; Coetzer, J A W; Steyl, Johan; Hanotte, Olivier; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2013-09-08

    Infectious livestock diseases remain a major threat to attaining food security and are a source of economic and livelihood losses for people dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Knowledge of the vital infectious diseases that account for the majority of deaths is crucial in determining disease control strategies and in the allocation of limited funds available for disease control. Here we have estimated the mortality rates in zebu cattle raised in a smallholder mixed farming system during their first year of life, identified the periods of increased risk of death and the risk factors for calf mortality, and through analysis of post-mortem data, determined the aetiologies of calf mortality in this population. A longitudinal cohort study of 548 zebu cattle was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Each calf was followed during its first year of life or until lost from the study. Calves were randomly selected from 20 sub-locations and recruited within a week of birth from different farms over a 45 km radius area centered on Busia in the Western part of Kenya. The data comprised of 481.1 calf years of observation. Clinical examinations, sample collection and analysis were carried out at 5 week intervals, from birth until one year old. Cox proportional hazard models with frailty terms were used for the statistical analysis of risk factors. A standardized post-mortem examination was conducted on all animals that died during the study and appropriate samples collected. The all-cause mortality rate was estimated at 16.1 (13.0-19.2; 95% CI) per 100 calf years at risk. The Cox models identified high infection intensity with Theileria spp., the most lethal of which causes East Coast Fever disease, infection with Trypanosome spp., and helminth infections as measured by Strongyle spp. eggs per gram of faeces as the three important infections statistically associated with infectious disease mortality in these calves. Analysis of post-mortem data identified East Coast Fever as

  8. Heat-Related Mortality Projections for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Under the Changing Climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4 percent, 47.8 percent, and 69.0 percent in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6 percent, 73.8 percent and 134 percent in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP 8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  9. Heat-related mortality projections for cardiovascular and respiratory disease under the changing climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-08-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4%, 47.8%, and 69.0% in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6%,73.8% and 134% in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  10. HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTOR INVERSE AGONISTS ON COGNITIVE AND MOTOR PROCESSES: RELEVANCE TO ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE, ADHD, SCHIZOPHRENIA AND DRUG ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya eVohora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Histamine H3 receptor antagonists/ inverse agonists possess potential to treat diverse disease states of the central nervous system (CNS. Cognitive dysfunction and motor impairments are the hallmark of multifarious neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric disorders. This review presents the various neurobiological/ neurochemical evidences available so far following H3 receptor inverse agonists/ antagonists in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, schizophrenia and drug abuse each of which is accompanied by deficits of some aspects of cognitive and/or motor functions. Whether the H3 receptor inverse agonism modulates the neurochemical basis underlying the disease condition or affects only the cognitive/motor component of the disease process is discussed with the aim to provide a rationale for their use in diverse disease states that are interlinked and are accompanied by some common motor, cognitive and attentional deficits.

  11. Holistic approach to human health and disease: life circumstances and inner processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenović, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Human body is dinamic, energetic system under the influences of food intake, environment, interpersonal relationships, inheritance, culture and human activities. The environmental and psychosocioeconomic factors affect the individual's health altering the performance of biological systems effecting disease risk and disease progression. The concerns in modern society are more and more devoted to stress and its influences on health. Life span is extended but the quality of life, well-being and productivity usually do not follow that extention. Body is a flow of energy and dynamic communications with inside and outside environment. The way to improve health is to address its social determinants. Only in sinergy the questions about disease and health could be better understood. It is not enough to diagnose illness, important is to diagnose circumstances and environmental influences that consequently lead to disease. Emotional disruptions make base for physical disruptions. Social gradient and stress involving personal life and work is a significant factor in physical and mental illness. The best indicator of the successful social policy result is the sense of well-being of the inhabitants. Holistic approach to a patient and discussions about the influences in patient's life can lead to a better health outcome. Anthropology studies people's habits, means and conditions of life and can be the bridge between the medicine and the life circumstances that put people's health at risk providing important insights into health and disease and assist in public health policies, preventive measures and health improvement of the populations.

  12. Functional connectivity in cortico-subcortical brain networks underlying reward processing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Marianne; Beckmann, Christian F.; Franke, Barbara; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display aberrant reward-related behavior. Task-based fMRI studies have related atypical reward processing in ADHD to altered BOLD activity in regions underlying reward processing such as ventral striatum and orbitofrontal

  13. Characterization and selection of location for resistance to sugarcane brown rust disease under cuban conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Montalván Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane brown rust disease is caused by fungus Puccinia melanocephala Sydow & P. Sydow and it is one of the more importance diseases. The environment where the sugarcane is cultivated is constituted by numerous factors and its combination contributes to the formation of different development and production conditions, what influences in the varietal disease resistance. With the objective of to characterize and to define the resistance tests location to the brown rust disease were carried out experiments in 6 location of the country. Eleven varieties and six patterns were studied. The climatic variables were analyzed during the period in each location and they were carried out evaluations in different ages of the plant and number of the leaves. The quantity of pustules, long of the most frequent pustules, size of the biggest pustules and area per - centage occupied by pustules were evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically. Differential behavior of the locations and the importance of the relative humidity and the temperatures in the manifestation of the disease symptoms were proven. All the locations were important although similarity exists between Matanzas and Villa Clara and between Camagüey and Holguín. Mayabeque and Santiago de Cuba didn’t present similarity with any other one. These 6 locations can be used for the resistance tests and to define the progenitors’ Santiago de Cuba, Holguín, Villa Clara and Mayabeque

  14. Stochastic stability of mechanical systems under renewal jump process parametric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Larsen, Jesper Winther

    2005-01-01

    independent, negative exponential distributed variables; hence, the arrival process may be termed as a generalized Erlang renewal process. The excitation process is governed by the stochastic equation driven by two independent Poisson processes, with different parameters. If the response in a single mode...

  15. Dynamics of ultrathin metal films on amorphous substrates under fast thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favazza, Christopher; Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to analyze the growth/decay rate of surface perturbations of an ultrathin metal film on an amorphous substrate (SiO 2 ). The formulation combines the approach of Mullins [W. W. Mullins, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 77 (1959)] for bulk surfaces, in which curvature-driven mass transport and surface deformation can occur by surface/volume diffusion and evaporation-condensation processes, with that of Spencer et al. [B. J. Spencer, P. W. Voorhees, and S. H. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 26 (1991)] to describe solid-state transport in thin films under epitaxial strain. Modifications of the Mullins model to account for thin-film boundary conditions result in qualitatively different dispersion relationships especially in the limit as kh o o is the unperturbed film height. The model is applied to study the relative rate of solid-state mass transport as compared to that of liquid phase dewetting in a thin film subjected to a fast thermal pulse. Specifically, we have recently shown that multiple cycles of nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser melting and resolidification of ultrathin metal films on amorphous substrates can lead to the formation of various types of spatially ordered nanostructures [J. Trice, D. Thomas, C. Favazza, R. Sureshkumar, and R. Kalyanaraman, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235439 (2007)]. The pattern formation has been attributed to the dewetting of the thin film by a hydrodynamic instability. In such experiments the film is in the solid state during a substantial fraction of each thermal cycle. However, results of a linear stability analysis based on the aforementioned model suggest that solid-state mass transport has a negligible effect on morphological changes of the surface. Further, a qualitative analysis of the effect of thermoelastic stress, induced by the rapid temperature changes in the film-substrate bilayer, suggests that stress relaxation does not appreciably contribute to surface deformation. Hence, surface deformation caused by liquid

  16. Dynamics of ultrathin metal films on amorphous substrates under fast thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Christopher; Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2007-11-01

