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Sample records for underlying desiccation tolerance

  1. Lack of correlation of desiccation and radiation tolerance in microorganisms from diverse extreme environments tested under anoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beblo-Vranesevic, Kristina; Bohmeier, Maria; Perras, Alexandra K; Schwendner, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Cockell, Charles S; Vannier, Pauline; Marteinsson, Viggo T; Monaghan, Euan P; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Garcia-Descalzo, Laura; Gómez, Felipe; Malki, Moustafa; Amils, Ricardo; Gaboyer, Frédéric; Westall, Frances; Cabezas, Patricia; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra

    2018-03-01

    Four facultative anaerobic and two obligate anaerobic bacteria were isolated from extreme environments (deep subsurface halite mine, sulfidic anoxic spring, mineral-rich river) in the frame MASE (Mars Analogues for Space Exploration) project. The isolates were investigated under anoxic conditions for their survivability after desiccation up to 6 months and their tolerance to ionizing radiation up to 3000 Gy. The results indicated that tolerances to both stresses are strain-specific features. Yersinia intermedia MASE-LG-1 showed a high desiccation tolerance but its radiation tolerance was very low. The most radiation-tolerant strains were Buttiauxella sp. MASE-IM-9 and Halanaerobium sp. MASE-BB-1. In both cases, cultivable cells were detectable after an exposure to 3 kGy of ionizing radiation, but cells only survived desiccation for 90 and 30 days, respectively. Although a correlation between desiccation and ionizing radiation resistance has been hypothesized for some aerobic microorganisms, our data showed that there was no correlation between tolerance to desiccation and ionizing radiation, suggesting that the physiological basis of both forms of tolerances is not necessarily linked. In addition, these results indicated that facultative and obligate anaerobic organisms living in extreme environments possess varied species-specific tolerances to extremes.

  2. Unravelling desiccation tolerance in germinated Arabidopsis seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maia de Oliveira, J.

    2014-01-01

    How different organisms survive in the absence or under very limited amounts of water is still an open question. The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to explore the molecular basis of desiccation tolerance in seeds. We investigated the possibilities of using germinated desiccation

  3. Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Desiccation Tolerant and Infectious upon Rehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rebecca L.; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a frequent colonizer of the nasopharynx and one of the leading causative agents of otitis media, pneumonia, and meningitis. The current literature asserts that S. pneumoniae is transmitted person to person via respiratory droplets; however, environmental surfaces (fomites) have been linked to the spread of other respiratory pathogens. Desiccation tolerance has been to shown to be essential for long-term survival on dry surfaces. This study investigated the survival and infectivity of S. pneumoniae following desiccation under ambient conditions. We recovered viable bacteria after all desiccation periods tested, ranging from 1 h to 4 weeks. Experiments conducted under nutrient limitation indicate that desiccation is a condition separate from starvation. Desiccation of an acapsular mutant and 15 different clinical isolates shows that S. pneumoniae desiccation tolerance is independent of the polysaccharide capsule and is a species-wide phenomenon, respectively. Experiments demonstrating that nondesiccated and desiccated S. pneumoniae strains colonize the nasopharynx at comparable levels, combined with their ability to survive long-term desiccation, suggest that fomites may serve as alternate sources of pneumococcal infection. PMID:21610120

  4. Desiccation tolerance in seeds and plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias Costa, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The interest of research groups in desiccation tolerance (DT) has increased substantially over the last decades. The emergence of germinated orthodox seeds and resurrection plants as main research models has pushed the limits of our knowledge beyond boundaries. At the same time, new questions and

  5. Desiccation tolerance in seeds and plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias Costa, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The interest of research groups in desiccation tolerance (DT) has increased substantially over the last decades. The emergence of germinated orthodox seeds and resurrection plants as main research models has pushed the limits of our knowledge beyond boundaries. At the same time, new questions and

  6. Desiccation tolerance of Sphagnum revisited: a puzzle resolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, T; Vicherová, E

    2014-07-01

    As ecosystem engineers, Sphagnum mosses control their surroundings through water retention, acidification and peat accumulation. Because water retention avoids desiccation, sphagna are generally intolerant to drought; however, the literature on Sphagnum desiccation tolerance (DT) provides puzzling results, indicating the inducible nature of their DT. To test this, various Sphagnum species and other mesic bryophytes were hardened to drought by (i) slow drying; (ii) ABA application and (iii) chilling or frost. DT tolerance was assessed as recovery of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters after severe desiccation. We monitored the seasonal course of DT in bog bryophytes. Under laboratory conditions, following initial de-hardening, untreated Sphagnum shoots lacked DT; however, DT was induced by all hardening treatments except chilling, notably by slow drying, and in Sphagnum species of the section Cuspidata. In the field, sphagna in hollows and lawns developed DT several times during the growing season, responding to reduced precipitation and a lowered water table. Hummock and aquatic species developed DT only in late autumn, probably as a response to frost. Sphagnum protonemata failed to develop DT; hence, desiccation may limit Sphagnum establishment in drier habitats with suitable substrate chemistry. Desiccation avoiders among sphagna form compact hummocks or live submerged; thus, they do not develop DT in the field, lacking the initial desiccation experience, which is frequent in hollow and lawn habitats. We confirmed the morpho-physiological trade-off: in contrast to typical hollow sphagna, hummock species invest more resources in water retention (desiccation avoidance), while they have a lower ability to develop physiological DT. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Implications of the lack of desiccation tolerance in recalcitrant seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eBerjak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A suite of interacting processes and mechanisms enables tolerance of desiccation and storage (conservation of orthodox seeds in the dry state. While this is a long-term option under optimised conditions, dry orthodox seeds are not immortal, with life spans having been characterised as short, intermediate and long. Factors facilitating desiccation tolerance are metabolic ‘switch-off’ and intracellular dedifferentiation. Recalcitrant seeds lack these mechanisms, contributing significantly to their desiccation sensitivity.Consequently, recalcitrant seeds, which are shed at high water contents, can be stored only in the short-term, under conditions not allowing dehydration. The periods of such hydrated storage are constrained by germination that occurs without the need for extraneous water, and the proliferation of seed-associated fungi. Cryopreservation is viewed as the only option for long-term conservation of the germplasm of recalcitrant-seeded species. This is not easily achieved, as each of the necessary procedures imposes oxidative damage. Intact recalcitrant seeds cannot be cryopreserved, the common practice being to use excised embryos or embryonic axes as explants. Dehydration is a necessary procedure prior to exposure to cryogenic temperatures, but this is associated with metabolism-linked injury mediated by uncontrolled ROS generation and failing anti-oxidant systems. While the extent to which this occurs can be curtailed by maximising drying rate (flash drying it cannot be completely obviated. Explant cooling for, and rewarming after, cryostorage must necessarily be rapid, to avoid ice crystallisation. The ramifications of desiccation sensitivity are discussed, as are problems involved in cryostorage, particularly those accompanying dehydration and damage consequent upon ice crystallisation. While desiccation sensitivity is a ‘fact’ of seed recalcitrance, resolutions of the difficulties involved germplasm conservation are

  8. Desiccation and heat tolerance of Enterobacter sakazakii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeuwer, P; Lardeau, A; Peterz, M; Joosten, H M

    2003-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen which has been isolated at low levels from powdered infant formulas. This study was performed to demonstrate that Ent. sakazakii is not particularly thermotolerant, but can adapt to osmotic and dry stress. We determined the heat, osmotic and dry stress resistance of Ent. sakazakii. The D-value at 58 degrees C ranged from 0.39 to 0.60 min, which is comparable with that of other Enterobacteriaceae, but much lower than reported previously (Nazarowec-White and Farber 1997, Letters in Applied Microbiology 24: 9-13). However, stationary phase Ent. sakazakii cells were found to be more resistant to osmotic and dry stress than Escherichia coli, Salmonella and other strains of Enterobacteriaceae tested. Further analysis indicated that the dry resistance is most likely linked to accumulation of trehalose in the cells. The high tolerance to desiccation provides a competitive advantage for Ent. sakazakii in dry environments, as found in milk powder factories, and thereby increases the risk of postpasteurization contamination of the finished product. Understanding of the physiology and survival strategies of Ent. sakazakii is an important step in the efforts to eliminate this bacterium from the critical food production environments.

  9. Identification of proteins involved in desiccation tolerance in the red seaweed Pyropia orbicularis (Rhodophyta, Bangiales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cristoffanini, Camilo; Zapata, Javier; Gaillard, Fanny; Potin, Philippe; Correa, Juan A; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto

    2015-12-01

    Extreme reduction in cellular water content leads to desiccation, which, if persistent, affects the physiology of organisms, mainly through oxidative stress. Some organisms are highly tolerant to desiccation, including resurrection plants and certain intertidal seaweeds. One such species is Pyropia orbicularis, a rhodophycean that colonizes upper intertidal zones along the Chilean coast. Despite long, daily periods of air exposure due to tides, this alga is highly tolerant to desiccation. The present study examined the proteome of P. orbicularis by 2DE and LC-MS/MS analyses to determine the proteins associated with desiccation tolerance (DT). The results showed that, under natural conditions, there were significant changes in the protein profile during low tide as compared to naturally hydrated plants at high tide. These changes were mainly in newly appeared proteins spots such as chaperones, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and manganese superoxide dismutase, among others. Previously undescribed proteins under desiccation conditions included phycobiliproteins, glyoxalase I, and phosphomannomutase. These changes evidenced that several physiological responses involved in DT are activated during low tide, including decreased photosynthetic activity, increased antioxidant capacity, and the preservation of cell physiology by regulating water content, cell wall structure, and cell volume. Similar responses have been observed in resurrection plants and bryophytes exposed to desiccation. Therefore, the coordinated activation of different desiccation tolerance pathways in P. orbicularis could explain the successful biological performance of this seaweed in the upper intertidal rocky zones. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens: Rate of dehydration and the involvement of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lihong; Yobi, Abou; Koster, Karen L; He, Yikun; Oliver, Melvin J

    2018-01-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens, a model system for basal land plants, tolerates several abiotic stresses, including dehydration. We previously reported that Physcomitrella patens survives equilibrium dehydration to -13 MPa in a closed system at 91% RH. Tolerance of desiccation to water potentials below -100 MPa was only achieved by pretreatment with exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). We report here that gametophores, but not protonemata, can survive desiccation below -100 MPa after a gradual drying regime in an open system, without exogenous ABA. In contrast, faster equilibrium drying at 90% RH for 3-5 days did not induce desiccation tolerance in either tissue. Endogenous ABA accumulated in protonemata and gametophores under both drying regimes, so did not correlate directly with desiccation tolerance. Gametophores of a Ppabi3a/b/c triple knock out transgenic line also survived the gradual dehydration regime, despite impaired ABA signaling. Our results suggest that the initial drying rate, and not the amount of endogenous ABA, may be critical in the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. Results from this work will provide insight into ongoing studies to uncover the role of ABA in the dehydration response and the underlying mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in this bryophyte. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Expression profile of desiccation tolerance factors in intertidal seaweed species during the tidal cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Camila; López-Cristoffanini, Camilo; Meynard, Andrés; Lovazzano, Carlos; Castañeda, Francisco; Guajardo, Eduardo; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto

    2017-06-01

    The transcriptional modulation of desiccation tolerance factors in P. orbicularis explains its successful recuperation after water deficit. Differential responses to air exposure clarify seaweed distribution along intertidal rocky zones. Desiccation-tolerant seaweed species, such as Pyropia orbicularis, can tolerate near 96% water loss during air exposure. To understand the phenotypic plasticity of P. orbicularis to desiccation, several tolerance factors were assessed by RT-qPCR, Western-blot analysis, and enzymatic assays during the natural desiccation-rehydration cycle. Comparative enzymatic analyses were used to evidence differential responses between P. orbicularis and desiccation-sensitive species. The results showed that during desiccation, the relative mRNA levels of genes associated with basal metabolism [trehalose phosphate synthase (tps) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (pdh)] were overexpressed in P. orbicularis. Transcript levels related to antioxidant metabolism [peroxiredoxin (prx); thioredoxin (trx); catalase (cat); lipoxygenase (lox); ferredoxin (fnr); glutathione S-transferase (gst)], cellular detoxification [ABC transporter (abc) and ubiquitin (ubq)], and signal transduction [calmodulin (cam)] increased approximately 15- to 20-fold, with the majority returning to basal levels during the final hours of rehydration. In contrast, actin (act) and transcription factor 1 (tf1) transcripts were down-regulated. ABC transporter protein levels increased in P. orbicularis during desiccation, whereas PRX transcripts decreased. The antioxidant enzymes showed higher specific activity in P. orbicularis under desiccation, and sensitive species exhibited enzymatic inactivation and scarce ABC and PRX protein detection following prolonged desiccation. In conclusion, the reported findings contribute towards understanding the ecological distribution of intertidal seaweeds at the molecular and functional levels.

  12. The role of macromolecular stability in desiccation tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkers, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis concerns a study on the molecular interactions that play a role in the macromolecular stability of desiccation-tolerant higher plant organs. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy was used as the main experimental technique to assess macromolecular

  13. Desiccation tolerance of embryos of Syagrus oleracea, a cerrado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... There is great interest in seedling production of plant species with ornamental and food potential; however, there is great difficulty in propagating this species. A method of fruit drying was proposed with the goal of evaluating the desiccation tolerance of embryos of guariroba palm Syagrus oleracea.

  14. Tolerance to oxidative stress induced by desiccation in Porphyra columbina (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Thomas, Daniela; Flores, Verónica; Correa, Juan A

    2011-03-01

    Unravelling the mechanisms underlying desiccation tolerance is crucial in order to understand the position of algal species in the intertidal zone. The alga Porphyra columbina lives in the uppermost part of the rocky intertidal zones around the world and was selected as a model for this study. Naturally desiccated plants were collected during low tide and studied for morphological changes, oxidative burst induction, biomolecule oxidation, antioxidant responses, and photosynthetic status. Naturally hydrated plants collected during high tides were used for comparative purposes. In addition, changes induced by desiccation were assessed in vitro and the capacity to recover from desiccation was determined by rehydrating the fronds in seawater. The global results show that desiccation induces morphological and cellular alterations accompanied by a loss of ∼96% of the water content. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by desiccation and two peaks of H(2)O(2) were detected at 1 and 3 h of desiccation. However, during in vitro rehydration post-desiccation, the ROS quickly returned to the basal levels. At the biomolecular level, only a low production of oxidized proteins was recorded during desiccation, whereas the activity of diverse antioxidant enzymes increased. However, this activity diminished to near basal levels during rehydration. The photosynthetic efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) during desiccation declined by 94-96% of the values recorded in hydrated plants. This reduction was generated by the low levels of trapped energy flux per cross-section (TRo/CS), electron transport flux per CS (ETo/CS), and density of reaction centres (RC/SCo) as well as the chlorophyll content. The inverse pattern was observed for the levels of phycocyanin and phycoerythrin content. F(v)/F(m) and the photosynthetic indicators were restored to normal levels after only 5 min of rehydration. The results indicate that desiccation in P. columbina causes overproduction of ROS

  15. Compatible bacterial mixture, tolerant to desiccation, improves maize plant growth

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    Molina-Romero, Dalia; Baez, Antonino; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Castañeda-Lucio, Miguel; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis Ernesto; Bustillos-Cristales, María del Rocío; Rodríguez-Andrade, Osvaldo; Morales-García, Yolanda Elizabeth; Munive, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium) apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02) strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications. PMID:29117218

  16. Compatible bacterial mixture, tolerant to desiccation, improves maize plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Romero, Dalia; Baez, Antonino; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Castañeda-Lucio, Miguel; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis Ernesto; Bustillos-Cristales, María Del Rocío; Rodríguez-Andrade, Osvaldo; Morales-García, Yolanda Elizabeth; Munive, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium) apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02) strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications.

  17. Compatible bacterial mixture, tolerant to desiccation, improves maize plant growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Molina-Romero

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02 strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications.

  18. Mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in the bromeliad Pitcairnia burchellii Mez: biochemical adjustments and structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Evandro Alves; Silva, Kleber Resende; Oriani, Aline; Moro, Camila Fernandes; Braga, Marcia Regina

    2017-12-01

    Rocky outcrops represent the diversity center of vascular desiccation tolerant (DT) plants. Vegetation in this environment is exposed to an extended dry season and extreme conditions due to rocky soils and high sun exposure. In this study, we demonstrated that Pitcairnia burchellii, a bromeliad from rocky outcrops, tolerates intense desiccation for about 90 days due to strategies as accumulation of compatible osmolytes and antioxidant substances together with leaf morphological changes. In dehydrated plants, an increase in antioxidant activity was observed and the vacuolization of parenchyma cells was accompanied by proline accumulation in leaves and rhizomes. Precursors related to phenylpropanoid pathway increased significantly during plant dehydration. Accordingly, increases in anthocyanin and phenolic contents as well as lignin deposition were observed in leaves of dehydrated plants. Cell divisions and a decrease in stored starch were observed in the rhizomes indicating starch mobilization. Anatomical analyses revealed the presence of a more developed water-storage tissue in dehydrated leaves. During desiccation, leaves curl upwards and the adaxial V deep water-storage tissue is supported by two larger lateral vascular bundles. Cell wall folding and an increased proportion of arabinose-containing polymers was observed in leaves under dehydration, suggesting increasing of cell wall flexibility during desiccation. Such biochemical and morphological changes are consistent with the ability of P. burchellii to tolerate intense desiccation and behave as a resurrection species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The study of desiccation-tolerance in drying leaves of the desiccation-tolerant grass Sporobolus elongatus and the desiccation-sensitive grass Sporobolus pyramidalis.

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    Ghasempour, Hamid Reza; Kianian, Jahanbakheshe

    2007-03-01

    Hydrated leaves of the resurrection grass Sporobolus elongatus are not desiccation tolerant (DT), but moderate to severe drought stress can induce their DT with the leaves remain attach to drying intact plants. In vivo protein synthesis was studied with SDS-page of extracts of leaves of intact drying plants of S. elongatus (a desiccation-Tolerant grass (DT)) and S. pyramidalis (a desiccation-sensitive species (DS)). Free proline increased in drying leaves. Soluble sugar contents also increased with drying but were less than fully hydrated leaves at 8% RWC. Total protein also showed an increase with an exception at 8% RWC which showed a decrease. SDS-page of extracts of drying leaves of both DT and DS plants were studied as relative water contents (RWC) decreased. In first phase, DT species at 58% RWC (80-51% RWC range), two proteins increased in contents. In the second phase, at 8% (35-4% RWC range) two new bands increased and two bands decreased. In leaves of DS species some bands decreased as drying progressed. Also, as drying advanced free proline increased in DT species. Total protein increased as drying increased but at 8% RWC decreased. All data of results are consistent with current views about studied factors and their roles during drying and induction of desiccation tolerance in DT plants.

  20. Desiccation stress and tolerance in green algae: consequences for ultrastructure, physiological and molecular mechanisms

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    Holzinger, Andreas; Karsten, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although most green algae typically occur in aquatic ecosystems, many species also live partly or permanently under aeroterrestrial conditions, where the cells are exposed to the atmosphere and hence regularly experience dehydration. The ability of algal cells to survive in an air-dried state is termed desiccation tolerance. The mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance of green algae are still poorly understood, and hence the aim of this review is to summarize recent findings on the effects of desiccation and osmotic water loss. Starting from structural changes, physiological, and biochemical consequences of desiccation will be addressed in different green-algal lineages. The available data clearly indicate a range of strategies, which are rather different in streptophycean and non-streptophycean green algae. While members of the Trebouxiophyceae exhibit effective water loss-prevention mechanisms based on the biosynthesis and accumulation of particular organic osmolytes such as polyols, these compounds are so far not reported in representatives of the Streptophyta. In members of the Streptophyta such as Klebsormidium, the most striking observation is the appearance of cross-walls in desiccated samples, which are strongly undulating, suggesting a high degree of mechanical flexibility. This aids in maintaining structural integrity in the dried state and allows the cell to maintain turgor pressure for a prolonged period of time during the dehydration process. Physiological strategies in aeroterrestrial green algae generally include a rapid reduction of photosynthesis during desiccation, but also a rather quick recovery after rewetting, whereas aquatic species are sensitive to drying. The underlying mechanisms such as the affected molecular components of the photosynthetic machinery are poorly understood in green algae. Therefore, modern approaches based on transcriptomics, proteomics, and/or metabolomics are urgently needed to better understand the molecular

  1. Desiccation stress and tolerance in green algae: Consequences for ultrastructure, physiological and molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHolzinger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Although most green algae typically occur in aquatic ecosystems, many species also live partly or permanently under aeroterrestrial conditions, where the cells are exposed to the atmosphere and hence regularly experience dehydration. The ability of algal cells to survive in an air-dried state is termed desiccation tolerance. The mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance of green algae are still poorly understood, and hence the aim of this review is to summarize recent findings on the effects of desiccation and osmotic water loss. Starting from structural changes, physiological and biochemical consequences of desiccation will be addressed in different green-algal lineages. The available data clearly indicate a range of strategies, which are rather different in streptophycean and non-streptophycean green algae. For example, Trebouxiophyceae exhibit effective water loss-prevention mechanisms based on the biosynthesis and accumulation of particular organic osmolytes such as polyols, these compounds are so far not reported in representatives of the Streptophyta. In members of the Streptophyta such as Klebsormidium, the most striking observation is the appearance of cross-walls in desiccated samples, which are strongly undulating, suggesting a high degree of mechanical flexibility. This allows the cell to maintain turgor pressure for a prolonged period of time during the dehydration process. Physiological strategies in aeroterrestrial green algae generally include a rapid reduction of photosynthesis during desiccation, but also a rather quick recovery after rewetting, whereas aquatic species are sensitive to drying. The underlying mechanisms such as the affected molecular components of the photosynthetic machinery are poorly understood in green algae. Therefore, modern approaches based on transcriptomics, proteomics and/or metabolomics are urgently needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in desiccation-stress physiology of

  2. Differential gene expression in Pyropia columbina (Bangiales, Rhodophyta under natural hydration and desiccation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretto Contreras-Porcia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In rocky shores, desiccation is triggered by daily tide changes, and experimental evidence suggests that local distribution of algal species across the intertidal rocky zone is related to their capacity to tolerate desiccation. In this context, the permanence of Pyropia columbina in the high intertidal rocky zone is explained by its exceptional physiological tolerance to desiccation. This study explored the metabolic pathways involved in tolerance to desiccation in the Chilean P. columbina, by characterizing its transcriptome under contrasting conditions of hydration. We obtained 1,410 ESTs from two subtracted cDNA libraries in naturally hydrated and desiccated fronds. Results indicate that transcriptome from both libraries contain transcripts from diverse metabolic pathways related to tolerance. Among the transcripts differentially expressed, 15% appears involved in protein synthesis, processing and degradation, 14.4% are related to photosynthesis and chloroplast, 13.1% to respiration and mitochondrial function (NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase proteins, 10.6% to cell wall metabolism, and 7.5% are involved in antioxidant activity, chaperone and defense factors (catalase, thioredoxin, heat shock proteins, cytochrome P450. Both libraries highlight the presence of genes/proteins never described before in algae. This information provides the first molecular work regarding desiccation tolerance in P. columbina, and helps, to some extent, explaining the classical patterns of ecological distribution described for algae across the intertidal zone.

  3. Variation of desiccation tolerance and longevity in fern spores.

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    Ballesteros, Daniel; Hill, Lisa M; Walters, Christina

    2017-04-01

    This work contributes to the understanding of plant cell responses to extreme water stress when it is applied at different intensity and duration. Fern spores are used to explore survival at relative humidity (RH)moisture level. A RH of 10-25% corresponds well to sorption behavior parameters and is below the glass transition, measured using differential scanning calorimetry. Though response to RH was similar among species, the kinetics of deterioration varied considerably among species and this implies differences in the structure or mobility of molecules within the solidified cytoplasm. Our work suggests that desiccation damage occurs in desiccation tolerant cells, and that it is expressed as a time-dependent response, otherwise known as aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Proteomics of desiccation tolerance during development and germination of maize embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2012-02-02

    Maize seeds were used to identify the key embryo proteins involved in desiccation tolerance during development and germination. Immature maize embryos (28N) during development and mature embryos imbibed for 72 h (72HN) are desiccation sensitive. Mature maize embryos (52N) during development are desiccation tolerant. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and hydrogen peroxide contents decreased and increased with acquisition and loss of desiccation tolerance, respectively. A total of 111 protein spots changed significantly (1.5 fold increase/decrease) in desiccation-tolerant and -sensitive embryos before (28N, 52N and 72HN) and after (28D, 52D and 72HD) dehydration. Nine pre-dominantly proteins, 17.4 kDa Class I heat shock protein 3, late embryogenesis abundant protein EMB564, outer membrane protein, globulin 2, TPA:putative cystatin, NBS-LRR resistance-like protein RGC456, stress responsive protein, major allergen Bet v 1.01C and proteasome subunit alpha type 1, accumulated during embryo maturation, decreased during germination and increased in desiccation-tolerant embryos during desiccation. Two proteins, Rhd6-like 2 and low-molecular-weight heat shock protein precursor, showed the inverse pattern. We infer that these eleven proteins are involved in seed desiccation tolerance. We conclude that desiccation-tolerant embryos make more economical use of their resources to accumulate protective molecules and antioxidant systems to deal with maturation drying and desiccation treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Large-scale proteome analysis of abscisic acid and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3-dependent proteins related to desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsui, Izumi; Serada, Satoshi; Naka, Tetsuji; Saruhashi, Masashi; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Quatrano, Ralph S.; Sakata, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance is an ancestral feature of land plants and is still retained in non-vascular plants such as bryophytes and some vascular plants. However, except for seeds and spores, this trait is absent in vegetative tissues of vascular plants. Although many studies have focused on understanding the molecular basis underlying desiccation tolerance using transcriptome and proteome approaches, the critical molecular differences between desiccation tolerant plants and non-desiccation plants are still not clear. The moss Physcomitrella patens cannot survive rapid desiccation under laboratory conditions, but if cells of the protonemata are treated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to desiccation, it can survive 24 h exposure to desiccation and regrow after rehydration. The desiccation tolerance induced by ABA (AiDT) is specific to this hormone, but also depends on a plant transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). Here we report the comparative proteomic analysis of AiDT between wild type and ABI3 deleted mutant (Δabi3) of P. patens using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification). From a total of 1980 unique proteins that we identified, only 16 proteins are significantly altered in Δabi3 compared to wild type after desiccation following ABA treatment. Among this group, three of the four proteins that were severely affected in Δabi3 tissue were Arabidopsis orthologous genes, which were expressed in maturing seeds under the regulation of ABI3. These included a Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, a short-chain dehydrogenase, and a desiccation-related protein. Our results suggest that at least three of these proteins expressed in desiccation tolerant cells of both Arabidopsis and the moss are very likely to play important roles in acquisition of desiccation tolerance in land plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulatory machinery of ABA- and ABI3-mediated gene expression for desiccation

  6. Large-scale proteome analysis of abscisic acid and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3-dependent proteins related to desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yotsui, Izumi, E-mail: izumi.yotsui@riken.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Serada, Satoshi, E-mail: serada@nibiohn.go.jp [Laboratory of Immune Signal, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0085 (Japan); Naka, Tetsuji, E-mail: tnaka@nibiohn.go.jp [Laboratory of Immune Signal, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0085 (Japan); Saruhashi, Masashi, E-mail: s13db001@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Taji, Teruaki, E-mail: t3teruak@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Hayashi, Takahisa, E-mail: t4hayash@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Quatrano, Ralph S., E-mail: rsq@wustl.edu [Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, 63130-4899 (United States); Sakata, Yoichi, E-mail: sakata@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan)

    2016-03-18

    Desiccation tolerance is an ancestral feature of land plants and is still retained in non-vascular plants such as bryophytes and some vascular plants. However, except for seeds and spores, this trait is absent in vegetative tissues of vascular plants. Although many studies have focused on understanding the molecular basis underlying desiccation tolerance using transcriptome and proteome approaches, the critical molecular differences between desiccation tolerant plants and non-desiccation plants are still not clear. The moss Physcomitrella patens cannot survive rapid desiccation under laboratory conditions, but if cells of the protonemata are treated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to desiccation, it can survive 24 h exposure to desiccation and regrow after rehydration. The desiccation tolerance induced by ABA (AiDT) is specific to this hormone, but also depends on a plant transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). Here we report the comparative proteomic analysis of AiDT between wild type and ABI3 deleted mutant (Δabi3) of P. patens using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification). From a total of 1980 unique proteins that we identified, only 16 proteins are significantly altered in Δabi3 compared to wild type after desiccation following ABA treatment. Among this group, three of the four proteins that were severely affected in Δabi3 tissue were Arabidopsis orthologous genes, which were expressed in maturing seeds under the regulation of ABI3. These included a Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, a short-chain dehydrogenase, and a desiccation-related protein. Our results suggest that at least three of these proteins expressed in desiccation tolerant cells of both Arabidopsis and the moss are very likely to play important roles in acquisition of desiccation tolerance in land plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulatory machinery of ABA- and ABI3-mediated gene expression for desiccation

  7. Enhanced Desiccation Tolerance In Mature Cultures Of The Streptophytic Green Alga Zygnema circumcarinatum Revealed By Transcriptomics

    OpenAIRE

    Rippin, Martin; Becker, Burkhard; Holzinger, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance is commonly regarded as one of the key features for the colonization of terrestrial habitats by green algae and the evolution of land plants. Extensive studies, focused mostly on physiology, have been carried out assessing the desiccation tolerance and resilience of the streptophytic genera Klebsormidium and Zygnema. Here we present transcriptomic analyses of Zygnema circumcarinatum exposed to desiccation stress. Cultures of Z. circumcarinatum, grown in liquid medium or ...

  8. Exploring the mechanism of Physcomitrella patens desiccation tolerance through a proteomic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Qin; Yang, Ping Fang; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Wei Zhong; Hu, Yong; Chen, Hui; Kuang, Ting Yun; Pei, Zhen Ming; Shen, Shi Hua; He, Yi Kun

    2009-04-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens has been shown to tolerate abiotic stresses, including salinity, cold, and desiccation. To better understand this plant's mechanism of desiccation tolerance, we have applied cellular and proteomic analyses. Gametophores were desiccated over 1 month to 10% of their original fresh weight. We report that during the course of dehydration, several related processes are set in motion: plasmolysis, chloroplast remodeling, and microtubule depolymerization. Despite the severe desiccation, the membrane system maintains integrity. Through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and image analysis, we identified 71 proteins as desiccation responsive. Following identification and functional categorization, we found that a majority of the desiccation-responsive proteins were involved in metabolism, cytoskeleton, defense, and signaling. Degradation of cytoskeletal proteins might result in cytoskeletal disassembly and consequent changes in the cell structure. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes are both prominently induced, and they might help to diminish the damage brought by desiccation.

