WorldWideScience

Sample records for underlying disease includes

  1. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can make it hard to breathe. Certain vaccinepreventable diseases can also increase swelling of your airways and lungs. The combination of the two can lead to pneumonia and other serious respiratory illnesses. Vaccines are one of the safest ways ...

  2. Diseases of the abdomen including the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, C.; Tanaka, H.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the following diseases: fatty liver; cystic disease of the liver; liver abscess; liver cirrhosis; hepatic hemangioma; cholelithiasis; primary liver cancer; cholangioma; cancer of the common bile duct; pancreatic cyst; pancreatic calculi; chronic pancreatitis; pancreatic pseudocyst; chronic pancreatitis: pancreatic fatty degeneration; cancer of the pancreas; nonfunctioning kidney: chalk kidney; polycystic kidney; perirenal calcified abscess; renal infarct; cancer of the renal pelvis; adrenal pheochromocytoma; adenoma of the adrenal cortex; leiomyosarcoma of the stomach; malignant mesothelioma; intraperitoneal abscess; perityphlic abscess; retroperitoneal reticulum cell sarcoma; and retroperitoneal cyst

  3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button NCHS Home Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Includes: Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Recommend on Facebook ... Percent of visits to office-based physicians with COPD indicated on the medical record: 3.2% Source: ...

  4. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with

  5. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  6. The nutritional geometry of liver disease including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David; Cogger, Victoria C; Macia, Laurence; Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Le Couteur, David G; George, Jacob

    2018-02-01

    Nutrition has a profound effect on chronic liver disease, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Most observational studies and clinical trials have focussed on the effects of total energy intake, or the intake of individual macronutrients and certain micronutrients, such as vitamin D, on liver disease. Although these studies have shown the importance of nutrition on hepatic outcomes, there is not yet any unifying framework for understanding the relationship between diet and liver disease. The Geometric Framework for Nutrition (GFN) is an innovative model for designing nutritional experiments or interpreting nutritional data that can determine the effects of nutrients and their interactions on animal behaviour and phenotypes. Recently the GFN has provided insights into the relationship between dietary energy and macronutrients on obesity and ageing in mammals including humans. Mouse studies using the GFN have disentangled the effects of macronutrients on fatty liver and the gut microbiome. The GFN is likely to play a significant role in disentangling the effects of nutrients on liver disease, especially NAFLD, in humans. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A unified pathogenesis for kidney diseases, including genetic diseases and cancers, by the protein-homeostasis-system hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Yil

    2017-06-01

    Every cell of an organism is separated and protected by a cell membrane. It is proposed that harmony between intercellular communication and the health of an organism is controlled by a system, designated the protein-homeostasis-system (PHS). Kidneys consist of a variety of types of renal cells, each with its own characteristic cell-receptor interactions and producing characteristic proteins. A functional union of these renal cells can be determined by various renal function tests, and harmonious intercellular communication is essential for the healthy state of the host. Injury to a kind of renal cells can impair renal function and induce an imbalance in total body health. Every acute or chronic renal disease has unknown etiologic substances that are responsible for renal cell injury at the molecular level. The immune/repair system of the host should control the etiologic substances acting against renal cells; if this system fails, the disease progresses to end stage renal disease. Each renal disease has its characteristic pathologic lesions where immune cells and immune proteins, such as immunoglobulins and complements, are infiltrated. These immune cells and immune proteins may control the etiologic substances involved in renal pathologic lesions. Also, genetic renal diseases and cancers may originate from a protein deficiency or malfunctioning protein under the PHS. A unified pathogenesis for renal diseases, including acute glomerulonephritis, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, genetic renal diseases such as Alport syndrome, and malignancies such as Wilms tumor and renal cell carcinoma, is proposed using the PHS hypothesis.

  8. Depression and Chronic Liver Diseases: Are There Shared Underlying Mechanisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of depression is higher in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD than that in the general population. The mechanism described in previous studies mainly focused on inflammation and stress, which not only exists in CLD, but also emerges in common chronic diseases, leaving the specific mechanism unknown. This review was to summarize the prevalence and risk factors of depression in CLD including chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and to point out the possible underlying mechanism of this potential link. Clarifying the origins of this common comorbidity (depression and CLD may provide more information to understand both diseases.

  9. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): a clinicoradiological profile of three cases including two with skeletal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Priya; Babyn, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Originally described as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare histiocytic proliferative disorder with a distinctive microscopic appearance. A rare entity, RDD is often under-diagnosed because of a low index of suspicion by both radiologist and pathologist. Through this article, we wish to apprise radiologists of the spectrum of disease that can be encountered in this disorder. RDD can mimic other common childhood skeletal diseases including benign Langerhans cell histiocytosis and lymphoma. The clinical and radiological manifestations of RDD vary depending upon organ involvement, and its imaging features are often confused with those of other disorders. RDD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unifocal and multifocal skeletal involvement caused by granulomatous diseases, infections, pseudogranulomatous lesions and malignancy. As long-term outcome is usually good, a conservative approach is justified in most cases. Contrasted with its typical appearance, presenting with bilateral symmetrical cervical adenopathy (as shown in one patient), we also report extranodal involvement of bone in two patients. Extranodal disease occurs along with concomitant nodal disease in about 43% of patients. In 23% of patients, isolated extranodal RDD can be seen, most commonly in the head and neck. In two of our patients, we observed extranodal involvement with skeletal involvement away from the head and neck not associated with lymphadenopathy. Skeletal involvement in RDD without lymphadenopathy is rare, occurring only in 2% of all the patients reported to date. (orig.)

  10. Cylindrical shell under impact load including transverse shear and normal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakeri, M.; Eslami, M.R.; Ghassaa, M.; Ohadi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The general governing equations of shell of revolution under shock loads are reduced to equations describing the elastic behavior of cylindrical shell under axisymmetric impact load. The effect of lateral normal stress, transverse shear, and rotary inertia are included, and the equations are solved by Galerkin finite element method. The results are compared with the previous works of authors. (author)

  11. STRESS AS PREDISPOSING FACTOR OF SOME CHRONIC DISEASES INCLUDING PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi-Nurul M Dewi-Nurul

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is hypothesized as a common pathway for several related chronic diseases of man. Psychosocial stress as modified by perceptions and coping by patients can lead to physical processes. Psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI studies have suggested that psychosocial stress can alter immune function and increase vulnerability to illnesses. The patients also have high sensitivity to periodontal disease (PD. This article describes the association of stress as a physiological response to diseases such as PD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and inflammatory bowel disease. The psychosocial stress can lead to physiological processes through 1 the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis leading to glucocortico-steroid secretion; 2 the autonomic nervous system, resulting in the release of catecholamine; or 3 the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in the release of sex hormones. These processes may affect chronic diseases. It can be concluded that psychosocial stress in periodontal disease patients must be considered and social support must be provided in order to achieve an optimum periodontal therapy result.

  12. Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato; Lepe-Lopez, Manuel A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-12-01

    More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian regions to the Andes Mountains; however, a detailed characterization of the distribution of their vectors has never been carried out. We estimate the distribution of 14 vectors of the above vector-borne diseases under present-day and future climates. Our results consistently suggest that climate warming is likely threatening some vector species with extinction, locally or completely. These results suggest that climate change could reduce the burden of specific vector species. Other vector species are likely to shift and constrain their geographic range to the highlands in Ecuador potentially affecting novel areas and populations. These forecasts show the need for development of early prevention strategies for vector species currently absent in areas projected as suitable under future climate conditions. Informed interventions could reduce the risk of human exposure to vector species with distributional shifts, in response to current and future climate changes. Based on the mixed effects of future climate on human exposure to disease vectors, we argue that research on vector-borne diseases should be cross-scale and include climatic, demographic, and landscape factors, as well as forces facilitating disease transmission at fine scales.

  13. 25 CFR 20.401 - What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What...

  14. Relationship between sleep duration and childhood obesity: Systematic review including the potential underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felső, R; Lohner, S; Hollódy, K; Erhardt, É; Molnár, D

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity is continually increasing worldwide. Determining risk factors for obesity may facilitate effective preventive programs. The present review focuses on sleep duration as a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim is to summarize the evidence on the association of sleep duration and obesity and to discuss the underlying potential physiological and/or pathophysiological mechanisms. The Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for papers using text words with appropriate truncation and relevant indexing terms. All studies objectively measuring sleep duration and investigating the association between sleep duration and obesity or factors (lifestyle and hormonal) possibly associated with obesity were included, without making restrictions based on study design or language. Data from eligible studies were extracted in tabular form and summarized narratively. After removing duplicates, 3540 articles were obtained. Finally, 33 studies (including 3 randomized controlled trials and 30 observational studies) were included in the review. Sleep duration seems to influence weight gain in children, however, the underlying explanatory mechanisms are still uncertain. In our review only the link between short sleep duration and the development of insulin resistance, sedentarism and unhealthy dietary patterns could be verified, while the role of other mediators, such as physical activity, screen time, change in ghrelin and leptin levels, remained uncertain. There are numerous evidence gaps. To answer the remaining questions, there is a need for studies meeting high methodological standards and including a large number of children. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Neural correlates underlying micrographia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Jiarong; Hallett, Mark; Feng, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Chan, Piu

    2016-01-01

    Micrographia is a common symptom in Parkinson's disease, which manifests as either a consistent or progressive reduction in the size of handwriting or both. Neural correlates underlying micrographia remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate micrographia-related neural activity and connectivity modulations. In addition, the effect of attention and dopaminergic administration on micrographia was examined. We found that consistent micrographia was associated with decreased activity and connectivity in the basal ganglia motor circuit; while progressive micrographia was related to the dysfunction of basal ganglia motor circuit together with disconnections between the rostral supplementary motor area, rostral cingulate motor area and cerebellum. Attention significantly improved both consistent and progressive micrographia, accompanied by recruitment of anterior putamen and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Levodopa improved consistent micrographia accompanied by increased activity and connectivity in the basal ganglia motor circuit, but had no effect on progressive micrographia. Our findings suggest that consistent micrographia is related to dysfunction of the basal ganglia motor circuit; while dysfunction of the basal ganglia motor circuit and disconnection between the rostral supplementary motor area, rostral cingulate motor area and cerebellum likely contributes to progressive micrographia. Attention improves both types of micrographia by recruiting additional brain networks. Levodopa improves consistent micrographia by restoring the function of the basal ganglia motor circuit, but does not improve progressive micrographia, probably because of failure to repair the disconnected networks. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying outer retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefevere, Evy; Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Vohra, Rupali

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or both contribute to the initiation and progression of several outer retinal disorders. Disrupted Müller glia function might additionally subsidize to these diseases. Mitochondrial malfunctioning is importantly associated with outer...

  17. Finite element study of a HDR-RPV-section including a nozzle under thermal shock transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Katzenmeier, G [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Wanner, R; Mercier, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1988-12-31

    This document presents a finite element study of a reactor pressure vessel section under thermal stresses. The strength properties of the vessel walls are studied as well as cracks due to the thermo-shock transient. (TEC). 6 refs.

  18. The disease related deaths due to differentiated thyroid carcinomas treated multidisciplinary, including radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, Lj.; Kermeci, K.; Malesevic, M.; Mihailovic, J.; Srbovan, D.; Popadic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the disease related deaths of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients treated multidisciplinary, including radioiodine. Patients and Methods: 364 DTC patients were treated from 1977 to the end of 2000. All patients were operated, treated by radioiodine and by hormonal therapy, external radiotherapy was applied in 22 and chemotherapy in 6 of them. 54 treated patients were lost from the follow-up. The course of disease and outcomes are known in 310 patients, among them 53 patients died. The disease related deaths occurred in 33 (10.6%) patients. Results: Between 33 patients whose deaths were in relation with DTC the disease progression was the cause of deaths in 30 (9.7% of treated) patients (the locoregional disease in 10, distant metastases /M1/ in 17, locoregional disease + M1 in 3 patients). From the late complications of treatment died 3 (1%) patients (all of them were in complete remission to the deaths). The mean survival of these 33 patients from the diagnosis to the end of the life was 6.9 years, median 5.1 years, range 2 months to 23.9 years. The five years survived 54.6% of them, 10 years 21.2% and more than 20 years 3%. M1 had 72.7% of patients (lung and/or bone M1 were present in 91.7% of them), N1 had 69.7% and in 30.3% local tumor was T4. In relation to all treated patients died 14.6% men compared to 9% women (p<0.05), 15.7% of patients 45 years old or older compared to 4.4% of younger then 45 years (p<0.001) and 21.3% of patients with follicular type of DTC compared to 7.3% with papillary type (p<0.001). From all patients without radioiodine accumulation in tumor tissue died 60%. Conclusion: The DTC related deaths were the consequence of M1 and less frequently the result of locoregional disease (T4 and/or N1) in about 1/10 of all treated patients. The deaths as result of the late complications of treatment were exceptional. The deaths were significantly more frequent between males, patients 45 years old or older and patients

  19. Simulating irradiation hardening in tungsten under fast neutron irradiation including Re production by transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Hsi; Gilbert, Mark R.; Marian, Jaime

    2018-02-01

    Simulations of neutron damage under fusion energy conditions must capture the effects of transmutation, both in terms of accurate chemical inventory buildup as well as the physics of the interactions between transmutation elements and irradiation defect clusters. In this work, we integrate neutronics, primary damage calculations, molecular dynamics results, Re transmutation calculations, and stochastic cluster dynamics simulations to study neutron damage in single-crystal tungsten to mimic divertor materials. To gauge the accuracy and validity of the simulations, we first study the material response under experimental conditions at the JOYO fast reactor in Japan and the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for which measurements of cluster densities and hardening levels up to 2 dpa exist. We then provide calculations under expected DEMO fusion conditions. Several key mechanisms involving Re atoms and defect clusters are found to govern the accumulation of irradiation damage in each case. We use established correlations to translate damage accumulation into hardening increases and compare our results to the experimental measurements. We find hardening increases in excess of 5000 MPa in all cases, which casts doubts about the integrity of W-based materials under long-term fusion exposure.

  20. Short-term Evaluation of a Comprehensive Education Program Including Inhaler Training and Disease Management on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kwang Ha; Chung, Wou Young; Park, Joo Hun; Hwang, Sung Chul; Kim, Tae Eun; Oh, Min Jung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Kim, Sang Ha; Yum, Ho Kee

    2017-10-01

    Proper education regarding inhaler usage and optimal management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is essential for effectively treating patients with COPD. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive education program including inhaler training and COPD management. We enlisted 127 patients with COPD on an outpatient basis at 43 private clinics in Korea. The patients were educated on inhaler usage and disease management for three visits across 2 weeks. Physicians and patients were administered a COPD assessment test (CAT) and questionnaires about the correct usage of inhalers and management of COPD before commencement of this program and after their third visit. The outcomes of 127 COPD patients were analyzed. CAT scores (19.6±12.5 vs. 15.1±12.3) improved significantly after this program (pmanagement and the correct technique for using inhalers than those who did not have improved CAT scores (peducation program including inhaler training and COPD management at a primary care setting improved CAT scores and led to patients' better understanding of COPD management. Copyright©2017. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases

  1. Description of an oral Chagas disease outbreak in Venezuela, including a vertically transmitted case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Pérez-Chacón, Gladymar; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Dickson, Sonia; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Hernández, Carlos; Pérez, Yadira; Mauriello, Luciano; Moronta, Eyleen

    2017-08-01

    We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests. Acute orally transmitted Chagas disease can be life threatening or even fatal for pregnant women and unborn fetuses owing to vertical transmission. There is therefore an urgent need to improve national epidemiologic control measures.

  2. 77 FR 59986 - Johnson Controls Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under IMECO LLC; North American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... applicable to workers and former workers of Johnson Controls, North American Refrigeration, Dixon, Illinois... to TA-W-71,663 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Johnson Controls, including workers whose... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,663] Johnson Controls...

  3. 48 CFR 852.236-83 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (including NAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CPM) network. (4) The CPM network shall include a separate cost loaded activity for adjusting and... shall show on the critical path method (CPM) network the total cost of the guarantee period services in... contracting officer. The activity on the CPM shall have money only and not activity time. (ii) The contractor...

  4. Information required from States, including 'small quantities protocol' status, under the Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuley, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Model, or Additional, Protocol to the Model Safeguards Agreement, INFCIRC/153, contains, inter alia, provisions for expanded declarations from Member States to the IAEA. These provisions include earlier design information declarations and information on fuel cycles activities, such a mining and milling, that were not previously part of safeguards. The session discusses the extent of the expanded declarations and provides examples of the forms that will be used to provide the information to the Agency. (author)

  5. Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian...

  6. Fatigue Behavior under Multiaxial Stress States Including Notch Effects and Variable Amplitude Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Nicholas R.

    The central objective of the research performed in this study was to be able to better understand and predict fatigue crack initiation and growth from stress concentrations subjected to complex service loading histories. As such, major areas of focus were related to the understanding and modeling of material deformation behavior, fatigue damage quantification, notch effects, cycle counting, damage accumulation, and crack growth behavior under multiaxial nominal loading conditions. To support the analytical work, a wide variety of deformation and fatigue tests were also performed using tubular and plate specimens made from 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, with and without the inclusion of a circular through-thickness hole. However, the analysis procedures implemented were meant to be general in nature, and applicable to a wide variety of materials and component geometries. As a result, experimental data from literature were also used, when appropriate, to supplement the findings of various analyses. Popular approaches currently used for multiaxial fatigue life analysis are based on the idea of computing an equivalent stress/strain quantity through the extension of static yield criteria. This equivalent stress/strain is then considered to be equal, in terms of fatigue damage, to a uniaxial loading of the same magnitude. However, it has often been shown, and was shown again in this study, that although equivalent stress- and strain-based analysis approaches may work well in certain situations, they lack a general robustness and offer little room for improvement. More advanced analysis techniques, on the other hand, provide an opportunity to more accurately account for various aspects of the fatigue failure process under both constant and variable amplitude loading conditions. As a result, such techniques were of primary interest in the investigations performed. By implementing more advanced life prediction methodologies, both the overall accuracy and the correlation of fatigue

  7. [Circadian blood pressure variation under several pathophysiological conditions including secondary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yutaka; Hosaka, Miki; Satoh, Michihiro

    2014-08-01

    Abnormality of circadian blood pressure (BP) variation, i.e. non-dipper, riser, nocturnal hypertension etc, is brought by several pathophysiological conditions especially by secondary hypertension. These pathophysiological conditions are classified into several categories, i.e. disturbance of autonomic nervous system, metabolic disorder, endocrine disorder, disorder of Na and water excretion (e.g. sodium sensitivity), severe target organ damage and ischemia, cardiovascular complications and drug induced hypertension. Each pathophysiological condition which brings disturbance of circadian BP variation is included in several categories, e.g. diabetes mellitus is included in metabolic disorder, autonomic imbalance, sodium sensitivity and endocrine disorder. However, it seems that unified principle of the genesis of disturbance of circadian BP variation in many pathophysiological conditions is autonomic imbalance. Thus, it is concluded that disturbance of circadian BP variation is not purposive biological behavior but the result of autonomic imbalance which looks as if compensatory reaction such as exaggerated Na-water excretion during night in patient with Na-water retention who reveals disturbed circadian BP variation.

  8. Network optimization including gas lift and network parameters under subsurface uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Riegert, R.; Baffoe, J.; Pajonk, O. [SPT Group GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Badalov, H.; Huseynov, S. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE; Trick, M. [SPT Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Optimization of oil and gas field production systems poses a great challenge to field development due to complex and multiple interactions between various operational design parameters and subsurface uncertainties. Conventional analytical methods are capable of finding local optima based on single deterministic models. They are less applicable for efficiently generating alternative design scenarios in a multi-objective context. Practical implementations of robust optimization workflows integrate the evaluation of alternative design scenarios and multiple realizations of subsurface uncertainty descriptions. Production or economic performance indicators such as NPV (Net Present Value) are linked to a risk-weighted objective function definition to guide the optimization processes. This work focuses on an integrated workflow using a reservoir-network simulator coupled to an optimization framework. The work will investigate the impact of design parameters while considering the physics of the reservoir, wells, and surface facilities. Subsurface uncertainties are described by well parameters such as inflow performance. Experimental design methods are used to investigate parameter sensitivities and interactions. Optimization methods are used to find optimal design parameter combinations which improve key performance indicators of the production network system. The proposed workflow will be applied to a representative oil reservoir coupled to a network which is modelled by an integrated reservoir-network simulator. Gas-lift will be included as an explicit measure to improve production. An objective function will be formulated for the net present value of the integrated system including production revenue and facility costs. Facility and gas lift design parameters are tuned to maximize NPV. Well inflow performance uncertainties are introduced with an impact on gas lift performance. Resulting variances on NPV are identified as a risk measure for the optimized system design. A

  9. Does a carpal tunnel syndrome predict an underlying disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. de Rijk (Maarten); F.H. Vermeij (Frederique); M. Suntjens (Maartje); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may be the presenting symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism or connective tissue disease (CTD). It was investigated whether additional blood tests (glucose level, thyroid-stimulating hormone level and erythrocyte

  10. Clinicopathological review of immunohistochemically defined Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease-including some interesting cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Gil Myeong; Kim, Jo-Heon; Lim, Gil Chai; Kim, Jinseok

    2012-10-01

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (KFD) is a benign, self-limited disease characterized by tender regional lymphadenopathy with fever. KFD remains a poorly defined disease, and no clear diagnostic criteria are available. Here, we assess the clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic findings of KFD cases and report two unusual cases. Forty KFD patients that underwent lymph node (LN) biopsy and diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining, from January 2003 to November 2010, were enrolled in this retrospective study. The patients had a mean age of 29.3 years, and 29 (72.5 %) were women. Affected LNs were mainly located unilaterally in the cervical area. Mean LN size was 15.3 mm. Twenty-eight (70 %) patients had LN tenderness, and 25 (62.5 %) patients had fever. Leukopenia was observed in 18 of 35 evaluable patients. C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated in most patients. Anti-nuclear antibody was positive in four of 19 evaluable patients, but all had been diagnosed with concurrent systemic lupus erythematosus. Histologically, the 40 cases were classified into three types, that is, as proliferative (37.5 %), necrotizing (55.0 %), or xanthomatous (7.5 %). Interesting cases: Case 1 was a 35-year-old female with KFD and uveitis, retinal vasculitis, and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Case 2 was a 47-year-old male with KFD and bone marrow involvement and presented with severe bicytopenia. Although KFD is an uncommon self-limited benign disorder, it must be included in the differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy with fever and cytopenia. It is important that the clinical features of KFD be understood to reach a correct diagnosis.

  11. Hip and pelvis diseases on lumbar AP radiographs including both hip joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Soo; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Jeong Ho; Song, Ha Heon; Shim, Dae Moo [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    To determine the frequency of disease, and to evaluate the methods used for lumbar spine radiography in Korea. Sixty university and training hospitals were randomly selected and asked to describe the projections, film size and radiographic techniques employed for routine radiography in patients with suspected disease of the lumbar spine. Plain radiographs of 1215 patients, taken using 14x17 inch film and depicting both hip joints and the lumbar region, were analysed between March 1999 and February 2000. In 15 patients (1.2%), the radiographs revealed hip or pelvic lesion, confirmed as follows: avascular necrosis of the femoral head (n=11, with bilateral lesion in four cases); sustained ankylosing spondylitis (n=2); acetabular dysplasia (n=1); and insufficiency fracture of the pubic rami secondary to osteoporosis (n=1). In 11 or the 20 hospitals which responded, 14{sup x}17{sup f}ilm was being used for lumbar radiography, while in the other nine, film size was smaller. Plain radiography of the lumbar spine including both hip joints, may be a useful way to simultaneously evaluate lesions not only of the lumbar spine but also of the hip and/or pelvis.

  12. Broader prevalence of Wolbachia in insects including potential human disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, C D; Gonçalves, D S; Baton, L A; Shimabukuro, P H F; Carvalho, F D; Moreira, L A

    2015-06-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular, maternally transmitted bacteria considered the most abundant endosymbionts found in arthropods. They reproductively manipulate their host in order to increase their chances of being transmitted to the offspring, and currently are being used as a tool to control vector-borne diseases. Studies on distribution of Wolbachia among its arthropod hosts are important both for better understanding why this bacterium is so common, as well as for its potential use as a biological control agent. Here, we studied the incidence of Wolbachia in a broad range of insect species, collected from different regions of Brazil, using three genetic markers (16S rRNA, wsp and ftsZ), which varied in terms of their sensitivity to detect this bacterium. The overall incidence of Wolbachia among species belonging to 58 families and 14 orders was 61.9%. The most common positive insect orders were Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, with Diptera and Hemiptera having the highest numbers of Wolbachia-positive families. They included potential human disease vectors whose infection status has never been reported before. Our study further shows the importance of using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for high-throughput and sensitive Wolbachia screening.

  13. Efficacy of a Multimodal Cognitive Rehabilitation Including Psychomotor and Endurance Training in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reuter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment, especially executive dysfunction might occur early in the course of Parkinson's disease. Cognitive training is thought to improve cognitive performance. However, transfer of improvements achieved in paper and pencil tests into daily life has been difficult. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a multimodal cognitive rehabilitation programme including physical exercises might be more successful than cognitive training programmes without motor training. 240 PD-patients were included in the study and randomly allocated to three treatment arms, group A cognitive training, group B cognitive training and transfer training and group C cognitive training, transfer training and psychomotor and endurance training. The primary outcome measure was the ADAS-Cog. The secondary outcome measure was the SCOPA-Cog. Training was conducted for 4 weeks on a rehabilitation unit, followed by 6 months training at home. Caregivers received an education programme. The combination of cognitive training using paper and pencil and the computer, transfer training and physical training seems to have the greatest effect on cognitive function. Thus, patients of group C showed the greatest improvement on the ADAS-Cog and SCOPA-COG and were more likely to continue with the training programme after the study.

  14. Mechanisms Underlying HIV-Associated Noninfectious Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Rachel M; Flores, Sonia C; Palmer, Brent E; Atkinson, Jeffrey J; Lesko, Catherine R; Lau, Bryan; Fontenot, Andrew P; Roman, Jesse; McDyer, John F; Twigg, Homer L

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary disease remains a primary source of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH), although the advent of potent combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a shift from predominantly infectious to noninfectious pulmonary complications. PLWH are at high risk for COPD, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer even in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. The underlying mechanisms of this are incompletely understood, but recent research in both human and animal models suggests that oxidative stress, expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and genetic instability may result in lung damage, which predisposes PLWH to these conditions. Some of the factors that drive these processes include tobacco and other substance use, direct HIV infection and expression of specific HIV proteins, inflammation, and shifts in the microbiome toward pathogenic and opportunistic organisms. Further studies are needed to understand the relative importance of these factors to the development of lung disease in PLWH. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Histiocytoid Sweet Syndrome in a Child without Underlying Systemic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seung Dohn; Ko, Hye Soo; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Kang, Min Ji; Byun, Ji Won; Choi, Gwang Seong; Shin, Jeonghyun

    2017-10-01

    Sweet syndrome (acute, febrile, neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterized by the acute onset of an eruption of painful nodules or erythematous or violaceous plaques on the limbs, face and neck. These symptoms are accompanied by fever. The diagnostic features include histopathological findings of dermal neutrophilic infiltration without leukocytoclastic vasculitis or peripheral blood leukocytosis. Sweet syndrome is associated with infection, malignancies, autoimmune disease, pregnancy, and drugs. Patients with Sweet syndrome demonstrate a complete and rapid response to systemic steroid administration. Recently, a distinct variant of Sweet syndrome was reported, termed "histiocytoid Sweet syndrome", in which the infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive histiocytoid mononuclear cells are observed (in contrast to the infiltration of neutrophils). The other clinical features are similar to those of classic Sweet syndrome. Pediatric Sweet syndrome is uncommon, and the histiocytoid type is even rarer. To date, four cases of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome have been reported in children. Herein, we describe a case of histiocytoid Sweet syndrome in an otherwise healthy 10-year-old boy with no underlying systemic disease in whom non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug treatment was successful.

  16. 20 CFR 627.220 - Coordination with programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. 627.220 Section 627.220 Employees' Benefits... of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. (a) Coordination. Financial assistance programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA) (the Pell Grant program, the...

  17. Cost of tobacco-related diseases, including passive smoking, in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, S M; Ho, L M; Lapsley, H M; Chau, J; Cheung, W L; Ho, S Y; Pow, M; Lam, T H; Hedley, A J

    2006-04-01

    Costs of tobacco-related disease can be useful evidence to support tobacco control. In Hong Kong we now have locally derived data on the risks of smoking, including passive smoking. To estimate the health-related costs of tobacco from both active and passive smoking. Using local data, we estimated active and passive smoking-attributable mortality, hospital admissions, outpatient, emergency and general practitioner visits for adults and children, use of nursing homes and domestic help, time lost from work due to illness and premature mortality in the productive years. Morbidity risk data were used where possible but otherwise estimates based on mortality risks were used. Utilisation was valued at unit costs or from survey data. Work time lost was valued at the median wage and an additional costing included a value of USD 1.3 million for a life lost. In the Hong Kong population of 6.5 million in 1998, the annual value of direct medical costs, long term care and productivity loss was USD 532 million for active smoking and USD 156 million for passive smoking; passive smoking accounted for 23% of the total costs. Adding the value of attributable lives lost brought the annual cost to USD 9.4 billion. The health costs of tobacco use are high and represent a net loss to society. Passive smoking increases these costs by at least a quarter. This quantification of the costs of tobacco provides strong motivation for legislative action on smoke-free areas in the Asia Pacific Region and elsewhere.

  18. Reliability and limitation of various diagnostic methods including nuclear medicine in myocardial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyasu, Yoshiki; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Yamazaki, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, nuclear method, cardiac catheterization, left ventriculography and endomyocardial biopsy (biopsy) were performed in 40 cases of cardiomyopathy (CM), 9 of endocardial fibroelastosis and 19 of specific heart muscle disease, and the usefulness and limitation of each method was comparatively estimated. In CM, various methods including biopsy were performed. The 40 patients were classified into 3 groups, i.e., hypertrophic (17), dilated (20) and non-hypertrophic.non-dilated (3) on the basis of left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy of the ventricular wall. The hypertrophic group was divided into 4 subgroups: 9 septal, 4 apical, 2 posterior and 2 anterior. The nuclear study is useful in assessing the site of the abnormal ventricular thickening, perfusion defect and ventricular function. Echocardiography is most useful in detecting asymmetric septal hypertrophy. The biopsy gives the sole diagnostic clue, especially in non-hypertrophic.non-dilated cardiomyopathy. ECG is useful in all cases but correlation with the site of disproportional hypertrophy was not obtained. (J.P.N.)

  19. Including refugees in disease elimination: challenges observed from a sleeping sickness programme in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Robert, Okello; Kansiime, Freddie

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring equity between forcibly-displaced and host area populations is a key challenge for global elimination programmes. We studied Uganda's response to the recent refugee influx from South Sudan to identify key governance and operational lessons for national sleeping sickness programmes working with displaced populations today. A refugee policy which favours integration of primary healthcare services for refugee and host populations and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect sleeping sickness at this health system level makes Uganda well-placed to include refugees in sleeping sickness surveillance. Using ethnographic observations of coordination meetings, review of programme data, interviews with sleeping sickness and refugee authorities and group discussions with health staff and refugees (2013-2016), we nevertheless identified some key challenges to equitably integrating refugees into government sleeping sickness surveillance. Despite fears that refugees were at risk of disease and posed a threat to elimination, six months into the response, programme coordinators progressed to a sentinel surveillance strategy in districts hosting the highest concentrations of refugees. This meant that RDTs, the programme's primary surveillance tool, were removed from most refugee-serving facilities, exacerbating existing inequitable access to surveillance and leading refugees to claim that their access to sleeping sickness tests had been better in South Sudan. This was not intentionally done to exclude refugees from care, rather, four key governance challenges made it difficult for the programme to recognise and correct inequities affecting refugees: (a) perceived donor pressure to reduce the sleeping sickness programme's scope without clear international elimination guidance on surveillance quality; (b) a problematic history of programme relations with refugee-hosting districts which strained supervision of surveillance quality; (c) difficulties that

  20. Shared activity patterns arising at genetic susceptibility loci reveal underlying genomic and cellular architecture of human disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baillie, J. Kenneth; Bretherick, Andrew; Haley, Christopher S.

    2018-01-01

    Genetic variants underlying complex traits, including disease susceptibility, are enriched within the transcriptional regulatory elements, promoters and enhancers. There is emerging evidence that regulatory elements associated with particular traits or diseases share similar patterns of transcrip...

  1. Newcastle disease: An in-depth review including epidemiology and molecular diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections of birds with strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), (synonyms: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), pigeon PMV-1 (PPMV-1)) are associated with two clinical outcomes: 1) Newcastle disease (ND) results from infections with virulent APMV-1, and is also called Exotic ND (END) in U. S...

  2. Metabolic epidermal necrosis in two dogs with different underlying diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R; McNeil, P E; Evans, H; Srebernik, N

    1995-05-06

    Two dogs with metabolic epidermal necrosis had hyperkeratosis of the footpads accompanied by erythematous, erosive and crusting lesions affecting the muzzle, external genitalia, perineum and periocular regions. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a superficial hydropic dermatitis with marked parakeratosis. Both dogs had high plasma activities of alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase and high concentrations of glucose, and also a marked hypoaminoacidaemia. Despite these similarities, the cutaneous eruptions were associated with different underlying diseases. One dog had a pancreatic carcinoma which had metastasised widely; the primary tumour and the metastases showed glucagon immunoreactivity on immunocytochemical staining, and the dog's plasma glucagon concentration was markedly greater than that of control dogs. The other dog had diffuse hepatic disease; its plasma glucagon concentration was similar to that of control samples and cirrhosis was identified post mortem. Metabolic epidermal necrosis in dogs is a distinct cutaneous reaction pattern which may be associated with different underlying systemic diseases; however, the pathogenesis of the skin lesions remains unclear.

  3. [Advances on pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine under disease states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zi-peng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Rui-jie; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Xiao-xin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, more and more research shows that the pharmacokinetic parameter of traditional Chinese medicine can be affected by the disease states. It's possible that drug metabolic enzymes, transporters, cell membrane permeability and the change of microbes group could be interfered with physiological and pathological changes, which enables the pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine in the body to be altered, including the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and then the pharmacokinetic parameters of traditional chinese medicine are altered. It's found that investigating the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the pathological state is more useful than that of in normal state because the great part of traditional Chinese medicine is mainly used to treat disease. This article reflects the latest research on the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the disease state such as diabete, cerebral ischemia, liver injury, inflammatory disease, nervous system disorders and fever in order to provide certain reference for clinicians designing reasonable administration dose.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome and periodontal disease: Underlying links- A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Chandana Tanguturi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, which negatively affects various health systems. There is an extensive literature regarding the association of PCOS and other systemic conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and psychological disorders. However, there is a lack of literature in associating PCOS and periodontal disease. Hence, PubMed search was done for various articles related to PCOS and its association with other comorbidities, including periodontal diseases. Analysis was done and data were synthesized and compiled in a sequential and presentable paradigm. This literature review of the pathophysiological mechanisms linking the two diseases suggests a positive relation between the two comorbidities. However, multicenter studies, with larger sample sizes, are to be conducted to establish a clearer and stronger association.

  5. [Natural progression of premature pubarche and underlying diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho Rodríguez, María Luisa; Bueno Lozano, Gloria; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio

    2018-04-25

    Premature pubarche (PP) is generally thought to be a benign condition, but it can also be the first sign of underlying disease. To analyse the aetiology and the evolution of the anthropometric, analytical and metabolic risk parameters of a group of patients with PP. A descriptive and analytical retrospective study of 92 patients affected by PP. Anthropometry, analyses, bone age and indicators of lipid metabolism were all evaluated. The sample included 92 patients with PP (67 female and 25 male), with a mean age of 7.1±0.6 for girls and 8.3±0.7 for boys. Small for gestational age was recorded in 7.7%. There was an accelerated bone age (1.20±0.1 years). A total of 21 patients were classified as idiopathic (23%), 60 as idiopathic premature adrenarche (65%), and 11 with non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (12%). Puberty was reached early (11+0.9 years old in boys and 9.9±0.8 in girls), as was menstruation age (11.8+1.1 years old), P<.001. The stature finally reached was close to their genetic stature. There is a positive correlation between body mass index, blood glucose and LDL cholesterol, as well as a tendency towards hyperinsulinaemia. The present study shows that PP is a benign condition in the majority of cases, but non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (12%) is not uncommon. Menstruation and puberty started early and bone age was accelerated. Growth was normal, and more or less in line with genetic size. PP associated with obesity is linked with analytical variations of metabolic risks. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. Exploration of Disease Markers under Translational Medicine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease markers are defined as the biomarkers with specific characteristics during the general physical, pathological or therapeutic process, the detection of which can inform the progression of present biological process of organisms. However, the exploration of disease markers is complicated and difficult, and only a few markers can be used in clinical practice and there is no significant difference in the mortality of cancers before and after biomarker exploration. Translational medicine focuses on breaking the blockage between basic medicine and clinical practice. In addition, it also establishes an effective association between researchers engaged on basic scientific discovery and clinical physicians well informed of patients' requirements, and gives particular attentions on how to translate the basic molecular biological research to the most effective and appropriate methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, hoping to translate basic research into the new therapeutic methods in clinic. Therefore, this study mainly summarized the exploration of disease markers under translational medicine model so as to provide a basis for the translation of basic research results into clinical application.

  7. Genome Sequencing Reveals Loci under Artificial Selection that Underlie Disease Phenotypes in the Laboratory Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanur, Santosh S.; Diaz, Ana Garcia; Maratou, Klio; Sarkis, Allison; Rotival, Maxime; Game, Laurence; Tschannen, Michael R.; Kaisaki, Pamela J.; Otto, Georg W.; Ma, Man Chun John; Keane, Thomas M.; Hummel, Oliver; Saar, Kathrin; Chen, Wei; Guryev, Victor; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Garrett, Michael R.; Joe, Bina; Citterio, Lorena; Bianchi, Giuseppe; McBride, Martin; Dominiczak, Anna; Adams, David J.; Serikawa, Tadao; Flicek, Paul; Cuppen, Edwin; Hubner, Norbert; Petretto, Enrico; Gauguier, Dominique; Kwitek, Anne; Jacob, Howard; Aitman, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of inbred laboratory rat strains have been developed for a range of complex disease phenotypes. To gain insights into the evolutionary pressures underlying selection for these phenotypes, we sequenced the genomes of 27 rat strains, including 11 models of hypertension, diabetes, and

  8. [Underlying Mechanisms and Management of Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in South Korea has increased over the past 10 years. Patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) shows better response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) than those with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). NERD is a heterogeneous condition, showing pathological gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal hypersensitivity to reflux contents. NERD patients with pathological gastroesophageal reflux or hypersensitivity to acid may respond to PPIs. However, many patients with esophageal hypersensitivity to nonacid or functional heartburn do not respond to PPIs. Therefore, careful history and investigations are required when managing patients with refractory GERD who show poor response to conventional dose PPIs. Combined pH-impedance studies and a PPI diagnostic trial are recommended to reveal underlying mechanisms of refractory symptoms. For those with ongoing reflux-related symptoms, split dose administration, change to long-acting PPIs or PPIs less influenced by CYP2C19 genotypes, increasing dose of PPIs, and the addition of alginate preparations, prokinetics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants can be considered. Pain modulators, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants are more likely to be effective for those with reflux-unrelated symptoms. Surgery or endoscopic per oral fundoplication may be effective in selected patients.

  9. Global stability for infectious disease models that include immigration of infected individuals and delay in the incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Uggenti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We begin with a detailed study of a delayed SI model of disease transmission with immigration into both classes. The incidence function allows for a nonlinear dependence on the infected population, including mass action and saturating incidence as special cases. Due to the immigration of infectives, there is no disease-free equilibrium and hence no basic reproduction number. We show there is a unique endemic equilibrium and that this equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable for all parameter values. The results include vector-style delay and latency-style delay. Next, we show that previous global stability results for an SEI model and an SVI model that include immigration of infectives and non-linear incidence but not delay can be extended to systems with vector-style delay and latency-style delay.

  10. Wave Stresses in the Anvil Hammer Rods under Impact Including Ram Mass and Deformation Force of Forgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sinitskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When operating the anvil hammers there occur impacts of die tooling and as a consequence, virtually instantaneous impact stops of motion of drop hammer parts. Such operating conditions come with accelerated failures of the anvil hammer rods because of emerging significant wave stresses. Engineering practice widely uses variation, difference, and integral methods to calculate wave stresses. However, to use them a researcher has to acquire certain skills, and the special programs should be available. The paper considers a method for estimating the wave stress changes in the anvil hammer rods, which is based on the wave equation of the Laplace transform. It presents a procedure for generating differential equations and their solution using the operator method. These equations describe the wave processes of strain and stress propagation in the anvil hammer rod under non-rigid impact with the compliance obstacle of the drop hammer parts. The work defines how the piston and rod mass and also the mechanical and geometric parameters of the rod influence on the stress level in the rod sealing of the hammer ram. Analysis of the results shows that the stresses in the rod sealing are proportional to the total amount of wave stresses caused by the rod and piston impact included in the total weight of the system. The piston influence on the stresses in the rod under impact is in direct proportion to the ratio of its mass to the mass of the rod. Geometric parameters of the rod and speed of drop parts before the impact influence on the stress value as well. It was found that if the time of impact is less than the time of the shock wave running in forward and backward direction, the impact with a compliance obstacle is equivalent to that of with a rigid obstacle, and the dependence of the wave stresses follows the Zhukovsky formula of direct pressure shock. The presented method of stress calculation can be successfully used to select the optimal mass and the rod

  11. Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome in the African diaspora: rationale for including chronic kidney disease in the metabolic syndrome definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Janice P; Greene, Eddie L; Nicholas, Susanne B; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans while the reasons for this are unclear. The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and has been recently linked to incident CKD. Historically, fewer African Americans meet criteria for the definition of metabolic syndrome, despite having higher rates of cardiovascular mortality than Caucasians. The presence of microalbuminuria portends increased cardiovascular risks and has been shown to cluster with the metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that proteinuria is a predictor of CKD progression in African American hypertensives with metabolic syndrome. In this review we explore the potential value of including CKD markers--microalbuminuria/proteinuria or low glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-in refining the cluster of factors defined as metabolic syndrome, ie, "cardiorenal metabolic syndrome."

  12. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2009-08-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.

  13. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee [Sung Ae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology

    2013-07-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  14. Combined scintigraphic and radiographic diagnosis of bone and joint diseases. Including gamma correction interpretation. 4. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong-Whee

    2013-01-01

    In this fourth edition of Combined Scintigraphic and Radiographic Diagnosis of Bone and Joint Diseases, the text has been thoroughly amended, updated, and partially rearranged to reflect the latest advances. In addition to discussing the role of pinhole imaging in the range of disorders previously covered, the new edition pays detailed attention to the novel diagnostic use of gamma correction pinhole bone scan in a broad spectrum of skeletal disorders, including physical, traumatic, and sports injuries, infectious and non-infectious bone diseases, benign and malignant bone tumors, and soft tissue diseases. A large number of state of the art pinhole scans and corroborative CT, MRI, and/or ultrasound images are presented side by side. The book has been enlarged to encompass various new topics, including occult fractures; cervical sprain and whiplash trauma; bone marrow edema; microfractures of trabeculae; evident, gaping, and stress fractures; and differential diagnosis. This new edition will be essential reading for practitioners and researchers in not only nuclear medicine but also radiology, orthopedic surgery, and pathology.

  15. Cases of Trichohepatoenteric Syndrome (Syndromic Diarrhea with Underlying Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. А. Roslavtseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (syndromic, phenotypic diarrhea, SD/THES is a rare inborn disease, which affects bowels. It is caused by the mutation of genes SKIV2L or TTC37. Manifestations include intrauterine hypotrophy, severe chronic diarrhea, which starts in infancy, characteristic facial features and hair growth abnormalities, immune disorders. There are data on two patients dealing with tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome with underlying Crohn’s disease. This is the first description of cases of aggravated tricho-hepatoenteric syndrome ever found in Russian medical literature. 

  16. Neural correlates underlying micrographia in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiarong; Hallett, Mark; Feng, Tao; Hou, Yanan; Chan, Piu

    2016-01-01

    Micrographia is a common symptom in Parkinson’s disease, which manifests as either a consistent or progressive reduction in the size of handwriting or both. Neural correlates underlying micrographia remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate micrographia-related neural activity and connectivity modulations. In addition, the effect of attention and dopaminergic administration on micrographia was examined. We found that consistent micrographia was associated with decreased activity and connectivity in the basal ganglia motor circuit; while progressive micrographia was related to the dysfunction of basal ganglia motor circuit together with disconnections between the rostral supplementary motor area, rostral cingulate motor area and cerebellum. Attention significantly improved both consistent and progressive micrographia, accompanied by recruitment of anterior putamen and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Levodopa improved consistent micrographia accompanied by increased activity and connectivity in the basal ganglia motor circuit, but had no effect on progressive micrographia. Our findings suggest that consistent micrographia is related to dysfunction of the basal ganglia motor circuit; while dysfunction of the basal ganglia motor circuit and disconnection between the rostral supplementary motor area, rostral cingulate motor area and cerebellum likely contributes to progressive micrographia. Attention improves both types of micrographia by recruiting additional brain networks. Levodopa improves consistent micrographia by restoring the function of the basal ganglia motor circuit, but does not improve progressive micrographia, probably because of failure to repair the disconnected networks. PMID:26525918

  17. Fungal diseases of tree stands under urbanized conditions of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnova Oksana G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytosanitary and ecological estimation of tree-stands has been con­ducted at the Forest Experimental Station of Moscow Agricultural Academy and parks of Northeast of Moscow in 2007-2011. Fomes fomentarius was proved to be a very serious pathogen of trees under conditions of Moscow, Piptoporus betulinus, Phellinus igniarius, and Fomitopsis pinicola also occurred and caused damage to trees. This rather bad phytosanitary situation depends on alarming ecological situation in Moscow. At the Forest Experimental Station of Moscow Agricultural Academy a number and cover of lichens decreased. In general, all trees in Moscow are in dynamic equilibrium with the urbanized environment. In connection with this, the following classification of tree-stands was proposed for the urbanized environment: 1 - healthy trees, 2 - affected trees which can be managed, 3 - dry woods, 3a - very diseased. Many tree-stands in investigated regions of Moscow are found to belong to the groups 2 and 3c. All tree-stands must be carefully monitored and managed in order to provide a well-timed decision on the support system for preservation of trees as ‘lungs of city’ and avoid unpredictable tree falling which put people and traffic at risk.

  18. Disease prevention policy under Medicare: a historical and political analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauffler, H H

    1993-01-01

    I review the history and politics of Medicare disease prevention policy and identify factors associated with the success or failure of legislative initiatives to add preventive services benefits to Medicare. Between 1965 and 1990, 453 bills for Medicare preventive services were introduced in the U.S. Congress, but not until 1980, after 350 bills had failed, was the first preventive service added to the Medicare program. Medicare currently pays for only four of the 44 preventive services recommended for the elderly by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (pneumococcal and hepatitis B vaccinations, Pap smears, and mammography). In addition, Congress has funded demonstration programs for the influenza vaccine and comprehensive preventive services. The preventive services added to Medicare reflect the bias of the biomedical model toward screening and immunizations. Counseling services have received the least legislative attention. Factors associated with successful enactment include single-benefit bills, incorporation into budget-deficit reduction legislation, documented evidence of cost-effectiveness, public hearings, sponsorship by chairs of key congressional committees, and persistent congressional leadership. Factors associated with failure include lack of support from Medicare beneficiaries, lack of professional support, impact on total Medicare expenditures, disagreement over or failure to address payment and financing mechanisms, and competing congressional priorities.

  19. Forest pathogens and diseases under changing climate-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Aslam, H. M. U.; Riaz, K.

    2015-01-01

    Changing climate threatens tree health by affecting the likelihood, frequency of occurrence, types and severity of forest diseases caused by diverse pests, resultantly altering the forest ecosystems. The present review covers the relationship between climate and diverse cases of forest diseases and potential shocks of climate change on pathogens and diseases. Biotic diseases, cankers, decays, declines, foliar diseases, root diseases and stem rust of pine have been reviewed with some illustrations of potential disease effects with predicted changing climate. The impact of changing climate on host, pathogen, and their interaction will have frequent and mostly unsympathetic outcomes to forest ecosystems. By employing the proactive and modern scientific management strategies like monitoring, modeling prediction, risk rating, planning, genetic diversity and facilitated migration, genetic protection and breeding for disease resistance and relating results to forest policy, planning as well as decision making, the suspicions innate to climate change effects can be minimized. (author)

  20. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    evidence that oral vaccines fail in populations with disturbed microbiota, poor nutrition , and high intestinal inflammation [102-104]. Additionally...countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public- health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate...members of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae) cause two diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO): Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be

  1. Shared activity patterns arising at genetic susceptibility loci reveal underlying genomic and cellular architecture of human disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baillie, J Kenneth; Bretherick, Andrew; Haley, Christopher S

    2018-01-01

    Genetic variants underlying complex traits, including disease susceptibility, are enriched within the transcriptional regulatory elements, promoters and enhancers. There is emerging evidence that regulatory elements associated with particular traits or diseases share similar patterns...... the regulation of the OCT1 cation transporter and genetic variants underlying circulating cholesterol levels. NDA strongly implicates particular cell types and tissues in disease pathogenesis. For example, distinct groupings of disease-associated regulatory regions implicate two distinct biological processes...... in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; a further two separate processes are implicated in Crohn's disease. Thus, our functional analysis of genetic predisposition to disease defines new distinct disease endotypes. We predict that patients with a preponderance of susceptibility variants in each group are likely...

  2. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  3. Multiple systemic embolism in infective endocarditis underlying in Barlow's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ziqing; Fan, Bing; Wu, Hongyi; Wang, Xiangfei; Li, Chenguang; Xu, Rende; Su, Yangang; Ge, Junbo

    2016-08-11

    Systemic embolism, especially septic embolism, is a severe complication of infective endocarditis (IE). However, concurrent embolism to the brain, coronary arteries, and spleen is very rare. Because of the risk of hemorrhage or visceral rupture, anticoagulants are recommended only if an indication is present, e.g. prosthetic valve. Antiplatelet therapy in IE is controversial, but theoretically, this therapy has the potential to prevent and treat thrombosis and embolism in IE. Unfortunately, clinical trial results have been inconclusive. We describe a previously healthy 50-year-old man who presented with dysarthria secondary to bacterial endocarditis with multiple cerebral, coronary, splenic, and peripheral emboli; antibiotic therapy contributed to the multiple emboli. Emergency splenectomy was performed, with subsequent mitral valve repair. Pathological examination confirmed mucoid degeneration and mitral valve prolapse (Barlow's disease) as the underlying etiology of the endocardial lesion. Continuous antibiotics were prescribed, postoperatively. Transthoracic echocardiography at 1.5, 3, and 6 months after the onset of his illness showed no severe regurgitation, and there was no respiratory distress, fever, or lethargy during follow-up. Although antibiotic use in IE carries a risk of septic embolism, these drugs have bactericidal and antithrombotic benefits. It is important to consider that negative blood culture and symptom resolution do not confirm complete elimination of bacteria. However, vegetation size and Staphylococcus aureus infection accurately predict embolization. It is also important to consider that bacteria can be segregated from the microbicide when embedded in platelets and fibrin. Therefore, antimicrobial therapy with concurrent antiplatelet therapy should be considered carefully.

  4. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 37 - What Provisions May a Participant Need To Include When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Include When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA? E Appendix E to Part 37 National Defense Department... When Purchasing Goods or Services Under a TIA? A. As discussed in § 37.705, you must inform recipients...., supplies or equipment) under their TIAs. Note that purchases of goods or services differ from subawards...

  5. 40 CFR 273.81 - Factors for petitions to include other wastes under 40 CFR part 273.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Petitions To Include... generic name to identify the waste category (e.g., batteries), the definition of universal waste in § 260..., and specific management standards proposed or referenced by the petitioner (e.g., waste management...

  6. Patients with neuromyelitis optica have a more severe disease than patients with relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis, including higher risk of dying of a demyelinating disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Bernardi Bichuetti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although neuromyelitis optica (NMO is known to be a more severe disease than relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS, few studies comparing both conditions in a single center have been done. Methods: Comparison of our previously published cohort of 41 NMO patients with 177 RRMS patients followed in the same center, from 1994 to 2007. Results: Mean age of onset was 32.6 for NMO and 30.2 for RRMS (p=0.2062 with mean disease duration of 7.4 years for NMO and 10.3 years for RRMS. Patients with NMO had a higher annualized relapse rate (1.0 versus 0.8, p=0.0013 and progression index (0.9 versus 0.6, p≪0.0001, with more patients reaching expanded disability status scale (EDSS 6.0 (39 versus 17%, p=0.0036. The odds ratio for reaching EDSS 6.0 and being deceased due to NMO in comparison to RRMS were, respectively, 3.14 and 12.15. Conclusion: Patients with NMO have a more severe disease than patients with RRMS, including higher risk of dying of a demyelinating disease.

  7. Model Selection and Evaluation Based on Emerging Infectious Disease Data Sets including A/H1N1 and Ebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to apply simple ODE models in the area of modeling the spread of emerging infectious diseases and show the importance of model selection in estimating parameters, the basic reproduction number, turning point, and final size. To quantify the plausibility of each model, given the data and the set of four models including Logistic, Gompertz, Rosenzweg, and Richards models, the Bayes factors are calculated and the precise estimates of the best fitted model parameters and key epidemic characteristics have been obtained. In particular, for Ebola the basic reproduction numbers are 1.3522 (95% CI (1.3506, 1.3537, 1.2101 (95% CI (1.2084, 1.2119, 3.0234 (95% CI (2.6063, 3.4881, and 1.9018 (95% CI (1.8565, 1.9478, the turning points are November 7,November 17, October 2, and November 3, 2014, and the final sizes until December 2015 are 25794 (95% CI (25630, 25958, 3916 (95% CI (3865, 3967, 9886 (95% CI (9740, 10031, and 12633 (95% CI (12515, 12750 for West Africa, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, respectively. The main results confirm that model selection is crucial in evaluating and predicting the important quantities describing the emerging infectious diseases, and arbitrarily picking a model without any consideration of alternatives is problematic.

  8. Multisystem Disease, Including Eosinophilia and Progressive Hyper-Creatine-Kinase-emia over 10 Years, Suggests Mitochondrial Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Finsterer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eosinophilia has not been reported as a manifestation of a mitochondrial disorder (MID. Here, we report a patient with clinical features suggesting a MID and permanent eosinophilia, multisystem disease, and progressive hyper-creatine-kinase (CK-emia for at least 10 years. Materials and Methods: Methods applied included a clinical exam, blood chemical investigations, electrophysiological investigations, imaging, and invasive cardiological investigations. The patient was repeatedly followed up over several years. He required replacement cardiac surgery. Results: In a 57-year-old male, eosinophilia was first detected at the age of 44 years and has remained almost constantly present until today. In addition to eosinophilia, he developed progressive hyper-CK-emia at the age of 47 years. His history was further positive for hepatopathy, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, renal insufficiency, spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture, double vision, exercise intolerance, muscle aching, mild hypoacusis, sensory neuropathy, seizures, and mitral insufficiency/stenosis requiring valve replacement therapy, oral anticoagulation, and pacemaker implantation. Based on the multisystem nature of his abnormalities and permanent hyper-CK-emia, a MID was suspected. Conclusion: Eosinophilia can be associated with a MID with myopathy, possibly as a reaction to myofiber necrosis. If eosinophilia is associated with progressive hyper-CK-emia and multisystem disease, a MID should be suspected.

  9. Are the educational differences in incidence of cardiovascular disease explained by underlying familial factors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette

    2014-01-01

    To isolate the effect of education from the influence of potential underlying factors, we investigated the association of education with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) using twin data to adjust for familial factors shared within twins, including genetic...... make-up and childhood environment. The study was based on data from the Danish Twin Registry linked to administrative and heath registers in Statistics Denmark. A total of 11,968 monozygotic and 20,464 dizygotic same sexed twins were followed from 1980 to 2009, including more than 8000 events of CVD....... Unpaired and intra-pair analyses were compared. In the unpaired analyses, an inverse educational gradient in CVD- and IHD risk was observed. This association was not replicated in the intra-pair analyses that control for shared familial factors exploiting that twins share their intrauterine- and childhood...

  10. 22q11.2q13 duplication including SOX10 causes sex-reversal and peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Nadia; Posey, Jennifer E; Thorson, Willa; Benke, Paul; Tekin, Mustafa; Tarshish, Brocha; Lupski, James R; Harel, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    Diagnosis of genetic syndromes may be difficult when specific components of a disorder manifest at a later age. We present a follow up of a previous report [Seeherunvong et al., (2004); AJMGA 127: 149-151], of an individual with 22q duplication and sex-reversal syndrome. The subject's phenotype evolved to include peripheral and central demyelination, Waardenburg syndrome type IV, and Hirschsprung disease (PCWH; MIM 609136). DNA microarray analysis defined the duplication at 22q11.2q13, including SOX10. Sequencing of the coding region of SOX10 did not reveal any mutations. Our data suggest that SOX10 duplication can cause disorders of sex development and PCWH, supporting the hypothesis that SOX10 toxic gain of function rather than dominant negative activity underlies PCWH. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Imaging of Brain Connectivity in Dementia: Clinical Implications for Diagnosis of its Underlying Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Meijboom (Rozanna)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis we investigated the use of advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in identifying subtle brain abnormalities, associating brain abnormalities with disease symptomatology, and improving early (differential) diagnosis in several diseases underlying dementia.

  12. Including pathogen risk in life cycle assessment of wastewater management. 1. Estimating the burden of disease associated with pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Robin; Heimersson, Sara; Svanström, Magdalena; Peters, Gregory M

    2014-08-19

    The environmental performance of wastewater and sewage sludge management is commonly assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA), whereas pathogen risk is evaluated with quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). This study explored the application of QMRA methodology with intent to include pathogen risk in LCA and facilitate a comparison with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA. Pathogen risk was estimated for a model wastewater treatment system (WWTS) located in an industrialized country and consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary wastewater treatment, anaerobic sludge digestion, and land application of sewage sludge. The estimation was based on eight previous QMRA studies as well as parameter values taken from the literature. A total pathogen risk (expressed as burden of disease) on the order of 0.2-9 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year of operation was estimated for the model WWTS serving 28,600 persons and for the pathogens and exposure pathways included in this study. The comparison of pathogen risk with other potential impacts on human health considered in LCA is detailed in part 2 of this article series.

  13. Merkel Cell Carcinomas Arising in Autoimmune Disease Affected Patients Treated with Biologic Drugs, Including Anti-TNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, John Charles; Bononi, Ilaria; Puozzo, Andrea; Govoni, Marcello; Foschi, Valentina; Lanza, Giovanni; Gafà, Roberta; Gaboriaud, Pauline; Touzé, Françoise Antoine; Selvatici, Rita; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to characterize Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC) arisen in patients affected by autoimmune diseases and treated with biologic drugs. Experimental Design: Serum samples from patients with MCC were analyzed for the presence and titer of antibodies against antigens of the oncogenic Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). IgG antibodies against the viral oncoproteins large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigens and the viral capsid protein-1 were analyzed by indirect ELISA. Viral antigens were recombinant LT/ST and virus-like particles (VLP), respectively. MCPyV DNA sequences were studied using PCR methods in MCC tissues and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were carried out in MCC tissues to reveal MCPyV LT oncoprotein. Results: MCPyV DNA sequences identified in MCC tissues showed 100% homology with the European MKL-1 strain. PBMCs from patients tested MCPyV-negative. Viral DNA loads in the three MCC tissues were in the 0.1 to 30 copy/cell range. IgG antibodies against LT/ST were detected in patients 1 and 3, whereas patient 2 did not react to the MCPyV LT/ST antigen. Sera from the three patients with MCC contained IgG antibodies against MCPyV VP1. MCC tissues tested MCPyV LT-antigen-positive in IHC assays, with strong LT expression with diffuse nuclear localization. Normal tissues tested MCPyV LT-negative when employed as control. Conclusions: We investigated three new MCCs in patients affected by rheumatologic diseases treated with biologic drugs, including TNF. A possible cause-effect relationship between pharmacologic immunosuppressive treatment and MCC onset is suggested. Indeed, MCC is associated with MCPyV LT oncoprotein activity. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3929-34. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  15. Underlying congenital heart disease in Nigerian children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Abstract. Background: Pneumonia is a common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Some congenital heart disease. (CHD) may predispose their sufferer to bronchopneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the contribution of CHD to pneumonia in children seen in a tertiary hospital. Methods: Over ...