    A mathematical model is developed to analyze the growth/decay rate of surface perturbations of an ultrathin metal film on an amorphous substrate (SiO2). The formulation combines the approach of Mullins [W. W. Mullins, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 77 (1959)] for bulk surfaces, in which curvature-driven mass transport and surface deformation can occur by surface/volume diffusion and evaporation-condensation processes, with that of Spencer etal . [B. J. Spencer, P. W. Voorhees, and S. H. Davis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 26 (1991)] to describe solid-state transport in thin films under epitaxial strain. Modifications of the Mullins model to account for thin-film boundary conditions result in qualitatively different dispersion relationships especially in the limit as kho≪1, where k is the wavenumber of the perturbation and ho is the unperturbed film height. The model is applied to study the relative rate of solid-state mass transport as compared to that of liquid phase dewetting in a thin film subjected to a fast thermal pulse. Specifically, we have recently shown that multiple cycles of nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser melting and resolidification of ultrathin metal films on amorphous substrates can lead to the formation of various types of spatially ordered nanostructures [J. Trice, D. Thomas, C. Favazza, R. Sureshkumar, and R. Kalyanaraman, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235439 (2007)]. The pattern formation has been attributed to the dewetting of the thin film by a hydrodynamic instability. In such experiments the film is in the solid state during a substantial fraction of each thermal cycle. However, results of a linear stability analysis based on the aforementioned model suggest that solid-state mass transport has a negligible effect on morphological changes of the surface. Further, a qualitative analysis of the effect of thermoelastic stress, induced by the rapid temperature changes in the film-substrate bilayer, suggests that stress relaxation does not appreciably contribute to surface

  17. Accurate Identification of Fatty Liver Disease in Data Warehouse Utilizing Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Joseph S; Natarajan, Yamini; Hou, Jason K; Wang, Jingqi; Hanif, Muzammil; Feng, Hua; Kramer, Jennifer R; Desiderio, Roxanne; Xu, Hua; El-Serag, Hashem B; Kanwal, Fasiha

    2017-10-01

    Natural language processing is a powerful technique of machine learning capable of maximizing data extraction from complex electronic medical records. We utilized this technique to develop algorithms capable of "reading" full-text radiology reports to accurately identify the presence of fatty liver disease. Abdominal ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging reports were retrieved from the Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse from a random national sample of 652 patients. Radiographic fatty liver disease was determined by manual review by two physicians and verified with an expert radiologist. A split validation method was utilized for algorithm development. For all three imaging modalities, the algorithms could identify fatty liver disease with >90% recall and precision, with F-measures >90%. These algorithms could be used to rapidly screen patient records to establish a large cohort to facilitate epidemiological and clinical studies and examine the clinic course and outcomes of patients with radiographic hepatic steatosis.

  18. Underlying role of mitochondrial mutagenesis in the pathogenesis of a disease and current approaches for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevaidi, Maria; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Kyrgiou, Maria; Martin, Francis L

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases have been extensively investigated over the last three decades, but many questions regarding their underlying aetiologies remain unanswered. Mitochondrial dysfunction is not only responsible for a range of neurological and myopathy diseases but also considered pivotal in a broader spectrum of common diseases such as epilepsy, autism and bipolar disorder. These disorders are a challenge to diagnose and treat, as their aetiology might be multifactorial. In this review, the focus is placed on potential mechanisms capable of introducing defects in mitochondria resulting in disease. Special attention is given to the influence of xenobiotics on mitochondria; environmental factors inducing mutations or epigenetic changes in the mitochondrial genome can alter its expression and impair the whole cell's functionality. Specifically, we suggest that environmental agents can cause damage in mitochondrial DNA and consequently lead to mutagenesis. Moreover, we describe current approaches for handling mitochondrial diseases, as well as available prenatal diagnostic tests, towards eliminating these maternally inherited diseases. Undoubtedly, more research is required, as current therapeutic approaches mostly employ palliative therapies rather than targeting primary mechanisms or prophylactic approaches. Much effort is needed into further unravelling the relationship between xenobiotics and mitochondria, as the extent of influence in mitochondrial pathogenesis is increasingly recognised. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Processes and conditions underlying the link between shyness and school adjustment among Turkish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Cheah, Charissa S L; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the underlying processes and conditions that contribute to the school adjustment of shy children in Turkey, where children's interpersonal relationships in social settings and academic achievement are highly emphasized. First, we examined the unique mediating roles of children's feelings of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and loneliness in the associations between shyness and indices of school outcomes (academic achievement and school liking/avoidance). Second, we explored the moderating role of children's peer acceptance in these associations. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N = 599; M age  = 10.11 years, SD = 0.65; 48% girls) provided information on shyness, social anxiety, depressive symptoms, loneliness, and school liking/avoidance. Head teachers in each classroom reported on students' academic performance. The peer nomination method was used to assess children's peer relationships. Results revealed that when children displayed shy behaviours, they reported more depressive symptoms that were, in turn, associated with poorer academic performance, less school liking, and higher school avoidance. Moreover, shyness negatively predicted school liking at low levels of peer acceptance, suggesting that difficulties in peer relationships increased shy children's risk of school dissatisfaction. Overall, our findings support the importance of the interpersonal relationship context for children's adjustment within the Turkish cultural context. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Shy children have difficulties initiating and maintaining social interactions, which put them at risk for a wide range of socio-emotional difficulties. Shy children have poor academic performance and experience school adjustment difficulties in North America. What does this study add? Shyness is an important risk factor for poorer academic performance and adjustment among children in Turkey. The association between shyness and

  20. Empowering employees with chronic diseases: process evaluation of an intervention aimed at job retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, Inge; Krol, Boudien; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2011-01-01

    Employees with a chronic disease may experience work-related problems that contribute to the risk of job loss. We developed a group-based intervention programme aimed at clarifying problems, making these a subject of discussion at work, and realizing solutions. This process evaluation investigates the intervention's feasibility and the satisfaction of 64 participants in eight groups. Data were collected through process evaluation forms and self-report questionnaires. The recruitment of participants was time-consuming. Highly educated women working in the service sector were overrepresented. The programme was administered as planned, although components were sometimes only discussed briefly, due to lack of time. Satisfaction with the overall programme among participants was high; it was perceived as effective and there were only three dropouts. In particular, the focus on feelings and thoughts about having a chronic disease was highly valued, as were the exchange of experiences and role-playing directed at more assertive communication. A vocational rehabilitation programme aimed at job retention is feasible and is perceived to be effective. Such a programme should address psychosocial aspects of working with a chronic disease beside practical problems. The recruitment of participants is time-consuming. Cooperation with outpatient clinics is necessary in order to reach all groups of employees with a chronic disease that might benefit from job retention programmes. ISRCTN77240155.

  1. Determining the disease management process for epileptic patients: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Nazafarin; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Zare, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy exposes patients to many physical, social, and emotional challenges. Thus, it seems to portray a complex picture and needs holistic care. Medical treatment and psychosocial part of epilepsy remain central to managing and improving the patient's qualify of life through team efforts. Some studies have shown the dimensions of self-management, but its management process of epilepsy patients, especially in Iran, is not clear. This study aimed to determine the disease management process in patients with epilepsy in Iran. This qualitative approach and grounded theory study was conducted from January 2009 to February 2012 in Isfahan city (Iran). Thirty-two participants were recruited by the goal-oriented, and snowball sample selection and theoretical sampling methods. After conducting a total of 43 in-depth interviews with the participants, the researchers reached data saturation. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin method. With a focus on disease management process, researchers found three main themes and seven sub-themes as a psychosocial process (PSP). The main themes were: perception of threat to self-identity, effort to preserve self-identity, and burn out. The psychosocial aspect of the disease generated one main variable "the perception of identity loss" and one central variable "searching for self-identity." Participants attributed threat to self-identity and burn out to the way their disease was managed requiring efforts to preserve their identity. Recommendations consist of support programs and strategies to improve the public perception of epilepsy in Iran, help patients accept their condition and preserve self-identity, and most importantly, enhance medical management of epilepsy.