  9. Desiccation tolerance, longevity and seed-siring ability of entomophilous pollen from UK native orchid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Timothy R; Seaton, Philip T; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2014-09-01

    Pollinator-limited seed-set in some terrestrial orchids is compensated for by the presence of long-lived flowers. This study tests the hypothesis that pollen from these insect-pollinated orchids should be desiccation tolerant and relatively long lived using four closely related UK terrestrial species; Anacamptis morio, Dactylorhiza fuchsii, D. maculata and Orchis mascula. Pollen from the four species was harvested from inflorescences and germinated in vitro, both immediately and also after drying to simulate interflower transit. Their tolerance to desiccation and short-term survival was additionally assessed after 3 d equilibration at a range of relative humidities (RHs), and related to constructed sorption isotherms (RH vs. moisture content, MC). Ageing of D. fuchsii pollen was further tested over 2 months against temperature and RH, and the resultant survival curves were subjected to probit analysis, and the distribution of pollen death in time (σ) was determined. The viability and siring ability, following artificial pollinations, were determined in D. fuchsii pollen following storage for 6 years at -20 °C. The pollen from all four species exhibited systematic increases in germinability and desiccation tolerance as anthesis approached, and pollen from open flowers generally retained high germinability. Short-term storage revealed sensitivity to low RH, whilst optimum survival occurred at comparable RHs in all species. Similarly, estimated pollen life spans (σ) at differing temperatures were longest under the dry conditions. Despite a reduction in germination and seeds per capsule, long-term storage of D. fuchsii pollen did not impact on subsequent seed germination in vitro. Substantial pollen desiccation tolerance and life span of the four entomophilous orchids reflects a resilient survival strategy in response to unpredictable pollinator visitation, and presents an alternative approach to germplasm conservation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford

  10. Effects of desiccation and starvation on thermal tolerance and the heat-shock response in forest ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew D; DeNovellis, Kerri; Resendez, Skyler; Pustilnik, Jeremy D; Gotelli, Nicholas J; Parker, Joel D; Cahan, Sara Helms

    2017-12-01

    Temperature increases associated with global climate change are likely to be accompanied by additional environmental stressors such as desiccation and food limitation, which may alter how temperature impacts organismal performance. To investigate how interactions between stressors influence thermal tolerance in the common forest ant, Aphaenogaster picea, we compared the thermal resistance of workers to heat shock with and without pre-exposure to desiccation or starvation stress. Knockdown (KD) time at 40.5 °C of desiccated ants was reduced 6% compared to controls, although longer exposure to desiccation did not further reduce thermal tolerance. Starvation, in contrast, had an increasingly severe effect on thermal tolerance: at 21 days, average KD time of starved ants was reduced by 65% compared to controls. To test whether reduction in thermal tolerance results from impairment of the heat-shock response, we measured basal gene expression and transcriptional induction of two heat-shock proteins (hsp70 and hsp40) in treated and control ants. We found no evidence that either stressor impaired the Hsp response: both desiccation and starvation slightly increased basal Hsp expression under severe stress conditions and did not affect the magnitude of induction under heat shock. These results suggest that the co-occurrence of multiple environmental stressors predicted by climate change models may make populations more vulnerable to future warming than is suggested by the results of single-factor heating experiments.

  11. Proteomics of seed development, desiccation tolerance, germination and vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Song-Quan; Møller, Ian Max

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics, the large-scale study of the total complement of proteins in a given sample, has been applied to all aspects of seed biology mainly using model species such as Arabidopsis or important agricultural crops such as corn and rice. Proteins extracted from the sample have typically been separated and quantified by 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify the proteins in the gel spots. In this way, qualitative and quantitative changes in the proteome during seed development, desiccation tolerance, germination, dormancy release, vigor alteration and responses to environmental factors have all been studied. Many proteins or biological processes potentially important for each seed process have been highlighted by these studies, which greatly expands our knowledge of seed biology. Proteins that have been identified to be particularly important for at least two of the seed processes are involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the cytoskeleton, glycolysis, protein biosynthesis, post-translational modifications, methionine metabolism, and late embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins. It will be useful for molecular biologists and molecular plant breeders to identify and study genes encoding particularly interesting target proteins with the aim to improve the yield, stress tolerance or other critical properties of our crop species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteomics of desiccation tolerance during development and germination of maize embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hui; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Maize seeds were used to identify the key embryo proteins involved in desiccation tolerance during development and germination. Immature maize embryos (28N) during development and mature embryos imbibed for 72 h (72HN) are desiccation sensitive. Mature maize embryos (52N) during development...

  13. Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Rask; Holmstrup, Martin; Malmendal, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, is a common species in temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The egg capsules ('cocoons') of D. octaedra are deposited in the upper soil layers where they may be exposed to desiccation. Many previous studies on desiccation tolerance in so...

  14. Role of trehalose in heat and desiccation tolerance in the soil bacterium Rhizobium etli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina-Bueno Mercedes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The compatible solute trehalose is involved in the osmostress response of Rhizobium etli, the microsymbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris. In this work, we reconstructed trehalose metabolism in R. etli, and investigated its role in cellular adaptation and survival to heat and desiccation stress under free living conditions. Results Besides trehalose as major compatible solute, R. etli CE3 also accumulated glutamate and, if present in the medium, mannitol. Putative genes for trehalose synthesis (otsAB/treS/treZY, uptake (aglEFGK/thuEFGK and degradation (thuAB/treC were scattered among the chromosome and plasmids p42a, p42c, p42e, and p42f, and in some instances found redundant. Two copies of the otsA gene, encoding trehalose-6-P-synthase, were located in the chromosome (otsAch and plasmid p42a (otsAa, and the latter seemed to be acquired by horizontal transfer. High temperature alone did not influence growth of R. etli, but a combination of high temperature and osmotic stress was more deleterious for growth than osmotic stress alone. Although high temperature induced some trehalose synthesis by R. etli, trehalose biosynthesis was mainly triggered by osmotic stress. However, an otsAch mutant, unable to synthesize trehalose in minimal medium, showed impaired growth at high temperature, suggesting that trehalose plays a role in thermoprotection of R. etli. Desiccation tolerance by R. etli wild type cells was dependent of high trehalose production by osmotic pre-conditioned cells. Cells of the mutant strain otsAch showed ca. 3-fold lower survival levels than the wild type strain after drying, and a null viability after 4 days storage. Conclusions Our findings suggest a beneficial effect of osmotic stress in R. etli tolerance to desiccation, and an important role of trehalose on the response of R. etli to high temperature and desiccation stress.

  15. Extended periods of hydration do not elicit dehardening to desiccation tolerance in regeneration trials of the moss Syntrichia caninervis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehardening (deacclimation) to water stress is seldom studied in plants, and yet is an integral phase of desiccation tolerance. Most bryophytes are desiccation tolerant (DT), and yet even fully DT species lose a significant portion of their ability to withstand desiccation if dehardened. Shoots of t...

  16. Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christina R; Holmstrup, Martin; Malmendal, Anders; Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes

    2008-06-01

    The earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, is a common species in temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The egg capsules ('cocoons') of D. octaedra are deposited in the upper soil layers where they may be exposed to desiccation. Many previous studies on desiccation tolerance in soil invertebrates have examined acute exposure to harsh desiccating conditions, however, these animals are often more likely to be exposed to a gradually increasing drought stress. In the present study we slowly desiccated D. octaedra cocoons to simulate ecologically realistic drought conditions and the results clearly demonstrate that gradually dehydrated cocoons show an increased tolerance of extreme drought compared with acutely dehydrated cocoons. NMR spectroscopic analysis of compatible osmolytes revealed the presence of sorbitol, glucose, betaine, alanine and mannitol in dehydrated embryos. The superior drought survival of gradually desiccated embryos could partly be attributed to a higher accumulation of osmolytes (especially sorbitol). Thus, gradually and acutely desiccated embryos accumulated approximately 2 mol l(-1) and 1 mol l(-1) total osmolytes, respectively. However, in addition to osmolyte accumulation, the gradually desiccated cocoons also tolerated a higher degree of water loss, demonstrating that gradually dehydrated D. octaedra cocoons are able to survive loss of approximately 95% of the original water content. Although D. octaedra embryos can probably not be categorized as a truly anhydrobiotic organism we propose that they belong in a transition zone between the desiccation sensitive and the truly anhydrobiotic organisms. Clearly, these earthworm embryos share many physiological traits with anhydrobiotic organisms.

  17. Nitrogen limitation and slow drying induce desiccation tolerance in conjugating green algae (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta from polar habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Pichrtová

    Full Text Available Filamentous Zygnematophyceae are typical components of algal mats in the polar hydro-terrestrial environment. Under field conditions, they form senescent vegetative cells, designated as pre-akinetes, which are tolerant to desiccation and osmotic stress.Pre-akinete formation and desiccation tolerance was investigated experimentally under monitored laboratory conditions in four strains of Arctic and Antarctic isolates with vegetative Zygnema sp. morphology. Phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences revealed one Arctic strain as genus Zygnemopsis, phylogenetically distant from the closely related Zygnema strains. Algae were cultivated in liquid or on solidified medium (9 weeks, supplemented with or lacking nitrogen. Nitrogen-free cultures (liquid as well as solidified consisted of well-developed pre-akinetes after this period. Desiccation experiments were performed at three different drying rates (rapid: 10% relative humidity, slow: 86% rh and very slow; viability, effective quantum yield of PS II, visual and ultrastructural changes were monitored. Recovery and viability of pre-akinetes were clearly dependent on the drying rate: slower desiccation led to higher levels of survival. Pre-akinetes survived rapid drying after acclimation by very slow desiccation.The formation of pre-akinetes in polar Zygnema spp. and Zygnemopsis sp. is induced by nitrogen limitation. Pre-akinetes, modified vegetative cells, rather than specialized stages of the life cycle, can be hardened by mild desiccation stress to survive rapid drying. Naturally hardened pre-akinetes play a key role in stress tolerance and dispersal under the extreme conditions of polar regions, where sexual reproduction and production of dormant stages is largely suppressed.

  18. Nitrogen limitation and slow drying induce desiccation tolerance in conjugating green algae (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) from polar habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichrtová, Martina; Kulichová, Jana; Holzinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous Zygnematophyceae are typical components of algal mats in the polar hydro-terrestrial environment. Under field conditions, they form senescent vegetative cells, designated as pre-akinetes, which are tolerant to desiccation and osmotic stress. Pre-akinete formation and desiccation tolerance was investigated experimentally under monitored laboratory conditions in four strains of Arctic and Antarctic isolates with vegetative Zygnema sp. morphology. Phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences revealed one Arctic strain as genus Zygnemopsis, phylogenetically distant from the closely related Zygnema strains. Algae were cultivated in liquid or on solidified medium (9 weeks), supplemented with or lacking nitrogen. Nitrogen-free cultures (liquid as well as solidified) consisted of well-developed pre-akinetes after this period. Desiccation experiments were performed at three different drying rates (rapid: 10% relative humidity, slow: 86% rh and very slow); viability, effective quantum yield of PS II, visual and ultrastructural changes were monitored. Recovery and viability of pre-akinetes were clearly dependent on the drying rate: slower desiccation led to higher levels of survival. Pre-akinetes survived rapid drying after acclimation by very slow desiccation. The formation of pre-akinetes in polar Zygnema spp. and Zygnemopsis sp. is induced by nitrogen limitation. Pre-akinetes, modified vegetative cells, rather than specialized stages of the life cycle, can be hardened by mild desiccation stress to survive rapid drying. Naturally hardened pre-akinetes play a key role in stress tolerance and dispersal under the extreme conditions of polar regions, where sexual reproduction and production of dormant stages is largely suppressed.

  19. Plant Drought Tolerance Enhancement by Trehalose Production of Desiccation-Tolerant Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Vilchez Morillas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A collection of desiccation-tolerant xeroprotectant-producing microorganisms was screened for their ability to protect plants against drought, and their role as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria was investigated in two different crops (tomato and pepper. The most commonly described biochemical mechanisms for plant protection against drought by microorganisms including the production of phytohormones, antioxidants and xeroprotectants were analyzed. In particular, the degree of plant protection against drought provided by these microorganisms was characterized. After studying the findings and comparing them with results of the closest taxonomic relatives at the species and strain levels, we propose that trehalose produced by these microorganisms is correlated with their ability to protect plants against drought. This proposal is based on the increased protection of plants against drought by the desiccation-sensitive microorganism Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which expresses the otsAB genes for trehalose biosynthesis in trans.

  20. Change in desiccation tolerance of maize embryos during development and germination at different water potential PEG-6000 in relation to oxidative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Song, Songquan

    2013-07-01

    Desiccation tolerance is one of the most important traits determining seed survival during storage and under stress conditions. However, the mechanism of seed desiccation tolerance is still unclear in detail. In the present study, we used a combined model system, desiccation-tolerant and -sensitive maize embryos with identical genetic background, to investigate the changes in desiccation tolerance, malonyldialdehyde (MDA) level, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content and antioxidant enzyme activity during seed development and germination in 0, -0.6 and -1.2 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 solutions. Our results indicated that maize embryos gradually acquired and lost desiccation tolerance during development and germination, respectively. The acquirement and loss of desiccation tolerance of embryos during development and germination were related to the ability of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to control MDA content. Compared with treatment in water, PEG-6000 treatment could markedly delay the loss of desiccation tolerance of germinating embryos by delaying water uptake and time course of germination, increasing GR activity and decreasing MDA content. Our data showed the combination of antioxidant enzyme activity and MDA content is a good parameter for assessing the desiccation tolerance of maize embryos. In addition, H₂O₂ accumulated in mature embryos and PEG-treated embryos after drying, which was at least partially related to a longer embryo/seedling length in rehydration and the physiological mechanisms of priming. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Identification of Novel Desiccation-Tolerant S. cerevisiae Strains for Deep Space Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieze, Sofia Massaro; Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Liddell, Lauren C.; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    NASA's BioSentinel mission, a secondary payload that will fly on the Space Launch System's first Exploration Mission (EM-1), utilizes the budding yeast S. cerevisiae to study the biological response to the deep space radiation environment. Yeast samples are desiccated prior to launch to suspend growth and metabolism while the spacecraft travels to its target heliocentric orbit beyond Low Earth Orbit. Each sample is then rehydrated at the desired time points to reactivate the cells. A major risk in this mission is the loss of cell viability that occurs in the recovery period following the desiccation and rehydration process. Cell survival is essential for the detection of the biological response to features in the deep space environment, including ionizing radiation. The aim of this study is to mitigate viable cell loss in future biosensors by identifying mutations and genes that confer tolerance to desiccation stress in rad51, a radiation-sensitive yeast strain. We initiated a screen for desiccation-tolerance after rehydrating cells that were desiccated for three years, and selected various clones exhibiting robust growth. To verify retention of radiation sensitivity in the isolated clones - a crucial feature for a successful biosensor - we exposed them to ionizing radiation. Finally, to elucidate the genetic and molecular bases for observed desiccation-tolerance, we will perform whole-genome sequencing of those rad51 clones that exhibit both robust growth and radiation sensitivity following desiccation. The identification and characterization of desiccation-tolerant strains will allow us to engineer a biological model that will be resilient in face of the challenges of the deep space environment, and will thus ensure the experimental success of future biosensor missions.

  2. Enhanced Desiccation Tolerance in Mature Cultures of the Streptophytic Green Alga Zygnema circumcarinatum Revealed by Transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippin, Martin; Becker, Burkhard; Holzinger, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Desiccation tolerance is commonly regarded as one of the key features for the colonization of terrestrial habitats by green algae and the evolution of land plants. Extensive studies, focused mostly on physiology, have been carried out assessing the desiccation tolerance and resilience of the streptophytic genera Klebsormidium and Zygnema. Here we present transcriptomic analyses of Zygnema circumcarinatum exposed to desiccation stress. Cultures of Z. circumcarinatum grown in liquid medium or on agar plates were desiccated at ∼86% relative air humidity until the effective quantum yield of PSII [Y(II)] ceased. In general, the response to dehydration was much more pronounced in Z. circumcarinatum cultured in liquid medium for 1 month compared with filaments grown on agar plates for 7 and 12 months. Culture on solid medium enables the alga to acclimate to dehydration much better and an increase in desiccation tolerance was clearly correlated to increased culture age. Moreover, gene expression analysis revealed that photosynthesis was strongly repressed upon desiccation treatment in the liquid culture while only minor effects were detected in filaments cultured on agar plates for 7 months. Otherwise, both samples showed induction of stress protection mechanisms such as reactive oxygen species scavenging (early light-induced proteins, glutathione metabolism) and DNA repair as well as the expression of chaperones and aquaporins. Additionally, Z. circumcarinatum cultured in liquid medium upregulated sucrose-synthesizing enzymes and strongly induced membrane modifications in response to desiccation stress. These results corroborate the previously described hardening and associated desiccation tolerance in Zygnema in response to seasonal fluctuations in water availability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  3. Identification of Novel Desiccation-Tolerant S. cerevisiae Strains for Deep Space Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieze, Sofia Massaro; Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Liddell, Lauren; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    NASA's BioSentinel mission, a secondary payload that will fly on the Space Launch Systems first Exploration Mission (EM-1), utilizes the budding yeast S. cerevisiae to study the biological response to the deep space radiation environment. Yeast samples are desiccated prior to launch to suspend growth and metabolism while the spacecraft travels to its target heliocentric orbit beyond Low Earth Orbit. Each sample is then rehydrated at the desired time points to reactivate the cells. A major risk in this mission is the loss of cell viability that occurs in the recovery period following the desiccation and rehydration process. Cell survival is essential for the detection of the biological response to features in the deep space environment, including ionizing radiation.The aim of this study is to mitigate viable cell loss in future biosensors by identifying mutations and genes that confer tolerance to desiccation stress in rad51, a radiation-sensitive yeast strain. We initiated a screen for desiccation-tolerance after rehydrating cells that were desiccated for three years, and selected various clones exhibiting robust growth. To verify retention of radiation sensitivity in the isolated clonesa crucial feature for a successful biosensorwe exposed them to ionizing radiation. Finally, to elucidate the genetic and molecular bases for observed desiccation-tolerance, we will perform whole-genome sequencing of those rad51 clones that exhibit both robust growth and radiation sensitivity following desiccation. The identification and characterization of desiccation-tolerant strains will allow us to engineer a biological model that will be resilient in face of the challenges of the deep space environment, and will thus ensure the experimental success of future biosensor missions.

  4. Physiological, cellular and molecular aspects of the desiccation tolerance in Anadenanthera colubrina seeds during germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Castro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During germination, orthodox seeds become gradually intolerant to desiccation, and for this reason, they are a good model for recalcitrance studies. In the present work, physiological, biochemical, and ultrastructural aspects of the desiccation tolerance were characterized during the germination process of Anadenanthera colubrina seeds. The seeds were imbibed during zero (control, 2, 8, 12 (no germinated seeds, and 18 hours (germinated seeds with 1 mm protruded radicle; then they were dried for 72 hours, rehydrated and evaluated for survivorship. Along the imbibition, cytometric and ultrastructural analysis were performed, besides the extraction of the heat-stable proteins. Posteriorly to imbibition and drying, the evaluation of ultrastructural damages was performed. Desiccation tolerance was fully lost after root protrusion. There was no increase in 4C DNA content after the loss of desiccation tolerance. Ultrastructural characteristics of cells from 1mm roots resembled those found in the recalcitrant seeds, in both hydrated and dehydrated states. The loss of desiccation tolerance coincided with the reduction of heat-stable proteins.

  5. Transcriptomics of desiccation tolerance in the streptophyte green alga Klebsormidium reveal a land plant-like defense reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Holzinger

    Full Text Available Water loss has significant effects on physiological performance and survival rates of algae. However, despite the prominent presence of aeroterrestrial algae in terrestrial habitats, hardly anything is known about the molecular events that allow aeroterrestrial algae to survive harsh environmental conditions. We analyzed the transcriptome and physiology of a strain of the alpine aeroterrestrial alga Klebsormidium crenulatum under control and strong desiccation-stress conditions.For comparison we first established a reference transcriptome. The high-coverage reference transcriptome includes about 24,183 sequences (1.5 million reads, 636 million bases. The reference transcriptome encodes for all major pathways (energy, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, sugars, nearly all deduced pathways are complete or missing only a few transcripts. Upon strong desiccation, more than 7000 transcripts showed changes in their expression levels. Most of the highest up-regulated transcripts do not show similarity to known viridiplant proteins, suggesting the existence of some genus- or species-specific responses to desiccation. In addition, we observed the up-regulation of many transcripts involved in desiccation tolerance in plants (e.g. proteins similar to those that are abundant in late embryogenesis (LEA, or proteins involved in early response to desiccation ERD, and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFO known to act as osmolytes. Major physiological shifts are the up-regulation of transcripts for photosynthesis, energy production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism, which is supported by elevated cellular glutathione content as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy as well as an increase in total antiradical power. However, the effective quantum yield of Photosystem II and CO2 fixation decreased sharply under the applied desiccation stress. In contrast, transcripts for cell integrative functions such as

  6. Survival of Deinococcus geothermalis in Biofilms under Desiccation and Simulated Space and Martian Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frösler, Jan; Panitz, Corinna; Wingender, Jost; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Rettberg, Petra

    2017-05-01

    Biofilm formation represents a successful survival strategy for bacteria. In biofilms, cells are embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As they are often more stress-tolerant than single cells, biofilm cells might survive the conditions present in space and on Mars. To investigate this topic, the bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis was chosen as a model organism due to its tolerance toward desiccation and radiation. Biofilms cultivated on membranes and, for comparison, planktonically grown cells deposited on membranes were air-dried and exposed to individual stressors that included prolonged desiccation, extreme temperatures, vacuum, simulated martian atmosphere, and UV irradiation, and they were exposed to combinations of stressors that simulate space (desiccation + vacuum + UV) or martian (desiccation + Mars atmosphere + UV) conditions. The effect of sulfatic Mars regolith simulant on cell viability during stress was investigated separately. The EPS produced by the biofilm cells contained mainly polysaccharides and proteins. To detect viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells, cultivation-independent viability indicators (membrane integrity, ATP, 16S rRNA) were determined in addition to colony counts. Desiccation for 2 months resulted in a decrease of culturability with minor changes of membrane integrity in biofilm cells and major loss of membrane integrity in planktonic bacteria. Temperatures between -25°C and +60°C, vacuum, and Mars atmosphere affected neither culturability nor membrane integrity in both phenotypes. Monochromatic (254 nm; ≥1 kJ m-2) and polychromatic (200-400 nm; >5.5 MJ m-2 for planktonic cells and >270 MJ m-2 for biofilms) UV irradiation significantly reduced the culturability of D. geothermalis but did not affect cultivation-independent viability markers, indicating the induction of a VBNC state in UV-irradiated cells. In conclusion, a substantial proportion of the D. geothermalis population remained viable under

  7. Dehydration rate determines the degree of membrane damage and desiccation tolerance in bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz de Carvalho, Ricardo; Catalá, Myriam; Branquinho, Cristina; Marques da Silva, Jorge; Barreno, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Desiccation tolerant (DT) organisms are able to withstand an extended loss of body water and rapidly resume metabolism upon rehydration. This ability, however, is strongly dependent on a slow dehydration rate. Fast dehydration affects membrane integrity leading to intracellular solute leakage upon rehydration and thereby impairs metabolism recovery. We test the hypothesis that the increased cell membrane damage and membrane permeability observed under fast dehydration, compared with slow dehydration, is related to an increase in lipid peroxidation. Our results reject this hypothesis because following rehydration lipid peroxidation remains unaltered, a fact that could be due to the high increase of NO upon rehydration. However, in fast-dried samples we found a strong signal of red autofluorescence upon rehydration, which correlates with an increase in ROS production and with membrane leakage, particularly the case of phenolics. This could be used as a bioindicator of oxidative stress and membrane damage. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Biosentinel: Improving Desiccation Tolerance of Yeast Biosensors for Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Sawan; Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Liddell, Lauren; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    BioSentinel is one of 13 secondary payloads to be deployed on Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2019. We will use the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a biosensor to determine how deep-space radiation affects living organisms and to potentially quantify radiation levels through radiation damage analysis. Radiation can damage DNA through double strand breaks (DSBs), which can normally be repaired by homologous recombination. Two yeast strains will be air-dried and stored in microfluidic cards within the payload: a wild-type control strain and a radiation sensitive rad51 mutant that is deficient in DSB repairs. Throughout the mission, the microfluidic cards will be rehydrated with growth medium and an indicator dye. Growth rates of each strain will be measured through LED detection of the reduction of the indicator dye, which correlates with DNA repair and the amount of radiation damage accumulated. Results from BioSentinel will be compared to analog experiments on the ISS and on Earth. It is well known that desiccation can damage yeast cells and decrease viability over time. We performed a screen for desiccation-tolerant rad51 strains. We selected 20 re-isolates of rad51 and ran a weekly screen for desiccation-tolerant mutants for five weeks. Our data shows that viability decreases over time, confirming previous research findings. Isolates L2, L5 and L14 indicate desiccation tolerance and are candidates for whole-genome sequencing. More time is needed to determine whether a specific strain is truly desiccation tolerant. Furthermore, we conducted an intracellular trehalose assay to test how intracellular trehalose concentrations affect or protect the mutant strains against desiccation stress. S. cerevisiae cell and reagent concentrations from a previously established intracellular trehalose protocol did not yield significant absorbance measurements, so we tested varying cell and reagent concentrations and determined proper concentrations for successful

  9. Loss of desiccation tolerance in Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. seeds during germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WVS. Pereira

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the loss of desiccation tolerance in C. langsdorffii seeds during the germination process. Seeds were imbibed for 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours and dried to the initial moisture content, kept in this state for 3 days after which they were submitted to pre-humidification and rehydration. Ultraestructural evaluations were done aiming to observe the cell damage caused by the dry process. Desiccation tolerance was evaluated in terms of the percentage of normal seedlings. Seeds not submitted to the drying process presented 61% of normal seedlings, and after 24 hours of imbibition, followed by drying, the seeds presented the same percentage of survival. However, after 48 hours of imbibition, seeds started to lose the desiccation tolerance. There was twenty six percent of normal seedlings formed from seeds imbibed for 96 hours and later dried and rehydrated. Only 5% of seeds imbibed for 144 hours, dried and rehydrated formed normal seedlings. At 144 hours of imbibition followed the dry process, there was damage into the cell structure, indicating that the seeds were unable to keep the cell structure during the drying process. Copaifera langsdorffii seeds loses the desiccation tolerance at the start of Phase 2 of imbibition.

  10. Loss of desiccation tolerance in Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, W V S; Faria, J M R; Tonetti, O A O; Silva, E A A

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the loss of desiccation tolerance in C. langsdorffii seeds during the germination process. Seeds were imbibed for 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours and dried to the initial moisture content, kept in this state for 3 days after which they were submitted to pre-humidification and rehydration. Ultraestructural evaluations were done aiming to observe the cell damage caused by the dry process. Desiccation tolerance was evaluated in terms of the percentage of normal seedlings. Seeds not submitted to the drying process presented 61% of normal seedlings, and after 24 hours of imbibition, followed by drying, the seeds presented the same percentage of survival. However, after 48 hours of imbibition, seeds started to lose the desiccation tolerance. There was twenty six percent of normal seedlings formed from seeds imbibed for 96 hours and later dried and rehydrated. Only 5% of seeds imbibed for 144 hours, dried and rehydrated formed normal seedlings. At 144 hours of imbibition followed the dry process, there was damage into the cell structure, indicating that the seeds were unable to keep the cell structure during the drying process. Copaifera langsdorffii seeds loses the desiccation tolerance at the start of Phase 2 of imbibition.

  11. Soil moisture deficit selects for desiccation tolerant Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, van Robert; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Geurts, Rene; Ridgway, Hayley J.; Ballard, Ross; Noble, Alasdair; Macara, Gregor; Wakelin, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Tolerance to desiccation is a highly desirable attribute for Rhizobium spp., which are widely used as symbionts of pasture legumes. Poor survival of Rhizobium spp. is of particular concern during the commercial formulation and seed application phase, but also when sown into dry fields and during

  12. Effect of nitrogen starvation on desiccation tolerance of Arctic Microcoleus strains (cyanobacteria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tashyreva, D.; Elster, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 278 (2015), 1-11 ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 934; GA MŠk LA341 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cyanobacteria * desiccation tolerance * viability Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.165, year: 2015

  13. Desiccation tolerance in bovine sperm: a study of the effect of intracellular sugars and the supplemental roles of an antioxidant and a chelator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaula, Ranjan; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Toner, Mehmet; Bhowmick, Sankha

    2009-06-01

    Desiccation preservation holds promise as a simplified alternative to cryopreservation for the long term storage of cells. We report a study on the protective effects of intracellular and extracellular sugars during bovine sperm desiccation and the supplemental effects of the addition of an antioxidant (catalase) or a chelator (desferal). The goal of the study was to preserve mammalian sperm in a partially or completely desiccated state. Sperm loaded intracellularly with two different types of sugars, trehalose or sucrose, were dried with and without catalase and desferal and evaluated for motility and membrane integrity immediately after rehydration. Intracellular sugars were loaded using ATP induced poration. Drying was performed in desiccator boxes maintained at 11% relative humidity (RH). Results indicated that sperm exhibited improved desiccation tolerance if they were loaded with either intracellular trehalose or sucrose. Survival was further enhanced by the addition of 1mM desferal to the desiccation buffer. Though sperm motility after drying to low dry basis water fractions (DBWF) did not show significant improvement under any of the tested conditions, there was an increase in the sperm membrane integrity that could be retained after partial desiccation through the use of intracellular sugars and desferal.

  14. Heat shock transcription factors involved in seed desiccation tolerance and longevity retard vegetative senescence in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoguera, Concepción; Personat, José-María; Prieto-Dapena, Pilar; Jordano, Juan

    2015-08-01

    Transcription factors normally expressed in sunflower seeds delayed vegetative senescence induced by severe stress in transgenic tobacco. This revealed a novel connection between seed heat shock factors, desiccation tolerance and vegetative longevity. HaHSFA9 and HaHSFA4a coactivate a genetic program that, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), contributes to seed longevity and desiccation tolerance. We have shown that overexpression of HaHSFA9 in transgenic tobacco seedlings resulted in tolerance to drastic dehydration and oxidative stress. Overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone was linked to a remarkable protection of the photosynthetic apparatus. In addition, the combined overexpression of HaHSFA9 and HaHSFA4a enhanced all these stress-resistance phenotypes. Here, we find that HaHSFA9 confers protection against damage induced by different stress conditions that accelerate vegetative senescence during different stages of development. Seedlings and plants that overexpress HaHSFA9 survived lethal treatments of dark-induced senescence. HaHSFA9 overexpression induced resistance to effects of culture under darkness for several weeks. Only some homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants are able to withstand this experimental severe stress condition. The combined overexpression of HaHSFA9 and HaHSFA4a did not result in further slowing of dark-induced seedling senescence. However, combined expression of the two transcription factors caused improved recovery of the photosynthetic organs of seedlings after lethal dark treatments. At later stages of vegetative development, HaHSFA9 delayed the appearance of senescence symptoms in leaves of plants grown under normal illumination. This delay was observed under either control or stress treatments. Thus, HaHSFA9 delayed both natural and stress-induced leaf senesce. These novel observations connect transcription factors involved in desiccation tolerance with leaf longevity.