  16. Underlying congenital heart disease in Nigerian children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pneumonia is a common cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Some congenital heart disease(CHD) may predispose their sufferer to bronchopneumonia. Objective: To evaluate the contribution of CHD to pneumonia in children seen in a tertiary hospital. Methods: Over a year, consecutive ...

  17. High-utilizing Crohn's disease patients under psychosomatic therapy*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantschek Günther

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Few studies have been published on health care utilization in Crohn's disease and the influence of psychological treatment on high utilizers. Methods The present sub study of a prospective multi center investigation conducted in 87 of 488 consecutive Crohn's disease (CD patients was designed to investigate the influence of the course of Crohn's disease on health care utilization (hospital days (HD and sick leave days (SLD collected by German insurance companies and to examine the conditions of high-utilizing patients. Predictors of health care utilization should be selected. Based on a standardized somatic treatment, high health care utilizing patients of the psychotherapy and control groups should be compared before and after a one-year treatment. Results Multivariate regression analysis identified disease activity at randomization as an important predictor of the clinical course (r2 = 0.28, p 2 = 0.15, p = 0.09. The patients' level of anxiety, depression and lack of control at randomization predicted their health-related quality of life at the end of the study (r2 = 0.51, p 2 = 0.22, p Among high utilizers, a significantly greater drop in HD (p Conclusion The course of Crohn's disease is influenced by psychological as well as somatic factors; especially depression seems important here. A significant drop of health care utilization demonstrates the benefit of psychological treatment in the subgroup of high-utilizing CD patients. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings of the clinical outcome in this CD subgroup.

  18. VSNL1 Co-expression networks in aging include calcium signaling, synaptic plasticity, and Alzheimer’s disease pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C W Lin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Visinin-like 1 (VSNL1 gene encodes Visinin-like protein 1, a peripheral biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD. Little is known, however, about normal VSNL1 expression in brain and the biologic networks in which it participates. Frontal cortex gray matter from 209 subjects without neurodegenerative or psychiatric illness, ranging in age from 16–91, were processed on Affymetrix GeneChip 1.1 ST and Human SNP Array 6.0. VSNL1 expression was unaffected by age and sex, and not significantly associated with SNPs in cis or trans. VSNL1 was significantly co-expressed with genes in pathways for Calcium Signaling, AD, Long Term Potentiation, Long Term Depression, and Trafficking of AMPA Receptors. The association with AD was driven, in part, by correlation with amyloid precursor protein (APP expression. These findings provide an unbiased link between VSNL1 and molecular mechanisms of AD, including pathways implicated in synaptic pathology in AD. Whether APP may drive increased VSNL1 expression, VSNL1 drives increased APP expression, or both are downstream of common pathogenic regulators will need to be evaluated in model systems.

  19. Self-management interventions including action plans for exacerbations versus usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenferink, Anke; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul Dlpm; Frith, Peter A; Zwerink, Marlies; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; van der Palen, Job; Effing, Tanja W

    2017-08-04

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) self-management interventions should be structured but personalised and often multi-component, with goals of motivating, engaging and supporting the patients to positively adapt their behaviour(s) and develop skills to better manage disease. Exacerbation action plans are considered to be a key component of COPD self-management interventions. Studies assessing these interventions show contradictory results. In this Cochrane Review, we compared the effectiveness of COPD self-management interventions that include action plans for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) with usual care. To evaluate the efficacy of COPD-specific self-management interventions that include an action plan for exacerbations of COPD compared with usual care in terms of health-related quality of life, respiratory-related hospital admissions and other health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials, trials registries, and the reference lists of included studies to May 2016. We included randomised controlled trials evaluating a self-management intervention for people with COPD published since 1995. To be eligible for inclusion, the self-management intervention included a written action plan for AECOPD and an iterative process between participant and healthcare provider(s) in which feedback was provided. We excluded disease management programmes classified as pulmonary rehabilitation or exercise classes offered in a hospital, at a rehabilitation centre, or in a community-based setting to avoid overlap with pulmonary rehabilitation as much as possible. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved disagreements by reaching consensus or by involving a third review author. Study authors were contacted to obtain additional information and missing outcome data where possible. When appropriate, study results were pooled using a random-effects modelling meta-analysis. The primary

  20. Self-management interventions including action plans for exacerbations versus usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Anke; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul; Frith, Peter A.; Zwerink, Marlies; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; van der Palen, J.A.M.; Effing, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Background  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) self-management interventions should be structured but personalised and often multi-component, with goals ofmotivating, engaging and supporting the patients to positively adapt their behaviour(s) and develop skills to better manage disease.

  1. Self-management interventions including action plans for exacerbations versus usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Anke; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; van der Valk, Paul D.L.P.M.; Frith, Peter A.; Zwerink, Marlies; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; van der Palen, Job; Effing-Tijdhof, Tanja W

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) self-management interventions should be structured but personalised and often multi-component, with goals of motivating, engaging and supporting the patients to positively adapt their behaviour(s) and develop skills to better manage disease.

  2. Newly Diagnosed Meniere's Disease: Clinical Course With Initiation of Noninvasive Treatment Including an Accounting of Vestibular Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbeih, Firas; Christov, Florian; Gluth, Michael B

    2018-05-01

    To describe the course of Meniere's disease with noninvasive treatment during the first few years after initial diagnosis. A retrospective review of consecutive patients with newly diagnosed definite Meniere's disease between 2013 and 2016 and a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Patients received a written plan for low sodium, water therapy, and treatment with a diuretic and/or betahistine. Subjects were screened and treated for vestibular migraine as needed. Vertigo control and hearing status at most recent follow-up were assessed. Forty-four subjects had an average follow up of 24.3 months. Thirty-four percent had Meniere's disease and vestibular migraine, and 84% had unilateral Meniere's disease. Seventy-five percent had vertigo well controlled at most recent follow-up, with only noninvasive treatments. Age, gender, body mass index, presence of vestibular migraine, bilateral disease, and duration of follow-up did not predict noninvasive treatment failure. Worse hearing threshold at 250 Hz and lower pure tone average (PTA) at the time of diagnosis did predict failure. Fifty-two percent of ears had improved PTA at most recent visit, 20% had no change, and 28% were worse Conclusions: Encountering excellent vertigo control and stable hearing after a new diagnosis of Meniere's disease is possible with noninvasive treatments. Worse hearing status at diagnosis predicted treatment failure.

  3. Disease course and management strategy of pouch neoplasia in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian-Rui; Remzi, Feza H; Liu, Xiu-Li; Lian, Lei; Stocchi, Luca; Ashburn, Jean; Shen, Bo

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the disease course and management strategy for pouch neoplasia. Patients undergoing ileal pouch surgery for underlying ulcerative colitis who developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia, or adenocarcinoma in the pouch were identified. All eligible 44 patients were evaluated. Of the 22 patients with initial diagnosis of pouch LGD, 6 (27.3%) had persistence or progression after a median follow-up of 9.5 (4.1-17.6) years. Family history of colorectal cancer was shown to be a risk factor associated with persistence or progression of LGD (P = 0.03). Of the 12 patients with pouch high-grade dysplasia, 5 (41.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 16.7%) or synchronous (n = 4, 33.3%) pouch LGD. Pouch high-grade dysplasia either persisted or progressed in 3 patients (25.0%) after the initial management, during a median time interval of 5.4 (2.2-9.2) years. Of the 14 patients with pouch adenocarcinoma, 12 (85.7%) had a history of (n = 2, 14.3%) or synchronous dysplasia (n = 12, 85.7%). After a median follow-up of 2.1 (0.6-5.2) years, 6 patients with pouch cancer (42.9%) died. Comparison of patients with a final diagnosis of pouch adenocarcinoma (14, 32.6%), and those with dysplasia (29, 67.4%) showed that patients with adenocarcinoma were older (P = 0.04) and had a longer duration from IBD diagnosis or pouch construction to the detection of pouch neoplasia (P = 0.007 and P = 0.0013). The risk for progression of pouch dysplasia can be stratified. The presence of family history of colorectal cancer seemed to increase the risk for persistence or progression for patients with pouch LGD. The prognosis for pouch adenocarcinoma was poor.

  4. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

    2009-01-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis c...

  5. Decision-making under Ambiguity in Neurodegenerative Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Decision-making is a complex skill that is essential for daily life. Yet the complexities of this process are often overlooked in favour of more obvious cognitive deficits during neuropsychological assessment, such as memory or attention impairments. Decision-making involves affective and motivational aspects of executive functions (Happaney, Zelazo & Stuss, 2004). Executive functions include a range of abilities that can be divided into three categories: 1) goal setting and planning, 2) acti...

  6. Varied autopsy findings in five treated patients with Gaucher disease and parkinsonism include the absence of Gaucher cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monestime, Gianina; Borger, Daniel K; Kim, Jenny; Lopez, Grisel; Allgaeuer, Michael; Jain, Dhanpat; Vortmeyer, Alexander; Wang, Hao-Wei; Sidransky, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy is standard of care for patients with Gaucher disease, as it significantly improves skeletal, visceral, and hematological symptoms. Few pathological studies have documented the extent of pathological findings in treated patients. Autopsy findings in five treated patients, who ultimately developed parkinsonism, ranged from the complete absence of Gaucher pathology to extensive involvement of multiple tissues, without correlation to age, genotype, spleen status, or dose/duration of therapy. Additional autopsies may elucidate modifiers and biomarkers contributing to disease burden and response to therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING GENOTYPES, INCLUDING HLA-DQ2.2 VARIANT, IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleski, Nicole; Almeida, Lucas Malta; Almeida, Fernanda Coutinho de; Pratesi, Claudia Beatriz; Nóbrega, Yanna Karla de Medeiros; Gandolfi, Lenora

    2018-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Almost all celiac patients carry immune recognition genes coding for HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8 heterodimers. Over the last few years, great importance has been given to HLA-DQ2.2 as probable predisposing variant, although controversies still exist regarding its relevance. The aim of our study was to determine the possible existence of an association between HLA-DQ2.2 and celiac disease in Brazilian children by analyzing the prevalence of the predisposing variants for celiac disease in a representative group of children of a population in which this determination is still missing. HLA-DQ typing was performed in samples from a group of celiac (n=100) and non-celiac children (n=110). All samples were tested for the presence of the following variants: DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2.5), DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8) and DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:02 (DQ2.2). Fisher`s exact test was used for statistical analysis. In the group of 100 celiac children, 78 (78%) were positive for DQ2, 13 (13 %) were DQ2/DQ8 and 6 (6%) were DQ8 positives. The HLA-DQ pattern in the 110 non-celiac children was as follows: positive for DQ2 in 33 (29.9%) samples, in 2 (1.8 %) was positive for DQ2/DQ8 and in 15 (13.6%) was positive for DQ8. We found significant differences between the distribution of some but not all of the analyzed alleles when comparing celiac and non-celiac children. The genotyping of celiac disease HLA-DQ predisposing alleles showed similarities with HLA-DQ patterns found in both European and non-European populations, which may be a reflection of the miscegenation, which gave origin to the current Brazilian population. No significant association was found between DQ2.2 variant and celiac disease in the studied population.

  8. PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE PREDISPOSING GENOTYPES, INCLUDING HLA-DQ2.2 VARIANT, IN BRAZILIAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole SELLESKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Almost all celiac patients carry immune recognition genes coding for HLA-DQ2.5 and DQ8 heterodimers. Over the last few years, great importance has been given to HLA-DQ2.2 as probable predisposing variant, although controversies still exist regarding its relevance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to determine the possible existence of an association between HLA-DQ2.2 and celiac disease in Brazilian children by analyzing the prevalence of the predisposing variants for celiac disease in a representative group of children of a population in which this determination is still missing. METHODS: HLA-DQ typing was performed in samples from a group of celiac (n=100 and non-celiac children (n=110. All samples were tested for the presence of the following variants: DQA1*05-DQB1*02 (DQ2.5, DQA1*03-DQB1*03:02 (DQ8 and DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:02 (DQ2.2. Fisher`s exact test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In the group of 100 celiac children, 78 (78% were positive for DQ2, 13 (13 % were DQ2/DQ8 and 6 (6% were DQ8 positives. The HLA-DQ pattern in the 110 non-celiac children was as follows: positive for DQ2 in 33 (29.9% samples, in 2 (1.8 % was positive for DQ2/DQ8 and in 15 (13.6% was positive for DQ8. We found significant differences between the distribution of some but not all of the analyzed alleles when comparing celiac and non-celiac children. CONCLUSION: The genotyping of celiac disease HLA-DQ predisposing alleles showed similarities with HLA-DQ patterns found in both European and non-European populations, which may be a reflection of the miscegenation, which gave origin to the current Brazilian population. No significant association was found between DQ2.2 variant and celiac disease in the studied population.

  9. The influence of included minerals on the intrinsic reactivity of chars prepared under N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Huan; Chen, Jiabao; Zhao, Bo; Hu, Guangzhou [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Oxy-fuel technology could be successfully used to retrofit existing coal-fired power plants or alternatively be used to design and build new coal-fired power plants with almost zero emissions. Char reactivity under oxy-fuel conditions will have a significant impact on the coal burnout. In this paper, two fractions, representing organic-rich particles and organic particles with included minerals, were separated from each of three Chinese coals of different rank. They were then devolatilized at 1,450 C in a drop tube furnace (DTF) under N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} environment, respectively. The chars were subjected to nitrogen adsorption study, thermogravimetric analysis and XRD analysis. It was found that char reactivity of all three pairs of chars were increased under CO{sub 2} environment as compared with that under N{sub 2} environment, but with differing trend. For the organic-rich samples the reactivity difference is increased with decreasing rank. On the contrary, for the samples of organic particles with included minerals, the reactivity difference is decreased with decreasing rank. Mechanism analysis showed that they are resulted not from gasification, but from a combination of changes in surface area and in the orderness of carbon structure in the chars, both of which, in turn, are resulted from the higher heat capacity of CO{sub 2} and the interaction between metastable liquid phase and the included minerals.

  10. Current and investigational non-dopaminergic agents for management of motor symptoms (including motor complications) in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a heterogeneous combination of motor and non motor symptoms. The nigrostriatal dopamine deficit is one of its essential pathophysiologic features. Areas covered: This invited narrative review provides an overlook over current available and future promising non dopaminergic therapeutics to modulate altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in Parkinson's disease. Current research strategies aim to proof clinical efficacy by amelioration of motor symptoms and preponderant levodopa related movement fluctuations. These so-called motor complications are characterized by involuntary movements as a result of an overstimulation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system or by temporary recurrence of motor symptoms, when beneficial effects of dopamine substituting drugs vane. Expert opinion: Non dopaminergic modulation of dopamine replacement is currently mostly investigated in well defined and selected patients with motor complications to get approval. However, the world of daily maintenance of patients with its individually adapted, so-called personalised, therapy will determine the real value of these therapeutics. Here the clinical experience of the treating neurologists and the courage to use unconventional drug combinations are essential preconditions for successful treatments of motor and associated non motor complications in cooperation with the patients and their care giving surroundings.

  11. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomando, Graciela; Cousiño, Blanca; Sanchez, Zunilda; Franco, Laura X; Nara, Eva M; Chena, Lilian; Martínez, Magaly; Galeano, María E; Benitez, Lucio

    2017-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41) were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country's rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  12. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Russomando

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41 were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  13. The association of antidepressant drug usage with cognitive impairment or dementia, including Alzheimer disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraros, John; Nwankwo, Chijioke; Patten, Scott B; Mousseau, Darrell D

    2017-03-01

    To determine if antidepressant drug usage is associated with cognitive impairment or dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD). We conducted a systematic search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. An initial screen by abstracts and titles was performed, and relevant full articles were then reviewed and assessed for their methodologic quality. Crude effect estimates were extracted from the included articles and a pooled estimate was obtained using a random effects model. Five articles were selected from an initial pool of 4,123 articles. Use of antidepressant drugs was associated with a significant twofold increase in the odds of some form of cognitive impairment or dementia (OR = 2.17). Age was identified as a likely modifier of the association between antidepressant use and some form of cognitive impairment or AD/dementia. Studies that included participants with an average age equal to or greater than 65 years showed an increased odds of some form of cognitive impairment with antidepressant drug usage (OR = 1.65), whereas those with participants less than age 65 revealed an even stronger association (OR = 3.25). Antidepressant drug usage is associated with AD/dementia and this is particularly evident if usage begins before age 65. This association may arise due to confounding by depression or depression severity. However, biological mechanisms potentially linking antidepressant exposure to dementia have been described, so an etiological effect of antidepressants is possible. With this confirmation that an association exists, clarification of underlying etiologic pathways requires urgent attention. © 2016 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The association of antidepressant drug usage with cognitive impairment or dementia, including Alzheimer disease: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraros, John; Nwankwo, Chijioke; Patten, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    1 Objective To determine if antidepressant drug usage is associated with cognitive impairment or dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD). 2 Method We conducted a systematic search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. An initial screen by abstracts and titles was performed, and relevant full articles were then reviewed and assessed for their methodologic quality. Crude effect estimates were extracted from the included articles and a pooled estimate was obtained using a random effects model. 3 Results Five articles were selected from an initial pool of 4,123 articles. Use of antidepressant drugs was associated with a significant twofold increase in the odds of some form of cognitive impairment or dementia (OR = 2.17). Age was identified as a likely modifier of the association between antidepressant use and some form of cognitive impairment or AD/dementia. Studies that included participants with an average age equal to or greater than 65 years showed an increased odds of some form of cognitive impairment with antidepressant drug usage (OR = 1.65), whereas those with participants less than age 65 revealed an even stronger association (OR = 3.25). 4 Conclusions Antidepressant drug usage is associated with AD/dementia and this is particularly evident if usage begins before age 65. This association may arise due to confounding by depression or depression severity. However, biological mechanisms potentially linking antidepressant exposure to dementia have been described, so an etiological effect of antidepressants is possible. With this confirmation that an association exists, clarification of underlying etiologic pathways requires urgent attention. PMID:28029715

  15. Pulmonary granulomatous diseases and pulmonary manifestations of systemic granulomatous disease. Including tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteriosis; Pulmonale granulomatoese Erkrankungen und pulmonale Manifestationen systemischer Granulomatosen. Inklusive Tuberkulose und nichttuberkuloese Mykobakteriosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piel, S. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Zentrum fuer interstitielle und seltene Lungenerkrankungen, Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Kreuter, M.; Herth, F. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Zentrum fuer interstitielle und seltene Lungenerkrankungen, Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany); Heussel, C.P. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie mit Nuklearmedizin, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center (TLRC), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Granulomas as signs of specific inflammation of the lungs are found in various diseases with pulmonary manifestations and represent an important imaging finding. The standard imaging modality for the work-up of granulomatous diseases of the lungs is most often thin-slice computed tomography (CT). There are a few instances, e. g. tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and silicosis, where a chest radiograph still plays an important role. Further radiological modalities are usually not needed in the routine work-up of granulomatous diseases of the chest. In special cases magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT scans play an important role, e. g. detecting cardiac sarcoidosis by cardiac MRI or choline C-11 PET-CT in diagnosing lung carcinoma in scar tissue after tuberculosis. The accuracy of thin-slice CT is very high for granulomatous diseases. In cases of chronic disease and fibrotic interstitial lung disease it is important to perform thin-slice CT in order to diagnose a specific disease pattern. Thin-slice CT is also highly sensitive in detecting disease complications and comorbidities, such as malignancies. Given these indications thin-slice CT is generally accepted in the routine daily practice. A thin-slice CT and an interdisciplinary discussion are recommended in many cases with a suspected diagnosis of pulmonary granulomatous disease due to clinical or radiographic findings. (orig.) [German] Granulome als Zeichen der spezifischen Entzuendung im Lungengewebe treten bei zahlreichen Erkrankungen mit pulmonaler Manifestation auf und stellen einen wichtigen Befund in der Bildgebung dar. Das radiologische Standardverfahren bei pulmonalen Granulomatosen ist meistens die Duennschichtcomputertomographie, in wenigen Faellen, wie z. B. bei Tuberkulose, Sarkoidose und Silikose, spielt die Roentgenthoraxuebersicht immer noch eine wichtige Rolle. Bei der Standardabklaerung der meisten Granulomatosen ist die Hinzunahme weiterer Verfahren nicht

  16. Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchithra Naish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases are climate sensitive and there has been increasing concern over the impact of climate change on future disease risk. This paper projected the potential future risk of Barmah Forest virus (BFV disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained data on notified BFV cases, climate (maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall, socio-economic and tidal conditions for current period 2000-2008 for coastal regions in Queensland. Grid-data on future climate projections for 2025, 2050 and 2100 were also obtained. Logistic regression models were built to forecast the otential risk of BFV disease distribution under existing climatic, socio-economic and tidal conditions. The model was applied to estimate the potential geographic distribution of BFV outbreaks under climate change scenarios. The predictive model had good model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Maps on potential risk of future BFV disease indicated that disease would vary significantly across coastal regions in Queensland by 2100 due to marked differences in future rainfall and temperature projections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the results of this study demonstrate that the future risk of BFV disease would vary across coastal regions in Queensland. These results may be helpful for public health decision making towards developing effective risk management strategies for BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  17. Forecasting the future risk of Barmah Forest virus disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Suchithra; Mengersen, Kerrie; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are climate sensitive and there has been increasing concern over the impact of climate change on future disease risk. This paper projected the potential future risk of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease under climate change scenarios in Queensland, Australia. We obtained data on notified BFV cases, climate (maximum and minimum temperature and rainfall), socio-economic and tidal conditions for current period 2000-2008 for coastal regions in Queensland. Grid-data on future climate projections for 2025, 2050 and 2100 were also obtained. Logistic regression models were built to forecast the otential risk of BFV disease distribution under existing climatic, socio-economic and tidal conditions. The model was applied to estimate the potential geographic distribution of BFV outbreaks under climate change scenarios. The predictive model had good model accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Maps on potential risk of future BFV disease indicated that disease would vary significantly across coastal regions in Queensland by 2100 due to marked differences in future rainfall and temperature projections. We conclude that the results of this study demonstrate that the future risk of BFV disease would vary across coastal regions in Queensland. These results may be helpful for public health decision making towards developing effective risk management strategies for BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland.

  18. Shared activity patterns arising at genetic susceptibility loci reveal underlying genomic and cellular architecture of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, J Kenneth; Bretherick, Andrew; Haley, Christopher S; Clohisey, Sara; Gray, Alan; Neyton, Lucile P A; Barrett, Jeffrey; Stahl, Eli A; Tenesa, Albert; Andersson, Robin; Brown, J Ben; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Lizio, Marina; Schaefer, Ulf; Daub, Carsten; Itoh, Masayoshi; Kondo, Naoto; Lassmann, Timo; Kawai, Jun; Mole, Damian; Bajic, Vladimir B; Heutink, Peter; Rehli, Michael; Kawaji, Hideya; Sandelin, Albin; Suzuki, Harukazu; Satsangi, Jack; Wells, Christine A; Hacohen, Nir; Freeman, Thomas C; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R R; Hume, David A

    2018-03-01

    Genetic variants underlying complex traits, including disease susceptibility, are enriched within the transcriptional regulatory elements, promoters and enhancers. There is emerging evidence that regulatory elements associated with particular traits or diseases share similar patterns of transcriptional activity. Accordingly, shared transcriptional activity (coexpression) may help prioritise loci associated with a given trait, and help to identify underlying biological processes. Using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) profiles of promoter- and enhancer-derived RNAs across 1824 human samples, we have analysed coexpression of RNAs originating from trait-associated regulatory regions using a novel quantitative method (network density analysis; NDA). For most traits studied, phenotype-associated variants in regulatory regions were linked to tightly-coexpressed networks that are likely to share important functional characteristics. Coexpression provides a new signal, independent of phenotype association, to enable fine mapping of causative variants. The NDA coexpression approach identifies new genetic variants associated with specific traits, including an association between the regulation of the OCT1 cation transporter and genetic variants underlying circulating cholesterol levels. NDA strongly implicates particular cell types and tissues in disease pathogenesis. For example, distinct groupings of disease-associated regulatory regions implicate two distinct biological processes in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; a further two separate processes are implicated in Crohn's disease. Thus, our functional analysis of genetic predisposition to disease defines new distinct disease endotypes. We predict that patients with a preponderance of susceptibility variants in each group are likely to respond differently to pharmacological therapy. Together, these findings enable a deeper biological understanding of the causal basis of complex traits.

  19. Underlying mechanism of antimicrobial activity of chitosan microparticles and implications for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Jeon

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistant microorganisms is a great public health concern and has triggered an urgent need to develop alternative antibiotics. Chitosan microparticles (CM, derived from chitosan, have been shown to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in a cattle model, indicating potential use as an alternative antimicrobial agent. However, the underlying mechanism of CM on reducing the shedding of this pathogen remains unclear. To understand the mode of action, we studied molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial activity of CM using in vitro and in vivo methods. We report that CM are an effective bactericidal agent with capability to disrupt cell membranes. Binding assays and genetic studies with an ompA mutant strain demonstrated that outer membrane protein OmpA of E. coli O157:H7 is critical for CM binding, and this binding activity is coupled with a bactericidal effect of CM. This activity was also demonstrated in an animal model using cows with uterine diseases. CM treatment effectively reduced shedding of intrauterine pathogenic E. coli (IUPEC in the uterus compared to antibiotic treatment. Since Shiga-toxins encoded in the genome of bacteriophage is often overexpressed during antibiotic treatment, antibiotic therapy is generally not recommended because of high risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome. However, CM treatment did not induce bacteriophage or Shiga-toxins in E. coli O157:H7; suggesting that CM can be a potential candidate to treat infections caused by this pathogen. This work establishes an underlying mechanism whereby CM exert antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo, providing significant insight for the treatment of diseases caused by a broad spectrum of pathogens including antibiotic resistant microorganisms.

  20. Why industry propaganda and political interference cannot disguise the inevitable role played by human exposure to aluminum in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the aluminum age, it is clearly unpalatable for aluminum, the globe's most successful metal, to be implicated in human disease. It is unpalatable because for approximately 100 years human beings have reaped the rewards of the most abundant metal of the Earth's crust without seriously considering the potential consequences for human health. The aluminum industry is a pillar of the developed and developing world and irrespective of the tyranny of human exposure to aluminum it cannot be challenged without significant consequences for businesses, economies, and governments. However, no matter how deep the dependency or unthinkable the withdrawal, science continues to document, if not too slowly, a burgeoning body burden of aluminum in human beings. Herein, I will make the case that it is inevitable both today and in the future that an individual's exposure to aluminum is impacting upon their health and is already contributing to, if not causing, chronic diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. This is the logical, if uncomfortable, consequence of living in the aluminum age.

  1. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  2. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant–pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:25657213

  3. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk in patients with Parkinson disease under levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günaydın, Zeki Yüksel; Özer, Fahriye Feriha; Karagöz, Ahmet; Bektaş, Osman; Karataş, Mehmet Baran; Vural, Aslı; Bayramoğlu, Adil; Çelik, Abdullah; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa is the indispensable choice of medial therapy in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Since L-dopa treatment was shown to increase serum homocysteine levels, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disorders, the patients with PD under L-dopa treatment will be at increased risk for future cardiovascular events. The objective of this study is to evaluate cardiovascular risk in patients with PD under levodopa treatment. The study population consisted of 65 patients with idiopathic PD under L-dopa treatment. The control group included 32 age and gender matched individuals who had no cognitive decline. Echocardiographic measurements, serum homocysteine levels and elastic parameters of the aorta were compared between the patients with PD and controls. As an expected feature of L-dopa therapy, the Parkinson group had significantly higher homocystein levels (15.1 ± 3.9 µmol/L vs. 11.5 ± 3.2 µmol/L, P = 0.02). Aortic distensibility was significantly lower in the patients with PD when compared to controls (4.8 ± 1.5 dyn/cm(2) vs. 6.2 ± 1.9 dyn/cm(2), P = 0.016). Additionally, the patients with PD had higher aortic strain and aortic stiffness index (13.4% ± 6.4% vs. 7.4% ± 3.6%, P homocysteine levels were found to be positively correlated with aortic stiffness index and there was a negative correlation between aortic distensibility and levels of serum homocysteine (r = 0.674, P homocysteine levels may be a possible pathophysiological mechanism.

  4. Do heart failure disease management programs make financial sense under a bundled payment system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Zubin J; Reed, Shelby D; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F; Peterson, Eric D

    2011-05-01

    Policy makers have proposed bundling payments for all heart failure (HF) care within 30 days of an HF hospitalization in an effort to reduce costs. Disease management (DM) programs can reduce costly HF readmissions but have not been economically attractive for caregivers under existing fee-for-service payment. Whether a bundled payment approach can address the negative financial impact of DM programs is unknown. Our study determined the cost-neutral point for the typical DM program and examined whether published HF DM programs can be cost saving under bundled payment programs. We used a decision analytic model using data from retrospective cohort studies, meta-analyses, 5 randomized trials evaluating DM programs, and inpatient claims for all Medicare beneficiaries discharged with an HF diagnosis from 2001 to 2004. We determined the costs of DM programs and inpatient care over 30 and 180 days. With a baseline readmission rate of 22.9%, the average cost for readmissions over 30 days was $2,272 per patient. Under base-case assumptions, a DM program that reduced readmissions by 21% would need to cost $477 per patient to be cost neutral. Among evaluated published DM programs, 2 of the 5 would increase provider costs (+$15 to $283 per patient), whereas 3 programs would be cost saving (-$241 to $347 per patient). If bundled payments were broadened to include care over 180 days, then program saving estimates would increase, ranging from $419 to $1,706 per patient. Proposed bundled payments for HF admissions provide hospitals with a potential financial incentive to implement DM programs that efficiently reduce readmissions. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in some coronary disease risk factors under influence of treatment with Swieradow radon waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczeklik, E; Halawa, B; Kwiatkowski, J

    1977-01-01

    In 66 patients subbivided into group of patients with coronary disease and group of control subjects the effect of radioactive waterbath and climatotherapy in Swieradow upon coronary disease risk factors was studied. The following risk factors were taken into account: cholesterol level, triglicerides, LDL, uric acid, the serum glucose level, arterial tension and weight. The results obtained indicate that the therapy with radon waters of Swieradow complexed with climatotherapy decreases the content of some coronary disease risk factors. The decrease of the urin acid in the serum, the lowering of arterial tension and decrease of body weight was noted. The lipid level in the serum did not change under effect of radioactive waters.

  6. A Comparison of Spatio-Temporal Disease Mapping Approaches Including an Application to Ischaemic Heart Disease in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of spatio-temporal modelling has witnessed a recent surge as a result of developments in computational power and increased data collection. These developments allow analysts to model the evolution of health outcomes in both space and time simultaneously. This paper models the trends in ischaemic heart disease (IHD in New South Wales, Australia over an eight-year period between 2006 and 2013. A number of spatio-temporal models are considered, and we propose a novel method for determining the goodness-of-fit for these models by outlining a spatio-temporal extension of the Moran’s I statistic. We identify an overall decrease in the rates of IHD, but note that the extent of this health improvement varies across the state. In particular, we identified a number of remote areas in the north and west of the state where the risk stayed constant or even increased slightly.

  7. Impulse control disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease under dopamine agonist therapy: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro J; Martinez Castrillo, Juan Carlos; Alonso-Canovas, Araceli; Herranz Barcenas, Antonio; Vela, Lydia; Sanchez Alonso, Pilar; Mata, Marina; Olmedilla Gonzalez, Nuria; Mahillo Fernandez, Ignacio

    2014-08-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) encompass a wide spectrum of abnormal behaviour frequently found in cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with dopamine agonists (DAs). The main aim of this study was to analyse ICD prevalence with different DAs. We carried out a multicentre transversal study to evaluate the presence of ICDs in patients with PD chronically treated (>6 months) with a single non-ergolinic DA (pramipexole, ropinirole, or rotigotine). Clinical assessment of ICD was performed using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's disease. Thirty-nine per cent of patients (91/233) fulfilled the clinical criteria for ICD. The group of patients with ICD symptoms (ICD+) differed from those without ICD symptoms (ICD-) in younger age and type of DA intake. Oral DA treatment (pramipexole and ropinirole) was associated with higher risk of ICDs compared with transdermal DA (rotigotine): 84/197 (42%) patients treated with oral DA developed ICD, versus 7/36 (19%) patients treated with transdermal DA (Fisher's exact text <0.01). In univariate analysis, a younger age (p<0.01), treatment with rasagiline (p<0.05), and especially treatment with an oral DA (pramipexole or ropinirole) (p<0.01) were significantly associated with ICD. Multivariate analysis confirmed that oral DA remained significantly associated with ICD (p: 0.014, OR: 3.14; 1.26-7.83). ICD was significantly associated with the use of the non-ergolinic oral DA (pramipexole and ropinirole) when compared with transdermal non-ergolinic DA (rotigotine). Since pramipexole, ropinirole and rotigotine are non-ergolinic DAs with very similar pharmacodynamic profiles, it is likely that other factors including route of administration (transdermal vs oral) explain the difference in risk of ICD development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying postural instability in Parkinson's disease using dynamic posturography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, J.H.; Kam, D. de; Geurts, A.C.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    Postural instability, one of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), has devastating consequences for affected patients. Better strategies to prevent falls are needed, but this calls for an improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying postural instability. We must also

  9. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Katagiri

    Full Text Available Although several reports concerning the association of iodine excess and thyroid disease have appeared, no systematic review of the association between iodine excess intake and thyroid diseases, especially hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, has yet been reported.We conducted a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, Ichushi-Web and CiNii database for intervention trials and observational studies. Search terms were constructed from related words for excess AND iodine intake or excretion AND thyroid hormones or diseases AND study designs. After considering the qualitative heterogeneity among studies, a meta-analysis was conducted and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated in random-effects models. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42015028081.50 articles were included, including three intervention trials, six case-control studies, six follow-up studies and 35 cross-sectional studies. Three cross-sectional studies in adults included in meta-analysis. Odds ratio of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism between excess and adequate populations were 2.78 (CI:1.47 to 5.27 and 2.03 (CI:1.58 to 2.62 in adults, respectively. Source of excess iodine status was mainly iodized salt or water in included studies.Although universal salt iodization has improved goiter rates, chronic exposure to excess iodine from water or poorly monitored salt are risk factors for hypothyroidism in free-living populations. Monitoring of both iodine concentration in salt as well as the iodine concentration in local drinking water are essential to preventing thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism should be also carefully monitored in areas with excess iodine. Because of the low quality and limited number of included studies, further evidence and review are required.

  10. iPSC-Based Models to Unravel Key Pathogenetic Processes Underlying Motor Neuron Disease Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Faravelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases (MNDs are neuromuscular disorders affecting rather exclusively upper motor neurons (UMNs and/or lower motor neurons (LMNs. The clinical phenotype is characterized by muscular weakness and atrophy leading to paralysis and almost invariably death due to respiratory failure. Adult MNDs include sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS-fALS, while the most common infantile MND is represented by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. No effective treatment is ccurrently available for MNDs, as for the vast majority of neurodegenerative disorders, and cures are limited to supportive care and symptom relief. The lack of a deep understanding of MND pathogenesis accounts for the difficulties in finding a cure, together with the scarcity of reliable in vitro models. Recent progresses in stem cell field, in particular in the generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs has made possible for the first time obtaining substantial amounts of human cells to recapitulate in vitro some of the key pathogenetic processes underlying MNDs. In the present review, recently published studies involving the use of iPSCs to unravel aspects of ALS and SMA pathogenesis are discussed with an overview of their implications in the process of finding a cure for these still orphan disorders.

  11. [Geographical differences in clinical characteristics and management of stable outpatients with coronary artery disease: comparison between the Italian and international population included in the Worldwide CLARIFY registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Massimo; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding specific differences among countries in demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment of patients with stable coronary artery disease. CLARIFY is an international, prospective and longitudinal registry including more than 33 000 patients with stable coronary artery disease enrolled in 45 countries worldwide. Data were used to compare the characteristics of patients enrolled in Italy with those enrolled in Europe and in the rest of the world. Baseline data were available for 33 283 patients, 2112 of whom from Italy and 12 614 from the remaining western European countries. Italian patients were found to be older, more frequently smoker, hypertensive and with sedentary habits. In addition, they presented more frequently a history of myocardial infarction, carotid arterial disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, when compared with patients of both European and international cohorts, more Italian patients had undergone coronary angiography and angioplasty. As far as treatment was concerned, a greater number of Italian patients were taking ivabradine, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, nitrates, thienopyridines, while those taking beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and other antianginal medications were fewer. Among ambulatory patients with stable coronary artery disease, there are important geographic differences in terms of risk factors, clinical characteristics, surgical and pharmacological treatment.

  12. The investigation and comparison of the underlying needs of common disruptive behaviours in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Jane; Pai, Ming-Chyi; Hsiao, Hua-Shan; Wang, Jing-Jy

    2015-12-01

    Management of the disruptive behaviours is one of the most challenging aspects of caring for patients with Alzheimer's dementia (PwAD). The underlying needs of disruptive behaviours in PwAD had rarely been studied, especially the comparison of the underlying needs of disruptive behaviours in PwAD have never been mentioned. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the underlying needs of five common disruptive behaviours including hoarding, aggressive behaviour, repetitive behaviour, altered eating behaviour and delusion in PwAD, as perceived by family caregivers, and to relate these needs from the perspective of Maslow's hierarchy. An exploratory research design with qualitative data collection techniques was employed. Informed consent was obtained from each participant prior to the data collection. A total of 65 pairs of caregiver-patient with Alzheimer's disease participated in the study. A semi-structured interview guide was used during the interview, and the directed content analysis method was conducted to analyse data. Four themes related to the underlying needs of the five selected disruptive behaviours emerged from the data, and these included a desire for comfort (physical and psychological), a desire for security (psychological and economic), a need for a sense of belonging (including a need to connect with the outside world and a need for attention) and a need for self-control. These behaviour features were found closely related to Maslow's hierarchy model of human needs. Although the data were gathered from the caregivers, and the views of the patients were thus not included in the analysis, the findings provide information for health providers that can enable them to better understand the underlying needs of common disruptive behaviours in patients with Alzheimer's disease and thus help develop better patient-centred care plans. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Function and modulation of premotor brainstem parasympathetic cardiac neurons that control heart rate by hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related diseases including obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Weigand, Letitia A; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Mares, Jacquelyn; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brainstem dominate the control of heart rate. Previous work has determined that these neurons are inherently silent, and their activity is largely determined by synaptic inputs to CVNs that include four major types of synapses that release glutamate, GABA, glycine, or serotonin. Whereas prior reviews have focused on glutamatergic, GABAergic and glycinergic pathways, and the receptors in CVNs activated by these neurotransmitters, this review focuses on the alterations in CVN activity with hypoxia-, sleep-, and sleep-related cardiovascular diseases including obstructive sleep apnea. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. New variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) disease and other human prion diseases under epidemiological surveillance in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gattás, Vera Lúcia; Lima Neto, Antonio Silva; Dimech, George Santiago; Mancini, Denise; Cantarino, Ligia Maria; Marins, José Ricardo Pio; Luna, Expedito José Albuquerque

    2007-01-01

    Abstract To increase the timeliness of detection of human cases of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and to reduce the risk of transmission, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has established and standardized rules and control measures. These include the definition of criteria for suspect cases, reporting, monitoring, and control measures for illness prevention and transmission. Guidelines to be used by the team of health care staff were published and distributed to health wor...

  15. Variations in cardiovascular disease under-diagnosis in England: national cross-sectional spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walford Hannah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is under-diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the English population, despite financial incentives to encourage general practices to register new cases. We compared the modelled (expected and diagnosed (observed prevalence of three cardiovascular conditions- coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension and stroke- at local level, their geographical variation, and population and healthcare predictors which might influence diagnosis. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in all English local authorities (351 and general practices (8,372 comparing model-based expected prevalence with diagnosed prevalence on practice disease registers. Spatial analyses were used to identify geographic clusters and variation in regression relationships. Results A total of 9,682,176 patients were on practice CHD, stroke and transient ischaemic attack, and hypertension registers. There was wide spatial variation in observed: expected prevalence ratios for all three diseases, with less than five per cent of expected cases diagnosed in some areas. London and the surrounding area showed statistically significant discrepancies in observed: expected prevalence ratios, with observed prevalence much lower than the epidemiological models predicted. The addition of general practitioner supply as a variable yielded stronger regression results for all three conditions. Conclusions Despite almost universal access to free primary healthcare, there may be significant and highly variable under-diagnosis of CVD across England, which can be partially explained by persistent inequity in GP supply. Disease management studies should consider the possible impact of under-diagnosis on population health outcomes. Compared to classical regression modelling, spatial analytic techniques can provide additional information on risk factors for under-diagnosis, and can suggest where healthcare resources may be most needed.

  16. Measuring underreporting and under-ascertainment in infectious disease datasets: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Cheryl L; Mangen, Marie-Josée J; Plass, Dietrich; Havelaar, Arie H; Brooke, Russell John; Kramarz, Piotr; Peterson, Karen L; Stuurman, Anke L; Cassini, Alessandro; Fèvre, Eric M; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E

    2014-02-11

    Efficient and reliable surveillance and notification systems are vital for monitoring public health and disease outbreaks. However, most surveillance and notification systems are affected by a degree of underestimation (UE) and therefore uncertainty surrounds the 'true' incidence of disease affecting morbidity and mortality rates. Surveillance systems fail to capture cases at two distinct levels of the surveillance pyramid: from the community since not all cases seek healthcare (under-ascertainment), and at the healthcare-level, representing a failure to adequately report symptomatic cases that have sought medical advice (underreporting). There are several methods to estimate the extent of under-ascertainment and underreporting. Within the context of the ECDC-funded Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE)-project, an extensive literature review was conducted to identify studies that estimate ascertainment or reporting rates for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis in European Union Member States (MS) plus European Free Trade Area (EFTA) countries Iceland, Norway and Switzerland and four other OECD countries (USA, Canada, Australia and Japan). Multiplication factors (MFs), a measure of the magnitude of underestimation, were taken directly from the literature or derived (where the proportion of underestimated, under-ascertained, or underreported cases was known) and compared for the two pathogens. MFs varied between and within diseases and countries, representing a need to carefully select the most appropriate MFs and methods for calculating them. The most appropriate MFs are often disease-, country-, age-, and sex-specific. When routine data are used to make decisions on resource allocation or to estimate epidemiological parameters in populations, it becomes important to understand when, where and to what extent these data represent the true picture of disease, and in some instances (such as priority setting) it is necessary to adjust for underestimation

  17. Tumor cell anaplasia and multinucleation are predictors of disease recurrence in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, including among just the human papillomavirus-related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James S; Scantlebury, Juliette B; Luo, Jingqin; Thorstad, Wade L

    2012-07-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is frequently related to high risk human papillomavirus. This tumor expresses p16, frequently has a nonkeratinizing morphology, and has improved outcomes. Despite having a good prognosis, tumors can have focal or diffuse nuclear anaplasia or multinucleation, the significance of which is unknown. From a database of 270 oropharyngeal SCCs with known histologic typing (using our established system) and p16 immunohistochemistry, all surgically resected cases (149) were reviewed. Anaplasia was defined as any × 40 field with ≥ 3 tumor nuclei with diameters ≥ 5 lymphocyte nuclei (~25 μm), and multinucleation was defined as any × 40 field with ≥ 3 tumor cells with multiple nuclei. p16 was positive in 128 cases (85.9%), 64 cases (43.0%) showed anaplasia, and 71 (47.7%) showed multinucleation. Anaplasia and multinucleation were highly related (Panaplasia or multinucleation had worse overall, disease-specific, and disease-free survival (Panaplasia and multinucleation both predicted worse disease-specific survival (hazard ratio 9.9, P=0.04; and hazard ratio 11.9, P=0.02, respectively) independent of the other variables. In summary, among surgically resectable oropharyngeal SCC (including among just the p16-positive cohort), tumor cell anaplasia and multinucleation independently correlated with disease recurrence and poorer survival.

  18. Styrene-spaced copolymers including anthraquinone and β-O-4 lignin model units: synthesis, characterization and reactivity under alkaline pulping conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megiatto, Jackson D; Cazeils, Emmanuel; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Grelier, Stéphane; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain

    2012-05-14

    A series of random copoly(styrene)s has been synthesized via radical polymerization of functionalized anthraquinone (AQ) and β-O-4 lignin model monomers. The copolymers were designed to have a different number of styrene spacer groups between the AQ and β-O-4 lignin side chains aiming at investigating the distance effects on AQ/β-O-4 electron transfer mechanisms. A detailed molecular characterization, including techniques such as size exclusion chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and (1)H, (13)C, (31)P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, afforded quantitative information about the composition of the copolymers as well as the average distribution of the AQ and β-O-4 groups in the macromolecular structures. TGA and DSC thermal analysis have indicated that the copolymers were thermally stable under regular pulping conditions, revealing the inertness of the styrene polymer backbone in the investigation of electron transfer mechanisms. Alkaline pulping experiments showed that close contact between the redox active side chains in the copolymers was fundamental for an efficient degradation of the β-O-4 lignin model units, highlighting the importance of electron transfer reactions in the lignin degradation mechanisms catalyzed by AQ. In the absence of glucose, AQ units oxidized phenolic β-O-4 lignin model parts, mainly by electron transfer leading to vanillin as major product. By contrast, in presence of glucose, anthrahydroquinone units (formed by reduction of AQ) reduced the quinone-methide units (issued by dehydration of phenolic β-O-4 lignin model part) mainly by electron transfer leading to guaiacol as major product. Both processes were distance dependent.

  19. ZP Domain Proteins in the Abalone Egg Coat Include a Paralog of VERL under Positive Selection That Binds Lysin and 18-kDa Sperm Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Jan E.; Vacquier, Victor D.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying fertilization molecules is key to our understanding of reproductive biology, yet only a few examples of interacting sperm and egg proteins are known. One of the best characterized comes from the invertebrate archeogastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.), where sperm lysin mediates passage through the protective egg vitelline envelope (VE) by binding to the VE protein vitelline envelope receptor for lysin (VERL). Rapid adaptive divergence of abalone lysin and VERL are an example of positive selection on interacting fertilization proteins contributing to reproductive isolation. Previously, we characterized a subset of the abalone VE proteins that share a structural feature, the zona pellucida (ZP) domain, which is common to VERL and the egg envelopes of vertebrates. Here, we use additional expressed sequence tag sequencing and shotgun proteomics to characterize this family of proteins in the abalone egg VE. We expand 3-fold the number of known ZP domain proteins present within the VE (now 30 in total) and identify a paralog of VERL (vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain protein [VEZP] 14) that contains a putative lysin-binding motif. We find that, like VERL, the divergence of VEZP14 among abalone species is driven by positive selection on the lysin-binding motif alone and that these paralogous egg VE proteins bind a similar set of sperm proteins including a rapidly evolving 18-kDa paralog of lysin, which may mediate sperm–egg fusion. This work identifies an egg coat paralog of VERL under positive selection and the candidate sperm proteins with which it may interact during abalone fertilization. PMID:19767347

  20. Systematic review with meta-analysis: online psychological interventions for mental and physical health outcomes in gastrointestinal disorders including irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, I; Hewitt, C; Bell, K; Phillips, A; Mikocka-Walus, A

    2018-06-14

    Online psychotherapy has been successfully used as supportive treatment in many chronic illnesses. However, there is a lack of evidence on its role in the management of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. To examine whether online psychological interventions improve mental and physical outcomes in gastrointestinal diseases. We searched CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, a specialised register of the IBD/FBD Cochrane Group, MEDLINE (PubMed) WHO International Clinical Trial Registry, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of all papers included in the review. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess internal validity. Where possible, data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. We identified 11 publications (encompassing nine studies) meeting inclusion criteria. One study had a high risk of selection bias (allocation concealment), all studies had a high risk of performance and detection bias. Eight studies were included in the meta-analyses (6 on irritable bowel syndrome [IBS] and two on inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]). Online cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was shown to significantly improve gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety (MD: -8.51, 95% CI -12.99 to -4.04, P = 0.0002) and lessen symptom-induced disability (MD: -2.78, 95% CI -5.43 to -0.12, P = 0.04) in IBS post intervention. There was no significant effect of online CBT on any other outcomes in IBS. No significant effect of online psychotherapy was demonstrated in IBD. There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of online CBT to manage mental and physical outcomes in gastrointestinal diseases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Non-linear increase of respiratory diseases and their costs under severe air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; Wu, Yiyun; Chen, Guangdi; Van Grinsven, Hans J M; Wang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Baojing; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-05-01

    China is experiencing severe and persistent air pollution, with concentrations of fine particulate matters (PM 2.5 ) reaching unprecedentedly high levels in many cities. Quantifying the detrimental effects on health and their costs derived from high PM 2.5 levels is crucial because of the unsolved challenges to mitigate air pollution in the following decades. Using the daily monitoring data on PM 2.5 concentrations and clinic visits, we found a non-linear increase of respiratory diseases, but not for other diseases (e.g., digestive diseases) under severe air pollution. We found an increase of respiratory diseases by 1% for each 10 μg m -3 increase in PM 2.5 when the annual average daily PM 2.5 concentration was less than 50 μg m -3 ; while this ratio was doubled (around 2%) with the daily PM 2.5 concentration larger than 50 μg m -3 . Under severe air pollution (PM 2.5 concentration >150 μg m -3 ), the respiratory diseases increased by over 50% compared to that in clean days. Children are more sensitive to the severe air pollution. The increase of clinic visits, especially for adults, was observed mainly in bigger (>500 beds) hospitals. Re-allocating medical resources (e.g., doctors) from big hospitals to community hospitals can benefit the respiratory patients due to air pollution. The total medical cost of clinic visits of respiratory diseases derived from PM 2.5 pollution was estimated at 17.2-57.0 billion Yuan in 2014 in China, accounting for 0.5-1.6% of national total health expenditure. Because these medical costs only represent a small part of total health cost derived from air pollution, the reduction of associated health costs would be an important co-benefit of implementation of air pollution preventive strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Roselle under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is one of the most important medicinal crops in many parts of the world. In this study, the effects of microelements, antioxidants, and bioagents on Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal pathogens of root rot and wilt diseases in roselle, were examined under field conditions. Preliminary studies were carried out in vitro in order to select the most effective members to be used in field control trials. Our results showed that microelements (copper and manganese), antioxidants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, and EDTA), a fungicide (Dithane M45) and biological control agents (Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis) were significantly reduced the linear growth of the causal pathogens. Additionally, application of the previous microelements, antioxidants, a fungicide and biological control agents significantly reduced disease incidence of root rot and wilt diseases under field conditions. Copper, salicylic acid, and T. harzianum showed the best results in this respect. In conclusion, microelements, antioxidants, and biocontrol agents could be used as alternative strategies to fungicides for controlling root rot and wilt diseases in roselle. PMID:25606010

  3. New variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD disease and other human prion diseases under epidemiological surveillance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Gattás

    Full Text Available Abstract To increase the timeliness of detection of human cases of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and to reduce the risk of transmission, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has established and standardized rules and control measures. These include the definition of criteria for suspect cases, reporting, monitoring, and control measures for illness prevention and transmission. Guidelines to be used by the team of health care staff were published and distributed to health workers. A detailed proposal for a simplified system of surveillance for prion diseases was developed and mandatory reporting introduced. Additional effort is necessary to increase vCJD case detection, thus making it necessary to establish a partnership with health care services for best identification of suspected cases and dissemination of information to all involved in the service dealing with vCJD investigation.

  4. Enteric disease surveillance under the AFHSC-GEIS: Current efforts, landscape analysis and vision forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Matthew R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mission of the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS is to support global public health and to counter infectious disease threats to the United States Armed Forces, including newly identified agents or those increasing in incidence. Enteric diseases are a growing threat to U.S. forces, which must be ready to deploy to austere environments where the risk of exposure to enteropathogens may be significant and where routine prevention efforts may be impractical. In this report, the authors review the recent activities of AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories in regards to enteric disease surveillance, prevention and response. Each partner identified recent accomplishments, including support for regional networks. AFHSC/GEIS partners also completed a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT survey as part of a landscape analysis of global enteric surveillance efforts. The current strengths of this network include excellent laboratory infrastructure, equipment and personnel that provide the opportunity for high-quality epidemiological studies and test platforms for point-of-care diagnostics. Weaknesses include inconsistent guidance and a splintered reporting system that hampers the comparison of data across regions or longitudinally. The newly chartered Enterics Surveillance Steering Committee (ESSC is intended to provide clear mission guidance, a structured project review process, and central data management and analysis in support of rationally directed enteric disease surveillance efforts.

  5. Maremar, prevalence of chronic kidney disease, how to avoid over-diagnosis and under-diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Broe, Marc E; Gharbi, Mohammed Benghanem; Elseviers, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease is considered as a major public health problem. Recent studies mention a prevalence rate between 8%-12%. Several editorials, comments, short reviews described the weaknesses (lack of confirmation of proteinuria, and of chronicity of decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate) of a substantial number of studies and the irrational of using a single arbitrary set point, i.e. diagnosis of chronic kidney disease whenever the estimated glomerular filtration rate is less than 60mL/min/1.73m(2). Maremar (Maladies rénales chroniques au Maroc) is a prevalence study of chronic kidney disease, hypertension, diabetes and obesity in a randomized, representative, high response rate (85%), sample of the adult population of Morocco, strictly applying the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Compared to the vast majority of the available studies, Maremar has a low prevalence of chronic kidney disease (2.9% adjusted to the actual adult population of Morocco). The population pyramid, and particularly the confirmation of proteinuria and "chronicity" of the decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate are the main reasons for this low prevalence of chronic kidney disease. The choice of arbitrary single threshold of estimated glomerular filtration rate for classifying stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease inevitably leads to "over-diagnosis" (false positives) of the disease in the elderly, particularly those without proteinuria, hematuria or hypertension, and to "under-diagnosed" (false negatives) in younger individuals with an estimated glomerular filtration rate above 60mL/min/1.73m(2) and below the 3rd percentile of their age/gender category. There is an urgent need for quality studies using in a correct way the recent KDIGO guidelines when investigating the prevalence of chronic kidney disease, in order to avoid a 50 to 100% overestimation of a disease state with potential dramatic consequences. The combination of the general population

  6. Combined heat and gamma-irradiation treatments for the control of strawberry diseases under market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thomas, A.C.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Terblanche, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    The spoilage of strawberries under local market conditions was investigated. It was confirmed that the major losses are due to 'leak' disease caused by Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.) Lind. It was also established that further fruit losses in summer are due to anthracnose caused by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds. This is the first time that the latter pathogen has been isolated and identified and recognised as a problem on strawberries in South Africa. Studies with R. stolonifer in culture showed that 46 degrees Celsius for 20 min (the previous international standard heat treatment for fruit) was disappointing, while a treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 min effectively inhibited spore germination. Irradiation studies with cultures of R. stolonifer and C. acutatum showed that a dose of 200 and 100 krad, respectively, resulted in excellent inhibition of spore germination. However, irradiating in nitrogen gas resulted in a tenfold reduction in the effectiveness of the irradiation treatments. The use of nitrogen during irradiation, therefore, cannot be considered, especially where an effective control of the fungal pathogens is desired. Investigations with different cultivars clearly demonstrated the synergistic effect on disease control obtained when combining heat and irradiation treatments. The combination treatment (moist heat at 50-52 degrees Celsius for 10 min plus 200 krad), besides effectively controlling both diseases in strawberries, did not adversely affect berry quality. In simulated transport tests it was shown that a minimal amount of berry softening did occur with this treatment, but this adverse effect was negligible compared with the beneficial effect obtained from disease control. In semi-commercial experiments it was shown that the combination heat and irradiation treatment effectively controlled spoilage diseases for a period of several days from picking, thus allowing sufficient time to market the fruit under local market

  7. Decisions under risk in Parkinson's disease: preserved evaluation of probability and magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Madeleine E; Viswanathan, Jayalakshmi; McKeown, Martin J; Appel-Cresswell, Silke; Stoessl, A Jon; Barton, Jason J S

    2013-11-01

    Unmedicated Parkinson's disease patients tend to be risk-averse while dopaminergic treatment causes a tendency to take risks. While dopamine agonists may result in clinically apparent impulse control disorders, treatment with levodopa also causes shift in behaviour associated with an enhanced response to rewards. Two important determinants in decision-making are how subjects perceive the magnitude and probability of outcomes. Our objective was to determine if patients with Parkinson's disease on or off levodopa showed differences in their perception of value when making decisions under risk. The Vancouver Gambling task presents subjects with a choice between one prospect with larger outcome and a second with higher probability. Eighteen age-matched controls and eighteen patients with Parkinson's disease before and after levodopa were tested. In the Gain Phase subjects chose between one prospect with higher probability and another with larger reward to maximize their gains. In the Loss Phase, subjects played to minimize their losses. Patients with Parkinson's disease, on or off levodopa, were similar to controls when evaluating gains. However, in the Loss Phase before levodopa, they were more likely to avoid the prospect with lower probability but larger loss, as indicated by the steeper slope of their group psychometric function (t(24) = 2.21, p = 0.04). Modelling with prospect theory suggested that this was attributable to a 28% overestimation of the magnitude of loss, rather than an altered perception of its probability. While pre-medicated patients with Parkinson's disease show risk-aversion for large losses, patients on levodopa have normal perception of magnitude and probability for both loss and gain. The finding of accurate and normally biased decisions under risk in medicated patients with PD is important because it indicates that, if there is indeed anomalous risk-seeking behaviour in such a cohort, it may derive from abnormalities in components of

  8. The resistance response of sunflower genotypes to black stem disease under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza DARVISHZADEH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phoma black stem, caused by Phoma macdonaldii, is one of the most important diseases of sunflower in the world. The sources of resistance to Phoma black stem were investigated. A total of 184 genotypes, including some recombinant inbred lines (RILs, several M6 mutant lines obtained by gamma irradiation of seed of the genotype AS 613, and other genotypes from different countries, were evaluated against an aggressive French isolate (MP6 in controlled conditions. The study was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Each replicate consisted of 10–12 seedlings. Twenty μL of spore suspension (106 pycnidiospores mL-1 were deposited on the intersection of the cotyledon petiole and the hypocotyl of sunflower plantlets at the two-leaf stage. The percentage of the area exhibiting disease symptoms was scored on the two cotyledon petioles of each of the plantlets three, five and seven days after inoculation. The disease progress rate (rd, as the slope of the regression line for disease severity against time, was also calculated. Analysis of variance detected significant differences among sunflower genotypes for disease severity 7 days after inoculation,as well as for the disease progress rate. A strong correlation (r=0.96, P<0.01 was found between disease severity 7 days after inoculation and the disease progress rate. The inbred lines F1250/03 (origin: Hungary, M5-54-1, M6-862-1 (mutant lines, SDR 18 (origin: USA and two wild Helianthus accessions, 1012 Nebraska and 211 Illinois, (wild type were highly resistant to Phoma black stem. These findings will assist breeders in choosing parent plants for breeding durable resistance to Phoma black stem.