  2. HBV reactivation in rheumatic diseases patients under therapy: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghoofei, Mohsen; Mostafaei, Shayan; Ashraf-Ganjouei, Amir; Kavosi, Hoda; Mahmoudi, Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. In patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy such as rheumatic diseases, reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered clinically important. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine the prevalence rate of HBV reactivation in rheumatic patients from different parts of the world. The authors performed a systematic literature review from several reliable databases including Scopus, ISI Web of Science and PubMed. Furthermore, the keywords of this research were "Hepatitis B virus", "Rheumatic diseases", "HBV reactivation", "Anti-TNF", "DMARDs" and "Biologic agents". The authors selected 30 studies out of 983 for the present review. The overall estimation of the prevalence of HBV reactivation was 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-1.6). Also, the heterogeneity in estimating the pooled prevalence among the studies was shown; Cochran Q test, P HBV were in Italy and France respectively. Rheumatic disease patients with resolved hepatitis B should be tightly monitored for possible HBV reactivation by elevation of liver enzymes and HBV DNA levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deficient Rab11 activity underlies glucose hypometabolism in primary neurons of Huntington’s disease mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xueyi; Valencia, Antonio; McClory, Hollis; Sapp, Ellen; Kegel, Kimberly B.; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Primary Huntington’s disease neurons are impaired in taking up glucose. ► Rab11 modulates glucose uptake in neurons. ► Increasing Rab11 activity attenuates the glucose uptake defect in disease neurons. ► We provide a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in Huntington’s disease. -- Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. Positron emission tomography studies have revealed a decline in glucose metabolism in the brain of patients with HD by a mechanism that has not been established. We examined glucose utilization in embryonic primary cortical neurons of wild-type (WT) and HD knock-in mice, which have 140 CAG repeats inserted in the endogenous mouse huntingtin gene (HD 140Q/140Q ). Primary HD 140Q/140Q cortical neurons took up significantly less glucose than did WT neurons. Expression of permanently inactive and permanently active forms of Rab11 correspondingly altered glucose uptake in WT neurons, suggesting that normal activity of Rab11 is needed for neuronal uptake of glucose. It is known that Rab11 activity is diminished in HD 140Q/140Q neurons. Expression of dominant active Rab11 to enhance the activity of Rab11 normalized glucose uptake in HD 140Q/140Q neurons. These results suggest that deficient activity of Rab11 is a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in HD.

  4. [Neonatal ABO incompatibility underlies a potentially severe hemolytic disease of the newborn and requires adequate care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senterre, T; Minon, J-M; Rigo, J

    2011-03-01

    ABO allo-immunization is the most frequent hemolytic disease of the newborn and ABO incompatibility is present in 15-25 % of pregnancies. True ABO alloimmunization occurs in approximately one out of 150 births. Intensity is generally lower than in RhD allo-immunization. We report on three cases showing that ABO allo-immunization can lead to severe hemolytic disease of the newborn with potentially threatening hyperbilirubinemia and complications. Early diagnosis and adequate care are necessary to prevent complications in ABO incompatibility. A direct antiglobulin test is the cornerstone of diagnosis and should be performed at birth on cord blood sampling in all group infants born to O mothers, especially if of African origin. Risk factor analysis and attentive clinical monitoring during the first days of life are essential. Vigilance is even more important for infants discharged before the age of 72 h. Every newborn should be assessed for the risk of developing severe hyperbilirubinemia and should be examined by a qualified healthcare professional in the first days of life. Treatment depends on the total serum bilirubin level, which may increase very rapidly in the first 48 h of life in cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn. Phototherapy and, in severe cases, exchange transfusion are used to prevent hyperbilirubinemia encephalopathy. Intravenous immunoglobulins are used to reduce exchange transfusion. Treatments of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn should be provided and performed by trained personnel in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  6. Measuring underreporting and under-ascertainment in infectious disease datasets: a comparison of methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbons, C.L.; Mangen, M.J.J.; Plass, D.; Havelaar, A.H.; Brooke, R.J.; Kramarz, P.; Peterson, K.; Stuurman, A.L.; Cassini, A.; Fevre, E.M.; BCoDE consortium, x; Kretzschmar, M.E.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Efficient and reliable surveillance and notification systems are vital for monitoring public health and disease outbreaks. However, most surveillance and notification systems are affected by a degree of underestimation (UE) and therefore uncertainty surrounds the ‘true’ incidence of

  7. Aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus Asia-1 under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenutt, C.; Gonzales, J.L.; Paton, D.J.; Gloster, J.; Nelson, N.; Sanders, C.

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. Direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. Transmission of

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of thallium-201 perfusion scintigrams under exercise in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verani, M.S.; Marcus, M.L.; Razzak, M.A.; Ehrhardt, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), under exercise, in patients with suspected coronary-obstructive disease was compared with graded exercise ECG tests (GTX) in patients with angiographically normal (N = 34) and obstructed (N = 48) coronary arteries. Of the 34 patients with normal coronaries, only one had a perfusion defect on the MPI (specificity 97%). Of the 48 patients with coronary obstructive disease (>50% obstruction of at least one coronary vessel), MPI was positive in 38 (sensitivity 79%). In contrast, the GTX had a specificity of 62% and sensitivity of 88% if nondiagnostic GTX tests are excluded. When the MPI and the GTX were used in combination, however, the sensitivity of detecting patients with coronary obstructive disease was increased to 94% (p < 0.01). The MPI was particularly useful in the evaluation of the 26 patients with nondiagnostic GTX. In this group, 24 of the 26 patients were correctly identified by the MPI with respect to the presence or absence of coronary-obstructive disease. In the 14 patients with a history of classical angina but with normal coronaries, the MPI was negative in 13 and positive in one, thus suggesting that in the majority of these patients transient transmural myocardial ischemia probably does not occur during exercise. The presence or absence of angiographically demonstrable coronary collateral vessels did not seem to influence the exercise MPI in patients with coronary-obstructive disease. Thus, although the MPI does not correctly identify all patients with either coronary-obstructive disease or normal coronary arteries, it is helpful in patients who have a nondiagnostic GTX. Furthermore, when used in combination with the GTX, the MPI significantly increases the likelihood that significant coronary-obstructive disease is present when both tests are positive, and that coronary disease is absent when both tests are negative

  9. Assessment of socioemotional processes facilitates the distinction between frontotemporal lobar degeneration and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Devendeville, Agnès; Godefroy, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We explored the value of a battery of socioemotional tasks for differentiating between frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with FTLD (n = 13) or AD (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 26) underwent a neuropsychological assessment and the socioemotional battery (an empathy questionnaire, an emotion recognition task, and theory of mind tasks). Socioemotional processes were markedly impaired in FTLD but relatively unaffected in mild AD. The computed Socioemotional Index discriminated more accurately between FTLD from AD than behavioral and executive assessments did. Furthermore, impairments in socioemotional processes were correlated with indifference to others.

  10. Health policy for sickle cell disease in Africa: experience from Tanzania on interventions to reduce under-five mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratias; Rwezaula, Stella; Krag, Marlene; Mghamba, Janneth; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Cox, Sharon E; Grosse, Scott D

    2015-02-01

    Tanzania has made considerable progress towards reducing childhood mortality, achieving a 57% decrease between 1980 and 2011. This epidemiological transition will cause a reduction in the contribution of infectious diseases to childhood mortality and increase in contribution from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Haemoglobinopathies are amongst the most common childhood NCDs, with sickle cell disease (SCD) being the commonest haemoglobinopathy in Africa. In Tanzania, 10,313 children with SCD under 5 years of age (U5) are estimated to die every year, contributing an estimated 7% of overall deaths in U5 children. Key policies that governments in Africa are able to implement would reduce mortality in SCD, focusing on newborn screening and comprehensive SCD care programmes. Such programmes would ensure that interventions such as prevention of infections using penicillin plus prompt diagnosis and treatment of complications are provided to all individuals with SCD. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Possible association between celiac disease and bacterial transglutaminase in food processing: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of celiac disease is increasing worldwide, and human tissue transglutaminase has long been considered the autoantigen of celiac disease. Concomitantly, the food industry has introduced ingredients such as microbial transglutaminase, which acts as a food glue, thereby revolutionizing food qualities. Several observations have led to the hypothesis that microbial transglutaminase is a new environmental enhancer of celiac disease. First, microbial transglutaminase deamidates/transamidates glutens such as the endogenous human tissue transglutaminase. It is capable of crosslinking proteins and other macromolecules, thereby changing their antigenicity and resulting in an increased antigenic load presented to the immune system. Second, it increases the stability of protein against proteinases, thus diminishing foreign protein elimination. Infections and the crosslinked nutritional constituent gluten and microbial transglutaminase increase the permeability of the intestine, where microbial transglutaminases are necessary for bacterial survival. The resulting intestinal leakage allows more immunogenic foreign molecules to induce celiac disease. The increased use of microbial transglutaminase in food processing may promote celiac pathogenesis ex vivo, where deamidation/transamidation starts, possibly explaining the surge in incidence of celiac disease. If future research substantiates this hypothesis, the findings will affect food product labeling, food additive policies of the food industry, and consumer health education. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Integrated Genomics Reveals Convergent Transcriptomic Networks Underlying Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusko, Rebecca L; Brothers, John F; Tedrow, John; Pandit, Kusum; Huleihel, Luai; Perdomo, Catalina; Liu, Gang; Juan-Guardela, Brenda; Kass, Daniel; Zhang, Sherry; Lenburg, Marc; Martinez, Fernando; Quackenbush, John; Sciurba, Frank; Limper, Andrew; Geraci, Mark; Yang, Ivana; Schwartz, David A; Beane, Jennifer; Spira, Avrum; Kaminski, Naftali