  15. Classification for Tolerance and the Storage to Desiccation Seed Cassia fistula L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pelissari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Knowledge of behavior of seed during storage is essential to maintain their viability for a long time. Therefore, this study aimed to classify the seeds of Cassia fistula on the storage capacity and desiccation-tolerance. The seeds were dried in sealed containers with silica gel to obtain 5% moisture content, and then the germination tests were carried out in Petri dishes with agar, placed in growth chamber at 30 C. Seeds were classified using adapted protocol from Ellis and Hong (1996. The seeds of this species are desiccation-tolerance and can be classified as orthodox, because, even after being placed in low temperature did not lose their viability.Keywords: storage, seed, viability.

  16. Desiccation tolerance and longevity of germinated Sesbania virgata (Cav.) Pers.seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Maria Cecília Dias; Faria,José Marcio Rocha; José,Anderson Cleiton; Ligterink,Wilco; Hilhorst,Henk W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Seed desiccation tolerance (DT) and longevity are necessary for better dissemination of plant species and establishment of soil seed bank. They are acquired by orthodox seeds during the maturation phase of development and lost upon germination. DT can be re-induced in germinated seeds by an osmotic and/or abscisic acid treatment. However, there is no information on how these treatments affect seed longevity. Germinated Sesbania virgata seeds were used as a model system to investigat...

  17. Re-induction of desiccation tolerance after germination of Cedrela fissilis Vell. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetto, Tathiana E; Faria, Jose M; Fraiz, Ana C R

    2014-09-01

    This work aimed to characterize the re-induction of desiccation tolerance (DT) in germinated seeds, using polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000). Cell changes were investigated through cytological assays (cell viability and transmission electronic microscopy) as well as DNA integrity during loss and re-establishment of DT. The loss of DT was characterized by drying germinated seeds with different radicle lengths (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm) in silica gel, decreasing the moisture content to ten percentage points intervals, followed by pre-humidification (100% RH / 24 h) and rehydration. To re-induce DT, germinated seeds were treated for 72 h with PEG (-2.04 MPa) and PEG (-2.04 MPa) + ABA (100 µM) before dehydration. Germinated seeds did not tolerate desiccation to 10% moisture content, irrespectively of the radicle length. However, when incubated in PEG, those with 1 and 2 mm long radicle attained 71% and 29% survival, respectively. The PEG+ABA treatment was efficient to re-establish DT in seeds with 1 mm long radicles (100% survival). The ultrastructural assays of the cells of germinated seeds with 2 and 5 mm length confirmed the obtained physiological results. Germinated seeds of C. fissilis constitute a useful tool for desiccation tolerance investigations.

  18. Re-induction of desiccation tolerance after germination of Cedrela fissilis Vell. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATHIANA E. MASETTO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize the re-induction of desiccation tolerance (DT in germinated seeds, using polyethylene glycol (PEG 8000. Cell changes were investigated through cytological assays (cell viability and transmission electronic microscopy as well as DNA integrity during loss and re-establishment of DT. The loss of DT was characterized by drying germinated seeds with different radicle lengths (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm in silica gel, decreasing the moisture content to ten percentage points intervals, followed by pre-humidification (100% RH / 24 h and rehydration. To re-induce DT, germinated seeds were treated for 72 h with PEG (-2.04 MPa and PEG (-2.04 MPa + ABA (100 µM before dehydration. Germinated seeds did not tolerate desiccation to 10% moisture content, irrespectively of the radicle length. However, when incubated in PEG, those with 1 and 2 mm long radicle attained 71% and 29% survival, respectively. The PEG+ABA treatment was efficient to re-establish DT in seeds with 1 mm long radicles (100% survival. The ultrastructural assays of the cells of germinated seeds with 2 and 5 mm length confirmed the obtained physiological results. Germinated seeds of C. fissilis constitute a useful tool for desiccation tolerance investigations.

  19. Evidence of Tolerance to Silica-Based Desiccant Dusts in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Lilly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new IPM (Integrated Pest Management strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. Two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica gel-based desiccant dusts, both of which induce dehydration and eventual death upon bed bugs exposed to these products. However, the impact of underlying mechanisms that confer resistance to insecticides, such as cuticle thickening, on the performance of these dusts has yet to be determined. In the present study, two desiccant dusts, CimeXa Insecticide Dust (silica gel and Bed Bug Killer Powder (diatomaceous earth were evaluated against two strains of C. lectularius; one highly pyrethroid-resistant and one insecticide-susceptible. Label-rate doses of both products produced 100% mortality in both strains, albeit over dissimilar time-frames (3–4 days with CimeXa vs. 14 days with Bed Bug Killer. Sub-label rate exposure to CimeXa indicated that the pyrethroid-resistant strain possessed a degree of tolerance to this product, surviving 50% longer than the susceptible strain. This is the first study to suggest that mechanisms conferring resistance to pyrethroids, such as cuticular thickening, may have potential secondary impacts on non-synthetic insecticides, including desiccant dusts, which target the bed bug’s cuticle.

  20. Experimental performance of a liquid desiccant dehumidification system under tropical climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Sanjeev, E-mail: sanjeevj@mech.iitd.ac.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Tripathi, Sagun, E-mail: saguntripathi@gmail.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Das, Rajat Subhra, E-mail: raj.mech27@gmail.co [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Indirect contact between air and desiccant using a porous surface to avoid carryover. {yields} Humidity effectiveness and moisture removal rate reported under varying conditions. {yields} Humidity effectiveness with LiCl as desiccant in the range 0.36-0.45. {yields} Mass transfer characteristic of contactor surface restricted system performance. -- Abstract: The current energy crisis, climate change and increased air conditioning demands have generated a need for developing technologies based on renewable energy sources. Foremost amongst the cooling technologies are the sorption technologies working on low grade heat that can be supplied by solar energy. Liquid desiccant technologies seem to be a promising option as these tend to have higher thermal COPs, lower regeneration temperatures, facilitate simultaneous cooling and ease of storage of concentrated desiccant that can be used during the nonsunshine hours. But few concerns like carryover of liquid desiccant in air require further investigations. The liquid desiccant system under study incorporates a double channelled exchanger for air to liquid desiccant heat and mass transfer. It provides a large surface area for air/desiccant contact and reduces the carryover as direct contact between desiccant and air is minimized unlike spray towers, packed bed and falling film designs. Desiccant is heated in a plate heat exchanger using hot water and then regenerated in a regenerator. The set-up comprises of a dehumidifier, along with a regenerator, a cooling tower, plate heat exchangers and a control unit. Experiments were conducted on the system using calcium chloride and lithium chloride as desiccants by varying parameters like inlet air conditions, hot water temperature and desiccant concentration in order to evaluate the performance of the system under different operating conditions. The performance of the system is presented in terms of moisture removal rates, dehumidifier and

  1. Key genes involved in desiccation tolerance and dormancy across life forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maria Cecília D; Farrant, Jill M; Oliver, Melvin J; Ligterink, Wilco; Buitink, Julia; Hilhorst, Henk M W

    2016-10-01

    Desiccation tolerance (DT, the ability of certain organisms to survive severe dehydration) was a key trait in the evolution of life in terrestrial environments. Likely, the development of desiccation-tolerant life forms was accompanied by the acquisition of dormancy or a dormancy-like stage as a second powerful adaptation to cope with variations in the terrestrial environment. These naturally stress tolerant life forms may be a good source of genetic information to generate stress tolerant crops to face a future with predicted higher occurrence of drought. By mining for key genes and mechanisms related to DT and dormancy conserved across different species and life forms, unique candidate key genes may be identified. Here we identify several of these putative key genes, shared among multiple organisms, encoding for proteins involved in protection, growth and energy metabolism. Mutating a selection of these genes in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in clear DT-, dormancy- and other seed-associated phenotypes, showing the efficiency and power of our approach and paves the way for the development of drought-stress tolerant crops. Our analysis supports a co-evolution of DT and dormancy by shared mechanisms that favour survival and adaptation to ever-changing environments with strong seasonal fluctuations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The corticotropin-releasing factor-like diuretic hormone 44 (DH44) and kinin neuropeptides modulate desiccation and starvation tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, Elizabeth; Dornan, Anthony J; Halberg, Kenneth A; Terhzaz, Selim; Dow, Julian A T; Davies, Shireen-A

    2016-06-01

    Malpighian tubules are critical organs for epithelial fluid transport and stress tolerance in insects, and are under neuroendocrine control by multiple neuropeptides secreted by identified neurons. Here, we demonstrate roles for CRF-like diuretic hormone 44 (DH44) and Drosophila melanogaster kinin (Drome-kinin, DK) in desiccation and starvation tolerance. Gene expression and labelled DH44 ligand binding data, as well as highly selective knockdowns and/or neuronal ablations of DH44 in neurons of the pars intercerebralis and DH44 receptor (DH44-R2) in Malpighian tubule principal cells, indicate that suppression of DH44 signalling improves desiccation tolerance of the intact fly. Drome-kinin receptor, encoded by the leucokinin receptor gene, LKR, is expressed in DH44 neurons as well as in stellate cells of the Malpighian tubules. LKR knockdown in DH44-expressing neurons reduces Malpighian tubule-specific LKR, suggesting interactions between DH44 and LK signalling pathways. Finally, although a role for DK in desiccation tolerance was not defined, we demonstrate a novel role for Malpighian tubule cell-specific LKR in starvation tolerance. Starvation increases gene expression of epithelial LKR. Also, Malpighian tubule stellate cell-specific knockdown of LKR significantly reduced starvation tolerance, demonstrating a role for neuropeptide signalling during starvation stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of storage temperature on the physiological characteristics and vegetative propagation of desiccation-tolerant mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuewei; Zhao, Yunge

    2018-02-01

    Mosses, as major components of later successional biological soil crusts (biocrusts), play many critical roles in arid and semiarid ecosystems. Recently, some species of desiccation-tolerant mosses have been artificially cultured with the aim of accelerating the recovery of biocrusts. Revealing the factors that influence the vegetative propagation of mosses, which is an important reproductive mode of mosses in dry habitats, will benefit the restoration of moss crusts. In this study, three air-dried desiccation-tolerant mosses (Barbula unguiculata, Didymodon vinealis, and Didymodon tectorum) were hermetically sealed and stored at five temperature levels (0, 4, 17, 25, and 30 °C) for 40 days. Then, the vegetative propagation and physiological characteristics of the three mosses were investigated to determine the influence of storage temperature on the vegetative propagation of desiccation-tolerant mosses and the mechanism. The results showed that the vegetative propagation of the three mosses varied with temperature. The most variation in vegetative propagation among storage temperatures was observed in D. tectorum, followed by the variation observed in B. unguiculata. In contrast, no significant difference in propagation among temperatures was found in D. vinealis. The regenerative capacity of the three mosses increased with increasing temperature from 0 to 17 °C, accompanied by a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and decreased thereafter. As the temperature increased, the chlorophyll and soluble protein contents increased in B. unguiculata but decreased in D. vinealis and D. tectorum. As to storage, the MDA and soluble sugar contents increased after storage. The MDA content of the three mosses increased at each of the investigated temperatures by more than 50 % from the initial values, and the soluble sugar content became higher than before in the three mosses. The integrity of cells and cell membranes is likely the most important factor influencing the

  4. Isolation and Purification of Heterotetrameric Catalase from a Desiccation Tolerant Cyanobacterium Lyngbya arboricola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor, Shivali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation tolerant cyanobacterium Lyngbya arboricola, isolated from bark surfaces of Mangifera indica, possessed up to four stable isoforms of catalase in addition to other antioxidative enzymes, for several years under a dry state. Purification of the two most persistent isoforms of catalase (Cat has been undertaken by employing acetone precipitation, ethanol: chloroform treatment, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The two isoforms of catalase remained almost unchanged on varying matric and osmotic hydration levels of mats of the cyanobacterium. The purification procedures resulted in a 1.3 % yield of purified single isoform (0.22 mg mL-1 protein with 709 Units mg-1 specific activity and a purity index of 0.83. Five millimolar of dithiothreitol (DTT was observed to be pertinent in maintaining the optimum redox state of the enzyme. The purification procedures additionally facilitated the simultaneous elimination and procurement of phycoerythrins (PE and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA. Each purified isoform gave a single band (~45kDa upon SDS-PAGE and denaturing urea isoelectric focusing (IEF depicted the presence of 2 subunits each of CatA and CatB. The monoisotopic mass and pI value of CatA and CatB as revealed by LC-MS analysis and internal amino acid sequencing was 78.96, 5.89 and 80.77, 5.92, respectively, showing resemblance with CatA of Erysiphe graminis subs. hordei and CatB of Ajellomyces capsulata. The heterotetrameric monofunctional catalase (~320 kDa, due to its stability in the form of resistance to ethanol: chloroform, its thermoalkaliphilic nature and the presence of innumerable hydrophobic amino acid residues (~40%, thus exhibited its potential for biotechnological applications.

  5. Mechanisms associated with cellular desiccation tolerance in the animal extremophile artemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengherr, Steffen; Schill, Ralph O; Clegg, James S

    2011-01-01

    Using differential scanning calorimetry, we demonstrated the presence of biological glasses and measured the transition temperatures in dry encysted embryos (cysts) of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Cysts from the following three geographic locations were studied: San Francisco Bay (SFB); the Great Salt Lake, Utah (GSL); and the Mekong Delta, Vietnam (VN; these cysts were produced from previous sequential inoculations of SFB cysts into growth ponds). Values for the glass transition temperature, T(g), were highest in VN cysts. This study indicates that the composition and properties of these biological glasses can be altered by natural selection and thermal adaptation. To our knowledge, T(g) values for all three kinds of cysts were significantly higher than those for any other desiccation-tolerant animal system. To gain insight into the significance of T(g), we examined the thermal stability of these dry cysts at 80 °C. GSL cysts were the least tolerant, by far, with VN cysts being extremely tolerant and SFB cysts not far behind. Those results correlated with the thermal transition values. Also measured were alcohol-soluble carbohydrates, ~90% of which is the disaccharide trehalose, a known component of biological glasses. Amounts in the GSL cysts were significantly less than those in the other two kinds of cysts. Several stress proteins were measured in the three groups of cysts, with all of them being in lesser amounts in GSL cysts compared with the SFB and VN cysts. We interpret the data in terms of mechanisms involved with desiccation tolerance and thermal conditions at the sites of cyst collection.

  6. Transcriptome-Based Identification of the Desiccation Response Genes in Marine Red Algae Pyropia tenera (Rhodophyta) and Enhancement of Abiotic Stress Tolerance by PtDRG2 in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sungoh; Lee, Ha-Nul; Jung, Hyun Shin; Yang, Sunghwan; Park, Eun-Jeong; Hwang, Mi Sook; Jeong, Won-Joong; Choi, Dong-Woog

    2017-06-01

    Pyropia tenera (Kjellman) are marine red algae that grow in the intertidal zone and lose more than 90% of water during hibernal low tides every day. In order to identify the desiccation response gene (DRG) in P. tenera, we generated 1,444,210 transcriptome sequences using the 454-FLX platform from the gametophyte under control and desiccation conditions. De novo assembly of the transcriptome reads generated 13,170 contigs, covering about 12 Mbp. We selected 1160 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to desiccation stress based on reads per kilobase per million reads (RPKM) expression values. As shown in green higher plants, DEGs under desiccation are composed of two groups of genes for gene regulation networks and functional proteins for carbohydrate metabolism, membrane perturbation, compatible solutes, and specific proteins similar to higher plants. DEGs that show no significant homology with known sequences in public databases were selected as DRGs in P. tenera. PtDRG2 encodes a novel polypeptide of 159 amino acid residues locating chloroplast. When PtDRG2 was overexpressed in Chlamydomonas, the PtDRG2 confer mannitol and salt tolerance in transgenic cells. These results suggest that Pyropia may possess novel genes that differ from green plants, although the desiccation tolerance mechanism in red algae is similar to those of higher green plants. These transcriptome sequences will facilitate future studies to understand the common processes and novel mechanisms involved in desiccation stress tolerance in red algae.

  7. Proteome analysis of leaves of the desiccation-tolerant grass, Sporobolus stapfianus, in response to dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Melvin J; Jain, Renuka; Balbuena, Tiago S; Agrawal, Ganesh; Gasulla, Franscisco; Thelen, Jay J

    2011-07-01

    Drought and its affects on agricultural production is a serious issue facing global efforts to increase food supplies and ensure food security for the growing world population. Understanding how plants respond to dehydration is an important prerequisite for developing strategies for crop improvement in drought tolerance. This has proved to be a difficult task as all of the current research plant models do not tolerate cellular dehydration well and, like all crops, they succumb to the effects of a relatively small water deficit of -4MPa or less. For these reasons many researchers have started to investigate the usefulness of resurrection plants, plants that can survive extremes of dehydration to the point of desiccation, to provide answers as to how plants tolerate water loss. We have chosen to investigate the leaf proteome response of the desiccation-tolerant grass Sporobolus stapfianus Gandoger to dehydration to a water content that encompasses the initiation of the cellular protection response evident in these plants. We used a combination of two-dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry to compare the proteomes of young leaves from hydrated plants to those dehydrated to approximately 30% relative water content. High-resolution 2D-DIGE revealed 96 significantly different proteins and 82 of these spots yielded high-quality protein assignments by tandem-mass spectrometry. Inferences from the bioinformatic annotations of these proteins revealed the possible involvement of protein kinase-based signaling cascades and brassinosteroid involvement in the regulation of the cellular protection response. Enzymes of glycolysis, both cytoplasmic and plastidic, as well as five enzymes of the Calvin cycle increased in abundance. However, the RuBisCO large subunit and associated proteins were reduced, indicating a loss of carbon fixation but a continued need to supply the necessary carbon skeletons for the

  8. The desert moss Pterygoneurum lamellatum (Pottiaceae) exhibits an inducible ecological strategy of desiccation tolerance: effects of rate of drying on shoot damage and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premise of the study: Bryophytes are regarded as a clade incorporating constitutive desiccation tolerance, especially terrestrial species. Here we test the hypothesis that the opposing ecological strategy of desiccation tolerance, inducibility, is present in a desert moss, and addressed by varying r...

  9. Fracture propagation of cohesive soils under tensile loading and desiccation

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Benjamin Michael

    2017-01-01

    Tensile fracture of clay soils either due to loading or due to desiccation is a common problem encountered in many geotechnical, geoenvironmental and resources engineering applications such as in compacted clay liners, dams, embankments, slopes, seabed trenching for pipeline placement and in mine tailings. However, the fundamental understanding of this process and its modelling capability has not yet advanced satisfactorily. This research intends to fill this gap, following on the past and co...

  10. Can a genetic correlation with seed mass constrain adaptive evolution of seedling desiccation tolerance in wild barley?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Biere, A.; Nevo, E.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Very young seedlings of wild barley Hordeum spontaneum have the ability to survive extended periods of severe drought. This desiccation tolerance is considered an adaptation to the rain-limited and unpredictable habitats that the species occupies. Genetic variation has been observed for this trait,

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST SEEDS REGARDING THE DESICCATION TOLERANCE AND STORAGE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Carvalho Mayrinck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to classify forest seeds native to the Alto Rio Grande region regarding the desiccation tolerance and storage behaviour. Germination and water content tests were performed in seeds of different species. The tests were conducted immediately after seed processing, at 12% and 5% of water content, and at 5% after 3 months of storage in -18°C. Based on the results obtained, seeds were classified into recalcitrant, intermediate and orthodox class. Seeds of Brosimum gaudichaudii, Erythroxylum deciduum, Eugenia pleurantha, Myrcia venulosa, Nectandra megapotamica were classified as recalcitrant (22.7% of all species. Seeds of Aegiphila sellowiana, Aspidosperma parvifolium, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Casearia lasiophylla, Cassia occidentalis, Dalbergia miscolobium, Diospyros brasiliensis, Diospyros hispida, Ilex brevicuspis, Ilex cerasifolia, Myrocarpus fastigiatus, Senna aversiflora, Senna splendida e Blepharocalyx salicifolius were classified as intermediate (59.1% of all species. Seeds of Miconia albicans, Platycyamus regnellii, Styrax camporum and Piptadenia gonoacantha were classified as orthodox (18.2% of all species.

  12. Developmental changes in the germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and longevity of individual seeds of Trifolium ambiguum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, F R; Smith, R D; Ellis, R H; Butler, L H

    2010-06-01

    Using two parental clones of outcrossing Trifolium ambiguum as a potential model system, we examined how during seed development the maternal parent, number of seeds per pod, seed position within the pod, and pod position within the inflorescence influenced individual seed fresh weight, dry weight, water content, germinability, desiccation tolerance, hardseededness, and subsequent longevity of individual seeds. Near simultaneous, manual reciprocal crosses were carried out between clonal lines for two experiments. Infructescences were harvested at intervals during seed development. Each individual seed was weighed and then used to determine dry weight or one of the physiological behaviour traits. Whilst population mass maturity was reached at 33-36 days after pollination (DAP), seed-to-seed variation in maximum seed dry weight, when it was achieved, and when maturation drying commenced, was considerable. Individual seeds acquired germinability between 14 and 44 DAP, desiccation tolerance between 30 and 40 DAP, and the capability to become hardseeded between 30 and 47 DAP. The time for viability to fall to 50 % (p(50)) at 60 % relative humidity and 45 degrees C increased between 36 and 56 DAP, when the seed coats of most individuals had become dark orange, but declined thereafter. Individual seed f. wt at harvest did not correlate with air-dry storage survival period. Analysing survival data for cohorts of seeds reduced the standard deviation of the normal distribution of seed deaths in time, but no sub-population showed complete uniformity of survival period. Variation in individual seed behaviours within a developing population is inherent and inevitable. In this outbreeder, there is significant variation in seed longevity which appears dependent on embryo genotype with little effect of maternal genotype or architectural factors.

  13. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la, China under desiccation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Hong; Xu, Ling; Yang, Feng-lian; Ji, Guang-Hai; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jian-Yun

    2014-01-03

    Metarhizium anisopliae, a soil-borne entomopathogen found worldwide, is an interesting fungus for biological control. However, its efficacy in the fields is significantly affected by environmental conditions, particularly moisture. To overcome the weakness of Metarhizium and determine its isolates with antistress capacity, the efficacies of four M. anisopliae isolates, which were collected from arid regions of Yunnan Province in China during the dry season, were determined at different moisture levels, and the efficacy of the isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la under desiccation stress was evaluated at low moisture level. M. anisopliae isolates MAX-2, MAC-6, MAL-1, and MAQ-28 showed gradient descent efficacies against sterile Tenebrio molitor larvae, and gradient descent capacities against desiccation with the decrease in moisture levels. The efficacy of MAX-2 showed no significant differences at 35% moisture level than those of the other isolates. However, significant differences were found at 8% to 30% moisture levels. The efficacies of all isolates decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 was relatively less affected by desiccation stress. Its efficacy was almost unaffected by the decrease at moisture levels > 25%, but slowly decreased at moisture levels < 25%. By contrast, the efficacies of other isolates rapidly decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 caused different infection characteristics on T. molitor larvae under desiccation stress and in wet microhabitat. Local black patches were found on the cuticles of the insects, and the cadavers dried without fungal growth under desiccation stress. However, dark black internodes and fungal growth were found after death of the insects in the wet microhabitat. MAX-2 showed significantly higher efficacy and superior antistress capacity than the other isolates under desiccation stress. The infection of sterile T. molitor larvae at low moisture level constituted a valid laboratory bioassay system

  14. Conservation and dissipation of light energy in desiccation-tolerant photoautotrophs, two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Ulrich

    2012-09-01

    Conservation of light energy in photosynthesis is possible only in hydrated photoautotrophs. It requires complex biochemistry and is limited in capacity. Charge separation in reaction centres of photosystem II initiates energy conservation but opens also the path to photooxidative damage. A main mechanism of photoprotection active in hydrated photoautotrophs is controlled by light. This is achieved by coupling light flux to the protonation of a special thylakoid protein which activates thermal energy dissipation. This mechanism facilitates the simultaneous occurrence of energy conservation and energy dissipation but cannot completely prevent damage by light. Continuous metabolic repair is required to compensate damage. More efficient photoprotection is needed by desiccation-tolerant photoautotrophs. Loss of water during desiccation activates ultra-fast energy dissipation in mosses and lichens. Desiccation-induced energy dissipation neither requires a protonation reaction nor light but photoprotection often increases when light is present during desiccation. Two different mechanisms contribute to photoprotection of desiccated photoautotrophs. One facilitates energy dissipation in the antenna of photosystem II which is faster than energy capture by functional reaction centres. When this is insufficient for full photoprotection, the other one permits energy dissipation in the reaction centres themselves.

  15. High radiation and desiccation tolerance of nitrogen-fixing cultures of the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 emanates from genome/proteome repair capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder; Anurag, Kirti; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2013-10-12

    The filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was found to tolerate very high doses of 60 Co-gamma radiation or prolonged desiccation. Post-stress, cells remained intact and revived all the vital functions. A remarkable capacity to repair highly disintegrated genome and recycle the damaged proteome appeared to underlie such high radioresistance and desiccation tolerance. The close similarity observed between the cellular response to irradiation or desiccation stress lends strong support to the notion that tolerance to these stresses may involve similar mechanisms.

  16. Seedling survival of Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart ex DC Mattos in a semi-arid environment through modified germination speed and post-germination desiccation tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract Uniform rapid seed germination generally forms a great risk for the plant population if subsequent intermittent precipitation causes desiccation and seedling death. Handroanthus impetiginosus can be found commonly in a wide range of biomes within Brazil including those that are semi-arid. Germination and early growth was studied to understand how germinated seeds survive under these stringent conditions. Accessions were sampled from four seasonally dry biomes in Brazil. Precipitation at the start of the rainy season in the Caatinga, a semi-arid biome, is less predictable and the number of successive dry days per dry interval in the first four months of the rainy season was higher than in the other studied biomes. Plants from the Caatinga produced thicker seeds and this trait concurred with slow germination and stronger osmotic inhibition of germination across the accessions, forming a stress avoidance mechanism in the Caatinga. Post-germination desiccation tolerance was high in the Caatinga accession, could be re-induced in accessions from biomes with more regular precipitation (Cerrado and transition zone, but remained poor in the Cerradão accession; thus forming a stress tolerance mechanism. Production of adventitious roots ascertained survival of all tested individuals from all four locations, even if protruded radicles did not survive desiccation, forming an additional stress tolerance mechanism. A sequence of stress avoidance and stress tolerance mechanisms in seeds and germinated seeds was associated with precipitation patterns in different biomes. These mechanisms purportedly allow rapid seedling establishment when conditions are suitable and enable survival of the young seedling when conditions are adverse.

  17. Seedling survival of Handroanthus impetiginosus (Mart ex DC) Mattos in a semi-arid environment through modified germination speed and post-germination desiccation tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J R; Edvaldo, A A S; Alvarenga, A A; Rodrigues, A C; Ribeiro, D E; Toorop, P E

    2015-11-01

    Uniform rapid seed germination generally forms a great risk for the plant population if subsequent intermittent precipitation causes desiccation and seedling death. Handroanthus impetiginosus can be found commonly in a wide range of biomes within Brazil including those that are semi-arid. Germination and early growth was studied to understand how germinated seeds survive under these stringent conditions. Accessions were sampled from four seasonally dry biomes in Brazil. Precipitation at the start of the rainy season in the Caatinga, a semi-arid biome, is less predictable and the number of successive dry days per dry interval in the first four months of the rainy season was higher than in the other studied biomes. Plants from the Caatinga produced thicker seeds and this trait concurred with slow germination and stronger osmotic inhibition of germination across the accessions, forming a stress avoidance mechanism in the Caatinga. Post-germination desiccation tolerance was high in the Caatinga accession, could be re-induced in accessions from biomes with more regular precipitation (Cerrado and transition zone), but remained poor in the Cerradão accession; thus forming a stress tolerance mechanism. Production of adventitious roots ascertained survival of all tested individuals from all four locations, even if protruded radicles did not survive desiccation, forming an additional stress tolerance mechanism. A sequence of stress avoidance and stress tolerance mechanisms in seeds and germinated seeds was associated with precipitation patterns in different biomes. These mechanisms purportedly allow rapid seedling establishment when conditions are suitable and enable survival of the young seedling when conditions are adverse.

  18. Protein and carbohydrate composition of larval food affects tolerance tothermal stress and desiccation in adult Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laila H; Kristensen, Torsten N; Loeschcke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult insects. Here we test whether raising larvae of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, on two different nutritional regimes affects resistance to cold, heat and desiccation....... In contrast, flies developed on the carbohydrate-enriched growth medium recovered faster from chill coma stress compared to flies developed on a protein-enriched medium. We also found gender differences in stress tolerance, with female flies being more tolerant to chill coma, heat knockdown and desiccation...... stress compared to males. Egg production was highest in females that had developed on the protein-enriched medium. However, there was a sex-specific effect of nutrition on egg-to-adult viability, with higher viability for males developing on the sucrose-enriched medium, while female survival was highest...

  19. Impact of desiccation and heat exposure stress on Salmonella tolerance to acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kurt E; Cox, Nelson A; Cosby, Douglas E; Berrang, Mark E

    2018-02-01

    In a recent study, the pH of commonly used Salmonella pre-enrichment media became acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) when feed or feed ingredients were incubated for 24 h. Acidic conditions have been reported to injure or kill Salmonella. In this study, cultures of four known feed isolates (S. montevideo, S. senftenberg, S. tennessee, and S. schwarzengrund) and four important processing plant isolates (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. infantis, and S. heidelberg) were grown on meat and bone meal and later subjected to desiccation and heat exposure to stress the microorganism. The impact of stress on the isolates ability to survive in acidic conditions ranging from pH 4.0 to 7.0 was compared to the non-stressed isolate. Cell injury was determined on xylose lysine tergitol 4 (XLT4) and cell death determined on nutrient agar (NA). When measured by cell death in non-stressed Salmonella, S. typhimurium was the most acid tolerant and S. heidelberg was the most acid sensitive whereas in stressed Salmonella, S. senftenberg was the most acid tolerant and S. tennessee was the most acid sensitive. The pH required to cause cell injury varied among isolates. With some isolates, the pH required for 50% cell death and 50% cell injury was similar. In other isolates, cell injury occurred at a more neutral pH. These findings suggest that the pH of pre-enrichment media may influence the recovery and bias the serotype of Salmonella recovered from feed during pre-enrichment.

  20. An Experimental Evolution Test of the Relationship between Melanism and Desiccation Survival in Insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Rajpurohit

    Full Text Available We used experimental evolution to test the 'melanism-desiccation' hypothesis, which proposes that dark cuticle in several Drosophila species is an adaptation for increased desiccation tolerance. We selected for dark and light body pigmentation in replicated populations of D. melanogaster and assayed several traits related to water balance. We also scored pigmentation and desiccation tolerance in populations selected for desiccation survival. Populations in both selection regimes showed large differences in the traits directly under selection. However, after over 40 generations of pigmentation selection, dark-selected populations were not more desiccation-tolerant than light-selected and control populations, nor did we find significant changes in mass or carbohydrate amounts that could affect desiccation resistance. Body pigmentation of desiccation-selected populations did not differ from control populations after over 140 generations of selection, although selected populations lost water less rapidly. Our results do not support an important role for melanization in Drosophila water balance.