  9. Multiple factors, including non-motor impairments, influence decision making with regard to exercise participation in Parkinson's disease: a qualitative enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine; Clemson, Lindy; Canning, Colleen G

    2016-01-01

    To explore how the meaning of exercise and other factors interact and influence the exercise behaviour of individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) enrolled in a 6-month minimally supervised exercise program to prevent falls, regardless of whether they completed the prescribed exercise or not. This qualitative study utilised in-depth semi-structured interviews analysed using grounded theory methodology. Four main themes were constructed from the data: adapting to change and loss, the influence of others, making sense of the exercise experience and hope for a more active future. Participation in the PD-specific physiotherapy program involving group exercise provided an opportunity for participants to reframe their identity of their "active" self. Three new influences on exercise participation were identified and explored: non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue, the belief in a finite energy quota, and the importance of feedback. A model was developed incorporating the themes and influences to explain decision-making for exercise participation in this group. Complex and interacting issues, including non-motor impairments, need to be considered in order to enhance the development and ongoing implementation of effective exercise programmes for people with PD. Exercise participation can assist individuals to reframe their identity as they are faced with losses associated with Parkinson's disease and ageing. Non-motor impairments of apathy and fatigue may influence exercise participation in people with Parkinson's disease. Particular attention needs to be paid to the provision of feedback in exercise programs for people with Parkinson's disease as it important for their decision-making about continuing exercise.

  10. Is Photodynamic Therapy with Adjunctive Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy Effective in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease under Immunocompromised Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, F.; Hezaimi, K.A.; Qadri, T.; Ahmed, H.B.; Corbet, F.E.; Romanos, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess whether or not photodynamic therapy (PDT) with adjunctive scaling-and-root-planing (SRP) is effective in the treatment of periodontitis under immunocompromised conditions. PubMed/Medline and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1967 to May 2013 using various key words. Six studies (five experimental and one clinical) were included. In the clinical study, SRP with PDT was reported to be ineffective in treating chronic periodontitis in T2DM patients. All experimental studies reported significantly less bone loss in periodontal defects treated with SRP+PDT than those treated with SRP alone. Efficacy of PDT+SRP in the treatment of periodontal disease under immunocompromised conditions remains unclear. (author)

  11. Is Photodynamic Therapy with Adjunctive Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy Effective in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease under Immunocompromised Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, F.; Hezaimi, K. A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). College of Applied Medical Sciences; Qadri, T. [Karolinska Inst., Huddinge (Sweden). Dept. of Dental Medicine; Ahmed, H. B. [Al-Farabi Dental College, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Dentistry; Corbet, F. E. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Periodontology; Romanos, G. E. [Stony Brook University, New York (United States). School of Dental Medicine

    2013-10-15

    The aim was to assess whether or not photodynamic therapy (PDT) with adjunctive scaling-and-root-planing (SRP) is effective in the treatment of periodontitis under immunocompromised conditions. PubMed/Medline and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1967 to May 2013 using various key words. Six studies (five experimental and one clinical) were included. In the clinical study, SRP with PDT was reported to be ineffective in treating chronic periodontitis in T2DM patients. All experimental studies reported significantly less bone loss in periodontal defects treated with SRP+PDT than those treated with SRP alone. Efficacy of PDT+SRP in the treatment of periodontal disease under immunocompromised conditions remains unclear. (author)

  12. Changes in endocrine thymus function in patients with breast cancer under the action of combined treatment including non-specific active immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendyug, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    The state of endocrine thymus function in patients with breast cancer of the 1st-4th stage and in 31 patients with precancerous diseases is studied. It is established that considerable decrease of thymus serous factor (TSF) content in all patients is observed. Radiation- and polychemotherapy carried out decreases the endocrine thymus function. Inclusions of non-specific active immunotherapy in patients' treatment promote the increase of TSF content, that increases treatment efficiency

  13. Wild rodents as a model to discover genes and pathways underlying natural variation in infectious disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A K; Paterson, S

    2013-11-01

    Individuals vary in their susceptibility to infectious disease, and it is now well established that host genetic factors form a major component of this variation. The discovery of genes underlying susceptibility has the potential to lead to improved disease control, through the identification and management of vulnerable individuals and the discovery of novel therapeutic targets. Laboratory rodents have proved invaluable for ascertaining the function of genes involved in immunity to infection. However, these captive animals experience conditions very different to the natural environment, lacking the genetic diversity and environmental pressures characteristic of natural populations, including those of humans. It has therefore often proved difficult to translate basic laboratory research to the real world. In order to further our understanding of the genetic basis of infectious disease resistance, and the evolutionary forces that drive variation in susceptibility, we propose that genetic research traditionally conducted on laboratory animals is expanded to the more ecologically valid arena of natural populations. In this article, we highlight the potential of using wild rodents as a new resource for biomedical research, to link the functional genetic knowledge gained from laboratory rodents with the variation in infectious disease susceptibility observed in humans and other natural populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of Maize Hybrid and Foliar Fungicides on Yield Under Low Foliar Disease Severity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallowa, Sally O; Esker, Paul D; Paul, Pierce A; Bradley, Carl A; Chapara, Venkata R; Conley, Shawn P; Robertson, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    Foliar fungicide use in the U.S. Corn Belt increased in the last decade; however, questions persist pertaining to its value and sustainability. Multistate field trials were established from 2010 to 2012 in Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin to examine how hybrid and foliar fungicide influenced disease intensity and yield. The experimental design was in a split-split plot with main plots consisting of hybrids varying in resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) and northern corn leaf blight (caused by Setosphaera turcica), subplots corresponding to four application timings of the fungicide pyraclostrobin, and sub-subplots represented by inoculations with either C. zeae-maydis, S. turcica, or both at two vegetative growth stages. Fungicide application (VT/R1) significantly reduced total disease severity relative to the control in five of eight site-years (P<0.05). Disease was reduced by approximately 30% at Wisconsin in 2011, 20% at Illinois in 2010, 29% at Iowa in 2010, and 32 and 30% at Ohio in 2010 and 2012, respectively. These disease severities ranged from 0.2 to 0.3% in Wisconsin in 2011 to 16.7 to 22.1% in Illinois in 2010. The untreated control had significantly lower yield (P<0.05) than the fungicide-treated in three site-years. Fungicide application increased the yield by approximately 6% at Ohio in 2010, 5% at Wisconsin in 2010 and 6% in 2011. Yield differences ranged from 8,403 to 8,890 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2011 to 11,362 to 11,919 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2010. Results suggest susceptibility to disease and prevailing environment are important drivers of observed differences. Yield increases as a result of the physiological benefits of plant health benefits under low disease were not consistent.

  15. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-08-03

    Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015-2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  16. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Methods Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015–2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. Findings The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. Conclusions The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. PMID:28775179

  17. Factors associated with chronic diseases among the elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Fernanda Batista; Pinho, Lucinéia; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    The profile of a sample population of elderly receiving treatment under the Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Teófilo Otoni, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described, and the factors associated with diseases prevalence examined. Using simple random sampling, 385 elderly were interviewed using Form A and Elderly Form from the Primary Health Care Information System. The majority of the sample (83.1%) self-reported at least one disease, 69.9% had hypertension, and 17.7% had diabetes. Poisson regression analysis showed that the main factors associated with hypertension and other diseases were being non-white, having a low level of education, medication use, dental prosthesis use, and lack of a private health plan. The prevalence of diabetes was greater among women and individuals who depended on other people to live. It can be concluded that this sample population of elderly has a generally low socioeconomic status and are more susceptible to developing diseases, particularly hypertension. Diabetes should be controlled although had relatively low prevalence. It is suggested investments in structuring the health system network to provide adequate care for the elderly and in training health professionals to play an effective role in improving the quality of life of the elderly in Brazil.

  18. A neural network underlying intentional emotional facial expression in neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Gola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intentional facial expression of emotion is critical to healthy social interactions. Patients with neurodegenerative disease, particularly those with right temporal or prefrontal atrophy, show dramatic socioemotional impairment. This was an exploratory study examining the neural and behavioral correlates of intentional facial expression of emotion in neurodegenerative disease patients and healthy controls. One hundred and thirty three participants (45 Alzheimer's disease, 16 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, 8 non-fluent primary progressive aphasia, 10 progressive supranuclear palsy, 11 right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, 9 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia patients and 34 healthy controls were video recorded while imitating static images of emotional faces and producing emotional expressions based on verbal command; the accuracy of their expression was rated by blinded raters. Participants also underwent face-to-face socioemotional testing and informants described participants' typical socioemotional behavior. Patients' performance on emotion expression tasks was correlated with gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM across the entire sample. We found that intentional emotional imitation scores were related to fundamental socioemotional deficits; patients with known socioemotional deficits performed worse than controls on intentional emotion imitation; and intentional emotional expression predicted caregiver ratings of empathy and interpersonal warmth. Whole brain VBMs revealed a rightward cortical atrophy pattern homologous to the left lateralized speech production network was associated with intentional emotional imitation deficits. Results point to a possible neural mechanisms underlying complex socioemotional communication deficits in neurodegenerative disease patients.

  19. DSP30 and interleukin-2 as a mitotic stimulant in B-cell disorders including those with a low disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Karen A; Riley, Louise A; Diano, Giuseppe; Adams, Leanne B; Chiu, Eleanor; Sharma, Archna

    2018-05-01

    Chromosome abnormalities detected during cytogenetic investigations for B-cell malignancy offer prognostic information that can have wide ranging clinical impacts on patients. These impacts may include monitoring frequency, treatment type, and disease staging level. The use of the synthetic oligonucleotide DSP30 combined with interleukin 2 (IL2) has been described as an effective mitotic stimulant in B-cell disorders, not only in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but also in a range of other B-cell malignancies. Here, we describe the comparison of two B-cell mitogens, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and DSP30 combined with IL2 as mitogens in a range of common B-cell disorders excluding CLL. The results showed that DSP30/IL2 was an effective mitogen in mature B-cell disorders, revealing abnormal cytogenetic results in a range of B-cell malignancies. The abnormality rate increased when compared to the use of LPS to 64% (DSP30/IL2) from 14% (LPS). In a number of cases the disease burden was proportionally very low, less than 10% of white cells. In 37% of these cases, the DSP30 culture revealed abnormal results. Importantly, we also obtained abnormal conventional cytogenetics results in 3 bone marrow cases in which immunophenotyping showed an absence of an abnormal B-cell clone. In these cases, the cytogenetics results correlated with the provisional diagnosis and altered their staging level. The use of DSP30 and IL2 is recommended for use in many B-cell malignancies as an effective mitogen and their use has been shown to enable successful culture of the malignant clone, even at very low levels of disease. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Discovery of candidate disease genes in ENU-induced mouse mutants by large-scale sequencing, including a splice-site mutation in nucleoredoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa K Boles

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and precisely annotated genome assembly is a fundamental requirement for functional genomic analysis. Here, the complete DNA sequence and gene annotation of mouse Chromosome 11 was used to test the efficacy of large-scale sequencing for mutation identification. We re-sequenced the 14,000 annotated exons and boundaries from over 900 genes in 41 recessive mutant mouse lines that were isolated in an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutation screen targeted to mouse Chromosome 11. Fifty-nine sequence variants were identified in 55 genes from 31 mutant lines. 39% of the lesions lie in coding sequences and create primarily missense mutations. The other 61% lie in noncoding regions, many of them in highly conserved sequences. A lesion in the perinatal lethal line l11Jus13 alters a consensus splice site of nucleoredoxin (Nxn, inserting 10 amino acids into the resulting protein. We conclude that point mutations can be accurately and sensitively recovered by large-scale sequencing, and that conserved noncoding regions should be included for disease mutation identification. Only seven of the candidate genes we report have been previously targeted by mutation in mice or rats, showing that despite ongoing efforts to functionally annotate genes in the mammalian genome, an enormous gap remains between phenotype and function. Our data show that the classical positional mapping approach of disease mutation identification can be extended to large target regions using high-throughput sequencing.

  1. Music and Memory in Alzheimer's Disease and The Potential Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Katlyn J; Girard, Todd A; Russo, Frank A; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    With population aging and a projected exponential expansion of persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the development of treatment and prevention programs has become a fervent area of research and discovery. A growing body of evidence suggests that music exposure can enhance memory and emotional function in persons with AD. However, there is a paucity of research that aims to identify specific underlying neural mechanisms associated with music's beneficial effects in this particular population. As such, this paper reviews existing anecdotal and empirical evidence related to the enhancing effects of music exposure on cognitive function and further provides a discussion on the potential underlying mechanisms that may explain music's beneficial effect. Specifically, this paper will outline the potential role of the dopaminergic system, the autonomic nervous system, and the default network in explaining how music may enhance memory function in persons with AD.

  2. Autophagy as a Molecular Target of Flavonoids Underlying their Protective Effects in Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Domínguez, Nestor; Garcia-Mediavilla, Maria V; Sanchez-Campos, Sonia; Mauriz, Jose L; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular pathway with the ability to maintain cell homeostasis through the elimination of damaged or useless cellular components, and its deregulation may initiate or aggravate different human diseases. Flavonoids, a group of plant metabolites, are able to modulate different molecular and cellular processes including autophagy. To review the effects of flavonoids on autophagy pathway in both invasive and noninvasive human diseases, focusing on the global outcomes in their progression. Moreover, the efficacy of the combination of flavonoids with drugs or other natural nontoxic compounds was also reviewed. A literature search was performed to identify and analyze peer-reviewed publications containing in vitro and in vivo studies focused on autophagy deregulation in different proliferative and non-proliferative pathologies and the potential protective effects of flavonoids. Analyzed publications indicated that imbalance between cell death and survival induced by changes in autophagy play an important role in the pathophysiology of a number of human diseases. The use of different flavonoids as autophagy modulators, alone or in combination with other molecules, might be a worthy strategy in the treatment of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, hepatic diseases, leishmaniasis, influenza, gastric ulcers produced by Helicobacter pylori infection, diabetes, asthma, age-related macular degeneration or osteoporosis. Flavonoids could potentially constitute important adjuvant agents of conventional therapies in the treatment of autophagy deregulation-related diseases. Moreover, combined therapy may help to diminish the doses of those conventional treatments, leading to reduced drug-derivative side effects and to improved patients' survival. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Delayed pneumothorax after laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy in a patient without underlying lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richie K Huynh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of a delayed pneumothorax occurring approximately 72 h post-operatively in a patient without any underlying lung disease who had undergone laparoscopic sigmoid colon resection. The patient was in her mid-40s with a body mass index of 28.0 and had no history of smoking. Her spontaneous pneumothorax manifested without any precipitating events or complications during recovery. There was no evidence of any infectious process. There were no central line attempts and all ports were placed intra-peritoneally, and there was no evidence of any subcutaneous emphysema. One possible mechanism of injury that we propose is barotrauma from an extended period of time in Trendelenburg position. Notably, the only abnormal finding throughout the entire post-operative period preceding the delayed pneumothorax was a PO 2 desaturation the day before. This case highlights the necessity to examine and investigate any desaturation post-operatively and deliberate its possible significance. Furthermore, it demonstrates that, even during a normal recovery period for a patient without any underlying lung disease or risk factors, spontaneous pneumothorax could still develop in a delayed fashion multiple days post-operatively from a laparoscopic procedure.

  4. HBV reactivation in rheumatic diseases patients under therapy: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghoofei, Mohsen; Mostafaei, Shayan; Ashraf-Ganjouei, Amir; Kavosi, Hoda; Mahmoudi, Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. In patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy such as rheumatic diseases, reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered clinically important. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine the prevalence rate of HBV reactivation in rheumatic patients from different parts of the world. The authors performed a systematic literature review from several reliable databases including Scopus, ISI Web of Science and PubMed. Furthermore, the keywords of this research were "Hepatitis B virus", "Rheumatic diseases", "HBV reactivation", "Anti-TNF", "DMARDs" and "Biologic agents". The authors selected 30 studies out of 983 for the present review. The overall estimation of the prevalence of HBV reactivation was 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-1.6). Also, the heterogeneity in estimating the pooled prevalence among the studies was shown; Cochran Q test, P HBV were in Italy and France respectively. Rheumatic disease patients with resolved hepatitis B should be tightly monitored for possible HBV reactivation by elevation of liver enzymes and HBV DNA levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Siobhan; Ristenpart, William

    2013-11-01

    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in pathogen transmission between the animals, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulent intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of an axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We show that for fan-generated turbulence the plume width is invariant with the mean airspeed and, close to the point source, increases linearly with downstream position. Importantly, the turbulent dispersivity is insensitive to the presence of meshes placed downstream from the point source, indicating that the fan length scale dictates the turbulent intensity and corresponding dispersivity.

  6. Proliferative kidney disease in brown trout: infection level, pathology and mortality under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Hirschi, Regula; Schneider, Ernst

    2015-05-21

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an emerging disease threatening wild salmonid populations. In temperature-controlled aquaria, PKD can cause mortality rates of up to 85% in rainbow trout. So far, no data about PKD-related mortality in wild brown trout Salmo trutta fario are available. The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rates and pathology in brown trout kept in a cage within a natural river habitat known to harbor Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. Young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout, free of T. bryosalmonae, were exposed in the River Wutach, in the northeast of Switzerland, during 3 summer months. Samples of wild brown trout caught by electrofishing near the cage location were examined in parallel. The incidence of PKD in cage-exposed animals (69%) was not significantly different to the disease prevalence of wild fish (82 and 80% in the upstream and downstream locations, respectively). The mortality in cage-exposed animals, however, was as low as 15%. At the termination of the exposure experiment, surviving fish showed histological lesions typical for PKD regression, suggesting that many YOY brown trout survive the initial infection. Our results at the River Wutach suggest that PKD in brown trout does not always result in high mortality under natural conditions.

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis and the Expression of Disease-Resistant Genes in Oryza meyeriana under Native Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    Full Text Available Oryza meyeriana (O. meyeriana, with a GG genome type (2n = 24, accumulated plentiful excellent characteristics with respect to resistance to many diseases such as rice shade and blast, even immunity to bacterial blight. It is very important to know if the diseases-resistant genes exist and express in this wild rice under native conditions. However, limited genomic or transcriptomic data of O. meyeriana are currently available. In this study, we present the first comprehensive characterization of the O. meyeriana transcriptome using RNA-seq and obtained 185,323 contigs with an average length of 1,692 bp and an N50 of 2,391 bp. Through differential expression analysis, it was found that there were most tissue-specifically expressed genes in roots, and next to stems and leaves. By similarity search against protein databases, 146,450 had at least a significant alignment to existed gene models. Comparison with the Oryza sativa (japonica-type Nipponbare and indica-type 93-11 genomes revealed that 13% of the O. meyeriana contigs had not been detected in O. sativa. Many diseases-resistant genes, such as bacterial blight resistant, blast resistant, rust resistant, fusarium resistant, cyst nematode resistant and downy mildew gene, were mined from the transcriptomic database. There are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes (Xa1 and Xa26 differentially or specifically expressed in O. meyeriana. The 4 Xa1 contigs were all only expressed in root, while three of Xa26 contigs have the highest expression level in leaves, two of Xa26 contigs have the highest expression profile in stems and one of Xa26 contigs was expressed dominantly in roots. The transcriptomic database of O. meyeriana has been constructed and many diseases-resistant genes were found to express under native condition, which provides a foundation for future discovery of a number of novel genes and provides a basis for studying the molecular mechanisms associated with disease

  8. Clinical course and therapeutic approach to varicella zoster virus infection in children with rheumatic autoimmune diseases under immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuvenink, Raphael; Aeschlimann, Florence; Baer, Walter; Berthet, Gerald; Cannizzaro, Elvira; Hofer, Michael; Kaiser, Daniela; Schroeder, Silke; Heininger, Ulrich; Woerner, Andreas

    2016-06-02

    To analyze the clinical presentation and complications of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in children with rheumatic diseases treated with immunosuppressive medication such as biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and/or conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs), and to analyze the therapeutic approach to VZV infections with respect to the concomitant immunosuppressive treatment. Retrospective multicenter study using the Swiss Pediatric Rheumatology registry. Children with rheumatic diseases followed in a Swiss center for pediatric rheumatology and treated with cDMARD and/or bDMARD with a clinical diagnosis of varicella or herpes zoster between January 2004 and December 2013 were included. Twenty-two patients were identified, of whom 20 were treated for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, 1 for a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III, and 1 for uveitis. Of these 22 patients, 16 had varicella and 6 had herpes zoster. Median age at VZV disease was 7.6 years (range 2 to 17 years), with 6.3 years (range 2 to 17 years) for those with varicella and 11.6 years (range 5 to 16 years) for those with herpes zoster. The median interval between start of immunosuppression and VZV disease was 14.1 months (range 1 to 63 months). Two patients had received varicella vaccine (1 dose each) prior to start of immunosuppression. Concomitant immunosuppressive therapy was methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy (n = 9) or bDMARD monotherapy (n = 2), or a combination of bDMARD with prednisone, MTX or Leflunomide (n = 11). Four patients experienced VZV related complications: cellulitis in 1 patient treated with MTX, and cellulitis, sepsis and cerebellitis in 3 patients treated with biological agents and MTX combination therapy. Six children were admitted to hospital (range of duration: 4 to 9 days) and 12 were treated with valaciclovir or aciclovir. The clinical course of varicella and herpes zoster in children under

  9. Results of surgical treatment for secondary spontaneous pneumothorax according to underlying diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Junji; Nagayama, Kazuhiro; Hino, Haruaki; Nitadori, Jun-ichi; Anraku, Masaki; Murakawa, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of surgical treatment for secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) has rarely been investigated. We retrospectively reviewed 183 patients who underwent surgery for SSP. We categorized the patients into three groups according to underlying diseases: Group A (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), Group B (interstitial pneumonia [IP]) and Group C (others). We defined treatment success as surgery without hospital mortality, postoperative complications, death within 6 months or ipsilateral recurrence of pneumothorax within 2 years. We assessed the risk factors for unsuccessful treatment using a Cox regression hazard model. There were 123 patients in Group A, 20 in Group B and 40 in Group C. The hospital mortality rates were 2, 15 and 0% in Groups A, B and C, respectively. The hospital mortality, morbidity and pneumothorax recurrence rates in the IP group were higher than in the other groups. The 5-year overall survival rates were 78, 32 and 84% in Groups A, B and C, respectively; the prognosis of the IP group was significantly poorer. The treatment success rates were 86, 45 and 83% in Groups A, B and C, respectively. SSPs caused by IP and SSPs requiring open surgery were identified as the risk factors for unsuccessful treatment. Surgery for SSP caused by underlying diseases other than IP yielded favourable results. However, a careful examination of surgical indication and a realistic disclosure for informed consent are required for patients with SSP caused by IP, because of the high treatment failure rate. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a kinetic model, including rate constant estimations, on iodine and caesium behaviour in the primary circuit of LWR's under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Buron, J.M.; Fernandez, S.

    1991-07-01

    In this report, a kinetic model has been developed with the aim to try to reproduce the chemical phenomena that take place in a flowing system containing steam, hydrogen and iodine and caesium vapours. The work is divided into two different parts. The first part consists in the estimation, through the Activited Complex Theory, of the reaction rate constants, for the chosen reactions, and the development of the kinetic model based on the concept of ideal tubular chemical reactor. The second part deals with the application of such model to several cases, which were taken from the Phase B 'Scoping Calculations' of the Phebus-FP Project (sequence AB) and the SFD-ST and SFD1.1 experiments. The main conclusion obtained from this work is that the assumption of instantaneous equilibrium could be inacurrate in order to estimate the iodine and caesium species distribution under severe accidents conditions

  11. Failure Models and Criteria for FRP Under In-Plane or Three-Dimensional Stress States Including Shear Non-Linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Silvestre T.; Davila, C. G.; Camanho, P. P.; Iannucci, L.; Robinson, P.

    2005-01-01

    A set of three-dimensional failure criteria for laminated fiber-reinforced composites, denoted LaRC04, is proposed. The criteria are based on physical models for each failure mode and take into consideration non-linear matrix shear behaviour. The model for matrix compressive failure is based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion and it predicts the fracture angle. Fiber kinking is triggered by an initial fiber misalignment angle and by the rotation of the fibers during compressive loading. The plane of fiber kinking is predicted by the model. LaRC04 consists of 6 expressions that can be used directly for design purposes. Several applications involving a broad range of load combinations are presented and compared to experimental data and other existing criteria. Predictions using LaRC04 correlate well with the experimental data, arguably better than most existing criteria. The good correlation seems to be attributable to the physical soundness of the underlying failure models.

  12. Estimating the total number of susceptibility variants underlying complex diseases from genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon-Cheong So

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous susceptibility variants for complex diseases. In this study we proposed several approaches to estimate the total number of variants underlying these diseases. We assume that the variance explained by genetic markers (Vg follow an exponential distribution, which is justified by previous studies on theories of adaptation. Our aim is to fit the observed distribution of Vg from GWAS to its theoretical distribution. The number of variants is obtained by the heritability divided by the estimated mean of the exponential distribution. In practice, due to limited sample sizes, there is insufficient power to detect variants with small effects. Therefore the power was taken into account in fitting. Besides considering the most significant variants, we also tried to relax the significance threshold, allowing more markers to be fitted. The effects of false positive variants were removed by considering the local false discovery rates. In addition, we developed an alternative approach by directly fitting the z-statistics from GWAS to its theoretical distribution. In all cases, the "winner's curse" effect was corrected analytically. Confidence intervals were also derived. Simulations were performed to compare and verify the performance of different estimators (which incorporates various means of winner's curse correction and the coverage of the proposed analytic confidence intervals. Our methodology only requires summary statistics and is able to handle both binary and continuous traits. Finally we applied the methods to a few real disease examples (lipid traits, type 2 diabetes and Crohn's disease and estimated that hundreds to nearly a thousand variants underlie these traits.

  13. Homozygous deletion of six genes including corneodesmosin on chromosome 6p21.3 is associated with generalized peeling skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, Kwesi; Hamada, Takahiro; Krol, Rafal P; Numata, Sanae; Ishii, Norito; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Ohata, Chika; Furumura, Minao; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare autosomal recessive form of ichthyosis showing skin exfoliation. PSS is divided into acral and generalized PSS, and the latter is further classified into non-inflammatory type (PSS type A) and inflammatory type (PSS type B). PSS type B is now called peeling skin disease (PSD). Different loss-of-function mutations in the corneodesmosin (CDSN) gene have been reported to cause PSD. The aim of this study was to determine genetic basis of disease in a 14-year-old Japanese patient with PSD. Immunohistochemical study showed lack of corneodesmosin (CDSN) in the skin, and standard PCR for genomic DNA failed to amplify CDSN product, suggesting CDSN defect. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and genomic quantitative real-time PCR analyses detected large homozygous deletion of 59,184bp extending from 40.6kb upstream to 13.2kb downstream of CDSN, which included 6 genes (TCF19, CCHCR1, PSORS1C2, PSORS1C1, CDSN and C6orf15). The continuous gene lost did not result in additional clinical features. Inverted repeats with 85% similarity flanking the deletion breakpoint were considered to mediate the deletion by non-homologous end joining or fork stalling and template switching/microhomology-mediated break-induced replication. Parents were clinically unaffected and were heterozygote carriers of the same deletion, which was absent in 284 ethnically matched control alleles. We also developed simple PCR method, which is useful for detection of this deletion. Although 5 other genes were also deleted, homozygous deletion of CDSN was considered to be responsible for this PSD. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of quantitative trait loci underlying seed protein content of soybean including main, epistatic, and QTL × environment effects in different regions of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Weili; Li, Wen; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Depeng; Zhao, Xue; Li, Haiyan; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Wenbin

    2017-08-01

    The objective here was to identify QTL underlying soybean protein content (PC), and to evaluate the additive and epistatic effects of the QTLs. A mapping population, consisting of 129 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), was created by crossing 'Dongnong 46' and 'L-100'. Phenotypic data of the parents and RILs were collected for 4 years in three locations of Heilongjiang Province of China. A total of 213 SSR markers were used to construct a genetic linkage map. Eight QTLs, located on seven chromosomes (Chr), were identified to be associated with PC among the 10 tested environments. Of the seven QTLs, five QTLs, qPR-2 (Satt710, on Chr9), qPR-3 (Sat_122, on Chr12), qPR-5 (Satt543, on Chr17), qPR-7 (Satt163, on Chr18), and qPR-8 (Satt614, on Chr20), were detected in six, seven, seven, six, and seven environments, respectively, implying relatively stable QTLs. qPR-3 could explain 3.33%-11.26% of the phenotypic variation across eight tested environments. qPR-5 and qPR-8 explained 3.64%-10.1% and 11.86%-18.40% of the phenotypic variation, respectively, across seven tested environments. Eight QTLs associated with PC exhibited additive and (or) additive × environment interaction effects. The results showed that environment-independent QTLs often had higher additive effects. Moreover, five epistatic pairwise QTLs were identified in the 10 environments.

  15. Behavior and failure of uniformly hydrided Zircaloy-4 fuel claddings between 25 C and 480 C under various stress states, including RIA loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Saux, M.; Carassou, S.; Averty, X.; Le Saux, M.; Besson, J.; Poussard, C.

    2010-01-01

    The anisotropic plastic behavior and the fracture of as-received and hydrided Cold-Worked Stress Relieved Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes are investigated under thermal-mechanical loading conditions representative of Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction during Reactivity Initiated Accidents in Pressurized Water Reactors. In order to study the combined effects of temperature, hydrogen content, loading direction and stress state, Axial Tensile, Hoop Tensile, Expansion Due to Compression and hoop Plane Strain Tensile tests are performed at room temperature, 350 C and 480 C on the material containing various hydrogen contents up to 1200 wt. ppm (hydrides are circumferential and homogeneously distributed). These tests are combined with digital image correlation and metallographic and fractographic observations at different scales. The flow stress of the material decreases with increasing temperature. The material is either strengthened or softened by hydrogen depending on temperature and hydrogen content. Plastic anisotropy depends on temperature but not on hydrogen content. The ductility of the material decreases with increasing hydrogen content at room temperature due to damage nucleation by hydride cracking. The plastic strain that leads to hydride fracture at room temperature decreases with increasing hydrogen content. The influence of stress triaxiality on hydride cracking is negligible in the studied range. The influence of hydrogen on material ductility is negligible at 350 C and 480 C since hydrides do not crack at these temperatures. The ductility of the material increases with increasing temperature. The evolution of material ductility is associated with a change in both the macroscopic fracture mode of the specimens and the microscopic failure mechanisms. (authors)

  16. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Elisa, E-mail: Elisa.Andresen@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Opitz, Judith, E-mail: Daniela.Opitz@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Thomas, George, E-mail: George.Thomas@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Stärk, Hans-Joachim, E-mail: Ha-Jo.Staerk@ufz.de [UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Dienemann, Holger, E-mail: Holger.Dienemann@smul.sachsen.de [Saxon State Company for Environment and Agriculture, Business Domain 5 (Laboratory), Department 53, Bitterfelder Str. 25, D-04849 Bad Düben (Germany); Jenemann, Kerstin, E-mail: Kerstin.Jenemann@smul.sachsen.de [Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Abteilung Wasser, Boden, Wertstoffe, Zur Wetterwarte 11, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Dickinson, Bryan C., E-mail: Bryan.Dickinson@gmail.com [Harvard University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Küpper, Hendrik, E-mail: Hendrik.Kuepper@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Institute of Physical Biology, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far.

  17. Effects of Cd and Ni toxicity to Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions in soft and hard water including a German lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Elisa; Opitz, Judith; Thomas, George; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Dienemann, Holger; Jenemann, Kerstin; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Hardly any macrophytic growth occurred in an oligotrophic hard water lake in Germany. •All parameters were optimal, besides elevated, nanomolar concentrations of Ni and Cd. •We cultivated submerged macrophytes in real and simulated hard and soft lake water. •Nanomolar Cd and Ni inhibited the plants’ photosynthetic light reactions in soft water. •The inhibition was synergistic, i.e. stronger than the addition of Cd and Ni effects. -- Abstract: Even essential trace elements are phytotoxic over a certain threshold. In this study, we investigated whether heavy metal concentrations were responsible for the nearly complete lack of submerged macrophytes in an oligotrophic lake in Germany. We cultivated the rootless aquatic model plant Ceratophyllum demersum under environmentally relevant conditions like sinusoidal light and temperature cycles and a low plant biomass to water volume ratio. Experiments lasted for six weeks and were analysed by detailed measurements of photosynthetic biophysics, pigment content and hydrogen peroxide production. We established that individually non-toxic cadmium (3 nM) and slightly toxic nickel (300 nM) concentrations became highly toxic when applied together in soft water, severely inhibiting photosynthetic light reactions. Toxicity was further enhanced by phosphate limitation (75 nM) in soft water as present in many freshwater habitats. In the investigated lake, however, high water hardness limited the toxicity of these metal concentrations, thus the inhibition of macrophytic growth in the lake must have additional reasons. The results showed that synergistic heavy metal toxicity may change ecosystems in many more cases than estimated so far

  18. Potential distribution of pine wilt disease under future climate change scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hirata

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease (PWD constitutes a serious threat to pine forests. Since development depends on temperature and drought, there is a concern that future climate change could lead to the spread of PWD infections. We evaluated the risk of PWD in 21 susceptible Pinus species on a global scale. The MB index, which represents the sum of the difference between the mean monthly temperature and 15 when the mean monthly temperatures exceeds 15°C, was used to determine current and future regions vulnerable to PWD (MB ≥ 22. For future climate conditions, we compared the difference in PWD risks among four different representative concentration pathways (RCPs 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 and two time periods (2050s and 2070s. We also evaluated the impact of climate change on habitat suitability for each Pinus species using species distribution models. The findings were then integrated and the potential risk of PWD spread under climate change was discussed. Within the natural Pinus distribution area, southern parts of North America, Europe, and Asia were categorized as vulnerable regions (MB ≥ 22; 16% of the total Pinus distribution area. Representative provinces in which PWD has been reported at least once overlapped with the vulnerable regions. All RCP scenarios showed expansion of vulnerable regions in northern parts of Europe, Asia, and North America under future climate conditions. By the 2070s, under RCP 8.5, an estimated increase in the area of vulnerable regions to approximately 50% of the total Pinus distribution area was revealed. In addition, the habitat conditions of a large portion of the Pinus distribution areas in Europe and Asia were deemed unsuitable by the 2070s under RCP 8.5. Approximately 40% of these regions overlapped with regions deemed vulnerable to PWD, suggesting that Pinus forests in these areas are at risk of serious damage due to habitat shifts and spread of PWD.

  19. Determinants of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Including Hookah Smoking and Opium Use– A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 50,000 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Results Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02–1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55–1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). Conclusion GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere. PMID:24586635

  20. Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M; Pharoah, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼ 50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55-1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere.

  1. Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Islami

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼ 50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn.Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.75 and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55-1.87 were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99. After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined.GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere.

  2. Validation of inverse seasonal peak mortality in medieval plagues, including the Black Death, in comparison to modern Yersinia pestis-variant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, Mark R; Bossak, Brian H

    2009-12-22

    Recent studies have noted myriad qualitative and quantitative inconsistencies between the medieval Black Death (and subsequent "plagues") and modern empirical Y. pestis plague data, most of which is derived from the Indian and Chinese plague outbreaks of A.D. 1900+/-15 years. Previous works have noted apparent differences in seasonal mortality peaks during Black Death outbreaks versus peaks of bubonic and pneumonic plagues attributed to Y. pestis infection, but have not provided spatiotemporal statistical support. Our objective here was to validate individual observations of this seasonal discrepancy in peak mortality between historical epidemics and modern empirical data. We compiled and aggregated multiple daily, weekly and monthly datasets of both Y. pestis plague epidemics and suspected Black Death epidemics to compare seasonal differences in mortality peaks at a monthly resolution. Statistical and time series analyses of the epidemic data indicate that a seasonal inversion in peak mortality does exist between known Y. pestis plague and suspected Black Death epidemics. We provide possible explanations for this seasonal inversion. These results add further evidence of inconsistency between historical plagues, including the Black Death, and our current understanding of Y. pestis-variant disease. We expect that the line of inquiry into the disputed cause of the greatest recorded epidemic will continue to intensify. Given the rapid pace of environmental change in the modern world, it is crucial that we understand past lethal outbreaks as fully as possible in order to prepare for future deadly pandemics.

  3. Validation of inverse seasonal peak mortality in medieval plagues, including the Black Death, in comparison to modern Yersinia pestis-variant diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Welford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have noted myriad qualitative and quantitative inconsistencies between the medieval Black Death (and subsequent "plagues" and modern empirical Y. pestis plague data, most of which is derived from the Indian and Chinese plague outbreaks of A.D. 1900+/-15 years. Previous works have noted apparent differences in seasonal mortality peaks during Black Death outbreaks versus peaks of bubonic and pneumonic plagues attributed to Y. pestis infection, but have not provided spatiotemporal statistical support. Our objective here was to validate individual observations of this seasonal discrepancy in peak mortality between historical epidemics and modern empirical data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compiled and aggregated multiple daily, weekly and monthly datasets of both Y. pestis plague epidemics and suspected Black Death epidemics to compare seasonal differences in mortality peaks at a monthly resolution. Statistical and time series analyses of the epidemic data indicate that a seasonal inversion in peak mortality does exist between known Y. pestis plague and suspected Black Death epidemics. We provide possible explanations for this seasonal inversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results add further evidence of inconsistency between historical plagues, including the Black Death, and our current understanding of Y. pestis-variant disease. We expect that the line of inquiry into the disputed cause of the greatest recorded epidemic will continue to intensify. Given the rapid pace of environmental change in the modern world, it is crucial that we understand past lethal outbreaks as fully as possible in order to prepare for future deadly pandemics.

  4. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... § 413.210 Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system... prospective payment system described in § 413.215 through § 413.235 of this part. (a) Qualifications for...

  5. The Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine Underlying the Prevention and Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, characterized with bradykinesia, static tremor, rigidity and disturbances in balance, is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Along with the largely aging population in the world, the incidence is increasing year by year, which imposes the negative impacts on patients, their families and the whole society. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has a positive prospect for the prevention and cure of PD due to its advantages of less side effects and multi-target effects. At present, the pathogenesis of PD is not yet fully discovered. This paper elaborates the mechanisms of TCM underlying the prevention and treatment of PD with regards to the inhibition of oxidative stress, the regulation of mitochondrial dysfunction, the reduction of toxic excitatory amino acids (EAA, the inhibition of neuroinflammation, the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, and the inhibition of abnormal protein aggregation.

  6. Exploring the genetics underlying autoimmune diseases with network analysis and link prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alanis Lobato, Gregorio; Cannistraci, Carlo; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the first Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was carried out we have seen an important number of discoveries of biological and clinical relevance. However, there are some scientists that consider that these research outcomes and their utility are far from what was expected from this experimental design. We instead believe that the thousands of genetic variants associated with complex disorders by means of GWASs are an extremely valuable source of information that needs to be mined in a different way. Based on this philosophy, we followed a holistic perspective to analyze GWAS data and explored the structural properties of the network representation of one of these datasets with the aim to advance our understanding of the genetic intricacies underlying autoimmune human diseases. The simplicity, computational efficiency and precision of the tools proposed in this paper represent a new means to address GWAS data and contribute to the better exploitation of these rich sources of information. © 2014 IEEE.

  7. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying postural instability in Parkinson's disease using dynamic posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnekes, Jorik; de Kam, Digna; Geurts, Alexander C H; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2013-12-01

    Postural instability, one of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), has devastating consequences for affected patients. Better strategies to prevent falls are needed, but this calls for an improved understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying postural instability. We must also improve our ability to timely identify patients at risk of falling. Dynamic posturography is a promising avenue to achieve these goals. The latest moveable platforms can deliver 'real-life' balance perturbations, permitting study of everyday fall circumstances. Dynamic posturography studies have shown that PD patients have fundamental problems in scaling their postural responses in accordance with the need of the actual balance task at hand. On-going studies evaluate the predictive ability of impaired posturography performance for daily life falls. We also review recent work aimed at exploring balance correcting steps in PD, and the presumed interaction between startle pathways and postural responses.

  8. Exploring the genetics underlying autoimmune diseases with network analysis and link prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alanis Lobato, Gregorio

    2014-02-01

    Ever since the first Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was carried out we have seen an important number of discoveries of biological and clinical relevance. However, there are some scientists that consider that these research outcomes and their utility are far from what was expected from this experimental design. We instead believe that the thousands of genetic variants associated with complex disorders by means of GWASs are an extremely valuable source of information that needs to be mined in a different way. Based on this philosophy, we followed a holistic perspective to analyze GWAS data and explored the structural properties of the network representation of one of these datasets with the aim to advance our understanding of the genetic intricacies underlying autoimmune human diseases. The simplicity, computational efficiency and precision of the tools proposed in this paper represent a new means to address GWAS data and contribute to the better exploitation of these rich sources of information. © 2014 IEEE.

  9. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amer F; Hassan, Mohamed I; Amein, Karam A

    2015-12-01

    Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  10. Effect of multidisciplinary disease management for hospitalized heart failure under a national health insurance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chun-Tai; Liu, Min-Hui; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Huang, Yu-Yen; Yang, Ning-I; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2015-09-01

    Multidisciplinary disease management programmes (MDPs) for heart failure have been shown to be effective in Western countries. However, it is not known whether they improve outcomes in a high population density country with a national health insurance programme. In total, 349 patients hospitalized because of heart failure were randomized into control and MDP groups. All-cause death and re-hospitalization related to heart failure were analyzed. The median follow-up period was approximately 2 years. Mean patient age was 60 years; 31% were women; and 50% of patients had coronary artery disease. MDP was associated with fewer all-cause deaths [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27-0.91, P = 0.02] and heart failure-related re-hospitalizations (HR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.25-0.77, P = 0.004). MDP was still associated with better outcomes for all-cause death (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.29-0.98, P = 0.04) and heart failure-related re-hospitalization (HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.26-0.81, P = 0.007), after adjusting for age, diuretics, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, sodium, and albumin. However, MDPs' effect on all-cause mortality and heart failure-related re-hospitalization was significantly attenuated after adjusting for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers or β-blockers. A stratified analysis showed that MDP combined with guideline-based medication had synergistic effects. MDP is effective in lowering all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization rates related to heart failure under a national health insurance programme. MDP synergistically improves the effectiveness of guidelines-based medications for heart failure.

  11. Hygiene and sanitation risk factors of diarrhoeal disease among under-five children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloruntoba, Elizabeth Omoladun; Folarin, Taiwo Bukola; Ayede, Adejumoke Idowu

    2014-12-01

    Diarrhoea diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in under-five-children (U-5C) in Nigeria. Inadequate safe water, sanitation, and hygiene account for the disease burden. Cases of diarrhoea still occur in high proportion in the study area despite government-oriented interventions. To determine the hygiene and sanitation risk factors predisposing U-5C to diarrhoea in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty pairs of children, matched on age, were recruited as cases and controls over a period of 5 months in Ibadan. Questionnaire and observation checklist were used to obtain information on hygiene practices from caregivers/mothers and sanitation conditions in the households of 30% of the consenting mothers/caregivers. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Caregivers/mothers' mean ages were 31.3 ±7.5 (cases) and 30.6 ±6.0(controls) years. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers did not wash hands with soap before food preparation (OR=3.0, pHygiene and sanitation conditions within households were risk factors for diarrhoea. This study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in sanitation in Ibadan, Nigeria.

  12. The Number of Candidate Variants in Exome Sequencing for Mendelian Disease under No Genetic Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Nishino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been recent success in identifying disease-causing variants in Mendelian disorders by exome sequencing followed by simple filtering techniques. Studies generally assume complete or high penetrance. However, there are likely many failed and unpublished studies due in part to incomplete penetrance or phenocopy. In this study, the expected number of candidate single-nucleotide variants (SNVs in exome data for autosomal dominant or recessive Mendelian disorders was investigated under the assumption of “no genetic heterogeneity.” All variants were assumed to be under the “null model,” and sample allele frequencies were modeled using a standard population genetics theory. To investigate the properties of pedigree data, full-sibs were considered in addition to unrelated individuals. In both cases, particularly regarding full-sibs, the number of SNVs remained very high without controls. The high efficacy of controls was also confirmed. When controls were used with a relatively large total sample size (e.g., N=20, 50, filtering incorporating of incomplete penetrance and phenocopy efficiently reduced the number of candidate SNVs. This suggests that filtering is useful when an assumption of no “genetic heterogeneity” is appropriate and could provide general guidelines for sample size determination.

  13. Tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease under resting-state and stress-state conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Ji; Lee, Woong Woo; Kim, Sang Kyong; Park, Hyeyoung; Jeon, Hyo Seon; Kim, Han Byul; Jeon, Beom S; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-15

    Tremor characteristics-amplitude and frequency components-are primary quantitative clinical factors for diagnosis and monitoring of tremors. Few studies have investigated how different patient's conditions affect tremor frequency characteristics in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we analyzed tremor characteristics under resting-state and stress-state conditions. Tremor was recorded using an accelerometer on the finger, under resting-state and stress-state (calculation task) conditions, during rest tremor and postural tremor. The changes of peak power, peak frequency, mean frequency, and distribution of power spectral density (PSD) of tremor were evaluated across conditions. Patients whose tremors were considered more than "mild" were selected, for both rest (n=67) and postural (n=25) tremor. Stress resulted in both greater peak powers and higher peak frequencies for rest tremor (pstate condition. The distributions of PSD of tremor were symmetrical, regardless of conditions. Tremor is more evident and typical tremor characteristics, namely a lower frequency as amplitude increases, are different in stressful condition. Patient's conditions directly affect neural oscillations related to tremor frequencies. Therefore, tremor characteristics in PD should be systematically standardized across patient's conditions such as attention and stress levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Report of two patients with Paget′s disease - one with typical clinical and radiological manifestations including cardiac involvement and the other subclinical but with radiological changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sivapatha Sundharam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteitis deformans or Paget′s disease of bone, fondly referred to as the ′collage of matrix madness′, is a unique skeletal disease characterized by furious osteoclastic bone resorption followed by a period of hectic bone formation, resulting in again in the bone mass wherein the newly formed bone is disordered and architecturally unsound. A disease of obscure etiology, it usually manifests as progressive enlargement of one or multiple bones of the skeleton. Herewith we present a typical example of a polyostotic form of Paget′s disease with classical clinical features and radiologic changes in one patient and a subclinical form of Paget′s disease with marked radiological changes in the other patient.

  15. Early Activation of Patients after Surgery for Coronary Heart Disease under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kozlov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the safety and clinical efficiency of early activation of patients operated on for coronary heart disease under extracorporeal circulation. Subjects and methods. The data available in the case histories of 673 patients aged 29—76 years, operated on in 1995, 2004, and 2006, were analyzed. The study excluded patients with severe intraoperative complications (acute myocardial infarction, a need for extracorporeal circulation, and surgical bleeding. Early activation was made on an operating table if there were no contraindications. Some sections of the study were performed in the matched patient groups. Results. With early activation, the dosages of fentanyl were reduced by 2.5-3 times as compared with the 1995 data; the use of ketamine and diazepam was stopped. Instead of the latter, the currently available inhalational agents are coming into use: midazolam has been introduced and the rate of propofol use has increased. The higher activation rate required the use of flumazenil, naloxone, and proserin. The goal-oriented study of central hemodynamics with emphasis on early activation has indicated that lower dosages of fentanyl have no negative impact on cardiac pump function or myocardial oxygen balance. When the trachea was extubated on the operating table, there was appropriate central hemodynamic stabilization. It was found that the incidence of postoperative myocardial infarctions did not depend on the rate of activation. The frequency of cardiovascular complications was 38.8±5.9% and 22.9±5.0% in the prolonged artificial ventilation (AV and early activation groups, respectively (p<0.05; that of pulmonary complications was 16.4±4.5% and 5.7±2.8%, respectively (p<0.05. Early activation halved the length of stay at an intensive care unit (p<0.05 and reduced postoperative hospitalization at surgery units by 5 days (p< 0.05. Introduction of early activation caused a decrease in the duration of postoperative AV in the

  16. Under-reporting of notifiable infectious disease hospitalizations in a health board region in Ireland: room for improvement?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brabazon, E D

    2008-02-01

    Rapid notification of infectious diseases is essential for prompt public health action and for monitoring of these diseases in the Irish population at both a local and national level. Anecdotal evidence suggests, however, that the occurrence of notifiable infectious diseases is seriously underestimated. This study aims to assess the level of hospitalization for notifiable infectious diseases for a 6-year period in one health board region in Ireland and to assess whether or not there was any under-reporting during this period. All hospital in-patient admissions from 1997 to 2002 inclusive with a principal diagnosis relating to \\'infectious and parasitic diseases\\' (ICD codes 001-139) of residents from a health board region in Ireland were extracted from the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry System (HIPE). All notifiable infectious diseases were identified based on the 1981 Irish Infectious Disease Regulations and the data were analysed in the statistical package, JMP. These data were compared with the corresponding notification data. Analysis of the hospital in-patient admission data revealed a substantial burden associated with notifiable infectious diseases in this health board region: there were 2758 hospitalizations by 2454 residents, 17,034 bed days and 33 deaths. The statutory notification data comprises both general practitioner and hospital clinician reports of infectious disease. Therefore, only in cases where there are more hospitalizations than notifications can under-reporting be demonstrated. This occurred in nine out of 22 notifiable diseases and amounted to an additional 18% of notifications (or 572 cases) which were \\'missed\\' due to hospital clinician under-reporting. The majority of these under-reported cases were for viral meningitis (45%), infectious mononucleosis (27%), viral hepatitis C unspecified (15%) and acute encephalitis (5.8%). This study has highlighted the extent of under-reporting of hospitalized notifiable infectious diseases, in a

  17. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in children and adolescents with celiac disease under treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida Motta

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Low bone mineral density may be a finding among children and adolescents with celiac disease, including those undergoing treatment with a gluten-free diet, but the data are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bone mineral density abnormalities in patients on a gluten-free diet, considering age at diagnosis and duration of dietary treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional prevalence study at the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic of Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira. METHODS: Thirty-one patients over five years of age with celiac disease and on a gluten-free diet were enrolled. Bone mineral density (in g/cm² was measured in the lumbar spine and whole body using bone densitometry and categorized using the criteria of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry, i.e. low bone mineral density for chronological age < -2.0 Z-scores. Age at diagnosis and duration of dietary treatment were confirmed according to the date of starting the gluten-free diet. RESULTS: Low bone density for chronological age was present in 3/31 patients in the lumbar spine and 1/31 in the whole body (also with lumbar spine abnormality. At diagnosis, three patients with low bone mineral density for the chronological age were more than 7.6 years old. These patients had been on a gluten-free diet for six and seven months and 3.4 years. CONCLUSION: Pediatric patients with celiac disease on long-term treatment are at risk of low bone mineral density. Early diagnosis and long periods of gluten-free diet are directly implicated in bone density normalization.

  18. The effects of infographics and several quantitative versus qualitative formats for cardiovascular disease risk, including heart age, on people's risk understanding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Olga C; Vonk, Suzanne I; Van den Haak, Maaike J; van Hooijdonk, Charlotte M J; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2018-01-01

    To study how comprehension of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is influenced by: (1) infographics about qualitative risk information, with/without risk numbers; (2) which qualitative risk dimension is emphasized; (3) heart age vs. traditional risk format.

  19. Association between TSH-Receptor Autoimmunity, Hyperthyroidism, Goitre, and Orbitopathy in 208 Patients Included in the Remission Induction and Sustenance in Graves' Disease Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Nygaard, Birte; Andersen, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Background. Graves' disease may have a number of clinical manifestations with varying degrees of activity that may not always run in parallel. Objectives. To study associations between serum levels of TSH-receptor autoantibodies and the three main manifestations of Graves' disease (hyperthyroidism...... and Sustenance in Graves' Disease (RISG)." Patients were systematically tested for degree of biochemical hyperthyroidism, enlarged thyroid volume by ultrasonography, and the presence of orbitopathy. Results. Positive correlations were found between the levels of TSH-receptor autoantibodies in serum and the three...... manifestations of Graves' disease: severeness of hyperthyroidism, presence of enlarged thyroid, and presence of orbitopathy, as well as between the different types of manifestations. Only around half of patients had enlarged thyroid gland at the time of diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, whereas 25-30% had...

  20. Models of simulation and prediction of the behavior of dengue in four Colombian cities, including climate like modulating variable of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Giraldo, Jairo A; Boshell, Jose Francisco

    2004-01-01

    ARIMA-type models are proposed to simulate the behavior of dengue and to make apparent the relations with the climatic variability in four localities of Colombia. The climatic variable was introduced into the models as an index that modulates the behavior of the disease. It was obtained by means of a multivariate analysis of principal components. The investigation was carried out with information corresponding to the epidemiological weeks from January 1997 to December 2000, for both the number of disease cases and the data corresponding to the meteorological variables. The study shows that the variations of the climate between the previous 9 to 14 weeks have influence on the appearance of new cases of dengue. In particular, the precipitation in these weeks was seen to be greater when in later periods the disease presented epidemic characteristics than the precipitation in those weeks preceded the disease within endemic limits

  1. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Ho Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is defined as a pathologic accumulation of fat in the form of triglycerides (TG in the liver (steatosis that is not caused by alcohol. A subgroup of NAFLD patients shows liver cell injury and inflammation coupled with the excessive fat accumulation (steatohepatitis, which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Patients with NASH may develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. NAFLD shares the key features of metabolic syndrome including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is multi-factorial, however the oxidative stress seems to plays a major role in the development and progression of the disease. The emerging field of epigenetics provides a new perspective on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Epigenetics is an inheritable but reversible phenomenon that affects gene expression without altering the DNA sequence and refers to DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Epigenetic manipulation through metabolic pathways such as one-carbon metabolism has been proposed as a promising approach to retard the progression of NAFLD. Investigating the epigenetic modifiers in NAFLD may also lead to the development of preventive or therapeutic strategies for NASH-associated complications.

  2. The alteration of interelemental ratios in myocardium under the congenital heart disease (SRXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunova, V.A.; Zvereva, V.V.; Okuneva, G.N.; Levicheva, E.N.

    2007-01-01

    It is the myocardium that bears the basic functional loading during heart working, including muscle contractility and enzyme activity. The elemental concentrations in myocardium tissue of heart were determined by SRXRF technique. Our investigation is systematical: the elemental content in each compartment (left and right ventricles, left and right auricles) of hearts of healthy and diseased children (congenital heart diseases, transposition of main vessels (TMV)) was analyzed. The elemental distribution in myocardium of four heart chambers of human fetuses was also analyzed. Following elements were determined: S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr. It was revealed that the elemental concentrations in myocardium of both ventricles are almost constant in heart of fetuses and healthy children. The transition from pre-natal study (fetus) to post-natal study is accompanied by the redistribution of chemical elements in myocardium. The higher concentrations of S, Fe, Ca, Sr and Cu in myocardium of children are observed, the content of K, Br, Rb and especially Se is lower than in heart of fetuses. The elemental distribution in myocardium of children TMV is considerably different in comparison with the healthy children: the higher levels of Cu are observed. The content of Se is lower

  3. Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without air-meniscus sign and underlying lung disease: CT findings and histopathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju (Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: rosaceci@radiol.snu.ac.kr

    2011-09-15

    Background: Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients has been described as a saprophytic infection with pre-existing lung lesions showing an air-meniscus sign on chest radiograph or CT scans. There have been rare articles dealing with pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without pre-existing lung lesions. Purpose: To evaluate the CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without air-meniscus and underlying lung disease and to correlate the CT findings and pathologic features of pulmonary aspergillosis in these patients. Material and Methods: A total of seven surgically proven pulmonary aspergillosis found in immunocompetent patients without an air-meniscus and underlying lung disease (M:F = 1:6; mean age 63.4 years) were included. On CT, the lesion shape, margin, type, location, diameter, presence of satellite nodules, presence of CT halo sign or hypodense sign, and interval growth were evaluated. Histopathologic features of each lesion were classified as one of the following; primary aspergilloma, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Correlation between CT findings and pathological features was performed. Results: All lesions presented as a nodule or mass unable to differentiate from malignancy. Most lesions had well-defined margins (n = 4), appeared as solid lesions (n = 7), and were located in the upper lobe (n = 5). Mean diameter of lesions was 2.3 cm. Satellite nodules (n = 2), CT halo sign (n = 1), and hypodense sign (n = 4) were found. Only one lesion increased in size during follow-up. Lesions were pathologically classified as primary aspergilloma (n = 3) and chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 4). The hypodense sign on CT was pathologically proved as dense fungal hyphae filled in bronchus and CT halo sign as parenchymal hemorrhage. Conclusion: Pulmonary aspergillosis predominantly presented as a nodule or mass mimicking malignancy in the upper lobes

  4. Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without air-meniscus sign and underlying lung disease: CT findings and histopathologic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Park, Chang Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients has been described as a saprophytic infection with pre-existing lung lesions showing an air-meniscus sign on chest radiograph or CT scans. There have been rare articles dealing with pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without pre-existing lung lesions. Purpose: To evaluate the CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompetent patients without air-meniscus and underlying lung disease and to correlate the CT findings and pathologic features of pulmonary aspergillosis in these patients. Material and Methods: A total of seven surgically proven pulmonary aspergillosis found in immunocompetent patients without an air-meniscus and underlying lung disease (M:F = 1:6; mean age 63.4 years) were included. On CT, the lesion shape, margin, type, location, diameter, presence of satellite nodules, presence of CT halo sign or hypodense sign, and interval growth were evaluated. Histopathologic features of each lesion were classified as one of the following; primary aspergilloma, chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, or invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Correlation between CT findings and pathological features was performed. Results: All lesions presented as a nodule or mass unable to differentiate from malignancy. Most lesions had well-defined margins (n = 4), appeared as solid lesions (n = 7), and were located in the upper lobe (n = 5). Mean diameter of lesions was 2.3 cm. Satellite nodules (n = 2), CT halo sign (n = 1), and hypodense sign (n = 4) were found. Only one lesion increased in size during follow-up. Lesions were pathologically classified as primary aspergilloma (n = 3) and chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 4). The hypodense sign on CT was pathologically proved as dense fungal hyphae filled in bronchus and CT halo sign as parenchymal hemorrhage. Conclusion: Pulmonary aspergillosis predominantly presented as a nodule or mass mimicking malignancy in the upper lobes

  5. Indirect Genetic Effects and the Spread of Infectious Disease: Are We Capturing the Full Heritable Variation Underlying Disease Prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, John A.; Bijma, Piter; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing disease prevalence through selection for host resistance offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment. Selection for host resistance has proven difficult, however, due to low heritability estimates. These low estimates may be caused by a failure to capture all the relevant genetic variance in disease resistance, as genetic analysis currently is not taylored to estimate genetic variation in infectivity. Host infectivity is the propensity of transmitting infection upon contact with a susceptible individual, and can be regarded as an indirect effect to disease status. It may be caused by a combination of physiological and behavioural traits. Though genetic variation in infectivity is difficult to measure directly, Indirect Genetic Effect (IGE) models, also referred to as associative effects or social interaction models, allow the estimation of this variance from more readily available binary disease data (infected/non-infected). We therefore generated binary disease data from simulated populations with known amounts of variation in susceptibility and infectivity to test the adequacy of traditional and IGE models. Our results show that a conventional model fails to capture the genetic variation in infectivity inherent in populations with simulated infectivity. An IGE model, on the other hand, does capture some of the variation in infectivity. Comparison with expected genetic variance suggests that there is scope for further methodological improvement, and that potential responses to selection may be greater than values presented here. Nonetheless, selection using an index of estimated direct and indirect breeding values was shown to have a greater genetic selection differential and reduced future disease risk than traditional selection for resistance only. These findings suggest that if genetic variation in infectivity substantially contributes to disease transmission, then breeding designs which explicitly incorporate IGEs might help reduce disease

  6. Abnormal activity of corneal cold thermoreceptors underlies the unpleasant sensations in dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Illés; Luna, Carolina; Quirce, Susana; Mizerska, Kamila; Callejo, Gerard; Riestra, Ana; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Meseguer, Victor M; Cuenca, Nicolás; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Acosta, M Carmen; Gasull, Xavier; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) affects >10% of the population worldwide, and it provokes an unpleasant sensation of ocular dryness, whose underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Removal of the main lachrymal gland in guinea pigs caused long-term reduction of basal tearing accompanied by changes in the architecture and density of subbasal corneal nerves and epithelial terminals. After 4 weeks, ongoing impulse activity and responses to cooling of corneal cold thermoreceptor endings were enhanced. Menthol (200 μM) first excited and then inactivated this augmented spontaneous and cold-evoked activity. Comparatively, corneal polymodal nociceptors of tear-deficient eyes remained silent and exhibited only a mild sensitization to acidic stimulation, whereas mechanonociceptors were not affected. Dryness-induced changes in peripheral cold thermoreceptor responsiveness developed in parallel with a progressive excitability enhancement of corneal cold trigeminal ganglion neurons, primarily due to an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents. In corneal polymodal nociceptor neurons, sodium currents were enhanced whereas potassium currents remain unaltered. In healthy humans, exposure of the eye surface to menthol vapors or to cold air currents evoked unpleasant sensations accompanied by increased blinking frequency that we attributed to cold thermoreceptor stimulation. Notably, stimulation with menthol reduced the ongoing background discomfort of patients with DED, conceivably due to use-dependent inactivation of cold thermoreceptors. Together, these data indicate that cold thermoreceptors contribute importantly to the detection and signaling of ocular surface wetness, and develop under chronic eye dryness conditions an injury-evoked neuropathic firing that seems to underlie the unpleasant sensations experienced by patients with DED.