    2016-10-15

    Despite shared environmental exposures, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are usually studied in isolation, and the presence of shared molecular mechanisms is unknown. We applied an integrative genomic approach to identify convergent transcriptomic pathways in emphysema and IPF. We defined the transcriptional repertoire of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IPF, or normal histology lungs using RNA-seq (n = 87). Genes increased in both emphysema and IPF relative to control were enriched for the p53/hypoxia pathway, a finding confirmed in an independent cohort using both gene expression arrays and the nCounter Analysis System (n = 193). Immunohistochemistry confirmed overexpression of HIF1A, MDM2, and NFKBIB members of this pathway in tissues from patients with emphysema or IPF. Using reads aligned across splice junctions, we determined that alternative splicing of p53/hypoxia pathway-associated molecules NUMB and PDGFA occurred more frequently in IPF or emphysema compared with control and validated these findings by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the nCounter Analysis System on an independent sample set (n = 193). Finally, by integrating parallel microRNA and mRNA-Seq data on the same samples, we identified MIR96 as a key novel regulatory hub in the p53/hypoxia gene-expression network and confirmed that modulation of MIR96 in vitro recapitulates the disease-associated gene-expression network. Our results suggest convergent transcriptional regulatory hubs in diseases as varied phenotypically as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and IPF and suggest that these hubs may represent shared key responses of the lung to environmental stresses.

  13. Homozygosity mapping and targeted sanger sequencing reveal genetic defects underlying inherited retinal disease in families from pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleeha Maria

    Full Text Available Homozygosity mapping has facilitated the identification of the genetic causes underlying inherited diseases, particularly in consanguineous families with multiple affected individuals. This knowledge has also resulted in a mutation dataset that can be used in a cost and time effective manner to screen frequent population-specific genetic variations associated with diseases such as inherited retinal disease (IRD.We genetically screened 13 families from a cohort of 81 Pakistani IRD families diagnosed with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA, retinitis pigmentosa (RP, congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB, or cone dystrophy (CD. We employed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array analysis to identify homozygous regions shared by affected individuals and performed Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes located in the sizeable homozygous regions. In addition, based on population specific mutation data we performed targeted Sanger sequencing (TSS of frequent variants in AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, GUCY2D, LCA5, RPGRIP1 and TULP1, in probands from 28 LCA families.Homozygosity mapping and Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes revealed the underlying mutations in 10 families. TSS revealed causative variants in three families. In these 13 families four novel mutations were identified in CNGA1, CNGB1, GUCY2D, and RPGRIP1.Homozygosity mapping and TSS revealed the underlying genetic cause in 13 IRD families, which is useful for genetic counseling as well as therapeutic interventions that are likely to become available in the near future.

  14. Weathering processes under various moisture conditions in a lignite mine spoil from As Pontes (N.W. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seoane, S.; Leiros, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Processes contributing to acid release/consumption during weathering of a lignite mine spoil (2.3% w/w S as sulfides) from As Pontes (N.W. Spain) were studied under three moisture conditions (at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying or forced percolation), which were simulated in laboratory experiments. Oxidation of sulfides to sulfates was favoured under all three moisture conditions, releasing most acid in spoil kept at field capacity. Hydroxysulfates formed in spoil kept at field capacity or under alternate wetting-drying conditions, thereby contributing to acid release. Acid consumption by dissolution of clay minerals, especially micas, was favoured under all three moisture conditions, but was particularly intense in spoil at field capacity. Dissolution of aluminium oxides was also favoured under all the moisture conditions studied. 27 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Microglia P2Y6 receptor is related to Parkinson’s disease through neuroinflammatory process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia in the central nervous system (CNS were reported to play crucial role in neurodegeneration. Previous studies showed that P2Y6 receptor (P2Y6R mainly contributed to microglia activation and phagocytosis in CNS. However, the level of P2Y6R in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients is unclear. Therefore, we measured the level of P2Y6R in PD patients and speculated whether it could be a potential biomarker for PD. Given on the basis that P2Y6R was higher in PD patients, we further explored the mechanisms underlying P2Y6R in the pathogenesis of PD. Methods We tested the expression level of P2Y6R in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs among 145 PD patients, 170 healthy controls, and 30 multiple system atrophy (MSA patients. We also used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated microglial cell culture model to investigate (i the effects of LPS on P2Y6R expression with western blot and RT-PCR, (ii the effects of LPS on UDP expression using HPLC, (iii the effects of UDP/P2Y6R signaling on cytokine expression using western blot, RT-PCR, and ELISA, and (iv the signaling pathways activated by the P2Y6R involved in the neuroinflammation. Results Expression levels of P2Y6R in PD patients were higher than healthy controls and MSA patients. P2Y6R could be a good biomarker of PD. P2Y6R was also upregulated in LPS-treated BV-2 cells and involved in proinflammatory cytokine release through an autocrine loop based on LPS-triggered UDP secretion and accelerated neuroinflammatory responses through the ERK1/2 pathway. Importantly, blocking UDP/P2Y6R signaling could reverse these pathological processes. Conclusions P2Y6R may be a potential clinical biomarker of PD. Blocking P2Y6R may be a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of PD patients through inhibition of microglia-activated neuroinflammation.

  16. Psychosocial intervention effects on adaptation, disease course and biobehavioral processes in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H

    2013-03-01

    A diagnosis of cancer and subsequent treatments place demands on psychological adaptation. Behavioral research suggests the importance of cognitive, behavioral, and social factors in facilitating adaptation during active treatment and throughout cancer survivorship, which forms the rationale for the use of many psychosocial interventions in cancer patients. This cancer experience may also affect physiological adaptation systems (e.g., neuroendocrine) in parallel with psychological adaptation changes (negative affect). Changes in adaptation may alter tumor growth-promoting processes (increased angiogenesis, migration and invasion, and inflammation) and tumor defense processes (decreased cellular immunity) relevant for cancer progression and the quality of life of cancer patients. Some evidence suggests that psychosocial intervention can improve psychological and physiological adaptation indicators in cancer patients. However, less is known about whether these interventions can influence tumor activity and tumor growth-promoting processes and whether changes in these processes could explain the psychosocial intervention effects on recurrence and survival documented to date. Documenting that psychosocial interventions can modulate molecular activities (e.g., transcriptional indicators of cell signaling) that govern tumor promoting and tumor defense processes on the one hand, and clinical disease course on the other is a key challenge for biobehavioral oncology research. This mini-review will summarize current knowledge on psychological and physiological adaptation processes affected throughout the stress of the cancer experience, and the effects of psychosocial interventions on psychological adaptation, cancer disease progression, and changes in stress-related biobehavioral processes that may mediate intervention effects on clinical cancer outcomes. Very recent intervention work in breast cancer will be used to illuminate emerging trends in molecular probes of

  17. In Search of 'Birth Month Genes': Using Existing Data Repositories to Locate Genes Underlying Birth Month-Disease Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Mary Regina; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal and perinatal exposures vary seasonally (e.g., sunlight, allergens) and many diseases are linked with variance in exposure. Epidemiologists often measure these changes using birth month as a proxy for seasonal variance. Likewise, Genome-Wide Association Studies have associated or implicated these same diseases with many genes. Both disparate data types (epidemiological and genetic) can provide key insights into the underlying disease biology. We developed an algorithm that links 1) epidemiological data from birth month studies with 2) genetic data from published gene-disease association studies. Our framework uses existing data repositories - PubMed, DisGeNET and Gene Ontology - to produce a bipartite network that connects enriched seasonally varying biofactorss with birth month dependent diseases (BMDDs) through their overlapping developmental gene sets. As a proof-of-concept, we investigate 7 known BMDDs and highlight three important biological networks revealed by our algorithm and explore some interesting genetic mechanisms potentially responsible for the seasonal contribution to BMDDs.