  1. Some thoughts about the desiccation tolerance continuum and the basis for “intermediate” seed physiologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiccation-sensitive seeds succumb when dried below a critical water content. Critical water contents range widely among species and with experimental conditions, implying a continuum in the amount of water that can be non-lethally removed from diverse cells. However, water potentials correspondi...

  2. Desiccation tolerance of seeds of Bunchosia armenica (Cav. DC.Tolerância à dessecação em sementes de Bunchosia armenica (Cav. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson de Almeida Cardoso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds have different behaviors and tolerance to moisture loss. In order to determine desiccation tolerance in seeds of Bunchosia armenia (Cav. DC. (Ameixa-do-Pará was collected a lot of fruits of this species in Areia-PB. After the manual pulping the seeds were exposed to dry on paper towel, under laboratory conditions (22°C and 85% RH and greenhouse (24°C and 80% RH. Treatments consisted of sampling for the determination of water content and seedling emergence tests at baseline and after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. The water content was measured by the oven method at 105 ± 3°C for 24 hours using four replicates of 10 seeds for each treatment. The seedling emergence test was conducted in a greenhouse with four replications of 25 seeds. The count of emergence has beenheld every two days, for a period of 35th day and calculated the IVE, length and dry mass of seedlings. The drying of the seeds of B.armenica, in both environments is viable for up to 24 hours; After 24 hours of drying the water content of seeds is reduced from 62.6% to 57%, a level considered critical to the desiccation of the seeds of Ameixa-do-Pará in both environments; Ameixa-do-Pará seeds nuts are dispersed with very high water content, and small reduction in physiological quality compromises their value, allowing the seeds to characterize this species as recalcitrant.As sementes têm comportamentos diferenciados quanto à tolerância à perda de umidade. Com o objetivo de determinar a tolerância à dessecação em sementes de Bunchosia armenica (Cav. DC. (ameixa-dopará foi coletado um lote de frutos desta espécie no município de Areia-PB. Após o despolpamento manual as sementes foram expostas para a secagem, sobre papel toalha, em condições de laboratório (22 ºC e 85% UR e casa de vegetação (24 ºC e 80% UR. Os tratamentos consistiram na amostragem para a determinação do teor de água e testes de emergência de plântulas no início do experimento e ap

  3. An easily reversible structural change underlies mechanisms enabling desert crust cyanobacteria to survive desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Eyal, Leeat; Eisenberg, Ido; Faust, Adam; Raanan, Hagai; Nevo, Reinat; Rappaport, Fabrice; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Sétif, Pierre; Thurotte, Adrien; Reich, Ziv; Kaplan, Aaron; Ohad, Itzhak; Paltiel, Yossi; Keren, Nir

    2015-10-01

    Biological desert sand crusts are the foundation of desert ecosystems, stabilizing the sands and allowing colonization by higher order organisms. The first colonizers of the desert sands are cyanobacteria. Facing the harsh conditions of the desert, these organisms must withstand frequent desiccation-hydration cycles, combined with high light intensities. Here, we characterize structural and functional modifications to the photosynthetic apparatus that enable a cyanobacterium, Leptolyngbya sp., to thrive under these conditions. Using multiple in vivo spectroscopic and imaging techniques, we identified two complementary mechanisms for dissipating absorbed energy in the desiccated state. The first mechanism involves the reorganization of the phycobilisome antenna system, increasing excitonic coupling between antenna components. This provides better energy dissipation in the antenna rather than directed exciton transfer to the reaction center. The second mechanism is driven by constriction of the thylakoid lumen which limits diffusion of plastocyanin to P700. The accumulation of P700(+) not only prevents light-induced charge separation but also efficiently quenches excitation energy. These protection mechanisms employ existing components of the photosynthetic apparatus, forming two distinct functional modes. Small changes in the structure of the thylakoid membranes are sufficient for quenching of all absorbed energy in the desiccated state, protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photoinhibitory damage. These changes can be easily reversed upon rehydration, returning the system to its high photosynthetic quantum efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Drought until death do us part: a case study of the desiccation-tolerance of a tropical moist forest seedling-tree, Licania platypus (Hemsl.) Fritsch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin T. Tyree; Gustavo Vargas; Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht; Thomas A. Kursar

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the desiccation tolerance of 15-month-old Licania platypus (Hemsl.) Fritsch seedlings were performed on potted plants. Pots were watered to field capacity and then dehydrated for 23-46 d to reach various visible wilting stages from slightly-wilted to dead. Root hydraulic conductance, kr, was measured with a high-...

  5. Proteomic analysis of embryonic axis of Pisum sativum seeds during germination and identification of proteins associated with loss of desiccation tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2012-01-01

    these seeds to identify the candidate proteins associated with the loss of desiccation tolerance and found a total of seven proteins – tubulin alpha-1 chain, seed biotin-containing protein SBP65, P54 protein, vicilin, vicilin-like antimicrobial peptides 2–3, convicilin and TCP-1/cpn60 chaperonin family...

  6. Comparative analysis of the heat stable proteome of radicles of Medicago truncatula seeds during germination identifies late embryogenesis abundant proteins associated with desiccation tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudet, J.; Buitink, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Rogniaux, H.; Larré, C.; Satour, P.; Leprince, O.

    2006-01-01

    A proteomic analysis was performed on the heat stable protein fraction of imbibed radicles of Medicago truncatula seeds to investigate whether proteins can be identified that are specifically linked to desiccation tolerance (DT). Radicles were compared before and after emergence (2.8 mm long) in

  7. Ionizing-radiation resistance in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billi, D.; Friedmann, E. I.; Hofer, K. G.; Caiola, M. G.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of X-ray irradiation on cell survival, induction, and repair of DNA damage was studied by using 10 Chroococcidiopsis strains isolated from desert and hypersaline environments. After exposure to 2.5 kGy, the percentages of survival for the strains ranged from 80 to 35%. In the four most resistant strains, the levels of survival were reduced by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude after irradiation with 5 kGy; viable cells were recovered after exposure to 15 kGy but not after exposure to 20 kGy. The severe DNA damage evident after exposure to 2.5 kGy was repaired within 3 h, and the severe DNA damage evident after exposure to 5 kGy was repaired within 24 h. The increase in trichloroacetic acid-precipitable radioactivity in the culture supernatant after irradiation with 2.5 kGy might have been due to cell lysis and/or an excision process involved in DNA repair. The radiation resistance of Chroococcidiopsis strains may reflect the ability of these cyanobacteria to survive prolonged desiccation through efficient repair of the DNA damage that accumulates during dehydration.

  8. SUMO-Dependent Synergism Involving Heat Shock Transcription Factors with Functions Linked to Seed Longevity and Desiccation Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Carranco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A transcriptional synergism between HaHSFA9 (A9 and HaHSFA4a (A4a contributes to determining longevity and desiccation tolerance of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L. seeds. Potential lysine SUMOylation sites were identified in A9 and A4a and mutated to arginine. We show that A9 is SUMOylated in planta at K38. Although we did not directly detect SUMOylated A4a in planta, we provide indirect evidence from transient expression experiments indicating that A4a is SUMOylated at K172. Different combinations of wild type and SUMOylation site mutants of A9 and A4a were analyzed by transient expression in sunflower embryos and leaves. Although most of the precedents in literature link SUMOylation with repression, the A9 and A4a synergism was fully abolished when the mutant forms for both factors were combined. However, the combination of mutant forms of A9 and A4a did not affect the nuclear retention of A4a by A9; therefore, the analyzed mutations would affect the synergism after the mutual interaction and nuclear co-localization of A9 and A4a. Our results suggest a role for HSF SUMOylation during late, zygotic, embryogenesis. The SUMOylation of A9 (or A4a would allow a crucial, synergic, transcriptional effect that occurs in maturing sunflower seeds.

  9. Loss and re-establishment of desiccation tolerance in the germinated seeds of Sesbania virgata (Cav. (Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the cellular alterations during the loss and re-establishment of desiccation tolerance (DT in germinated Sesbania virgata seeds. The loss of DT was characterized in germinated seeds with increasing radicle lengths (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm when subjected to dehydration in silica gel, followed by rehydration. To re-establish DT, the germinated seeds were incubated for 72h in polyethylene glycol (PEG, -2.04 MPa with or without ABA (100 μM before dehydration in silica gel. Cell viability was assessed by seedling survival, and DNA integrity was evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Seeds with 1 mm radicle length survived dehydration to the original moisture content (MC of the dry seed (approximately 10%. PEG treatment was able to re-establish DT, at least partially, with 2, 3 and 4 mm but not in 5 mm radicle lengths. Germinated seeds treated with PEG+ABA performed better than those treated only with PEG, and DT was re-established even in germinated seeds with a 5 mm radicle length. Among the PEG-treated germinated seeds dehydrated to 10% MC, DNA integrity was maintained only in those with a 1 mm radicle length.

  10. Tolerance of Ruppia sinensis Seeds to Desiccation, Low Temperature, and High Salinity With Special Reference to Long-Term Seed Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ruiting; Zhou, Yi; Song, Xiaoyue; Xu, Shaochun; Zhang, Xiaomei; Lin, Haiying; Xu, Shuai; Yue, Shidong; Zhu, Shuyu

    2018-01-01

    Seeds are important materials for the restoration of globally-threatened marine angiosperm (seagrass) populations. In this study, we investigated the differences between different Ruppia sinensis seed types and developed two feasible long-term R. sinensis seed storage methods. The ability of R. sinensis seeds to tolerate the short-term desiccation and extreme cold had been investigated. The tolerance of R. sinensis seeds to long-term exposure of high salinity, cold temperature, and desiccation had been considered as potential methods for long-term seed storage. Also, three morphological and nine physiological indices were measured and compared between two types of seeds: Shape L and Shape S. We found that: (1) wet storage at a salinity of 30-40 psu and 0°C were the optimal long-term storage conditions, and the proportion of viable seeds reached over 90% after a storage period of 11 months since the seeds were collected from the reproductive shoots; (2) dry condition was not the optimal choice for long-term storage of R. sinensis seeds; however, storing seeds in a dry condition at 5°C and 33 ± 10% relative humidity for 9 months had a relatively high percentage (74.44 ± 2.22%) of viable seeds, consequently desiccation exposure could also be an acceptable seed storage method; (3) R. sinensis seeds would lose vigor in the interaction of extreme cold (-27°C) and desiccation; (4) there were significant differences in seed weight, seed curvature, and endocarp thickness between the two types of seeds. These findings provided fundamental physiological information for R. sinensis seeds and supported the long-term storage of its seeds. Our results may also serve as useful reference for seed storage of other threatened seagrass species and facilitate their ex situ conservation and habitat restoration.

  11. Tolerance of Ruppia sinensis Seeds to Desiccation, Low Temperature, and High Salinity With Special Reference to Long-Term Seed Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiting Gu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are important materials for the restoration of globally-threatened marine angiosperm (seagrass populations. In this study, we investigated the differences between different Ruppia sinensis seed types and developed two feasible long-term R. sinensis seed storage methods. The ability of R. sinensis seeds to tolerate the short-term desiccation and extreme cold had been investigated. The tolerance of R. sinensis seeds to long-term exposure of high salinity, cold temperature, and desiccation had been considered as potential methods for long-term seed storage. Also, three morphological and nine physiological indices were measured and compared between two types of seeds: Shape L and Shape S. We found that: (1 wet storage at a salinity of 30–40 psu and 0°C were the optimal long-term storage conditions, and the proportion of viable seeds reached over 90% after a storage period of 11 months since the seeds were collected from the reproductive shoots; (2 dry condition was not the optimal choice for long-term storage of R. sinensis seeds; however, storing seeds in a dry condition at 5°C and 33 ± 10% relative humidity for 9 months had a relatively high percentage (74.44 ± 2.22% of viable seeds, consequently desiccation exposure could also be an acceptable seed storage method; (3 R. sinensis seeds would lose vigor in the interaction of extreme cold (-27°C and desiccation; (4 there were significant differences in seed weight, seed curvature, and endocarp thickness between the two types of seeds. These findings provided fundamental physiological information for R. sinensis seeds and supported the long-term storage of its seeds. Our results may also serve as useful reference for seed storage of other threatened seagrass species and facilitate their ex situ conservation and habitat restoration.

  12. Tolerance of Ruppia sinensis Seeds to Desiccation, Low Temperature, and High Salinity With Special Reference to Long-Term Seed Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ruiting; Zhou, Yi; Song, Xiaoyue; Xu, Shaochun; Zhang, Xiaomei; Lin, Haiying; Xu, Shuai; Yue, Shidong; Zhu, Shuyu

    2018-01-01

    Seeds are important materials for the restoration of globally-threatened marine angiosperm (seagrass) populations. In this study, we investigated the differences between different Ruppia sinensis seed types and developed two feasible long-term R. sinensis seed storage methods. The ability of R. sinensis seeds to tolerate the short-term desiccation and extreme cold had been investigated. The tolerance of R. sinensis seeds to long-term exposure of high salinity, cold temperature, and desiccation had been considered as potential methods for long-term seed storage. Also, three morphological and nine physiological indices were measured and compared between two types of seeds: Shape L and Shape S. We found that: (1) wet storage at a salinity of 30–40 psu and 0°C were the optimal long-term storage conditions, and the proportion of viable seeds reached over 90% after a storage period of 11 months since the seeds were collected from the reproductive shoots; (2) dry condition was not the optimal choice for long-term storage of R. sinensis seeds; however, storing seeds in a dry condition at 5°C and 33 ± 10% relative humidity for 9 months had a relatively high percentage (74.44 ± 2.22%) of viable seeds, consequently desiccation exposure could also be an acceptable seed storage method; (3) R. sinensis seeds would lose vigor in the interaction of extreme cold (-27°C) and desiccation; (4) there were significant differences in seed weight, seed curvature, and endocarp thickness between the two types of seeds. These findings provided fundamental physiological information for R. sinensis seeds and supported the long-term storage of its seeds. Our results may also serve as useful reference for seed storage of other threatened seagrass species and facilitate their ex situ conservation and habitat restoration.

  13. A gene co-expression network predicts functional genes controlling the re-establishment of desiccation tolerance in germinated Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Maria Cecília D; Righetti, Karima; Nijveen, Harm; Yazdanpanah, Farzaneh; Ligterink, Wilco; Buitink, Julia; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-08-01

    During re-establishment of desiccation tolerance (DT), early events promote initial protection and growth arrest, while late events promote stress adaptation and contribute to survival in the dry state. Mature seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana are desiccation tolerant, but they lose desiccation tolerance (DT) while progressing to germination. Yet, there is a small developmental window during which DT can be rescued by treatment with abscisic acid (ABA). To gain temporal resolution and identify relevant genes in this process, data from a time series of microarrays were used to build a gene co-expression network. The network has two regions, namely early response (ER) and late response (LR). Genes in the ER region are related to biological processes, such as dormancy, acquisition of DT and drought, amplification of signals, growth arrest and induction of protection mechanisms (such as LEA proteins). Genes in the LR region lead to inhibition of photosynthesis and primary metabolism, promote adaptation to stress conditions and contribute to seed longevity. Phenotyping of 12 hubs in relation to re-establishment of DT with T-DNA insertion lines indicated a significant increase in the ability to re-establish DT compared with the wild-type in the lines cbsx4, at3g53040 and at4g25580, suggesting the operation of redundant and compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we show that re-establishment of DT by polyethylene glycol and ABA occurs through partially overlapping mechanisms. Our data confirm that co-expression network analysis is a valid approach to examine data from time series of transcriptome analysis, as it provides promising insights into biologically relevant relations that help to generate new information about the roles of certain genes for DT.

  14. Desiccation resistance of Chironomid larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Frouz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to desiccation in larvae of eight species of aquatic, semiaquatic and terrestrial chironomids (Pseudodiamesa branickii, Macropelopia sp., Prodiamesa olivacea, Micropsectra sp., Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dorsalis, Metriocnemus martini and Camptocladius stercorarius was studied. The larvae were desiccated in exicator at constant conditions (15 °C, 80% RH and changes in moisture and body water content was recorded. The LD-50 for loss of body water was calculated. The lowest resistance to loss of body water was found in larvae from subfamilies Tanypodinae and Diamesinae Macropelopia sp. and P. branickii. They survived loss of 49.7 and 56.6% of original water content (presented values are LD-50. On the other hand the highest resistance to water loss was found in C. dorsalis. M. martini and C. stercorarius. The larvae of these species may survive loss of 67.4, 76.6 and 84.2% of original water content. Nevertheless the survival time under experimental conditions depends more closely on larval size than on lethal level of water loss. The smaller larvae desiccated faster and perished sooner than large ones despite they tolerate higher loss of body water.

  15. A Regulatory Network-Based Approach Dissects Late Maturation Processes Related to the Acquisition of Desiccation Tolerance and Longevity of Medicago truncatula Seeds1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Jerome; Lalanne, David; Pelletier, Sandra; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Righetti, Karima; Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Leprince, Olivier; Chatelain, Emilie; Vu, Benoit Ly; Gouzy, Jerome; Gamas, Pascal; Udvardi, Michael K.; Buitink, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In seeds, desiccation tolerance (DT) and the ability to survive the dry state for prolonged periods of time (longevity) are two essential traits for seed quality that are consecutively acquired during maturation. Using transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling together with a conditional-dependent network of global transcription interactions, we dissected the maturation events from the end of seed filling to final maturation drying during the last 3 weeks of seed development in Medicago truncatula. The network revealed distinct coexpression modules related to the acquisition of DT, longevity, and pod abscission. The acquisition of DT and dormancy module was associated with abiotic stress response genes, including late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes. The longevity module was enriched in genes involved in RNA processing and translation. Concomitantly, LEA polypeptides accumulated, displaying an 18-d delayed accumulation compared with transcripts. During maturation, gulose and stachyose levels increased and correlated with longevity. A seed-specific network identified known and putative transcriptional regulators of DT, including ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (MtABI3), MtABI4, MtABI5, and APETALA2/ ETHYLENE RESPONSE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN (AtAP2/EREBP) transcription factor as major hubs. These transcriptional activators were highly connected to LEA genes. Longevity genes were highly connected to two MtAP2/EREBP and two basic leucine zipper transcription factors. A heat shock factor was found at the transition of DT and longevity modules, connecting to both gene sets. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches of MtABI3 confirmed 80% of its predicted targets, thereby experimentally validating the network. This study captures the coordinated regulation of seed maturation and identifies distinct regulatory networks underlying the preparation for the dry and quiescent states. PMID:23929721

  16. A regulatory network-based approach dissects late maturation processes related to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and longevity of Medicago truncatula seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdier, Jerome; Lalanne, David; Pelletier, Sandra; Torres-Jerez, Ivone; Righetti, Karima; Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Leprince, Olivier; Chatelain, Emilie; Vu, Benoit Ly; Gouzy, Jerome; Gamas, Pascal; Udvardi, Michael K; Buitink, Julia

    2013-10-01

    In seeds, desiccation tolerance (DT) and the ability to survive the dry state for prolonged periods of time (longevity) are two essential traits for seed quality that are consecutively acquired during maturation. Using transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling together with a conditional-dependent network of global transcription interactions, we dissected the maturation events from the end of seed filling to final maturation drying during the last 3 weeks of seed development in Medicago truncatula. The network revealed distinct coexpression modules related to the acquisition of DT, longevity, and pod abscission. The acquisition of DT and dormancy module was associated with abiotic stress response genes, including late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes. The longevity module was enriched in genes involved in RNA processing and translation. Concomitantly, LEA polypeptides accumulated, displaying an 18-d delayed accumulation compared with transcripts. During maturation, gulose and stachyose levels increased and correlated with longevity. A seed-specific network identified known and putative transcriptional regulators of DT, including ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (MtABI3), MtABI4, MtABI5, and APETALA2/ ETHYLENE RESPONSE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN (AtAP2/EREBP) transcription factor as major hubs. These transcriptional activators were highly connected to LEA genes. Longevity genes were highly connected to two MtAP2/EREBP and two basic leucine zipper transcription factors. A heat shock factor was found at the transition of DT and longevity modules, connecting to both gene sets. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches of MtABI3 confirmed 80% of its predicted targets, thereby experimentally validating the network. This study captures the coordinated regulation of seed maturation and identifies distinct regulatory networks underlying the preparation for the dry and quiescent states.

  17. Desiccation stress induces developmental heterochrony in

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stressful environments are known to perturb developmental patterns in insects. In the purview of desiccation as astressor, relatively little is known about the developmental consequences linked with desiccation tolerance. In thisstudy, we have particularly focused on the exploration of the temporal profile of postembryonic ...

  18. Differential longevities in desiccated anhydrobiotic plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance is a wide-spread phenomenon in the plant kingdom, particularly in small propagules lacking own root or rhizome system, such as seeds, pollen, spores of spore plants, and whole moss plants, but rare in whole, vascular plants. Longevities in the desiccated state vary from a few

  19. Desiccation stress induces developmental heterochrony in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stressful environments are known to perturb developmental patterns in insects. In the purview of desiccation as astressor, relatively little is known about the developmental consequences linked with desiccation tolerance. In thisstudy, we have particularly focused on the exploration of the temporal profile of postembryonic ...

  20. Parameter analysis and optimization of the energy and economic performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant cooling system under different climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Ronghui; Lu, Lin; Huang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation conditions significantly affect energy & economic performance of SLDCS. • Control parameters in three areas were optimized by Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm. • Solar collector area showed the greatest effect on system performance for humid areas. • Desiccant concentration showed greatest effect on system performance for dry areas. • Requirement of collector area, heating water and desiccant flow rates for humid areas is highest. - Abstract: Operation conditions significantly affect the energy and economic performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant cooling systems. This study optimized the system control parameters for buildings in different climates, i.e., Singapore (hot and humid), Beijing (moderate) and Boulder (hot and dry), with a multi-parameter optimization based on the Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm to obtain optimal system performance in terms of relatively maximum electricity saving rate with a minimum cost payback period. The results indicated that the selection of operation parameters is significantly influenced by climatic conditions. The solar collector installation area exhibited the greatest effect on both energy and economic performance in humid areas, and the heating water flow rate was also important. For dry areas, a change in desiccant concentration had the largest effect on system performance. Although the effect of the desiccant flow rate was significant in humid cities, it appeared to have little influence over buildings in dry areas. Furthermore, the requirements of the solar collector installation area in humid areas were much higher. The optimized area was up to 70 m 2 in Singapore compared with 27.5 m 2 in Boulder. Similar results were found for the flow rates of heating water and the desiccant solution. Applying the optimization, humid cities could achieve an electricity saving of more than 40% with a six-year payback period. The optimal performance for hot and dry areas of a 38% electricity

  1. Arabitol provided by lichenous fungi enhances ability to dissipate excess light energy in a symbiotic green alga under desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Makiko; Miyake, Hirohisa; Yamakawa, Hisanori; Shibata, Yutaka; Miyazawa, Atsuo; Sugimura, Takashi; Satoh, Kazuhiko; Itoh, Shigeru; Kashino, Yasuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Lichens are drought-resistant symbiotic organisms of mycobiont fungi and photobiont green algae or cyanobacteria, and have an efficient mechanism to dissipate excess captured light energy into heat in a picosecond time range to avoid photoinhibition. This mechanism can be assessed as drought-induced non-photochemical quenching (d-NPQ) using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. A green alga Trebouxia sp., which lives within a lichen Ramalina yasudae, is one of the most common green algal photobionts. This alga showed very efficient d-NPQ under desiccation within the lichen thallus, whereas it lost d-NPQ ability when isolated from R. yasudae, indicating the importance of the interaction with the mycobiont for d-NPQ ability. We analyzed the water extracts from lichen thalli that enhanced d-NPQ in Trebouxia. Of several sugar compounds identified in the water extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS) and gas chromatography (GC) analyses, only d-arabitol recovered d-NPQ in isolated Trebouxia to a level similar to that detected for R. yasudae thallus. Other sugar compounds did not help the expression of d-NPQ at the same concentrations. Thus, arabitol is essential for the expression of d-NPQ to dissipate excess captured light energy into heat, protecting the photobiont from photoinhibition. The relationship between mycobionts and photobionts is, therefore, not commensalism, but mutualism with each other, as shown by d-NPQ expression.

  2. Introduction to desiccation biology: from old borders to new frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprince, Olivier; Buitink, Julia

    2015-08-01

    A special issue reviews the recent progress made in our understanding of desiccation tolerance across various plant and animal kingdoms. It has been known for a long time that seeds can survive near absolute protoplasmic dehydration through air drying and complete germination upon rehydration because of their desiccation tolerance. This property is present both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes across all life kingdoms. These dry organisms suspend their metabolism when dry, are extremely tolerant to acute environmental stresses and are relatively stable during long periods of desiccation. Studies aiming at understanding the mechanisms of survival in the dry state have emerged during the past 40 years, moving from in vitro to genomic models and comparative genomics, and from a view that tolerance is an all-or-nothing phenomenon to a quantitative trait. With the prospect of global climate change, understanding the mechanisms of desiccation tolerance appears to be a promising avenue as a prelude to engineering crops for improved drought tolerance. Understanding desiccation is also useful for seed banks that rely on dehydration tolerance to preserve plant genetic resources in the form of these propagules. Articles in this special issue explore the recent progress in our understanding of desiccation tolerance, including the evolutionary mechanisms that have been adopted across various plant (algae, lichens, seeds, resurrection plants) and animal model systems (Caenorhabditis elegans, brine shrimp). We propose that the term desiccation biology defines the discipline dedicated to understand the desiccation tolerance in living organisms as well as the limits and time constraints thereof.

  3. Desiccant cooling system performance: A simple approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M.; Grolmes, M. A.

    1982-10-01

    The wave nature of heat and mass transfer in fixed desiccant bed adsorption is explained. A simple algebraic model of wave motion under single low desiccant bed operation is developed and applied to the prediction of the performance potential of the overall desiccant cooling system. The model is used to explain the increase in cooling system performance that is realized through the use of mixed inert desiccant material adsorption beds. The response of cooling system performance to changes in external process conditions is examined and conclusions are drawn relative to optimization of system characteristics.

  4. Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

    1991-07-01

    The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The corticotropin-releasing factor-like diuretic hormone 44 (DH44) and kinin neuropeptides modulate desiccation and starvation tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannell, Elizabeth; Dornan, Anthony J.; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin

    2016-01-01

    Malpighian tubules are critical organs for epithelial fluid transport and stress tolerance in insects, and are under neuroendocrine control by multiple neuropeptides secreted by identified neurons. Here, we demonstrate roles for CRF-like diuretic hormone 44 (DH44) and Drosophila melanogaster kinin...

  6. Genetic Analysis of Physcomitrella patens Identifies ABSCISIC ACID NON-RESPONSIVE, a Regulator of ABA Responses Unique to Basal Land Plants and Required for Desiccation Tolerance[CC-BY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Trinh, Chi H.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Muchero, Wellington; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J.; Li, Fay-Wei; Larsson, Anders; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomically simple plants that first colonized land must have acquired molecular and biochemical adaptations to drought stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) coordinates responses leading to desiccation tolerance in all land plants. We identified ABA nonresponsive mutants in the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens and genotyped a segregating population to map and identify the ABA NON-RESPONSIVE (ANR) gene encoding a modular protein kinase comprising an N-terminal PAS domain, a central EDR domain, and a C-terminal MAPKKK-like domain. anr mutants fail to accumulate dehydration tolerance-associated gene products in response to drought, ABA, or osmotic stress and do not acquire ABA-dependent desiccation tolerance. The crystal structure of the PAS domain, determined to 1.7-Å resolution, shows a conserved PAS-fold that dimerizes through a weak dimerization interface. Targeted mutagenesis of a conserved tryptophan residue within the PAS domain generates plants with ABA nonresponsive growth and strongly attenuated ABA-responsive gene expression, whereas deleting this domain retains a fully ABA-responsive phenotype. ANR orthologs are found in early-diverging land plant lineages and aquatic algae but are absent from more recently diverged vascular plants. We propose that ANR genes represent an ancestral adaptation that enabled drought stress survival of the first terrestrial colonizers but were lost during land plant evolution. PMID:27194706

  7. Desiccation tolerance in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenne, T.; Bryant, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Severe dehydration is lethal for most biological species. However, there are a number of organisms or organelles which have evolved mechanisms to avoid damage during dehydration. One of these mechanisms is the accumulation of small solutes (such as sugars), which has been shown to preserve membranes by inhibiting deleterious phase changes at low hydration. The aim of this project is to use small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate the effects of small solutes on the phase behaviour and packing parameters of multilamellar membranes as a function of hydration. In the experiment a synthetic phospholipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) will be used as a model system, as it is the most well characterized phospholipid. Hence the repeat spacings (distance between consecutive bilayers ∼50 Angstroms) and the intra-lipid spacing (distance between a lipid and its neighbor ∼5 Angstroms) are well documented. An appropriate solute, and solute concentration range will be chosen, and its effect on the freezing temperature of DPPC will be observed. To determine the effectiveness of the added solute the repeat spacings need to be measured. Experiments will be conducted at a number of hydrations to accurately model the phase behavior for DPPC over the entire range of hydrations and solute concentrations. Experiments using an alternate configuration of the SAXS may be attempted if time permits to measure the interlipid spacing to obtain more information regarding the phase transition. Although SAXS has been performed extensively on DPPC, experiments with solutes over a range of hydrations, particularly very low hydrations, have not been attempted

  8. Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, F.A.; Golovina, E.A.; Buitink, J.

    2001-01-01

    Anhydrobiosis (`life without water') is the remarkable ability of certain organisms to survive almost total dehydration. It requires a coordinated series of events during dehydration that are associated with preventing oxidative damage and maintaining the native structure of macromolecules and

  9. Desiccation and storage of Lannea microcarpa from Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daws, M.I.; Gaméné, C.E.; Sacandé, M.; Pritchard, H.W.; Groot, S.P.C.; Hoekstra, F.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of Lannea microcarpa collected from Brurkina Faso in 1997 and 1998 were subjected to desiccation and a range of storage conditions.Seeds were able to tolerate desiccation to low moisture contents (ca 5%) with little loss of viability. In addition, it was possible to store seeds at 25 degrees

  10. Desiccation resistance of wild and mass-reared Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, C W; Yap, S; Taylor, P W

    2013-12-01

    In pest management programmes that incorporate the sterile insect technique (SIT), the ability of mass-reared insects to tolerate dry conditions may influence their survival after release in the field. In the present study, desiccation resistance of adult mass-reared Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (Frogatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), that are routinely released in SIT programmes was compared with that of wild flies at 1, 10 and 20 days after adult eclosion. Under dry conditions without access to food or water, longevity of mass-reared B. tryoni was significantly less than that of their wild counterparts. Desiccation resistance of mass-reared flies declined monotonically with age, but this was not the case for wild flies. The sharp decline in desiccation resistance of mass-reared flies as they aged was likely explained by decreased dehydration tolerance. As in an earlier study, desiccation resistance of females was significantly lower than that of males but this was particularly pronounced in mass-reared females. Female susceptibility to dry conditions corresponded with declining dehydration tolerance with age and associated patterns of reproductive development, which suggests that water content of their oocyte load is not available for survival during periods of water stress.