  7. Decision Making under Risk Condition in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Behavioural and fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Labudda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study whether previously described impairment in decision making under risky conditions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD is affected by deficits in using information about potential incentives or by processing feedback (in terms of fictitious gains and losses following each decision. Additionally, we studied whether the neural correlates of using explicit information in decision making under risk differ between PD patients and healthy subjects. We investigated ten cognitively intact PD patients and twelve healthy subjects with the Game of Dice Task (GDT to assess risky decision making, and with an fMRI paradigm to analyse the neural correlates of information integration in the deliberative decision phase. Behaviourally, PD patients showed selective impairment in the GDT but not on the fMRI task that did not include a feedback component. Healthy subjects exhibited lateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate and parietal activations when integrating decision-relevant information. Despite similar behavioural patterns on the fMRI task, patients exhibited reduced parietal activation. Behavioural results suggest that PD patients’ deficits in risky decision making are dominated by impaired feedback utilization not compensable by intact cognitive functions. Our fMRI results suggest similarities but also differences in neural correlates when using explicit information for the decision process, potentially indicating different strategy application even if the interfering feedback component is excluded.

  8. Association between TSH-Receptor Autoimmunity, Hyperthyroidism, Goitre, and Orbitopathy in 208 Patients Included in the Remission Induction and Sustenance in Graves’ Disease Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Laurberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Graves’ disease may have a number of clinical manifestations with varying degrees of activity that may not always run in parallel. Objectives. To study associations between serum levels of TSH-receptor autoantibodies and the three main manifestations of Graves’ disease (hyperthyroidism, goiter, and presence of orbitopathy at the time of diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Methods. We describe a cohort of 208 patients with newly diagnosed Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Patients were enrolled in a multiphase study of antithyroid drug therapy of Graves’ hyperthyroidism, entitled “Remission Induction and Sustenance in Graves’ Disease (RISG.” Patients were systematically tested for degree of biochemical hyperthyroidism, enlarged thyroid volume by ultrasonography, and the presence of orbitopathy. Results. Positive correlations were found between the levels of TSH-receptor autoantibodies in serum and the three manifestations of Graves’ disease: severeness of hyperthyroidism, presence of enlarged thyroid, and presence of orbitopathy, as well as between the different types of manifestations. Only around half of patients had enlarged thyroid gland at the time of diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, whereas 25–30% had orbitopathy. Conclusions. A positive but rather weak correlation was found between TSH-receptor antibodies in serum and the major clinical manifestation of Graves’ disease. Only half of the patients had an enlarged thyroid gland at the time of diagnosis.

  9. Mitochondrial mislocalization underlies Abeta42-induced neuronal dysfunction in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Iijima-Ando

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid-beta 42 (Abeta42 is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Abeta42 induces neuronal dysfunction and degeneration remain elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunctions are implicated in AD brains. Whether mitochondrial dysfunctions are merely a consequence of AD pathology, or are early seminal events in AD pathogenesis remains to be determined. Here, we show that Abeta42 induces mitochondrial mislocalization, which contributes to Abeta42-induced neuronal dysfunction in a transgenic Drosophila model. In the Abeta42 fly brain, mitochondria were reduced in axons and dendrites, and accumulated in the somata without severe mitochondrial damage or neurodegeneration. In contrast, organization of microtubule or global axonal transport was not significantly altered at this stage. Abeta42-induced behavioral defects were exacerbated by genetic reductions in mitochondrial transport, and were modulated by cAMP levels and PKA activity. Levels of putative PKA substrate phosphoproteins were reduced in the Abeta42 fly brains. Importantly, perturbations in mitochondrial transport in neurons were sufficient to disrupt PKA signaling and induce late-onset behavioral deficits, suggesting a mechanism whereby mitochondrial mislocalization contributes to Abeta42-induced neuronal dysfunction. These results demonstrate that mislocalization of mitochondria underlies the pathogenic effects of Abeta42 in vivo.

  10. [Automutilation with indistinct underlying disease--difficulties of care in the community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehb, Iris; Reuhl, Joachim; Volk, Stephan; Urban, Reinhard

    2009-11-01

    Self-mutilation is well-known in various psychiatric diseases and represents a challenge for forensic pathologists as regards the differentiation of accidental versus self-inflicted injuries, especially when a criminal charge is likely to emerge. A case of extraordinarily severe self-inflicted injuries is presented as well as the related implications concerning clinical and ambulatory care for patients, whose underlying motivation remains unknown. A 60 year-old worker exhibited an open scull fracture and 14 abdominal wounds with protrusion of small intestine, from which a part of 160 cm length was completely removed beforehand. The patient claimed the wounds having been caused accidentally. When examined by a psychiatrist, disturbances in orientation, unrest and ill concentration were found, but no symptoms related to psychosis, depression or suicidal behaviour. Although the need for more detailed examination seemed to be clearly evident, the medical authorities did not take action. Consequently, no further psychiatric treatment was initiated. The implications of this case on the background of the literature are discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  11. Plausible mechanisms explaining the association of periodontitis with cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.G.; Teeuw, W.J.; Nicu, E.A.; Lynge Petersen, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases is now well established. Cardiovascular diseases include atherosclerosis, coronary heart (artery) disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease. Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Risks of neurological and immune-related diseases, including narcolepsy, after vaccination with Pandemrix: a population- and registry-based cohort study with over 2 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, I; Granath, F; Askling, J; Ludvigsson, J F; Olsson, T; Feltelius, N

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the association between vaccination with Pandemrix and risk of selected neurological and immune-related diseases including narcolepsy. Population-based prospective cohort study using data from regional vaccination registries and national health registries. Seven healthcare regions in Sweden comprising 61% of the Swedish population. Study population of 3,347,467 vaccinated and 2,497,572 nonvaccinated individuals (vaccination coverage ≈ 60%) followed between 2009 and 2011 for 6.9 million person-years after exposure and 6.0 million person-years without exposure. First recorded diagnosis of neurological and immune-related diseases. Relative risks [hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] assessed using Cox regression, adjusted for covariates. For all selected neurological and immune-related outcomes under study, other than allergic vaccine reactions (for which we verified an expected increase in risk) and narcolepsy, HRs were close to 1.0 and always below 1.3. We observed a three-fold increased risk of a diagnosis of narcolepsy (HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.78-4.79; that is, four additional cases per 100,000 person-years) in individuals ≤ 20 years of age at vaccination and a two-fold increase (HR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.00-4.75) amongst young adults between 21 and 30 years of age. The excess risk declined successively with increasing age at vaccination; no increase in risk was seen after 40 years of age. For a large number of selected neurological and immune-related diseases, we could neither confirm any causal association with Pandemrix nor refute entirely a small excess risk. We confirmed an increased risk for a diagnosis of narcolepsy in individuals ≤ 20 years of age and observed a trend towards an increased risk also amongst young adults between 21 and 30 years. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  13. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-associated abortion and vertical transmission following acute infection in cattle under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic as well as more than 70 wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. T...

  14. Under-diagnosis of rickettsial disease in clinical practice: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, Louise E.; de Vries, Sophia G.; Wagenaar, Jiri F. P.; Spijker, René; Grobusch, Martin P.; Goorhuis, Abraham

    2018-01-01

    Rickettsial diseases present as acute febrile illnesses, sometimes with inoculation eschars. We performed a systematic review of studies published between 1997 and 2017 to assess the underestimation of non-eschar rickettsial disease (NERD) relative to eschar rickettsial disease (ERD), as a cause of

  15. Evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Serena Christine

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the present thesis was the evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases. It was to be examined whether a change in the parathyroid function would arise within the first week on treatment. So far there are some minor studies existing describing significant changes in the parathyroid hormone serum level within the first months after radioactive iodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Moreover, it is a fact that external beam-radiotherapy can induce neoplasia and that the risk for the subsequent development of primary hyperparathyroidism doubles or triples after external beam-radiotherapy of the head and neck. Up to now, however, an increased incidence for primary hyperparathyroidism following treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I) could not be proved. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university hospital Giessen-Marburg GmbH, location Marburg, a prospective cohort study was executed on radioactive iodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases with 105 probands (75 women / 30 men, mean age 60.62 ± 14.3 years). According to their thyroid diseases these 105 probands were classified into following subgroups: thyroid adenoma with 23 patients, multifocal thyroid autonomy with 8 patients, disseminated thyroid autonomy with 37 patients as well as the subgroup Graves' hyperthyroidism (without Graves' ophtalmopathy) and accordingly Graves' disease (with Graves' ophtalmopathy) with 37 patients. The serum level of the intact parathyroid hormone was determined directly before starting the radioactive iodine therapy on the admission day and on day 1, 3 and 5 of the radioactive iodine therapy as well as at the ambulant follow-up examination one month after the start of the therapy. In case of 99 of 105 probands the serum level of parathyroid hormone declined on treatment with 131 I with its nadir on day 3 of therapy (decline by 15.71 ng/l or 27

  16. Indirect Genetic Effects and the Spread of Infectious Disease: Are We Capturing the Full Heritable Variation Underlying Disease Prevalence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipschutz-Powell, D.; Woolliams, J.A.; Bijma, P.; Doeschl-Wilson, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing disease prevalence through selection for host resistance offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment. Selection for host resistance has proven difficult, however, due to low heritability estimates. These low estimates may be caused by a failure to capture all the relevant genetic

  17. [Challenge and strategy of prevention and control of important parasitic diseases under the Belt and Road Initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Li, Cao; Jia-Gang, Guo

    2018-04-17

    China was once a country with the heaviest burden of parasitic diseases. Under the leadership of the Communist Party and national authority, after more than 60 years' efforts of prevention and control, the remarkable results have been achieved in China. However, affected by the social and economic development and environmental changes, the prevention and control of parasitic diseases, especially imported parasitic diseases, are facing new challenges, and the parasitic diseases, such as malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis, appear increasingly. With the development of the Belt and Road Initiative, the transmission risks of these diseases are more increased. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience and results of parasitic disease prevention and control in China, understand the present parasitic disease epidemic situation of the Belt and Road Initiative related countries, analyze the transmission risks of important parasitic diseases, and present some relevant suggestions, so as to provide the evidence for the health administrative department formulating the prevention and control strategies of such parasitic diseases timely and effectively.

  18. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-01-01

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  19. Standardization of a model to study revaccination against Marek's disease under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Witter, Richard L; Cortes, Aneg L; Reddy, Sanjay M; Pandiri, Arun R

    2012-01-01

    Revaccination, the practice of administering Marek's disease (MD) vaccine a second time, has been used in commercial poultry flocks for many years. The rationale is largely anecdotal as the few published reports have failed to provide support for the value of the practice. In the present work, we have standardized a model to study MD revaccination under laboratory conditions. Nine bird experiments were conducted to evaluate homologous revaccination (same vaccine administered twice) and heterologous revaccination (administration of two different vaccines) with various challenge models. Our results demonstrated that heterologous revaccination (with a second vaccine more protective than the first vaccine) but not homologous revaccination provided a beneficial increase in protection. Administration of the first vaccine at 18 days of embryonation followed by a more protective second vaccine at hatch reproduced systematically the benefits of revaccination. In addition, our results show that revaccination protocols might aid in solving major drawbacks associated with various highly protective experimental MD vaccines; that is, lymphoid organ atrophy and residual virulence. Strain RM1 is one of the most protective vaccines against early challenge with highly virulent MD virus but it induces severe lymphoid atrophy in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MD virus. In this study, strain RM1 did not induce lymphoid organ atrophy when administered as second vaccine in a revaccination protocol. Similarly, strain 648A100/BP5 maintains residual virulence in chickens lacking maternal antibodies against MD virus but did not induce any lesions when used as a second vaccine. Until now, arbitrary revaccination protocols have been occasionally proven useful to the poultry industry. The model developed in this study will allow for a better understanding of this phenomenon and its optimization. A more rational use of this practice will be of great help to control MD outbreaks

  20. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-02-26

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  1. A composite model including visfatin, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen, hyaluronic acid, and hematological variables for the diagnosis of moderate-to-severe fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwist, Alina; Hartleb, Marek; Lekstan, Andrzej; Kukla, Michał; Gutkowski, Krzysztof; Kajor, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Histopathological risk factors for end-stage liver failure in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) include nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver fibrosis. There is a need for noninvasive diagnostic methods for these 2 conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate new laboratory variables with a predictive potential to detect advanced fibrosis (stages 2 and 3) in NAFLD. The study involved 70 patients with histologically proven NAFLD of varied severity. Additional laboratory variables included zonulin, haptoglobin, visfatin, adiponectin, leptin, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPSA), hyaluronic acid, and interleukin 6. Patients with NASH (NAFLD activity score of ≥5) had significantly higher HOMA-IR values and serum levels of visfatin, haptoglobin, and zonulin as compared with those without NASH on histological examination. Advanced fibrosis was found in 16 patients (22.9%) and the risk factors associated with its prevalence were age, the ratio of erythrocyte count to red blood cell distribution width, platelet count, and serum levels of visfatin and TPSA. Based on these variables, we constructed a scoring system that differentiated between NAFLD patients with and without advanced fibrosis with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.93). The scoring system based on the above variables allows to predict advanced fibrosis with high sensitivity and specificity. However, its clinical utility should be verified in further studies involving a larger number of patients.

  2. Ménière's Disease and Underlying Medical and Mental Conditions: Towards Factors Contributing to the Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shwan; Khan, Imran; Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Gaggini, Margaret; Kontorinis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relation of Ménière's disease (MD) with medical comorbidity or mental conditions. Demographic data, medical and mental comorbidities were retrospectively collected and compared from 3 groups of 30 patients each: a group with patients with definite MD, a second one with patients with vestibulopathies other than MD (non-Ménière's vertigo, NMV) and a third one with patients without any vestibular symptoms (control). The level of significance was set at 0.05. The prevalence of mental conditions was 26.7, 23.3 and 6.7% for the MD, the NMV and the control group, respectively. Medical comorbidity was found in 80% of patients in the MD, 63% in the NMV and 20% in the control group. Arthritis was encountered in 8 patients with MD, 3 with NMV and none from the control group. The differences in prevalence of mental disease, comorbidities and arthritis between the MD and the control group were statistically significant (p = 0.02, p disease. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. New Zealand's Fourth National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Including the Report on the Global Climate Observing System and the Report on Demonstrable Progress under the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The New Zealand Government is committed to playing its part in the global response to climate change. This Fourth National Communication provides a snapshot of New Zealand's progress with implementing the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This document covers the period from the submission of the Third National Communication in January 2002 through to the end of December 2005. This document also contains New Zealand's Report on the Global Climate Observing System and the Report on Demonstrable Progress under the Kyoto Protocol. New Zealand's response to climate change has evolved substantially since the Third National Communication was submitted. On 19 December 2002, New Zealand became the 101st nation to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. In 2002, the New Zealand Parliament passed the Climate Change Response Act. This Act established a New Zealand climate change registry and corresponding institutional arrangements in accordance with Kyoto Protocol requirements. Other achievements are detailed throughout this Fourth National Communication. When the Government introduced its climate change policy package in 2002, it anticipated there would be three reviews of the package not later than 2005, 2007 and 2010. The reviews would be necessary to monitor progress with emissions reductions, assess the effectiveness of policies, and confirm that New Zealand was positioned to meet its commitments. The first of these reviews was commissioned by the Government in mid-2005 and completed by November 2005. The review concluded that some elements of the Government's 2002 climate change policy package should be modified to better position New Zealand to respond to the longer-term challenges of climate change. A key outcome of the policy review was the announcement by the newly elected Government in December 2005 that the previously announced carbon tax would not proceed. In addition, a suite of future work programmes would be required to inform Government

  4. Radiographic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult diabetic patients: comparison of diabetics with nondiabetics of no other underlying diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Mee; Shin, Cheol Yong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Young Shin So; Lee, Shin Hyung; Lee, Chang Joon; Gang, Hye Jung

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to evaluate the plain radiographic features of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult diabetic patients compared with those in patients without any underlying diseases. We analyzed the chest PA and lateral views of 100 patients having active pulmonary tuberculosis; 14 patients had diabetes mellitus and 60 patients had no other underlying diseases. Their images were assesed for anatomical distributions, extents of lesions, size and number of cavity and patterns of radiographic findings. Diabetic tuberculosis had higher prevalence and wider involvement of unusual segments for the tuberculosis such as anterior segment, lingular segment of upper lobe and basal segment of the lower lobe, and they showed the tendency of having more cavities than those who had no other underlying diseases, but there were no meaningful differences in the cavity size between the two groups. Pulmonary tuberculosis in diabetic patients tends to have wider extent with unusual segmental involvement and multiple cavities than in the patients who had no other underlying diseases

  5. Long-term follow-up of cardiac function in patients with Hodgkin's disease treated with mediastinal irradiation and combination chemotherapy including doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaMonte, C.S.; Yeh, S.D.; Straus, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Among 41 evaluable patients whose first treatment for advanced Hodgkin's disease had consisted of alternating cycles of mechlorethamine, vincristine, prednisone, and procarbazine (MOPP), and doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD), in addition to low-dose mediastinal irradiation, 19 underwent retrospective cardiac evaluation by routine posteroanterior and lateral chest x-ray, 12-lead ECG, M-mode echocardiogram, and ECG-gated left ventricular blood pool scan at rest and during exercise. Fifteen patients had unequivocally normal left ventricular function by all these parameters. Two patients had minimally reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at rest with a normal increment with exercise. In two other patients with high normal resting LVEF and subnormal increment with exercise, the elevated resting values implied initial measurement in a nonbasal state. A twentieth patient (the oldest; one of two with active Hodgkin's disease at the time of evaluation and the stimulus for this study) had markedly reduced LVEF as determined by radionuclide cardiac angiography and had developed clinical congestive heart failure shortly before evaluation. Despite this patient, the study indicates that treatment with MOPP/ABVD and low-dose mediastinal irradiation entails low risk for cardiac complications

  6. The effects of infographics and several quantitative versus qualitative formats for cardiovascular disease risk, including heart age, on people's risk understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Olga C; Vonk, Suzanne I; van den Haak, Maaike J; van Hooijdonk, Charlotte M J; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2018-03-11

    To study how comprehension of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is influenced by: (1) infographics about qualitative risk information, with/without risk numbers; (2) which qualitative risk dimension is emphasized; (3) heart age vs. traditional risk format. For aim 1, a 2 (infographics versus text) x 2 (risk number versus no risk number) between-subjects design was used. For aim 2, three pieces of information were tested within-subjects. Aim 3 used a simple comparison group. Participants (45-65 yrs old) were recruited through an online access panel; low educated people were oversampled. They received hypothetical risk information (20%/61yrs). Primary outcomes: recall, risk appraisals, subjective/objective risk comprehension. behavioral intentions, information evaluations. Infographics of qualitative risk dimensions negatively affected recall, subjective risk comprehension and information evaluations. No effect of type of risk dimension was found on risk perception. Heart age influenced recall, comprehension, evaluations and affective risk appraisals. Infographics of hypothetical CVD risk information had detrimental effects on measures related to risk perception/comprehension, but effects were mainly seen in undereducated participants. Heart age influenced perceptions/comprehension of hypothetical risk in a way that seemed to support understanding. Heart age seems a fruitful risk communication approach in disease risk calculators. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Economically optimal timing for crop disease control under uncertainty: an options approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndeffo Mbah, M.L.; Forster, G.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Gilligan, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Severe large-scale disease and pest infestations in agricultural regions can cause significant economic damage. Understanding if and when disease control measures should be taken in the presence of risk and uncertainty is a key issue. We develop a framework to examine the economically optimal timing

  8. Molecular mechanisms underlying the potential antiobesity-related diseases effect of cocoa polyphenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, F.; Ismail, A.; Kersten, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension) are the most prevailing nutrition-related issues in the world. An emerging feature of obesity is their relationship with chronic inflammation that begins in white adipose tissue and eventually

  9. Health-related needs of people with multiple chronic diseases: differences and underlying factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, P.; Schellevis, F.G.; Rijken, M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the health-related needs of people with multiple chronic diseases in the Netherlands compared to people with one chronic disease, and to identify different subgroups of multimorbid patients based on differences in their health problems. Methods: Participants were 1092 people with

  10. Prevalence of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis by underlying cause in understudied ethnic groups: The multiethnic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Stram, Daniel O; Porcel, Jacqueline; Lu, Shelly C; Le Marchand, Loïc; Noureddin, Mazen

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) and cirrhosis are major sources of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Little is known about the epidemiology of these two diseases in ethnic minority populations in the United States. We examined the prevalence of CLD and cirrhosis by underlying etiologies among African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites in the Multiethnic Cohort. CLD and cirrhosis cases were identified using Medicare claims between 1999 and 2012 among the fee-for-service participants (n = 106,458). We used International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes, body mass index, history of diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption from questionnaires to identify underlying etiologies. A total of 5,783 CLD (3,575 CLD without cirrhosis and 2,208 cirrhosis) cases were identified. The prevalence of CLD ranged from 3.9% in African Americans and Native Hawaiians to 4.1% in whites, 6.7% in Latinos, and 6.9% in Japanese. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was the most common cause of CLD in all ethnic groups combined (52%), followed by alcoholic liver disease (21%). NAFLD was the most common cause of cirrhosis in the entire cohort. By ethnicity, NAFLD was the most common cause of cirrhosis in Japanese Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Latinos, accounting for 32% of cases. Alcoholic liver disease was the most common cause of cirrhosis in whites (38.2%), while hepatitis C virus was the most common cause in African Americans (29.8%). We showed racial/ethnic variations in the prevalence of CLD and cirrhosis by underlying etiology; NAFLD was the most common cause of CLD and cirrhosis in the entire cohort, and the high prevalence of NAFLD among Japanese Americans and Native Hawaiians is a novel finding, warranting further studies to elucidate the causes. (Hepatology 2016;64:1969-1977). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. The risk of coronary heart disease of seafarers on vessels sailing under a German flag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Jensen, Hans-Joachim; Latza, Ute; Baur, Xaver

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to predict the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among seafarers on German-flagged vessels and to assess the association of shipboard job duration at sea with the risk of CHD. During the legally required medical fitness test for nautical service, 161 seafarers in Hamburg participated in a cross-sectional study which included an interview, blood sampling, and blood pressure measurements (response 84.9%). The predicted 10-year risk of an acute coronary event of the examined German seafarers aged 35 to 64 years (n = 46) was assessed in comparison with a sample of male German employees of the same age working ashore (PROCAM study). The number of independent CHD risk factors (according to the PROCAM study) was compared in the groups with 'shorter' and 'longer' median shipboard job duration at sea (15.0 years). The examined German seafarers had a similar age-standardized predicted 10-year CHD risk as the German reference population. Nearly all independent CHD risk factors were significantly more frequent in seamen with job duration at sea of ≥ 15 years than in those with 〈 15 years. After adjusting for age, the number of CHD risk factors was associated with job duration (OR 1.08 [95% CI 1.02-1.14] per year). Seafarers on German-flagged ships have to attend a medical fitness test for nautical service every 2 years. Thus, it can be assumed that seafarers present a healthier population than employees ashore. In this study, however, CHD risk of seafarers was similar to that of the reference population. This may indicate that working onboard implies a high coronary risk. Furthermore, the study results suggest a tendency of increased risk of CHD among seafarers with longer job duration at sea.

  12. A novel missense mutation in the NDP gene in a child with Norrie disease and severe neurological involvement including infantile spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorit; Weigl, Yuval; Hasan, Mariana; Gak, Eva; Davidovich, Michael; Vinkler, Chana; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Watemberg, Nathan

    2007-05-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness and in some cases, mental retardation and deafness. Other neurological complications, particularly epilepsy, are rare. We report on a novel mutation identified in a patient with ND and profound mental retardation. The patient was diagnosed at the age of 6 months due to congenital blindness. At the age of 8 months he developed infantile spasms, which were diagnosed at 11 months as his EEG demonstrated hypsarrhythmia. Mutation analysis of the ND gene (NDP) of the affected child and his mother revealed a novel missense mutation at position c.134T > A resulting in amino acid change at codon V45E. To the best of our knowledge, such severe neurological involvement has not been previously reported in ND patients. The severity of the phenotype may suggest the functional importance of this site of the NDP gene.

  13. Farber's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management, and therapy of rare diseases, including the lipid storage diseases. Research on lipid storage diseases within the Network includes ... management, and therapy of rare diseases, including the lipid storage diseases. Research on lipid storage diseases within the Network includes ...

  14. Oral-Fluid Thiol-Detection Test Identifies Underlying Active Periodontal Disease Not Detected by the Visual Awake Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queck, Katherine E; Chapman, Angela; Herzog, Leslie J; Shell-Martin, Tamara; Burgess-Cassler, Anthony; McClure, George David

    Periodontal disease in dogs is highly prevalent but can only be accurately diagnosed by performing an anesthetized oral examination with periodontal probing and dental radiography. In this study, 114 dogs had a visual awake examination of the oral cavity and were administered an oral-fluid thiol-detection test prior to undergoing a a full-mouth anesthetized oral examination and digital dental radiographs. The results show the visual awake examination underestimated the presence and severity of active periodontal disease. The thiol-detection test was superior to the visual awake examination at detecting the presence and severity of active periodontal disease and was an indicator of progression toward alveolar bone loss. The thiol-detection test detected active periodontal disease at early stages of development, before any visual cues were present, indicating the need for intervention to prevent periodontal bone loss. Early detection is important because without intervention, dogs with gingivitis (active periodontal disease) progress to irreversible periodontal bone loss (stage 2+). As suggested in the current AAHA guidelines, a thiol-detection test administered in conjunction with the visual awake examination during routine wellness examinations facilitates veterinarian-client communication and mitigates under-diagnosis of periodontal disease and underutilization of dental services. The thiol-detection test can be used to monitor the periodontal health status of the conscious patient during follow-up examinations based on disease severity.

  15. The microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage from young children with chronic lung disease includes taxa present in both the oropharynx and nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R L; Kaestli, M; Chang, A B; Binks, M J; Pope, C E; Hoffman, L R; Smith-Vaughan, H C

    2016-07-07

    Invasive methods requiring general anaesthesia are needed to sample the lung microbiota in young children who do not expectorate. This poses substantial challenges to longitudinal study of paediatric airway microbiota. Non-invasive upper airway sampling is an alternative method for monitoring airway microbiota; however, there are limited data describing the relationship of such results with lung microbiota in young children. In this study, we compared the upper and lower airway microbiota in young children to determine whether non-invasive upper airway sampling procedures provide a reliable measure of either lung microbiota or clinically defined differences. The microbiota in oropharyngeal (OP) swabs, nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 78 children (median age 2.2 years) with and without lung disease were characterised using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) detected significant differences between the microbiota in BAL and those in both OP swabs (p = 0.0001, Pseudo-F = 12.2, df = 1) and NP swabs (p = 0.0001; Pseudo-F = 21.9, df = 1) with the NP and BAL microbiota more different than the OP and BAL, as indicated by a higher Pseudo-F value. The microbiota in combined OP and NP data (upper airways) provided a more comprehensive representation of BAL microbiota, but significant differences between the upper airway and BAL microbiota remained, albeit with a considerably smaller Pseudo-F (PERMANOVA p = 0.0001; Pseudo-F = 4.9, df = 1). Despite this overall difference, paired BAL and upper airway (OP and NP) microbiota were >50 % similar among 69 % of children. Furthermore, canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP analysis) detected significant differences between the microbiota from clinically defined groups when analysing either BAL (eigenvalues >0.8; misclassification rate 26.5 %) or the combined OP and NP data (eigenvalues >0

  16. Cognitive Development in Infantile-Onset Pompe Disease Under Very Early Enzyme Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chuang, Ya-Chin; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Most patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease die in early infancy before beginning enzyme replacement therapy, which has made it difficult to evaluate the impact of Pompe disease on cognitive development. Patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease can survive with enzyme replacement therapy, and physicians can evaluate cognitive development in these patients. We established an effective newborn screening program with quick clinical diagnostic criteria. Cognitive and motor development were evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. The patients who were treated very early demonstrate normal cognitive development with no significant change in cognition during this period (P = .18 > .05). The cognitive development was positively correlated with motor development (r = 0.533, P = .011). The results indicated that very early enzyme replacement therapy could protect cognitive development in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease up to 24 months of age. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. An autopsy case of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia under hemodialysis due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Shiori; Furuichi, Kengo; Sagara, Akihiro; Shinozaki, Yasuyuki; Kitajima, Shinji; Toyama, Tadashi; Hara, Akinori; Iwata, Yasunori; Sakai, Norihiko; Shimizu, Miho; Matsui, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Shuichi; Toyama, Tatsuhiko; Wada, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    A 60-year-old male with end-stage kidney disease due to autosomal polycystic kidney disease began maintenance hemodialysis in 2005. A brain CT scan showed dilatation of left vertebral artery, basilar artery, bilateral post cerebral artery, and middle cerebral artery. At the time, he was diagnosed as vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia. He was once admitted to our hospital for ischemic stroke. After discharge, he was treated with anticoagulant agent from 2010 to 2012 without any new stroke events. ...

  18. The epidemiologic study of children diseases under one year in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaeei Gh

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Infant mortality and morbidity present important challenges to those concerned with community health. We did this research to study epidemiology of diseases of infancy in city of Tehran. During 15 days, of 6395 deliveries in Tehran hospitals a cohort of 6267 live births entered this study. Follow up data were gathered in 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th months of birth. In this period, 5382 occurrence of disease were reported. The most frequent were cardiopulmonary (52.3% and Gastrointestinal (26.6% diseases. Most of the events were seen in 6-12 months age group (30.5%. The lowest frequencies of infant diseases were seen in 19-35 years of maternal age (15.3%, as compared with >35 (35.4% and <19 (49.3% groups. Mortality ratio was 32/1000 live birth (198 death. The most common causes of death were cardiopulmonary (38%, infectious (21% and gastrointestinal (18% diseases. Control of infectious disease, development of educational programs for breast feeding and planning of proper age and interval of pregnancy are effective measures for reducing infant mortality and morbidity.

  19. Follow up of Crohn's disease under therapy with hydro-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganten, M.; Flosdorff, P.; Grueber-Hoffmann, B.; Erb, G.; Hansmann, J.; Encke, J.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of typical MRI-findings in patients with Crohn's disease receiving therapy.Correlation with the course of disease.Patients and methods 81 follow-up MRI-studies in 25 patients conducted within a period of 3 weeks to 4 years were evaluated retrospectively.Therapy consisted in various combinations of antibiotics and immunosuppressive agents and if necessary operation. The findings of the MRI-studies were correlated with clinical data (e.g.operation of Crohn's complications) and the subjective perception during therapy. The morphological substrate of Crohn's disease in the Hydro-MRI images is reliably detected. Especially in a delineation of extraluminal changes MRI is superior to endoscopy and enteroclysis.Independent from clinical symptoms short- and middleterm follow-up showed inflammatory changes of the intestinal wall in all 25 patients. In 24/81 studies there was persistence or even progression of Crohn's disease in the MRI-studies, although patients were free of symptoms by the time of image acquisition. Hydro-MRI is a modality for the evaluation of inflammatory changes in patients with Crohn's disease.Independent from clinical symptoms persistence of Crohn's disease is detectable. (orig.) [de

  20. Research in Biological and Medical Sciences, Including Biochemistry, Communicable Disease and Immunology, Internal Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, Physiology, Psychiatry, Surgery and Veterinary Medicine. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    during the past fiscal year include 45 ovario- hysterectomles, one caesarean section, one fracture repair, one patent ductus arteriosus repair, one...Following closure of the thoracotomy, SOD was down by 60% and VQJ was> 80% of control levels. SOD and VQO did not relate to each other in a parallel...tions. Two patents were applied for, one for the Electronic Debubbler Circuit and one for the Improved Flow Cell. A paper on this latest

  1. Impact of underlying heart disease per se on the utility of preoperative NT-proBNP in adult cardiac surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqi Jiang

    Full Text Available The primary aim was to investigate the role of underlying heart disease on preoperative NT-proBNP levels in patients admitted for adult cardiac surgery, after adjusting for the known confounders age, gender, obesity and renal function. The second aim was to investigate the predictive value of preoperative NT-proBNP with regard to severe postoperative heart failure (SPHF and postoperative mortality.A retrospective cohort study based on preoperative NT-proBNP measurements in an unselected cohort including all patients undergoing first time surgery for coronary artery disease (CAD; n = 2226, aortic stenosis (AS; n = 406 or mitral regurgitation (MR; n = 346 from April 2010 to August 2016 in the southeast region of Sweden (n = 2978. Concomitant procedures were not included, with the exception of Maze or tricuspid valve procedures.Preoperative NT-proBNP was 1.67 times (p<0.0001 and 1.41 times (p<0.0001 higher in patients with AS or MR respectively, than in patients with CAD after adjusting for confounders. NT-proBNP demonstrated significant discrimination with regard to SPHF in CAD (AUC = 0.79, 95%CI 0.73-0.85, p<0.0001, MR (AUC = 0.80, 95%CI 0.72-0.87, p<0.0001 and AS (AUC = 0.66, 95%CI 0.51-0.81, p = 0.047. In CAD patients NT-proBNP demonstrated significant discrimination with regard to postoperative 30-day or in-hospital mortality (AUC = 0.78; 95%CI 0.71-0.85, p<0.0001. The number of deaths was too few in the AS and MR group to permit analysis. Elevated NT-proBNP emerged as an independent risk factor for SPHF, and postoperative mortality in CAD.Patients with AS or MR have higher preoperative NT-proBNP than CAD patients even after adjusting for confounders. The predictive value of NT-proBNP with regard to SPHF was confirmed in CAD and MR patients but was less convincing in AS patients.

  2. Mortality in East African shorthorn zebu cattle under one year: predictors of infectious-disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumbi, Samuel M; Bronsvoort, Mark B M de C; Kiara, Henry; Toye, P G; Poole, Jane; Ndila, Mary; Conradie, Ilana; Jennings, Amy; Handel, Ian G; Coetzer, J A W; Steyl, Johan; Hanotte, Olivier; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2013-09-08

    Infectious livestock diseases remain a major threat to attaining food security and are a source of economic and livelihood losses for people dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Knowledge of the vital infectious diseases that account for the majority of deaths is crucial in determining disease control strategies and in the allocation of limited funds available for disease control. Here we have estimated the mortality rates in zebu cattle raised in a smallholder mixed farming system during their first year of life, identified the periods of increased risk of death and the risk factors for calf mortality, and through analysis of post-mortem data, determined the aetiologies of calf mortality in this population. A longitudinal cohort study of 548 zebu cattle was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Each calf was followed during its first year of life or until lost from the study. Calves were randomly selected from 20 sub-locations and recruited within a week of birth from different farms over a 45 km radius area centered on Busia in the Western part of Kenya. The data comprised of 481.1 calf years of observation. Clinical examinations, sample collection and analysis were carried out at 5 week intervals, from birth until one year old. Cox proportional hazard models with frailty terms were used for the statistical analysis of risk factors. A standardized post-mortem examination was conducted on all animals that died during the study and appropriate samples collected. The all-cause mortality rate was estimated at 16.1 (13.0-19.2; 95% CI) per 100 calf years at risk. The Cox models identified high infection intensity with Theileria spp., the most lethal of which causes East Coast Fever disease, infection with Trypanosome spp., and helminth infections as measured by Strongyle spp. eggs per gram of faeces as the three important infections statistically associated with infectious disease mortality in these calves. Analysis of post-mortem data identified East Coast Fever as

  3. Heat-Related Mortality Projections for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Under the Changing Climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4 percent, 47.8 percent, and 69.0 percent in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6 percent, 73.8 percent and 134 percent in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP 8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  4. Heat-related mortality projections for cardiovascular and respiratory disease under the changing climate in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Ban, Jie; Horton, Radley M.; Bader, Daniel A.; Huang, Ganlin; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-08-01

    Because heat-related health effects tend to become more serious at higher temperatures, there is an urgent need to determine the mortality projection of specific heat-sensitive diseases to provide more detailed information regarding the variation of the sensitivity of such diseases. In this study, the specific mortality of cardiovascular and respiratory disease in Beijing was initially projected under five different global-scale General Circulation Models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways scenarios (RCPs) in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s compared to the 1980s. Multi-model ensembles indicated cardiovascular mortality could increase by an average percentage of 18.4%, 47.8%, and 69.0% in the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s under RCP 4.5, respectively, and by 16.6%,73.8% and 134% in different decades respectively, under RCP 8.5 compared to the baseline range. The same increasing pattern was also observed in respiratory mortality. The heat-related deaths under the RCP8.5 scenario were found to reach a higher number and to increase more rapidly during the 21st century compared to the RCP4.5 scenario, especially in the 2050s and the 2080s. The projection results show potential trends in cause-specific mortality in the context of climate change, and provide support for public health interventions tailored to specific climate-related future health risks.

  5. Characterization and selection of location for resistance to sugarcane brown rust disease under cuban conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Montalván Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane brown rust disease is caused by fungus Puccinia melanocephala Sydow & P. Sydow and it is one of the more importance diseases. The environment where the sugarcane is cultivated is constituted by numerous factors and its combination contributes to the formation of different development and production conditions, what influences in the varietal disease resistance. With the objective of to characterize and to define the resistance tests location to the brown rust disease were carried out experiments in 6 location of the country. Eleven varieties and six patterns were studied. The climatic variables were analyzed during the period in each location and they were carried out evaluations in different ages of the plant and number of the leaves. The quantity of pustules, long of the most frequent pustules, size of the biggest pustules and area per - centage occupied by pustules were evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically. Differential behavior of the locations and the importance of the relative humidity and the temperatures in the manifestation of the disease symptoms were proven. All the locations were important although similarity exists between Matanzas and Villa Clara and between Camagüey and Holguín. Mayabeque and Santiago de Cuba didn’t present similarity with any other one. These 6 locations can be used for the resistance tests and to define the progenitors’ Santiago de Cuba, Holguín, Villa Clara and Mayabeque

  6. Prevalence and sequence variations of the genes encoding the five antigens included in the novel 5CVMB vaccine covering group B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Susanne; Hedberg, Sara Thulin; Mölling, Paula; Unemo, Magnus; Comanducci, Maurizio; Rappuoli, Rino; Olcén, Per

    2009-03-04

    During the recent years, projects are in progress for designing broad-range non-capsular-based meningococcal vaccines, covering also serogroup B isolates. We have examined three genes encoding antigens (NadA, GNA1030 and GNA2091) included in a novel vaccine, i.e. the 5 Component Vaccine against Meningococcus B (5CVMB), in terms of gene prevalence and sequence variations. These data were combined with the results from a similar study, examining the two additional antigens included in the 5CVMB (fHbp and GNA2132). nadA and fHbp v. 1 were present in 38% (n=36), respectively 71% (n=67) of the isolates, whereas gna2132, gna1030 and gna2091 were present in all the Neisseria meningitidis isolates tested (n=95). The level of amino acid conservation was relatively high in GNA1030 (93%), GNA2091 (92%), and within the main variants of NadA and fHbp. GNA2132 (54% of the amino acids conserved) appeared to be the most diversified antigen. Consequently, the theoretical coverage of the 5CVMB antigens and the feasibility to use these in a broad-range meningococcal vaccine is appealing.

  7. Underlying role of mitochondrial mutagenesis in the pathogenesis of a disease and current approaches for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevaidi, Maria; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Kyrgiou, Maria; Martin, Francis L

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases have been extensively investigated over the last three decades, but many questions regarding their underlying aetiologies remain unanswered. Mitochondrial dysfunction is not only responsible for a range of neurological and myopathy diseases but also considered pivotal in a broader spectrum of common diseases such as epilepsy, autism and bipolar disorder. These disorders are a challenge to diagnose and treat, as their aetiology might be multifactorial. In this review, the focus is placed on potential mechanisms capable of introducing defects in mitochondria resulting in disease. Special attention is given to the influence of xenobiotics on mitochondria; environmental factors inducing mutations or epigenetic changes in the mitochondrial genome can alter its expression and impair the whole cell's functionality. Specifically, we suggest that environmental agents can cause damage in mitochondrial DNA and consequently lead to mutagenesis. Moreover, we describe current approaches for handling mitochondrial diseases, as well as available prenatal diagnostic tests, towards eliminating these maternally inherited diseases. Undoubtedly, more research is required, as current therapeutic approaches mostly employ palliative therapies rather than targeting primary mechanisms or prophylactic approaches. Much effort is needed into further unravelling the relationship between xenobiotics and mitochondria, as the extent of influence in mitochondrial pathogenesis is increasingly recognised. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age presenting with diarrhoeal diseases to two public health facilities in Hawassa, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulatu, Getamesay; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Zemene, Endalew; Debalke, Serkadis; Beyene, Getenet

    2015-11-04

    Diarrhoea is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age in developing countries, including Ethiopia. It is caused by a wide range of pathogens, including parasites, bacteria and viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites (IPs) (and types) among children under 5 years of age with diarrhoeal diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Adare Hospital and Millennium Health Centre, both located in Hawassa, South Ethiopia, from June 6 to October 28, 2011. Children under 5 years of age with diarrhoea who visited these health facilities during the study period were included in the study. Data relating to demography and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Single, fresh stool specimens were examined for IPs using the direct wet mount examination, followed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining of formol-ether concentrated samples, as per standard procedures. Data were analysed using SPSS Statistics 20 software. A total of 158 children (51.3 % male and 48.7 % female) participated in the study. Overall, the prevalence of IPs was 26.6 % (42/158). Two species of IPs were detected in six children (3.8 %). Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the predominant parasite identified (11.4 %), followed by Giardia duodenalis (7.0 %). The multivariable analysis revealed that the age group ≥24 months was significantly associated (AOR = 0.221, 95 %CI: 0.085-0.576) with prevalence of IPIs. This study found that intestinal parasites are common among children with diarrheal diseases. The most frequently detected species was E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii. Health information about how to prevent diarrheal diseases in general and IPIs in particular should be provided to parents of young children.

  9. Modeling systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease in rats under the adverse weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegudina Ye.D.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the lungs, heart and kidneys are found in all animals with experimental systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease and respectively in 47%, 47% and 40% of cases of intact rats in a hostile environment with xenobiotics air pollution (ammonia + benzene + formalin, herewith in every third or fourth individual lesions of visceral vessels developed. The negative environmental situation increases the frequency of morphological signs of the disease, such as proliferation of endothelial vessels of the heart by 68% and renal arterioles by 52%, in addition, there are direct correlations of angiopathy degree in individual organs; this depends on the nature of pathological process modeling and demonstrates air pollution as a risk factor of disease in humans. The impact of pulmonary vessels sclerosis on the development of bronhosclerosis, perivascular infiltration of the heart muscle on the lymphocyte-macrophage infiltration of the stroma of the myocardium and sclerosis of renal arterioles on the degree of nephroslerosis of stroma is directly associated, with the model of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases whereas air pollution by xenobiotics determines dependences of the degree of cellular infiltration of alveolar septa from perivascular pulmonary infiltration, the development of cardiomyocytes hypertrophy from proliferation of the heart endothelial vessels, increase of kidney mesangial matrix from the proliferation of endothelial glomerular capillaries.

  10. Deficient Rab11 activity underlies glucose hypometabolism in primary neurons of Huntington’s disease mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xueyi; Valencia, Antonio; McClory, Hollis; Sapp, Ellen; Kegel, Kimberly B.; DiFiglia, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Primary Huntington’s disease neurons are impaired in taking up glucose. ► Rab11 modulates glucose uptake in neurons. ► Increasing Rab11 activity attenuates the glucose uptake defect in disease neurons. ► We provide a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in Huntington’s disease. -- Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. Positron emission tomography studies have revealed a decline in glucose metabolism in the brain of patients with HD by a mechanism that has not been established. We examined glucose utilization in embryonic primary cortical neurons of wild-type (WT) and HD knock-in mice, which have 140 CAG repeats inserted in the endogenous mouse huntingtin gene (HD 140Q/140Q ). Primary HD 140Q/140Q cortical neurons took up significantly less glucose than did WT neurons. Expression of permanently inactive and permanently active forms of Rab11 correspondingly altered glucose uptake in WT neurons, suggesting that normal activity of Rab11 is needed for neuronal uptake of glucose. It is known that Rab11 activity is diminished in HD 140Q/140Q neurons. Expression of dominant active Rab11 to enhance the activity of Rab11 normalized glucose uptake in HD 140Q/140Q neurons. These results suggest that deficient activity of Rab11 is a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in HD.

  11. [Neonatal ABO incompatibility underlies a potentially severe hemolytic disease of the newborn and requires adequate care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senterre, T; Minon, J-M; Rigo, J

    2011-03-01

    ABO allo-immunization is the most frequent hemolytic disease of the newborn and ABO incompatibility is present in 15-25 % of pregnancies. True ABO alloimmunization occurs in approximately one out of 150 births. Intensity is generally lower than in RhD allo-immunization. We report on three cases showing that ABO allo-immunization can lead to severe hemolytic disease of the newborn with potentially threatening hyperbilirubinemia and complications. Early diagnosis and adequate care are necessary to prevent complications in ABO incompatibility. A direct antiglobulin test is the cornerstone of diagnosis and should be performed at birth on cord blood sampling in all group infants born to O mothers, especially if of African origin. Risk factor analysis and attentive clinical monitoring during the first days of life are essential. Vigilance is even more important for infants discharged before the age of 72 h. Every newborn should be assessed for the risk of developing severe hyperbilirubinemia and should be examined by a qualified healthcare professional in the first days of life. Treatment depends on the total serum bilirubin level, which may increase very rapidly in the first 48 h of life in cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn. Phototherapy and, in severe cases, exchange transfusion are used to prevent hyperbilirubinemia encephalopathy. Intravenous immunoglobulins are used to reduce exchange transfusion. Treatments of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn should be provided and performed by trained personnel in neonatal intensive care units. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  13. Measuring underreporting and under-ascertainment in infectious disease datasets: a comparison of methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbons, C.L.; Mangen, M.J.J.; Plass, D.; Havelaar, A.H.; Brooke, R.J.; Kramarz, P.; Peterson, K.; Stuurman, A.L.; Cassini, A.; Fevre, E.M.; BCoDE consortium, x; Kretzschmar, M.E.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Efficient and reliable surveillance and notification systems are vital for monitoring public health and disease outbreaks. However, most surveillance and notification systems are affected by a degree of underestimation (UE) and therefore uncertainty surrounds the ‘true’ incidence of

  14. Aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus Asia-1 under experimental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenutt, C.; Gonzales, J.L.; Paton, D.J.; Gloster, J.; Nelson, N.; Sanders, C.

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. Direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. Transmission of

  15. Proteins Encoded in Genomic Regions Associated with Immune-Mediated Disease Physically Interact and Suggest Underlying Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Lage, Kasper; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Tatar, Diana; Benita, Yair

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed by these risk variants. It has previously been observed that different genes harboring causal mutations for the same Mendelian disease often physically interact. We sought to evaluate the degree to which this is true of genes within strongly associated loci in complex disease. Using sets of loci defined in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD) GWAS, we build protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks for genes within associated loci and find abundant physical interactions between protein products of associated genes. We apply multiple permutation approaches to show that these networks are more densely connected than chance expectation. To confirm biological relevance, we show that the components of the networks tend to be expressed in similar tissues relevant to the phenotypes in question, suggesting the network indicates common underlying processes perturbed by risk loci. Furthermore, we show that the RA and CD networks have predictive power by demonstrating that proteins in these networks, not encoded in the confirmed list of disease associated loci, are significantly enriched for association to the phenotypes in question in extended GWAS analysis. Finally, we test our method in 3 non-immune traits to assess its applicability to complex traits in general. We find that genes in loci associated to height and lipid levels assemble into significantly connected networks but did not detect excess connectivity among Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) loci beyond chance. Taken together, our results constitute evidence that, for many of the complex diseases studied here, common genetic associations implicate regions encoding proteins that physically interact in a preferential manner, in

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of thallium-201 perfusion scintigrams under exercise in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verani, M.S.; Marcus, M.L.; Razzak, M.A.; Ehrhardt, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), under exercise, in patients with suspected coronary-obstructive disease was compared with graded exercise ECG tests (GTX) in patients with angiographically normal (N = 34) and obstructed (N = 48) coronary arteries. Of the 34 patients with normal coronaries, only one had a perfusion defect on the MPI (specificity 97%). Of the 48 patients with coronary obstructive disease (>50% obstruction of at least one coronary vessel), MPI was positive in 38 (sensitivity 79%). In contrast, the GTX had a specificity of 62% and sensitivity of 88% if nondiagnostic GTX tests are excluded. When the MPI and the GTX were used in combination, however, the sensitivity of detecting patients with coronary obstructive disease was increased to 94% (p < 0.01). The MPI was particularly useful in the evaluation of the 26 patients with nondiagnostic GTX. In this group, 24 of the 26 patients were correctly identified by the MPI with respect to the presence or absence of coronary-obstructive disease. In the 14 patients with a history of classical angina but with normal coronaries, the MPI was negative in 13 and positive in one, thus suggesting that in the majority of these patients transient transmural myocardial ischemia probably does not occur during exercise. The presence or absence of angiographically demonstrable coronary collateral vessels did not seem to influence the exercise MPI in patients with coronary-obstructive disease. Thus, although the MPI does not correctly identify all patients with either coronary-obstructive disease or normal coronary arteries, it is helpful in patients who have a nondiagnostic GTX. Furthermore, when used in combination with the GTX, the MPI significantly increases the likelihood that significant coronary-obstructive disease is present when both tests are positive, and that coronary disease is absent when both tests are negative

  17. Multimodal interventions including nutrition in the prevention and management of disease-related malnutrition in adults: a systematic review of randomised control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Frances; Baldwin, Christine

    2014-06-01

    There has been a move to improve nutritional status in malnourished patients through the use of multimodal interventions (MI). There are currently no systematic reviews that have examined their effectiveness. This analysis aimed to examine the effects on nutritional, clinical, functional and patient-centred outcomes. A systematic review and meta-analysis using Cochrane methodology. 15 studies were included in the analysis, 13 comparing MI with usual care and 2 comparing MI with a nutrition intervention alone. Quality of studies varied and studies reported few relevant outcomes. Only 3 outcomes were compatible with meta-analysis; weight, mortality and length of stay (LOS). No statistically significant differences between groups were found. Narrative review was inconclusive. There was no evidence of benefit in the intervention groups in relation to body composition, functional status or quality of life (QoL). Intervention groups appeared to show a trend towards increased energy and protein intake however data was provided by only 2 studies (301 participants). No conclusive evidence of benefit for MI on any of the reviewed outcomes was found. Well designed, high quality trials addressing the impact of MI on relevant nutritional, functional and clinical outcomes are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Health policy for sickle cell disease in Africa: experience from Tanzania on interventions to reduce under-five mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratias; Rwezaula, Stella; Krag, Marlene; Mghamba, Janneth; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Cox, Sharon E; Grosse, Scott D

    2015-02-01

    Tanzania has made considerable progress towards reducing childhood mortality, achieving a 57% decrease between 1980 and 2011. This epidemiological transition will cause a reduction in the contribution of infectious diseases to childhood mortality and increase in contribution from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Haemoglobinopathies are amongst the most common childhood NCDs, with sickle cell disease (SCD) being the commonest haemoglobinopathy in Africa. In Tanzania, 10,313 children with SCD under 5 years of age (U5) are estimated to die every year, contributing an estimated 7% of overall deaths in U5 children. Key policies that governments in Africa are able to implement would reduce mortality in SCD, focusing on newborn screening and comprehensive SCD care programmes. Such programmes would ensure that interventions such as prevention of infections using penicillin plus prompt diagnosis and treatment of complications are provided to all individuals with SCD. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Integrated Genomics Reveals Convergent Transcriptomic Networks Underlying Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusko, Rebecca L; Brothers, John F; Tedrow, John; Pandit, Kusum; Huleihel, Luai; Perdomo, Catalina; Liu, Gang; Juan-Guardela, Brenda; Kass, Daniel; Zhang, Sherry; Lenburg, Marc; Martinez, Fernando; Quackenbush, John; Sciurba, Frank; Limper, Andrew; Geraci, Mark; Yang, Ivana; Schwartz, David A; Beane, Jennifer; Spira, Avrum; Kaminski, Naftali

    2016-10-15

    Despite shared environmental exposures, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are usually studied in isolation, and the presence of shared molecular mechanisms is unknown. We applied an integrative genomic approach to identify convergent transcriptomic pathways in emphysema and IPF. We defined the transcriptional repertoire of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, IPF, or normal histology lungs using RNA-seq (n = 87). Genes increased in both emphysema and IPF relative to control were enriched for the p53/hypoxia pathway, a finding confirmed in an independent cohort using both gene expression arrays and the nCounter Analysis System (n = 193). Immunohistochemistry confirmed overexpression of HIF1A, MDM2, and NFKBIB members of this pathway in tissues from patients with emphysema or IPF. Using reads aligned across splice junctions, we determined that alternative splicing of p53/hypoxia pathway-associated molecules NUMB and PDGFA occurred more frequently in IPF or emphysema compared with control and validated these findings by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the nCounter Analysis System on an independent sample set (n = 193). Finally, by integrating parallel microRNA and mRNA-Seq data on the same samples, we identified MIR96 as a key novel regulatory hub in the p53/hypoxia gene-expression network and confirmed that modulation of MIR96 in vitro recapitulates the disease-associated gene-expression network. Our results suggest convergent transcriptional regulatory hubs in diseases as varied phenotypically as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and IPF and suggest that these hubs may represent shared key responses of the lung to environmental stresses.

  20. Treatment approach, delivery, and follow-up evaluation for cardiac rhythm disease management patients receiving radiation therapy: Retrospective physician surveys including chart reviews at numerous centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossman, Michael S., E-mail: MGossman@TSRCC.com [Regulation Directive Medical Physics, Russell, KY (United States); Wilkinson, Jeffrey D. [Medtronic, Inc., Mounds View, MN (United States); Mallick, Avishek [Department of Mathematics, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In a 2-part study, we first examined the results of 71 surveyed physicians who provided responses on how they address the management of patients who maintained either a pacemaker or a defibrillator during radiation treatment. Second, a case review study is presented involving 112 medical records reviewed at 18 institutions to determine whether there was a change in the radiation prescription for the treatment of the target cancer, the method of radiation delivery, or the method of radiation image acquisition. Statistics are provided to illustrate the level of administrative policy; the level of communication between radiation oncologists and heart specialists; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and classification; National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines; tumor site; patient's sex; patient's age; device type; manufacturer; live monitoring; and the reported decisions for planning, delivery, and imaging. This survey revealed that 37% of patient treatments were considered for some sort of change in this regard, whereas 59% of patients were treated without regard to these alternatives when available. Only 3% of all patients were identified with an observable change in the functionality of the device or patient status in comparison with 96% of patients with normal behavior and operating devices. Documented changes in the patient's medical record included 1 device exhibiting failure at 0.3-Gy dose, 1 device exhibiting increased sensor rate during dose delivery, 1 patient having an irregular heartbeat leading to device reprogramming, and 1 patient complained of twinging in the chest wall that resulted in a respiratory arrest. Although policies and procedures should directly involve the qualified medical physicist for technical supervision, their sufficient involvement was typically not requested by most respondents. No treatment options were denied to any patient based on AJCC staging, classification, or NCCN practice standards.

  1. Homozygosity mapping and targeted sanger sequencing reveal genetic defects underlying inherited retinal disease in families from pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleeha Maria

    Full Text Available Homozygosity mapping has facilitated the identification of the genetic causes underlying inherited diseases, particularly in consanguineous families with multiple affected individuals. This knowledge has also resulted in a mutation dataset that can be used in a cost and time effective manner to screen frequent population-specific genetic variations associated with diseases such as inherited retinal disease (IRD.We genetically screened 13 families from a cohort of 81 Pakistani IRD families diagnosed with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA, retinitis pigmentosa (RP, congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB, or cone dystrophy (CD. We employed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array analysis to identify homozygous regions shared by affected individuals and performed Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes located in the sizeable homozygous regions. In addition, based on population specific mutation data we performed targeted Sanger sequencing (TSS of frequent variants in AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, GUCY2D, LCA5, RPGRIP1 and TULP1, in probands from 28 LCA families.Homozygosity mapping and Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes revealed the underlying mutations in 10 families. TSS revealed causative variants in three families. In these 13 families four novel mutations were identified in CNGA1, CNGB1, GUCY2D, and RPGRIP1.Homozygosity mapping and TSS revealed the underlying genetic cause in 13 IRD families, which is useful for genetic counseling as well as therapeutic interventions that are likely to become available in the near future.

  2. In Search of 'Birth Month Genes': Using Existing Data Repositories to Locate Genes Underlying Birth Month-Disease Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Mary Regina; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal and perinatal exposures vary seasonally (e.g., sunlight, allergens) and many diseases are linked with variance in exposure. Epidemiologists often measure these changes using birth month as a proxy for seasonal variance. Likewise, Genome-Wide Association Studies have associated or implicated these same diseases with many genes. Both disparate data types (epidemiological and genetic) can provide key insights into the underlying disease biology. We developed an algorithm that links 1) epidemiological data from birth month studies with 2) genetic data from published gene-disease association studies. Our framework uses existing data repositories - PubMed, DisGeNET and Gene Ontology - to produce a bipartite network that connects enriched seasonally varying biofactorss with birth month dependent diseases (BMDDs) through their overlapping developmental gene sets. As a proof-of-concept, we investigate 7 known BMDDs and highlight three important biological networks revealed by our algorithm and explore some interesting genetic mechanisms potentially responsible for the seasonal contribution to BMDDs.