  18. Statistical Process Control: A Quality Tool for a Venous Thromboembolic Disease Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Martinez, Maria Lourdes; Rojas, Liliana Paloma; Vazquez, Fernando Javier; De Quiros, Fernan Bernaldo; Waisman, Gabriel Dario; Giunta, Diego Hernan

    2016-01-01

    We aim to describe Statistical Control Process as a quality tool for the Institutional Registry of Venous Thromboembolic Disease (IRTD), a registry developed in a community-care tertiary hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The IRTD is a prospective cohort. The process of data acquisition began with the creation of a computerized alert generated whenever physicians requested imaging or laboratory study to diagnose venous thromboembolism, which defined eligible patients. The process then followed a structured methodology for patient's inclusion, evaluation, and posterior data entry. To control this process, process performance indicators were designed to be measured monthly. These included the number of eligible patients, the number of included patients, median time to patient's evaluation, and percentage of patients lost to evaluation. Control charts were graphed for each indicator. The registry was evaluated in 93 months, where 25,757 patients were reported and 6,798 patients met inclusion criteria. The median time to evaluation was 20 hours (SD, 12) and 7.7% of the total was lost to evaluation. Each indicator presented trends over time, caused by structural changes and improvement cycles, and therefore the central limit suffered inflexions. Statistical process control through process performance indicators allowed us to control the performance of the registry over time to detect systematic problems. We postulate that this approach could be reproduced for other clinical registries.

  19. Vision from next generation sequencing: multi-dimensional genome-wide analysis for producing gene regulatory networks underlying retinal development, aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Jin; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Cogliati, Tiziana; Kim, Jung-Woong; Swaroop, Anand

    2015-05-01

    Genomics and genetics have invaded all aspects of biology and medicine, opening uncharted territory for scientific exploration. The definition of "gene" itself has become ambiguous, and the central dogma is continuously being revised and expanded. Computational biology and computational medicine are no longer intellectual domains of the chosen few. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, together with novel methods of pattern recognition and network analyses, has revolutionized the way we think about fundamental biological mechanisms and cellular pathways. In this review, we discuss NGS-based genome-wide approaches that can provide deeper insights into retinal development, aging and disease pathogenesis. We first focus on gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that govern the differentiation of retinal photoreceptors and modulate adaptive response during aging. Then, we discuss NGS technology in the context of retinal disease and develop a vision for therapies based on network biology. We should emphasize that basic strategies for network construction and analyses can be transported to any tissue or cell type. We believe that specific and uniform guidelines are required for generation of genome, transcriptome and epigenome data to facilitate comparative analysis and integration of multi-dimensional data sets, and for constructing networks underlying complex biological processes. As cellular homeostasis and organismal survival are dependent on gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, we believe that network-based biology will provide the foundation for deciphering disease mechanisms and discovering novel drug targets for retinal neurodegenerative diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-05-22

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  1. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Roger S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO, World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  2. Stochastic stability of mechanical systems under renewal jump process parametric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwankiewicz, R.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Larsen, Jesper Winther

    2005-01-01

    independent, negative exponential distributed variables; hence, the arrival process may be termed as a generalized Erlang renewal process. The excitation process is governed by the stochastic equation driven by two independent Poisson processes, with different parameters. If the response in a single mode...... is investigated, the problem is governed in the state space by two stochastic equations, because the stochastic equation for the excitation process is autonomic. However due to the parametric nature of the excitation, the nonlinear term appears at the right-hand sides of the equations. The equations become linear...... of the stochastic equation governing the natural logarithm of the hyperspherical amplitude process and using the modification of the method wherein the time averaging of the pertinent expressions is replaced by ensemble averaging. It is found that the direct simulation is more suitable and that the asymptotic mean...

  3. The proximate memory mechanism underlying the survival-processing effect: richness of encoding or interactive imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneisen, Meike; Erdfelder, Edgar; Buchner, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Nairne and collaborators showed that assessing the relevance of words in the context of an imagined survival scenario boosts memory for these words. Although this survival-processing advantage has attracted a considerable amount of research, little is known about the proximate memory mechanism mediating this effect. Recently, Kroneisen and Erdfelder (2011) argued that it is not survival processing itself that facilitates recall but rather the richness and distinctiveness of encoding that is triggered by the survival-processing task. Alternatively, however, it is also conceivable that survival processing fosters interactive imagery, a process known to improve associative learning. To test these explanations we compared relevance-rating and interactive imagery tasks for survival and control scenarios. Results show that the survival advantage replicates in the relevance-rating condition but vanishes in the interactive imagery condition. This refutes the interactive imagery explanation and corroborates the richness-of-encoding hypothesis of the survival-processing effect.

  4. Phasic deactivation of the medial temporal lobe enables working memory processing under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Wingen, Guido A.; Fernández, Guillén

    2012-01-01

    Demanding cognitive tasks are sometimes carried out under stressful conditions. Several studies indicate that whereas severe stress impairs performance, moderate stress can enhance cognitive performance. In this study, we investigated how moderate stress influences the neural systems supporting

  5. Dual Psychological Processes Underlying Public Stigma and the Implications for Reducing Stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Reeder, Glenn D.; Pryor, John B.

    2008-01-01

    People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g., shame and lowered self-esteem) or public stigma (e.g., the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized). This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative proces...

  6. An experimental investigation of the consolidation behaviour of uncured prepregs under processing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon-Pearson, Ollie; Belnoue, Jonathan; Ivanov, Dmitry; Potter, Kevin; Hallett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and research study that characterises toughened materials, as is needed for optimisation of composite manufacturing processes. The specific challenge is to cover all of the stages of advanced composite manufacturing: fibre deposition by automatic fibre placement machines, hot or room temperature debulking, and consolidation in an autoclave. In these processes the material experiences a wide range of processing parameters: pressure, load rate, temperatures, an...

  7. A Transdiagnostic Perspective on Cognitive, Affective, and Neurobiological Processes Underlying Human Suffering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases classify mental health disorders on the basis of their putatively distinct symptom profiles. Although these nosologies are highly influential, they also have been derided as mere "field guides" because they focus solely on the…

  8. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 x 3.0 x 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models

  9. Obesity: a chronic relapsing progressive disease process. A position statement of the World Obesity Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, G A; Kim, K K; Wilding, J P H

    2017-07-01

    This paper considers the argument for obesity as a chronic relapsing disease process. Obesity is viewed from an epidemiological model, with an agent affecting the host and producing disease. Food is the primary agent, particularly foods that are high in energy density such as fat, or in sugar-sweetened beverages. An abundance of food, low physical activity and several other environmental factors interact with the genetic susceptibility of the host to produce positive energy balance. The majority of this excess energy is stored as fat in enlarged, and often more numerous fat cells, but some lipid may infiltrate other organs such as the liver (ectopic fat). The enlarged fat cells and ectopic fat produce and secrete a variety of metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory products that produce damage in organs such as the arteries, heart, liver, muscle and pancreas. The magnitude of the obesity and its adverse effects in individuals may relate to the virulence or toxicity of the environment and its interaction with the host. Thus, obesity fits the epidemiological model of a disease process except that the toxic or pathological agent is food rather than a microbe. Reversing obesity will prevent most of its detrimental effects. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in children and adolescents with celiac disease under treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida Motta