  11. Glutathione reductase in leaves of cowpea: cloning of two cDNAs, expression and enzymatic activity under progressive drought stress, desiccation and abscisic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contour-Ansel, Dominique; Torres-Franklin, Maria Lucia; Cruz DE Carvalho, Maria Helena; D'Arcy-Lameta, Agnès; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine

    2006-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species are frequently produced when plants are exposed to abiotic stresses. Among the detoxication systems, two enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase (GR) play key roles. GR has also a central role in keeping the reduced glutathione pool during stress thus allowing the adjustments on the cellular redox reactions. The aim of this work was to study the variations in cytosolic and dual-targeted GR gene expression in the leaves of cowpea plants submitted to progressive drought, rapid desiccation and application of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars, one drought-resistant ('EPACE-1'), the other drought-sensitive ('1183') were submitted to progressive drought stress by withholding irrigation. Cut-off leaves were air-dried or treated with exogenous ABA. Two GR cDNAs, one cytosolic, the other dual-targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria were isolated by PCR and cloned in plasmid vectors. Reverse-transcription PCR was used to study the variations in GR gene expression. Two new cDNAs encoding a putative dual-targeted and a cytosolic GR were cloned and sequenced from leaves of V. unguiculata. Drought stress induced an up-regulation of the expression of the cytosolic GR gene directly related to the intensity of the stress in both cultivars. The expression of dual-targeted GR was up-regulated by the drought treatment in the susceptible cultivar only. Under a fast desiccation, the '1183' cultivar responded later than the 'EPACE-1', although in 'EPACE-1' it was the cytosolic isoform which responded and in '1183' the dual-targeted one. Exogenous ABA enhanced significantly the activity and expression levels of GR in both cultivars after treatment for 24 h. These results demonstrate a noticeable activation in both cultivars of the antioxidant metabolism under a progressive water stress, which involves both GR genes in the case of the susceptible cultivar. Under a fast desiccation, the susceptible cultivar

  12. Damage tolerant evaluation of cracked stiffened panels under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the methodologies for damage tolerant evaluation of stiffened panels under fatigue loading. The two major objectives of damage tolerant evaluation, namely, the remaining life prediction and residual strength evaluation of stiffened panels have been discussed. Concentric and eccentric stiffeners have ...

  13. Trehalose Accumulation Triggers Autophagy during Plant Desiccation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change, increasingly erratic weather and a burgeoning global population are significant threats to the sustainability of future crop production. There is an urgent need for the development of robust measures that enable crops to withstand the uncertainty of climate change whilst still producing maximum yields. Resurrection plants possess the unique ability to withstand desiccation for prolonged periods, can be restored upon watering and represent great potential for the development of stress tolerant crops. Here, we describe the remarkable stress characteristics of Tripogon loliiformis, an uncharacterised resurrection grass and close relative of the economically important cereals, rice, sorghum, and maize. We show that T. loliiformis survives extreme environmental stress by implementing autophagy to prevent Programmed Cell Death. Notably, we identified a novel role for trehalose in the regulation of autophagy in T.loliiformis. Transcriptome, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, immunoblotting and confocal microscopy analyses directly linked the accumulation of trehalose with the onset of autophagy in dehydrating and desiccated T. loliiformis shoots. These results were supported in vitro with the observation of autophagosomes in trehalose treated T. loliiformis leaves; autophagosomes were not detected in untreated samples. Presumably, once induced, autophagy promotes desiccation tolerance in T.loliiformis, by removal of cellular toxins to suppress programmed cell death and the recycling of nutrients to delay the onset of senescence. These findings illustrate how resurrection plants manipulate sugar metabolism to promote desiccation tolerance and may provide candidate genes that are potentially useful for the development of stress tolerant crops.

  14. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  15. Desiccation resistance in Arcobacter butzleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otth Laura

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation resistance of A. butzleri was studied. Two, 3 and 4 of the strains did not resist desiccation for more than 2, 12 and 36 h, respectively. Two strains resisted desiccation for > 48 h. A. butzleri seems to be more resistant to desiccation than the classical enteropathogenic Campylobacter species.

  16. The survival of Listeria monocytogenes during long term desiccation is facilitated by sodium chloride and organic material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Mordhorst, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    One specific DNA-subtype, as determined by RAPD, of Listeria monocytogenes persisted in a fish slaughterhouse for years, even during months with no production where the plant was cleaned and kept dry. We hypothesised that tolerance to desiccation could be a factor in explaining the persistence of L...... monocytogenes in food processing environments and the purpose of the present study was to determine ability of L monocytogenes to survive desiccation on stainless steel under simulated food processing conditions. Viable counts of eight different L. monocytogenes strains exposed to different soils and relative...

  17. Correlation between desiccation stress response and epigenetic modifications of genes in Drosophila melanogaster: An example of environment-epigenome interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vineeta; Kohli, Surbhi; Brahmachari, Vani

    2017-10-01

    Animals from different phyla including arthropods tolerate water stress to different extent. This tolerance is accompanied by biochemical changes which in turn are due to transcriptional alteration. The changes in transcription can be an indirect effect on some of the genes, ensuing from the effect of stress on the regulators of transcription including epigenetic regulators. Within this paradigm, we investigated the correlation between stress response and epigenetic modification underlying gene expression modulation during desiccation stress in Canton-S. We report altered resistance of flies in desiccation stress for heterozygote mutants of PcG and TrxG members. Pc/+ mutant shows lower survival, while ash1/+ mutants show higher survival under desiccation stress as compared to Canton-S. We detect expression alteration in stress related genes as well the genes of the Polycomb and trithorax complex in Canton-S subjected to desiccation stress. Concomitant with this, there is an altered enrichment of H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 at the upstream regions of the stress responsive genes. The enrichment of activating mark, H3K4me3, is higher in non-stress condition. H3K27me3, the repressive mark, is more pronounced under stress condition, which in turn, can be correlated with the binding of Pc. Our results show that desiccation stress induces dynamic switching in expression and enrichment of PcG and TrxG in the upstream region of genes, which correlates with histone modifications. We provide evidence that epigenetic modulation could be one of the mechanisms to adapt to the desiccation stress in Drosophila. Thus, our study proposes the interaction of epigenome and environmental factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Desiccation and storage of Lannea microcarpa from Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Daws, M.I.; Gaméné, C.E.; Sacandé, M.; Pritchard, H.W.; Groot, S.P.C.; Hoekstra, F.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of Lannea microcarpa collected from Brurkina Faso in 1997 and 1998 were subjected to desiccation and a range of storage conditions.Seeds were able to tolerate desiccation to low moisture contents (ca 5%) with little loss of viability. In addition, it was possible to store seeds at 25 degrees centigrade at reduced moisture contents (approx. 6%), for up to 14 months. However, seeds stored at -20 or 4 degrees centigrade exhibited a reduction in viability within three months of storage. Thi...

  19. Responses to desiccation stress in bryophytes and an important role of dithiothreitol-insensitive non-photochemical quenching against photoinhibition in dehydrated states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe, Hayase; Funabiki, Ryoko; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Koike, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Kazuhiko

    2007-11-01

    The effects of air drying and hypertonic treatments in the dark on seven bryophytes, which had grown under different water environments, were studied. All the desiccation-tolerant species tested lost most of their PSII photochemical activity when photosynthetic electron transport was inhibited by air drying, while, in all the sensitive species, the PSII photochemical activity remained at a high level even when photosynthesis was totally inhibited. The PSI reaction center remained active under drying conditions in both sensitive and tolerant species, but the activity became non-detectable in the light only in tolerant species due to deactivation of the cyclic electron flow around PSI and of the back reaction in PSI. Light-induced non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was found to be induced not only by the xanthophyll cycle but also by a DeltapH-induced, dithiothreitol-insensitive mechanism in both the desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant bryophytes. Both mechanisms are thought to have an important role in protecting desiccation-tolerant species from photoinhibition under drying conditions. Fluorescence emission spectra at 77K showed that dehydration-induced quenching of PSII fluorescence was observed only in tolerant species and was due to neither state 1-state 2 transition nor detachment of light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes from PSII core complexes. The presence of dehydration-induced quenching of PSI fluorescence was also suggested.

  20. The influence of desiccation and UV radiation on the development and survival of free-living stages of cyathostomins under field and laboratory conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langrová, I.; Jankovská, I.; Vadlejch, J.; Libra, M.; Lytvynets, Andrej; Makovcová, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2008), s. 32-40 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cyathostomins * desiccation * UV radiation Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 0.443, year: 2008

  1. Composite desiccant structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraioli, Anthony V.; Schertz, William W.

    1987-01-01

    A composite formed of small desiccant particles retained in a dark matrix composed of a porous binder containing a transition metal oxide with pores to provide moisture transport with respect to the particles, and metallic fibers to remove the heat of condensation during dehumidification and provide heat for the removal of moisture during regeneration. The moisture absorbing properties of the composite may be regenerated by exposure of the dark matrix to solar radiation with dehumidification occurring at night.

  2. Preliminary Modeling of Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts under Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Kyle A.; Hales, Jason D.

    2016-12-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. Thus, the United States Department of Energy through its NEAMS (Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is funded for a three-year period. The purpose of the HIP is to perform research into two potential accident tolerant concepts and provide an in-depth report to the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) describing the behavior of the concepts, both of which are being considered for inclusion in a lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The initial focus of the HIP is on uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (INL, LANL, and ANL) a comprehensive mulitscale approach to modeling is being used including atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. In this paper, we present simulations of two proposed accident tolerant fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. The simulations investigate the fuel performance response of the proposed ATF systems under Loss of Coolant and Station Blackout conditions using the BISON code. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ DAKOTA software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). Early results indicate that each concept has significant advantages as well as areas of concern. Further work is required prior to formulating the proposition report for the Advanced Fuels Campaign.

  3. Responses of the Lichen Photobiont Trebouxia erici to Desiccation and Rehydration (II) Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichen desiccation tolerance is associated with cellular protection mechanisms directed against the oxidative stress produced during dehydration and/or rehydration, however, these mechanisms are not well understood. In other poikilohydric organisms, changes in the synthesis of proteins have bee...

  4. Effects of temperature, light, desiccation and cold storage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of the seed storage behaviour of a target species is essential prior to seed storage so that suitable storage strategies are taken. In the present experiments, germination characteristics, desiccation, and low temperature tolerance of seeds of Sophora tonkinensis was studied; a traditional Chinese medicine on ...

  5. Desiccation as a mitigation tool to manage biofouling risks: trials on temperate taxa to elucidate factors influencing mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Grant A; Prince, Madeleine; Cahill, Patrick L; Fletcher, Lauren M; Atalah, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The desiccation tolerance of biofouling taxa (adults and early life-stages) was determined under both controlled and 'realistic' field conditions. Adults of the ascidian Ciona spp. died within 24 h. Mortality in the adult blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis occurred within 11 d under controlled conditions, compared with 7 d when held outside. The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was the most desiccation-tolerant taxon tested (up to 34 d under controlled conditions). Biofouling orientated to direct sunlight showed faster mortality rates for all the taxa tested. Mortality in Mytilus juveniles took up to 24 h, compared with 8 h for Ciona, with greater survival at the higher temperature (18.5°C) and humidity (~95% RH) treatment combination. This study demonstrated that desiccation can be an effective mitigation method for a broad range of fouling taxa, especially their early life-stages. Further work is necessary to assess risks from other high-risk species such as algae and cyst forming species.

  6. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation...... and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, 9PD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs...

  7. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...... desiccant dew-point cooling system, for demonstrating its function and applicability. Simulations are carried out for varying outdoor conditions under constant supply conditions. The results show that the system is independent of external water supply for the majority of simulated conditions. In comparison...

  8. Review of Desiccant Dehumidification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A. A.

    1994-10-01

    This paper overviews applications of desiccant technology for dehumidifying commercial and institutional buildings. Because of various market, policy, and regulatory factors, this technology is especially attractive for dehumidification applications in the I990s.

  9. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...... the current models of restraint and benevolence, other ways of understanding the politics of democratic pluralism might be developed, which will enable us to conceive of tolerance's future in terms different than those currently on offer. Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics develops...

  10. The molecular pathways underlying host resistance and tolerance to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Breeding livestock that are better able to withstand the onslaught of endemic- and exotic pathogens is high on the wish list of breeders and farmers world-wide. However, the defense systems in both pathogens and their hosts are complex and the degree of genetic variation in resistance and tolerance will depend on the trade-offs that they impose on host fitness as well as their life-histories. The genes and pathways underpinning resistance and tolerance traits may be distinct or intertwined as the outcome of any infection is a result of a balance between collateral damage of host tissues and control of the invading pathogen. Genes and molecular pathways associated with resistance are mainly expressed in the mucosal tract and the innate immune system and control the very early events following pathogen invasion. Resistance genes encode receptors involved in uptake of pathogens, as well as pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as the toll-like receptor family as well as molecules involved in strong and rapid inflammatory responses which lead to rapid pathogen clearance, yet do not lead to immunopathology. In contrast tolerance genes and pathways play a role in reducing immunopathology or enhancing the host's ability to protect against pathogen associated toxins. Candidate tolerance genes may include cytosolic PRRs and unidentified sensors of pathogen growth, perturbation of host metabolism and intrinsic danger or damage associated molecules. In addition, genes controlling regulatory pathways, tissue repair and resolution are also tolerance candidates. The identities of distinct genetic loci for resistance and tolerance to infectious pathogens in livestock species remain to be determined. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved and phenotypes associated with resistance and tolerance should ultimately help to improve livestock health and welfare.

  11. The molecular pathways underlying host resistance and tolerance to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Janet Glass

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding livestock that are better able to withstand the onslaught of endemic and exotic pathogens is high on the wish list of breeders and farmers world-wide. However the defence systems in both pathogens and their hosts are complex and the degree of genetic variation in resistance and tolerance will depend on the trade-offs that they impose on host fitness as well as their life-histories. The genes and pathways underpinning resistance and tolerance traits may be distinct or intertwined as the outcome of any infection is a result of a balance between collateral damage of host tissues and control of the invading pathogen. Genes and molecular pathways associated with resistance are mainly expressed in the mucosal tract and the innate immune system and control the very early events following pathogen invasion. Resistance genes encode receptors involved in uptake of pathogens, as well as pattern recognition receptors (PRR such as the toll-like receptor family as well as molecules involved in strong and rapid inflammatory responses which lead to rapid pathogen clearance yet do not lead to immunopathology. In contrast tolerance genes and pathways play a role in reducing immunopathology or enhancing the host’s ability to protect against pathogen associated toxins. Candidate tolerance genes may include cytosolic PRRs and unidentified sensors of pathogen growth, perturbation of host metabolism and intrinsic danger or damage associated molecules. In addition, genes controlling regulatory pathways, tissue repair and resolution are also tolerance candidates. The identities of distinct genetic loci for resistance and tolerance to infectious pathogens in livestock species remain to be determined. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved and phenotypes associated with resistance and tolerance should ultimately help to improve livestock health and welfare.

  12. Global changes in DNA methylation in seeds and seedlings of Pyrus communis after seed desiccation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Marcin; Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Barciszewski, Jan; Plitta, Beata P; Chmielarz, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    The effects of storage and deep desiccation on structural changes of DNA in orthodox seeds are poorly characterized. In this study we analyzed the 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C) global content of DNA isolated from seeds of common pear (Pyrus communis L.) that had been subjected to extreme desiccation, and the seedlings derived from these seeds. Germination and seedling emergence tests were applied to determine seed viability after their desiccation. In parallel, analysis of the global content of m(5)C in dried seeds and DNA of seedlings obtained from such seeds was performed with a 2D TLC method. Desiccation of fresh seeds to 5.3% moisture content (mc) resulted in a slight reduction of DNA methylation, whereas severe desiccation down to 2-3% mc increased DNA methylation. Strong desiccation of seeds resulted in the subsequent generation of seedlings of shorter height. A 1-year period of seed storage induced a significant increase in the level of DNA methylation in seeds. It is possible that alterations in the m(5)C content of DNA in strongly desiccated pear seeds reflect a reaction of desiccation-tolerant (orthodox) seeds to severe desiccation. Epigenetic changes were observed not only in severely desiccated seeds but also in 3-month old seedlings obtained from these seeds. With regard to seed storage practices, epigenetic assessment could be used by gene banks for early detection of structural changes in the DNA of stored seeds.

  13. Damage tolerant evaluation of cracked stiffened panels under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wood & Howard (1975) discussed the significant fac- tors leading to the development of damage tolerance criteria and illustrated the role of fracture mechanics in the analysis and testing aspects necessary to satisfy these requirements. Swift. (1984) conducted fracture analysis of cracked stiffened structure based on ...

  14. Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two consecutive seasons (2007-08 and 2008-09), field experiments were conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian and Biosaline Agricultural Research Station, Pakka Aana, Pakistan. During 2007-08, 103 wheat landrace genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance. During 2008-09, 47 selected ...

  15. Damage tolerant evaluation of cracked stiffened panels under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hence remaining life approach will govern the design. It is noted that residual strength increases with the increase of stiffener size. Keywords. Stiffened panels; stress intensity factor; fatigue and fracture; damage tolerant evaluation; remaining life; residual strength. 1. Introduction. Most of the structures such as nuclear ...

  16. Experimental performance of indirect air–liquid membrane contactors for liquid desiccant cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Rajat Subhra; Jain, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the stringent indoor air quality (IAQ) requirements and high cost of desiccants, one of the major concerns in liquid desiccant technology has been the carryover, which can be eliminated through indirect contact between desiccant and air. Membrane contactors using microporous semipermeable hydrophobic membranes have a great potential in this regard. This communication investigates the performance of semipermeable membrane based indirect contactors as dehumidifiers in liquid desiccant cooling applications. Experiments on different types of membrane contactors are carried out using lithium chloride (LiCl) solution as desiccant. The membrane contactors consist of alternate channels of air and liquid desiccant flowing in cross-flow direction. Hydrophobic membranes form a liquid tight, vapor permeable porous barrier between hygroscopic solution and moist air, thus eliminating carryover of desiccant droplets. In order to provide maximum contact area for air–desiccant interaction, a wicking material is sandwiched between two membranes in the liquid channel. It is observed that vapor flux upto 1300 g/m 2 h can be achieved in a membrane contactor with polypropylene (PP) membranes, although the dehumidification effectiveness remains low. The effect of key parameters on the transmembrane vapor transport is presented in the paper. - Highlights: • Indirect membrane contactors developed to avoid carryover in liquid desiccant system. • Dehumidification effectiveness and vapor flux reported under varying conditions. • Vapor flux upto 1295 g/m 2 h in polypropylene contactor with high area density. • Dehumidification effectiveness with LiCl solution varies within 23% to 45%

  17. Modeling and experimental validation of the desiccant wheel in a hybrid desiccant air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, Jan; Morgenstern, Paula; Schmitz, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Modeling can be strong asset to the operation of air conditioning plants taking into account e.g. the strong dependency of local climate conditions for the operation of HVAC systems. This paper presents a validated physical model and a simplified model based on the results of the physical model for a desiccant wheel, which is the central part of a hybrid air conditioning system. The two models offer different advantages: While the physical model is complex and can be adapted flexibly to different wheel dimensions, desiccant materials or climatic conditions; the simplified model requires no knowledge of underlying equations and modeling language utilized and can be used for a first assessment of the potential of a desiccant cooling system in a certain location or for the use within online control systems. The coexistence of both models ensures that information tailored to the users' needs are made available. The validity of the physical model, and therewith the simplified model, is ensured through comparison with measurement obtained from a hybrid air conditioning system situated in northern Europe. The demonstration plant combines the advantages of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) with the advantages of the common hybrid desiccant system to allow for energy efficient air conditioning in one installation. The availability of primary measurement data is extremely valuable to the process of model validation because knowledge about uncertainties and bias in measurement data unlikely to be known for secondary data can be used to understand and validate model results. A comparison of simulation results from the physical model to measurement data from the demonstration plant shows good compliance for a typical day of wheel operation after adjusting relevant model parameters. -- Highlights: ► The desiccant wheel as core component of a highly efficient HVAC pilot installation based on renewable energies. ► Modeling and experimental validation of a desiccant wheel

  18. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  19. General response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to desiccation: A new role for the virulence factors sopD and sseD in survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maserati

    Full Text Available Salmonella can survive for long periods under extreme desiccation conditions. This stress tolerance poses a risk for food safety, but relatively little is known about the molecular and cellular regulation of this adaptation mechanism. To determine the genetic components involved in Salmonella's cellular response to desiccation, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis comparing S. enterica serovar Typhimurium cells equilibrated to low water activity (aw 0.11 and cells equilibrated to high water activity (aw 1.0. The analysis revealed that 719 genes were differentially regulated between the two conditions, of which 290 genes were up-regulated at aw 0.11. Most of these genes were involved in metabolic pathways, transporter regulation, DNA replication/repair, transcription and translation, and, more importantly, virulence genes. Among these, we decided to focus on the role of sopD and sseD. Deletion mutants were created and their ability to survive desiccation and exposure to aw 0.11 was compared to the wild-type strain and to an E. coli O157:H7 strain. The sopD and sseD mutants exhibited significant cell viability reductions of 2.5 and 1.3 Log (CFU/g, respectively, compared to the wild-type after desiccation for 4 days on glass beads. Additional viability differences of the mutants were observed after exposure to aw 0.11 for 7 days. E. coli O157:H7 lost viability similarly to the mutants. Scanning electron microscopy showed that both mutants displayed a different morphology compared to the wild-type and differences in production of the extracellular matrix under the same conditions. These findings suggested that sopD and sseD are required for Salmonella's survival during desiccation.

  20. Desiccation survival in an Antarctic nematode: molecular analysis using expressed sequenced tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Diana H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nematodes are the dominant soil animals in Antarctic Dry Valleys and are capable of surviving desiccation and freezing in an anhydrobiotic state. Genes induced by desiccation stress have been successfully enumerated in nematodes; however we have little knowledge of gene regulation by Antarctic nematodes which can survive multiple environmental stresses. To address this problem we investigated the genetic responses of a nematode species, Plectus murrayi, that is capable of tolerating Antarctic environmental extremes, in particular desiccation and freezing. In this study, we provide the first insight into the desiccation induced transcriptome of an Antarctic nematode through cDNA library construction and suppressive subtractive hybridization. Results We obtained 2,486 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from 2,586 clones derived from the cDNA library of desiccated P. murrayi. The 2,486 ESTs formed 1,387 putative unique transcripts of which 523 (38% had matches in the model-nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, 107 (7% in nematodes other than C. elegans, 153 (11% in non-nematode organisms and 605 (44% had no significant match to any sequences in the current databases. The 1,387 unique transcripts were functionally classified by using Gene Ontology (GO hierarchy and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database. The results indicate that the transcriptome contains a group of transcripts from diverse functional areas. The subtractive library of desiccated nematodes showed 80 transcripts differentially expressed during desiccation stress, of which 28% were metabolism related, 19% were involved in environmental information processing, 28% involved in genetic information processing and 21% were novel transcripts. Expression profiling of 14 selected genes by quantitative Real-time PCR showed 9 genes significantly up-regulated, 3 down-regulated and 2 continuously expressed in response to desiccation. Conclusion The establishment of a

  1. The physiological links of the increased photosystem II activity in moderately desiccated Porphyra haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) to the cyclic electron flow during desiccation and re-hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Niu, Jianfeng; Chen, Weizhou; Wang, Guangce; Xie, Xiujun; Pan, Guanghua; Gu, Wenhui; Zhu, Daling

    2013-09-01

    Photosynthetic electron flow changed considerably during desiccation and re-hydration of the intertidal macroalgae Porphyra haitanensis. Activities of both photosystem (PSI) and photosystem (PSII) increased significantly at moderate desiccation levels. Whereas PSII activity was abolished at an absolute water content (AWC) <24 %, PSI remained active with progressive decreases in AWC to values as low as 16 %. This result suggested that cyclic electron flow around PSI was still active after inactivation of linear electron flow following severe desiccation. Moreover, the PSI activity was restored more rapidly than that of PSII upon re-hydration. Pretreatment of the blades with 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) suppressed PSII activity following desiccation to an AWC of ~16 % AWC. Cyclic electron flow around PSI decreased markedly in blades pretreated with DCMU than in blades without pretreatment of DCMU during re-hydration in seawater containing DCMU. All results suggested that the activity of PSII under desiccation conditions plays an important role in the operation of cyclic electron flow during desiccation and its recovery during re-hydration. Therefore, we proposed the PSII activity during desiccation could eventually lead to the accumulation of NADPH, which could serve as electron donor for P700(+) and promote its recovery during re-hydration, thereby favoring the operation of cyclic electron flow.

  2. Distribution Line Parameter Estimation Under Consideration of Measurement Tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    State estimation and control approaches in electric distribution grids rely on precise electric models that may be inaccurate. This work presents a novel method of estimating distribution line parameters using only root mean square voltage and power measurements under consideration of measurement...

  3. The salt tolerance of Quinoa measured under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    Plant growth and economic yield decreases when high salt concentrations build-up in the root zone. Quinoa is a facultative halophyte crop, which can withstand saline conditions. There is no documentation of the threshold soil electrical conductivity that cause yield reduction in quinoa under field...... conditions. In this study the threshold electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract (ECe) and maximum ECe corresponding to no economic yield of quinoa (cv. Titicaca) were determined. The experimental factors were five levels of saline solution (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m-1) imposed during flowering...... and the minimum relative yield was 47% observed at 40 dS m-1 saline solution (FI40). The results showed that quinoa can grow under highly saline conditions although the seed yield decreases with increased ECe. The threshold ECe of quinoa was estimated to be between 3-6 dS m-1. There was 50% reduction in seed...

  4. Influences on Cocaine Tolerance Assessed under a Multiple Conjunctive Schedule of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Ho; Branch, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Under multiple schedules of reinforcement, previous research has generally observed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects of cocaine that has been dependent on schedule-parameter size in the context of fixed-ratio (FR) schedules, but not under the context of fixed-interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement. The current experiment examined the…

  5. The enhancement of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I improves the recovery of severely desiccated Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Wang, Guangce

    2012-07-01

    Porphyra yezoensis, a representative species of intertidal macro-algae, is able to withstand periodic desiccation at low tide but is submerged in seawater at high tide. In this study, changes in photosynthetic electron flow in P. yezoensis during desiccation and re-hydration were investigated. The results suggested that the cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (PSI) increased significantly during desiccation, continued to operate at times of severe desiccation, and showed greater tolerance to desiccation than the electron flow around PSII. In addition, PSI activity in desiccated blades recovered faster than PSII activity during re-hydration. Even though linear electron flow was suppressed by DCMU [3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea], cyclic electron flow could still be restored. This process was insensitive to antimycin A and could be suppressed by dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB). The prolonged dark treatment of blades reduced the speed in which the cyclic electron flow around PSI recovered, suggesting that stromal reductants, including NAD(P)H, played an important role in the donation of electrons to PSI and were the main cause of the rapid recovery of cyclic electron flow in desiccated blades during re-hydration. These results suggested that cyclic electron flow in P. yezoensis played a significant physiological role during desiccation and re-hydration and may be one of the most important factors allowing P. yezoensis blades to adapt to intertidal environments.

  6. Aquatic insects dealing with dehydration: do desiccation resistance traits differ in species with contrasting habitat preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Pallarés

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Desiccation resistance shapes the distribution of terrestrial insects at multiple spatial scales. However, responses to drying stress have been poorly studied in aquatic groups, despite their potential role in constraining their distribution and diversification, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Methods We examined desiccation resistance in adults of four congeneric water beetle species (Enochrus, family Hydrophilidae with contrasting habitat specificity (lentic vs. lotic systems and different salinity optima from fresh- to hypersaline waters. We measured survival, recovery capacity and key traits related to desiccation resistance (fresh mass, % water content, % cuticle content and water loss rate under controlled exposure to desiccation, and explored their variability within and between species. Results Meso- and hypersaline species were more resistant to desiccation than freshwater and hyposaline ones, showing significantly lower water loss rates and higher water content. No clear patterns in desiccation resistance traits were observed between lotic and lentic species. Intraspecifically, water loss rate was positively related to specimens’ initial % water content, but not to fresh mass or % cuticle content, suggesting that the dynamic mechanism controlling water loss is mainly regulated by the amount of body water available. Discussion Our results support previous hypotheses suggesting that the evolution of desiccation resistance is associated with the colonization of saline habitats by aquatic beetles. The interespecific patterns observed in Enochrus also suggest that freshwater species may be more vulnerable than saline ones to drought intensification expected under climate change in semi-arid regions such as the Mediterranean Basin.

  7. Aquatic insects dealing with dehydration: do desiccation resistance traits differ in species with contrasting habitat preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, Susana; Velasco, Josefa; Millán, Andrés; Bilton, David T; Arribas, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Desiccation resistance shapes the distribution of terrestrial insects at multiple spatial scales. However, responses to drying stress have been poorly studied in aquatic groups, despite their potential role in constraining their distribution and diversification, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. We examined desiccation resistance in adults of four congeneric water beetle species (Enochrus, family Hydrophilidae) with contrasting habitat specificity (lentic vs. lotic systems and different salinity optima from fresh- to hypersaline waters). We measured survival, recovery capacity and key traits related to desiccation resistance (fresh mass, % water content, % cuticle content and water loss rate) under controlled exposure to desiccation, and explored their variability within and between species. Meso- and hypersaline species were more resistant to desiccation than freshwater and hyposaline ones, showing significantly lower water loss rates and higher water content. No clear patterns in desiccation resistance traits were observed between lotic and lentic species. Intraspecifically, water loss rate was positively related to specimens' initial % water content, but not to fresh mass or % cuticle content, suggesting that the dynamic mechanism controlling water loss is mainly regulated by the amount of body water available. Our results support previous hypotheses suggesting that the evolution of desiccation resistance is associated with the colonization of saline habitats by aquatic beetles. The interespecific patterns observed in Enochrus also suggest that freshwater species may be more vulnerable than saline ones to drought intensification expected under climate change in semi-arid regions such as the Mediterranean Basin.

  8. Steady state modeling of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2014-01-01

    systems. A steady state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces the physical behavior of desiccant wheels. Mass diffusion in the desiccant should...

  9. Biochemical basis of drought tolerance in hybrid Populus grown under field production conditions. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wierman, C. [Boise Cascade Corp., Wallula, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this cooperative effort was to assess the use of osmotically active compounds as molecular selection criteria for drought tolerance in Populus in a large-scale field trial. It is known that some plant species, and individuals within a plant species, can tolerate increasing stress associated with reduced moisture availability by accumulating solutes. The biochemical matrix of such metabolites varies among species and among individuals. The ability of Populus clones to tolerate drought has equal value to other fiber producers, i.e., the wood products industry, where irrigation is used in combination with other cultural treatments to obtain high dry weight yields. The research initially involved an assessment of drought stress under field conditions and characterization of changes in osmotic constitution among the seven clones across the six moisture levels. The near-term goal was to provide a mechanistic basis for clonal differences in productivity under various irrigation treatments over time.