  3. Altered kinematics of arm swing in Parkinson's disease patients indicates declines in gait under dual-task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Elise I; Miller Koop, Mandy; Streicher, Matthew C; Rosenfeldt, Anson B; Alberts, Jay L

    2018-03-01

    Declines in simultaneous performance of a cognitive and motor task are present in Parkinson's disease due to compromised basal ganglia function related to information processing. The aim of this project was to determine if biomechanical measures of arm swing could be used as a marker of gait function under dual-task conditions in Parkinson's disease patients. Twenty-three patients with Parkinson's disease completed single and dual-task cognitive-motor tests while walking on a treadmill at a self-selected rate. Multiple cognitive domains were evaluated with five cognitive tests. Cognitive tests were completed in isolation (single-task) and simultaneously with gait (dual-task). Upper extremity biomechanical data were gathered using the Motek CAREN system. Primary outcomes characterizing arm swing were: path length, normalized jerk, coefficient of variation of arm swing time, and cognitive performance. Performance on the cognitive tasks were similar across single and dual-task conditions. However, biomechanical measures exhibited significant changes between single and dual-task conditions, with the greatest changes occurring in the most challenging conditions. Arm swing path length decreased significantly from single to dual-task, with the greatest decrease of 21.16%. Jerk, characterizing smoothness, increased significantly when moving from single to dual-task conditions. The simultaneous performance of a cognitive and gait task resulted in decrements in arm swing while cognitive performance was maintained. Arm swing outcomes provide a sensitive measure of declines in gait function in Parkinson's disease under dual-task conditions. The quantification of arm swing is a feasible approach to identifying and evaluating gait related declines under dual-task conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Pulmonary diseases of the infants weighing under 1500 grams at birth: clinical and radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Park, Jeong Mi; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Since the introduction of the intensive perinatal care, the survival rate of the infants weighing less than 1500 gm at birth has improved substantially. However, pulmonary diseases remain to be the major causes of the high mortality of these low birthweight infants. In order to systematically assess an epidemiologic distribution of the pulmonary diseases in these very low weight prematures, we have analyzed the chest x-rays of 102 infants weighing less than 1500 gm. These consisted of 30 with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) weighing less than 1000 gm and 72 with very low birth weight (VLBW) weighing 1001 - 1500 gm. The survival rate of ELBW and VLBW was 10% and 49%, respectively. Seventy of 102 infants had abnormal findings in the chest x-ray. Forty-eight had idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), 8 immature lung, 6 Wilson-Mikity syndrome, 4 pneumonia, 2 pulmonary hemorrhage, 1 congenital heart disease, and 1 suspicious Pierre-Robin syndrome. Seven out of 48 infants with IRDS had persistent ductus arteriosus, and in only 2(30%) of 7 cases were alive. Endotracheal intubation and assisted ventilation application for the treatment of IRDS resulted in pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 4 infants and pneumothorax and / or pneumomediastinum in 4 infants. Displacement of endotracheal intubation showed lobar and / or unilateral lung atelectasis in 8 infants and a case of accidental dislodgement of intubation tube into the esophagus resulted in air esophagogram and worsened lung aeration. In spite of the development of many sophisticated methods of diagnostic radiology, the chest x-ray was still the most valuable yet simple way of evaluating the pulmonary problems in these extreme and very low birth weight prematures

  5. The use of sugammadex in a patient with Kennedy′s disease under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Takeuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kennedy′s disease (KD, also known as spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, is a rare, X-linked recessive, neurodegenerative disorder of the lower motor neurons characterized by progressive bulbar and appendicle muscular atrophy. Here we report a case of a 62-year-old male patient with KD, weighing 70 kg and 173 cm tall, was scheduled for frontal sinusectomy due to sinusitis. General anesthesia was induced through propofol 80 mg, remifentanil 0.25 μg/kg/min and 40 mg rocuronium. We were successfully able to use a sugammadex on a patient suffering from KD in order to reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade.

  6. Naringenin improves learning and memory in an Alzheimer's disease rat model: Insights into the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Saeed; Joghataei, Mohammad-Taghi; Mohseni, Simin; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Bagheri, Maryam; Khamse, Safoura; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2015-10-05

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the prevalent neurological disorders of the central nervous system hallmarked by increased beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ensuing learning and memory deficit. In the present study, the beneficial effect of naringenin on improvement of learning and memory was evaluated in an Alzheimer's disease rat model. The Aβ-injected rats showed a lower alternation score in Y-maze task, impairment of retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test, and lower correct choices and higher errors in radial arm maze (RAM) task as compared to sham group in addition to enhanced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Naringenin, but not a combination of naringenin and fulvestrant (an estrogenic receptor antagonist) significantly improved the performance of Aβ-injected rats in passive avoidance and RAM tasks. Naringenin pretreatment of Aβ-injected rats also lowered hippocampal malondialdehyde (MDA) with no significant effect on nitrite and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in addition to lowering apoptosis. These results suggest naringenin pretreatment attenuates Aβ-induced impairment of learning and memory through mitigation of lipid peroxidation and apoptosis and its beneficial effect is somewhat mediated via estrogenic pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Support for research towards understanding the population health vulnerabilities to vector-borne diseases: increasing resilience under climate change conditions in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Bernadette

    2017-12-12

    Diseases transmitted to humans by vectors account for 17% of all infectious diseases and remain significant public health problems. Through the years, great strides have been taken towards combatting vector-borne diseases (VBDs), most notably through large scale and coordinated control programmes, which have contributed to the decline of the global mortality attributed to VBDs. However, with environmental changes, including climate change, the impact on VBDs is anticipated to be significant, in terms of VBD-related hazards, vulnerabilities and exposure. While there is growing awareness on the vulnerability of the African continent to VBDs in the context of climate change, there is still a paucity of research being undertaken in this area, and impeding the formulation of evidence-based health policy change. One way in which the gap in knowledge and evidence can be filled is for donor institutions to support research in this area. The collaboration between the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the International Centre for Research and Development (IDRC) builds on more than 10 years of partnership in research capacity-building in the field of tropical diseases. From this partnership was born yet another research initiative on VBDs and the impact of climate change in the Sahel and sub-Saharan Africa. This paper lists the projects supported under this research initiative and provides a brief on some of the policy and good practice recommendations emerging from the ongoing implementation of the research projects. Data generated from the research initiative are expected to be uptaken by stakeholders (including communities, policy makers, public health practitioners and other relevant partners) to contribute to a better understanding of the impacts of social, environmental and climate change on VBDs(i.e. the nature of the hazard, vulnerabilities, exposure), and improve the ability of African countries to adapt to and reduce the

  8. Driving and off-road impairments underlying failure on road testing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Hannes; Vandenberghe, Wim; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; De Weerdt, Willy; Nieuwboer, Alice; Uc, Ergun Y

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects driving ability. We aimed to determine the most critical impairments in specific road skills and in clinical characteristics leading to failure on a road test in PD. In this cross-sectional study, certified driving assessment experts evaluated specific driving skills in 104 active, licensed drivers with PD using a standardized, on-road checklist and issued a global decision of pass/fail. Participants also completed an off-road evaluation assessing demographic features, disease characteristics, motor function, vision, and cognition. The most important driving skills and off-road predictors of the pass/fail outcome were identified using multivariate stepwise regression analyses. Eighty-six (65%) passed and 36 (35%) failed the on-road driving evaluation. Persons who failed performed worse on all on-road items. When adjusted for age and gender, poor performances on lateral positioning at low speed, speed adaptations at high speed, and left turning maneuvers yielded the best model that determined the pass/fail decision (R(2) = 0.56). The fail group performed poorer on all motor, visual, and cognitive tests. Measures of visual scanning, motor severity, PD subtype, visual acuity, executive functions, and divided attention were independent predictors of pass/fail decisions in the multivariate model (R(2) = 0.60). Our study demonstrated that failure on a road test in PD is determined by impairments in specific driving skills and associated with deficits in motor, visual, executive, and visuospatial functions. These findings point to specific driving and off-road impairments that can be targeted in multimodal rehabilitation programs for drivers with PD. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Dosimetric considerations in treating mediastinal disease with mantle fields: Characterization of the dose under mantle blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Geijn, J. van de; Okunieff, P.

    1995-01-01

    While the rationale for using mantle fields is well understood and the prescription of these fields is straightforward, the underlying complexity of the dose distributions that result is not generally appreciated. This is especially true in the choice of lung block design, which affects the dose to both the target volume as well as to the normal lung tissue. The key to the design of optimal lung blocks is the physician's perception of the complex relationship between the geometric and dosimetric aspects of heavily modified fields, as well as how the physical and anatomical properties of the target volume and the shape of the patient's lungs relate to the images visualized on simulator films. Depth doses and cross-beam profiles of blocks ranging in width from 1 cm to 10 cm were taken using an automated beam scanning system. These data were then converted to open-quotes shadow fields.close quotes Shadow fields behave quite similarly to small, open fields in terms of x-ray-light field congruence, flatness, symmetry, and penumbra. There is a 2-3 mm rim between the edge of the block and the point at which it becomes nominally effective. The dose at the center of a block, which gives the normalization of the shadow fields, is given by a block transmission factor (BTF), which produces results in excellent agreement with measurements over a wide variety of block sizes and tissue depths. The radiation dose under shielding blocks can be considerably higher than expected, and care must be exercised when drawing blocks close to critical structures. The effects of blocks can be described in terms of normalized shadow fields, which behave similar to narrow, open fields, but with a divergence characteristic of their position relative to the radiation source. The normalization value for these fields, which gives the relative dose under the block, can be obtained from a straightforward analytical expression, the BTF. 33 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Local and systemic humoral immune response in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) under a natural amoebic gill disease outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-López, Mar; Espinosa Ruiz, Cristóbal; Rodger, Hamish D; O'Connor, Ian; MacCarthy, Eugene; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-07-01

    Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the protozoan parasite Neoparamoeba perurans, is one of the most significant infectious diseases for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture. The present study investigated the humoral immune response (both local in gill mucus and systemic in serum) of farmed Atlantic salmon naturally infected with N. perurans in commercial sea pens, at two different stages of the disease and after freshwater treatment. Parameters analysed included activity of immune related enzymes (i.e. lysozyme, peroxidase, protease, anti-protease, esterase, alkaline phosphatase), IgM levels, and the terminal carbohydrate profile in the gill mucus. Overall, greater variations between groups were noted in the immune parameters determined in gill mucus than the equivalent in the serum. In gill mucus, IgM levels and peroxidase, lysozyme, esterase and protease activities were decreased in fish showing longer exposure time to the infection and higher disease severity, then showed a sequential increase after treatment. Results obtained highlight the capacity of gills to elicit a local response to the infection, indicate an impaired immune response at the later stages of the disease, and show partial reestablishment of the host immune status after freshwater treatment. In addition to providing data on the humoral response to AGD, this study increases knowledge on gill mucosal humoral immunity, since some of the parameters were analysed for the first time in gill mucus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Symptoms of main Callistephus chinensis L. Nees. diseases under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko Alla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathological monitoring of C. chinensis (L. Nees. has proven withering and root rot to be the dominating diseases in agrobiocenoses under Ukrainian urban ecosystem conditions of the forest-steppe zone. Their spread was 5,1 and 4 times more than one of spotting. The complex of plant pathogenic overground and underground microflora consists of 24 causative agents. B. cinerea, F. oxysporum, V. albo-atrum have been found on all the vegetative and reproductive parts of Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees., , Ph. cactorum – on plant overground and underground parts, Rh. solani – on underground parts and seeds, A. zinniae – on overground parts and seeds. The main C. chinensis (L. Nees. disease symptoms have been diagnosed (leaf spots, powdery mildew, verticillium wilt, rust, ramularia spot, septoria spots, botrytis blight, grey mold rot, late blight, fusarium blight, black stem.

  12. Evaluation of clinical characteristics and prognosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis depending on the underlying lung diseases: Emphysema vs prior tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Junko; Kawashima, Masahiro; Okuda, Kenichi; Sato, Ryota; Suzukawa, Maho; Nagai, Hideaki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Ohta, Ken

    2015-11-01

    There have been scarce data evaluating the differences of clinical characteristics and prognosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) depending on underlying pulmonary diseases. We tried to clarify them in CPA patients who had pulmonary emphysema or previous pulmonary tuberculosis. We reviewed and evaluated CPA patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2013 with pulmonary emphysema (PE group; n = 29), with previous pulmonary tuberculosis (PT group; n = 47) and with combination of these 2 underlying conditions (CTE group; n = 24). In CT findings, fungus balls were rare in PE group (7% in PE group and 36% in PT group; p = 0.006). Compared with PT group, PE group patients exhibited more frequent preceding antibiotics administration (45% vs 11%; p = 0.002) and fever (52% vs 17%; p = 0.002), less frequent hemosputum (24% vs 57%; p = 0.008), and more frequent consolidations in imaging (79% vs 38%; p = 0.001) and respiratory failure (34% vs 13%; p = 0.020), possibly suggesting more acute clinical manifestations of CPA in emphysematous patients. Trend of the differences between PT and PE group was not changed when patients with fungal balls were excluded. Multivariate Cox regression analysis of risks for all-cause mortality revealed age (HR, 1.079; p = 0.002) and emphysema (HR, 2.45; p = 0.040) as risk factors. Assessment of underlying lung diseases is needed when we estimate prognosis and consider treatment of CPA patients. Particularly, emphysematous patients can be presented as refractory pneumonia and show poor prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Best urban water management practices to prevent waterborne infectious diseases under current and future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Man-van der Vliet, H.

    2014-01-01

    Water in urban areas may pose a public health risk when people are exposed to urban water, because it may contain pathogens. These pathogens may originate from fecal bird droppings, runoff from paved surfaces (including e.g. dog feces), growth of micro-organisms in water and in some cases discharges

  14. Microscopic lumbar hernietomiya under CT control, experience in the treatment of disk-articular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choneva, I.; Amoreti, N.; Kujelstadt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction Lumbar disc herniation can be treated with lumbar micro-invasive herniotomy under CT control through transforaminal posterolateral or transchannel approach. Percutaneous access by the fine needle probe in combination with X-ray and CT control is a micro - invasive surgery of the spine, which may be considered as an alternative to traditional surgery. The advantages of this method are: the small diameter of the used probe (not more than 16 G or 1,5 mm), allowing the dermal incision to be only a few millimeters as well as the realization of transchannel access, thereby reducing the risk for susceptible ligament injury and the avoidance of bone lesions on the back arc or neighboring muscular structures. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study is to demonstrate that percutaneous lumbar herniotomy under CT control and on posterolateral and foraminal disc herniation with symptoms of pain and root irritation, leads to a significant improvement of the complaints at times immediately postinterventsional and within 6 months ( D1 , D2, D7 , 1, 2 , 6 months) . This lecture presents 55 consecutive patients with symptoms of pain and root irritation, who have made significant progress after percutaneous lumbar herniotomy under CT control and who did not have satisfactory results despite an adapted medical treatment. All patients were clinically evaluated by using visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain, lumbar and root irritation, as well as by MR images postoperatively. Results: All 55 patients showed immediate postoperative improvement of clinical symptoms and signs. Postoperative MR images also show root decompression. It is not reported about complications during the procedure. After the first week it was noted a reduction in average VAS values of 71% and 67% in patients treated for posterolateral and foraminal herniated disc; in medial disc hernia it was noted an average reduction of only 45% . Six months after micro surgery treatment a positive

  15. Pulmonary hypertension in sickle cell disease children under 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombatti, Raffaella; Maschietto, Nicola; Varotto, Elena; Grison, Alessandra; Grazzina, Nicoletta; Meneghello, Linda; Teso, Simone; Carli, Modesto; Milanesi, Ornella; Sainati, Laura

    2010-09-01

    Despite the finding of elevated Tricuspid Regurgitant Velocity (TRV) in children below 5 years of age, the prevalence and evolution of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) in young children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are unclear. In order to identify predictive factors of precocious PH development, SCD children > or =3 years old, at steady state, underwent annual echocardiography and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI). Patients receiving chronic transfusion were excluded. Thirty-seven of seventy-five patients were > or =3 years, with measurable TRV. In our young population (mean age 6.2 years) of mainly African, HbS/HbS patients, 8/37 (21.6%) had TRV > or =2.5 m/s, 8% being only 3 years old. Significant correlation was found between precocious TRV elevation and high platelet and reticulocyte counts and frequent acute chest syndromes (ACS). In multivariate analysis, ACS was the only variable predicting TRV > or =2.5 m/s. TDI of the 37 patients showed signs of diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. At follow-up all eight patients with high TRV displayed further increase and seven more developed TRV > or =2.5 m/s. PH seems to begin in children earlier than expected. Factors involved in its early onset might be different from the ones causing its development in older children or adults. African children might benefit from early screening and re-assessment once a year.

  16. Volunteering and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Does Helping Others Get "Under the Skin?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Han, Sae Hwang; Tavares, Jane L

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated whether volunteering was related to 5 risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among middle-aged and older adults. Data from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (N = 7,803) were examined. Logistic regression was used to describe the relationships among volunteering and central adiposity, hypertension, lipid dysregulation, elevated blood glucose levels, and high inflammation, along with 2 indexes of the MetS. Among middle-aged adults, results showed that volunteers were less likely to have high central adiposity, lipid dysregulation, elevated blood glucose levels, and MetS compared with non-volunteers. For older adults, results showed volunteers were less likely to be hypertensive and more likely to have lipid dysregulation than their non-volunteer counterparts. These results supported findings from other studies that formal volunteering is beneficial for middle-aged adults, and to a lesser degree, older adults. Further research is required to determine what factors may mediate the volunteer-CVD risk relationships. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A Novel Ex Vivo Model to Investigate the Underlying Mechanisms in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Brai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is no widely accepted animal model reproducing the full pathological profile of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, since the basic mechanisms of neurodegeneration are still poorly understood. We have proposed that the interaction between the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR and a recently discovered toxic peptide, cleaved from the acetylcholinesterase (AChE C-terminus, could account for the aberrant processes occurring in AD. In this article we describe a new application on ex vivo model procedure, which combines the advantages of both in vivo and in vitro preparations, to study the effects of the AChE-derived peptide on the rat basal forebrain (BF. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of α7-nAChR, p-Tau and Aβ are differentially expressed upon the AChE-peptide administration, in a selective site-dependent manner. In conclusion, this methodology demonstrates the action of a novel peptide in triggering an AD-like phenotype and proposes a new ex vivo approach for manipulating and monitoring neurochemical processes contributing to neurodegeneration, in a time-dependent and site-specific manner.

  18. Changes in Ionic Conductance Signature of Nociceptive Neurons Underlying Fabry Disease Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namer, Barbara; Ørstavik, Kirstin; Schmidt, Roland; Mair, Norbert; Kleggetveit, Inge Petter; Zeidler, Maximillian; Martha, Theresa; Jorum, Ellen; Schmelz, Martin; Kalpachidou, Theodora; Kress, Michaela; Langeslag, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    The first symptom arising in many Fabry patients is neuropathic pain due to changes in small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in the periphery, which is subsequently followed by a loss of sensory perception. Here we studied changes in the peripheral nervous system of Fabry patients and a Fabry mouse model induced by deletion of α-galactosidase A (Gla−/0). The skin innervation of Gla−/0 mice resembles that of the human Fabry patients. In Fabry diseased humans and Gla−/0 mice, we observed similar sensory abnormalities, which were also observed in nerve fiber recordings in both patients and mice. Electrophysiological recordings of cultured Gla−/0 nociceptors revealed that the conductance of voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ currents was decreased in Gla−/0 nociceptors, whereas the activation of voltage-gated K+ currents was at more depolarized potentials. Conclusively, we have observed that reduced sensory perception due to small-fiber degeneration coincides with altered electrophysiological properties of sensory neurons. PMID:28769867

  19. Changes in Ionic Conductance Signature of Nociceptive Neurons Underlying Fabry Disease Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Namer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The first symptom arising in many Fabry patients is neuropathic pain due to changes in small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers in the periphery, which is subsequently followed by a loss of sensory perception. Here we studied changes in the peripheral nervous system of Fabry patients and a Fabry mouse model induced by deletion of α-galactosidase A (Gla−/0. The skin innervation of Gla−/0 mice resembles that of the human Fabry patients. In Fabry diseased humans and Gla−/0 mice, we observed similar sensory abnormalities, which were also observed in nerve fiber recordings in both patients and mice. Electrophysiological recordings of cultured Gla−/0 nociceptors revealed that the conductance of voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ currents was decreased in Gla−/0 nociceptors, whereas the activation of voltage-gated K+ currents was at more depolarized potentials. Conclusively, we have observed that reduced sensory perception due to small-fiber degeneration coincides with altered electrophysiological properties of sensory neurons.

  20. Effects of dispositional optimism on quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson's disease outpatients under rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gison, Annalisa; Rizza, Federica; Bonassi, Stefano; Donati, Valentina; Giaquinto, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed with the aim of assessing dispositional optimism (DO) in a sample of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in order to evaluate its association with clinical outcomes and its impact on rehabilitation. Before entering an outpatient rehabilitation program, 58 participants suffering from idiopathic PD completed the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) to evaluate their level of DO, the WHO-5 scale to evaluate their health-related quality of life (HR-QoL), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to identify emotional distress, and the Barthel Index to evaluate their level of disability. All the measures were repeated four months later, at their discharge from the program. Disease stage and severity measures (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) were also taken into consideration. Correlations and multivariate regression analyses compared DO with the health-related variables. On admission a high level of DO was found to be associated with less severe disease, a better quality of life (QoL) and lower emotional distress, but not with level of disability (Barthel Index). Consistent results were found at discharge. The level of DO di not change after rehabilitation, while anxiety was significantly reduced, especially in subjects with low LOT-R and high HADS scores. The Barthel Index values significantly improved. At discharge, participants with high DO showed the best improvements in disability and in QoL. Effects of dispositional optimism on quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson's disease outpatients under rehabilitation In conclusion, a high level of DO was associated with QoL, HADS and UPDRS both on admission and at discharge. The level of DO remained stable after rehabilitation, while disability and anxiety were reduced. Participants with high DO generally had better QoL, and better clinical and psychological performances.

  1. Distinct neural systems underlying reduced emotional enhancement for positive and negative stimuli in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistridis, Panagiota; Taylor, Kirsten I; Kissler, Johanna M; Monsch, Andreas U; Kressig, Reto W; Kivisaari, Sasa L

    2013-01-01

    Emotional information is typically better remembered than neutral content, and previous studies suggest that this effect is subserved particularly by the amygdala together with its interactions with the hippocampus. However, it is not known whether amygdala damage affects emotional memory performance at immediate and delayed recall, and whether its involvement is modulated by stimulus valence. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent more distributed neocortical regions involved in e.g., autobiographical memory, also contribute to emotional processing. We investigated these questions in a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects the amygdala, hippocampus and neocortical regions. Healthy controls (n = 14), patients with AD (n = 15) and its putative prodrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 11) completed a memory task consisting of immediate and delayed free recall of a list of positive, negative and neutral words. Memory performance was related to brain integrity in region of interest and whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses. In the brain-behavioral analyses, the left amygdala volume predicted the immediate recall of both positive and negative material, whereas at delay, left and right amygdala volumes were associated with performance with positive and negative words, respectively. Whole-brain analyses revealed additional associations between left angular gyrus integrity and the immediate recall of positive words as well as between the orbitofrontal cortex and the delayed recall of negative words. These results indicate that emotional memory impairments in AD may be underpinned by damage to regions implicated in emotional processing as well as frontoparietal regions, which may exert their influence via autobiographical memories and organizational strategies.

  2. CT findings of pulmonary tuberculosis in adult patients with no underlying disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Junpei; Takeuchi, Noriyuki; Johkoh, Tsuyoshi

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the CT spectrum of pulmonary tuberculosis, we reviewed CT of the chest in 80 adult patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis who had not been treated for tuberculosis. Main patterns seen in patients with active tuberculosis were: (1) nodular shadow (56%), (2) confluent consolidation (15%), and (3) round consolidation (16%). Other CT patterns were: (1) miliary tuberculosis (n=4), (2) pleural effusion only (n=4), and (3) normal chest (n=2). Major features seen at CT included segmental distribution (97%), satellite lesions (86%), single cavity in each cavitary lesion (95%), ectatic change of the bronchi, tendency of distortion or contraction. (author)

  3. Adrenal crisis in treated Addison's disease: a predictable but under-managed event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Arlt, Wiebke

    2010-01-01

    Adrenal crisis is a life-threatening event that occurs regularly in Addison's patients receiving standard replacement therapy. Patient reports suggest that it is an underestimated and under-managed event. To assess the frequency of adrenal crisis in diagnosed patients and to understand the factors contributing to the risks of adrenal crisis. We conducted a postal survey of Addison's patients in four countries, UK (n=485), Canada (n=148), Australia (n=123) and New Zealand (n=85) in 2003, asking about patients' experiences of adrenal crisis and their demographic characteristics. In 2006, a shorter follow-up survey was conducted in the UK (n=261). The frequency and causes of adrenal crisis were compared across both surveys. Demographic data from the 2003 survey were analysed to establish the main variables associated with an elevated risk of crisis. Around 8% of diagnosed cases can be expected to need hospital treatment for adrenal crisis annually. Exposure to gastric infection is the single most important factor predicting the likelihood of adrenal crisis. Concomitant diabetes and/or asthma increase the frequency of adrenal crises reported by patients. The endocrinologist has a responsibility to ensure that Addison's patients have adequate access to life-saving emergency injection materials and repeated, practical training sessions in how to use them, while the general practitioner plays a vital role as in arranging prompt emergency admissions.

  4. Temporal shifts in clinical presentation and underlying mechanisms of atherosclerotic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterkamp, Gerard; den Ruijter, Hester M; Libby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the 'vulnerable plaque' originated from pathological observations in patients who died from acute coronary syndrome. This recognition spawned a generation of research that led to greater understanding of how complicated atherosclerotic plaques form and precipitate thrombotic events. In current practice, an increasing number of patients who survive their first event present with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) rather than myocardial infarction (MI) with ST-segment elevation (STEMI). The culprit lesions that provide the pathological substrate for NSTEMI can vary considerably from the so-called 'vulnerable plaque'. The shift in clinical presentation of MI and stroke corresponds temporally to a progressive change in the characteristics of human plaques away from the supposed characteristics of vulnerability. These alterations in the structure and function of human atherosclerotic lesions might mirror the modifications that are produced in experimental plaques by lipid lowering, inspired by the vulnerable plaque construct. The shift in the clinical presentations of the acute coronary syndromes mandates a critical reassessment of the underlying mechanisms, proposed risk scores, the results and interpretation of preclinical experiments, as well as recognition of the limitations of the use of population data and samples collected before the application of current preventive interventions.

  5. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Modulate the Secretion of Cytokines in Synoviocytes under Inflammatory Joint Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuo, Biljana; Hock, Jennifer Vanessa Phi; Kweider, Nisreen; Fragoulis, Athanassios; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Jahr, Holger; Pufe, Thomas; Lippross, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are marked by a complex interplay of various cell populations and is mediated by different signaling pathways. Traditionally, therapies have primarily focused on pain relief, reducing inflammation and the recovery of joint function. More recently, however, researchers have discussed the therapeutic efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The main objective of this work is to examine the influences of platelet-released growth factor (PRGF) on human synoviocytes under inflammatory conditions. Additionally, it is checked to which extend treatment with platelet concentrate influences the release of cytokines form synoviocytes. For this purpose, an in vitro RA model was created by stimulating the cells with the TNF-α. The release of cytokines was measured by ELISA. The cytokine gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. It has been observed that the stimulation concentration of 10 ng/ml TNF-α resulted in a significantly increased endogenous secretion and gene expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of PRGF could be confirmed through significant reduction of TNF-α and IL-1β. An induced inflammatory condition seems to cause PRGF to inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Further study is required to understand the exact effect mechanism of PRGF on synoviocytes. PMID:29348703

  6. Platelet-Released Growth Factors Modulate the Secretion of Cytokines in Synoviocytes under Inflammatory Joint Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersedeh Tohidnezhad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA are marked by a complex interplay of various cell populations and is mediated by different signaling pathways. Traditionally, therapies have primarily focused on pain relief, reducing inflammation and the recovery of joint function. More recently, however, researchers have discussed the therapeutic efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP. The main objective of this work is to examine the influences of platelet-released growth factor (PRGF on human synoviocytes under inflammatory conditions. Additionally, it is checked to which extend treatment with platelet concentrate influences the release of cytokines form synoviocytes. For this purpose, an in vitro RA model was created by stimulating the cells with the TNF-α. The release of cytokines was measured by ELISA. The cytokine gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. It has been observed that the stimulation concentration of 10 ng/ml TNF-α resulted in a significantly increased endogenous secretion and gene expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of PRGF could be confirmed through significant reduction of TNF-α and IL-1β. An induced inflammatory condition seems to cause PRGF to inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Further study is required to understand the exact effect mechanism of PRGF on synoviocytes.

  7. Epidemiologic study of end stage renal disease and related risk factors in patients under hemodialysis in Lorestan province

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    babak Hadian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD is increasing in the world. Because of clinical importance of ESRD and absence of significant data, we studied the epidemiology of end stage renal failure in patients under hemodialysis in Lorestan province. Material and methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out between January 2012 and January 2013 in dialysis centers of Lorestan university of medical sciences .Subject were selected by census method and data galhered using a questionnaire. At the end, collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Results: All the patients under hemodialysis were 318 cases, 182 out of them (57.2% and 136(42.8% were male and female respectively. The mean age of the subjects was 53.2± 16.4 years. The cause of renal failure in 38.1% of the patients were hypertension, diabetes (19.2% and unknown factors (27.4%. As well as 5.97% of the patients infected by HCV, HBV or HIV . A significant statistical difference was observed between causes of chronic renal failure and different ages of the subjects (p=0.002. Conclusion: Augmentation of screening programs and especially, early referral of high risk subjects to nephrologists is recommended for prevention of end stage renal disease.

  8. Estimating genetic effect sizes under joint disease-endophenotype models in presence of gene-environment interactions

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    Alexandre eBureau

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of genetic variants on the risk of complex diseases estimated from association studies are typically small. Nonetheless, variants may have important effects in presence of specific levels of environmental exposures, and when a trait related to the disease (endophenotype is either normal or impaired. We propose polytomous and transition models to represent the relationship between disease, endophenotype, genotype and environmental exposure in family studies. Model coefficients were estimated using generalized estimating equations and were used to derive gene-environment interaction effects and genotype effects at specific levels of exposure. In a simulation study, estimates of the effect of a genetic variant were substantially higher when both an endophenotype and an environmental exposure modifying the variant effect were taken into account, particularly under transition models, compared to the alternative of ignoring the endophenotype. Illustration of the proposed modeling with the metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, physical activity and polymorphisms in the NOX3 gene in the Quebec Family Study revealed that the positive association of the A allele of rs1375713 with the metabolic syndrome at high levels of physical activity was only detectable in subjects without abdominal obesity, illustrating the importance of taking into account the abdominal obesity endophenotype in this analysis.

  9. Proximal Limb Weakness in a Patient with Celiac Disease: Copper Deficiency, Gluten Sensitivity, or Both as the Underlying Cause?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Avila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease has been associated with several neurologic disorders which may result from micronutrient deficiencies, coexisting autoimmune conditions, or gluten sensitivity. Copper deficiency can produce multiple neurologic manifestations. Myeloneuropathy is the most common neurologic syndrome and it is often irreversible, despite copper replacement. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with progressive proximal limb weakness and weight loss in the setting of untreated celiac disease without gastrointestinal symptoms. He had anemia, neutropenia, and severe hypocupremia. The pattern of weakness raised the suspicion that there was an underlying myopathy, although this was not confirmed by electrodiagnostic studies. Weakness and hematologic abnormalities resolved completely within 1 month of total parenteral nutrition with copper supplementation and a gluten-free diet. Myopathy can rarely occur in patients with celiac disease, but the mechanism is unclear. Pure proximal limb weakness has not been previously reported in copper deficiency. We propose that this may represent a novel manifestation of hypocupremia and recommend considering copper deficiency and gluten sensitivity in patients presenting with proximal limb weakness.

  10. Massively parallel sequencing and targeted exomes in familial kidney disease can diagnose underlying genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Andrew J; McCarthy, Hugh J; Ho, Gladys; Holman, Katherine; Farnsworth, Elizabeth; Patel, Chirag; Fletcher, Jeffery T; Mallawaarachchi, Amali; Quinlan, Catherine; Bennetts, Bruce; Alexander, Stephen I

    2017-12-01

    Inherited kidney disease encompasses a broad range of disorders, with both multiple genes contributing to specific phenotypes and single gene defects having multiple clinical presentations. Advances in sequencing capacity may allow a genetic diagnosis for familial renal disease, by testing the increasing number of known causative genes. However, there has been limited translation of research findings of causative genes into clinical settings. Here, we report the results of a national accredited diagnostic genetic service for familial renal disease. An expert multidisciplinary team developed a targeted exomic sequencing approach with ten curated multigene panels (207 genes) and variant assessment individualized to the patient's phenotype. A genetic diagnosis (pathogenic genetic variant[s]) was identified in 58 of 135 families referred in two years. The genetic diagnosis rate was similar between families with a pediatric versus adult proband (46% vs 40%), although significant differences were found in certain panels such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (88% vs 17%). High diagnostic rates were found for Alport syndrome (22 of 27) and tubular disorders (8 of 10), whereas the monogenic diagnostic rate for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract was one of 13. Quality reporting was aided by a strong clinical renal and genetic multidisciplinary committee review. Importantly, for a diagnostic service, few variants of uncertain significance were found with this targeted, phenotype-based approach. Thus, use of targeted massively parallel sequencing approaches in inherited kidney disease has a significant capacity to diagnose the underlying genetic disorder across most renal phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between low blood pressure and renal/cardiovascular outcomes in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease under nephrologist care: the Gonryo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tae; Nakayama, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Mariko; Matsushima, Masato; Sato, Toshinobu; Taguma, Yoshio; Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies established a J-shaped association between blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the different clinical profiles of CVD by ethnicity. However, the adequately lower BP target remains unclear in Asian patients with CKD. This prospective observational study included 2,655 Japanese outpatients with CKD under nephrologist care who met the inclusion criteria, namely estimated glomerular filtration rate kidney disease (ESKD) that requires renal replacement therapy. During a 3.02-year median follow-up, 64 patients died, 120 developed CVEs, and 225 progressed to ESKD. In the adjusted Cox models, the risks of CVEs and all-cause mortality were higher in the patients with systolic BPs (SBPs) < 110 mmHg than in those with SBPs of 130-139 mmHg. Moreover, the risk was higher in those with diastolic BPs (DBPs) < 70 mmHg than in those with DBPs of 80-89 mmHg. Although SBPs ≥ 140 mmHg were associated with higher incidence rates of ESKD, no significant increased risk was associated with BPs < 130/80 mmHg. SBPs < 110 mmHg and DBPs < 70 mmHg were independent risk factors of CVEs and all-cause mortality. No lower BPs were observed as significant risk factors of progression to ESKD. This study suggests that the lower BP target in Asian patients with CKD should be ≥110/70 mmHg.

  12. Auditing the frequency and the clinical and economic impact of testing for Fabry disease in patients under the age of 70 with a stroke admitted to Saint Vincent's University Hospital over a 6-month period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, J; Noone, I; Lonergan, R; Tubridy, N

    2018-02-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disorder that provokes multi-organ morbidity, including early-onset stroke. Worldwide prevalence may be greater than previously estimated, with many experiencing first stroke prior to diagnosis of Fabry disease. The aim of this study is to screen a cohort of stroke patients under 70 years of age, evaluating the clinical and economic efficacy of such a broad screening programme for Fabry disease. All stroke patients under 70 years of age who were entered into the Saint Vincent's University Hospital stroke database over a 6-month period underwent enzyme analysis and/or genetic testing as appropriate for Fabry disease. Patients' past medical histories were analysed for clinical signs suggestive of Fabry disease. Cost-effectiveness analysis of testing was performed and compared to overall economic impact of young stroke in Ireland. Of 22 patients tested for Fabry disease, no new cases were detected. Few clinical indicators of Fabry disease were identified at the time of testing. Broad screening programmes for Fabry disease are highly unlikely to offset the cost of testing. The efficacy of future screening programmes will depend on careful selection of an appropriate patient cohort of young stroke patients with multi-organ morbidity and a positive family history.

  13. Xylella fastidiosa Isolates from Both subsp. multiplex and fastidiosa Cause Disease on Southern Highbush Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Cobine, P A; De La Fuente, L

    2015-07-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited gram-negative plant pathogen that affects numerous crop species, including grape, citrus, peach, pecan, and almond. Recently, X. fastidiosa has also been found to be the cause of bacterial leaf scorch on blueberry in the southeastern United States. Thus far, all X. fastidiosa isolates obtained from infected blueberry have been classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex; however, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates are also present in the southeastern United States and commonly cause Pierce's disease of grapevines. In this study, seven southeastern U.S. isolates of X. fastidiosa, including three X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolates from grape, one X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa isolate from elderberry, and three X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry, were used to infect the southern highbush blueberry 'Rebel'. Following inoculation, all isolates colonized blueberry, and isolates from both X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex and X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa caused symptoms, including characteristic stem yellowing and leaf scorch symptoms as well as dieback of the stem tips. Two X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex isolates from blueberry caused more severe symptoms than the other isolates examined, and infection with these two isolates also had a significant impact on host mineral nutrient content in sap and leaves. These findings have potential implications for understanding X. fastidiosa host adaptation and expansion and the development of emerging diseases caused by this bacterium.

  14. Disease burden of community acquired pneumonia among children under 5 y old in China: A population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; An, Zhijie; Yin, Dapeng; Liu, Yanmin; Huang, Zhuoying; Ma, Yujie; Li, Hui; Li, Qi; Wang, Huaqing

    2017-07-03

    To obtain the baseline data on the incidence and cost of community acquired pneumonia among under-5 children for future studies, and provide evidence for shaping China's strategies regarding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Three townships from Heilongjiang, Hebei and Gansu Province and one community in Shanghai were selected as study areas. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data on incidence and cost of pneumonia among children under 5 y old in 2012. The overall incidence of clinically diagnosed pneumonia in children under 5 y old was 2.55%. The incidence in urban area was 7.97%, higher than that in rural areas (1.68%). However, no difference was found in the incidences of chest X-ray confirmed pneumonia between urban and rural areas (1.67% vs 1.23%). X-ray confirmed cases in rural and urban areas respectively accounted for 73.45% and 20.93% of all clinically diagnosed pneumonia. The hospitalization rate of all cases was 1.40%. Incidence and hospitalization rate of pneumonia decreased with age, with the highest rates found among children younger than one year and the lowest among children aged 4 (incidence: 4.25% vs 0.83%; hospitalization: 2.75% vs 0.36%). The incidence was slightly higher among boys (2.92% vs 2.08%). The total cost due to pneumonia for the participants was 1138 733 CNY. The average cost and median cost was 5722 CNY and 3540 CNY separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the only factor related to higher cost was hospitalization. The disease burden was high for children under 5 y old, especially the infant. PCV has not been widely used among children, and thus further health economics evaluation on introducing PCV into National Immunization Program should be conducted.

  15. Change in the intrathyroidal kinetics of radioiodine under continued and discontinued antithyroid medication in Graves' disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkelmann, Simone; Kuenstner, Hubertus; Nabavi, Elham; Rohde, Bettina; Groth, Peter; Schuemichen, Carl [University of Rostock, Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    This study evaluated the thyroidal kinetics of radioiodine in Graves' disease under continued thiamazole medication and after discontinuation of thiamazole for 1-2 days, with a view to keeping the period of discontinuation as short as possible and to exploring the underlying mechanism of a postulated radioprotective effect of antithyroid drugs. In 316 patients, diagnostic and therapeutic radioiodine kinetics were followed up for 2 days by ten uptake measurements each and were defined mathematically by a two-compartment model. Without thiamazole or when thiamazole was discontinued for at least 2 days, all uptake curves could be fitted perfectly by a simple in- and output function; the mean square error (mse) was 0.38 (test) and 0.28 (therapy). Under continued thiamazole medication (11.0{+-}7.0 mg/day), the energy dose delivered to the thyroid was lowered by factor of 2.5. Uptake curves were deformed (mse: 1.06, test and 0.86, therapy) and appeared two peaked, suggesting coexistence of follicles with blocked and follicles with intact hormone synthesis and hence heterogeneous radioiodine uptake in the thyroid. In patients with maximally altered uptake curves, the success rate was as low as 31%. One day after discontinuation of thiamazole, mse was still increased (0.78, test), while 2 days afterwards it had normalised (0.36, test) and 3 days afterwards (mse: 0.24, therapy) the success rate was 87%. Efficacy of radioiodine therapy under continued thiamazole medication is reduced not only by a lower uptake and shorter half-life of radioiodine, but also by a heterogeneous energy dose distribution in the thyroid. Discontinuation of thiamazole (but probably not of propylthiouracil) for at least 2 days is required to restore the efficacy of radioiodine. (orig.)

  16. Nutritional Status and Infectious Disease of Undernourished Children under five in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, from April to December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomina Caesarea Nurhasanah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Undernutrition frequently occurs in children under five. If not treated, it will cause acute health effects and affect on cognitive development, social, physical work capacity and productivity. Undernutrition can be accompanied by the presence of infectious disease that can worsen the children’s nutritional status. This study aimed to describe the nutritional status and infectious disease of undernutrition children under five in Jatinangor Subdistrict. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out to 7 parents and undernourished children under five, in Desa Cipacing, Jatinangor. It was conducted from April to December 2012. The inclusion criterias were undernourished children under five with a history of infectious disease in the previous year, and the parents were willing to participate in this study. Exclusion criteria were parents and/or the children who were not at home when the collection of the data was conducted.. Data collection was conducted using measurement of nutritional status, in depth interview and environmental observation. The data were presented in tables, figures and narration. Results: Three subjects with undernutrition (-3SD to -2SD and four subjects with severe undernutrition (<-3SD. Factors affecting poor nutritional status were weight loss, no significant weight gain, diet and eating habit, and onset of disease. Commonly occurred infectious diseases were common cold, diarrhea, fever and cough. Some factors affecting infectious diseases were family member transmission, immunization, and treatment behavior. Conclusions: Poor nutritional status and infectious diseases contribute to undernutrition in children under five.

  17. [Cardioprotective effects of glutamine in patients with ischemic heart disease operated under conditions of extracorporeal blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomivorotov, V V; Efremov, S M; Shmyrev, V A; Ponomarev, D N; Sviatchenko, A V; Kniaz'kova, L G

    2012-01-01

    It was conducted a study of glutamine cardioptotective effects during perioperative use in patients with ischemic heart disease, operated under CB. Exclusion criteria were: left ventricular ejection fraction less than 50%, diabetes melitus, myocardial infarction less than 3 months ago, Patients of the study group (n=25) had glutamine (20% solution N(2)-L-alanine-L-glutamine ("Dipeptiven" Fresenius Kabi, Germany); 0.4 g/kg/day. Patients of control group (n=25) received placebo (0.9% NaCl solution). The main indicators were the dynamics of troponin I, as well as central hemodynamics parameters. On the 1-st day after operation the concentration of troponin I was significantly lower in the glutamine-group compared placebo-group (1.280 (0.840-2.230) 2.410 (1.060-6.600) ng/ml; p=0.035). 4 hours after CB in a glutamine-group also had significantly large indicators of cardiac index (2.58 (2.34-2.91) l/min/m2 vs 2.03 (1.76-2.32)) l/min/m2; p=0,002) and stroke index (32.8 (27.8-36.0.) ml/m2 vs 26.1 (22.6-31.8) ml/m2; p=0.023). Systemic vascular resistance index was significantly lower in glutamine-group (1942 (1828-2209) dyn x s/cm(-5)/m2 vs 2456 (2400-3265) dyn x s/cm(-5)/m2; p=0.001). Conclusion. Perioperative use of N(2)-L-alanine-L-glutamine during the first 24 hours ofperioperative period gives cardioprotective effect in patients with ischemic heart disease operated under CB.

  18. Interplay of host genetics and gut microbiota underlying the onset and clinical presentation of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhann, Floris; Vich Vila, Arnau; Bonder, Marc Jan; Fu, Jingyuan; Gevers, Dirk; Visschedijk, Marijn C; Spekhorst, Lieke M; Alberts, Rudi; Franke, Lude; van Dullemen, Hendrik M; Ter Steege, Rinze W F; Huttenhower, Curtis; Dijkstra, Gerard; Xavier, Ramnik J; Festen, Eleonora A M; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Weersma, Rinse K

    2018-01-01

    Patients with IBD display substantial heterogeneity in clinical characteristics. We hypothesise that individual differences in the complex interaction of the host genome and the gut microbiota can explain the onset and the heterogeneous presentation of IBD. Therefore, we performed a case-control analysis of the gut microbiota, the host genome and the clinical phenotypes of IBD. Stool samples, peripheral blood and extensive phenotype data were collected from 313 patients with IBD and 582 truly healthy controls, selected from a population cohort. The gut microbiota composition was assessed by tag-sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. All participants were genotyped. We composed genetic risk scores from 11 functional genetic variants proven to be associated with IBD in genes that are directly involved in the bacterial handling in the gut: NOD2 , CARD9 , ATG16L1 , IRGM and FUT2 . Strikingly, we observed significant alterations of the gut microbiota of healthy individuals with a high genetic risk for IBD: the IBD genetic risk score was significantly associated with a decrease in the genus Roseburia in healthy controls (false discovery rate 0.017). Moreover, disease location was a major determinant of the gut microbiota: the gut microbiota of patients with colonic Crohn's disease (CD) is different from that of patients with ileal CD, with a decrease in alpha diversity associated to ileal disease (p=3.28×10 -13 ). We show for the first time that genetic risk variants associated with IBD influence the gut microbiota in healthy individuals. Roseburia spp are acetate-to-butyrate converters, and a decrease has already been observed in patients with IBD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Hypoactivation of the primary sensorimotor cortex in de novo Parkinson's disease. A motor fMRI study under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessa, Carlo; Vignali, Claudio; Lucetti, Claudio; Diciotti, Stefano; Paoli, Lorenzo; Ginestroni, Andrea; Mascalchi, Mario; Cecchi, Paolo; Baldacci, Filippo; Giannelli, Marco; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine studies in Parkinson's disease (PD) indicate that nigrostriatal damage causes a widespread cortical hypoactivity assumed to be due to reduced excitatory thalamic outflow. However, so far, functional MRI (fMRI) studies have provided controversial data about this ''functional deafferentation'' phenomenon. To further clarify this issue, we assessed, with fMRI, de novo drug-naive PD patients using a relatively complex motor task under strictly controlled conditions. Nineteen de novo PD patients with right-predominant or bilateral symptoms and 13 age-matched healthy volunteers performed continuous writing of ''8'' figures with the right-dominant hand using a MR-compatible device that enables identification of incorrectly performed tasks and measures the size and the frequency of the ''8''s. The data were analyzed with FSL software and correlated with the clinical severity rated according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging system. Fifteen (89%) of 19 PD patients and 12 (92%) of 13 controls correctly executed the task. PD patients showed significant hypoactivation of the left primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and cerebellum and no hyperactive areas as compared to controls. However, activation in SM1 and supplementary motor area bilaterally, in left supramarginal, parietal inferior, parietal superior and frontal superior gyri as well as in right parietal superior and angular gyri paralleled increasing disease severity as assessed with the HY stage. In line with the ''deafferentation hypothesis'', fMRI demonstrates hypoactivation of the SM1 in the early clinical stage of PD. (orig.)

  20. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Paul S; Li, Binxing; Vachali, Preejith P; Gorusupudi, Aruna; Shyam, Rajalekshmy; Henriksen, Bradley S; Nolan, John M

    2016-01-01

    The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Accuracy of Consecutive Fecal Calprotectin Measurements to Predict Relapse in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Under Maintenance With Anti-TNF Therapy: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Iglesias, Rocio; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; Lorenzo-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Dominguez-Muñoz, Juan E

    2018-03-01

    Predicting relapse in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients could allow early changes in therapy. We aimed at evaluating the accuracy of consecutive fecal calprotectin (FC) measurements to predict flares in IBD patients under maintenance treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs. A prospective longitudinal cohort study with 16-month follow-up period was designed. IBD patients in clinical remission for at least 6 months under anti-TNF therapy were included. FC was quantified at 4-month intervals for 1 year, and patients were clinically evaluated for relapse at 2-month intervals. Diagnostic accuracy of FC for predicting relapse was evaluated by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. In total, 95 of 106 included patients finalized the study and were analyzed (median age 44 y, 50.5% female, 75% with Crohn's disease). A total of 30 patients (31.6%) had a relapse over follow-up. FC concentration was significantly higher in patients who relapsed (477 μg/g) than in patients who maintained in remission (65 μg/g) (Ppredict remission was 130 μg/g (negative predictive value of 100%), and 300 μg/g to predict relapse (positive predictive value of 78.3%). FC is a good predictor of clinical relapse and a particularly good predictor of remission over the following 4 months in patients with IBD on maintenance therapy with anti-TNF drugs. FC levels 300 μg/g allow predicting relapse with a high probability at any time over the following 4 months.

  2. Clinical, biochemical, and neuropsychiatric evaluation of a patient with a contiguous gene syndrome due to a microdeletion Xp11.3 including the Norrie disease locus and monoamine oxidase (MAOA and MAOB) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, F A; Murphy, D L; Reiss, A L; Sims, K B; Lewis, J G; Freund, L; Karoum, F; Zhu, D; Maumenee, I H; Antonarakis, S E

    1992-01-01

    Norrie disease is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by blindness from infancy. The gene for Norrie disease has been localized to Xp11.3. More recently, the genes for monoamine oxidase (MAOA, MAOB) have been mapped to the same region. This study evaluates the clinical, biochemical, and neuropsychiatric data in an affected male and 2 obligate heterozygote females from a single family with a submicroscopic deletion involving Norrie disease and MAO genes. The propositus was a profoundly retarded, blind male; he also had neurologic abnormalities including myoclonus and stereotopy-habit disorder. Both obligate carrier females had a normal IQ. The propositus' mother met diagnostic criteria for "chronic hypomania and schizotypal features." The propositus' MAO activity was undetectable and the female heterozygotes had reduced levels comparable to patients receiving MAO inhibiting antidepressants. MAO substrate and metabolite abnormalities were found in the propositus' plasma and CSF. This study indicates that subtle biochemical and possibly neuropsychiatric abnormalities may be detected in some heterozygotes with the microdeletion in Xp11.3 due to loss of the gene product for the MAO genes; this deletion can also explain some of the complex phenotype of this contiguous gene syndrome in the propositus.

  3. Bone marrow involvement in Gaucher disease at MRI: what long-term evolution can we expect under enzyme replacement therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedida, Benjamin; Touraine, Sebastien; Laredo, Jean-Denis; Stirnemann, Jerome; Belmatoug, Nadia; Petrover, David

    2015-01-01

    To study the long-term evolution of the bone marrow burden (BMB) score at MRI in patients with Gaucher disease (GD) under enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Forty patients treated for GD were retrospectively studied in a referral centre. BMB scores were assessed on spine and femur MR examinations performed between January 2003 and June 2014. The long-term evolution of the BMB scores was analyzed using a linear mixed model. A total of 121 MRI examinations were performed during the study period with a mean follow-up of 7.1 years ± 5.6, an average rate of 3.1 MR examinations ± 1.7 per patient and an interval of 2.3 years ± 1.1 between examinations. Patients had received ERT during 12 years on average ± 6.7. The trend of BMB scores with time decreased significantly by 15 % (P = 0.008) during the total study period and 39 % (P = 0.01) during the first 5 years of treatment. No changes in BMB scores were observed after five years of treatment. In Gaucher patients, the trend of MRI BMB scores with time decreased significantly under ERT the first 5 years of treatment before a long-term stabilization. (orig.)

  4. Exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the potentiation of exogenous growth hormone on alcohol-induced fatty liver diseases in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone (GH is an essential regulator of intrahepatic lipid metabolism by activating multiple complex hepatic signaling cascades. Here, we examined whether chronic exogenous GH administration (via gene therapy could ameliorate liver steatosis in animal models of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either an alcohol or a control liquid diet with or without GH therapy for 6 weeks. Biochemical parameters, liver histology, oxidative stress markers, and serum high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin were measured. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were also conducted to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. Results Serum HMW adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the GH1-treated control group than in the control group (3.98 ± 0.71 μg/mL vs. 3.07 ± 0.55 μg/mL; P P P P P Conclusions GH therapy had positive effects on AFLD and may offer a promising approach to prevent or treat AFLD. These beneficial effects of GH on AFLD were achieved through the activation of the hepatic adiponectin-SIRT1-AMPK and PPARα-AMPK signaling systems.

  5. Bone marrow involvement in Gaucher disease at MRI: what long-term evolution can we expect under enzyme replacement therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedida, Benjamin; Touraine, Sebastien; Laredo, Jean-Denis [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Paris (France); Stirnemann, Jerome [Universite Paris-Diderot Hopital Bichat, AP-HP, Department of Biostatistics and Medical Data Processing, INSERM UMR 738, Paris (France); Geneva University Hospital, Division of General Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Belmatoug, Nadia [Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Referral Center for Lysosomal Diseases (RCLD), Clichy (France); Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Department of Internal Medicine, Clichy (France); Petrover, David [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Department of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Paris (France); Hopital Beaujon, AP-HP, Referral Center for Lysosomal Diseases (RCLD), Clichy (France)

    2015-10-15

    To study the long-term evolution of the bone marrow burden (BMB) score at MRI in patients with Gaucher disease (GD) under enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Forty patients treated for GD were retrospectively studied in a referral centre. BMB scores were assessed on spine and femur MR examinations performed between January 2003 and June 2014. The long-term evolution of the BMB scores was analyzed using a linear mixed model. A total of 121 MRI examinations were performed during the study period with a mean follow-up of 7.1 years ± 5.6, an average rate of 3.1 MR examinations ± 1.7 per patient and an interval of 2.3 years ± 1.1 between examinations. Patients had received ERT during 12 years on average ± 6.7. The trend of BMB scores with time decreased significantly by 15 % (P = 0.008) during the total study period and 39 % (P = 0.01) during the first 5 years of treatment. No changes in BMB scores were observed after five years of treatment. In Gaucher patients, the trend of MRI BMB scores with time decreased significantly under ERT the first 5 years of treatment before a long-term stabilization. (orig.)

  6. Support for research towards understanding the population health vulnerabilities to vector-borne diseases: increasing resilience under climate change conditions in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernadette Ramirez

    2017-01-01

    Background:Diseases transmitted to humans by vectors account for 17% of all infectious diseases and remain significant public health problems.Through the years,great strides have been taken towards combatting vectorborne diseases (VBDs),most notably through large scale and coordinated control programmes,which have contributed to the decline of the global mortality attributed to VBDs.However,with environmental changes,including climate change,the impact on VBDs is anticipated to be significant,in terms of VBD-related hazards,vulnerabilities and exposure.While there is growing awareness on the vulnerability of the African continent to VBDs in the context of climate change,there is still a paucity of research being undertaken in this area,and impeding the formulation of evidence-based health policy change.Main body:One way in which the gap in knowledge and evidence can be filled is for donor institutions to support research in this area.The collaboration between the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the International Centre for Research and Development (IDRC) builds on more than 10 years of partnership in research capacity-building in the field of tropical diseases.From this partnership was born yet another research initiative on VBDs and the impact of climate change in the Sahel and sub-Saharan Africa.This paper lists the projects supported under this research initiative and provides a brief on some of the policy and good practice recommendations emerging from the ongoing implementation of the research projects.Conclusion:Data generated from the research initiative are expected to be uptaken by stakeholders (including communities,policy makers,public health practitioners and other relevant partners) to contribute to a better understanding of the impacts of social,environmental and climate change on VBDs(i.e.the nature of the hazard,vulnerabilities,exposure),and improve the ability of African countries to adapt to and

  7. Changes in microbial ecology after fecal microbiota transplantation for recurrent C. difficile infection affected by underlying inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Sahil; Vazquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; González, Antonio; Weiss, Sophie; Schmidt, Bradley; Muñiz-Pedrogo, David A; Rainey, John F; Kammer, Patricia; Nelson, Heidi; Sadowsky, Michael; Khoruts, Alexander; Farrugia, Stefan L; Knight, Rob; Pardi, Darrell S; Kashyap, Purna C

    2017-05-15

    Gut microbiota play a key role in maintaining homeostasis in the human gut. Alterations in the gut microbial ecosystem predispose to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and gut inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from a healthy donor can restore gut microbial diversity and pathogen colonization resistance; consequently, it is now being investigated for its ability to improve inflammatory gut conditions such as IBD. In this study, we investigated changes in gut microbiota following FMT in 38 patients with CDI with or without underlying IBD. There was a significant change in gut microbial composition towards the donor microbiota and an overall increase in microbial diversity consistent with previous studies after FMT. FMT was successful in treating CDI using a diverse set of donors, and varying degrees of donor stool engraftment suggesting that donor type and degree of engraftment are not drivers of a successful FMT treatment of CDI. However, patients with underlying IBD experienced an increased number of CDI relapses (during a 24-month follow-up) and a decreased growth of new taxa, as compared to the subjects without IBD. Moreover, the need for IBD therapy did not change following FMT. These results underscore the importance of the existing gut microbial landscape as a decisive factor to successfully treat CDI and potentially for improvement of the underlying pathophysiology in IBD. FMT leads to a significant change in microbial diversity in patients with recurrent CDI and complete resolution of symptoms. Stool donor type (related or unrelated) and degree of engraftment are not the key for successful treatment of CDI by FMT. However, CDI patients with IBD have higher proportion of the original community after FMT and lack of improvement of their IBD symptoms and increased episodes of CDI on long-term follow-up.

  8. Projection of temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease in beijing under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boya; Li, Guoxing; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2018-04-01

    Human health faces unprecedented challenges caused by climate change. Thus, studies of the effect of temperature change on total mortality have been conducted in numerous countries. However, few of those studies focused on temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or considered future population changes and adaptation to climate change. We present herein a projection of temperature-related mortality due to CVD under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios in Beijing, a megacity in China. To this end, 19 global circulation models (GCMs), 3 representative concentration pathways (RCPs), 3 socioeconomic pathways, together with generalized linear models and distributed lag non-linear models, were used to project future temperature-related CVD mortality during periods centered around the years 2050 and 2070. The number of temperature-related CVD deaths in Beijing is projected to increase by 3.5-10.2% under different RCP scenarios compared with that during the baseline period. Using the same GCM, the future daily maximum temperatures projected using the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios showed a gradually increasing trend. When population change is considered, the annual rate of increase in temperature-related CVD deaths was up to fivefold greater than that under no-population-change scenarios. The decrease in the number of cold-related deaths did not compensate for the increase in that of heat-related deaths, leading to a general increase in the number of temperature-related deaths due to CVD in Beijing. In addition, adaptation to climate change may enhance rather than ameliorate the effect of climate change, as the increase in cold-related CVD mortality greater than the decrease in heat-related CVD mortality in the adaptation scenarios will result in an increase in the total number of temperature-related CVD mortalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Swedish children with celiac disease comply well with a gluten-free diet, and most include oats without reporting any adverse effects: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsas, Dimitrios; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Högberg, Lotta; Hammersjö, Jan-Åke; Hollén, Elisabet

    2014-05-01

    The only known treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD), which initially meant abstention from wheat, rye, barley, and oats. Recently, oats free from contamination with wheat have been accepted in the GFD. Yet, reports indicate that all celiac disease patients may not tolerate oats. We hypothesized that celiac children comply well with a GFD and that most have included oats in their diet. A food questionnaire was used to check our patients; 316 questionnaires were returned. Mean time on the GFD was 6.9 years, and 96.8% of the children reported that they were trying to keep a strict GFD. However, accidental transgressions occurred in 263 children (83.2%). In 2 of 3 cases, mistakes took place when the patients were not at home. Symptoms after incidental gluten intake were experienced by 162 (61.6%) patients, mostly (87.5%) from the gastrointestinal tract. Small amounts of gluten (gluten consumption. Oats were included in the diet of 89.4% of the children for a mean of 3.4 years. Most (81.9%) ate purified oats, and 45.3% consumed oats less than once a week. Among those who did not consume oats, only 5.9% refrained because of symptoms. General compliance with the GFD was good. Only the duration of the GFD appeared to influence adherence to the diet. Most patients did not report adverse effects after long-term consumption of oats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Renal disease in patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonpheng, Boonphiphop; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Wijarnpreecha, Karn

    2018-04-01

    Celiac disease, an inflammatory disease of small bowel caused by sensitivity to dietary gluten and related protein, affects approximately 0.5-1% of the population in the Western world. Extra-intestinal symptoms and associated diseases are increasingly recognized including diabetes mellitus type 1, thyroid disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and ataxia. There have also been a number of reports of various types of renal involvement in patients with celiac disease including diabetes nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome related to malabsorption, oxalate nephropathy, and associations of celiac disease with chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease. This review aims to present the current literature on possible pathologic mechanisms underlying renal disease in patients with celiac disease.