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Low bone mineral density may be a finding among children and adolescents with celiac disease, including those undergoing treatment with a gluten-free diet, but the data are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bone mineral density abnormalities in patients on a gluten-free diet, considering age at diagnosis and duration of dietary treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional prevalence study at the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic of Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira. METHODS: Thirty-one patients over five years of age with celiac disease and on a gluten-free diet were enrolled. Bone mineral density (in g/cm² was measured in the lumbar spine and whole body using bone densitometry and categorized using the criteria of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry, i.e. low bone mineral density for chronological age < -2.0 Z-scores. Age at diagnosis and duration of dietary treatment were confirmed according to the date of starting the gluten-free diet. RESULTS: Low bone density for chronological age was present in 3/31 patients in the lumbar spine and 1/31 in the whole body (also with lumbar spine abnormality. At diagnosis, three patients with low bone mineral density for the chronological age were more than 7.6 years old. These patients had been on a gluten-free diet for six and seven months and 3.4 years. CONCLUSION: Pediatric patients with celiac disease on long-term treatment are at risk of low bone mineral density. Early diagnosis and long periods of gluten-free diet are directly implicated in bone density normalization.

  11. Pulmonary diseases of the infants weighing under 1500 grams at birth: clinical and radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Park, Jeong Mi; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Since the introduction of the intensive perinatal care, the survival rate of the infants weighing less than 1500 gm at birth has improved substantially. However, pulmonary diseases remain to be the major causes of the high mortality of these low birthweight infants. In order to systematically assess an epidemiologic distribution of the pulmonary diseases in these very low weight prematures, we have analyzed the chest x-rays of 102 infants weighing less than 1500 gm. These consisted of 30 with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) weighing less than 1000 gm and 72 with very low birth weight (VLBW) weighing 1001 - 1500 gm. The survival rate of ELBW and VLBW was 10% and 49%, respectively. Seventy of 102 infants had abnormal findings in the chest x-ray. Forty-eight had idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), 8 immature lung, 6 Wilson-Mikity syndrome, 4 pneumonia, 2 pulmonary hemorrhage, 1 congenital heart disease, and 1 suspicious Pierre-Robin syndrome. Seven out of 48 infants with IRDS had persistent ductus arteriosus, and in only 2(30%) of 7 cases were alive. Endotracheal intubation and assisted ventilation application for the treatment of IRDS resulted in pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 4 infants and pneumothorax and / or pneumomediastinum in 4 infants. Displacement of endotracheal intubation showed lobar and / or unilateral lung atelectasis in 8 infants and a case of accidental dislodgement of intubation tube into the esophagus resulted in air esophagogram and worsened lung aeration. In spite of the development of many sophisticated methods of diagnostic radiology, the chest x-ray was still the most valuable yet simple way of evaluating the pulmonary problems in these extreme and very low birth weight prematures

  12. The use of sugammadex in a patient with Kennedy′s disease under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Takeuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kennedy′s disease (KD, also known as spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, is a rare, X-linked recessive, neurodegenerative disorder of the lower motor neurons characterized by progressive bulbar and appendicle muscular atrophy. Here we report a case of a 62-year-old male patient with KD, weighing 70 kg and 173 cm tall, was scheduled for frontal sinusectomy due to sinusitis. General anesthesia was induced through propofol 80 mg, remifentanil 0.25 μg/kg/min and 40 mg rocuronium. We were successfully able to use a sugammadex on a patient suffering from KD in order to reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade.

  13. Process for carrying out a chemical reaction with ionic liquid and carbon dioxide under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.; Shariati, A.; Florusse, L.J.; Peters, C.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Sheldon, R.A.; Gutkowski, K.I.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for carrying out a chemical reaction in an ionic liquid as solvent and CO2 as cosolvent, in which process reactants are reacted in a homogeneous phase at selected pressure and temperature to generate a reaction product at least containing an end-product of the

  14. The behaviorist the historical-cultural: The effectiveness of Aulic Teaching Process under two paradigms dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesta Moreno Iglesias

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an approach to the analysis of the definition of Aulic Teaching Process with its dimensions, focusing on the effectiveness of that process and the actions to be undertaken for evaluation, from a humanist perspective and develope.

  15. Evolution of the archaeal and mammalian information processing systems: towards an archaeal model for human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhe; Whitman, William B

    2017-01-01

    Current evolutionary models suggest that Eukaryotes originated from within Archaea instead of being a sister lineage. To test this model of ancient evolution, we review recent studies and compare the three major information processing subsystems of replication, transcription and translation in the Archaea and Eukaryotes. Our hypothesis is that if the Eukaryotes arose within the archaeal radiation, their information processing systems will appear to be one of kind and not wholly original. Within the Eukaryotes, the mammalian or human systems are emphasized because of their importance in understanding health. Biochemical as well as genetic studies provide strong evidence for the functional similarity of archaeal homologs to the mammalian information processing system and their dissimilarity to the bacterial systems. In many independent instances, a simple archaeal system is functionally equivalent to more elaborate eukaryotic homologs, suggesting that evolution of complexity is likely an central feature of the eukaryotic information processing system. Because fewer components are often involved, biochemical characterizations of the archaeal systems are often easier to interpret. Similarly, the archaeal cell provides a genetically and metabolically simpler background, enabling convenient studies on the complex information processing system. Therefore, Archaea could serve as a parsimonious and tractable host for studying human diseases that arise in the information processing systems.

  16. Judgment under emotional certainty and uncertainty: the effects of specific emotions on information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedens, L Z; Linton, S

    2001-12-01

    The authors argued that emotions characterized by certainty appraisals promote heuristic processing, whereas emotions characterized by uncertainty appraisals result in systematic processing. The 1st experiment demonstrated that the certainty associated with an emotion affects the certainty experienced in subsequent situations. The next 3 experiments investigated effects on processing of emotions associated with certainty and uncertainty. Compared with emotions associated with uncertainty, emotions associated with certainty resulted in greater reliance on the expertise of a source of a persuasive message in Experiment 2, more stereotyping in Experiment 3, and less attention to argument quality in Experiment 4. In contrast to previous theories linking valence and processing, these findings suggest that the certainty appraisal content of emotions is also important in determining whether people engage in systematic or heuristic processing.

  17. Preparation of carbon nanotubes by DC arc discharge process under reduced pressure in an air atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeon Hwan; Kim, Hyeong Joon

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown using a DC arc discharge process in an air atmosphere and relevant process parameters were investigated. Without using an inert gas, multi walled carbon nanotubes could be synthesized in the deposit area of the cathode even in an air atmosphere, but single walled carbon nanotubes were not detected in the soot area despite using the same process conditions as in the inert gas. The air pressure for the highest yield of multi walled CNTs was 300 Torr. In addition, the quantity of amorphous carbon and other nanoparticles in the process chamber was remarkably reduced by this technique, showing that an efficient, feasible method of large scale CNT fabrication could be achieved by the arc discharge process

  18. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Ho Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is defined as a pathologic accumulation of fat in the form of triglycerides (TG in the liver (steatosis that is not caused by alcohol. A subgroup of NAFLD patients shows liver cell injury and inflammation coupled with the excessive fat accumulation (steatohepatitis, which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Patients with NASH may develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. NAFLD shares the key features of metabolic syndrome including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is multi-factorial, however the oxidative stress seems to plays a major role in the development and progression of the disease. The emerging field of epigenetics provides a new perspective on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Epigenetics is an inheritable but reversible phenomenon that affects gene expression without altering the DNA sequence and refers to DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Epigenetic manipulation through metabolic pathways such as one-carbon metabolism has been proposed as a promising approach to retard the progression of NAFLD. Investigating the epigenetic modifiers in NAFLD may also lead to the development of preventive or therapeutic strategies for NASH-associated complications.

  19. The alteration of interelemental ratios in myocardium under the congenital heart disease (SRXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunova, V.A.; Zvereva, V.V.; Okuneva, G.N.; Levicheva, E.N.