  10. Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess. O. Berg seed desiccation: influence on vigor and nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAIANE M. DRESCH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of Campomanesia adamantium seeds to desiccation by drying in activated silica gel (fast and under laboratory conditions (slow. To assess the sensitivity of the seeds to desiccation, we used drying with silica gel and drying under laboratory conditions (25 °C, in order to obtain seeds with moisture content of 45, 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10 and 5%. The physiological potential of the seeds after desiccation was evaluated by measuring primary root protrusion, percentage of normal seedlings, germination seed index, seedling length, total seedling dry mass, electrical conductivity and DNA and RNA integrities. The C. adamantium seeds were sensitive to desiccation and to a reduction in moisture content to 21.1% or less by desiccation using silica gel, and to 17.2% or less by desiccation under laboratory conditions; impairment of the physiological potential of the seeds was observed at these low moisture content levels. The integrity of the seed genomic DNA was not affected after drying seeds in the two methods. However, drying in silica gel to 4.5% moisture content and drying under laboratory conditions to 5.4% moisture content resulted in the loss of seed RNA integrity.

  11. Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O. Berg seed desiccation: influence on vigor and nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresch, Daiane M; Masetto, Tathiana E; Scalon, Silvana P Q

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of Campomanesia adamantium seeds to desiccation by drying in activated silica gel (fast) and under laboratory conditions (slow). To assess the sensitivity of the seeds to desiccation, we used drying with silica gel and drying under laboratory conditions (25 °C), in order to obtain seeds with moisture content of 45, 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10 and 5%. The physiological potential of the seeds after desiccation was evaluated by measuring primary root protrusion, percentage of normal seedlings, germination seed index, seedling length, total seedling dry mass, electrical conductivity and DNA and RNA integrities. The C. adamantium seeds were sensitive to desiccation and to a reduction in moisture content to 21.1% or less by desiccation using silica gel, and to 17.2% or less by desiccation under laboratory conditions; impairment of the physiological potential of the seeds was observed at these low moisture content levels. The integrity of the seed genomic DNA was not affected after drying seeds in the two methods. However, drying in silica gel to 4.5% moisture content and drying under laboratory conditions to 5.4% moisture content resulted in the loss of seed RNA integrity.

  12. Evaluation of drought tolerance and yield capacity of barley (hordeum vulgare) genotypes under irrigated and water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, M.I.; Silva, J.A.T.D

    2012-01-01

    Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (Yi), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance. (author)

  13. Fault-Tolerant Approach for Modular Multilevel Converters under Submodule Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Tian, Yanjun; Zhu, Rongwu

    2016-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of its high modularity, availability, and high power quality. The fault-tolerant operation is one of the important issues for the MMC. This paper proposed a fault-tolerant approach...... for the MMC under submodule (SM) faults. The characteristic of the MMC with arms containing different number of healthy SMs under faults is analyzed. Based on the characteristic, the proposed approach can effectively keep the MMC operation as normal under SM faults. It can effectively improve the MMC...... performance under SM faults but without the knowledge of the number of the faulty SMs in the arm, without extra demand on communication systems, which potentially increases the reliability. The time-domain simulation studies with the PSCAD/EMTDC are conducted and a down-scale MMC prototype is also tested...

  14. Experimental investigation of activities and tolerance of denitrifying bacteria under alkaline and reducing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Tatsuya; Mihara, Morihiro; Ooi, Takao

    2000-07-01

    In the geological disposal system of TRU wastes, nitrogen generation by denitrifying bacteria could provide significant impact on the assessment of this system, because nitrate contained in process concentrated liquid waste might be electron acceptor for denitrifying bacteria. In this study, the activities and tolerance of denitrifying under disposal condition were investigated. Pseudomonas denitrificans as denitrifying bacteria was used. The results showed that Pseudomonas denitrificans had activity under reducing condition, but under high pH condition (pH>9.5), the activity of Pseudomonas denitrificans was not detected. It is possible that the activity of Pseudomonas denitrificans would be low under disposal condition. (author)

  15. 40 CFR 180.258 - Ametryn; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ametryn; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.258 Ametryn; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the desiccant...

  16. Effect of sport massage on pressure pain threshold and tolerance in athletes under eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Selim KAPLAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extensive line of evidence suggest that pain threshold and tolerance alters following exercise, although the mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. In this st udy, we investigated the role of sport massage on pressure pain threshold and tolerance in athletes under eccentric exercise. Ten male athletes aged 23 ± 1 years with 9.67 ± 3.04 years of athletic training were recruited for this study . Following baseline measurements of pressure pain threshold and tolerance from m. biceps brachii and m. triceps brachii muscle and myofascial regions of the dominant upper extremity by using a digital algometer, subjects were underwent an acute bout of eccentric exercise. Par ticipants were completed 4 sets of eccentric exercise each comprising 20 repetitions of lifting 80% of their 1 RM by using a dumbbell. Pressure pain threshold and tolerance tests were repeated 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and 24 and 48 hours following exercise. One week after eccentric exercise, sport massage protocol for 10 minutes was manually administered to the dominant arm immediately after exercise, and all measurements were repeated at the same timeline as eccentric exercise. Results are presented as mean + standart deviation. Data of the same timeline were analyzed by using t test. A level of p<0.05 was accepted statistical significant. Eccentric exercise resulted to increase the pain tolerance from muscle and myofascia regions of m. biceps and triceps br achii, and sport massage was found to decrease the pain tolerance at 10 minutes from muscle regions of m. biceps and triceps brachii, 10, 20 and 30 minutes from myofascial region of biceps brachii, and 20 minutes, 24 and 48 hours from myofascial region of m. triceps brachii following acute bout of eccentric exercise in athletes. We concluded that sport massage reduces the hypoalgesic response during acute and delayed period of recovery after eccentric exercise.

  17. Effect of Water Content Components on Desiccation and Recovery in Sphagnum Mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, Tomáš; Beckett, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The basic parameters of water relations were measured in Sphagnum mosses. The relationships of these parameters to the photosynthetic response to desiccation and the ecology of these mosses were then tested. Methods The water relations parameters of six Sphagnum species (mosses typical of wet habitats) and Atrichum androgynum (a moss more typical of mesophytic conditions) were calculated from pressure–volume isotherms. Photosynthetic properties during and after moderate desiccation were monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence. Key Results When desiccated, the hummock-forming species S. fuscum and S. magellanicum lost more water before turgor started dropping than other sphagna inhabiting less exposed habitats (73 % compared with 56 % on average). Osmotic potentials at full turgor were similar in all species, with an average value of −1·1 MPa. Hummock sphagna had clearly more rigid cell walls than species of wet habitats (ε = 3·55 compared with 1·93 MPa). As a result, their chlorophyllous cells lost turgor at higher relative water contents (RWCs) than species of wet habitats (0·61 compared with 0·46) and at less negative osmotic potentials (–2·28 compared with −3·00 MPa). During drying, ΦPSII started declining earlier in hummock species (at an RWC of 0·65 compared with 0·44), and Fv/Fm behaved similarly. Compared with other species, hummock sphagna desiccated to −20 or −40 MPa recovered more completely after rehydration. Atrichum androgynum responded to desiccation similarly to hummock sphagna, suggesting that their desiccation tolerance may have a similar physiological basis. Conclusions Assuming a fixed rate of desiccation, the higher water-holding capacities of hummock sphagna will allow them to continue metabolism for longer than other species. While this could be viewed as a form of ‘desiccation avoidance’, hummock species also recover faster than other species during rehydration, suggesting that they have higher

  18. Surviving metabolic arrest: photosynthesis during desiccation and rehydration in resurrection plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challabathula, Dinakar; Puthur, Jos T; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthesis is the key process that is affected by dehydration in plants. Desiccation-tolerant resurrection plants can survive conditions of very low relative water content. During desiccation, photosynthesis is not operational, but is recovered within a short period after rehydration. While homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants retain their photosynthetic apparatus during desiccation, poikilochlorophyllous resurrection species dismantle chloroplasts and degrade chlorophyll but resynthesize them again during rehydration. Dismantling the chloroplasts avoids the photooxidative stress in poikilochlorophyllous resurrection plants, whereas it is minimized in homoiochlorophyllous plants through the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins or metabolites. Although the cellular protection mechanisms in both of these species vary, these mechanisms protect cells from desiccation-induced damage and restore photosynthesis upon rehydration. Several of the proteins synthesized during dehydration are localized in chloroplasts and are believed to play major roles in the protection of photosynthetic structures and in recovery in resurrection species. This review focuses on the strategies of resurrection plants in terms of how they protect their photosynthetic apparatus from oxidative stress during desiccation without membrane damage and with full recovery during rehydration. We review the role of the dehydration-induced protection mechanisms in chloroplasts and how photosynthesis is restored during rehydration. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Theoretical modelling and experimental study of air thermal conditioning process of a heat pump assisted solid desiccant cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Li, Zan; Hu, Wenju

    2017-01-01

    purification aimed at improving indoor air quality and reducing building energy consumption. The heat and moisture transfer in adsorption desiccant rotor was theoretical modelled with one-dimensional partial differential equations. The theoretical model was validated with experimental measurements......Taking the integrated gaseous contaminants and moisture adsorption potential of desiccant material, a new heat pump assisted solid desiccant cooling system (HP-SDC) was proposed based on the combination of desiccant rotor with heat pump. The HP-SDC was designed for dehumidification, cooling and air......, and the results showed the model could be used to predict the heat and moisture transfer in desiccant rotor. The air thermal conditioning process and energy consumption of HP-SDC was then experimental measured under varied outdoor thermal environments. Results showed that compared to conventional ventilation...

  20. Transcriptional Regulation of Aluminum-Tolerance Genes in Higher Plants: Clarifying the Underlying Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit A. Daspute

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al rhizotoxicity is one of the major environmental stresses that decrease global food production. Clarifying the molecular mechanisms underlying Al tolerance may contribute to the breeding of Al-tolerant crops. Recent studies identified various Al-tolerance genes. The expression of these genes is inducible by Al. Studies of the major Arabidopsis thaliana Al-tolerance gene, ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA ALUMINUM-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER 1 (AtALMT1, which encodes an Al-activated malate transporter, revealed that the Al-inducible expression is regulated by a SENSITIVE TO PROTON RHIXOTOXICITY 1 (STOP1 zinc-finger transcription factor. This system, which involves STOP1 and organic acid transporters, is conserved in diverse plant species. The expression of AtALMT1 is also upregulated by several phytohormones and hydrogen peroxide, suggesting there is crosstalk among the signals involved in the transcriptional regulation of AtALMT1. Additionally, phytohormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS activate various transcriptional responses, including the expression of genes related to increased Al tolerance or the suppression of root growth under Al stress conditions. For example, Al suppressed root growth due to abnormal accumulation of auxin and cytokinin. It activates transcription of TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1 and other phytohormone responsive genes in distal transition zone, which causes suppression of root elongation. On the other hand, overexpression of Al inducible genes for ROS-detoxifying enzymes such as GLUTATHIONE–S-TRANSFERASE, PEROXIDASE, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE enhances Al resistance in several plant species. We herein summarize the complex transcriptional regulation of an Al-inducible genes affected by STOP1, phytohormones, and ROS.

  1. Adaptation to desiccation fails to generate pre- and postmating isolation in replicate Drosophila melanogaster laboratory populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Lucia; Rundle, Howard D

    2010-03-01

    Many laboratory speciation experiments have raised allopatric populations in different environments to determine whether reproductive isolation evolves as a byproduct of adaptation (a form of ecological speciation). Few, however, have addressed the evolution of both pre- and postmating isolation or investigated the conditions affecting the process. We present results of an evolution experiment in which 12 lines of Drosophila melanogaster were derived from a common population and then independently evolved for more than 57 generations under alternative selection treatments. Six "desiccation" populations had access to food and water removed during a period of their adult lives generating strong desiccation selection, and six "starvation" populations had access to food but not water removed for the same period, generating a mild starvation stress. Substantial divergence of cuticular hydrocarbons occurred between the desiccation and starvation populations, key traits that have been implicated in sexual isolation in Drosophila. Despite this divergence, there was no detectable premating isolation between desiccation and starvation populations and postmating isolation was asymmetrical: the fitness of F1 hybrids was reduced in the desiccation but not the starvation environment. This asymmetry was likely caused by the absence of divergent selection: adaptation to desiccation appears to have come at no cost to performance in the starvation environment. Novel environments are thought to promote the evolution of reproductive isolation. Understanding the conditions that favor or hamper this remains a key challenge for speciation research.

  2. Effect of transcutaneous electromyostimulation on pressure pain threshold and tolerance in athletes under eccentric exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman Burak UĞURLU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exercise - induced hypoalgesia typically reported during and / or follow ing exercise. In this study, we investigated the role of transcutaneous electromyostimulation (EMS on pressure pain threshold and tolerance in athletes under eccentric exercise. Eleven male athletes aged 23,125 ± 0,99 years with 10,25 ± 2,66 years of athl etic training were recruited for this study . Following baseline measurements of pressure pain threshold and tolerance from m. biceps brachii and m. triceps brachii muscle and myofascial regions of the dominant upper extremity by using a digital algometer, subjects were underwent an acute bout of eccentric exercise. Participants were completed 4 sets of eccentric exercise each comprising 20 repetitions of lifting 80% of their 1 RM by using a dumbbell. Pressure pain threshold and tolerance tests were repeated 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and 24 and 48 hours following exercise. One week after acute exercise protocol, EMS protocol was applied to the participants immediately following eccentric exercise, and all measurements were repeated at the same timeline as eccent ric exercise. Standard EMS protocol at active recovery mode for 10 minutes was applied to the m. biceps brachii muscle by using surface electrodes. Results are presented as mean + standarts deviation. Data of the same timeline were analyzed by using repeat ed measures of ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test . A level of p<0.05 was accepted statistical significant. Eccentric exercise resulted to increase the pain tolerence in athletes, and EMS was found to decrease the pain tolerence 10 and 20 minutes at th e muscle region, and 10 and 30 minutes, and 24 hours at the myofascial region of m. biceps brachii, 10 min and 24 hr from muscle region, 10 and 30 min and 24 hr from myofascial region of M. triceps brachii following acute bout of eccentric exercise. We con cluded that EMS at active recovery phase mitigates the the hypoalgesic response following single bout of

  3. EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION BY DROUGHT TOLERANT BACILLUS SPP. AND EFFECT ON SOIL AGGREGATION UNDER DROUGHT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Vardharajula

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPS of microbial origin with novel functionality, reproducible physico-chemical properties, are important class of polymeric materials. EPS are believed to protect bacterial cells from dessication, produce biofilms, thus enhancing the cells chances of bacterial colonizing special ecological niches. In rhizosphere, EPS are known to be useful to improve the moisture-holding capacity. Three Bacillus spp. strains identified by 16s rDNA sequence analysis as B. amyloliquefaciens strain HYD-B17; B. licheniformis strain HYTAPB18; B. subtilis strain RMPB44 were studied for the ability to tolerate matric stress and produce EPS under different water potentials. EPS production in all the three Bacillus spp strains increased with increasing water stress indicating correlation between drought stress tolerance and EPS production. Among the isolates, strain HYD-17 showed highest production of EPS. The exopolysaccharide composition of the three strains was further analyzed by HPLC. Drought stress influenced the ratio of sugars in EPS and glucose was found as major sugar in strains HYTAPB18 and RMPB44 whereas raffinose was major sugar found in strain HYD-B17. Inoculation of EPS producing Bacillus spp. strains in soil resulted in good soil aggregation under drought stress conditions at different incubation periods. This study shows that exposure to water stress conditions affects the composition and ratios of sugars in EPS produced by Bacillus spp. strains HYD-B17, HYTAPB18 and RMPB44 influencing abiotic stress tolerance of the microorganisms.

  4. Low parental tolerance for infant crying: an underlying factor in infant sleep problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; Juda-Hanael, Michal; Livne-Karp, Efrat; Kahn, Michal; Tikotzky, Liat; Anders, Thomas F; Calkins, Susan; Sivan, Yakov

    2016-10-01

    Parenting behaviours play a major role in the evolution of infant sleep. Sleep problems in infancy have been associated with excessive parental involvement at night-time, and with shorter delays in response to infant night wakings and signalling. Infant crying and sleep problems are linked, yet little is known about the impact of parental responses to crying on infant sleep patterns. This study examined the hypothesis that lower parental tolerance for crying is associated with infant sleep problems. We studied 144 married couples divided into three groups: parents of infants suffering from night-waking problems (i.e. the clinical group), parents of infants without sleep problems and childless couples. Crying tolerance was assessed using questionnaires, audio recordings of crying infants and using a novel paradigm, in which participants were shown a video of a crying infant and asked when they would intervene. Parents in the clinical group demonstrated shorter intervention delays in the crying infant clip (group effect: P sleep-disturbed infants appear to have lower tolerance for infant crying, which may be a predisposition underlying their excessive involvement in soothing their infants to sleep which may lead to the development of sleep problems. These preliminary findings should be explored further to assess their clinical validity and utility. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Comparison of desiccant air conditioning systems with different indirect evaporative air coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandelidis, Demis; Anisimov, Sergey; Worek, William M.; Drąg, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical study of desiccant air conditioning systems is presented. • The ε-NTU model is used for the analysis. • Different arrangements of the desiccant systems were compared. • The systems were compared under different operating conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents a numerical analysis of three desiccant air-conditioning systems equipped with different indirect evaporative air coolers: (1) the cross-flow Maisotsenko cycle heat and mass exchanger (HMX), (2) the regenerative counter-flow Maisotsenko cycle heat and mass exchanger and (3) the standard cross-flow evaporative air cooler. To analyze the desiccant wheel and the indirect evaporative air coolers, the modified ε-NTU-model was used. The simulations were performed under assumption that the desiccant wheel is regenerated with air heated to relatively low temperature values (50–60 °C), which can be produced with solar panels in typical moderate climatic conditions. It was established that the main advantage of the presented solutions is that they can provide comfort conditions even with less effective dehumidification. The different systems were compared under variable selected operational factors (i.e. inlet air temperature, humidity and regeneration air temperature). The analysis allowed establishing the advantages and disadvantages of presented solutions and allowed estimating their application potential.

  6. Towards clarifying what distinguishes cyanobacteria able to resurrect after desiccation from those that cannot: The photosynthetic aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raanan, Hagai; Oren, Nadav; Treves, Haim; Keren, Nir; Ohad, Itzhak; Berkowicz, Simon M; Hagemann, Martin; Koch, Moriz; Shotland, Yoram; Kaplan, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Organisms inhabiting biological soil crusts (BSCs) are able to cope with extreme environmental conditions including daily hydration/dehydration cycles, high irradiance and extreme temperatures. The photosynthetic machinery, potentially the main source of damaging reactive oxygen species during cessation of CO(2) fixation in desiccating cells, must be protected to avoid sustained photodamage. We compared certain photosynthetic parameters and the response to excess light of BCS-inhabiting, desiccation-tolerant cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya ohadii and Nostoc reinholdii with those observed in the "model" organisms Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, able to resurrect after mild desiccation, and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that are unable to recover from dehydration. Desiccation-tolerant strains exhibited a transient decline in the photosynthetic rate at light intensities corresponding to the inflection point in the PI curve relating the O(2) evolution rate to light intensity. They also exhibited a faster and larger loss of variable fluorescence and profoundly faster Q(A)(-) re-oxidation rates after exposure to high illumination. Finally, a smaller difference was found in the temperature of maximal thermoluminescence signal in the absence or presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) than observed in "model" cyanobacteria. These parameters indicate specific functional differences of photosystem II (PSII) between desiccation tolerant and sensitive cyanobacteria. We propose that exposure to excess irradiation activates a non-radiative electron recombination route inside PSII that minimizes formation of damaging singlet oxygen in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacteria and thereby reduces photodamage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Salinity effects on the dynamics and patterns of desiccation cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, N.; Zhou, P.

    2012-12-01

    Cracking arising from desiccation is a ubiquitous phenomenon encountered in various industrial and geo-environmental applications including drying of clayey soil, cement, ceramics, gels, and many more colloidal suspensions. Presence of cracks in muddy sediments modifies the characteristics of the medium such as pore structure, porosity, and permeability which in turn influence various flow and transport processes. Thus it remains a topic of great interest in many disciplines to describe the dynamics of desiccation cracking under various boundary conditions. To this end, we conducted a comprehensive study to investigate effects of NaCl concentrations on cracking dynamics and patterns during desiccation of Bentonite. Mixtures of Bentonite and NaCl solutions were prepared with NaCl concentration varying from 2 to 10 percent in 0.5 percent increment (totally 17 configurations). The slurry was placed in a Petri dish mounted on a digital balance to record the evaporation dynamics. The atmospheric conditions were kept constant using an environmental chamber. An automatic camera was used to record the dynamics of macro-cracks (mm scale) at the surface of desiccating clay each minute. The obtained results illustrate the significant effects of salt concentration on the initiation, propagation, morphology and general dynamics of macro-cracks. We found that higher salt concentrations results in larger macro cracks' lengths attributed to the effects of NaCl on compressing the electric double layer of particles at increasing electrolyte concentrations which reduce considerably the repulsive forces among the particles and causing instability of the slurry and flocculation of the colloidal particles. Rheological measurements by means of a stress controlled rheometer revealed that the yield stress of the slurry decreases as NaCl concentration increases which may indicate aggregation of larger units in the slurry as a result of flocculation causing larger cracks' lengths due to

  8. Heat tolerance in Field Grown Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under Semi Arid Conditions of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kugblenu, Y O; Oppong Danso, E; Ofori, K

    2013-01-01

    to October, which has a mean temperature of 23°C. Heat tolerant tomato cultivars were grown from April to July with a mean temperature of 25°C to evaluate their performance under these conditions and to assess the effect of shading on the production of one of the genotypes. Fruiting percentage...... was significantly lower in exotic hybrids compared to a local variety. Different genotypes showed no differences in the production of viable pollen. Shading decreased final shoot and root biomass by 67 and 47%, respectively, whiles fruit yield was not affected. Also among cultivars yields were similar....

  9. Desiccant-assisted cooling fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brum, Nisio

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern with indoor air quality has led to air-quality standards with increased ventilation rates. Although increasing the volume flow rate of outside air is advisable from the perspective of air-quality, it is detrimental to energy consumption, since the outside air has to be brought to the comfort condition before it is insufflated to the  conditioned ambient. Moreover, the humidity load carried within outside air has challenging HVAC engineers to design cooling units which are able to satisfactorily handle both sensible and latent contributions to the thermal load. This constitutes a favorable scenario for the use of solid desiccants to assist the cooling units. In fact, desiccant wheels have been increasingly applied by HVAC designers, allowing distinct processes for the air cooling and dehumidification. In fact, the ability of solid desiccants in moisture removal is effective enough to allow the use of evaporative coolers, in opposition to the traditional vapor-compression cycle, resultin...

  10. Role of alkaline-tolerant fungal cellulases in release of total antioxidants from agro-wastes under solid state fermentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Varatharajan, G. R.; Karthikeyan, A.

    The alkaline-tolerant marine-derived fungus Chaetomium globosum was tested for the production of enhanced levels of cellulases and free phenolics under highly alkaline conditions using agro wastes (cotton seed, sugar cane bagasse) as substrates...

  11. Dynamics of Endogenous Phytohormones during Desiccation and Recovery of the Resurrection Plant Species Haberlea rhodopensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Djilianov, D.L.; Dobrev, Petre; Moyankova, D.P.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Georgieva, D.T.; Gajdošová, Silvia; Motyka, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2013), s. 564-574 ISSN 0721-7595 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0774; GA ČR GA522/09/2058; GA ČR GA206/09/2062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Auxin * Desiccation tolerance * Cytokinin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2013

  12. Desiccation effects on germination and vigor of King palm seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cibele C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation tolerance of Archontophoenix alexandrae (Wendl. & Drude seeds was determined and the most sensitive vigor test for assessing seed deterioration of this species was identified. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection of the Instituto Agronomico in Campinas, Brazil. Depulped fruits were transported in impermeable packages to the Faculdade de Agronomia in Botucatu, where the seeds were dried. As the seed moisture decreased, germination, seedling length, electrical conductivity and moisture were measured. The seeds of A. alexandrae are recalcitrant, with high germination percentage (over 67% when undried (47% seed moisture. Lowering seed moisture below 31.5% reduced the germination rate significantly (<52.5%. Total germination failure was observed when seed moisture reached 15.1%. The electrical conductivity was the most sensitive vigor test to identify seed deterioration.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under saline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Can Hiz

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of salt tolerant common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiz, Mahmut Can; Canher, Balkan; Niron, Harun; Turet, Muge

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress factors that limit crop production. Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., a major protein source in developing countries, is highly affected by soil salinity and the information on genes that play a role in salt tolerance is scarce. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and related pathways by comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes of both root and leaf tissues of the tolerant genotype grown under saline and control conditions in hydroponic system. We have generated a total of 158 million high-quality reads which were assembled into 83,774 all-unigenes with a mean length of 813 bp and N50 of 1,449 bp. Among the all-unigenes, 58,171 were assigned with Nr annotations after homology analyses. It was revealed that 6,422 and 4,555 all-unigenes were differentially expressed upon salt stress in leaf and root tissues respectively. Validation of the RNA-seq quantifications (RPKM values) was performed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR) analyses. Enrichment analyses of DEGs based on GO and KEGG databases have shown that both leaf and root tissues regulate energy metabolism, transmembrane transport activity, and secondary metabolites to cope with salinity. A total of 2,678 putative common bean transcription factors were identified and classified under 59 transcription factor families; among them 441 were salt responsive. The data generated in this study will help in understanding the fundamentals of salt tolerance in common bean and will provide resources for functional genomic studies.

  15. Global SUMOylation is a Molecular Mechanism Underlying Hypothermia-induced Ischemic Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-ja eLee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying hypothermic neuroprotection have yet to be fully elucidated. Herein we demonstrate that global SUMOylation, a form of post-translational modification with the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifer, participates in the multimodal molecular induction of hypothermia-induced ischemic tolerance. Mild (32°C to moderate (28°C hypothermic treatment(s during OGD (oxygen-glucose-deprivation or ROG (restoration of oxygen/glucose increased global SUMO-conjugation levels and protected cells (both SHSY5Y and E18 rat cortical neurons from OGD and ROG-induced cell death. Hypothermic exposure either before or after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO surgery in wild type mice increased global SUMO-conjugation levels in the brain and in so doing protected these animals from pMCAO-induced ischemic damage. Of note, hypothermic exposure did not provide an additional increase in protection from pMCAO-induced ischemic brain damage in Ubc9 transgenic mice, which overexpress the sole E2 SUMO conjugating enzyme and thereby display elevated basal levels of global SUMOylation under normothermic conditions. Such evidence suggests that increases in global SUMOylation are critical and may account for a substantial part of the observed increase in cellular tolerance to brain ischemia caused via hypothermia.

  16. Influence of salt tolerant Trichoderma spp. on growth of maize (Zea mays) under different salinity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Manigundan, K; Amaresan, Natarajan

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, a total of 70 Trichoderma spp. were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of vegetable and spice crops that were grown in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Initial screening of Trichoderma spp. for salt tolerant properties showed 32 isolates were able to tolerate 10% NaCl. Furthermore, these isolates were screened for their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics such as IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Among 32 isolates, nine isolates were able to produce IAA, siderophore, and solubilize phosphate. Jar trial was carried out on maize under axenic conditions at 1.67, 6.25, 11.25, 17.2, and 22.9 dS m -1 salt stress using the best nine isolates. Three isolates (TRC3, NRT2, and THB3) were effective in improving germination percentage, reducing reduction percentage of germination (RPG) and also in increasing the shoot and root length under axenic conditions. These three isolates were further tested under pot trial at 52 (sea water), 27, 15, 7, and 1.67 dS m -1 . TRC3 was found to be the most effective isolate compared to the other isolates and significantly increased the physiological parameters like shoot, root length, leaf area, total biomass, and stem and leaf fresh weight at all stress levels. Similarly, total chlorophyll content also increased by TRC3 over control. All three isolates, NRT2, TRC3, and THB3 showed lower accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) content whereas, proline and phenol content were higher than the uninoculated control plants under both normal and saline conditions. The results suggest that these isolates could be utilized for the alleviation of salinity stress in maize. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Polymers as advanced materials for desiccant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.

    1990-12-01

    This research is concerned with solid materials used as desiccants for desiccant cooling systems (DCSs) that process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce cooling. Background information includes an introduction to DCSs and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The water vapor sorption performance criteria used for screening the modified polymers prepared include the water sorption capacity from 5% to 80% relative humidity (R.H.), isotherm shape, and rate of adsorption and desorption. Measurements are presented for the sorption performance of modified polymeric advanced desiccant materials with the quartz crystal microbalance. Isotherms of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) taken over a 5-month period show that the material has a dramatic loss in capacity and that the isotherm shape is time dependent. The adsorption and desorption kinetics for PSSA and all the ionic salts of it studied are easily fast enough for commercial DCS applications with a wheel rotation speed of 6 min per revolution. Future activities for the project are addressed, and a 5-year summary of the project is included as Appendix A. 34 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Soil nitrogen dynamics after Brachiaria desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Castoldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species, particularly B. humidicola, can synthesize and release compounds from their roots that inhibit nitrification, which can lead to changes in soil nitrogen (N dynamics, mainly in N-poor soils. This may be important in crop-livestock integration systems, where brachiarias are grown together with or in rotation with grain crops. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this holds true in N-rich environments and if other Brachiaria species have the same effect. The soil N dynamics were evaluated after the desiccation of the species B. brizantha, B. decumbens, B. humidicola, and B. ruziziensis, which are widely cultivated in Brazil. The plants were grown in pots with a dystroferric Red Latosol in a greenhouse. Sixty days after sowing, the plants were desiccated using glyphosate herbicide. The plants and soil were analyzed on the day of desiccation and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after desiccation. The rhizosphere soil of the grasses contained higher levels of organic matter, total N and ammonium than the non-rhizosphere soil. The pH was lowest in the rhizosphere of B. humidicola, which may indicate that this species inhibits the nitrification process. However, variations in the soil ammonium and nitrate levels were not sufficient to confirm the suppressive effect of B. humidicola. The same was observed for B. brizantha, B. decumbens and B. ruziziensis, thereby demonstrating that, where N is abundant, none of the brachiarias studied has a significant effect on the nitrification process in soil.