  11. Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amugsi, Dickson A; Aborigo, Raymond A; Oduro, Abraham R; Asoala, Victor; Awine, Timothy; Amenga-Etego, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Globally, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have been identified as major threats to child survival. In Ghana, the two conditions are among the top three causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. An in-depth analysis of the factors associated with these two diseases is warranted, because of their high degree of fatality and also it provides a basis for intervention planning. To investigate socio-demographic and environmental factors associated with infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years old in Ghana. Population-based cross-sectional survey. The study sample comprised 2,790 children aged 0-59 months, drawn from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys. The mothers reported whether their children under age 5 had been ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing (ARI), or diarrhoea with the presence of blood or mucus in the stool, in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Children in the 6-11, 12-23, and 24-59 months age groups had, respectively, 3.48 (95% CI=2.23, 5.44), 4.57 (95% CI=3.03, 6.90), and 1.93 (95% CI=1.30, 2.87) increased odds of getting diarrhoea infection compared to those in the youngest age category (0-5). Similarly, children in the 6-11, 12-23, and 24-59 months age brackets were, respectively, 2.64 (95% CI=1.76, 3.97), 2.63 (95% CI=1.81, 3.83), and 1.83 (95% CI=1.29, 2.59) times more likely to have cough compared to children in 0-5 months age brackets. Children who were not breastfeeding had higher odds of childhood diarrhoea (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.03, 1.73) compared to those who were breastfeeding. Compared to children who were living in households without co-wives, children who were living in households with co-wives had 1.74 increased odds of diarrhoea (95% CI=1.33, 2.27). A unit increase in maternal opinion regarding wife beating was associated with 14% reduced odds of diarrhoea (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.91), while a unit change in the women's attitude towards sex index was associated with 14

  12. Socio-demographic and environmental determinants of infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson A. Amugsi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections (ARIs have been identified as major threats to child survival. In Ghana, the two conditions are among the top three causes of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years. An in-depth analysis of the factors associated with these two diseases is warranted, because of their high degree of fatality and also it provides a basis for intervention planning. Objectives: To investigate socio-demographic and environmental factors associated with infectious disease morbidity in children under 5 years old in Ghana. Design: Population-based cross-sectional survey. The study sample comprised 2,790 children aged 0–59 months, drawn from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys. The mothers reported whether their children under age 5 had been ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing (ARI, or diarrhoea with the presence of blood or mucus in the stool, in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Results: Children in the 6–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months age groups had, respectively, 3.48 (95% CI=2.23, 5.44, 4.57 (95% CI=3.03, 6.90, and 1.93 (95% CI=1.30, 2.87 increased odds of getting diarrhoea infection compared to those in the youngest age category (0–5. Similarly, children in the 6–11, 12–23, and 24–59 months age brackets were, respectively, 2.64 (95% CI=1.76, 3.97, 2.63 (95% CI=1.81, 3.83, and 1.83 (95% CI=1.29, 2.59 times more likely to have cough compared to children in 0–5 months age brackets. Children who were not breastfeeding had higher odds of childhood diarrhoea (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.03, 1.73 compared to those who were breastfeeding. Compared to children who were living in households without co-wives, children who were living in households with co-wives had 1.74 increased odds of diarrhoea (95% CI=1.33, 2.27. A unit increase in maternal opinion regarding wife beating was associated with 14% reduced odds of diarrhoea (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.80, 0.91, while a unit

  13. Artificial neural network for prediction of the area under the disease progress curve of tomato late blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pedrosa Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Artificial neural networks (ANN are computational models inspired by the neural systems of living beings capable of learning from examples and using them to solve problems such as non-linear prediction, and pattern recognition, in addition to several other applications. In this study, ANN were used to predict the value of the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC for the tomato late blight pathosystem. The AUDPC is widely used by epidemiologic studies of polycyclic diseases, especially those regarding quantitative resistance of genotypes. However, a series of six evaluations over time is necessary to obtain the final area value for this pathosystem. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of ANN to construct an AUDPC in the tomato late blight pathosystem, using a reduced number of severity evaluations. For this, four independent experiments were performed giving a total of 1836 plants infected with Phytophthora infestans pathogen. They were assessed every three days, comprised six opportunities and AUDPC calculations were performed by the conventional method. After the ANN were created it was possible to predict the AUDPC with correlations of 0.97 and 0.84 when compared to conventional methods, using 50 % and 67 % of the genotype evaluations, respectively. When using the ANN created in an experiment to predict the AUDPC of the other experiments the average correlation was 0.94, with two evaluations, 0.96, with three evaluations, between the predicted values of the ANN and they were observed in six evaluations. We present in this study a new paradigm for the use of AUDPC information in tomato experiments faced with P. infestans. This new proposed paradigm might be adapted to different pathosystems.

  14. Regulation of Fn14 Receptor and NF-κB Underlies Inflammation in Meniere’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Frejo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Meniere’s disease (MD is a rare disorder characterized by episodic vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. It is associated with a fluid imbalance between the secretion of endolymph in the cochlear duct and its reabsorption into the subarachnoid space, leading to an accumulation of endolymph in the inner ear. Epidemiological evidence, including familial aggregation, indicates a genetic contribution and a consistent association with autoimmune diseases (AD. We conducted a case–control study in two phases using an immune genotyping array in a total of 420 patients with bilateral MD and 1,630 controls. We have identified the first locus, at 6p21.33, suggesting an association with bilateral MD [meta-analysis leading signal rs4947296, OR = 2.089 (1.661–2.627; p = 1.39 × 10−09]. Gene expression profiles of homozygous genotype-selected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs demonstrated that this region is a trans-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL in PBMCs. Signaling analysis predicted several tumor necrosis factor-related pathways, the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway being the top candidate (p = 2.42 × 10−11. This pathway is involved in the modulation of inflammation in several human AD, including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or rheumatoid arthritis. In vitro studies with genotype-selected lymphoblastoid cells from patients with MD suggest that this trans-eQTL may regulate cellular proliferation in lymphoid cells through the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway by increasing the translation of NF-κB. Taken together; these findings suggest that the carriers of the risk genotype may develop an NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response in MD.

  15. Oxidative stress-induced telomeric erosion as a mechanism underlying airborne particulate matter-related cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahame Thomas J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Particulate matter (PM pollution is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide, the majority due to cardiovascular disease (CVD. While many potential pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed, there is not yet a consensus as to which are most important in causing pollution-related morbidity/mortality. Nor is there consensus regarding which specific types of PM are most likely to affect public health in this regard. One toxicological mechanism linking exposure to airborne PM with CVD outcomes is oxidative stress, a contributor to the development of CVD risk factors including atherosclerosis. Recent work suggests that accelerated shortening of telomeres and, thus, early senescence of cells may be an important pathway by which oxidative stress may accelerate biological aging and the resultant development of age-related morbidity. This pathway may explain a significant proportion of PM-related adverse health outcomes, since shortened telomeres accelerate the progression of many diseases. There is limited but consistent evidence that vehicular emissions produce oxidative stress in humans. Given that oxidative stress is associated with accelerated erosion of telomeres, and that shortened telomeres are linked with acceleration of biological ageing and greater incidence of various age-related pathology, including CVD, it is hypothesized that associations noted between certain pollution types and sources and oxidative stress may reflect a mechanism by which these pollutants result in CVD-related morbidity and mortality, namely accelerated aging via enhanced erosion of telomeres. This paper reviews the literature providing links among oxidative stress, accelerated erosion of telomeres, CVD, and specific sources and types of air pollutants. If certain PM species/sources might be responsible for adverse health outcomes via the proposed mechanism, perhaps the pathway to reducing mortality/morbidity from PM would become clearer

  16. Outcomes of oblique lateral interbody fusion for degenerative lumbar disease in patients under or over 65 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chengzhen; Jaiswal, Milin S; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung

    2018-02-20

    Oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) offers the solution to problems of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF). However, OLIF technique for degenerative spinal diseases of elderly patients has been rarely reported. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical and radiological results of OLIF technique for degenerative spinal diseases in patients under or over 65 years of age. Sixty-three patients who underwent OLIF procedure were enrolled, including 29 patients who were less than 65 years of age and 34 patients who were over 65 years of age. Fusion rate, change of disc height and lumbar lordotic angle, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), return to daily activity, patient's satisfaction rate (PSR), and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were used to assess clinical and functional outcomes. The mean NRS scores for back and leg pain decreased, respectively, from 4.6 and 5.9 to 2.3 and 1.8 in the group A (less than 65 years) and from 4.5 and 6.8 to 2.6 and 2.2 in the group B (over 65 years) at the final follow-up period. The mean ODI scores improved from 48.4 to 24.0% in the group A and from 46.5 to 25.2% in the group B at the final follow-up period. In both groups, the NRS and ODI scores significantly changed preoperatively to postoperatively (p degenerative lumbar diseases in elderly patients showed favorable clinical and radiological outcomes.

  17. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy under Ultrasound Guidance in Patients with Renal Calculi and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Report of 11 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis accelerates the renal failure in the patients with ADPKD. In order to evaluate the role of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in management of calculus in these patients, 11 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and renal stones were included in the study. Two patients had bilateral renal stones. All patients were treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy under ultrasound guidance. 13 percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures were performed in 1 stage by the urology team under ultrasound guidance. 5 people received second operation with flexible nephroscopy in lateral position. The success rate and morbidity and mortality of the technique and hospital stay were recorded. Results. The puncture procedure was fully successful in all cases. The renal function improved in these patients. 5 patients had moderate fever after the surgery. 5 patients received flexible nephroscopy to take out the residual calculi. 2 persons had ESWL therapy after the surgery. Conclusion. PCNL is an ideal, safe, and effective method to remove the stones from those patients with no definite increase in the risk of complication. The outcome and stone-free rate are satisfactory comparable to the PCNL in the patients without ADPKD.

  18. Emerging new tools to study and treat muscle pathologies: genetics and molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in our body, is responsible for generating the force required for movement, and is also an important thermogenic organ. Skeletal muscle is an enigmatic tissue because while on the one hand, skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is arguably one of the best-studied stem cell-dependent regenerative processes, on the other hand, skeletal muscle is still subject to many degenerative disorders with few therapeutic options in the clinic. It is important to develop new regenerative medicine-based therapies for skeletal muscle. Future therapeutic strategies should take advantage of rapidly developing technologies enabling the differentiation of skeletal muscle from human pluripotent stem cells, along with precise genome editing, which will go hand in hand with a steady and focused approach to understanding underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and disease. In this review, I focus on highlighting the recent advances that particularly have relied on developmental and molecular biology approaches to understanding muscle development and stem cell function. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  20. Gene expression profiles in Parkinson disease prefrontal cortex implicate FOXO1 and genes under its transcriptional regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dumitriu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease (PD is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with largely unknown genetic mechanisms. While the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD mainly takes place in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN region, other brain areas, including the prefrontal cortex, develop Lewy bodies, the neuropathological hallmark of PD. We generated and analyzed expression data from the prefrontal cortex Brodmann Area 9 (BA9 of 27 PD and 26 control samples using the 44K One-Color Agilent 60-mer Whole Human Genome Microarray. All samples were male, without significant Alzheimer disease pathology and with extensive pathological annotation available. 507 of the 39,122 analyzed expression probes were different between PD and control samples at false discovery rate (FDR of 5%. One of the genes with significantly increased expression in PD was the forkhead box O1 (FOXO1 transcription factor. Notably, genes carrying the FoxO1 binding site were significantly enriched in the FDR-significant group of genes (177 genes covered by 189 probes, suggesting a role for FoxO1 upstream of the observed expression changes. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs selected from a recent meta-analysis of PD genome-wide association studies (GWAS were successfully genotyped in 50 out of the 53 microarray brains, allowing a targeted expression-SNP (eSNP analysis for 52 SNPs associated with PD affection at genome-wide significance and the 189 probes from FoxO1 regulated genes. A significant association was observed between a SNP in the cyclin G associated kinase (GAK gene and a probe in the spermine oxidase (SMOX gene. Further examination of the FOXO1 region in a meta-analysis of six available GWAS showed two SNPs significantly associated with age at onset of PD. These results implicate FOXO1 as a PD-relevant gene and warrant further functional analyses of its transcriptional regulatory mechanisms.

  1. Management of root rot and root knot disease of mungbean with the application of mycorrhizospheric fluorescent pseudomonas under field condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, S.S.; Tariq, S.; Ali, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The mycorrhizosphere is the region around a mycorrhizal fungus in which nutrients released from the hyphae increases microbial population and its activities. In this study five mycorrhizospheric fluorescent Pseudomonas (MRFP) were evaluated for biocontrol potential under field condition using mungbean (Vigna radiata) as test plant. MRFP-249 significantly reduced Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Whereas MRFP246 and MRFP-247 were also found effective against M. phaseolina. Mycorrhizospheric fluorescent Pseudomonas were also found effective against root knot nematode by reducing the galls on roots and nematode's penetration in roots. Highest fresh shoot weight and plant height was produced by MRFP-248. Plants grown in soil treated with Pseudomonas showed higher number of VAM spores around the mungbean roots than untreated control plants. The mycorrhizal symbiosis should not be considered merely as bipartite, plant-fungus interaction, but should instead include the associated microorganisms, particularly fluorescent Pseudomonas. (author)

  2. Use of the emergency department for less-urgent care among type 2 diabetics under a disease management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Leann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study analyzed the likelihood of less-urgent emergency department (ED visits among type 2 diabetic patients receiving care under a diabetes disease management (DM program offered by the Louisiana State University Health Care Services Division (LSU HCSD. Methods All ED and outpatient clinic visits made by 6,412 type 2 diabetic patients from 1999 to 2006 were extracted from the LSU HCSD Disease Management (DM Evaluation Database. Patient ED visits were classified as either urgent or less-urgent, and the likelihood of a less-urgent ED visit was compared with outpatient clinic visits using the Generalized Estimating Equation methodology for binary response to time-dependent variables. Results Patients who adhered to regular clinic visit schedules dictated by the DM program were less likely to use the ED for less urgent care with odds ratio of 0.1585. Insured patients had 1.13 to 1.70 greater odds of a less-urgent ED visit than those who were uninsured. Patients with better-managed glycated hemoglobin (A1c or HbA1c levels were 82 times less likely to use less-urgent ED visits. Furthermore, being older, Caucasian, or a longer participant in the DM program had a modestly lower likelihood of less-urgent ED visits. The patient's Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI, gender, prior hospitalization, and the admitting facility showed no effect. Conclusion Patients adhering to the DM visit guidelines were less likely to use the ED for less-urgent problems. Maintaining normal A1c levels for their diabetes also has the positive impact to reduce less-urgent ED usages. It suggests that successful DM programs may reduce inappropriate ED use. In contrast to expectations, uninsured patients were less likely to use the ED for less-urgent care. Patients in the DM program with Medicaid coverage were 1.3 times more likely to seek care in the ED for non-emergencies while commercially insured patients were nearly 1.7 times more likely to do so. Further

  3. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  4. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA under the control of the rolC promoter confers systemic disease resistance to plum pox virus without preventing local infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfini, Tiziana; Molesini, Barbara; Avesani, Linda; Spena, Angelo; Polverari, Annalisa

    2003-06-25

    Homology-dependent selective degradation of RNA, or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), is involved in several biological phenomena, including adaptative defense mechanisms against plant viruses. Small interfering RNAs mediate the selective degradation of target RNA by guiding a multicomponent RNAse. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNAs within two complementary regions separated by an intron elicits PTGS with high efficiency. Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka disease in Drupaceae, although it can also be transmitted to herbaceous species (e.g. Nicotiana benthamiana). Once inside the plant, PPV is transmitted via plasmodesmata from cell to cell, and at longer distances, via phloem. The rolC promoter drives expression in phloem cells. RolC expression is absent in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. The aim of the present study was to confer systemic disease resistance without preventing local viral infection. In the ihprolC-PP197 gene (intron hair pin rolC PPV 197), a 197 bp sequence homologous to the PPV RNA genome (from base 134 to 330) was placed as two inverted repeats separated by the DNA sequence of the rolA intron. This hairpin construct is under the control of the rolC promoter.N. benthamiana plants transgenic for the ihprolC-PP197 gene contain siRNAs homologous to the 197 bp sequence. The transgenic progeny of ihprolC-PP197 plants are resistant to PPV systemic infection. Local infection is unaffected. Most (80%) transgenic plants are virus free and symptomless. Some plants (20%) contain virus in uninoculated apical leaves; however they show only mild symptoms of leaf mottling. PPV systemic resistance cosegregates with the ihprolC-PP197 transgene and was observed in progeny plants of all independent transgenic lines analyzed. SiRNAs of 23-25 nt homologous to the PPV sequence used in the ihprolC-PP197 construct were detected in transgenic plants before and after inoculation. Transitivity of siRNAs was observed in

  5. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNA under the control of the rolC promoter confers systemic disease resistance to plum pox virus without preventing local infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spena Angelo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homology-dependent selective degradation of RNA, or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS, is involved in several biological phenomena, including adaptative defense mechanisms against plant viruses. Small interfering RNAs mediate the selective degradation of target RNA by guiding a multicomponent RNAse. Expression of self-complementary hairpin RNAs within two complementary regions separated by an intron elicits PTGS with high efficiency. Plum pox virus (PPV is the etiological agent of sharka disease in Drupaceae, although it can also be transmitted to herbaceous species (e.g. Nicotiana benthamiana. Once inside the plant, PPV is transmitted via plasmodesmata from cell to cell, and at longer distances, via phloem. The rolC promoter drives expression in phloem cells. RolC expression is absent in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. The aim of the present study was to confer systemic disease resistance without preventing local viral infection. Results In the ihprolC-PP197 gene (intron hair pin rolC PPV 197, a 197 bp sequence homologous to the PPV RNA genome (from base 134 to 330 was placed as two inverted repeats separated by the DNA sequence of the rolA intron. This hairpin construct is under the control of the rolC promoter.N. benthamiana plants transgenic for the ihprolC-PP197 gene contain siRNAs homologous to the 197 bp sequence. The transgenic progeny of ihprolC-PP197 plants are resistant to PPV systemic infection. Local infection is unaffected. Most (80% transgenic plants are virus free and symptomless. Some plants (20% contain virus in uninoculated apical leaves; however they show only mild symptoms of leaf mottling. PPV systemic resistance cosegregates with the ihprolC-PP197 transgene and was observed in progeny plants of all independent transgenic lines analyzed. SiRNAs of 23–25 nt homologous to the PPV sequence used in the ihprolC-PP197 construct were detected in transgenic plants before and after inoculation

  6. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  7. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  8. The Abnormal Functional Connectivity between the Hypothalamus and the Temporal Gyrus Underlying Depression in Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozheng; Chen, Wei; Tu, Yunhai; Hou, Hongtao; Huang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xingli; Guo, Zhongwei; Bai, Guanghui; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Hypothalamic communication with the rest of the brain is critical for accomplishing a wide variety of physiological and psychological functions, including the maintenance of neuroendocrine circadian rhythms and the management of affective processes. Evidence has shown that major depressive disorder (MDD) patients exhibit increased functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Neurofibrillary tangles are also found in the hypothalamus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and AD patients exhibit abnormal changes in the HPA. However, little is known of how the hypothalamus interacts with other brain regions in AD patients with depression (D-AD). Functional connectivity (FC) analysis explores the connectivity between brain regions that share functional properties. Here, we used resting-state (rs) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology and the FC method to measure hypothalamic connectivity across the whole brain in 22 D-AD patients and 21 non-depressed AD patients (nD-AD). Our results showed that D-AD patients had reduced FC among the hypothalamus, the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) compared with the FC of nD-AD patients, suggesting that the abnormal FC between the hypothalamus and the temporal lobe may play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression in AD patients.

  9. Clinical course and therapeutic approach to varicella zoster virus infection in children with rheumatic autoimmune diseases under immunosuppression

    OpenAIRE

    Leuvenink, Raphael; Aeschlimann, Florence; Baer, Walter; Berthet, Gerald; Cannizzaro, Elvira; Hofer, Michael; Kaiser, Daniela; Schroeder, Silke; Heininger, Ulrich; Woerner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyze the clinical presentation and complications of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in children with rheumatic diseases treated with immunosuppressive medication such as biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and/or conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs), and to analyze the therapeutic approach to VZV infections with respect to the concomitant immunosuppressive treatment. Methods Retrospective multicenter study using the Swiss ...

  10. [Cost recovery for the treatment of retinal and vitreal diseases by pars plana vitrectomy under the German DRG system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framme, C; Franz, D; Mrosek, S; Helbig, H

    2007-10-01

    Since 2004 inpatient health care in Germany is paid according to calculated DRGs. Only a few university hospitals participated in distinct cost calculations of clinical treatment. It was the aim of this study to check the cost recovery at a University Eye Hospital for the surgical treatment of retinal and vitreal diseases by pars plana vitrectomy (ppV), which are included in DRGs C03Z and C17Z. The performance data for both DRGs were collected for the years 2005 and 2006 using the E1 sheets according to section 21 KHEntG. The mean duration of all procedures was collected by data from the internal controlling. Costs for single operations were calculated from fixed and variable costs for the operation theatre and the ward including costs for personnel and material. In the 2-year period of 4,721 inpatient procedures 1,307 ppVs were performed. Each ppV had fixed surgical costs of 130.60 EUR; personnel costs varied between 575 EUR (C03Z; including cataract surgery; mean OP duration: 85 min) and 510 EUR (C17Z; no cataract surgery; mean OP duration: 73 min) at a proportion between general anaesthesia and local anaesthesia of 80/20. For a pure ppV material costs were 255 EUR. Additional adjuncts such as an encircling band, perfluorcarbon, ICG, tPA, gas and silicon oil or cataract surgery led to extra costs between 51 EUR and 250 EUR per adjunct und were used in 56% (C03Z) and 74.5% (C17Z) of all procedures. Costs for hospitalisation were about 1765 EUR at a mean residence time of 6.5 days. Thus, the overall costs of a pure basic ppV amounted to 2975 EUR (C03Z) and 2661 EUR (C17Z). In consideration of the current relative DRG weights of 1.08 and 0.957 and a current base rate of 2787.19 EUR in Bavaria, cost recovery is only given for basic ppV but not for complex ppVs having higher material and personnel costs. Additionally, the costs for multiple surgeries as occur in 5.9% of cases are not compensated by the DRG system. The reimbursement for inpatient ppVs in a University

  11. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  12. BCX4430 - A broad-spectrum antiviral adenosine nucleoside analog under development for the treatment of Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Raymond; Kotian, Pravin; Warren, Travis; Panchal, Rekha; Bavari, Sina; Julander, Justin; Dobo, Sylvia; Rose, Angela; El-Kattan, Yahya; Taubenheim, Brian; Babu, Yarlagadda; Sheridan, William P

    2016-01-01

    The adenosine nucleoside analog BCX4430 is a direct-acting antiviral drug under investigation for the treatment of serious and life-threatening infections from highly pathogenic viruses, such as the Ebola virus. Cellular kinases phosphorylate BCX4430 to a triphosphate that mimics ATP; viral RNA polymerases incorporate the drug's monophosphate nucleotide into the growing RNA chain, causing premature chain termination. BCX4430 is active in vitro against many RNA viral pathogens, including the filoviruses and emerging infectious agents such as MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. In vivo, BCX4430 is active after intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and oral administration in a variety of experimental infections. In nonclinical studies involving lethal infections with Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Yellow Fever virus, BCX4430 has demonstrated pronounced efficacy. In experiments conducted in several models, both a reduction in the viral load and an improvement in survival were found to be related to the dose of BCX4430. A Phase 1 clinical trial of intramuscular administration of BCX4430 in healthy subjects is currently ongoing. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. All rights reserved.

  13. Alteration of laboratory findings after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: relationship to severity of the underlying liver disease and the ablation volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Shin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsTo investigate sequential changes in laboratory markers after radiofrequency ablation (RFA of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and the relationship of these changes to the severity of the underlying liver disease.MethodsThis retrospective analysis included 65 patients (44 males, 21 females who underwent RFA of HCC. Hematologic and biochemical markers were assessed at the pre-RFA period and 1 day, 2-3 days, and 1-2 weeks after RFA. We classified the subjects into two groups: Child-Pugh A (n=41 and Child-Pugh B (n=24. The ablative margin volume (AMV of each patient was measured. We analyzed the changes in laboratory profiles from the baseline, and investigated whether these laboratory changes were correlated with the AMV and the Child-Pugh classification.ResultsMost of the laboratory values peaked at 2-3 days after RFA. AMV was significantly correlated with changes in WBC count, hemoglobin level, and serum total bilirubin level (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.324-0.453; P<0.05. The alanine aminotransferase (ALT level varied significantly over time (P=0.023.ConclusionsMost of the measured laboratory markers changed from baseline, peaking at 2-3 days. The ALT level was the only parameter for which there was a significant difference after RFA between Child-Pugh A and B patients: it increased significantly more in the Child-Pugh A patients.

  14. Presentation of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein by dendritic cells: the underlying mechanism of HTLV-1-associated neuroinflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Sharrón L; Schell, Todd D; Acheampong, Edward; Rahman, Saifur; Khan, Zafar K; Jain, Pooja

    2009-11-01

    HTLV-1 is the etiologic agent of a debilitating neurologic disorder, HAM/TSP. This disease features a robust immune response including the oligoclonal expansion of CD8+ CTLs specific for the viral oncoprotein Tax. The key pathogenic process resulting in the proliferation of CTLs and the presentation of Tax peptide remains uncharacterized. We have investigated the role of APCs, particularly DCs, in priming of the anti-Tax CTL response under in vitro and in vivo conditions. We investigated two routes (direct vs. indirect) of Tax presentation using live virus, infected primary CD4+/CD25+ T cells, and the CD4+ T cell line (C8166, a HTLV-1-mutated line that only expresses Tax). Our results indicated that DCs are capable of priming a pronounced Tax-specific CTL response in cell cultures consisting of naïve PBLs as well as in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice (line HHD II). DCs were able to direct the presentation of Tax successfully through infected T cells, live virus, and cell-free Tax. These observations were comparable with those made with a known stimulant of DC maturation, a combination of CD40L and IFN-gamma. Our studies clearly establish a role for this important immune cell component in HTLV-1 immuno/neuropathogenesis and suggest that modulation of DC functions could be an important tool for therapeutic interventions.

  15. Identification and application of biocontrol agents against Cotton leaf curl virus disease in Gossypium hirsutum under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memoona Ramzan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is a novel approach in crop protection. Bacteria, such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., are reported for this purpose and some of their products are already commercially available. In this study, the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of healthy cotton plants were used as a source of bacterial isolates with properties of potential biocontrol agents. The isolates were screened for phosphate solubilization activity, indole acetic acid (IAA production and antifungal activity. Two isolates, S1HL3 and S1HL4, showed phosphate solubilization and IAA production simultaneously, while another two, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2, demonstrated potential to inhibit fungal pathogens. These bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. (S1HL4 and Bacillus sp. (JS2HR4 and JS3HR2 based on biochemical and molecular characteristics. The isolates were tested against Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV in greenhouse conditions, both as individual bacterial isolates and consortia. Treated plants were healthy as compared to control plants, where up to 74% of the plants were symptomatic for CLCuV infection. Maximum inhibition of CLCuV was observed in the plants treated with a mixture of bacterial isolates: the viral load in the treated plants was only 0.4% vs. up to 74% in controls. This treatment consortium included P. aeruginosa S1HL3, Burkholderia sp. S1HL4 and Bacillus spp. isolates, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2. The principal-component biplot showed a highly significant correlation between the viral load percentage and the disease incidence.

  16. Tale of Two Courthouses: A Critique of the Underlying Assumptions in Chronic Disease Self-Management for Aboriginal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ellis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the assumptions that underpin thecommonly implemented Chronic Disease Self-Managementmodels. Namely that there are a clear set of instructions forpatients to comply with, that all health care providers agreewith; and that the health care provider and the patient agreewith the chronic disease self-management plan that wasdeveloped as part of a consultation. These assumptions areevaluated for their validity in the remote health care context,particularly for Aboriginal people. These assumptions havebeen found to lack validity in this context, therefore analternative model to enhance chronic disease care isproposed.

  17. GWAS signals across the HLA regions: revealing a clue for common etiology underlying infectious tumors and other immunity diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yao Shugart; Ying Wang; Wei-Hua Jia; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that multiple genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions play an important role in development of cancers and immunity disorders. However, the biological mechanisms of the HLA associations are not well understood. We recently conducted a survey of all genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with significant findings in the HLA regions and concluded that diseases such as cancer and immune disorders are more likely to be associated with genetic variants located in the HLA regions than other diseases. This finding is suggestive for testing a hypothesis of a common etiology of infectious tumors and other immunity diseases.

  18. Three-dimensional imaging of absolute blood flow velocity and blood vessel position under low blood flow velocity based on Doppler signal information included in scattered light from red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Tajiri, Tomoki; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Hachiga, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    The development of a system for in vivo visualization of occluded distal blood vessels for diabetic patients is the main target of our research. We herein describe two-beam multipoint laser Doppler velocimetry (MLDV), which measures the instantaneous multipoint flow velocity and can be used to observe the blood flow velocity in peripheral blood vessels. By including a motorized stage to shift the measurement points horizontally and in the depth direction while measuring the velocity, the path of the blood vessel in the skin could be observed using blood flow velocity in three-dimensional space. The relationship of the signal power density between the blood vessel and the surrounding tissues was shown and helped us identify the position of the blood vessel. Two-beam MLDV can be used to simultaneously determine the absolute blood flow velocity distribution and identify the blood vessel position in skin.

  19. Charcot joint-like changes following ankle fracture in a patient with no underlying disease: report of a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Masaru; Yokota, Kiyoshi; Endoh, Toshiya; Takemoto, Hitoshi; Nagata, Kensei

    2002-01-01

    Charcot joint is a disease that often occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus, tabes dorsalis, syringomyelia, chronic alcoholism, leprosy, trauma, or infection after fractures and dislocations. The treatment for Charcot joint has various complications, such as skin lesions, infections, and delayed union. We present our experience with a male patient who developed Charcot joint-like changes without diabetes mellitus or any other disease after an ankle fracture due to minor trauma.

  20. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990-2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribe, Kebede; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Lakew, Yihunie; Amare, Azmeraw T; Abera, Semaw F; Mohammed, Mesoud; Hiruye, Abiy; Teklay, Efrem; Misganaw, Awoke; Kassebaum, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013. We used Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 data. Spatiotemporal Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) was applied to generate best estimates of child mortality with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI). Causes of death by age groups, sex, and year were measured using Cause of Death Ensemble modeling (CODEm). For estimation of HIV/AIDS mortality rate, the modified UNAIDS EPP-SPECTRUM suite model was used. Between 1990 and 2013 the under-5 mortality rate declined from 203.9 deaths/1000 live births to 74.4 deaths/1000 live births with an annual rate of change of 4.6%, yielding a total reduction of 64%. Similarly, child (1-4 years), post-neonatal, and neonatal mortality rates declined by 75%, 64%, and 52%, respectively, between 1990 and 2013. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRI), diarrheal diseases, and neonatal syndromes (preterm birth complications, neonatal encephalopathy, neonatal sepsis, and other neonatal disorders) accounted for 54% of the total under-5 deaths in 2013. Under-5 mortality rates due to measles, diarrhea, malaria, protein-energy malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anemia declined by more than two-thirds between 1990 and 2013. Among the causes of under-5 deaths, neonatal syndromes such as sepsis, preterm birth complications, and birth asphyxia ranked third to fifth in 2013. Of all risk-attributable deaths in 1990, 25% of the total under-5 deaths (112,288/435,962) and 48% (112,288/232,199) of the deaths due to diarrhea, LRI, and other common infections were

  1. The Impact of Air Pollution, Including Asian Sand Dust, on Respiratory Symptoms and Health-related Quality of Life in Outpatients With Chronic Respiratory Disease in Korea: A Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Ishihara, Yoko; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Hyun, In-Gyu

    2018-05-01

    Air pollution is a growing concern in Korea because of transboundary air pollution from mainland China. A panel study was conducted to clarify the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in outpatients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Korea. Patients filled out a questionnaire including self-reported HR-QoL in February and were followed up in May and July. The study was conducted from 2013 to 2015, with different participants each year. Air quality parameters were applied in a generalized estimating equation as independent variables to predict factors affecting HR-QoL. Lower physical fitness scores were associated with Asian sand dust events. Daily activity scores were worse when there were high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) less than 10 μm in diameter (PM 10 ). Lower social functioning scores were associated with high PM less than 2.5 μm in diameter and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations. High NO 2 concentrations also showed a significant association with mental health scores. Weather-related cough was prevalent when PM 10 , NO 2 , or ozone (O 3 ) concentrations were high, regardless of COPD severity. High PM 10 concentrations were associated with worsened wheezing, particularly in COPD patients. The results suggest that PM, NO 2 , and O 3 cause respiratory symptoms leading to HR-QoL deterioration. While some adverse effects of air pollution appeared to occur regardless of COPD, others occurred more often and more intensely in COPD patients. The public sector, therefore, needs to consider tailoring air pollution countermeasures to people with different conditions to minimize adverse health effects.

  2. The Impact of Air Pollution, Including Asian Sand Dust, on Respiratory Symptoms and Health-related Quality of Life in Outpatients With Chronic Respiratory Disease in Korea: A Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Nakao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Air pollution is a growing concern in Korea because of transboundary air pollution from mainland China. A panel study was conducted to clarify the effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL in outpatients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Korea. Methods Patients filled out a questionnaire including self-reported HR-QoL in February and were followed up in May and July. The study was conducted from 2013 to 2015, with different participants each year. Air quality parameters were applied in a generalized estimating equation as independent variables to predict factors affecting HR-QoL. Results Lower physical fitness scores were associated with Asian sand dust events. Daily activity scores were worse when there were high concentrations of particulate matter (PM less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10. Lower social functioning scores were associated with high PM less than 2.5 μm in diameter and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations. High NO2 concentrations also showed a significant association with mental health scores. Weather-related cough was prevalent when PM10, NO2, or ozone (O3 concentrations were high, regardless of COPD severity. High PM10 concentrations were associated with worsened wheezing, particularly in COPD patients. Conclusions The results suggest that PM, NO2, and O3 cause respiratory symptoms leading to HR-QoL deterioration. While some adverse effects of air pollution appeared to occur regardless of COPD, others occurred more often and more intensely in COPD patients. The public sector, therefore, needs to consider tailoring air pollution countermeasures to people with different conditions to minimize adverse health effects.

  3. Spatial Distribution of Coffee Wilt Disease Under Roguing and Replanting Conditions: A Case Study from Kaweri Estate in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, F; Makune, S E; Campagne, P; Mwangi, J

    2016-11-01

    Based on time and spatial dynamic considerations, this study evaluates the potential role of short- and long-distance dispersal in the spread of coffee wilt disease (CWD) in a large commercial Robusta coffee estate in Uganda (Kaweri, 1,755 ha) over a 4-year period (2008 to 2012). In monthly surveys, total disease incidence, expansion of infection foci, and the occurrence of isolated infected trees were recorded and submitted to spatial analysis. Incidence was higher and disease progression faster in old coffee plantings compared with young plantings, indicating a lack of efficiency of roguing for reducing disease development in old plantings. At large spatial scale (approximately 1 km), Moran indices (both global and local) revealed the existence of clusters characterized by contrasting disease incidences. This suggested that local environmental conditions were heterogeneous or there were spatial interactions among blocks. At finer spatial scale (approximately 200 m), O-ring statistics revealed positive correlation between distant infection sites across distances as great as 60 m. Although these observations indicate the role of short-distance dispersal in foci expansion, dispersal at greater distances (>20 m) appeared to also contribute to both initiation of new foci and disease progression at coarser spatial scales. Therefore, our results suggested the role of aerial dispersal in CWD progression.

  4. Proteins Encoded in Genomic Regions Associated with Immune-Mediated Disease Physically Interact and Suggest Underlying Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin, Elizabeth J.; Hansen, Kasper Lage; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed by these r......Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have defined over 150 genomic regions unequivocally containing variation predisposing to immune-mediated disease. Inferring disease biology from these observations, however, hinges on our ability to discover the molecular processes being perturbed...... in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD) GWAS, we build protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for genes within associated loci and find abundant physical interactions between protein products of associated genes. We apply multiple permutation approaches to show that these networks are more...... that the RA and CD networks have predictive power by demonstrating that proteins in these networks, not encoded in the confirmed list of disease associated loci, are significantly enriched for association to the phenotypes in question in extended GWAS analysis. Finally, we test our method in 3 non...

  5. Under-utilisation of preventive medication in patients with cardiovascular disease is greatest in younger age groups (PREDICT-CVD 15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Suneela; Wells, Sue; Riddell, Tania; Kerr, Andrew; Pylypchuk, Romana; Marshall, Roger; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Chan, Wing Cheuk; Thornley, Simon; Crengle, Sue; Harrison, Jeff; Drury, Paul; Elley, C Raina; Bell, Fionna; Jackson, Rod

    2011-06-01

    Blood pressure-lowering (BPL) and lipid-lowering (LL) medications together reduce estimated absolute five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by >40%. International studies indicate that the proportion of people with CVD receiving pharmacotherapy increases with advancing age. To compare BPL and LL medications, by sociodemographic characteristics, for patients with known CVD in primary care settings. The study population included patients aged 35-74 with known CVD assessed in primary care from July 2006 to October 2009 using a web-based computerised decision support system (PREDICT) for risk assessment and management. Clinical data linked anonymously to national sociodemographic and pharmaceutical dispensing databases. Differences in dispensing BPL and LL medications in six months before first PREDICT assessment was analysed according to age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation. Of 7622 people with CVD, 1625 <55 years old, 2862 were women and 4609 lived in deprived areas (NZDep quintiles 4/5). The study population included 4249 European, 1556 Maori, 1151 Pacific and 329 Indian peoples. BPL medications were dispensed to 81%, LL medications to 73%, both BPL and LL medications to 67%, and 87% received either class of medication. Compared with people aged 65-75, people aged 35-44 were 30-40% less likely and those aged 45-54 were 10-15% less likely to be dispensed BPL, LL medications or both. There were minimal differences in likelihood of dispensing according to sex, ethnicity or deprivation. BPL and LL medications are under-utilised in patients with known CVD in New Zealand. Only two-thirds of patients in this cohort are on both. Younger patients are considerably less likely to be on recommended medications.

  6. Levels of potential bioactive compounds including carotenoids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds, and expression of their cognate biosynthetic genes vary significantly in different varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown under uniform cultural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcarcel, Jesus; Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; O'Brien, Nora M

    2016-02-01

    In addition to their high carbohydrate content, potatoes are also an important dietary source of vitamin C and bioactive secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which have been suggested to play a role in human health. The expression of genes encoding key enzymes involved in the synthesis of these compounds was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and compared to the accumulation of the corresponding product in seven potato varieties showing contrasting levels of metabolite accumulation. Strong positive correlations were found between phenolic content in the flesh of tubers and transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. The expression of PAL and CHS was also related to that of AN1, a transcription factor involved in the synthesis of anthocyanins, suggesting that these genes are regulated in a coordinated manner. No clear relationship was found between transcript levels of phytoene synthase (PSY) or L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) genes and total carotenoid or vitamin C accumulation, respectively. Data indicate that levels of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds in potato are controlled primarily by PAL and CHS gene expression. Transcript levels of PSY and GLDH did not control accumulation of carotenoids or vitamin C. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Clinical observation of adverse drug reactions to non-ionic iodinated contrast media in population with underlying diseases and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Liu, Heng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Junling; Cai, Li; Liu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of non-ionic iodinated contrast media in populations with underlying diseases and risk factors and to provide guidance for more safe and rational use of iodinated contrast media (ICMs) in the clinic. Methods: Data from 120,822 cases who underwent enhanced CT examination in our hospital from January 2014 to March 2016 were collected. A standardized case report form was used for data collection and analysis. Results: The incidence of ADRs was 0.4% and 0.44% in patients with and without underlying diseases, respectively (p = 0.378). Risk factor analysis revealed that patients with asthma had the highest incidence of ADRs, followed by patients with cardiac insufficiency and patients who were aged had the lowest incidence. There was a low incidence of ADRs in patients under metformin (0.36%) and β-adrenaline receptor antagonist (0.20%) medication. The incidence was the highest in patients with previous ADRs to ICMs (7.17%) and the lowest in those with a history of ICM usage but no previous reactions (0.32%). ADRs were more common in patients at high risk at a higher injection dose (≥100 ml; p < 0.01) and speed (≥5 ml s−1; p < 0.01). Conclusion: The incidence of ADRs was extremely low in patients regardless of underlying diseases. Some high-risk factors have certain correlations with the occurrence of ADRs. Particular attention should be given to patients at high risk when performing enhanced CT examination. Advances in knowledge: The correlation between various risk factors and underlying diseases and ADRs was comprehensively analyzed in a large-scale population. PMID:27928926

  8. Significant relationship between soil bacterial community structure and incidence of bacterial wilt disease under continuous cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Siyuan; Niu, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Chao; Xiao, Yunhua; Chen, Wu; Dai, Linjian; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2017-03-01

    Soil bacteria are very important in biogeochemical cycles and play significant role in soil-borne disease suppression. Although continuous cropping is responsible for soil-borne disease enrichment, its effect on tobacco plant health and how soil bacterial communities change are yet to be elucidated. In this study, soil bacterial communities across tobacco continuous cropping time-series fields were investigated through high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that long-term continuous cropping could significantly alter soil microbial communities. Bacterial diversity indices and evenness indices decreased over the monoculture span and obvious variations for community structures across the three time-scale tobacco fields were detected. Compared with the first year, the abundances of Arthrobacter and Lysobacter showed a significant decrease. Besides, the abundance of the pathogen Ralstonia spp. accumulated over the monoculture span and was significantly correlated with tobacco bacterial wilt disease rate. Moreover, Pearson's correlation demonstrated that the abundance of Arthrobacter and Lysobacter, which are considered to be beneficial bacteria had significant negative correlation with tobacco bacterial wilt disease. Therefore, after long-term continuous cropping, tobacco bacterial wilt disease could be ascribed to the alteration of the composition as well as the structure of the soil microbial community.

  9. Protocol for a qualitative study exploring perspectives on the INternational CLassification of Diseases (11th revision); Using lived experience to improve mental health Diagnosis in NHS England: INCLUDE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackmann, Corinna; Green, Amanda; Notley, Caitlin; Perkins, Amorette; Reed, Geoffrey M; Ridler, Joseph; Wilson, Jon; Shakespeare, Tom

    2017-09-03

    Developed in dialogue with WHO, this research aims to incorporate lived experience and views in the refinement of the International Classification of Diseases Mental and Behavioural Disorders 11th Revision (ICD-11). The validity and clinical utility of psychiatric diagnostic systems has been questioned by both service users and clinicians, as not all aspects reflect their lived experience or are user friendly. This is critical as evidence suggests that diagnosis can impact service user experience, identity, service use and outcomes. Feedback and recommendations from service users and clinicians should help minimise the potential for unintended negative consequences and improve the accuracy, validity and clinical utility of the ICD-11. The name INCLUDE reflects the value of expertise by experience as all aspects of the proposed study are co-produced. Feedback on the planned criteria for the ICD-11 will be sought through focus groups with service users and clinicians. The data from these groups will be coded and inductively analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Findings from this will be used to form the basis of co-produced recommendations for the ICD-11. Two service user focus groups will be conducted for each of these diagnoses: Personality Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depressive Disorder and Generalised Anxiety Disorder. There will be four focus groups with clinicians (psychiatrists, general practitioners and clinical psychologists). This study has received ethical approval from the Coventry and Warwickshire HRA Research Ethics Committee (16/WM/0479). The output for the project will be recommendations that reflect the views and experiences of experts by experience (service users and clinicians). The findings will be disseminated via conferences and peer-reviewed publications. As the ICD is an international tool, the aim is for the methodology to be internationally disseminated for replication by other groups. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03131505

  10. A prospective descriptive study of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV uninfected patients in Vietnam - high prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii in the absence of underlying disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cases of cryptococcal meningitis occur in patients with HIV infection: the course and outcome of disease in the apparently immunocompetent is much more poorly understood. We describe a cohort of HIV uninfected Vietnamese patients with cryptococcal meningitis in whom underlying disease is uncommon, and relate presenting features of patients and the characteristics of the infecting species to outcome. Methods A prospective descriptive study of HIV negative patients with cryptococcal meningitis based at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City. All patients had comprehensive clinical assessment at baseline, were cared for by a dedicated study team, and were followed up for 2 years. Clinical presentation was compared by infecting isolate and outcome. Results 57 patients were studied. Cryptococcus neoformans var grubii molecular type VN1 caused 70% of infections; C. gattii accounted for the rest. Most patients did not have underlying disease (81%, and the rate of underlying disease did not differ by infecting species. 11 patients died while in-patients (19.3%. Independent predictors of death were age ≥ 60 years and a history of convulsions (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals 8.7 (1 - 76, and 16.1 (1.6 - 161 respectively. Residual visual impairment was common, affecting 25 of 46 survivors (54.3%. Infecting species did not influence clinical phenotype or outcome. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of flucytosine and amphotericin B were significantly higher for C. neoformans var grubii compared with C. gattii (p Conclusion In HIV uninfected individuals in Vietnam, cryptococcal meningitis occurs predominantly in people with no clear predisposing factor and is most commonly due to C. neoformans var grubii. The rates of mortality and visual loss are high and independent of infecting species. There are detectable differences in susceptibility to commonly used antifungal drugs between species, but the clinical

  11. Effect of dietary fiber on serum bile acids in patients with chronic cholestatic liver disease under ursodeoxycholic acid therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, G.; Beuers, U.; Paumgartner, G.

    1995-01-01

    During ursodeoxycholic acid therapy for chronic cholestatic liver disease, the serum levels of lithocholic acid increase about twofold. Lithocholic acid has been shown to be hepatotoxic in some animal species. Administration of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid (PHM), a dietary fiber, has been reported

  12. Surveillance of vector-borne pathogens under imperfect detection: lessons from Chagas disease risk (mis)measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Nitz, Nadjar; Cuba, César Augusto Cuba; Hagström, Luciana; Hecht, Mariana Machado; Santana, Camila; Ribeiro, Marcelle; Vital, Tamires Emanuele; Santalucia, Marcelo; Knox, Monique; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2018-01-09

    Vector-borne pathogens threaten human health worldwide. Despite their critical role in disease prevention, routine surveillance systems often rely on low-complexity pathogen detection tests of uncertain accuracy. In Chagas disease surveillance, optical microscopy (OM) is routinely used for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi in its vectors. Here, we use replicate T. cruzi detection data and hierarchical site-occupancy models to assess the reliability of OM-based T. cruzi surveillance while explicitly accounting for false-negative and false-positive results. We investigated 841 triatomines with OM slides (1194 fresh, 1192 Giemsa-stained) plus conventional (cPCR, 841 assays) and quantitative PCR (qPCR, 1682 assays). Detections were considered unambiguous only when parasitologists unmistakably identified T. cruzi in Giemsa-stained slides. qPCR was >99% sensitive and specific, whereas cPCR was ~100% specific but only ~55% sensitive. In routine surveillance, examination of a single OM slide per vector missed ~50-75% of infections and wrongly scored as infected ~7% of the bugs. qPCR-based and model-based infection frequency estimates were nearly three times higher, on average, than OM-based indices. We conclude that the risk of vector-borne Chagas disease may be substantially higher than routine surveillance data suggest. The hierarchical modelling approach we illustrate can help enhance vector-borne disease surveillance systems when pathogen detection is imperfect.

  13. The Interferon-signature of Sjögren’s Syndrome: How Unique Biomarkers Can Identify Underlying Inflammatory and Immunopathological Mechanisms of Specific Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong eNguyen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses direct the nature and specificity of downstream adaptive responses in autoimmune diseases. One of the strongest markers of innate immunity is the up-regulated expression of interferon (IFN and IFN-responsive/stimulated genes (IRGs/ISGs. While multiple IRGs are induced during the innate phase of host responses, transcriptome data suggest unique IRG-signatures for different diseases. Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS is characterized by chronic immune attacks against exocrine glands leading to exocrine dysfunction, plus strong up-regulated expressions of IFN IRG transcripts. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses indicate that differentially-expressed IRGs are restricted during disease development and therefore define underlying etiopathological mechanisms. Here we review the innate immune-associated IFN-signature of SjS and show how differential gene expressions of IRG/ISG sets interact molecularly and biologically to identify critical details of SjS etiopathogenesis.

  14. Parenteral nutrition including polyamine under experimental irradiation of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, B.B.; Fedorovskij, L.L.; Lyashchenko, Yu.N.

    1982-01-01

    White rats-males were used in experiments. Irradiation dose of abdomen area is 13.5 Gy (1400 R). Parenteral nutrition using aminoacid preparation of polyamine affects favourably during radiation damage resulted from local irradiation of abdomen area. This was manifested in weakening of gastroenteric syndrom, reduction of 3.5 day death of animals and increase of their 30 day survival rate, intensification of recovery processes in small intestine, decrease of cell devastation in bone marrow

  15. Optimality of profit-including prices under ideal planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, P A

    1973-07-01

    Although prices calculated by a constant percentage markup on all costs (nonlabor as well as direct-labor) are usually admitted to be more realistic for a competitive capitalistic model, the view is often expressed that, for optimal planning purposes, the "values" model of Marx's Capital, Volume I, is to be preferred. It is shown here that an optimal-control model that maximizes discounted social utility of consumption per capita and that ultimately approaches a steady state must ultimately have optimal pricing that involves equal rates of steady-state profit in all industries; and such optimal pricing will necessarily deviate from Marx's model of equal rates of surplus value (markups on direct-labor only) in all industries.

  16. Emerging infectious diseases: a guide to diseases, causative agents, and surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beltz, Lisa A

    2011-01-01

    "This important resource offers a comprehensive introduction to emerging and reemerging infectious disease, including the underlying mechanisms of microbial emergence, the technology used to detect...

  17. Ferrovias, doenças e medicina tropical no Brasil da Primeira República Railroads, disease, and tropical medicine in Brazil under the First Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Larry Benchimol

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Aborda o impacto da malária no âmbito da modernização republicana, basicamente nas ferrovias, que asssumiram então o papel de integrar o território e operar a expansão simbólica e material da nação brasileira. Os cientistas destacados para debelar os surtos epidêmicos não se limitaram a realizar as campanhas. Fizeram observações sobre aspectos da doença, inclusive suas relações com hospedeiros e ambientes, contribuindo com novos conhecimentos e com a institucionalização, no Brasil, de novo campo que então se estabelecia nas potências coloniais européias: a medicina tropical. O artigo articula essas inovações - especialmente a teoria da infecção domiciliária - com as campanhas em prol de ferrovias e com estágio subseqüente no enfrentamento da malária no Brasil, nos anos 1920.The article explores the impact of malaria on infrastructure works - above all, railroads - under the republican drive towards modernization. Railways helped tie the territory together and foster the symbolic and material expansion of the Brazilian nation. The scientists entrusted with vanquishing such epidemic outbreaks did not just conduct campaigns; they also undertook painstaking observations of aspects of the disease, including its relations to hosts and the environment, thus contributing to the production of new knowledge of malaria and to the institutionalization of a new field in Brazil, then taking root in Europe's colonies: "tropical medicine." The article shows the ties between these innovations (especially the theory of domiciliary infection and the sanitary campaigns that helped the railways, which in the 1920s were followed by a new phase in Brazil's anti-malaria efforts.

  18. Deficient Rab11 activity underlies glucose hypometabolism in primary neurons of Huntington's disease mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xueyi, E-mail: xli12@partners.org [Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Valencia, Antonio; McClory, Hollis; Sapp, Ellen; Kegel, Kimberly B. [Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); DiFiglia, Marian, E-mail: difiglia@helix.mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primary Huntington's disease neurons are impaired in taking up glucose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rab11 modulates glucose uptake in neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing Rab11 activity attenuates the glucose uptake defect in disease neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in Huntington's disease. -- Abstract: Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. Positron emission tomography studies have revealed a decline in glucose metabolism in the brain of patients with HD by a mechanism that has not been established. We examined glucose utilization in embryonic primary cortical neurons of wild-type (WT) and HD knock-in mice, which have 140 CAG repeats inserted in the endogenous mouse huntingtin gene (HD{sup 140Q/140Q}). Primary HD{sup 140Q/140Q} cortical neurons took up significantly less glucose than did WT neurons. Expression of permanently inactive and permanently active forms of Rab11 correspondingly altered glucose uptake in WT neurons, suggesting that normal activity of Rab11 is needed for neuronal uptake of glucose. It is known that Rab11 activity is diminished in HD{sup 140Q/140Q} neurons. Expression of dominant active Rab11 to enhance the activity of Rab11 normalized glucose uptake in HD{sup 140Q/140Q} neurons. These results suggest that deficient activity of Rab11 is a novel mechanism for glucose hypometabolism in HD.

  19. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer--collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, N; Hirose, K; Tajima, K; Rohan, T; Calle, E E; Heath, C W; Coates, R J; Liff, J M; Talamini, R; Chantarakul, N; Koetsawang, S; Rachawat, D; Morabia, A; Schuman, L; Stewart, W; Szklo, M; Bain, C; Schofield, F; Siskind, V; Band, P; Coldman, A J; Gallagher, R P; Hislop, T G; Yang, P; Kolonel, L M; Nomura, A M Y; Hu, J; Johnson, K C; Mao, Y; De Sanjosé, S; Lee, N; Marchbanks, P; Ory, H W; Peterson, H B; Wilson, H G; Wingo, P A; Ebeling, K; Kunde, D; Nishan, P; Hopper, J L; Colditz, G; Gajalanski, V; Martin, N; Pardthaisong, T; Silpisornkosol, S; Theetranont, C; Boosiri, B; Chutivongse, S; Jimakorn, P; Virutamasen, P; Wongsrichanalai, C; Ewertz, M; Adami, H O; Bergkvist, L; Magnusson, C; Persson, I; Chang-Claude, J; Paul, C; Skegg, D C G; Spears, G F S; Boyle, P; Evstifeeva, T; Daling, J R; Hutchinson, W B; Malone, K; Noonan, E A; Stanford, J L; Thomas, D B; Weiss, N S; White, E; Andrieu, N; Brêmond, A; Clavel, F; Gairard, B; Lansac, J; Piana, L; Renaud, R; Izquierdo, A; Viladiu, P; Cuevas, H R; Ontiveros, P; Palet, A; Salazar, S B; Aristizabel, N; Cuadros, A; Tryggvadottir, L; Tulinius, H; Bachelot, A; Lê, M G; Peto, J; Franceschi, S; Lubin, F; Modan, B; Ron, E; Wax, Y; Friedman, G D; Hiatt, R A; Levi, F; Bishop, T; Kosmelj, K; Primic-Zakelj, M; Ravnihar, B; Stare, J; Beeson, W L; Fraser, G; Bullbrook, R D; Cuzick, J; Duffy, S W; Fentiman, I S; Hayward, J L; Wang, D Y; McMichael, A J; McPherson, K; Hanson, R L; Leske, M C; Mahoney, M C; Nasca, P C; Varma, A O; Weinstein, A L; Moller, T R; Olsson, H; Ranstam, J; Goldbohm, R A; van den Brandt, P A; Apelo, R A; Baens, J; de la Cruz, J R; Javier, B; Lacaya, L B; Ngelangel, C A; La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Marubini, E; Ferraroni, M; Gerber, M; Richardson, S; Segala, C; Gatei, D; Kenya, P; Kungu, A; Mati, J G; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R; Schairer, C; Spirtas, R; Lee, H P; Rookus, M A; van Leeuwen, F E; Schoenberg, J A; McCredie, M; Gammon, M D; Clarke, E A; Jones, L; Neil, A; Vessey, M; Yeates, D; Appleby, P; Banks, E; Beral, V; Bull, D; Crossley, B; Goodill, A; Green, J; Hermon, C; Key, T; Langston, N; Lewis, C; Reeves, G; Collins, R; Doll, R; Peto, R; Mabuchi, K; Preston, D; Hannaford, P; Kay, C; Rosero-Bixby, L; Gao, Y T; Jin, F; Yuan, J-M; Wei, H Y; Yun, T; Zhiheng, C; Berry, G; Cooper Booth, J; Jelihovsky, T; MacLennan, R; Shearman, R; Wang, Q-S; Baines, C-J; Miller, A B; Wall, C; Lund, E; Stalsberg, H; Shu, X O; Zheng, W; Katsouyanni, K; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Dabancens, A; Martinez, L; Molina, R; Salas, O; Alexander, F E; Anderson, K; Folsom, A R; Hulka, B S; Bernstein, L; Enger, S; Haile, R W; Paganini-Hill, A; Pike, M C; Ross, R K; Ursin, G; Yu, M C; Longnecker, M P; Newcomb, P; Bergkvist, L; Kalache, A; Farley, T M M; Holck, S; Meirik, O

    2002-11-18

    Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included 58,515 women with invasive breast cancer and 95,067 controls from 53 studies. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated, after stratifying by study, age, parity and, where appropriate, women's age when their first child was born and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The average consumption of alcohol reported by controls from developed countries was 6.0 g per day, i.e. about half a unit/drink of alcohol per day, and was greater in ever-smokers than never-smokers, (8.4 g per day and 5.0 g per day, respectively). Compared with women who reported drinking no alcohol, the relative risk of breast cancer was 1.32 (1.19-1.45, P/=45 g per day alcohol. The relative risk of breast cancer increased by 7.1% (95% CI 5.5-8.7%; P<0.00001) for each additional 10 g per day intake of alcohol, i.e. for each extra unit or drink of alcohol consumed on a daily basis. This increase was the same in ever-smokers and never-smokers (7.1% per 10 g per day, P<0.00001, in each group). By contrast, the relationship between smoking and breast cancer was substantially confounded by the effect of alcohol. When analyses were restricted to 22 255 women with breast cancer and 40 832 controls who reported drinking no alcohol, smoking was not associated with breast cancer (compared to never-smokers, relative risk for ever-smokers=1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.07, and for current smokers=0.99, 0.92-1.05). The results for alcohol and for tobacco did not vary substantially across studies, study designs, or according to 15 personal characteristics of the women; nor were the findings materially confounded by any of these factors. If the observed relationship

  20. Knowledge, perception, and management skills of mothers with under-five children about diarrhoeal disease in indigenous and resettlement communities in Assosa District, Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merga, Nigatu; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2015-03-01

    As primary caregiver to under-five children in Ethiopia, mothers' knowledge, perception, and management skills are important to minimize the effects of morbidity and mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Abramo and Megele 37 kebeles (the last administration division) in Assosa district of western Ethiopia in July 2010. Quantitative data were obtained by a structured questionnaire from 232 randomly-selected mothers having children aged less than five years regarding their knowledge, perception, and management. Qualitative data were also collected by arranging four focus group discussions involving mothers from the two communities. The prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases among under-five children was 33.2%, and the knowledge of mothers about the causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoea in the study area was 37.5%. The prevalence of diarrhoeal disease was higher in the settlement area whereas mothers' knowledge was better in the indigenous community; 62.9% of mothers were categorized as having good attitude on causes, transmission, and prevention of diarrhoeal disease. Community water source, water storage container, and knowledge of mothers remained a strong predictor of diarrhoeal morbidity after conducting logistic regression analysis (OR=8.4, CI 3.59-31.85; OR=2.2, CI 1.02-4.89; and OR=3.62, CI 1.23-4.71 respectively). Diarrhoeal morbidity was high in the study areas. On the contrary, knowledge and attitude of mothers, recognizing the danger sign of dehydration due to diarrhoea, and the prevention and management of childhood diarrhoeal diseases were not adequate. Information, education and communication strategy may help increase the knowledge and create positive attitude among mothers regarding the cause, prevention, and management of diarrhoea.

  1. Host-seeking behavior and dispersal of Triatoma infestans, a vector of Chagas disease, under semi-field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Castillo-Neyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease affects millions of people in Latin America. The control of this vector-borne disease focuses on halting transmission by reducing or eliminating insect vector populations. Most transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, involves insects living within or very close to households and feeding mostly on domestic animals. As animal hosts can be intermittently present it is important to understand how host availability can modify transmission risk to humans and to characterize the host-seeking dispersal of triatomine vectors on a very fine scale. We used a semi-field system with motion-detection cameras to characterize the dispersal of Triatoma infestans, and compare the behavior of vector populations in the constant presence of hosts (guinea pigs, and after the removal of the hosts. The emigration rate - net insect population decline in original refuge - following host removal was on average 19.7% of insects per 10 days compared to 10.2% in constant host populations (p = 0.029. However, dispersal of T. infestans occurred in both directions, towards and away from the initial location of the hosts. The majority of insects that moved towards the original location of guinea pigs remained there for 4 weeks. Oviposition and mortality were observed and analyzed in the context of insect dispersal, but only mortality was higher in the group where animal hosts were removed (p-value <0.01. We discuss different survival strategies associated with the observed behavior and its implications for vector control. Removing domestic animals in infested areas increases vector dispersal from the first day of host removal. The implications of these patterns of vector dispersal in a field setting are not yet known but could result in movement towards human rooms.