    2007-01-01

    It is the myocardium that bears the basic functional loading during heart working, including muscle contractility and enzyme activity. The elemental concentrations in myocardium tissue of heart were determined by SRXRF technique. Our investigation is systematical: the elemental content in each compartment (left and right ventricles, left and right auricles) of hearts of healthy and diseased children (congenital heart diseases, transposition of main vessels (TMV)) was analyzed. The elemental distribution in myocardium of four heart chambers of human fetuses was also analyzed. Following elements were determined: S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr. It was revealed that the elemental concentrations in myocardium of both ventricles are almost constant in heart of fetuses and healthy children. The transition from pre-natal study (fetus) to post-natal study is accompanied by the redistribution of chemical elements in myocardium. The higher concentrations of S, Fe, Ca, Sr and Cu in myocardium of children are observed, the content of K, Br, Rb and especially Se is lower than in heart of fetuses. The elemental distribution in myocardium of children TMV is considerably different in comparison with the healthy children: the higher levels of Cu are observed. The content of Se is lower

  20. Naringenin improves learning and memory in an Alzheimer's disease rat model: Insights into the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Saeed; Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi; Mohseni, Simin; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Bagheri, Maryam; Khamse, Safoura; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2015-10-05

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the prevalent neurological disorders of the central nervous system hallmarked by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ensuing learning and memory deficit. In the present study, the beneficial effect of naringenin on improvement of learning and memory was evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease rat model. The Aβ-injected rats showed a lower alternation score in Y-maze task, impairment of retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test, and lower correct choices and higher errors in radial arm maze (RAM) task as compared to sham group in addition to enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Naringenin, but not a combination of naringenin and fulvestrant (an estrogenic receptor antagonist) significantly improved the performance of Aβ-injected rats in passive avoidance and RAM tasks. Naringenin pretreatment of Aβ-injected rats also lowered hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) with no significant effect on nitrite and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in addition to lowering apoptosis. These results suggest naringenin pretreatment attenuates Aβ-induced impairment of learning and memory through mitigation of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis and its beneficial effect is somewhat mediated via estrogenic pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A nonlinear dynamical systems theory perspective on dual-processing accounts of decision-making under uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Rooij, M.M.J.W. van; Favela, L.H.; Papafragou, A.; Grodner, D.; Mirman, D.; Trueswell, J.

    2016-01-01

    Dual-processing accounts of reasoning have gained renewed attention in the past decade, particularly in the fields of social judgment, learning, and decision-making under uncertainty. Although the various accounts differ, the common thread is the distinction between two qualitatively different types of reasoning: explicit/implicit, rational/affective, fast/slow, etc. Consequently, much research has focused on characterizing the two different processes. Less extensive are the attempts to find ...

  2. The Helicobacter pylori theory and duodenal ulcer disease. A case study of the research process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A H; Gjørup, T

    1995-01-01

    should be selected for H. pylori eradication treatment. CONCLUSION: Descriptive clinical studies and laboratory studies of disease mechanisms were the prevailing types of research about H. pylori. Comparatively few therapeutic intervention studies were done; this fact may have hampered the acceptance......OBJECTIVES: To describe the medical research process from the time of the generation of a new theory to its implementation in clinical practice. The Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) theory, i.e. the theory that H. pylori plays a significant causal role in duodenal ulcer disease was chosen as a case....... MATERIAL: Abstracts from 1984 to 1993, identified in the CD-Rom, Medline system, ("Silverplatter"), using the search terms Campylobacter pylori and Helicobacter pylori, and reviews and editorials about H. pylori in some of the most widespread clinical journals. RESULTS: 2204 papers on H. pylori were...

  3. Diagnostic and prognostic role of semantic processing in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Annalena; Jahn-Carta, Caroline; Marco, Matteo De; Quaranta, Davide; Marra, Camillo

    2018-06-13

    Relatively spared during most of the timeline of normal aging, semantic memory shows a subtle yet measurable decline even during the pre-clinical stage of Alzheimer's disease. This decline is thought to reflect early neurofibrillary changes and impairment is detectable using tests of language relying on lexical-semantic abilities. A promising approach is the characterization of semantic parameters such as typicality and age of acquisition of words, and propositional density from verbal output. Seminal research like the Nun Study or the analysis of the linguistic decline of famous writers and politicians later diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease supports the early diagnostic value of semantic processing and semantic memory. Moreover, measures of these skills may play an important role for the prognosis of patients with mild cognitive impairment.

  4. Facilitating empowerment in employees with chronic disease: qualitative analysis of the process of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, Inge; Heutink, Annelies; Landman, Selma; Koning, Cees E M; de Vries, Gabe; van Dijk, Frank J H

    2009-12-01

    In the field of healthcare, empowering patients who have a chronic disease is defined as increasing their knowledge and skills, in order to enable them to define their treatment goals and take personal responsibility for their medical treatment. Our goal was to explore the nature of empowerment for employees who have a chronic disease and who experience work-related problems. We used an explorative qualitative approach to document, from a professional perspective, the experiences of patients who participated in an empowerment training program. The researcher and the three instructors identified several themes which appeared to be important to many participants. These themes were fine-tuned and illustrated using brief case histories. We identified seven themes and characterized them in terms of employee tasks. These included: (1) developing a realistic understanding of one's abilities, (2) standing up for oneself in a self-confident way, (3) maintaining social relations based on mutual understanding with supervisors and colleagues, (4) collecting and assimilating knowledge of one's options, rights and duties, (5) consulting others and negotiating with regard to work accommodations, (6) planning one's job so as to provide personal satisfaction, and (7) maintaining a social life outside work. Not every employee is faced with all of these tasks, but most have to deal with several. Empowerment presupposes that employees with a chronic disease can act to solve problems at the workplace. The experiences during a comprehensive empowerment training illustrate that a process of reflection on personal emotions and a cognitive process of exploration and identification of bottlenecks at work may precede these actions. Our primary contribution is the aforementioned list of seven common tasks that many workers have to perform. Disseminating the list can support employees who have a chronic disease and may also be useful for their managers, HRM staff, occupational health and other

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 levels and APP processing pathway genes in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekris, Lynn M; Tsuang, Debby W; Peskind, Elaine R; Yu, Chang E; Montine, Thomas J; Zhang, Jing; Zabetian, Cyrus P; Leverenz, James B

    2015-06-01

    Of recent interest is the finding that certain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers traditionally linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD), specifically amyloid beta protein (Aβ), are abnormal in PD CSF. The aim of this exploratory investigation was to determine whether genetic variation within the amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing pathway genes correlates with CSF Aβ42 levels in Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkinson's disease (n = 86) and control (n = 161) DNA were genotyped for 19 regulatory region tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within nine genes (APP, ADAM10, BACE1, BACE2, PSEN1, PSEN2, PEN2, NCSTN, and APH1B) involved in the cleavage of APP. The SNP genotypes were tested for their association with CSF biomarkers and PD risk while adjusting for age, sex, and APOE ɛ4 status. Significant correlation with CSF Aβ42 levels in PD was observed for two SNPs, (APP rs466448 and APH1B rs2068143). Conversely, significant correlation with CSF Aβ42 levels in controls was observed for three SNPs (APP rs214484, rs2040273, and PSEN1 rs362344). In addition, results of this exploratory investigation suggest that an APP SNP and an APH1B SNP are marginally associated with PD CSF Aβ42 levels in APOE ɛ4 noncarriers. Further hypotheses generated include that decreased CSF Aβ42 levels are in part driven by genetic variation in APP processing genes. Additional investigation into the relationship between these findings and clinical characteristics of PD, including cognitive impairment, compared with other neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD, are warranted. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  6. Process strategies to improve heterologous protein production in Escherichia coli under lactose or IPTG induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilikian, B. V.; Surarez, I. D.; Liria, C. W.