  19. Photosynthesis, photoprotection, and growth of shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings under full sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G Heinrich; Winter, Klaus; Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, Barbara; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; Aranda, Jorge; García, Milton

    2012-09-01

    High solar radiation in the tropics is known to cause transient reduction in photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and CO(2) assimilation in sun-exposed leaves, but little is known how these responses affect the actual growth performance of tropical plants. The present study addresses this question. Seedlings of five woody neotropical forest species were cultivated under full sunlight and shaded conditions. In full sunlight, strong photoinhibition of PSII at midday was documented for the late-successional tree species Ormosia macrocalyx and Tetragastris panamensis and the understory/forest gap species, Piper reticulatum. In leaves of O. macrocalyx, PSII inhibition was accompanied by substantial midday depression of net CO(2) assimilation. Leaves of all species had increased pools of violaxanthin-cycle pigments. Other features of photoacclimation, such as increased Chl a/b ratio and contents of lutein, β-carotene and tocopherol varied. High light caused strong increase of tocopherol in leaves of T. panamensis and another late-successional species, Virola surinamensis. O. macrocalyx had low contents of tocopherol and UV-absorbing substances. Under full sunlight, biomass accumulation was not reduced in seedlings of T. panamensis, P. reticulatum, and V. surinamensis, but O. macrocalyx exhibited substantial growth inhibition. In the highly shade-tolerant understory species Psychotria marginata, full sunlight caused strongly reduced growth of most individuals. However, some plants showed relatively high growth rates under full sun approaching those of seedlings at 40 % ambient irradiance. It is concluded that shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings can achieve efficient photoacclimation and high growth rates in full sunlight.

  20. Desiccation tolerance of Sphagnum revisited: a puzzle resolved

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Tomáš; Vicherová, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2014), s. 765-773 ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0638 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : ecophysiology * moss * peatland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.633, year: 2014

  1. Kinematic analysis and fault-tolerant trajectory planning of space manipulator under a single joint failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zonggao; Han, Liang; Xu, Wenfu; Li, Bing; Liang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A space manipulator plays an important role in spacecraft capturing, repairing, maintenance, and so on. However, the harsh space environment will cause its joints fail to work. For a non-redundant manipulator, single joint locked failure will cause it to lose one degree of freedom (DOF), hence reducing its movement ability. In this paper, the key problems related to the fault-tolerant including kinematics, workspace, and trajectory planning of a non-redundant space manipulator under single joint failure are handled. First, the analytical inverse kinematics equations are derived for the 5-DOF manipulator formed by locking the failure joint of the original 6-DOF manipulator. Then, the reachable end-effector pose (position and orientation) is determined. Further, we define the missions can be completed by the 5-DOF manipulator. According to the constraints of the on-orbital mission, we determine the grasp envelope required for the end-effector. Combining the manipulability of the manipulator and the performance of its end-effector, a fault tolerance parameter is defined and a planning method is proposed to generate the reasonable trajectory, based on which the 5-DOF manipulator can complete the desired tasks. Finally, typical cases are simulated and the simulation results verify the proposed method.

  2. Neutronics and Fuel Performance Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel under Normal Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Wu; Piyush Sabharwall; Jason Hales

    2014-07-01

    This report details the analysis of neutronics and fuel performance analysis for enhanced accident tolerance fuel, with Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent and INL’s fuel performance code BISON, respectively. The purpose is to evaluate two of the most promising candidate materials, FeCrAl and Silicon Carbide (SiC), as the fuel cladding under normal operating conditions. Substantial neutron penalty is identified when FeCrAl is used as monolithic cladding for current oxide fuel. From the reactor physics standpoint, application of the FeCrAl alloy as coating layer on surface of zircaloy cladding is possible without increasing fuel enrichment. Meanwhile, SiC brings extra reactivity and the neutron penalty is of no concern. Application of either FeCrAl or SiC could be favorable from the fuel performance standpoint. Detailed comparison between monolithic cladding and hybrid cladding (cladding + coating) is discussed. Hybrid cladding is more practical based on the economics evaluation during the transition from current UO2/zircaloy to Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) system. However, a few issues remain to be resolved, such as the creep behavior of FeCrAl, coating spallation, inter diffusion with zirconium, etc. For SiC, its high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, low thermal neutron absorption cross section, irradiation stability (minimal swelling) make it an excellent candidate materials for future nuclear fuel/cladding system.

  3. Gene flow from GM glyphosate-tolerant to conventional soybeans under field conditions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yasuda, Koji

    2006-01-01

    Natural out-crossing rates were evaluated for conventional soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivated adjacent to genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant soybeans under field conditions during a four-year period in Japan. A total of 107 846 progeny of 2772 plants harvested from conventional varieties were screened for glyphosate herbicide tolerance. The highest out-crossing rates, 0.19% in 2001 and 0.16% in 2002, were observed in adjacent rows 0.7 m from the pollen source. The highest rate in 2004 was 0.052%, which was observed at 2.1 m. No out-crossing was observed in the rows 10.5 m from the pollen source over the four-year period. The farthest distances between receptor and pollen source at which out-crossing was observed were 7 m in 2001, 2.8 m in 2002, and 3.5 m in 2004. The greatest airborne pollen density during the flowering period, determined by Durham pollen samplers located between the rows of each variety, was 0.368 grains.cm(-2).day(-1), with the average value at 0.18 grains.cm(-2).day(-1), indicating that the possibility of out-crossing by wind is minimal. Thrips species and predatory Hemiptera visited the soybean flowers more frequently during the four-year period than any other common pollinators, such as bees.

  4. Distinct mechanisms underlying tolerance to intermittent and constant hypoxia in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Azad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Constant hypoxia (CH and intermittent hypoxia (IH occur during several pathological conditions such as asthma and obstructive sleep apnea. Our research is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to injury or adaptation to hypoxic stress using Drosophila as a model system. Our current genome-wide study is designed to investigate gene expression changes and identify protective mechanism(s in D. melanogaster after exposure to severe (1% O(2 intermittent or constant hypoxia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our microarray analysis has identified multiple gene families that are up- or down-regulated in response to acute CH or IH. We observed distinct responses to IH and CH in gene expression that varied in the number of genes and type of gene families. We then studied the role of candidate genes (up-or down-regulated in hypoxia tolerance (adult survival for longer periods (CH-7 days, IH-10 days under severe CH or IH. Heat shock proteins up-regulation (specifically Hsp23 and Hsp70 led to a significant increase in adult survival (as compared to controls of P-element lines during CH. In contrast, during IH treatment the up-regulation of Mdr49 and l(208717 genes (P-element lines provided survival advantage over controls. This suggests that the increased transcript levels following treatment with either paradigm play an important role in tolerance to severe hypoxia. Furthermore, by over-expressing Hsp70 in specific tissues, we found that up-regulation of Hsp70 in heart and brain play critical role in tolerance to CH in flies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed that the gene expression response to IH or CH is specific and paradigm-dependent. We have identified several genes Hsp23, Hsp70, CG1600, l(208717 and Mdr49 that play an important role in hypoxia tolerance whether it is in CH or IH. These data provide further clues about the mechanisms by which IH or CH lead to cell injury and morbidity or adaptation and survival.

  5. Tolerance to gamma radiation in the marine heterotardigrade, Echiniscoides sigismundi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, K. Ingemar; Hygum, Thomas Lunde; Andersen, Kasper Nørgaard

    2016-01-01

    Tardigrades belong to the most radiation tolerant animals on Earth, as documented by a number of studies using both low-LET and high-LET ionizing radiation. Previous studies have focused on semi-terrestrial species, which are also very tolerant to desiccation. The predominant view on the reason...... for the high radiation tolerance among these semi-terrestrial species is that it relies on molecular mechanisms that evolved as adaptations for surviving dehydration. In this study we report the first study on radiation tolerance in a marine tardigrade, Echiniscoides sigismundi. Adult specimens in the hydrated...... that have high tolerance to both desiccation and radiation, supporting the hypothesis that radiation tolerance is a by-product of adaptive mechanisms to survive desiccation. More studies on radiation tolerance in tardigrade species adapted to permanently wet conditions, both marine and freshwater...

  6. Evaluation of Freeze Tolerance in Lancelot Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. Ecotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lancelot Plantain (Ribwort, narrow-leaf or English plantain is a deep-rooted, short-lived perennial herb from Plantaginaceae family which has been used for various medicinal purposes for centuries, especially in Europe and only more recently has been proposed as a forage plant. The leaf of plantain is highly palatable for grazing animals, providing mineral-rich forage. Recently two productive upright cultivars of plantain have been bred and introduced, Grasslands Lancelot and the more erect winter active Ceres Tonic. Plantain grows moderately in winter but its main growth periods beings in spring and autumn with opportunistic summer growth. Although it reveals suitable winter survival in natural conditions, but there is not a lot of information about cold tolerance of this plant. So it is important to recognize the freeze tolerance of narrow leaf plantain for successful planting and utilization in cold regions such as Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi Province (Northeast of Iran. Determining LT50 point or critical temperature for survival of plant is the most reliable and simple method for evaluating cold tolerance of plants. Another reliable method for freeze tolerance of plants is estimation of temperature at which 50 % of dry matter reduces (RDMT50. This experiment was carried out to evaluate freeze tolerance of five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain according to the LT50su and RDMT50 indices. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate freeze tolerance of Lancelot plantain, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under controlled conditions at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain (Bojnourd, Kalat, Mashhad, Ghayen and Birjand after three months growth and hardening in natural environment were transferred to a Thermo gradient freezer on January 20th, 2012 and exposed to eight freezing temperatures (Zero, -3, -6, -9, -12, -15, -18

  7. Alarmins MRP8 and MRP14 Induce Stress Tolerance in Phagocytes under Sterile Inflammatory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Austermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyporesponsiveness by phagocytes is a well-known phenomenon in sepsis that is frequently induced by low-dose endotoxin stimulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 but can also be found under sterile inflammatory conditions. We now demonstrate that the endogenous alarmins MRP8 and MRP14 induce phagocyte hyporesponsiveness via chromatin modifications in a TLR4-dependent manner that results in enhanced survival to septic shock in mice. During sterile inflammation, polytrauma and burn trauma patients initially present with high serum concentrations of myeloid-related proteins (MRPs. Human neonatal phagocytes are primed for hyporesponsiveness by increased peripartal MRP concentrations, which was confirmed in murine neonatal endotoxinemia in wild-type and MRP14−/− mice. Our data therefore indicate that alarmin-triggered phagocyte tolerance represents a regulatory mechanism for the susceptibility of neonates during systemic infections and sterile inflammation.

  8. Apparent light requirement for activation of photosynthesis upon rehydration of desiccated beachrock microbial mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Gademann, Rolf; Bird, Paul

    2002-01-01

    excitation. Even after desiccation for long time periods under full sunlight, beachrock showed rapid recovery of photosynthesis after rehydration in the light (t1/2~ 15 min). However, when rehydrated in the dark, the quantum yield of energy conversion of PSII remained zero over extended periods of time...

  9. Morphological and transcriptional response of an anhydrobiotic insect to ionizing radiation and desiccation: steps forward in understanding molecular background of extreme radioresistance in higher eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Oleg; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi; Kikawada, Takahiro; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Mukae, Kyosuke

    2012-07-01

    Life in extreme or drastically changing environments in many cases leads to evolutionary evolvement of mechanisms of cross-resistance to different abiotic stresses, often never actually faced by the organism in its natural habitat. Larvae of the sleeping chironomidPolypedilum vanderplanki (Diptera) are able to resist complete desiccation and in the dry form survive under excess of various abiotic stresses, including exposure to space environment. One of the most intriguing features of the anhydrobiotic larvae is resistance to extremely high doses of different types of ionizing radiation. To understand the cross-tolerance mechanism, we have analyzed the structural changes in the nuclear DNA using transmission electron microscopy and DNA comet assays in relation to anhydrobiosis and radiation. We find that dehydration causes alterations in chromatin structure and a severe fragmentation of nuclear DNA in the cells of the larvae despite successful anhydrobiosis. The DNA fragmentation level and the recovery of DNA integrity in the rehydrated after anhydrobiosis larvae were similar to those of hydrated larvae irradiated with 70 Gy of high-linear energy transfer (LET) ions (4He+). In comparison, low-LET radiation (gamma rays) of the same dose causes less initial damage to the larvae, and recovery of DNA repair is complete within 24 h. Genome-wide analysis of mRNA expression in the larvae revealed that a large group of genes (including antioxidants, anhydrobiosis-specific biomolecules and protein-reparation enzymes) showed a similar patterns of activity in response to both desiccation and ionizing radiation. We conclude that t one of the factors explaining the relationship between the resistance to ionizing radiation and the ability to undergo anhydrobiosis in the sleeping chironomid would be an adaptation to desiccation-inflicted proteins and nuclear DNA damage.

  10. Methodology adjustments for organic acid tolerance studies in oat under hydroponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marini Kopp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of anaerobic conditions in hydromorphic soils favors the development of anaerobic microorganisms that produce phytotoxic substances representing primarily by organic acids. The selection of promising oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes for use in those situations requires field evaluations that can be cumbersome, making hydroponics a viable alternative. The objective of this work was to adjust a methodology to use in studies of tolerance to organic acids in oat under hydroponic systems. For such goal, the best germination system was determined in order to reduce the seedling initial establishment effects under hydroponics, the ideal concentration for screening genotypes and the best variable for stress evaluation. It was found that the most efficient germination system was "pleated germination paper" with small and husked seeds. The best concentration for studying organic acid tolerance ranged from 2.3 to 6.2 mM and the most suitable variable for the evaluation was root length.A ocorrência de condições anaeróbias nos solos hidromórficos favorece o desenvolvimento de microrganismos anaeróbios que produzem substâncias fitotóxicas representadas principalmente pelos ácidos orgânicos. A seleção de constituições genéticas de aveia (Avena sativa L. promissoras para utilização nestas situações requer avaliações de difícil execução no campo, tornando a utilização de sistemas hidropônicos mais vantajosa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar uma metodologia para ser utilizada em estudos de tolerância a ácidos orgânicos em aveia através de sistemas hidropônicos. Para tal fim foi determinada uma forma adequada de promover a germinação das sementes de maneira a reduzir os efeitos do estabelecimento inicial das plântulas na hidroponia, uma faixa de concentração ideal para discriminação dos genótipos e as variáveis de maior interesse para avaliação. O sistema de germinação mais eficiente é através de

  11. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R&D) program history (focusing on DOE`s funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R&D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  12. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R D) program history (focusing on DOE's funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  13. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas

    2014-01-01

    The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term wou...

  14. Heterogeneity in Desiccated Solutions: Implications for Biostabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ragoonanan, Vishard; Aksan, Alptekin

    2007-01-01

    Biopreservation processes such as freezing and drying inherently introduce heterogeneity. We focused on exploring the mechanisms responsible for heterogeneity in isothermal, diffusively dried biopreservation solutions that contain a model protein. The biopreservation solutions used contained trehalose (a sugar known for its stabilization effect) and salts (LiCl, NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2). Performing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis on the desiccated droplets, spatial distributio...

  15. Resisting and tolerating P. falciparum in pregnancy under different malaria transmission intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Mbuba, Emmanuel; González, Raquel; Cisteró, Pau; Kariuki, Simon; Sevene, Esperança; Rupérez, María; Fonseca, Ana Maria; Vala, Anifa; Maculuve, Sonia; Jiménez, Alfons; Quintó, Llorenç; Ouma, Peter; Ramharter, Michael; Aponte, John J; Nhacolo, Arsenio; Massougbodji, Achille; Briand, Valerie; Kremsner, Peter G; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Desai, Meghna; Macete, Eusebio; Cot, Michel; Menéndez, Clara; Mayor, Alfredo

    2017-07-17

    Resistance and tolerance to Plasmodium falciparum can determine the progression of malaria disease. However, quantitative evidence of tolerance is still limited. We investigated variations in the adverse impact of P. falciparum infections among African pregnant women under different intensities of malaria transmission. P. falciparum at delivery was assessed by microscopy, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and placental histology in 946 HIV-uninfected and 768 HIV-infected pregnant women from Benin, Gabon, Kenya and Mozambique. Resistance was defined by the proportion of submicroscopic infections and the levels of anti-parasite antibodies quantified by Luminex, and tolerance by the relationship of pregnancy outcomes with parasite densities at delivery. P. falciparum prevalence by qPCR in peripheral and/or placental blood of HIV-uninfected Mozambican, Gabonese and Beninese women at delivery was 6% (21/340), 11% (28/257) and 41% (143/349), respectively. The proportion of peripheral submicroscopic infections was higher in Benin (83%) than in Mozambique (60%) and Gabon (55%; P = 0.033). Past or chronic placental P. falciparum infection was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in Mozambican newborns (OR = 7.05, 95% CI 1.79 to 27.82). Microscopic infections were associated with reductions in haemoglobin levels at delivery among Mozambican women (-1.17 g/dL, 95% CI -2.09 to -0.24) as well as with larger drops in haemoglobin levels from recruitment to delivery in Mozambican (-1.66 g/dL, 95% CI -2.68 to -0.64) and Gabonese (-0.91 g/dL, 95% CI -1.79 to -0.02) women. Doubling qPCR-peripheral parasite densities in Mozambican women were associated with decreases in haemoglobin levels at delivery (-0.16 g/dL, 95% CI -0.29 to -0.02) and increases in the drop of haemoglobin levels (-0.29 g/dL, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.14). Beninese women had higher anti-parasite IgGs than Mozambican women (P < 0.001). No difference was found in the proportion of submicroscopic

  16. Using stable isotopes and functional wood anatomy to identify underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance in different provenances of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Renton, Miriam; Montwé, David; Hamann, Andreas; Spiecker, Heinrich; Cherubini, Paolo; Treydte, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Choosing drought-tolerant seed sources for reforestation may help adapt forests to climate change. By combining dendroecological growth analysis with a long-term provenance trial, we assessed growth and drought tolerance of different populations of a wide-ranging conifer, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). This experimental design simulated a climate warming scenario through southward seed transfer, and an exceptional drought also occurred in 2002. We felled over 500 trees, representing 23 seed sources, which were grown for 32 years at three warm, dry sites in southern British Columbia, Canada. Northern populations showed poor growth and drought tolerance. These seed sources therefore appear to be especially at risk under climate change. Before recommending assisted migration of southern seeds towards the north, however, it is important to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these responses. We combine functional wood anatomy with a dual-isotope approach to evaluate these mechanisms to drought response.

  17. Mychonastes desiccatus Brown sp. nova (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta)--an intertidal alga forming achlorophyllous desiccation-resistant cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Hinkle, G.; McKhann, H.; Moynihan, B.

    1988-01-01

    An intertidal Chlorella-like alga Mychonastes desiccatus Brown sp. nova, capable of forming achlorophyllous desiccation-resistant cysts, has been grown in unialgal culture. This small alga was first isolated from a dried sample of a well-studied microbial mat. The mat, located at North Pond, Laguna Figueroa, San Quintin, Baja California, Mexico, is a vertically-stratified microbial community which forms laminated sediments. Morphology, pigment composition and G+C content are within the range typical for the genus Chlorella s. 1. Unlike other chlorellae, however, upon desiccation M. desiccatus forms an achlorophyllous, lipid-filled cyst (thick-walled resting stage) in which no plastid is evident. Rewetting leads to chloroplast differentiation, excystment and recovery of the fully green alga. During desiccation, sporopollenin is deposited within a thickening cell wall. Encystment cannot be induced by growth in the dark. The formation of desiccation-induced cysts allows the alga to survive frequent and intermittent periods of dryness. These chlorellae tolerate wide ranges of acidity and temperature; they both grow and form cysts in media in which sodium ions are replaced with potassium. Although the cysts tolerate crystalline salts, the cell grow optimally in concentrations corresponding from three-quarters to full-strength seawater.

  18. Downregulation of dTps1 in Drosophila melanogaster larvae confirms involvement of trehalose in redox regulation following desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, Leena; Mani, Krishna-Priya; Thangaraj, Pradeep; Chatterjee, Suvro; Nath, Bimalendu B

    2016-03-01

    As a survival strategy to environmental water deficits, desiccation-tolerant organisms are commonly known for their ability to recruit stress-protective biomolecules such as trehalose. We have previously reported the pivotal role of trehalose in larval desiccation tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster. Trehalose has emerged as a versatile molecule, serving mainly as energy source in insects and also being a stress protectant. While several recent reports have revealed the unconventional role of trehalose in scavenging reactive oxygen species in yeast and plants, this aspect has not received much attention in animals. We examined the status of desiccation-induced generation of reactive oxygen species in D. melanogaster larvae and the possible involvement of trehalose in ameliorating the harmful consequences thereof. Insect trehalose synthesis is governed by the enzyme trehalose 6-phosphate synthase 1 (TPS1). Using the ubiquitous da-GAL4-driven expression of the dTps1-RNAi transgene, we generated dTps1-downregulated Drosophila larvae possessing depleted levels of dTps1 transcripts. This resulted in the inability of the larvae for trehalose synthesis, thereby allowing us to elucidate the significance of trehalose in the regulation of desiccation-responsive redox homeostasis. Furthermore, the results from molecular genetics studies, biochemical assays, electron spin resonance analyses and a simple, non-invasive method of whole larval live imaging suggested that trehalose in collaboration with superoxide dismutase (SOD) is involved in the maintenance of redox state in D. melanogaster.

  19. Ancient symbiosis confers desiccation resistance to stored grain pest beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Tobias; Eberl, Nadia; Gorse, Carla; Krüger, Theresa; Schmidt, Thorsten H P; Plarre, Rudy; Adler, Cornel; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2017-11-08

    Microbial symbionts of insects provide a range of ecological traits to their hosts that are beneficial in the context of biotic interactions. However, little is known about insect symbiont-mediated adaptation to the abiotic environment, for example, temperature and humidity. Here, we report on an ancient clade of intracellular, bacteriome-located Bacteroidetes symbionts that are associated with grain and wood pest beetles of the phylogenetically distant families Silvanidae and Bostrichidae. In the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, we demonstrate that the symbionts affect cuticle thickness, melanization and hydrocarbon profile, enhancing desiccation resistance and thereby strongly improving fitness under dry conditions. Together with earlier observations on symbiont contributions to cuticle biosynthesis in weevils, our findings indicate that convergent acquisitions of bacterial mutualists represented key adaptations enabling diverse pest beetle groups to survive and proliferate under the low ambient humidity that characterizes dry grain storage facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy for Delay Tolerant Network under City Based Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadi, Asri; Rashid, Sulma; Habib, Hafiz Adnan

    2018-01-01

    Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) multi-copy routing protocols are privileged to create and transmit multiple copies of each message that causes congestion and some messages are dropped. This process is known as reactive drop because messages were dropped re-actively to overcome buffer overflows. The existing reactive buffer management policies apply a single metric to drop source, relay and destine messages. Hereby, selection to drop a message is dubious because each message as source, relay or destine may have consumed dissimilar magnitude of network resources. Similarly, DTN has included time to live (ttl) parameter which defines lifetime of message. Hence, when ttl expires then message is automatically destroyed from relay nodes. However, time-to-live (ttl) is not applicable on messages reached at their destinations. Moreover, nodes keep replicating messages till ttl expires even-though large number of messages has already been dispersed. In this paper, we have proposed Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy (PQB-R) for DTN under City Based Environments. The PQB-R classifies buffered messages into source, relay and destine queues. Moreover, separate drop metric has been applied on individual queue. The experiment results prove that proposed PQB-R has reduced number of messages transmissions, message drop and increases delivery ratio. PMID:29438438

  1. Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy for Delay Tolerant Network under City Based Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Ayub

    Full Text Available Delay Tolerant Network (DTN multi-copy routing protocols are privileged to create and transmit multiple copies of each message that causes congestion and some messages are dropped. This process is known as reactive drop because messages were dropped re-actively to overcome buffer overflows. The existing reactive buffer management policies apply a single metric to drop source, relay and destine messages. Hereby, selection to drop a message is dubious because each message as source, relay or destine may have consumed dissimilar magnitude of network resources. Similarly, DTN has included time to live (ttl parameter which defines lifetime of message. Hence, when ttl expires then message is automatically destroyed from relay nodes. However, time-to-live (ttl is not applicable on messages reached at their destinations. Moreover, nodes keep replicating messages till ttl expires even-though large number of messages has already been dispersed. In this paper, we have proposed Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy (PQB-R for DTN under City Based Environments. The PQB-R classifies buffered messages into source, relay and destine queues. Moreover, separate drop metric has been applied on individual queue. The experiment results prove that proposed PQB-R has reduced number of messages transmissions, message drop and increases delivery ratio.

  2. Genes under positives selection in deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sghaier, Haithem; Barkallah, Insaf; Ghedira, Kais; Benkahla, Alia

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus deinococcus are extremely resistant to ionising radiation (IR) and desiccation. Deinococcus radiodurans is the current gold-medallist of ionising -radiation resistance and desiccation tolerance among organisms with a completely sequenced genome, can amend more than 100 DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) per chromosome, induced by 10 kGy, without loss of viability, and can survive for six years in a desiccator with 10% viability. To further unravel molecular targets involved in ionizing radiation resistance and desiccation tolerance in D. radiodurans, we identified based on pertinent ortho logy relationships and positive selection analyses less than 700 s tellar genes . the present work leads to further reduction of the set of factors implicated as major contributors to the resistance phenotype in D. radiodurans, and outlines a computational approach that may be broadly applicable for studying ionizing radiation resistance, desiccation tolerance and strain-specific adaptation in other prokaryotes

  3. Biological Networks Underlying Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Temperate Crops--A Proteomic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan Oldřich; Klíma, Miroslav; Roy, Amitava; Prášil, Ilja Tom

    2015-09-01

    Abiotic stress factors, especially low temperatures, drought, and salinity, represent the major constraints limiting agricultural production in temperate climate. Under the conditions of global climate change, the risk of damaging effects of abiotic stresses on crop production increases. Plant stress response represents an active process aimed at an establishment of novel homeostasis under altered environmental conditions. Proteins play a crucial role in plant stress response since they are directly involved in shaping the final phenotype. In the review, results of proteomic studies focused on stress response of major crops grown in temperate climate including cereals: common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zea mays); leguminous plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), soybean (Glycine max), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), pea (Pisum sativum); oilseed rape (Brassica napus); potato (Solanum tuberosum); tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum); tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum); and others, to a wide range of abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salinity, heat, imbalances in mineral nutrition and heavy metals) are summarized. The dynamics of changes in various protein functional groups including signaling and regulatory proteins, transcription factors, proteins involved in protein metabolism, amino acid metabolism, metabolism of several stress-related compounds, proteins with chaperone and protective functions as well as structural proteins (cell wall components, cytoskeleton) are briefly overviewed. Attention is paid to the differences found between differentially tolerant genotypes. In addition, proteomic studies aimed at proteomic investigation of multiple stress factors are discussed. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding the complexity of crop response to abiotic stresses as well as possibilities to identify and utilize protein markers in crop breeding processes are discussed.

  4. Biological Networks Underlying Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Temperate Crops—A Proteomic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan Oldřich; Klíma, Miroslav; Roy, Amitava; Prášil, Ilja Tom

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stress factors, especially low temperatures, drought, and salinity, represent the major constraints limiting agricultural production in temperate climate. Under the conditions of global climate change, the risk of damaging effects of abiotic stresses on crop production increases. Plant stress response represents an active process aimed at an establishment of novel homeostasis under altered environmental conditions. Proteins play a crucial role in plant stress response since they are directly involved in shaping the final phenotype. In the review, results of proteomic studies focused on stress response of major crops grown in temperate climate including cereals: common wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zea mays); leguminous plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), soybean (Glycine max), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), pea (Pisum sativum); oilseed rape (Brassica napus); potato (Solanum tuberosum); tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum); tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum); and others, to a wide range of abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salinity, heat, imbalances in mineral nutrition and heavy metals) are summarized. The dynamics of changes in various protein functional groups including signaling and regulatory proteins, transcription factors, proteins involved in protein metabolism, amino acid metabolism, metabolism of several stress-related compounds, proteins with chaperone and protective functions as well as structural proteins (cell wall components, cytoskeleton) are briefly overviewed. Attention is paid to the differences found between differentially tolerant genotypes. In addition, proteomic studies aimed at proteomic investigation of multiple stress factors are discussed. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding the complexity of crop response to abiotic stresses as well as possibilities to identify and utilize protein markers in crop breeding processes are discussed. PMID:26340626

  5. Biological Networks Underlying Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Temperate Crops—A Proteomic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Kosová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress factors, especially low temperatures, drought, and salinity, represent the major constraints limiting agricultural production in temperate climate. Under the conditions of global climate change, the risk of damaging effects of abiotic stresses on crop production increases. Plant stress response represents an active process aimed at an establishment of novel homeostasis under altered environmental conditions. Proteins play a crucial role in plant stress response since they are directly involved in shaping the final phenotype. In the review, results of proteomic studies focused on stress response of major crops grown in temperate climate including cereals: common wheat (Triticum aestivum, durum wheat (Triticum durum, barley (Hordeum vulgare, maize (Zea mays; leguminous plants: alfalfa (Medicago sativa, soybean (Glycine max, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, pea (Pisum sativum; oilseed rape (Brassica napus; potato (Solanum tuberosum; tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum; and others, to a wide range of abiotic stresses (cold, drought, salinity, heat, imbalances in mineral nutrition and heavy metals are summarized. The dynamics of changes in various protein functional groups including signaling and regulatory proteins, transcription factors, proteins involved in protein metabolism, amino acid metabolism, metabolism of several stress-related compounds, proteins with chaperone and protective functions as well as structural proteins (cell wall components, cytoskeleton are briefly overviewed. Attention is paid to the differences found between differentially tolerant genotypes. In addition, proteomic studies aimed at proteomic investigation of multiple stress factors are discussed. In conclusion, contribution of proteomic studies to understanding the complexity of crop response to abiotic stresses as well as possibilities to identify and utilize protein markers in crop breeding processes are discussed.

  6. Parametric Analysis of a Rotary Type Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mujahid Rafique

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Now days, air conditioning systems are a must for almost every commercial and residential building to achieve comfortable indoor conditions. The increasing energy demand, and increasing oil prices and pollution levels raise the need for alternative air conditioning systems which can efficiently utilize renewable energy resources. The liquid desiccant-based air conditioning method is pollution free and thermal energy-based cooling techniques can use low grade thermal energy resources like solar energy, waste heat, etc. These systems have an additional advantage of cleaning bacteria and fungi from the air. In this paper, a newly proposed rotary liquid desiccant air conditioning system has been investigated theoretically. Most direct contact liquid desiccant cooling systems have the problem of desiccant carryover which can be eliminated using the proposed system. The effects of various key parameters and climatic conditions on the performance of the system have been evaluated. The results showed that if the key parameters of the system are controlled effectively, the proposed cooling system has the ability to achieve the desired supply air conditions. The system can achieve high coefficient of performance (COP under different conditions. The dehumidifier has a sensible heat ratio (SHR in the range of 0.3–0.6 for different design, climatic, and operating conditions. The system can remove latent load efficiently in applications which require good humidity control.