  2. The First Report of KRT5 Mutation Underlying Acantholytic Dowling-Degos Disease with Mottled Hypopigmentation in an Indian Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shyam; Pasternack, Sandra M.; Rütten, Arno; Ruzicka, Thomas; Betz, Regina C.; Hanneken, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Galli Galli disease (GGD) is the name given to a rare form of acantholytic Dowling-Degos disease. (DDD), the latter itself being a rare condition. We believe we are describing for the first time in Indian dermatologic literature a case of GGD in a family where 25 persons have DDD and have been able to document a KRT5 mutation in four members of the family. Whereas reticulate pigmentation is a hallmark of DDD there are rare reports of mottled pigmentation with multiple asymptomatic hypopigmented macules scattered diffusely along with the pigmentation. All the cases described here show a mottled pigmentation comprising hypo and hyperpigmented asymptomatic macules. After the clinical diagnosis was made by one of the authors (SV) in India, the German authors repeated histological examination and successfully demonstrated a heterozygous nonsense mutation, c.C10T (p.Gln4X), in exon 1 of the KRT5 gene, from various centers in Munich, Bonn, Dusseldorf and Friedrichschafen in Germany. PMID:25284854

  3. Colchicine in Pericardial Disease: from the Underlying Biology and Clinical Benefits to the Drug-Drug Interactions in Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, Aldo L; Menon, Venu

    2018-06-14

    This is an in-depth review on the mechanism of action, clinical utility, and drug-drug interactions of colchicine in the management of pericardial disease. Recent evidence about therapeutic targets on pericarditis has demonstrated that NALP3 inflammasome blockade is the cornerstone in the clinical benefits of colchicine. Such benefits extend from acute and recurrent pericarditis to transient constriction and post-pericardiotomy syndrome. Despite the increased utilization of colchicine in cardiovascular medicine, safety concerns remains unsolved regarding the long-term use of colchicine in the cardiac patient. Moreover, recent evidence has demonstrated that numerous cardiovascular medications, ranging from antihypertensive medication to antiarrhythmics, are known to interact with the CYP3A4 and/or P-gp system increasing the toxicity potential of colchicine. The use of adjunctive colchicine in the management of inflammatory pericardial diseases is standard of care in current practice. It is advised that a careful medication reconciliation with emphasis on pharmacokinetic is completed before prescribing colchicine in order to avoid harmful interaction by finding an alternative regimen or adjusting colchicine dosing.

  4. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990–2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

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    Amare Deribew

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990–2013. Methods We used Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2013 data. Spatiotemporal Gaussian Process Regression (GPR was applied to generate best estimates of child mortality with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI. Causes of death by age groups, sex, and year were measured using Cause of Death Ensemble modeling (CODEm. For estimation of HIV/AIDS mortality rate, the modified UNAIDS EPP-SPECTRUM suite model was used. Results Between 1990 and 2013 the under-5 mortality rate declined from 203.9 deaths/1000 live births to 74.4 deaths/1000 live births with an annual rate of change of 4.6%, yielding a total reduction of 64%. Similarly, child (1–4 years, post-neonatal, and neonatal mortality rates declined by 75%, 64%, and 52%, respectively, between 1990 and 2013. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRI, diarrheal diseases, and neonatal syndromes (preterm birth complications, neonatal encephalopathy, neonatal sepsis, and other neonatal disorders accounted for 54% of the total under-5 deaths in 2013. Under-5 mortality rates due to measles, diarrhea, malaria, protein-energy malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anemia declined by more than two-thirds between 1990 and 2013. Among the causes of under-5 deaths, neonatal syndromes such as sepsis, preterm birth complications, and birth asphyxia ranked third to fifth in 2013. Of all risk-attributable deaths in 1990, 25% of the total under-5 deaths (112,288/435,962 and 48% (112,288/232,199 of the deaths due to

  5. [The course of inpatient rehabilitation in gastrointestinal and metabolic diseases under increasing integration of behavior and experience].

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    Gutschmidt, S; Hänisch, S; Würthner, K

    1993-08-01

    Starting out from the thesis that behaviour and felt experience, i.e., the patient's "subjective world", have considerable influence on chronic diseases and their consequences in the gastrointestinal field, a "basic course documentation"-based comparison has been carried out of the courses of 4-week in-patient rehabilitation programmes designed to increasingly incorporate interventions directed at this area; the study population had consisted of two groups of patients (n = 688 each) without any significant differences concerning age and sex distribution admitted during the summer terms of 1990 (Group A) and 1991 (Group B), respectively. This documentation (in DBASE IV format) compiles (anonymized) patient data at an "objective" level on the one hand, i.e. basic data (such as diagnoses, age, sex), results obtained by the Edinburgh Rehabilitation Status Scale (ERSS), risk behaviour, and scope of interventions both in the organ-medical and physical therapy fields and in the area of "instruction, motivation, support, group work, and creativity" (designed to achieve integration of behaviour and felt experience); on the other hand, at "subjective level", it comprises the patient's own judgements relative to the treatment regimen and its environment, with subsequent correlational analysis of the data obtained (using the SPSSPC statistical package). As had been expected, correlations have on the one hand been stated at the "objective" level between an increased share of more "serious" conditions (ICD) in 1990 as compared to 1991 and higher ERSS scores (i.e., increased impact of disease consequences), greater organ-medical care intensity, and frequency of incapacity for work; on the other hand, at "subjective" level, strong linkages were found among the item ratings for general sense of improvement, specific and general therapy, as well as so-called "therapeutic environment". When the two levels are linked, the sense of improvement, as expected, is found to correlate

  6. RNA-Seq of the Caribbean reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata (Scleractinia-Merulinidae under bleaching and disease stress expands models of coral innate immunity

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    David A. Anderson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change-driven coral disease outbreaks have led to widespread declines in coral populations. Early work on coral genomics established that corals have a complex innate immune system, and whole-transcriptome gene expression studies have revealed mechanisms by which the coral immune system responds to stress and disease. The present investigation expands bioinformatic data available to study coral molecular physiology through the assembly and annotation of a reference transcriptome of the Caribbean reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata. Samples were collected during a warm water thermal anomaly, coral bleaching event and Caribbean yellow band disease outbreak in 2010 in Puerto Rico. Multiplex sequencing of RNA on the Illumina GAIIx platform and de novo transcriptome assembly by Trinity produced 70,745,177 raw short-sequence reads and 32,463 O. faveolata transcripts, respectively. The reference transcriptome was annotated with gene ontologies, mapped to KEGG pathways, and a predicted proteome of 20,488 sequences was generated. Protein families and signaling pathways that are essential in the regulation of innate immunity across Phyla were investigated in-depth. Results were used to develop models of evolutionarily conserved Wnt, Notch, Rig-like receptor, Nod-like receptor, and Dicer signaling. O. faveolata is a coral species that has been studied widely under climate-driven stress and disease, and the present investigation provides new data on the genes that putatively regulate its immune system.

  7. Vision from next generation sequencing: multi-dimensional genome-wide analysis for producing gene regulatory networks underlying retinal development, aging and disease.

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    Yang, Hyun-Jin; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Cogliati, Tiziana; Kim, Jung-Woong; Swaroop, Anand

    2015-05-01

    Genomics and genetics have invaded all aspects of biology and medicine, opening uncharted territory for scientific exploration. The definition of "gene" itself has become ambiguous, and the central dogma is continuously being revised and expanded. Computational biology and computational medicine are no longer intellectual domains of the chosen few. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, together with novel methods of pattern recognition and network analyses, has revolutionized the way we think about fundamental biological mechanisms and cellular pathways. In this review, we discuss NGS-based genome-wide approaches that can provide deeper insights into retinal development, aging and disease pathogenesis. We first focus on gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that govern the differentiation of retinal photoreceptors and modulate adaptive response during aging. Then, we discuss NGS technology in the context of retinal disease and develop a vision for therapies based on network biology. We should emphasize that basic strategies for network construction and analyses can be transported to any tissue or cell type. We believe that specific and uniform guidelines are required for generation of genome, transcriptome and epigenome data to facilitate comparative analysis and integration of multi-dimensional data sets, and for constructing networks underlying complex biological processes. As cellular homeostasis and organismal survival are dependent on gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, we believe that network-based biology will provide the foundation for deciphering disease mechanisms and discovering novel drug targets for retinal neurodegenerative diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. [The prognostic significance of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for phobic anxiety disorders, vegetative and cognitive impairments during conservative treatment including adaptol of some functional and organic diseases of nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivolupov, S A; Samartsev, I N; Marchenko, A A; Puliatkina, O V

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the efficacy of adaptol in the treatment of 45 patients with somatoform dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system and 30 patients with closed head injury. The condition of patients during the treatment was evaluated with clinical and neuropsychological scales. The serum level of BDNF before and after the treatment has been studied as well. Adaptol has been shown to enhance the production of BDNF, reduce significantly the intensity of anxiety, autonomic disorders and improve intellectual processes. The dose-dependent effect of the drug has been demonstrated. In conclusion, adaptol can be recommended for treatment of diseases that demand stimulation of neuroplasticity in the CNS.

  9. [Renal patient's diet: Can fish be included?].

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    Castro González, M I; Maafs Rodríguez, A G; Galindo Gómez, C

    2012-01-01

    Medical and nutritional treatment for renal disease, now a major public health issue, is highly complicated. Nutritional therapy must seek to retard renal dysfunction, maintain an optimal nutritional status and prevent the development of underlying pathologies. To analyze ten fish species to identify those that, because of their low phosphorus content, high biological value protein and elevated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, could be included in renal patient's diet. The following fish species (Litte tunny, Red drum, Spotted eagleray, Escolar, Swordfish, Big-scale pomfret, Cortez flounder, Largemouth blackbass, Periche mojarra, Florida Pompano) were analyzed according to the AOAC and Keller techniques to determine their protein, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, vitamins D(3) and E, and n-3 EPA+DHA content. These results were used to calculate relations between nutrients. The protein in the analyzed species ranged from 16.5 g/100 g of fillet (Largemouth black bass) to 27.2 g/100 g (Red drum); the lowest phosphorus value was 28.6 mg/100 g (Periche mojarra) and the highest 216.3 mg/100 g (Spotted eagle ray). 80% of the fish presented > 100 mg EPA + DHA in 100 g of fillet. By its Phosphorus/gProtein ratio, Escolar and Swordfish could not be included in the renal diet; Little tunny, Escolar, Big-scale pomfret, Largemouth black-bass, Periche mojarra and Florida Pompano presented a lower Phosphorus/EPA + DHA ratio. Florida pompano is the most recommended specie for renal patients, due to its optimal nutrient relations. However, all analyzed species, except Escolar and Swordfish, could be included in renal diets.

  10. Memory Loss and the Onset of Alzheimer's Disease Could Be Under the Control of Extracellular Heat Shock Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arispe, Nelson; De Maio, Antonio

    2018-04-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major contemporary and escalating malady in which amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the most likely causative agent. Aβ peptides spontaneously tend to aggregate in extracellular fluids following a progression from a monomeric state, through intermediate forms, ending in amyloid fibers and plaques. It is generally accepted now that the neurotoxic agents leading to cellular death, memory loss, and other AD characteristics are the Aβ intermediate aggregated states. However, Aβ peptides are continuously produced, released into the extracellular space, and rapidly cleared from healthy brains. Coincidentally, members of the heat shock proteins (hsp) family are present in the extracellular medium of healthy cells and body fluids, opening the possibility that hsps and Aβ could meet and interact in the extracellular milieu of the brain. In this perspective and reflection article, we place our investigation showing that the presence of Hsp70s mitigate the formation of low molecular weight Aβ peptide oligomers resulting in a reduction of cellular toxicity, in context of the current understanding of the disease. We propose that it may be an inverse relationship between the presence of Hsp70, the stage of Aβ oligomers, neurotoxicity, and the incidence of AD, particularly since the expression and circulating levels of hsp decrease with aging. Combining these observations, we propose that changes in the dynamics of Hsp70s and Aβ concentrations in the circulating brain fluids during aging defines the control of the formation of Aβ toxic aggregates, thus determining the conditions for neuron degeneration and the incidence of AD.

  11. A family with atypical Hailey Hailey disease--is there more to the underlying genetics than ATP2C1?

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    Nina van Beek

    Full Text Available The autosomal dominant Hailey Hailey disease (HHD is caused by mutations in the ATP2C1 gene encoding for human secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+ ATPase protein (hSPCA1 in the Golgi apparatus. Clinically, HHD presents with erosions and hyperkeratosis predominantly in the intertrigines. Here we report an exome next generation sequencing (NGS based analysis of ATPase genes in a Greek family with 3 HHD patients presenting with clinically atypical lesions mainly localized on the neck and shoulders. By NGS of one HHD-patient and in silico SNP calling and SNP filtering we identified a SNP in the expected ATP2C1 gene and SNPs in further ATPase genes. Verification in all 3 affected family members revealed a heterozygous frameshift deletion at position 2355_2358 in exon 24 of ATP2C1 in all three patients. 7 additional SNPs in 4 ATPase genes (ATP9B, ATP11A, ATP2B3 and ATP13A5 were identified. The SNPs rs138177421 in the ATP9B gene and rs2280268 in the ATP13A5 gene were detected in all 3 affected, but not in 2 non affected family members. The SNPs in the ATP2B3 and ATP11A gene as well as further SNPs in the ATP13A5 gene could not be confirmed in all affected family members. One may speculate that besides the level of functional hSPCA1 protein, levels of other ATPase proteins may influence expressivity of the disease and might also contribute, as in this case, to atypical presentations.

  12. Spatiotemporal risk mapping of hand, foot and mouth disease and its association with meteorological variables in children under 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C D; Xiao, G X

    2017-10-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) risk has become an increasing concern in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, which is the biggest urban agglomeration in north-eastern Asia. In the study, spatiotemporal epidemiological features of HFMD were analysed, and a Bayesian space-time hierarchy model was used to detect local spatial relative risk (RR) and to assess the effect of meteorological factors. From 2009 to 2013, there was an obvious seasonal pattern of HFMD risk. The highest risk period was in the summer, with an average monthly incidence of 4·17/103, whereas the index in wintertime was 0·16/103. Meteorological variables influenced temporal changes in HFMD. A 1 °C rise in air temperature was associated with an 11·5% increase in HFMD (corresponding RR 1·122). A 1% rise in relative humidity was related to a 9·51% increase in the number of HFMD cases (corresponding RR 1·100). A 1 hPa increment in air pressure was related to a 0·11% decrease in HFMD (corresponding RR 0·999). A 1 h increase in sunshine was associated with a 0·28% rise in HFMD cases (corresponding RR 1·003). A 1 m/s rise in wind speed was related to a 6·2% increase in HFMD (corresponding RR 1·064). High-risk areas were mainly large cities, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang and their neighbouring areas. These findings can contribute to risk control and implementation of disease-prevention policies.

  13. Fracture Risk Assessment in Chronic Kidney Disease, Prospective Testing Under Real World Environments (FRACTURE: a prospective study

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    West Sarah L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with an increased risk of fracture. Decreased bone mass and disruption of microarchitecture occur early in the course of CKD and worsens with the progressive decline in renal function so that at the time of initiation of dialysis at least 50% of patients have had a fracture. Despite the excess fracture risk, and the associated increases in morbidity and mortality, little is known about the factors that are associated with an increase in fracture risk. Our study aims to identify prognostic factors for bone loss and fractures in patients with stages 3 to 5 CKD. Methods This prospective study aims to enroll two hundred and sixty men and women with stages 3 to 5 CKD. Subjects will be followed for 24 months and we will examine the ability of: 1 bone mineral density by dual x-ray absorptiometry at the spine, hip, and radius; 2 volumetric bone density by high resolution peripheral quantitated computed tomography at the radius and tibia; 3 serum markers of bone turnover; 4 bone formation rate by bone biopsy; and 5 muscle strength and balance to predict spine and non-spine fractures, identified by self-report and/or vertebral morphometry. All measurements will be obtained at baseline, at 12 and at 24 months with the exception of bone biopsy, which will be measured once at 12 months. Subjects will be contacted every 4 months to determine if there have been incident fractures or falls. Discussion This study is one of the first that aims to identify risk factors for fracture in early stage CKD patients. Ultimately, by identifying risk factors for fracture and targeting treatments in this group-before the initiation of renal replacement therapy - we will reduce the burden of disease due to fractures among patients with CKD.

  14. Parenting under pressure: a grounded theory of parenting young children with life-threatening congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Gwen R; Ravindran, Vinitha; Rogers, Laura G; Magill-Evans, Joyce

    2013-03-01

    To report a grounded theory study to describe the process of parenting young children who have survived hypoplastic left heart syndrome to inform parent-focused interventions. Technological advances in paediatric cardiology worldwide have improved the survival rates for young children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who undergo staged surgical palliation. These children, however, are at risk for life-threatening complications and parents are charged with the responsibility to monitor their children at home with minimal support and guidance from healthcare professionals once home. A constructivist grounded theory study. The study was conducted in 2006-2008. Participants were 25 parents (15 mothers, 10 fathers) and 28 grandparents (17 grandmothers, 11 grandfathers) of 15 young children (6 months-4·5 years) who had undergone the Sano surgical approach for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The 53 interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using open and focused coding, constant comparative analysis and memoing. A process of Parenting under Pressure emerged that was characterized by four overlapping and re-emerging phases: (1) realizing and adjusting to the inconceivable; (2) growing increasingly attached; (3) watching for and accommodating the unexpected; and (4) encountering new challenges. In-depth understanding of the phases of Parenting under Pressure provides direction for nurses to support parents of children who survive hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Interventions that help carers of children with complex health conditions move through the phases of our Parenting under Pressure process may help them safeguard the survival of their children, and their own survival as parents as they manage multiple demands. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Wild-Type and Knock-in Q140/Q140 Huntington's Disease Mouse Brains Reveals Changes in Glycerophospholipids Including Alterations in Phosphatidic Acid and Lyso-Phosphatidic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodicka, Petr; Mo, Shunyan; Tousley, Adelaide; Green, Karin M; Sapp, Ellen; Iuliano, Maria; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Shaffer, Scott A; Aronin, Neil; DiFiglia, Marian; Kegel-Gleason, Kimberly B

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG expansion in the HD gene, which encodes the protein Huntingtin. Huntingtin associates with membranes and can interact directly with glycerophospholipids in membranes. We analyzed glycerophospholipid profiles from brains of 11 month old wild-type (WT) and Q140/Q140 HD knock-in mice to assess potential changes in glycerophospholipid metabolism. Polar lipids from cerebellum, cortex, and striatum were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography and negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS). Gene products involved in polar lipid metabolism were studied using western blotting, immuno-electron microscopy and qPCR. Significant changes in numerous species of glycerophosphate (phosphatidic acid, PA) were found in striatum, cerebellum and cortex from Q140/Q140 HD mice compared to WT mice at 11 months. Changes in specific species could also be detected for other glycerophospholipids. Increases in species of lyso-PA (LPA) were measured in striatum of Q140/Q140 HD mice compared to WT. Protein levels for c-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), a regulator of PA biosynthesis, were reduced in striatal synaptosomes from HD mice compared to wild-type at 6 and 12 months. Immunoreactivity for CtBP1 was detected on membranes of synaptic vesicles in striatal axon terminals in the globus pallidus. These novel results identify a potential site of molecular pathology caused by mutant Huntingtin that may impart early changes in HD.

  16. Automated probabilistic reconstruction of white-matter pathways in health and disease using an atlas of the underlying anatomy

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    Anastasia eYendiki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a method for automated probabilistic reconstruction of a set of major white-matter pathways from diffusion-weighted MR images. Our method is called TRACULA (TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy and utilizes prior information on the anatomy of the pathways from a set of training subjects. By incorporating this prior knowledge in the reconstruction procedure, our method obviates the need for manual interaction with the tract solutions at a later stage and thus facilitates the application of tractography to large studies. In this paper we illustrate the application of the method on data from a schizophrenia study and investigate whether the inclusion of both patients and healthy subjects in the training set affects our ability to reconstruct the pathways reliably. We show that, since our method does not constrain the exact spatial location or shape of the pathways but only their trajectory relative to the surrounding anatomical structures, a set a of healthy training subjects can be used to reconstruct the pathways accurately in patients as well as in controls.

  17. Under-ascertainment of Aboriginality in records of cardiovascular disease in hospital morbidity and mortality data in Western Australia: a record linkage study

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    Katzenellenbogen Judy M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring the real burden of cardiovascular disease in Australian Aboriginals is complicated by under-identification of Aboriginality in administrative health data collections. Accurate data is essential to measure Australia's progress in its efforts to intervene to improve health outcomes of Australian Aboriginals. We estimated the under-ascertainment of Aboriginal status in linked morbidity and mortality databases in patients hospitalised with cardiovascular disease. Methods Persons with public hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Western Australia during 2000-2005 (and their 20-year admission history or who subsequently died were identified from linkage data. The Aboriginal status flag in all records for a given individual was variously used to determine their ethnicity (index positive, and in all records both majority positive or ever positive and stratified by region, age and gender. The index admission was the baseline comparator. Results Index cases comprised 62,692 individuals who shared a total of 778,714 hospital admissions over 20 years, of which 19,809 subsequently died. There were 3,060 (4.9% persons identified as Aboriginal on index admission. An additional 83 (2.7% Aboriginal cases were identified through death records, increasing to 3.7% when cases with a positive Aboriginal identifier in the majority (≥50% of previous hospital admissions over twenty years were added and by 20.8% when those with a positive flag in any record over 20 years were incorporated. These results equated to underestimating Aboriginal status in unlinked index admission by 2.6%, 3.5% and 17.2%, respectively. Deaths classified as Aboriginal in official records would underestimate total Aboriginal deaths by 26.8% (95% Confidence Interval 24.1 to 29.6%. Conclusions Combining Aboriginal determinations in morbidity and official death records increases ascertainment of unlinked cardiovascular morbidity in Western Australian

  18. Climate and Population Health Vulnerabilities to Vector-Borne Diseases: Increasing Resilience Under Climate Change Conditions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; Kruczkiewicz, A.; Lessel, J.; Jensen, K.; Thomson, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), the City University of New York (CUNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with NASA SERVIR are developing tools to monitor climate variables (precipitation, temperature, vegetation, water bodies, inundation) that help projects in Africa to increase resilience to climate change for vector-borne diseases (i.e. malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis). Through the development of new products to monitor precipitation, water bodies and inundation, IRI, CUNY and JPL provide tools and capacity building to research communities, ministries of health and World Health Organization in Africa to: 1) Develop research teams' ability to appropriately use climate data as part of their research 2) Enable research teams and ministries to integrate climate information into social and economic drivers of vulnerability and opportunities for adaptation to climate change 3) Inform better policies and programs for climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will demonstrate how IRI, CUNY, and JPL developed new products, tools and capacity building to achieve the three objectives mentioned above.

  19. Climate and Health Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases: Increasing Resilience under Climate Change Conditions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), the City University of New York (CUNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with NASA SERVIR are developing tools to monitor climate variables (precipitation, temperature, vegetation, water bodies, inundation) that help projects in Africa to increase resilience to climate change for vector-borne diseases ( malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis). Through the development of new products to monitor precipitation, water bodies and inundation, IRI, CUNY and JPL provide tools and capacity building to research communities; ministries of health; the WMO Global Framework for Climate and Services; and World Health Organization in Africa to: 1) Develop research teams' ability to appropriately use climate data as part of their research 2) Enable research teams and ministries to integrate climate information into social and economic drivers of vulnerability and opportunities for adaptation to climate change 3) Inform better policies and programs for climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will demonstrate how IRI, CUNY, and JPL developed new products, tools and capacity building to achieve the three objectives mentioned above with examples in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Malawi.

  20. Mechanisms Underlying Decision-Making as Revealed by Deep-Brain Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Damian M; Little, Simon; Pedrosa, David J; Tinkhauser, Gerd; Cheeran, Binith; Foltynie, Tom; Bogacz, Rafal; Brown, Peter

    2018-04-23

    To optimally balance opposing demands of speed and accuracy during decision-making, we must flexibly adapt how much evidence we require before making a choice. Such adjustments in decision thresholds have been linked to the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and therapeutic STN deep-brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to interfere with this function. Here, we performed continuous as well as closed-loop DBS of the STN while Parkinson's disease patients performed a perceptual decision-making task. Closed-loop STN DBS allowed temporally patterned STN stimulation and simultaneous recordings of STN activity. This revealed that DBS only affected patients' ability to adjust decision thresholds if applied in a specific temporally confined time window during deliberation. Only stimulation in that window diminished the normal slowing of response times that occurred on difficult trials when DBS was turned off. Furthermore, DBS eliminated a relative, time-specific increase in STN beta oscillations and compromised its functional relationship with trial-by-trial adjustments in decision thresholds. Together, these results provide causal evidence that the STN is involved in adjusting decision thresholds in distinct, time-limited processing windows during deliberation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. An efficient method for zoospore production, infection and real-time quantification of Phytophthora cajani causing Phytophthora blight disease in pigeonpea under elevated atmospheric CO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Tarafdar, Avijit; Telangre, Rameshwar

    2015-03-25

    Phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora cajani is an emerging disease of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) affecting the crop irrespective of cropping system, cultivar grown and soil types. Current detection and identification methods for Phytophthora species rely primarily on cultural and morphological characteristics, the assessment of which is time-consuming and not always suitable. Sensitive and reliable methods for isolation, identification, zoospore production and estimating infection severity are therefore desirable in case of Phytophthora blight of pigeonpea. In this study, protocols for isolation and identification of Phytophthora blight of pigeonpea were standardized. Also the method for zoospore production and in planta infection of P. cajani was developed. Quantification of fungal colonization by P. cajani using real-time PCR was further standardized. Phytophthora species infecting pigeonpea was identified based on mycological characters such as growth pattern, mycelium structure and sporangial morphology of the isolates and confirmed through molecular characterization (sequence deposited in GenBank). For Phytophthora disease development, zoospore suspension of 1 × 10(5) zoospores per ml was found optimum. Phytophthora specific real-time PCR assay was developed using specific primers based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2. Use of real-time PCR allowed the quantitative estimation of fungal biomass in plant tissues. Detection sensitivities were within the range of 0.001 pg fungal DNA. A study to see the effect of elevated CO₂ on Phytophthora blight incidence was also conducted which indicated no significant difference in disease incidence, but incubation period delayed under elevated CO₂ as compared to ambient level. The zoospore infection method for Phytophthora blight of pigeonpea will facilitate the small and large scale inoculation experiments and thus devise a platform for rapid and reliable screening against Phytophthora blight

  2. Association between polymorphic markers of IL-10 gene and chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract in children living under technogenic pressure

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    Lyudmila Borisovna Masnavieva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of infant morbidity. Disturbances of functioning of the immune system play an important role in their development. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a key regulator of the immune response. Mononucleotide substitutions at positions (-1082, (-819 and (-592 of IL-10 gene results in low level of the protein production. Our purpose was to study the associations between polymorphic markers of IL-10 gene and chronic respiratory diseases in children living under conditions of anthropogenic pressure. 189 adolescents living in a city with high levels of air pollution and 82 from a city with a moderate level of contamination were examined. Children with chronic upper airway pathology in remission were identified. Blood samples from all children were tested for allelic variants -1082G / A, -592C / A, -819C / T of IL-10 gene in. Analysis of associations between polymorphic variants and the presence of chronic respiratory diseases was conducted. The -592C allele of IL-10 gene was less common among children with chronic diseases of the respiratory tract living in conditions of moderate air pollution than in the healthy comparison group. Similar association has not been established in thr group of children living in conditions of high air pollution. Thus, the C allele of the polymorphic -592C/A locus marks resistance to the development of a chronic disease of the upper respiratory tract in children living in conditions of moderate air pollution, while in conditions of high level of pollution contribution of genetic factors in its development is leveled.

  3. The relationship between the numbers of reflux episodes with anatomic changes of the esophagus in children under one year with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HamidrezaTalari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in the neonatal period, and the main reason for it is the lack of development in the first months of an infant's digestive system and it gets improved with the aging of baby and development of the digestive system. Some studies have shown that there is a relationship between characteristics of anatomic and esophageal reflux. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the characteristics and frequency of reflux in infants under one year old with gastroesophageal reflux disease. This study is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2015 in the hospital of martyr Beheshti. In this study, a group of 120 children with reflux in three age groups less than one month, 1-6 months and 6-12 months were choses and the relationship between reflux episodes with esophagus anatomic characteristics, including distal esophagus distention, Hiss angle, internal angle and length of esophagus were examined. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the relationship between the characteristics was compared with the number of reflux in three groups. According to the results, the frequency of reflux and extent of distention of the distal esophageal, Hiss angle, Internal Gastro esophageal angle and length of the esophagus, there was a statistically significant correlation (P <0.001. The correlation between reflux episodes and four parameters, are respectively, 0/95, 0/97, 0/71 and -0/79/. Also there was a direct relation between the frequency of reflux and extent of distention of the distal esophageal, Hiss angle, Internal Gastro esophageal angle and an inverse relation with length of the esophagus. The correlation between the frequency of reflux and esophageal characteristics in separation between all three age groups showed a statistically significant relationship exists between anatomical esophageal characteristics and reflux frequency. Based on the results of this study it

  4. Glomerular Disease in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Wiles

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences exist in the prevalence of glomerular diseases. Data based on histological diagnosis underestimate the prevalence of preeclampsia, which is almost certainly the commonest glomerular disease in the world, and uniquely gender-specific. Glomerular disease affects fertility via disease activity, the therapeutic use of cyclophosphamide, and underlying chronic kidney disease. Techniques to preserve fertility during chemotherapy and risk minimization of artificial reproductive techniques are considered. The risks, benefits, and effectiveness of different contraceptive methods for women with glomerular disease are outlined. Glomerular disease increases the risk of adverse outcomes in pregnancy, including preeclampsia; yet, diagnosis of preeclampsia is complicated by the presence of hypertension and proteinuria that precede pregnancy. The role of renal biopsy in pregnancy is examined, in addition to the use of emerging angiogenic biomarkers. The safety of drugs prescribed for glomerular disease in relation to reproductive health is detailed. The impact of both gender and pregnancy on long-term prognosis is discussed.

  5. Distinct neural systems underlying reduced emotional enhancement for positive and negative stimuli in early Alzheimer’s disease

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    Panagiota eMistridis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional information is typically better remembered than neutral content, and previous studies suggest that this effect is subserved particularly by the amygdala together with its interactions with the hippocampus. However, it is not known whether amygdala damage affects emotional memory performance at immediate and delayed recall, and whether its involvement is modulated by stimulus valence. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent more distributed neocortical regions involved in e.g. autobiographical memory, also contribute to emotional processing. We investigated these questions in a group of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, which affects the amygdala, hippocampus and neocortical regions. Healthy controls (n = 14, patients with AD (n = 15 and its putative prodrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 11 completed a memory task consisting of immediate and delayed free recall of a list of positive, negative and neutral words. Memory performance was related to brain integrity in region of interest and whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses. In the brain-behavioral analyses, the left amygdala volume predicted the immediate recall of both positive and negative material, whereas at delay, left and right amygdala volumes were associated with performance with positive and negative words, respectively. Whole-brain analyses revealed additional associations between left angular gyrus integrity and the immediate recall of positive words as well as between the orbitofrontal cortex and the delayed recall of negative words. These results indicate that emotional memory impairments in AD may be underpinned by damage to regions implicated in emotional processing as well as frontoparietal regions, which may exert their influence via autobiographical memories and organizational strategies.

  6. Ellagic acid ameliorates learning and memory deficits in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease: an exploration of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiasalari, Zahra; Heydarifard, Rana; Khalili, Mohsen; Afshin-Majd, Siamak; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Zahedi, Elham; Sanaierad, Ashkan; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. Current therapies for AD are still insufficient. In this study, the effect of ellagic acid on learning and memory deficits was evaluated in intrahippocampal amyloid beta (Aβ 25-35 )-microinjected rats and its modes of action were also explored. AD rat model was induced by bilateral intrahippocampal microinjection of Aβ 25-35 and ellagic acid was daily administered (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg), and learning, recognition memory, and spatial memory were evaluated in addition to histochemical assessment, oxidative stress, cholinesterases activity, and level of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). The amyloid beta-microinjected rats showed a lower discrimination ratio in novel object and alternation score in Y maze tasks and exhibited an impairment of retention and recall capability in passive avoidance paradigm and higher working and reference memory errors in radial arm maze (RAM). In addition, amyloid beta group showed a lower number of Nissl-stained neurons in CA1 area in addition to enhanced oxidative stress, higher activity of cholinesterases, greater level of NF-κB and TLR4, and lower level of nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio for Nrf2 and ellagic acid at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly prevented most of these abnormal alterations. Ellagic acid pretreatment of intrahippocampal amyloid beta-microinjected rats could dose-dependently improve learning and memory deficits via neuronal protection and at molecular level through mitigation of oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and modulation of NF-κB/Nrf2/TLR4 signaling pathway.

  7. INCREASED VASOOCCLUSIVE CRISIS IN “O” BLOOD GROUP SICKLE CELL DISEASE PATIENTS: ASSOCIATION WITH UNDERLYING THROMBOSPONDIN LEVELS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Huneini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objectives: To explore the incidence of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC in Blood Group “O” sickle cell disease (SCD patients, and correlate it with the blood group and thrombospondin (TSP levels. Methods: In 89 consecutive SCD patients, blood samples were obtained for vWF antigen, collagen binding activity, blood group typing, C-reactive protein, variant hemoglobin analysis (HPLC, Serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels, complete blood counts, liver function tests, LDH and renal function tests during VOC episodes and in steady state conditions. Results: In the steady state SCD patients (n=72, “O” blood group patients (n=37 showed significantly higher median serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels than the non “O” blood group patients [n=35] [p <0.05, Mann-Whitney test], with an inverse relation between VWF:Ag, Factor VIII:C and TSP levels. Furthermore, the serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels were significantly higher in patients presenting with acute VOC [n=17], and in those with repeated VOC’s (group 1, n=16 especially amongst those patients with blood group “O” [p, <0.05, Mann-Whitney test]. Conclusions: The study shows that there was an inverse relation between TSP and vWF levels, in blood group “O” SCD patients with an upregulation of the TSP levels. Expectedly, during active VOC crisis, the TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels were significantly elevated.    Key Words: VOC; SCD; TSP; vWD; Blood groups

  8. G-CSF and cognitive dysfunction in elderly diabetic mice with cerebral small vessel disease: Preventive intervention effects and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhu-Fei; Tao, Ying-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Guo, Qi-Lin; Liu, Ying-Chao; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yan-Mei; Ji, Gang; Wu, Guo-Feng; Wang, Na-Na; Yang, Hao; Yu, Zhong-Yu; Guo, Jing-Chun; Zhou, Hou-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Although cognitive dysfunction is a common neurological complication in elderly patients with diabetes, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear, and effective preventive interventions have yet to be developed. Thus, this study investigated the preventive effects and mechanisms of action associated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on cognitive dysfunction in elderly diabetic mice with cerebral small vessel disease. This study included 40 male db/db diabetic and wild-type (WT) mice that were categorized into the following four groups at the age of 3 weeks: db/db group (DG), db/db+G-CSF group (DGG), WT group (WG), and WT+G-CSF group (WGG). The mice were fed normal diets for 4 months and then given G-CSF (75 μg/kg) via intraperitoneal injections for 1 month. At 7.5 months of age, the cognitive abilities of the mice were assessed with the Y-maze test and the Social Choice Test; body weight, blood pressure (BP), and blood glucose measurements were obtained throughout the study. Brain imaging and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging analyses were performed with a small animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, autophagosome levels were detected with a transmission electron microscope (TEM), hippocampal neurons were assessed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and protein expressions and distributions were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. (i) The body weight and blood glucose levels of the DG and DGG mice were significantly higher than those of the WG and WGG mice; (ii) social choice and spatial memory capabilities were significantly reduced in DG mice but were recovered by G-CSF in DGG mice; (iii) the MRI scans revealed multiple lacunar lesions and apparent hippocampal atrophy in the brains of DG mice, but G-CSF reduced the number of lacunar lesions and ameliorated hippocampal atrophy; (iv) the MRI-BOLD scans showed a downward trend in whole-brain activity and reductions

  9. CAN MOTHERS CARE FOR ACUTE DIARRHOEAL DISEASE OF THEIR UNDER FIVE CHILDREN EFFECTIVELY AT HOME? A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN SLUM COMMUNITY IN BANKURA

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    Eashin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in under - five children in developing world like India. WHO & Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness ( IMNCI diarrheal management guidelines encourage mothers and caretakers to treat diarrhoea at home by giving ORS and oral rehydration therapy (ORT to reduce the duration , severity , hospitalization , overall medical costs and death . OBJECTIVES : i t o assess the Knowledge , Attitude and Practice (KAP of mothers on home care of acu te diarrhoeal diseases and ii To find out the factors affecting it , if any. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Community based cross - sectional study was conducted for three months duration among 76 mothers of slum - dwelling under five children (2 - 59 months in Bankura . Information about KAP on management of acute diarrhoeal diseases was obtained by interview of mother using schedule based on WHO & IMNCI diarrheal management guidelines. RESULTS: In this study , majority mothers (64.7% of children were of BPL category an d mean schooling years of mothers was 7.97±4.12. Majority of mothers’ knowledge was average (66.2% and favourable attitude was (76.5%. While 72.2% mothers performed average practice ; only 9.3% of mothers performed good practice. Education , occupation and socio - economic status (SES were the influencing factors of KAP on home care of diarrhea. Conclusions : A lot of gap was still present in knowledge , attitude and practice of home management of acute diarrheal diseases in an urban slum of Bankura. Health pro viders are needed to be skilled , motivated to percolate the information to mothers regarding home care of diarrhea.

  10. [THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOLOGY OF BIOFILM OF PERIODONTIUM UNDER INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF GUMS (CHRONIC CATARRHAL GINGIVITIS, CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS, CANDIDA-ASSOCIATED PERIODONTITIS) ACCORDING RESULTS OF ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolitov, E V; Didenko, L V; Tzarev, V N

    2015-12-01

    The study was carried out to analyze morphology of biofilm of periodontium and to develop electronic microscopic criteria of differentiated diagnostic of inflammatory diseases of gums. The scanning electronic microscopy was applied to analyze samples of bioflm of periodont from 70 patients. Including ten patients with every nosologic form of groups with chronic catarrhal periodontitis. of light, mean and severe degree, chronic catarrhal gingivitis, Candida-associated paroperiodontitis and 20 healthy persons with intact periodontium. The analysis was implemented using dual-beam scanning electronic microscope Quanta 200 3D (FEI company, USA) and walk-through electronic micJEM 100B (JEOL, Japan). To detect marker DNA of periodont pathogenic bacteria in analyzed samples the kit of reagentsfor polymerase chain reaction "MultiDent-5" ("GenLab", Russia). The scanning electronic microscopy in combination with transmission electronic microscopy and polymerase chain reaction permits analyzing structure, composition and degree of development of biofilm of periodontium and to apply differentiated diagnostic of different nosologic forms of inflammatory diseases of periodontium, including light form of chronic periodontitis and gingivitis. The electronic microscopical indications of diseases ofperiodontium of inflammatory character are established: catarrhal gingivitis, (coccal morphological alternate), chronic periodontitis (bacillary morphological alternate), Candida-associated periodontitis (Candida morphological alternate of biofilm ofperiodontium).

  11. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  12. Histology Verification Demonstrates That Biospectroscopy Analysis of Cervical Cytology Identifies Underlying Disease More Accurately than Conventional Screening: Removing the Confounder of Discordance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Ketan; Ahmadzai, Abdullah A.; Valasoulis, George; Trevisan, Júlio; Founta, Christina; Nasioutziki, Maria; Loufopoulos, Aristotelis; Kyrgiou, Maria; Stasinou, Sofia Melina; Karakitsos, Petros; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Da Gama-Rose, Bianca; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Martin, Francis L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Subjective visual assessment of cervical cytology is flawed, and this can manifest itself by inter- and intra-observer variability resulting ultimately in the degree of discordance in the grading categorisation of samples in screening vs. representative histology. Biospectroscopy methods have been suggested as sensor-based tools that can deliver objective assessments of cytology. However, studies to date have been apparently flawed by a corresponding lack of diagnostic efficiency when samples have previously been classed using cytology screening. This raises the question as to whether categorisation of cervical cytology based on imperfect conventional screening reduces the diagnostic accuracy of biospectroscopy approaches; are these latter methods more accurate and diagnose underlying disease? The purpose of this study was to compare the objective accuracy of infrared (IR) spectroscopy of cervical cytology samples using conventional cytology vs. histology-based categorisation. Methods Within a typical clinical setting, a total of n = 322 liquid-based cytology samples were collected immediately before biopsy. Of these, it was possible to acquire subsequent histology for n = 154. Cytology samples were categorised according to conventional screening methods and subsequently interrogated employing attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. IR spectra were pre-processed and analysed using linear discriminant analysis. Dunn’s test was applied to identify the differences in spectra. Within the diagnostic categories, histology allowed us to determine the comparative efficiency of conventional screening vs. biospectroscopy to correctly identify either true atypia or underlying disease. Results Conventional cytology-based screening results in poor sensitivity and specificity. IR spectra derived from cervical cytology do not appear to discriminate in a diagnostic fashion when categories were based on conventional screening

  13. Refsum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... night blindness due to degeneration of the retina (retinitis pigmentosa). If the disease progresses, other symptoms may include ... night blindness due to degeneration of the retina (retinitis pigmentosa). If the disease progresses, other symptoms may include ...

  14. The Relevance of Vitamin D and Antinuclear Antibodies in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Under Anti-TNF Treatment: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Antunes, João; Nunes, Amadeu Corte-Real; Lopes, Susana; Macedo, Guilherme

    2016-05-01

    The importance of vitamin D in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been analyzed in former studies, namely concerning the severity of the disease and the efficacy of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) medications. In several inflammatory conditions, biologics have been associated with an autoimmune response with formation of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). In addition, an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and ANA has been documented. We aimed to evaluate the clinical importance of the link between vitamin D, ANA, and anti-TNF in patients with IBD. Prospective study including patients with IBD with indication to start anti-TNF, between 2009 and 2014. Deficiency and extreme deficiency of vitamin D were defined as levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below 20 and 4 ng/mL, respectively. ANA titers were considered positive if higher or equal to 1/100. Among 68 patients (56 with Crohn's Disease, 12 with ulcerative colitis), vitamin D deficiency was detected in 93%. Pretreatment positivity for ANA was related to higher failure rates of anti-TNF treatment (P = 0.008). Pretreatment positivity for ANA and extreme vitamin D deficiency were significant risk factors for adverse events associated with anti-TNF therapy. A significant link was found between extreme deficiency of vitamin D and the presence of ANA. Our study highlights the association between vitamin D deficiency and pretreatment positivity for ANA with the risk for anti-TNF failure and adverse events, and the inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and ANA. Due to the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in IBD and the immune-mediated nature of the disease, these elements should be evaluated before starting biologics.

  15. Behavioral, normative and control beliefs underlying low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors for adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A

    2007-08-01

    Promoting healthy lifestyle behaviors is an important aspect of interventions designed to improve the management of chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The present study used Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior as a framework to examine beliefs amongst adults diagnosed with these conditions who do and do not engage in low-fat dietary and regular physical activity behaviors. Participants (N = 192) completed a questionnaire assessing their behavioral, normative and control beliefs in relation to regular, moderate physical activity and eating foods low in saturated fats. Measures of self-reported behavior were also examined. The findings revealed that, in general, it is the underlying behavioral beliefs that are important determinants for both physical activity and low-fat food consumption with some evidence to suggest that pressure from significant others is an important consideration for low-fat food consumption. Laziness, as a barrier to engaging in physical activity, also emerged as an important factor. To encourage a healthy lifestyle amongst this population, interventions should address the perceived costs associated with behavioral performance and encourage people to maintain healthy behaviors in light of these costs.

  16. Role of regional anesthesia for placement of peritoneal dialysis catheter under ultrasound guidance: Our experience with 52 end-stage renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranjit Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD has shown a consistent rise in India in recent years. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD remains one of the safe and effective forms of treatment. In this study, we have tried to assess the effectiveness of field block technique for analgesia during catheter placement surgery until 24 h postoperatively, also, if it can obviate the need for general anesthesia in these high-risk patients. Materials and Methods: We studied 52 ESRD patients from 2010 to 2012 who were posted for CAPD catheterization in the Department of Urology, Care Hospital, Hyderabad, India. Under ultrasound guidance, "unilateral posterior" and "unilateral subcostal" transversus abdominis plane block anesthesia were given for the placement of CAPD catheter. Patient′s intra-operative pain and post-operative pain were recorded with visual analog scores (VAS and analyzed. Results: All patients in our study belonged to American Society of Anesthesiologists category 2 or 3 with multiple co-morbidities. 41 out of 52 patients required no supplemental analgesia during the procedure; 8 patients needed additional infiltration of local anesthetic during skin incisions. Three patients required supplemental analgesia and were considered as failure. A VAS of two was noted in 30 patients and 1 in 19 Patients. No Patient had significant pain 24 h post operatively. No local complication was noted in any patient. Conclusion: CAPD Catheterization under regional field block remains safe and effective options for ESRD patients.

  17. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands

  18. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.

  19. Proposal to consistently apply the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) to names of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria), including those validly published under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)/International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN), and proposal to change Principle 2 of the ICNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinevich, Alexander V

    2015-03-01

    This taxonomic note was motivated by the recent proposal [Oren & Garrity (2014) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64, 309-310] to exclude the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) from the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), which entails unilateral coverage of these prokaryotes by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN). On the basis of key viewpoints, approaches and rules in the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of prokaryotes it is reciprocally proposed to apply the ICNP to names of cyanobacteria including those validly published under the ICBN/ICN. For this purpose, a change to Principle 2 of the ICNP is proposed to enable validation of cyanobacterial names published under the ICBN/ICN rules. © 2015 IUMS.

  20. Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haidong; Liddell, Chelsea A; Coates, Matthew M; Mooney, Meghan D; Levitz, Carly E; Schumacher, Austin E; Apfel, Henry; Iannarone, Marissa; Phillips, Bryan; Lofgren, Katherine T; Sandar, Logan; Dorrington, Rob E; Rakovac, Ivo; Jacobs, Troy A; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Yang, Gonghuan; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Shiwei; Li, Yichong; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfina; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Allen, Peter J; AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz; Alvarez, Elena; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ammar, Walid; Anwari, Palwasha; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Asad, Majed Masoud; Assadi, Reza; Banerjee, Amitava; Basu, Sanjay; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Blore, Jed; Basara, Berrak Bora; Boufous, Soufiane; Breitborde, Nicholas; Bruce, Nigel G; Bui, Linh Ngoc; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-Lopéz, Ferrán; Cavlin, Alanur; Che, Xuan; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Cirillo, Massimo; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Courville, Karen J; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Davis, Adrian; Dayama, Anand; Deribe, Kebede; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Dilmen, Uğur; Ding, Eric L; Edmond, Karen M; Ermakov, Sergei Petrovich; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Foigt, Nataliya; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Garcia, Ana C; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Green, Mark A; Greenwell, Karen Fern; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hammami, Mouhanad; Harb, Hilda L; Hay, Simon; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian G; Idrisov, Bulat T; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kumar, G Anil; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B; Lai, Taavi; Lan, Qing; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leinsalu, Mall; Lim, Stephen S; Lipshultz, Steven E; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Ma, Stefan; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Mashal, Mohammad Taufiq; Mazorodze, Tasara T; McGrath, John J; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A; Meretoja, Atte; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Moschandreas, Joanna; Msemburi, William T; Mueller, Ulrich O; Muszynska, Magdalena M; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naidoo, Kovin S; Narayan, KM Venkat; Nejjari, Chakib; Ng, Marie; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omer, Saad B; Caicedo, Angel J Paternina; Wyk, Victoria Pillay-van; Pope, Dan; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Rahman, Sajjad UR; Rana, Saleem M; Reilly, Robert Quentin; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Rushton, Lesley; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Salomon, Joshua; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Santos, Itamar S; Sawhney, Monika; Schmidt, Jürgen C; Nazarova, Marina Shakh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soshnikov, Sergey S; Sposato, Luciano A; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Tabb, Karen M; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Teixeira, Carolina Maria; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomson, Alan J; Lyman, Andrew L Thorne; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Uzun, Selen Begüm; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Waller, Stephen; Wan, Xia; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Westerman, Ronny; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Yang, Yang C; Yentur, Gokalp Kadri; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zhu, Shankuan; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 2015, and to identify models of success. Methods We generated updated estimates of child mortality in early neonatal (age 0–6 days), late neonatal (7–28 days), postneonatal (29–364 days), childhood (1–4 years), and under-5 (0–4 years) age groups for 188 countries from 1970 to 2013, with more than 29 000 survey, census, vital registration, and sample registration datapoints. We used Gaussian process regression with adjustments for bias and non-sampling error to synthesise the data for under-5 mortality for each country, and a separate model to estimate mortality for more detailed age groups. We used explanatory mixed effects regression models to assess the association between under-5 mortality and income per person, maternal education, HIV child death rates, secular shifts, and other factors. To quantify the contribution of these different factors and birth numbers to the change in numbers of deaths in under-5 age groups from 1990 to 2013, we used Shapley decomposition. We used estimated rates of change between 2000 and 2013 to construct under-5 mortality rate scenarios out to 2030. Findings We estimated that 6·3 million (95% UI 6·0–6·6) children under-5 died in 2013, a 64% reduction from 17·6 million (17·1–18·1) in 1970. In 2013, child mortality rates ranged from 152·5 per 1000 livebirths (130·6–177·4) in Guinea-Bissau to 2·3 (1·8–2·9) per 1000 in Singapore. The annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2013 ranged from −6·8% to 0·1%. 99 of 188 countries, including 43 of 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, had faster decreases in child mortality during 2000–13 than during 1990

  1. Hypoactivation of the primary sensorimotor cortex in de novo Parkinson's disease. A motor fMRI study under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessa, Carlo; Vignali, Claudio [Versilia Hospital, AUSL Versilia, Division of Radiology, Camaiore (Italy); Lucetti, Claudio [Versilia Hospital, AUSL Versilia, Division of Neurology, Camaiore (Italy); Diciotti, Stefano; Paoli, Lorenzo; Ginestroni, Andrea; Mascalchi, Mario [University of Florence, Radiodiagnostic Section, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Florence (Italy); Cecchi, Paolo; Baldacci, Filippo [University of Pisa, Department of Neuroscience, Pisa (Italy); Giannelli, Marco [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Unit of Medical Physics, Pisa (Italy); Bonuccelli, Ubaldo [Versilia Hospital, AUSL Versilia, Division of Neurology, Camaiore (Italy); University of Pisa, Department of Neuroscience, Pisa (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    Nuclear medicine studies in Parkinson's disease (PD) indicate that nigrostriatal damage causes a widespread cortical hypoactivity assumed to be due to reduced excitatory thalamic outflow. However, so far, functional MRI (fMRI) studies have provided controversial data about this ''functional deafferentation'' phenomenon. To further clarify this issue, we assessed, with fMRI, de novo drug-naive PD patients using a relatively complex motor task under strictly controlled conditions. Nineteen de novo PD patients with right-predominant or bilateral symptoms and 13 age-matched healthy volunteers performed continuous writing of ''8'' figures with the right-dominant hand using a MR-compatible device that enables identification of incorrectly performed tasks and measures the size and the frequency of the ''8''s. The data were analyzed with FSL software and correlated with the clinical severity rated according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging system. Fifteen (89%) of 19 PD patients and 12 (92%) of 13 controls correctly executed the task. PD patients showed significant hypoactivation of the left primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and cerebellum and no hyperactive areas as compared to controls. However, activation in SM1 and supplementary motor area bilaterally, in left supramarginal, parietal inferior, parietal superior and frontal superior gyri as well as in right parietal superior and angular gyri paralleled increasing disease severity as assessed with the HY stage. In line with the ''deafferentation hypothesis'', fMRI demonstrates hypoactivation of the SM1 in the early clinical stage of PD. (orig.)

  2. Tackling socioeconomic inequalities and non-communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries under the Sustainable Development agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Louis W; Mohan, Diwakar; Akuoku, Jonathan K; Mirelman, Andrew J; Ahmed, Sayem; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Trujillo, Antonio; Khan, Jahangir; Peters, David H

    2018-05-19

    Five Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set targets that relate to the reduction of health inequalities nationally and worldwide. These targets are poverty reduction, health and wellbeing for all, equitable education, gender equality, and reduction of inequalities within and between countries. The interaction between inequalities and health is complex: better economic and educational outcomes for households enhance health, low socioeconomic status leads to chronic ill health, and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) reduce income status of households. NCDs account for most causes of early death and disability worldwide, so it is alarming that strong scientific evidence suggests an increase in the clustering of non-communicable conditions with low socioeconomic status in low-income and middle-income countries since 2000, as previously seen in high-income settings. These conditions include tobacco use, obesity, hypertension, cancer, and diabetes. Strong evidence from 283 studies overwhelmingly supports a positive association between low-income, low socioeconomic status, or low educational status and NCDs. The associations have been differentiated by sex in only four studies. Health is a key driver in the SDGs, and reduction of health inequalities and NCDs should become key in the promotion of the overall SDG agenda. A sustained reduction of general inequalities in income status, education, and gender within and between countries would enhance worldwide equality in health. To end poverty through elimination of its causes, NCD programmes should be included in the development agenda. National programmes should mitigate social and health shocks to protect the poor from events that worsen their frail socioeconomic condition and health status. Programmes related to universal health coverage of NCDs should specifically target susceptible populations, such as elderly people, who are most at risk. Growing inequalities in access to resources for prevention and treatment need to

  3. 28 CFR 20.32 - Includable offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.32 Includable offenses. (a) Criminal history record... vehicular manslaughter, driving under the influence of drugs or liquor, and hit and run), when unaccompanied by a § 20.32(a) offense. These exclusions may not be applicable to criminal history records...

  4. Simulation as a Tool to Facilitate Practice Changes in Teams Taking Care of Patients Under Investigation for Ebola Virus Disease in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Elena; Oruña, Clara; Sierra, Dolores; García, Gema; Del Moral, Ignacio; Maestre, Jose M

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the impact of simulation-based training on clinical practice and work processes on teams caring for patients with possible Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Cantabria, Spain. The Government of Spain set up a special committee for the management of EVD, and the Spanish Ministry of Health and foreign health services created an action protocol. Each region is responsible for selecting a reference hospital and an in-house care team to care for patients under investigation. Laboratory-confirmed cases of EVD have to be transferred to the Carlos III Health Institute in Madrid. Predeployment training and follow-up support are required to help personnel work safely and effectively. Simulation-based scenarios were designed to give staff the opportunity to practice before encountering a real-life situation. Lessons learned by each team during debriefings were listed, and a survey administered 3 months later assessed the implementation of practice and system changes. Implemented changes were related to clinical practice (eg, teamwork principles application), protocol implementation (eg, addition of new processes and rewriting of confusing parts), and system and workflow (eg, change of shift schedule and rearrangement of room equipment). Simulation can be used to detect needed changes in protocol or guidelines or can be adapted to meet the needs of a specific team.

  5. Meditation as a therapeutic intervention for adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Potential benefits and underlying mechanisms: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E Innes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a chronic, progressive, brain disorder that affects at least 5.3 million Americans at an estimated cost of $148 billion, figures that are expected to rise steeply in coming years. Despite decades of research, there is still no cure for AD, and effective therapies for preventing or slowing progression of cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive. While the etiology of AD remains uncertain, chronic stress, sleep deficits, and mood disturbance, conditions common in those with cognitive impairment, have been prospectively linked to the development and progression of both chronic illness and memory loss and are significant predictors of AD. Therapies such as meditation that specifically target these risk factors may thus hold promise for slowing and possibly preventing cognitive decline in those at risk. In this paper, we briefly review the existing evidence regarding the potential utility of meditation as a therapeutic intervention for those with and at risk for AD, discuss possible mechanisms underlying the observed benefits of meditation, and outline directions for future research.