    2000-01-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli BL21 bearing the chicken muscle Troponin C (TnC) gene under the control of the lacUV5 promoter were induced under different cultivation conditions and the consequences on growth and cell protein content were investigated. The type of inducer molecule (lactose or IPTG...... per gram dry cell weight (DCW), was achieved when isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) was the inducer. Under lactose induction, a value of 96 mg per gram DCW was attained. However, the high metabolic load imposed by IPTG, when compared with lactose induction, as assessed by the cell protein...... content and stability, indicates that lactose is probably the most appropriate inducer for the synthesis of this heterologous protein. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Does radiographic arthrosis correlate with cartilage pathology in Labrador Retrievers affected by medial coronoid process disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michael; Heller, Jane; Solano, Miguel; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Sparrow, Tim; Kowaleski, Mike

    2014-02-01

    To compare radiographic elbow arthrosis with arthroscopic cartilage pathology in Labrador retrievers with elbow osteoarthritis secondary to medial coronoid process (MCP) disease. Retrospective epidemiological study. Labrador retrievers (n = 317; 592 elbow joints). Data were collected retrospectively (June 2007-June 2011) to identify Labrador retrievers with thoracic limb lameness and elbow pain, a complete set of elbow radiographs, and a comprehensive arthroscopic surgery report. Each radiograph was scored for osteophytosis on the anconeal process and ulnar subtrochlear sclerosis using a modification of the International Elbow Working Group (IEWG) scoring system. Elbows affected by traumatic MCP fracture, humeral condylar osteochondrosis, or ununited anconeal process were excluded. The arthroscopic report was used to generate a composite cartilage score (CCS; 0 = normal, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe) for each elbow joint. Ordinal regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between radiographic arthrosis score and CCS. There was a significant relationship between radiographic elbow arthrosis and CCS (P arthrosis can be used to predict the severity of arthroscopic cartilage pathology in Labrador retrievers affected by MCP disease. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Abnormal thiamine-dependent processes in Alzheimer's Disease. Lessons from diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gary E; Hirsch, Joseph A; Cirio, Rosanna T; Jordan, Barry D; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Elder, Jessica

    2013-07-01

    Reduced glucose metabolism is an invariant feature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and an outstanding biomarker of disease progression. Glucose metabolism may be an attractive therapeutic target, whether the decline initiates AD pathophysiology or is a critical component of a cascade. The cause of cerebral regional glucose hypometabolism remains unclear. Thiamine-dependent processes are critical in glucose metabolism and are diminished in brains of AD patients at autopsy. Further, the reductions in thiamine-dependent processes are highly correlated to the decline in clinical dementia rating scales. In animal models, thiamine deficiency exacerbates plaque formation, promotes phosphorylation of tau and impairs memory. In contrast, treatment of mouse models of AD with the thiamine derivative benfotiamine diminishes plaques, decreases phosphorylation of tau and reverses memory deficits. Diabetes predisposes to AD, which suggests they may share some common mechanisms. Benfotiamine diminishes peripheral neuropathy in diabetic humans and animals. In diabetes, benfotiamine induces key thiamine-dependent enzymes of the pentose shunt to reduce accumulation of toxic metabolites including advanced glycation end products (AGE). Related mechanisms may lead to reversal of plaque formation by benfotiamine in animals. If so, the use of benfotiamine could provide a safe intervention to reverse biological and clinical processes of AD progression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondrial function and dysfunction in neurodegeneration'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Abnormal Thiamine-Dependent Processes in Alzheimer’s Disease. Lessons from Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gary E.; Hirsch, Joseph A.; Cirio, Rosanna T.; Jordan, Barry D.; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Elder, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Reduced glucose metabolism is an invariant feature of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and an outstanding biomarker of disease progression. Glucose metabolism may be an attractive therapeutic target, whether the decline initiates AD pathophysiology or is a critical component of a cascade. The cause of cerebral regional glucose hypometabolism remains unclear. Thiamine-dependent processes are critical in glucose metabolism and are diminished in brains of AD patients at autopsy. Further, the reductions in thiamine-dependent processes are highly correlated to the decline in clinical dementia rating scales. In animal models, thiamine deficiency exacerbates plaque formation, promotes phosphorylation of tau and impairs memory. In contrast, treatment of mouse models of AD with the thiamine derivative benfotiamine diminishes plaques, decreases phosphorylation of tau and reverses memory deficits. Diabetes predisposes to AD, which suggests they may share some common mechanisms. Benfotiamine diminishes peripheral neuropathy in diabetic humans and animals. In diabetes, benfotiamine induces key thiamine-dependent enzymes of the pentose shunt to reduce accumulation of toxic metabolites including advanced glycation end products (AGE). Related mechanisms may lead to reversal of plaque formation by benfotiamine in animals. If so, the use of benfotiamine could provide a safe intervention to reverse biological and clinical processes of AD progression. PMID:22982063

  10. Conditions for the Occurrence of Slaking and Other Disaggregation Processes under Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Darboux

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Under rainfall conditions, aggregates may suffer breakdown by different mechanisms. Slaking is a very efficient breakdown mechanism. However, its occurrence under rainfall conditions has not been demonstrated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of slaking under rain. Two soils with silt loam (SL and clay loam (CL textures were analyzed. Two classes of aggregates were utilized: 1–3 mm and 3–5 mm. The aggregates were submitted to stability tests and to high intensity (90 mm·h−1 and low intensity (28 mm·h−1 rainfalls, and different kinetic energy impacts (large and small raindrops using a rainfall simulator. The fragment size distributions were determined both after the stability tests and rainfall simulations, with the calculation of the mean weighted diameter (MWD. After the stability tests the SL presented smaller MWDs for all stability tests when compared to the CL. In both soils the lowest MWD was obtained using the fast wetting test, showing they were sensitive to slaking. For both soils and the two aggregate classes evaluated, the MWDs were recorded from the early beginning of the rainfall event under the four rainfall conditions. The occurrence of slaking in the evaluated soils was not verified under the simulated rainfall conditions studied. The early disaggregation was strongly related to the cumulative kinetic energy, advocating for the occurrence of mechanical breakdown. Because slaking requires a very high wetting rate on initially dry aggregates, it seems unlikely to occur under field conditions, except perhaps for furrow irrigation.

  11. Exploration on practice teaching reform of Photoelectric Image Processing course under applied transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Binfang; Li, Xiaoqin; Liu, Changqing; Li, Jianqi

    2017-08-01

    With the further applied transformation of local colleges, teachers are urgently needed to make corresponding changes in the teaching content and methods from different courses. The article discusses practice teaching reform of the Photoelectric Image Processing course in the Optoelectronic Information Science and Engineering major. The Digital Signal Processing (DSP) platform is introduced to the experimental teaching. It will mobilize and inspire students and also enhance their learning motivation and innovation through specific examples. The course via teaching practice process has become the most popular course among students, which will further drive students' enthusiasm and confidence to participate in all kinds of electronic competitions.

  12. The investigation and comparison of the underlying needs of common disruptive behaviours in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Jane; Pai, Ming-Chyi; Hsiao, Hua-Shan; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2015-12-01

    Management of the disruptive behaviours is one of the most challenging aspects of caring for patients with Alzheimer's dementia (PwAD). The underlying needs of disruptive behaviours in PwAD had rarely been studied, especially the comparison of the underlying needs of disruptive behaviours in PwAD have never been mentioned. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the underlying needs of five common disruptive behaviours including hoarding, aggressive behaviour, repetitive behaviour, altered eating behaviour and delusion in PwAD, as perceived by family caregivers, and to relate these needs from the perspective of Maslow's hierarchy. An exploratory research design with qualitative data collection techniques was employed. Informed consent was obtained from each participant prior to the data collection. A total of 65 pairs of caregiver-patient with Alzheimer's disease participated in the study. A semi-structured interview guide was used during the interview, and the directed content analysis method was conducted to analyse data. Four themes related to the underlying needs of the five selected disruptive behaviours emerged from the data, and these included a desire for comfort (physical and psychological), a desire for security (psychological and economic), a need for a sense of belonging (including a need to connect with the outside world and a need for attention) and a need for self-control. These behaviour features were found closely related to Maslow's hierarchy model of human needs. Although the data were gathered from the caregivers, and the views of the patients were thus not included in the analysis, t