  6. 31P-MR-spectroscopy of the skeletal muscles under load: demonstration of normal energy metabolism compared to different neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, W.; Traeber, F.; Kuhl, C.K.; Keller, E.; Rink, H.; Schild, H.H.; Karitzky, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: 31 P-MR spectroscopy of skeletal muscle under ecercise was used to obtain the range of normal variation and comparison was made for different neuromascular diseases. Methods: 41 examinations of 24 volunteers and 41 investigations in 35 patients were performed on 1.5 T MR systems (Gyroscan S15 und S15/ACSII, Philips). Localised 31 P-MR spectra of the calf muscle were obtained in time series with a resolution of 12 s. Results: Two types of muscle energy metabolism were identified from the pattern of spectroscopic time course in volunteers: While the first group was characterised by a remarkable decline to lower pH values during exercise, the second group showed only small pH shifts (minimum pH: 6.48±0.13 vs 6.87±0.07, p -6 ) although comparable workload conditions were maintained. The pH-values correlated well with blood lactate analysis. Patients with metabolic disorders and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) showed decreased resting values of PCr/(PCr+P i ) and increased pH levels during exercise. PCr recovery was significantly delayed (0.31 vs 0.65 min -1 , p i ), altered pH time courses, and decreased PCr recovery seem to be helpful indicators for diagnosis of metabolic muscle disorders. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Control of aperture closure initiation during reach-to-grasp movements under manipulations of visual feedback and trunk involvement in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya Kato; Lemay, Martin; Squire, Linda M; Shimansky, Yury P; Stelmach, George E

    2010-03-01

    The present project was aimed at investigating how two distinct and important difficulties (coordination difficulty and pronounced dependency on visual feedback) in Parkinson's disease (PD) affect each other for the coordination between hand transport toward an object and the initiation of finger closure during reach-to-grasp movement. Subjects with PD and age-matched healthy subjects made reach-to-grasp movements to a dowel under conditions in which the target object and/or the hand were either visible or not visible. The involvement of the trunk in task performance was manipulated by positioning the target object within or beyond the participant's outstretched arm to evaluate the effects of increasing the complexity of intersegmental coordination under different conditions related to the availability of visual feedback in subjects with PD. General kinematic characteristics of the reach-to-grasp movements of the subjects with PD were altered substantially by the removal of target object visibility. Compared with the controls, the subjects with PD considerably lengthened transport time, especially during the aperture closure period, and decreased peak velocity of wrist and trunk movement without target object visibility. Most of these differences were accentuated when the trunk was involved. In contrast, these kinematic parameters did not change depending on the visibility of the hand for both groups. The transport-aperture coordination was assessed in terms of the control law according to which the initiation of aperture closure during the reach occurred when the hand distance-to-target crossed a hand-target distance threshold for grasp initiation that is a function of peak aperture, hand velocity and acceleration, trunk velocity and acceleration, and trunk-target distance at the time of aperture closure initiation. When the hand or the target object was not visible, both groups increased the hand-target distance threshold for grasp initiation compared to its

  8. Manejo integrado da brusone em arroz no plantio direto e convencional Integrated rice blast disease management under direct drilling and conventional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Barata da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver medidas adequadas para o manejo da brusone (Pyricularia grisea, integrando a resistência da cultivar, práticas culturais e o controle químico. Foram realizados dois experimentos no campo, um no plantio direto (PD e outro no plantio convencional (PC, nos anos agrícolas 1998/1999 e 1999/2000. Os tratamentos, num total de 16, em esquema fatorial 2(4, consistiram de duas cultivares, Carajás e Primavera, duas doses de N, 30 e 60 kg ha-1, sementes não tratadas e tratadas com fungicida pyroquilon e parcelas sem pulverização e com duas pulverizações, na parte aérea das plantas, da mistura dos fungicidas benomyl e difenoconazole. A incidência e a severidade da brusone nas folhas e nas panículas foram significativamente menores no PD em relação ao PC. A cultivar Primavera apresentou maior suscetibilidade à brusone nas folhas, independentemente do sistema de plantio. A dose de 60 kg ha-1 de N contribuiu para aumento da brusone nas folhas, no PD e no PC, no segundo ano. As pulverizações com a mistura de fungicidas reduziram a severidade da brusone nas panículas nos dois sistemas de plantio. A produtividade foi maior no PC do que no PD e a cultivar Carajás foi superior à Primavera.The objective of this work was to develop adequate measures for rice blast (Pyricularia grisea management integrating cultivar resistance, cultural practices and chemical control. Two field experiments were carried out, one under direct drilling and the other one under conventional tillage, during two consecutive rice growing seasons, 1998/1999 and 1999/2000. The treatments totaling 16, in a factorial scheme 2(4, included two cultivars, Carajás and Primavera, two levels of N, 30 and 60 kg ha-1, nontreated seed and seed treated with pyroquilon, plots nonsprayed and sprayed with two applications of fungicide mixture benomyl and difenoconazole. The incidence and severity of leaf and panicle blast were significantly lower

  9. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  10. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  11. Evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases; Pruefung einer potentiellen strahleninduzierten Nebenschilddruesenfunktionsstoerung waehrend einer Radioiodtherapie benigner Schilddruesenerkrankung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Serena Christine

    2011-09-28

    The intention of the present thesis was the evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases. It was to be examined whether a change in the parathyroid function would arise within the first week on treatment. So far there are some minor studies existing describing significant changes in the parathyroid hormone serum level within the first months after radioactive iodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Moreover, it is a fact that external beam-radiotherapy can induce neoplasia and that the risk for the subsequent development of primary hyperparathyroidism doubles or triples after external beam-radiotherapy of the head and neck. Up to now, however, an increased incidence for primary hyperparathyroidism following treatment with radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) could not be proved. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university hospital Giessen-Marburg GmbH, location Marburg, a prospective cohort study was executed on radioactive iodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases with 105 probands (75 women / 30 men, mean age 60.62 ± 14.3 years). According to their thyroid diseases these 105 probands were classified into following subgroups: thyroid adenoma with 23 patients, multifocal thyroid autonomy with 8 patients, disseminated thyroid autonomy with 37 patients as well as the subgroup Graves' hyperthyroidism (without Graves' ophtalmopathy) and accordingly Graves' disease (with Graves' ophtalmopathy) with 37 patients. The serum level of the intact parathyroid hormone was determined directly before starting the radioactive iodine therapy on the admission day and on day 1, 3 and 5 of the radioactive iodine therapy as well as at the ambulant follow-up examination one month after the start of the therapy. In case of 99 of 105 probands the serum level of parathyroid hormone declined on treatment with {sup 131}I with its nadir on day 3 of therapy (decline by 15.71 ng

  12. Intraocular inflammation in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pras, Eran; Neumann, Ron; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Levy, Yair; Assia, Ehud I; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Langevitz, Pnina

    2004-12-01

    The uveal tract represents the vascular organ of the eye. In addition to providing most of the blood supply to the intraocular structures, it acts as a conduit for immune cells, particularly lymphocytes, to enter the eye. Consequently, the uveal tract is represented in many intraocular inflammatory processes. Uveitis is probably a misnomer unless antigens within the uvea are the direct targets of the inflammatory process. A better term of the condition is "intraocular inflammation" (IOI). To review the presence of IOI in autoimmune diseases, the immunopathogenic mechanisms leading to disease, and treatment. We reviewed the English medical literature by using MEDLINE (1984-2003) employing the terms "uveitis," "intraocular inflammation," and "autoimmune diseases." An underlying autoimmune disease was identified in up to 40% of patients with IOI, and included spondyloarthropathies, Behcets disease, sarcoidosis, juvenile chronic arthritis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (an inflammatory syndrome including uveitis with dermatologic and neurologic manifestations), immune recovery syndrome, and uveitis with tubulointerstitial disease. The immunopathogenesis of IOI involves enhanced T-cell response. Recently, guidelines for the use of immunosuppressive drugs for inflammatory eye disease were established and include: corticosteroids, azathioprine, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, cyclophosphamide, and chlorambucil. New therapies with limited experience include the tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors, interferon alfa, monoclonal antibodies against lymphocyte surface antigens, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and the intraocular delivery of immunosuppressive agents. An underlying autoimmune disease was identified in up to 40% of patients with IOI. Immunosuppressive drugs, biologic agents, and IVIG are employed for the treatment of IOI in autoimmune diseases.

  13. Molecular mechanisms underlying protective effects of quercetin against mitochondrial dysfunction and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in cell culture and MitoPark transgenic mouse models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Muhammet; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-06-01

    Quercetin, one of the major flavonoids in plants, has been recently reported to have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative processes. However, since the molecular signaling mechanisms governing these effects are not well clarified, we evaluated quercetin's effect on the neuroprotective signaling events in dopaminergic neuronal models and further tested its efficacy in the MitoPark transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin significantly induced the activation of two major cell survival kinases, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and Akt in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PKD1 blocked the activation of Akt, suggesting that PKD1 acts as an upstream regulator of Akt in quercetin-mediated neuroprotective signaling. Quercetin also enhanced cAMP response-element binding protein phosphorylation and expression of the cAMP response-element binding protein target gene brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Results from qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, mtDNA content analysis, and MitoTracker assay experiments revealed that quercetin augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. Quercetin also increased mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity and protected MN9D cells against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. To further evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of quercetin against the mitochondrial dysfunction underlying PD, we used the progressive dopaminergic neurodegenerative MitoPark transgenic mouse model of PD. Oral administration of quercetin significantly reversed behavioral deficits, striatal dopamine depletion, and TH neuronal cell loss in MitoPark mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that quercetin activates the PKD1-Akt cell survival signaling axis and suggest that further exploration of quercetin as a promising neuroprotective agent for treating PD may offer clinical benefits. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. The role of gastroesophageal reflux in relation to symptom onset in patients with proton pump inhibitor-refractory nonerosive reflux disease accompanied by an underlying esophageal motor disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Shinya; Funaki, Yasushi; Iida, Akihito; Tokudome, Kentaro; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    The symptom improvement rate is low with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). The underlying pathogenic mechanism is complex. Esophageal motility disorders (EMDs) are thought to be a factor, but their prevalence, type, symptoms and the role played by gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in symptom onset have not been fully investigated. To investigate the role of GER in symptom onset in PPI-refractory NERD patients with EMDs. This study comprised 76 patients with PPI-refractory NERD. Manometry was performed during PPI treatment and patients were divided into an EMD group and normal motility (non-EMD) group. Then, multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring was performed and medical interviews were conducted. Nineteen patients (25%) had an EMD. Data were compared between 17 patients, excluding 2 with achalasia and 57 non-EMD patients. No significant differences were observed between groups in 24-hour intraesophageal pH <4 holding time (HT), mean number of GER episodes or mean number of proximal reflux episodes. The reflux-related symptom index (≥50%) showed a relationship between reflux and symptoms in 70.5% of EMD patients and 75% of non-EMD patients. In the EMD group, the score for FSSG (Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD) question (Q)10 was significantly correlated with the number of GER episodes (r = 0.58, p = 0.02) and the number of proximal reflux episodes (r = 0.63, p = 0.02). In addition, the score for Q9 tended to be correlated with the number of GER episodes (r = 0.44, p = 0.06). Our results suggest that some PPI-refractory NERD patients have EMDs, and that GER plays a role in symptom onset.

  15. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  16. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  17. Assessment of the Risk of Non-Cancerous Diseases under the Exposure of Heavy Element in Urban Areas and Troubleshooting Pollutant Sources (The Case of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Moattar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals are the main air pollutants in cities. Therefore, assessment of the risk of exposure to these metals through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact on inhabitants of contaminated areas of the world is of great importance. Methods: A weekly sampling of air particles smaller than 10 microns was performed in a residential area of Zanjan for two years. Risk assessment in the face of heavy metals from inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact for were measured for two children and adults. After fingerprinting high-risk metals, the air pollutants of the region were analyzed according to the PMF5 model. Results: The results showed that children at risk assessment (1.40 × 1000 at the highest concentration of manganese. The PMF5 model results of fingerprinting 15 heavy metals showed that predominant pollutants in the region, included lead and zinc industries with 42.3%, suspended soil with 26.4%, industrial activities with 23.5%, and combustion and fuel with 7.8% of contamination. It was also found that 55.5 percent of manganese emission was associated with lead and zinc industries and 22.4 percent were related to suspended soil. Conclusion: Risk assessment showed that children were exposed to non-cancerous diseases due to inhalation of manganese particles.

  18. Membrane microparticles and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z-H; Ji, C-L; Li, H; Qiu, G-X; Gao, C-J; Weng, X-S

    2013-09-01

    Membrane microparticles (MPs) are plasma membrane-derived vesicles shed by various types of activated or apoptotic cells including platelets, monocytes, endothelial cells, red blood cells, and granulocytes. MPs are being increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell-to-cell interactions. Recent evidences suggest they may play important functions not only in homeostasis but also in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases such as vascular diseases, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, inhibiting the production of MPs may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for these diseases. Here we review recent advances on the mechanism underlying the generation of MPs and the role of MPs in vascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and pathogen infection.

  19. Construction of PR39 recombinant AAV under control of the HRE promoter and the effect of recombinant AAV on gene therapy of ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Hao, Yuewen; Nie, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xuexin; Yang, Guangxiao; Wang, Quanying

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the PR39 recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) controlled by the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) on gene therapy of ischemic heart disease. The minimal HRE was artificially synthesized and the AAV vector controlled by HRE was introduced with NT4-TAT-His-PR39 to investigate the expression of AAV-PR39 in hypoxic vascular endothelial cells (VEC) of human umbilical vein (CRL-1730 cell line) and the angiogenesis-promoting effect in pigs with acute myocardial infraction (AMI). The minimal HRE/CMV was designed and artificially synthesized using the PCR method and cloned with the T vector cloning method. The pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyA-AAV plasmid was constructed. Using the calcium phosphate precipitation method, HEK-293 cells were co-transfected with three plasmids to produce the recombinant virus. An equal volume of pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyAAAV and enterovirus (EV, blank virus) was transfected into CRL-1730 cell lines, respectively. The immunohistochemical method was used to assay the expression of 6xHis in CRL-1730 cell lines and the expression of PR39 under hypoxia. Eighteen AMI miniature pigs were randomized into the experimental group (HRE-AAV-PR39 group), control group 1 (physical saline group) and control group 2 (EV group). The area of ischemia was assessed with conventional MRI and myocardium perfusion MRI. Pigs were sacrificed at preset time-points to obtain samples of ischemic myocardium. Morphological and pathological data were collected. According to data in the literature and databases, the minimal HRE was designed and synthesized with the PCR method. A large number of HREs were connected to modified pSSHGAAV (pSSV9int-/XbaI) vector followed by insertion of the NT4-6His-PR39 gene segment and, thus, the recombinant plasmid pSS-HRE-CMV-NT4-6His-PR39-PolyA-AAV was successfully constructed. The expression of 6xHis in CRL-1730 cells under the regulation of HRE was assayed using the

  20. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.

    1991-01-01

    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

  2. Alpers' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... underlying liver disease, failure to thrive, infection-associated encephalopathy, spasticity, myoclonus (involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles), seizures, or liver failure. An increased protein level is seen in ...

  3. Morgellons Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyu Han

    2017-01-01

    Morgellons disease is a rare disease with unknown etiology. Herein, we report the first case of Morgellons disease in Korea. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of pruritic erythematous patches and erosions on the arms, hands, and chin. She insisted that she had fiber-like materials under her skin, which she had observed through a magnifying device. We performed skin biopsy, and observed a fiber extruding from the dermal side of the specimen. Histopathological examination sho...

  4. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  5. Associated Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gland in the neck, thick and coarse hair. Addison’s Disease Arare disease involving the adrenal gland. The prevalence of celiac disease in people with addison’s disease is significant. Symptoms of Addison’s may include weight ...

  6. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990-2013 : findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribe, Kebede; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Lakew, Yihunie; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Abera, Semaw F.; Mohammed, Mesoud; Hiruye, Abiy; Teklay, Efrem; Misganaw, Awoke; Kassebaum, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parkinson's Disease: One Voice, Many Listeners Expert Briefings: Medical Therapies: What's in the Parkinson's Pipeline? Expert Briefings: Under-recognized Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Gait, Balance and Falls in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Coping ...

  8. Langevin simulations of QCD, including fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, A.S.

    1986-02-01

    We encounter critical slow down in updating when xi/a -> infinite and in matrix inversion (needed to include fermions) when msub(q)a -> 0. A simulation that purports to solve QCD numerically will encounter these limits, so to face the challenge in the title of this workshop, we must cure the disease of critical slow down. Physically, this critical slow down is due to the reluctance of changes at short distances to propagate to large distances. Numerically, the stability of an algorithm at short wavelengths requires a (moderately) small step size; critical slow down occurs when the effective long wavelength step size becomes tiny. The remedy for this disease is an algorithm that propagates signals quickly throughout the system; i.e. one whose effective step size is not reduced for the long wavelength conponents of the fields. (Here the effective ''step size'' is essentially an inverse decorrelation time.) To do so one must resolve various wavelengths of the system and modify the dynamics (in CPU time) of the simulation so that all modes evolve at roughly the same rate. This can be achieved by introducing Fourier transforms. I show how to implement Fourier acceleration for Langevin updating and for conjugate gradient matrix inversion. The crucial feature of these algorithms that lends them to Fourier acceleration is that they update the lattice globally; hence the Fourier transforms are computed once per sweep rather than once per hit. (orig./HSI)

  9. FY2000 report of the research results of medical/engineering cooperative research project, basic research on systems for minimally invasive diagnostic/treatment of circulatory system diseases, including prognostic diagnosis; 2000 nendo igaku kogaku renkeigata kenkyu jigyo, junkankikei shikkan ni taisuru yogo shindan wo fukumu teishinshu shindan chiryo system ni kansuru kiso kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The basic researches on minimally invasive diagnostic/treatment systems are conducted for circulatory system diseases, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The program for developing the heart surgery supporting manipulator includes development of the manipulator of 7 degree of freedom and fail-safe mechanisms to be incorporated in the patient-side system, and research and development of the heart motion compensation type robot system. The program for developing the diagnosis/treatment system aided by intravascular optical analysis includes development of intravascular endoscopy by the aid of LED emitting blue color of high brightness, and automatic analyzer for the in vivo vascular endothelial cell functions. The program for the minimally invasive diagnostic system includes development of superimposing system for integrating the images by the NOGA system and cine-coronary angiography. The other R and D items include artificial vascular systems to be put in the blood vessels, adhesives for a living body, suture instruments for fine blood vessels, heart surgery supporting system, based on the infrared spectroscopy, endoscopic system for the cranical bones, arterialization method, and gene-aided treatment. (NEDO)

  10. Musculoskeletal ultrasound including definitions for ultrasonographic pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakefield, RJ; Balint, PV; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) has great potential as an outcome in rheumatoid arthritis trials for detecting bone erosions, synovitis, tendon disease, and enthesopathy. It has a number of distinct advantages over magnetic resonance imaging, including good patient tolerability and ability to scan multiple joints...... in a short period of time. However, there are scarce data regarding its validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness to change, making interpretation and comparison of studies difficult. In particular, there are limited data describing standardized scanning methodology and standardized definitions of US...... pathologies. This article presents the first report from the OMERACT ultrasound special interest group, which has compared US against the criteria of the OMERACT filter. Also proposed for the first time are consensus US definitions for common pathological lesions seen in patients with inflammatory arthritis....

  11. In depth analysis of risk factors for coeliac disease amongst children under 18 years Old in the Gaza strip. A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Raee Mohammad B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coeliac disease is an important clinical disorder affecting the human gastrointestinal tract leading to multiple signs and symptoms in different body organs. This disease was the subject of a cross sectional descriptive-analytic study conducted in the Gaza Strip during 2010. Objectives were oriented to identify and verify several variables and attributes affecting the prognosis of coeliac disease in the patients. Ninety five children out of 113 patients were arranged into two groups according to age from 2 to 11 years and from 12 to 18 years old. Results showed the poor interest of health professionals regarding coeliac disease in the Gaza Strip. The mean age of study population was 5.47 years for males and 8.93 years for females. The lifestyle of coeliac patients was directly proportional with better nutritional indictors. Poor recognition of the emblem illustrating gluten in foods implicates effective health awareness or promotion. The more knowledgeable patients or mothers (P = 0.036 were the more compliant. The compliance to giving gluten free foods outside home was statistically significant (P = 0.037. Similarly, cautious approach when buying foods or detergents (P = 0.011. According to BMI 74.4%, 23.4% and 3.2% of all patients were normal, underweight and overweight respectively. Albumin blood level was normal in 32.6% and low in 67.4%. Meanwhile, blood calcium level was normal in 76.8%, low in 21.1% and high in 2.1% of all patients. Conclusion: The study showed that recreation and social activities for coeliac patients are substantially missing in the Gaza Strip. Moreover, the study proved that AEI is a reliable centre for care of coeliac disease patients and conducting relevant studies. Recommendation: There is a need for thorough and continuous community and institutional mobilization regarding coeliac disease in the Gaza Strip and in Palestine.

  12. Long-term projections of temperature-related mortality risks for ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and acute ischemic heart disease under changing climate in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M; Bader, Daniel A; Liu, Fangchao; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L

    2018-03-01

    Changing climates have been causing variations in the number of global ischemic heart disease and stroke incidences, and will continue to affect disease occurrence in the future. To project temperature-related mortality for acute ischemic heart disease, and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke with concomitant climate warming. We estimated the exposure-response relationship between daily cause-specific mortality and daily mean temperature in Beijing. We utilized outputs from 31 downscaled climate models and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. This strategy was used to estimate future net temperature along with heat- and cold-related deaths. The results for predicted temperature-related deaths were subsequently contrasted with the baseline period. In the 2080s, using the RCP8.5 and no population variation scenarios, the net total number of annual temperature-related deaths exhibited a median value of 637 (with a range across models of 434-874) for ischemic stroke; this is an increase of approximately 100% compared with the 1980s. The median number of projected annual temperature-related deaths was 660 (with a range across models of 580-745) for hemorrhagic stroke (virtually no change compared with the 1980s), and 1683 (with a range across models of 1351-2002) for acute ischemic heart disease (a slight increase of approximately 20% compared with the 1980s). In the 2080s, the monthly death projection for hemorrhagic stroke and acute ischemic heart disease showed that the largest absolute changes occurred in summer and winter while the largest absolute changes for ischemic stroke occurred in summer. We projected that the temperature-related mortality associated with ischemic stroke will increase dramatically due to climate warming. However, projected temperature-related mortality pertaining to acute ischemic heart disease and hemorrhagic stroke should remain relatively stable over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Management of adynamic bone disease in chronic kidney disease: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi K. Sista

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO work group released recommendations in 2006 to define the bone-related pathology associated with chronic kidney disease as renal osteodystrophy. In 2009, KDIGO released revised clinical practice guidelines which redefined systemic disorders of bone and mineral metabolism due to chronic kidney disease as chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders. Conditions under this overarching term include osteitis fibrosa cystica, osteomalacia, and adynamic bone disease. We aim to provide a brief review of the histopathology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and diagnostic features of adynamic bone disease, focusing on current trends in the management of this complex bone disorder.

  14. Chronic venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Claire D; Waldorf, Heidi

    2009-11-01

    Identifying characteristic cutaneous findings is important in determining the appropriate management of certain venous diseases. The health care provider should be familiar with the classic description of patterns and distributions of skin manifestations, such as varicose veins, stasis dermatitis, palpable cord, petechiae, and telangiectasias. In addition to the gross appearance of the skin, a skin biopsy may help elucidate a diagnosis. General treatment and prevention of the underlying venous pathology is essential. Furthermore, specific management of skin findings should include therapy to ameliorate progression of disease and symptomatology when warranted.

  15. Summer epidemics of apple scab : The relationship between measurements and their implications for the development of predictive models and threshold levels under different disease control regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holb, I.J.; Heijne, B.; Jeger, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year study on epidemic progress of apple scab was conducted at Randwijk, the Netherlands, in 1998 and 1999. The summer epidemic caused by conidia was studied instead of the well-described spring season epidemic originating from ascospores. The aim was to investigate relationships between disease

  16. Immunization of horses with a polyvalent live-attenuated African horse sickness vaccine: Serological response and disease occurrence under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Molini

    2015-01-01

    Our data confirm that vaccination with LAV is a useful tool to reduce the severity of the disease in endemic areas. However, clinical and sometimes fatal AHS can still affect young vaccinated horses, thus highlighting the necessity to better understand the immune response to AHSV and to dispose of more effective vaccines.

  17. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - A multisystem disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasevic, Ivana; Milic, Sandra; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Grgic, Ivana; Jakopcic, Ivan; Stimac, Davor; Wensveen, Felix; Orlic, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver and are negatively associated with a range of chronic diseases, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is becoming increasingly clear that these diseases are the result of the same underlying pathophysiological processes associated with MetS, such as insulin resistance, chronic systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia. As a result, they have been shown to be independent reciprocal risk factors. In addition, recent data have shown that NAFLD actively contributes to aggravation of the pathophysiology of CVD, T2DM, and CKD, as well as several other pathologies. Thus, NAFLD is a direct cause of many chronic diseases associated with MetS, and better detection and treatment of fatty liver disease is therefore urgently needed. As non-invasive screening methods for liver disease become increasingly available, detection and treatment of NAFLD in patients with MetS should therefore be considered by both (sub-) specialists and primary care physicians. PMID:27920470

  18. Disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzi L

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura Ghezzi, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti Neurology Unit, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Fondazione Cà Granda, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. The median duration of the disease is 10 years. The pathology is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta peptide (so-called senile plaques and tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, two classes of drugs are licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AD, ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for mild to moderate AD, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate and severe AD. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine aims at slowing progression and controlling symptoms, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathologic steps leading to AD. Herein, we review the clinical features, pharmacologic properties, and cost-effectiveness of the available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, and focus on disease-modifying drugs aiming to interfere with the amyloid beta peptide, including vaccination, passive immunization, and tau deposition. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, disease-modifying drugs, diagnosis, treatment

  19. Microbiological quality of water in a city with persistent and recurrent waterborne diseases under tropical sub-rural conditions: The case of Kikwit City, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienie, Alexis B; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Laffite, Amandine; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Matand, Alphonse; Mulaji, Crispin K; Biey, Emmanuel M; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2017-07-01

    The availability of safe drinking water in sub-Saharan countries remains a major challenge because poor sanitation has been the cause of various outbreaks of waterborne disease due to the poor microbiological quality of water used for domestic purposes. The faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used in the present study included Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT). FIB and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were quantified during July 2015 (dry season) and November 2015 (rainy season) in order to assess the quality of drinking water from wells (n=3; P1-P3), and two rivers, the River Lukemi (RLK, n=3) and River Luini (RLN, n=2) in the city of Kikwit, which is located in the province of Kwilu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kikwit is well known for its outbreaks of persistent and recurrent waterborne diseases including Entamoeba, Shigella, typhoid fever, cholera, and Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Fever. Consequently, E. coli, ENT, and AMB were quantified in water samples according to the standard international methods for water quality determination using the membrane filtration method. The FIB characterization was performed for human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results obtained revealed high FIB concentrations in river samples collected during both seasons. For example, E. coli respectively reached 4.3×10 4 and 9.2×10 4 CFU 100mL -1 in the dry season and the wet season. ENT reached 5.3×10 3 CFU 100mL -1 during the dry season and 9.8×10 3 CFU 100mL -1 in the wet season. The pollution was significantly worse in the wet season compared to the dry season. Surprisingly, no faecal contamination was observed in well water samples collected in the dry season while E. coli and ENT were detected in all wells in the wet season with values of 6, 7, and 11CFUmL -1 for E. coli in wells P1-P3, respectively and 3, 5, 9 CFU mL -1 for ENT in the same wells. Interestingly, the PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 indicated

  20. SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Tsang

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to

  1. Feeding and defecation behavior of Triatoma rubida (Uhler, 1894) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under laboratory conditions, and its potential role as a vector of Chagas disease in Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Gregory, Teresa; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Hildebrand, John G

    2011-10-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine insects. This disease is endemic throughout Mexico and Central and South America, but only a few autochthonous cases have been reported in the United States, despite the fact that infected insects readily invade houses and feed on humans. Competent vectors defecate during or shortly after feeding so that infective feces contact the host. We thus studied the feeding and defecation behaviors of the prevalent species in southern Arizona, Triatoma rubida. We found that whereas defecation during feeding was frequent in females (93%), it was very rare in immature stages (3%), and absent in males. Furthermore, more than half of the immature insects that exhibited multiple feeding bouts (62%) defecated during interruptions of feeding, i.e., while likely on or near the host. These results indicate that T. rubida potentially could transmit T. cruzi to humans.

  2. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.

  3. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  4. Determining the Molecular Pathways Underlying the Protective Effect of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Alzheimer's Disease: A Bioinformatics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo J Nevado-Holgado

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD represents a substantial unmet need, due to increasing prevalence in an ageing society and the absence of a disease modifying therapy. Epidemiological evidence shows a protective effect of non steroidal anti inflammatory (NSAID drugs, and genome wide association studies (GWAS show consistent linkage to inflammatory pathways; both observations suggesting anti-inflammatory compounds might be effective in AD therapy although clinical trials to date have not been positive.In this study, we use pathway enrichment and fuzzy logic to identify pathways (KEGG database simultaneously affected in both AD and by NSAIDs (Sulindac, Piroxicam, Paracetamol, Naproxen, Nabumetone, Ketoprofen, Diclofenac and Aspirin. Gene expression signatures were derived for disease from both blood (n = 344 and post-mortem brain (n = 690, and for drugs from immortalised human cell lines exposed to drugs of interest as part of the Connectivity Map platform. Using this novel approach to combine datasets we find striking overlap between AD gene expression in blood and NSAID induced changes in KEGG pathways of Ribosome and Oxidative Phosphorylation. No overlap was found in non NSAID comparison drugs. In brain we find little such overlap, although Oxidative Phosphorylation approaches our pre-specified significance level.These findings suggest that NSAIDs might have a mode of action beyond inflammation and moreover that their therapeutic effects might be mediated in particular by alteration of Oxidative Phosphorylation and possibly the Ribosome pathway. Mining of such datasets might prove increasingly productive as they increase in size and richness. Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, NSAID, Inflammation, Fuzzy logic, Ribosome

  5. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001, bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012, bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005, otitis media (p value = 0.003, and skin diseases (p value = 0.047. Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414, bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705, bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706, meningitis (p value 0.043, and septicemia (p value 0.04. Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  6. Effects of three months treatment with sertraline on intraocular pressure and cup-to-disc ratio in patients with anxiety disorders/mixed anxiety and depressive disorder/major depressive disorder and without underlying eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Hendouei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors causes pupillary dilator muscle stimulation, active mydriasis, rapid rise in the level of the intraocular pressure (IOP, damage to the optic nerve at the back of the eye, and ultimately leads to acute angle closure glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of sertraline on the levels of IOP and cup-to-disc ratio (CDR in patients with anxiety disorders or mixed anxiety and depressive disorder or major depressive under daily treatment with sertraline and without underlying eye disease for three months. In this study,30 eligible patients in the sertraline group and 30 healthy volunteers in the control group include the study and were referred to an ophthalmologist. Ophthalmologic examinations were assessed at the baseline and on the first and third months of the study. The average daily dose of sertraline was 95±2.5 mg.During the study, the IOP changes in the sertraline and control groups were 0.26±0.43 and 0.00±0.00 mmHg (p<0.001, p=NS respectively and the CDR changes in sertraline and control groups were 0.03±0.05 and -0.01±0.05 (p=0.002, p=0.03 respectively. There was a significant difference in the IOP and CDR increasement between two groups ([F (1.7, 104.2 = 3.7, p = 0.03] and [F (2, 116 = 8.3, p < 0.001] respectively. In the present study, although changes in the IOP and CDR  levels in the sertraline group were significant and was equal the daily change in the persons without glaucoma or patients with normal-tension glaucoma, but the slight and continuous increase in the IOP level associated with changes in pupil size and CDR, especially in patients at risk of glaucoma in the long term, can cause a disruption in hydrodynamic homeostasis. More studies with longer duration and different dosage of sertraline need to confirm our results.     

  7. Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Liddell, Chelsea A.; Coates, Matthew M.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Levitz, Carly E.; Schumacher, Austin E.; Apfel, Henry; Iannarone, Marissa; Phillips, Bryan; Lofgren, Katherine T.; Sandar, Logan; Dorrington, Rob E.; Rakovac, Ivo; Jacobs, Troy A.; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Yang, Gonghuan; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Shiwei; Li, Yichong; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfina; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Allen, Peter J.; AlMazroa, Mohammad AbdulAziz; Alvarez, Elena; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ammar, Walid; Anwari, Palwasha; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Asad, Majed Masoud; Assadi, Reza; Banerjee, Amitava; Basu, Sanjay; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Bhutta, Zulfi Qar; Blore, Jed D.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Boufous, Soufiane; Breitborde, Nicholas; Bruce, Nigel G.; Linh Ngoc Bui, [No Value; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Estanislao Castro, Ruben; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavlin, Alanur; Che, Xuan; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Cirillo, Massimo; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Courville, Karen J.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Davis, Adrian; Dayama, Anand; Deribe, Kebede; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh K.; Dilmen, Ugur; Ding, Eric L.; Edmond, Karen M.; Ermakov, Sergei Petrovich; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fijabi, Daniel Obadare; Foigt, Nataliya; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Garcia, Ana C.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gona, Philimon; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Green, Mark A.; Greenwell, Karen Fern; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hammami, Mouhanad; Harb, Hilda L.; Hay, Simon; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jonas, Jost B.; Juel, Knud; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B.; Lai, Taavi; Lan, Qing; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leinsalu, Mall; Lim, Stephen S.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Ma, Stefan; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Mashal, Mohammad Taufi Q.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McGrath, John J.; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R.; Moschandreas, Joanna; Msemburi, William T.; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Muszynska, Magdalena M.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nejjari, Chakib; Ng, Marie; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omer, Saad B.; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Pope, Dan; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Rahman, Sajjad U. R.; Rana, Saleem M.; Reilly, Robert Quentin; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Rushton, Lesley; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Santos, Itamar S.; Sawhney, Monika; Schmidt, Juergen C.; Shakh-Nazarova, Marina; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Tabb, Karen M.; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Teixeira, Carolina Maria; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Uzun, Selen Beguem; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Nogales Vasconcelos, Ana Maria; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Waller, Stephen; Wan, Xia; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Westerman, Ronny; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Yang, Yang C.; Yentur, Gokalp Kadri; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zhu, Shankuan; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of

  8. Neuropatía compresiva del nervio interoseo posterior a nivel del codo (síndrome de la arcada de frohse: ¿debe incluirse en el listado de enfermedades profesionales? Must the neuropathy compressive of posterior interoseal nerve at the elbow level (arcade of frohse syndrome: be included in the occupational diseases list?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús Regal Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La afectación compresiva del nervio radial se encuentra recogida en el último Listado de Enfermedades Profesionales (LEP, con el código 2F0601. En este apartado no se recoge entre las "principales actividades" capaces de producir afectación del n.radial la compresión de origen laboral más frecuente de este, el síndrome de la Arcada de Frohse (SAF. Objetivos: El objetivo de esta revisión no es solo reflejar que la afectación compresiva del nervio interóseo posterior puede considerarse una Enfermedad Profesional (EP, sino que además debería estar recogida en el actual listado de EP entre las "principales actividades capaces de producir afectación del nervio radial". Metodología: Se han revisado hasta Febrero de 2010 las siguientes bases de datos bibliográficas: Medline, Embase, Cochrane. Resultados: Esta revisión bibliográfica nos permite concluir que: El SAF puede tener un origen laboral (la fibrosis del supinador corto se relaciona con movimientos repetidos de pronación y supinación del antebrazo y esta descrita su mayor prevalencia en determinadas profesiones que realizan estos movimientos. El SAF es la neuropatía compresiva de origen laboral mas frecuente del nervio radial, la más relacionada con los movimientos repetitivos de la mano y antebrazo. La Arcada de Frohse es el lugar más frecuente de compresión del radial. Conclusiones: Por tanto, el SAF puede considerarse una EP, si asocia factores de riesgo laborales suficientes, y debería estar recogido en el LEP por tratarse de la localización más frecuente de compresión de origen laboral del nervio radial.Introduction: The compress affection of radial nerve is included in the last Occupational Diseases List (ODL, with code 2f0601. In this paragraph the Arcade of Frohse syndrome (SAF isn't included among the "main activities" able to induce radial nerve affection, the occupational origin radial nerve compression more frequent. Objectives: The objective

  9. Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Reactivation Activates B Cells Polyclonally and Induces Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Expression: A Mechanism Underlying Autoimmunity and Its Contribution to Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keiko; Kumata, Keisuke; Nakayama, Yuji; Satoh, Yukio; Sugihara, Hirotsugu; Hara, Sayuri; Matsushita, Michiko; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masako; Murakami, Ichiro; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease that results in and is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, and the reactivation of persisting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in B lymphocytes induces the differentiation of host B cells into plasma cells. We previously reported that some EBV-infected B cells had thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) as surface immunoglobulins (Igs), and EBV reactivation induced these TRAb+EBV+ cells to produce TRAbs. EBV reactivation induces Ig production from host B cells. The purpose of the present study was to examine total Ig productions from B cell culture fluids and to detect activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and EBV latent membrane protein (LMP) 1 in culture B cells during EBV reactivation induction and then we discussed the mechanisms of EBV reactivation-induced Ig production in relation to autoimmunity. We showed that the EBV reactivation induces the production of every isotype of Ig and suggested that the Ig production was catalyzed by AID through LMP1 and NF-κB. The results that the amount of IgM was significantly larger compared with IgG suggested the polyclonal B cell activation due to LMP1. We proposed the pathway of EBV reactivation induced Ig production; B cells newly infected with EBV are activated by polyclonal B cell activation and produce Igs through plasma cell differentiation induced by EBV reactivation. LMP1-induced AID enabled B cells to undergo class-switch recombination to produce every isotype of Ig. According to this mechanism, EBV rescues autoreactive B cells to produce autoantibodies, which contribute to the development and exacerbation of autoimmune diseases.

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi Lineages Detected in Congenitally Infected Infants and Triatoma infestans from the Same Disease-Endemic Region under Entomologic Surveillance in Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puerto, Florencia; Sánchez, Zunilda; Nara, Eva; Meza, Graciela; Paredes, Berta; Ferreira, Elizabeth; Russomando, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi II is associated with Chagas disease in the southern part of South America. We analyzed T. cruzi variants in field-collected triatomines and congenitally infected infants living in the same disease-endemic region in Paraguay. Results of polymerase chain reactions for T. cruzi kinetoplast DNA and satellite DNA were positive in 83 triatomine feces samples and 58 infant blood samples. However, lineages were detected in 33 and 38 samples, respectively. Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes were determined in 56 (97%) blood samples after hybridization by using specific probes. The Tc I genotype was not detected. The prevalent sublineage was Tc IId in triatomines (27 of 33) and infant blood (36 of 58) as assessed by amplification of the 24Sα ribosomal RNA and the mini-exon region genes. The Tc IIc genotype was detected in 20 infant blood samples and in 1 triatomine. This study shows T. cruzi II is the predominant lineage circulating in triatomines and humans in endemic areas of eastern region of Paraguay. PMID:20207861

  11. Blood responses under chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation: Pt. 2; Differential preclinical responses of irradiated female dogs in progression to either aplastic anemia or myeloproliferative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.; Carnes, B.; Tolle, D.; Fritz, T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Biological and Medical Research Div.)

    1993-05-01

    Female beagle dogs were chronically exposed to low daily doses of [sup 60]Co gamma rays and responded in one of three distinct hemopathological patterns. These patterns, reflective of distinct subgroups, were characterized by (a) low radioresistance resulting in progressive hematopoietic suppression, terminal aplastic anemia (AA), and relatively short (<400 days) survival ([sup -]S-AA subgroups); (b) high radioresistance, initially coupled with strong but aberrant regenerative hematopoiesis, and later with the development of myeloproliferative disease (MPD) ([sup +]-R-MPD subgroup); and (c) high radioresistance, coupled with an early phase of strong regenerative hematopoiesis, but later with no myeloproliferative disease ([sup +]R-nonMPD subgroup). In this study, the changes in circulating blood cells levels (granulocytes, monotcytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes and platelets) were sequentially assessed in time and fitted to a flexible, quadratic-linear-type response model previously developed. The results are consistent with our earlier observations of blood responses of chronically irradiated male dogs, in the subgroups of female dogs prone to specific radiogenic hematopathologies (i.e. AA and MPD) can be readily identified and staged in specific preclinical periods by a series of marked differential blood responses. (Author).

  12. Botulinum toxin-induced acute anterior uveitis in a patient with Behçet's disease under infliximab treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasajima, Hirofumi; Yagi, Syunsuke; Osada, Hiromu; Zako, Masahiro

    2017-05-04

    Injections of lipopolysaccharide in animal models generate acute anterior uveitis (also known as endotoxin-induced uveitis), but the effects of lipopolysaccharide injection are unknown in humans. We describe an unusual case in which acute anterior uveitis was dramatically activated subsequent to botulinum toxin injection in a patient with Behçet's disease but the acute anterior uveitis was satisfactorily attenuated by infliximab. A 53-year-old Japanese man had normal ocular findings at his regularly scheduled appointment. He had been diagnosed as having incomplete-type Behçet's disease 11 years before. Three years after the diagnosis he was given systemic infusions of 5 mg/kg infliximab every 8 weeks and he had not experienced a uveitis attack for 8 years with no treatment other than infliximab. Two days after the eye examination, he received intracutaneous botulinum toxin injections to treat axillary hyperhidrosis on both sides. Three hours after the injections, he noted rapidly increasing floaters in his right eye. Four days after the injections, his right eye showed severe acute anterior uveitis with deteriorated aqueous flare and anterior vitreous opacity. He received his scheduled infliximab injection, and the right acute anterior uveitis immediately attenuated. Botulinum toxin may have clinical effects similar to those of lipopolysaccharide in endotoxin-induced uveitis models. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to suggest that botulinum toxin may trigger acute anterior uveitis, although the precise mechanism is still unclear.

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi lineages detected in congenitally infected infants and Triatoma infestans from the same disease-endemic region under entomologic surveillance in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puerto, Florencia; Sánchez, Zunilda; Nara, Eva; Meza, Graciela; Paredes, Berta; Ferreira, Elizabeth; Russomando, Graciela

    2010-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi II is associated with Chagas disease in the southern part of South America. We analyzed T. cruzi variants in field-collected triatomines and congenitally infected infants living in the same disease-endemic region in Paraguay. Results of polymerase chain reactions for T. cruzi kinetoplast DNA and satellite DNA were positive in 83 triatomine feces samples and 58 infant blood samples. However, lineages were detected in 33 and 38 samples, respectively. Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes were determined in 56 (97%) blood samples after hybridization by using specific probes. The Tc I genotype was not detected. The prevalent sublineage was Tc IId in triatomines (27 of 33) and infant blood (36 of 58) as assessed by amplification of the 24Salpha ribosomal RNA and the mini-exon region genes. The Tc IIc genotype was detected in 20 infant blood samples and in 1 triatomine. This study shows T. cruzi II is the predominant lineage circulating in triatomines and humans in endemic areas of eastern region of Paraguay.

  14. Mechanism underlying the absence of ischemic changes on the exercise electrocardiogram in patients with abnormal exercise thallium-201 imaging and coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, N.L.; Horowitz, S.F.; Hoffman, D.P.; Goldman, M.E.; Machac, J.

    1985-01-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease may have reversible abnormalities on a thallium myocardial perfusion study without simultaneous ischemic changes on the exercise electrocardiogram, but the mechanisms responsible for this disparity have not been fully elucidated. A group of 37 patients with angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease and abnormal thallium perfusion imaging were divided into two groups on the basis of their exercise electrocardiographic ST segment response. Thirteen patients (Group A) had no significant electrocardiographic changes with exercise, while 24 patients (Group B) had ST changes consistent with ischemia during the test. There were no significant differences in clinical or angiographic characteristics between the two groups. Stress test results showed a similar mean duration of exercise in the two groups, but the patients in Group A achieved a significantly lower mean maximal heart rate and mean maximal double product. These results suggest that exercise thallium-electrocardiogram discordance is mediated by the level of myocardial workload achieved. An abnormal perfusion scan accompanying an exercise electrocardiogram which does not demonstrate any ischemic ST change may occur when there is sufficient increase in myocardial oxygen demand to result in differential augmentation of myocardial blood flow, but insufficient imbalance of supply and demand to result in signs of ischemia on the surface electrocardiogram

  15. Interplay of foot-and-mouth disease virus, antibodies and plasmacytoid dendritic cells: virus opsonization under non-neutralizing conditions results in enhanced interferon-alpha responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannes Nils

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is a highly infectious member of the Picornaviridae inducing an acute disease of cloven-hoofed species. Vaccine-induced immune protection correlates with the presence of high levels of neutralizing antibodies but also opsonising antibodies have been proposed as an important mechanism of the immune response contributing to virus clearance by macrophages and leading to the production of type-I interferon (IFN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC. The present study demonstrates that the opsonising antibody titres mediating enhanced IFN-α responses in pDC were similar to neutralizing titres, when antigenically related viruses from the same serotype were employed. However, sera cross-reacted also with non-neutralized isolates of multiple serotypes, when tested in this assay. Both uncomplexed virus and immune complexed virus stimulated pDC via Toll-like receptor 7. An additional finding of potential importance for strain-specific differences in virulence and/or immunogenicity was that pDC activation by FMDV strongly differed between viral isolates. Altogether, our results indicate that opsonising antibodies can have a broader reactivity than neutralizing antibodies and may contribute to antiviral responses induced against antigenically distant viruses.

  16. Peyronie's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick L; Levine, Laurence A

    2007-11-01

    Peyronie's disease is a psychologically and physically devastating disorder that is manifest by a fibrous inelastic scar of the tunica albuginea, resulting in palpable penile scar in the flaccid condition and causing penile deformity, including penile curvature, hinging, narrowing, shortening, and painful erections. Peyronie's disease remains a considerable therapeutic dilemma even to today's practicing physicians.

  17. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes such...

  18. A risk assessment of climate change and the impact of forest diseases on forest ecosystems in the Western United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Kliejunas

    2011-01-01

    This risk assessment projects the effects of eight forest diseases under two climate-change scenarios (warmer and drier, warmer and wetter). Examples are used to describe how various types of forest diseases may respond to environmental changes. Forest diseases discussed in this report include foliar diseases, Phytophthora diseases, stem rusts,...

  19. Addison disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of Addison disease include: Chronic diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting Darkening of the skin in some places Dehydration Dizziness when standing up Low-grade fever Extreme weakness , fatigue , and slow, sluggish movement Darker ...

  20. Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The disease leads to shaking ( tremors ) and trouble walking and moving . ... include: Difficulty starting movement, such as starting to walk or ... are not moving. This is called resting tremor. Occur when your ...

  1. Behcet's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and affect the central nervous system, causing memory loss and impaired speech, balance, and movement. The effects of the disease may include blindness, stroke, swelling of the spinal cord, and intestinal ...

  2. Enhanced biocontrol activity of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa cultured in media containing chitosan against postharvest diseases in strawberries: possible mechanisms underlying the effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyin; Ge, Lingling; Chen, Keping; Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Xiaoyun

    2014-05-07

    The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa cultured in media containing chitosan on its antogonistic activity against postharvest diseases of strawberries and the possible mechanisms involved are discussed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were applied in the analysis of the proteins of R. mucilaginosa in response to chitosan. Compared with the application of R. mucilaginosa alone, the biocontrol efficacy of the yeast combined with 0.5% chitosan was enhanced greatly, with significant increase in chitinase activity of antagonistic yeast, polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activity, and with an inhibition of lipid peroxidation of strawberries. The population of R. mucilaginosa harvested from NYDB amended with chitosan at 0.5% increased rapidly in strawberry wounds compared with those harvested from NYDB without chitosan. In the cellular proteome, several differentially expressed proteins were identified, most of which were related to basic metabolism.

  3. Massive sequencing of Ulmus minor's transcriptome provides new molecular tools for a genus under the constant threat of Dutch elm disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro ePerdiguero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elms, especially Ulmus minor and Ulmus americana, are carrying out a hard battle against Dutch elm disease (DED. This vascular wilt disease, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, appeared in the twentieth century and killed millions of elms across North America and Europe. Elm breeding and conservation programmes have identified a reduced number of DED tolerant genotypes. In this study, three U. minor genotypes with contrasted levels of tolerance to DED were exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses in order to (i obtain a de novo assembled transcriptome of U. minor using 454 pyrosequencing, (ii perform a functional annotation of the assembled transcriptome, (iii identify genes potentially involved in the molecular response to environmental stress, and (iv develop gene-based markers to support breeding programmes. A total of 58,429 putative unigenes were identified after assembly and filtering of the transcriptome. 32,152 of these unigenes showed homology with proteins identified in the genome from the most common plant model species. Well-known family proteins and transcription factors involved in abiotic, biotic or both stresses were identified after functional annotation. A total of 30,693 polymorphisms were identified in 7,125 isotigs, a large number of them corresponding to SNPs (27,359. In a subset randomly selected for validation, 87 % of the SNPs were confirmed. The material generated may be valuable for future Ulmus gene expression, population genomics and association genetics studies, especially taking into account the scarce molecular information available for this genus and the great impact that DED has on elm populations.

  4. Interactions of landscape disturbances and climate change dictate ecological pattern and process: spatial modeling of wildfire, insect, and disease dynamics under future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, Rachel A.; Keane, Robert E.; Holsinger, Lisa M.; Wu, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    ContextInteractions among disturbances, climate, and vegetation influence landscape patterns and ecosystem processes. Climate changes, exotic invasions, beetle outbreaks, altered fire regimes, and human activities may interact to produce landscapes that appear and function beyond historical analogs.ObjectivesWe used the mechanistic ecosystem-fire process model FireBGCv2 to model interactions of wildland fire, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) under current and future climates, across three diverse study areas.MethodsWe assessed changes in tree basal area as a measure of landscape response over a 300-year simulation period for the Crown of the Continent in north-central Montana, East Fork of the Bitterroot River in western Montana, and Yellowstone Central Plateau in western Wyoming, USA.ResultsInteracting disturbances reduced overall basal area via increased tree mortality of host species. Wildfire decreased basal area more than beetles or rust, and disturbance interactions modeled under future climate significantly altered landscape basal area as compared with no-disturbance and current climate scenarios. Responses varied among landscapes depending on species composition, sensitivity to fire, and pathogen and beetle suitability and susceptibility.ConclusionsUnderstanding disturbance interactions is critical for managing landscapes because forest responses to wildfires, pathogens, and beetle attacks may offset or exacerbate climate influences, with consequences for wildlife, carbon, and biodiversity.

  5. Morgellons Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Choe, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyu Han

    2017-04-01

    Morgellons disease is a rare disease with unknown etiology. Herein, we report the first case of Morgellons disease in Korea. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of pruritic erythematous patches and erosions on the arms, hands, and chin. She insisted that she had fiber-like materials under her skin, which she had observed through a magnifying device. We performed skin biopsy, and observed a fiber extruding from the dermal side of the specimen. Histopathological examination showed only mild lymphocytic infiltration, and failed to reveal evidence of any microorganism. The polymerase chain reaction for Borrelia burgdorferi was negative in her serum.

  6. Crohn's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2012-02-03

    Crohn\\'s disease is a disorder mediated by T lymphocytes which arises in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of a breakdown in the regulatory constraints on mucosal immune responses to enteric bacteria. Regulation of immune reactivity to enteric antigens has improved understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of Crohn\\'s disease, and has expanded therapeutic options for patients with this disorder. Disease heterogeneity is probable, with various underlying defects associated with a similar pathophysiological outcome. Although most conventional drug treatments are directed at modification of host response, therapeutic manipulation of the enteric flora is becoming a realistic option.

  7. "We need people to collaborate together against this disease": A qualitative exploration of perceptions of dengue fever control in caregivers' of children under 5 years, in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Amy L; Beales, Emily R; de Wildt, Gilles; Meza Sanchez, Graciela; Jones, Laura L

    2017-09-01

    Dengue Fever presents a significant and growing burden of disease to endemic countries, where children are at particular risk. Worldwide, no effective anti-viral treatment has been identified, thus vector control is key for disease prevention, particularly in Peru where no vaccine is currently available. This qualitative study aimed to explore the perceptions of dengue control in caregivers' of children under 5 years in Peru, to help direct future mosquito control programmes and strategy. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in one health centre in Iquitos, Peru. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and translated by an independent translator. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. Three core analytic themes were interpreted: (1) awareness of dengue and its control, (2) perceived susceptibility of children, rural riverside communities and city inhabitants, and (3) perceived responsibility of vector control. Participants were aware of dengue symptoms, transmission and larvae eradication strategies. Misconceptions about the day-time biting behaviour of the Aedes aegypti mosquito and confusion with other mosquito-borne diseases influenced preventative practice. Community-wide lack of cooperation was recognised as a key barrier. This was strengthened by attitudes that the government or health centre were responsible for dengue control and a belief that the disease cannot be prevented through individual actions. Participants felt powerless to prevent dengue due to assumed inevitability of infection and lack of faith in preventative practices. However, children and rural communities were believed to be most vulnerable. Perceptions of dengue control amongst caregivers to under 5's were important in shaping their likelihood to participate in preventative practices. There is a need to address the perceived lack of community cooperation through strategies creating a sense of ownership of community control and enhancing social

  8. Quantitative economic impact assessment of an invasive plant disease under uncertainty - a case study for potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) invasion into the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2012-01-01

    International treaties require that phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests are justified by a science-based pest risk analysis, including an assessment of potential economic consequences. This study evaluates the economic justification of the currently applied

  9. Myocardial metabolism of 123I-BMIPP under low-dose dobutamine infusion: implications for clinical SPECT imaging of ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Ryohei; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kambara, Naoshige; Ohba, Muneo; Tadamura, Eiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru; Nohara, Ryuji; Hirai, Taku; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2005-01-01

    123 I-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) is a fatty acid analog for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging that is mainly stored in the triglyceride pool. Low-dose dobutamine infusion has been reported to improve BMIPP uptake in the stunned myocardium, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the myocardial metabolism of 123 I-BMIPP in the stunned myocardium under low-dose dobutamine infusion, and to elucidate the mechanism by which dobutamine improves BMIPP uptake. Using open-chest dogs, stunned myocardium was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 30 min, with subsequent reperfusion (ischemia group, n=6). After direct injection of BMIPP into the LAD, myocardial extraction and retention were examined and metabolites evaluated (using high-performance liquid chromatography) during dobutamine infusion. The results in the ischemia group were compared with findings obtained in a control group under dobutamine infusion (n=6). Dobutamine infusion significantly increased both the rapid extraction (within 30 s) of BMIPP into the myocardium (control vs ischemia group: 48±19% vs 66±14%, p<0.05) and its subsequent retention (73±13% vs 85±8%, p<0.05). The metabolites from the myocardium consisted of back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP, the alpha-oxidation metabolite, intermediate metabolites, and the full-oxidation metabolite. Among these metabolites, the full-oxidation metabolite decreased significantly (from 34.0±20.0% to 15.8±9.3%, p<0.05) in the stunned regions, though back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP increased (from 51.3±21.9% to 71.3±10.1%, p<0.05). These results indicate that increased uptake of BMIPP in stunned myocardium is mainly due to decreased beta-oxidation in tissue and increased shunt retention of BMIPP in the triglyceride pool, and thereby provide further insight into the pathophysiology of

  10. Myocardial metabolism of {sup 123}I-BMIPP under low-dose dobutamine infusion: implications for clinical SPECT imaging of ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Ryohei; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kambara, Naoshige; Ohba, Muneo; Tadamura, Eiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nohara, Ryuji [The Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute, Department of Cardiology, Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Hirai, Taku [Kinki University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Nara Hospital, Nara (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Fukui Medical University, Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    {sup 123}I-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid ({sup 123}I-BMIPP) is a fatty acid analog for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging that is mainly stored in the triglyceride pool. Low-dose dobutamine infusion has been reported to improve BMIPP uptake in the stunned myocardium, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the myocardial metabolism of {sup 123}I-BMIPP in the stunned myocardium under low-dose dobutamine infusion, and to elucidate the mechanism by which dobutamine improves BMIPP uptake. Using open-chest dogs, stunned myocardium was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 30 min, with subsequent reperfusion (ischemia group, n=6). After direct injection of BMIPP into the LAD, myocardial extraction and retention were examined and metabolites evaluated (using high-performance liquid chromatography) during dobutamine infusion. The results in the ischemia group were compared with findings obtained in a control group under dobutamine infusion (n=6). Dobutamine infusion significantly increased both the rapid extraction (within 30 s) of BMIPP into the myocardium (control vs ischemia group: 48{+-}19% vs 66{+-}14%, p<0.05) and its subsequent retention (73{+-}13% vs 85{+-}8%, p<0.05). The metabolites from the myocardium consisted of back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP, the alpha-oxidation metabolite, intermediate metabolites, and the full-oxidation metabolite. Among these metabolites, the full-oxidation metabolite decreased significantly (from 34.0{+-}20.0% to 15.8{+-}9.3%, p<0.05) in the stunned regions, though back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP increased (from 51.3{+-}21.9% to 71.3{+-}10.1%, p<0.05). These results indicate that increased uptake of BMIPP in stunned myocardium is mainly due to decreased beta-oxidation in tissue and increased shunt retention of BMIPP in the triglyceride pool, and thereby provide further insight

  11. Dent disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina R Rus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dent disease is an x-linked disorder of proximal renal tubular dysfunction that occurs almost exclusively in males. It is characterized by significant, mostly low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and chronic kidney disease. Signs and symptoms of this condition appear in early childhood and worsen over time. There are two forms of Dent disease, which are distinguished by their genetic cause and pattern of signs and symptoms (type 1 and type 2. Dent disease 2 is characterized by the features described above and also associated with extrarenal abnormalities (they include mild intellectual disability, hypotonia, and cataract. Some researchers consider Dent disease 2 to be a mild variant of a similar disorder called Lowe syndrome.We represent a case of a 3-year old boy with significant proteinuria in the nephrotic range and hypercalciuria. We confirmed Dent disease type 1 by genetic analysis.

  12. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many ... viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ...

  13. Development and validation of the coronary heart disease scale under the system of quality of life instruments for chronic diseases QLICD-CHD: combinations of classical test theory and Generalizability Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chonghua; Li, Hezhan; Fan, Xuejin; Yang, Ruixue; Pan, Jiahua; Chen, Wenru; Zhao, Rong

    2014-06-04

    Quality of life (QOL) for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is now concerned worldwide with the specific instruments being seldom and no one developed by the modular approach. This paper is aimed to develop the CHD scale of the system of Quality of Life Instruments for Chronic Diseases (QLICD-CHD) by the modular approach and validate it by both classical test theory and Generalizability Theory. The QLICD-CHD was developed based on programmed decision procedures with multiple nominal and focus group discussions, in-depth interview, pre-testing and quantitative statistical procedures. 146 inpatients with CHD were used to provide the data measuring QOL three times before and after treatments. The psychometric properties of the scale were evaluated with respect to validity, reliability and responsiveness employing correlation analysis, factor analyses, multi-trait scaling analysis, t-tests and also G studies and D studies of Genralizability Theory analysis. Multi-trait scaling analysis, correlation and factor analyses confirmed good construct validity and criterion-related validity when using SF-36 as a criterion. The internal consistency α and test-retest reliability coefficients (Pearson r and Intra-class correlations ICC) for the overall instrument and all domains were higher than 0.70 and 0.80 respectively; The overall and all domains except for social domain had statistically significant changes after treatments with moderate effect size SRM (standardized response mea) ranging from 0.32 to 0.67. G-coefficients and index of dependability (Ф coefficients) confirmed the reliability of the scale further with more exact variance components. The QLICD-CHD has good validity, reliability, and moderate responsiveness and some highlights, and can be used as the quality of life instrument for patients with CHD. However, in order to obtain better reliability, the numbers of items for social domain should be increased or the items' quality, not quantity, should be

  14. Crohn Disease: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Joseph D; Cheifetz, Adam S

    2017-07-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease condition characterized by skip lesions and transmural inflammation that can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus. For this review article, we performed a review of articles in PubMed through February 1, 2017, by using the following Medical Subject Heading terms: crohns disease, crohn's disease, crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Presenting symptoms are often variable and may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, and in certain cases fevers or chills. There are 3 main disease phenotypes: inflammatory, structuring, and penetrating. In addition to the underlying disease phenotype, up to a third of patients will develop perianal involvement of their disease. In addition, in some cases, extraintestinal manifestations may develop. The diagnosis is typically made with endoscopic and/or radiologic findings. Disease management is usually with pharmacologic therapy, which is determined on the basis of disease severity and underlying disease phenotype. Although the goal of management is to control the inflammation and induce a clinical remission with pharmacologic therapy, most patients will eventually require surgery for their disease. Unfortunately, surgery is not curative and patients still require ongoing therapy even after surgery for disease recurrence. Importantly, given the risks of complications from both Crohn disease and the medications used to treat the disease process, primary care physicians play an important role in optimizing the preventative care management to reduce the risk of complications. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of simvastatin/ezetimibe on microparticles, endothelial progenitor cells and platelet aggregation in subjects with coronary heart disease under antiplatelet therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, L.M.; França, C.N.; Izar, M.C.; Bianco, H.T.; Lins, L.S.; Barbosa, S.P.; Pinheiro, L.F.; Fonseca, F.A.H. [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    It is not known whether the addition of ezetimibe to statins adds cardiovascular protection beyond the expected changes in lipid levels. Subjects with coronary heart disease were treated with four consecutive 1-week courses of therapy (T) and evaluations. The courses were: T1, 100 mg aspirin alone; T2, 100 mg aspirin and 40 mg simvastatin/10 mg ezetimibe; T3, 40 mg simvastatin/10 mg ezetimibe, and 75 mg clopidogrel (300 mg initial loading dose); T4, 75 mg clopidogrel alone. Platelet aggregation was examined in whole blood. Endothelial microparticles (CD51), platelet microparticles (CD42/CD31), and endothelial progenitor cells (CD34/CD133; CDKDR/CD133, or CD34/KDR) were quantified by flow cytometry. Endothelial function was examined by flow-mediated dilation. Comparisons between therapies revealed differences in lipids (T2 and T3T1 and T4, P=0.001). Decreased platelet aggregation was observed after aspirin (arachidonic acid, T1

  16. Effects of simvastatin/ezetimibe on microparticles, endothelial progenitor cells and platelet aggregation in subjects with coronary heart disease under antiplatelet therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, L.M.; França, C.N.; Izar, M.C.; Bianco, H.T.; Lins, L.S.; Barbosa, S.P.; Pinheiro, L.F.; Fonseca, F.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether the addition of ezetimibe to statins adds cardiovascular protection beyond the expected changes in lipid levels. Subjects with coronary heart disease were treated with four consecutive 1-week courses of therapy (T) and evaluations. The courses were: T1, 100 mg aspirin alone; T2, 100 mg aspirin and 40 mg simvastatin/10 mg ezetimibe; T3, 40 mg simvastatin/10 mg ezetimibe, and 75 mg clopidogrel (300 mg initial loading dose); T4, 75 mg clopidogrel alone. Platelet aggregation was examined in whole blood. Endothelial microparticles (CD51), platelet microparticles (CD42/CD31), and endothelial progenitor cells (CD34/CD133; CDKDR/CD133, or CD34/KDR) were quantified by flow cytometry. Endothelial function was examined by flow-mediated dilation. Comparisons between therapies revealed differences in lipids (T2 and T3T1 and T4, P=0.001). Decreased platelet aggregation was observed after aspirin (arachidonic acid, T1

  17. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-Derived Circulating Cells Release IL-18 and IL-33 under Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in a Caspase-1/8-Independent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi De Falco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is considered the fourth-leading causes of death worldwide; COPD is caused by inhalation of noxious indoor and outdoor particles, especially cigarette smoke that represents the first risk factor for this respiratory disorder. To mimic the effects of particulate matter on COPD, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and treated them with combustion-gener