  7. An assessment of desiccant cooling and dehumidification technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lavan, Z. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Collier, R.K. Jr. [Collier Engineering Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States); Meckler, G. [Gershon Meckler Associates, P.C., Herndon, VA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Desiccant systems are heat-actuated cooling and dehumidification technology. With the recent advances in this technology, desiccant systems can now achieve a primary energy coefficient of performance (COP) between 1.3 and 1.5, with potential to go to 1.7 and higher. It is becoming one of the most promising alternatives to conventional cooling systems. Two important and well-known advantages of desiccant cooling systems are that they are CFC free and they can reduce the electricity peak load. Another important but lesser-known advantage of desiccant technology is its potential for energy conservation. The energy impact study in this report indicated that a possible 13% energy saving in residential cooling and 8% in commercial cooling is possible. Great energy saving potential also exists in the industrial sector if industrial waste heat can be used for desiccant regeneration. The latest study on desiccant-integrated building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems indicated that the initial cost for the conventional cooling equipment was greatly reduced by using desiccant technology because of downsized compressors, fans, and ductworks. This cost reduction was more than enough to offset the cost of desiccant equipment. Besides, the system operation cost was also reduced. All these indicate that desiccant systems are also cost effective. This study provides an updated state-of-the-art assessment forsiccant technology in the field of desiccant materials, systems, computer models, and theoretical analyses. From this information the technology options were derived and the future research and development needs were identified. Because desiccant technology has already been applied in the commercial building sector with very encouraging results, it is expected that future market breakthroughs will probably start in this sector. A market analysis for the commercial building application is therefore included.

  8. Aluminium tolerance of root hairs underlies genotypic differences in rhizosheath size of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown on acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; James, Richard A; Ryan, Peter R

    2012-08-01

    We found significant genetic variation in the ability of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to form rhizosheaths on acid soil and assessed whether differences in aluminium (Al(3+) ) tolerance of root hairs between genotypes was the physiological basis for this genetic variation. A method was developed to rapidly screen rhizosheath size in a range of wheat genotypes. Backcrossed populations were generated from cv Fronteira (large rhizosheath) using cv EGA-Burke (small rhizosheath) as the recurrent parent. A positive correlation existed between rhizosheath size on acid soil and root hair length. In hydroponic experiments, root hairs of the backcrossed lines with large rhizosheaths were more tolerant of Al(3+) toxicity than the backcrossed lines with small rhizosheaths. We conclude that greater Al(3+) tolerance of root hairs underlies the larger rhizosheath of wheat grown on acid soil. Tolerance of the root hairs to Al(3+) was largely independent of the TaALMT1 gene which suggests that different genes encode the Al(3+) tolerance of root hairs. The maintenance of longer root hairs in acid soils is important for the efficient uptake of water and nutrients. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Numerical modelling of desiccation cracking of clayey soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo Thi Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and propagation of desiccation cracks in soil is an extremely complex phenomenon because of the coupling between hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of soil, which are constituted here by the presence of capillary forces and discontinuities. The formation of a cracks network strongly influences the mechanical and hydraulic properties of soil. The main objective of this research is to study the evolution of suction and strain fields, the initiation and propagation of cracks under the effect of drying, using the finite element method. A simulation of a soil sample with four cohesive joints shows the results similar to experimental data. In addition, a simulation of multijoints shows that cracks does not open in all potentials positions and it gives similar spacing.

  10. Foliar Desiccators Glyphosate, Carfentrazone, and Paraquat Affect the Technological and Chemical Properties of Cowpea Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Igor da Silva; Lang, Gustavo Heinrich; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; de Oliveira, Maurício; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Vanier, Nathan Levien

    2017-08-16

    The effects of the use of glyphosate (GLY), glyphosate plus carfentrazone (GLY/CAR), and paraquat (PAR) as plant desiccators on the technological and chemical properties of cowpea grains were investigated. All studied desiccants provided lower cooking time to freshly harvested cowpea. However, the coat color of PAR- and GLY/CAR-treated cowpea was reddish in comparison to the control treatment. Principal component analysis (PCA) from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data sets showed a clear distinction among cowpea from the different treatments. Catechin-3-glucoside and epicatechin significantly contributed for discriminating GLY-treated cowpea, while citric acid was responsible for discriminating GLY/CAR-treated cowpea. Quercetin derivative and gluconic acid were responsible for discriminating control treatment. Residual glyphosate and paraquat content was higher than the maximum limits allowed by Codex Alimentarius and the European Union Commission. Improvements in the technological and chemical properties of cowpea may not be overlapped by the risks that those desiccants exhibit when exceeding the maximum limits of tolerance in food.

  11. Dormancy induction by summer temperatures and/or desiccation in imbibed seeds of trumpet daffodils Narcissus alcaracensis and N. longispathus (Amaryllidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, J M; Copete, E; Copete, M A; Márquez, J; Ferrandis, P

    2017-01-01

    We analysed the effects of summer temperatures (28/14 °C) and/or desiccation (from 48% to 8% humidity) on imbibed Narcissus alcaracensis and N. longispathus seeds with an elongating embryo. In the N. alcaracensis seeds that overcame dormancy (embryo elongation = 27.14%), exposure to high temperatures induced secondary dormancy and reduced subsequent embryo growth. A further 3-month cold stratification (5 °C) was required to break secondary dormancy. Desiccation in early embryo growth stages (elongation = 11.42%) also reduced germination. Desiccation in the seeds in a more advanced growth stage (i.e. embryo elongation = 27.14%) induced secondary dormancy, which the further 3-month cold stratification did not overcome. When desiccation was preceded by high temperatures, seeds better overcame secondary dormancy (i.e. longer embryo elongation and seed germination). Treatments did not affect seed viability. In the N. longispathus seeds that overcame dormancy (embryo elongation = 59.21%), exposure to high temperatures induced secondary dormancy and they needed a further 1-month stratification at 15/4 °C + 2 months at 5 °C to reactivate the germination process. When embryo elongation was 42.10%, seed desiccation totally impeded subsequent germination. When embryo elongation reached 59.21%, desiccation induced secondary dormancy, which was not overcome by the above-described stratification treatment. When desiccation was preceded by high temperatures, seeds better overcame dormancy. Stress treatments killed 5-10% of seeds. This study suggests that the seeds of species with complex morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) levels are sensitive to desiccation in early embryo development stages, as opposed to the seeds of species with deep simple epicotyl MPD, which better tolerate water stress. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Hexaploid Triticale Genotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, NEZAMI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate freezing tolerance of different triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack genotypes, an experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in 2007 and 2008 at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this study seeven triticale genotypes (Juanilo-92, ET-82-15, ET-82-8, ET-83-20, ET-83-19, ET-83-18 and ET-79-17, across six temperatures (0C, -4C, -8C, -12C, -16C and -20C were evaluated within a factorial-completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were kept until 2 leaf stage in chamber with temperature of 20/15C (day/night and 12.5 h photoperiod. At the end of this stage, plants were under acclimation for three weeks. After exposing to acclimation freezing the cell membrane integrity was measured through electrolyte leakage (EL and the lethal temperature (LT50 of samples was measured. After the exposure to freezing temperatures the samples were transferred to the greenhouse. Survival percentage, plant height, leaf area and number, chlorophyll content, and plant dry weight were determined after 3 weeks. Results showed that the effect of different freezing temperature and genotypes were significant on all plant characteristics. As temperature decreased, %EL of all genotypes was increased. Minimum and Maximum EL % in leaf and crown were observed at 0C (21% and -20C (88.5%. ET-79-17 and Juanilo-92 genotypes showed the highest EL% (55.5% and 44.8% and ET-83-20 the lowest EL% (47.3% and 41.2% in leaf and crown. Dry weight and leaf area decreased by 48% and 42% respectively compared to non frozen control plants. ET-79-17 and ET-82-15 genotypes showed the highest dry weight (83.8 mg and highest leaf area (14.3 cm2 respectively and ET-83-20 cultivar showed the lowest dry weight and leaf area (58.2 mg and 8.7 cm2.

  13. Vacuum membrane distillation of liquid desiccants Utilizing Hollow Fiber Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2018-01-31

    This paper documents the testing of a vacuum membrane distillation system intended for use with liquid desiccants. Liquid desiccants offer the possibility for low-energy, ambient temperature dehumidification. Effective desalination and purification of diluted desiccants outputs two important products: a concentrated desiccant for reuse in dehumidification and fresh water. In this study, vacuum membrane distillation was used in the laboratory to purify diluted liquid desiccants. Calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were the desiccants selected for testing. Desiccant solutions were pumped through the lumens of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes at varying feed inlet temperatures, solution velocity rates and vacuum set points during membrane distillation. An average flux of 8 kg m-2 h-1 was obtained using 30 wt% magnesium chloride solution at a temperature of 50 °C while applying vacuum to achieve 25 mbar absolute pressure on the air side of the membrane. The results are promising for the development of a full-scale vacuum membrane distillation process for desiccant solution regeneration and fresh water recovery. In addition, the recovered condensate was of sufficient quality for use in agricultural irrigation or drinking water.

  14. Analysis on a hybrid desiccant air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, C.X.; Dai, Y.J.; Wu, J.Y.; Wang, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid desiccant-assisted preconditioner and split cooling coil system, which combines the merits of moisture removal by desiccant and cooling coil for sensible heat removal, is a potential alternative to conventional vapor compression cooling systems. In this paper, experiments on a hybrid desiccant air-conditioning system, which is actually an integration of a rotary solid desiccant dehumidification and a vapor compression air-conditioning unit, had been carried out. It is found that, compared with the conventional VC (vapor compression) system, the hybrid desiccant cooling system economizes 37.5% electricity powers when the process air temperature and relative humidity are maintained at 30 o C, and 55% respectively. The reason why the hybrid desiccant cooling system features better performance relative to the VC system lies in the improvement brought about in the performance of the evaporator in VC unit due to desiccant dehumidification. A thermodynamic model of the hybrid desiccant system with R-22 as the refrigerant has been developed and the impact of operating parameters on the sensible heat ratio of the evaporator and the electric power saving rate has been analyzed. It is found that a majority of evaporators can operate in the dry condition even if the regeneration temperature is lower (i.e. 80 o C)

  15. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid

    2008-07-18

    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  16. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, Leena J. [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gaikwad, Sushama M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@unipune.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add

  17. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorat, Leena J.; Gaikwad, Sushama M.; Nath, Bimalendu B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. ► Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. ► Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. ► Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. ► Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add to the growing list of novel biochemical markers in specific bioindicator organisms for fulfilling the urgent need of

  18. Tolerance and potential for adaptation of a Baltic Sea rockweed under predicted climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiu, Luca; Manninen, Iita; Rothäusler, Eva; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2018-03-01

    Climate change is threating species' persistence worldwide. To predict species responses to climate change we need information not just on their environmental tolerance but also on its adaptive potential. We tested how the foundation species of rocky littoral habitats, Fucus vesiculosus, responds to combined hyposalinity and warming projected to the Baltic Sea by 2070-2099. We quantified responses of replicated populations originating from the entrance, central, and marginal Baltic regions. Using replicated individuals, we tested for the presence of within-population tolerance variation. Future conditions hampered growth and survival of the central and marginal populations whereas the entrance populations fared well. Further, both the among- and within-population variation in responses to climate change indicated existence of genetic variation in tolerance. Such standing genetic variation provides the raw material necessary for adaptation to a changing environment, which may eventually ensure the persistence of the species in the inner Baltic Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors Predicting the Ocular Surface Response to Desiccating Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Anastasia; Edwards, Austin; Hays, J. Daniel; Kerkstra, Michelle; Shih, Amanda; de Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify factors predicting the ocular surface response to experimental desiccating stress. Methods. The ocular surfaces of both eyes of 15 normal and 10 dry eye subjects wearing goggles were exposed to a controlled desiccating environment (15%–25% relative humidity and 2–5 L/min airflow) for 90 minutes. Eye irritation symptoms, blink rate, tear meniscus dimensions, noninvasive (RBUT) and invasive tear break-up time, and corneal fluorescein and conjunctival lissamine green-dye staining were recorded before and after desiccating stress. Pre- and postexposure measurements were compared, and Pearson correlations between clinical parameters before and after desiccating stress were calculated. Results. Corneal and conjunctival dye staining significantly increased in all subjects following 90-minute exposure to desiccating environment, and the magnitude of change was similar in normal and dry eye subjects; except superior cornea staining was greater in dry eye. Irritation severity in the desiccating environment was associated with baseline dye staining, baseline tear meniscus height, and blink rate after 45 minutes. Desiccation-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining was inversely correlated to baseline tear meniscus width, whereas change in total ocular surface dye staining was inversely correlated to baseline dye staining, RBUT, and tear meniscus height and width. Blink rate from 30 to 90 minutes in desiccating environment was higher in the dry eye than normal group. Blink rate significantly correlated to baseline corneal fluorescein staining and environmental-induced change in corneal fluorescein staining. Conclusions. Ocular surface dye staining increases in response to desiccating stress. Baseline ocular surface dye staining, tear meniscus height, and blink rate predict severity of ocular surface dye staining following exposure to a desiccating environment. PMID:23572103

  20. Selection of efficient salt-tolerant bacteria containing ACC deaminase for promotion of tomato growth under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannika Chookietwattana* and Kedsukon Maneewan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For successful application of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB in salt-affected soil, bioinoculant with salt-tolerant property is required in order to provide better survival and perform well in the field. The present study aimed to select the most efficient salt-tolerant bacterium containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase from eighty four bacterial strains and to investigate the effects of the selected bacterium on the germination and growth of tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Seeda under saline conditions. The Bacillus licheniformis B2r was selected for its ability to utilize ACC as a sole nitrogen source under salinity stress. It also showed a high ACC deaminase activity at 0.6 M NaCl salinity. Tomato plants inoculated with the selected bacterium under various saline conditions (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl revealed a significant increase in the germination percentage, germination index, root length, and seedling dry weight especially at salinity levels ranging from 30-90 mM NaCl. The work described in this report is an important step in developing an efficient salt-tolerant bioinoculant to facilitate plant growth in saline soil.

  1. Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    A number of important conclusions can be drawn as a result of this broad, first-phase market evaluation. The more important conclusions include the following: (1) A very significant market opportunity will exist for specialized outdoor air-handling units (SOAHUs) as more construction and renovation projects are designed to incorporate the recommendations made by the ASHRAE 62-1989 standard. Based on this investigation, the total potential market is currently $725,000,000 annually (see Table 6, Sect. 3). Based on the market evaluations completed, it is estimated that approximately $398,000,000 (55%) of this total market could be served by DBC systems if they were made cost-effective through mass production. Approximately $306,000,000 (42%) of the total can be served by a non-regenerated, desiccant-based total recovery approach, based on the information provided by this investigation. Approximately $92,000,000 (13%) can be served by a regenerated desiccant-based cooling approach (see Table 7, Sect. 3). (2) A projection of the market selling price of various desiccant-based SOAHU systems was prepared using prices provided by Trane for central-station, air-handling modules currently manufactured. The wheel-component pricing was added to these components by SEMCO. This resulted in projected pricing for these systems that is significantly less than that currently offered by custom suppliers (see Table 4, Sect. 2). Estimated payback periods for all SOAHU approaches were quite short when compared with conventional over-cooling and reheat systems. Actual paybacks may vary significantly depending on site-specific considerations. (3) In comparing cost vs benefit of each SOAHU approach, it is critical that the total system design be evaluated. For example, the cost premium of a DBC system is very significant when compared to a conventional air handling system, yet the reduced chiller, boiler, cooling tower, and other expense often equals or exceeds this premium, resulting in a

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel energy-efficient refrigeration system subcooled by liquid desiccant dehumidification and evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Xiaohui; Yin, Yonggao; Zhang, Xiaosong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An energy-efficient refrigeration system with a novel subcooling method is proposed. • Thermodynamic analysis is conducted to discuss the effects of operation parameters. • Two different utilization ways of condensation heat are compared. • The system achieves much higher COP, even higher than reverse Carnot cycle. • Suggested mass concentration for LiCl–H 2 O is around 32% at a typical case. - Abstract: A new energy-efficient refrigeration system subcooled by liquid desiccant dehumidification and evaporation was proposed in this paper. In the system, liquid desiccant system could produce very dry air for an indirect evaporative cooler, which would subcool the vapor compression refrigeration system to get higher COP than conventional refrigeration system. The desiccant cooling system can use the condensation heat for the desiccant regeneration. Thermodynamic analysis is made to discuss the effects of operation parameters (condensing temperature, liquid desiccant concentration, ambient air temperature and relative humidity) on the system performance. Results show that the proposed hybrid vapor compression refrigeration system achieves significantly higher COP than conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, and even higher than the reverse Carnot cycle at the same operation conditions. The maximum COPs of the hybrid systems using hot air and ambient air are 18.8% and 16.3% higher than that of the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system under varied conditions, respectively

  3. Solar assisted liquid desiccant cooling using clay based membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya S. Shanmuga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concerns have led to the urge of the usage of non-conventional energy resources like solar, wind, thermal, geothermal etc. which provide enormous source of energy without causing any further diminution of the environment. Instead of the conventional HVAC systems that cause colossal environmental perils, usage of liquid desiccants in coming in vogue whereby reducing ecological threats. Moreover, solar assisted systems provide further impulse to such systems. This paper discusses about the various comparisons between liquid desiccants: Lithium chloride, Potassium formate and Calcium chloride and concludes that potassium formate is the best desiccant to be used among the three. Potassium formate (HCOOK is used which is cheaper and less corrosive as compared to the other aqueous salts, and has a negative crystallization temperature. Potassium formate is a new liquid desiccant and thus, not much research is available currently. The weather conditions of Manipal provide an appropriate condition for the experimentations of solar aided liquid desiccant evaporative cooling systems due to its humid climate and intense solar radiation obtained. The small scale experimentation also encounters the problem of liquid desiccant carryover by the air flow, with the help of clay based membranes which are again cheap, environmentally benign and obtained in a facile way. The projected system takes complete advantage of pure solar energy aimed at the regeneration of liquid desiccant.

  4. Polymers as advanced materials for desiccant applications, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Neidlinger, H.H.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents work to identify a next-generation, low-cost material with which solar energy or heat from another low-cost energy source can be used for regenerating the water vapor sorption activity of the desiccant. The objective of the work is to determine how the desired sorption performance of advanced desiccant materials can be predicted by understanding the role of the material modifications and material surfaces. The work concentrates on solid materials to be used for desiccant cooling systems and which process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce cooling. The work involved preparing modifications of polystyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt, synthesizing a hydrogel, and evaluating the sorption performances of these and similar commercially available polymeric materials; all materials were studied for their potential application in solid commercial desiccant cooling systems. Background information is also provided on desiccant cooling systems and the role of a desiccant material within such a system, and it includes the use of polymers as desiccant materials. 31 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs between drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes of chickpea under terminal drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju N L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important grain-legume crop that is mainly grown in rainfed areas, where terminal drought is a major constraint to its productivity. We generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH to identify differentially expressed genes in drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes in chickpea. Results EST libraries were generated by SSH from root and shoot tissues of IC4958 (drought tolerant and ICC 1882 (drought resistant exposed to terminal drought conditions by the dry down method. SSH libraries were also constructed by using 2 sets of bulks prepared from the RNA of root tissues from selected recombinant inbred lines (RILs (10 each for the extreme high and low root biomass phenotype. A total of 3062 unigenes (638 contigs and 2424 singletons, 51.4% of which were novel in chickpea, were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 5949 ESTs. Only 2185 (71% unigenes showed significant BLASTX similarity ( Conclusion Our study compares not only genes that are up- and down-regulated in a drought-tolerant genotype under terminal drought stress and a drought susceptible genotype but also between the bulks of the selected RILs exhibiting extreme phenotypes. More than 50% of the genes identified have been shown to be associated with drought stress in chickpea for the first time. This study not only serves as resource for marker discovery, but can provide a better insight into the selection of candidate genes (both up- and downregulated associated with drought tolerance. These results can be used to identify suitable targets for manipulating the drought-tolerance trait in chickpea.

  6. Gene Expression Profiling of Iron Deficiency Chlorosis Sensitive and Tolerant Soybean Indicates Key Roles for Phenylpropanoids under Alkalinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Waters

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline soils comprise 30% of the earth and have low plant-available iron (Fe concentration, and can cause iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC. IDC causes soybean yield losses of $260 million annually. However, it is not known whether molecular responses to IDC are equivalent to responses to low iron supply. IDC tolerant and sensitive soybean lines provide a contrast to identify specific factors associated with IDC. We used RNA-seq to compare gene expression under combinations of normal pH (5.7 or alkaline pH (7.7, imposed by 2.5 mM bicarbonate, or pH 8.2 imposed by 5 mM bicarbonate and normal (25 μM or low (1 μM iron conditions from roots of these lines. Thus, we were able to treat pH and Fe supply as separate variables. We also noted differential gene expression between IDC sensitive and tolerant genotypes in each condition. Classical iron uptake genes, including ferric-chelate reductase (FCR and ferrous transporters, were upregulated by both Fe deficiency and alkaline stress, however, their gene products did not function well at alkaline pH. In addition, genes in the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway were upregulated in both alkaline and low Fe conditions. These genes lead to the production of fluorescent root exudate (FluRE compounds, such as coumarins. Fluorescence of nutrient solution increased with alkaline treatment, and was higher in the IDC tolerant line. Some of these genes also localized to previously identified QTL regions associated with IDC. We hypothesize that FluRE become essential at alkaline pH where the classical iron uptake system does not function well. This work could result in new strategies to screen for IDC tolerance, and provide breeding targets to improve crop alkaline stress tolerance.

  7. Distributed Fault-Tolerant Control of Networked Uncertain Euler-Lagrange Systems Under Actuator Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Song, Yongduan; Lewis, Frank L

    2016-05-03

    This paper investigates the distributed fault-tolerant control problem of networked Euler-Lagrange systems with actuator and communication link faults. An adaptive fault-tolerant cooperative control scheme is proposed to achieve the coordinated tracking control of networked uncertain Lagrange systems on a general directed communication topology, which contains a spanning tree with the root node being the active target system. The proposed algorithm is capable of compensating for the actuator bias fault, the partial loss of effectiveness actuation fault, the communication link fault, the model uncertainty, and the external disturbance simultaneously. The control scheme does not use any fault detection and isolation mechanism to detect, separate, and identify the actuator faults online, which largely reduces the online computation and expedites the responsiveness of the controller. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a test-bed of multiple robot-arm cooperative control system is developed for real-time verification. Experiments on the networked robot-arms are conduced and the results confirm the benefits and the effectiveness of the proposed distributed fault-tolerant control algorithms.

  8. Metabolomic approach reveals the biochemical mechanisms underlying drought stress tolerance in thyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Parviz; Ford-Lloyd, Brian; Pritchard, Jeremy

    2017-06-15

    Thyme as a perennial herb has been recognized globally for its antimicrobial, antiseptic and spasmolytic effects. In this investigation, we have used non-targeted metabolite and volatile profiling combined with the morpho-physiological parameters in order to understand the responses at the metabolite and physiological level in drought sensitive and tolerant thyme plant populations. The results at the metabolic level identified the significantly affected metabolites. Significant metabolites belonging to different chemical classes consisting amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids and lipids have been compared in tolerant and sensitive plants. These compounds may take a role through mechanisms including osmotic adjustment, ROS scavenging, cellular components protection and membrane lipid changes, hormone inductions in which the key metabolites were proline, betain, mannitol, sorbitol, ascorbate, jasmonate, unsaturated fatty acids and tocopherol. Regarding with volatile profiling, sensitive plants showed an increased-then-decreased trend at major terpenes apart from alpha-cubebene and germacrene-D. In contrast, tolerant populations had unchanged terpenes during the water stress period with an elevation at last day. These results suggesting that the two populations are employing different strategies. The combination of metabolite profiling and physiological parameters assisted to understand precisely the mechanisms of plant response at volatile metabolome level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Does smoking abstinence influence distress tolerance? An experimental study comparing the response to a breath-holding test of smokers under tobacco withdrawal and under nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Anna Aldi, Giulia; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-09-30

    Distress tolerance has been operationalized as task persistence in stressful behavioral laboratory tasks. According to the distress tolerance perspective, how an individual responds to discomfort/distress predicts early smoking lapses. This theory seems weakly supported by experimental studies since they are limited in number, show inconsistent results, do not include control conditions. We tested the response to a stressful task in smokers under abstinence and under no abstinence to verify if tobacco abstinence reduces task persistence, thus distress tolerance. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used. Twenty smokers underwent a breath holding test after the administration of nicotine on one test day and a placebo on another test day. Physiological and psychological variables were assessed at baseline and directly before and after each challenge. Abstinence induced a statistically significant shorter breath holding duration relative to the nicotine condition. No different response to the breath holding test was observed when nicotine and placebo conditions were compared. No response to the breath holding test was found when pre- and post-test values of heart rate, blood pressure, Visual Analogue Scale for fear or discomfort were compared. In brief, tobacco abstinence reduces breath holding duration but breath holding test does not influence discomfort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Feasible study on desiccant wheel with CO2 heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yefeng; Meng, Deren; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    A kind of desiccant wheel with CO2 heat pump is proposed. The main features of this proposed system include: (1) there are two optional ways of desiccant dehumidification and cooling dehumidification; (2) for the subsystem of desiccant dehumidification process, the air regeneration process occurs inside a closed loop, and a CO2 heat pump is utilized inside this loop for air regeneration, which has the potential to significantly reduce energy consumption compared to a traditional regeneration process. The operating performance of the system is simulated and analysed. Compared to the traditional vapor compression air conditioning system, the hybrid system can save approximately 50% to 90% of energy.

  11. Mode of inheritance of low-N tolerance adaptive traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under contrasting nitrogen environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. M. Al Naggar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of essential economic and ecological concerns, there is increased interest worldwide in developing wheat cultivars that are more efficient in utilizing nitrogen (N and better suited to N limitations. The objective of the present investigation was to get information on the type of gene action controlling the inheritance of wheat low-N tolerance traits in order to start a breeding program for improving such traits. Six parents of contrasting low-N tolerance were crossed in a diallel fashion. Evaluation of 6 parents, 15 F1crosses and 15 F2 crosses was done using a randomized complete block design with three replications under two levels of soil N, i.e. low-N (0 kg N/ha and high-N (180 kg N/ha.The magnitude of dominance variance inF2's for all studied traits was much greater than that of additive variance under both high N and low N, suggesting that selection should be postponed to later segregating generations in order to eliminate masking effects of dominance variance and take advantage of the additive variance for the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield traits. Narrow-sense heritability (h2n in F2's was generally of higher magnitude under low-N than high-N, suggesting that it is better to practice selection for studied nitrogen efficiency and grain yield traits under low-N conditions to obtain higher values of selection gain.

  12. Liquid-Desiccant Vapor Separation Reduces the Energy Requirements of Atmospheric Moisture Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gido, Ben; Friedler, Eran; Broday, David M

    2016-08-02

    An innovative atmospheric moisture harvesting system is proposed, where water vapor is separated from the air prior to cooling and condensation. The system was studied using a model that simulates its three interconnected cycles (air, desiccant, and water) over a range of ambient conditions, and optimal configurations are reported for different operation conditions. Model results were compared to specifications of commercial atmospheric moisture harvesting systems and found to represent saving of 5-65% of the electrical energy requirements due to the vapor separation process. We show that the liquid desiccant separation stage that is integrated into atmospheric moisture harvesting systems can work under a wide range of environmental conditions using low grade or solar heating as a supplementary energy source, and that the performance of the combined system is superior.

  13. Behavior and influence of desiccation cracking in loess landfill covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Lan, Ji-wu; Qiu, Qing-wen; He, Hai-jie; Li, He

    2017-11-01

    In the northwest region of China, loess was the main closure cover material of local landfills. Tests in a full-scale testing facility were conducted to investigate the behavior and influence of desiccation cracking in loess landfill covers. The desiccation cracks in the loess landfill cover intersected with T-shape, and the intersection angles were close to 90 degrees. The desiccation cracks formed as a result of drying, and would heal with the increase of moisture content of the loess. In addition, desiccation cracking in loess covers would promote the formation of preferential flow channels. As a consequence, the gas permeability of the loess cover was improved, and methane emissions increased obviously.

  14. Improvement of yeast tolerance to acetic acid through Haa1 transcription factor engineering: towards the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Henriques, Sílvia F; Shrestha, Ranjan; Ho, Ping-Wei; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Nevoigt, Elke

    2017-01-09

    Besides being a major regulator of the response to acetic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Haa1 is an important determinant of the tolerance to this acid. The engineering of Haa1 either by overexpression or mutagenesis has therefore been considered to be a promising avenue towards the construction of more robust strains with improved acetic acid tolerance. By applying the concept of global transcription machinery engineering to the regulon-specific transcription factor Haa1, a mutant allele containing two point mutations could be selected that resulted in a significantly higher acetic acid tolerance as compared to the wild-type allele. The level of improvement obtained was comparable to the level obtained by overexpression of HAA1, which was achieved by introduction of a second copy of the native HAA1 gene. Dissection of the contribution of the two point mutations to the phenotype showed that the major improvement was caused by an amino acid exchange at position 135 (serine to phenylalanine). In order to further study the mechanisms underlying the tolerance phenotype, Haa1 translocation and transcriptional activation of Haa1 target genes was compared between Haa1 mutant, overproduction and wild-type strains. While the rapid Haa1 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus in response to acetic acid was not affected in the Haa1 S135F mutant strain, the levels of transcriptional activation of four selected Haa1-target genes by acetic acid were significantly higher in cells of the mutant strain as compared to cells of the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the time-course of transcriptional activation in response to acetic acid was comparable for the mutant and wild-type strain whereas the maximum mRNA levels obtained correlate with each strain's tolerance level. Our data confirms that engineering of the regulon-specific transcription factor Haa1 allows the improvement of acetic acid tolerance in S. cerevisiae. It was also shown that the

  15. Ambient but not local lactate underlies neuronal tolerance to prolonged glucose deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieski, Courtney; Shu, Hong-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Neurons require a nearly constant supply of ATP. Glucose is the predominant source of brain ATP, but the direct effects of prolonged glucose deprivation on neuronal viability and function remain unclear. In sparse rat hippocampal microcultures, neurons were surprisingly resilient to 16 h glucose removal in the absence of secondary excitotoxicity. Neuronal survival and synaptic transmission were unaffected by prolonged removal of exogenous glucose. Inhibition of lactate transport decreased microculture neuronal survival during concurrent glucose deprivation, suggesting that endogenously released lactate is important for tolerance to glucose deprivation. Tandem depolarization and glucose deprivation also reduced neuronal survival, and trace glucose concentrations afforded neuroprotection. Mass cultures, in contrast to microcultures, were insensitive to depolarizing glucose deprivation, a difference attributable to increased extracellular lactate levels. Removal of local astrocyte support did not reduce survival in response to glucose deprivation or alter evoked excitatory transmission, suggesting that on-demand, local lactate shuttling is not necessary for neuronal tolerance to prolonged glucose removal. Taken together, these data suggest that endogenously produced lactate available globally in the extracellular milieu sustains neurons in the absence of glucose. A better understanding of resilience mechanisms in reduced preparations could lead to therapeutic strategies aimed to bolster these mechanisms in vulnerable neuronal populations. PMID:29617444

  16. Tolerance values of benthic macroinvertebrates for stream biomonitoring: assessment of assumptions underlying scoring systems worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Hsun; Lawrence, Justin E; Rios-Touma, Blanca; Resh, Vincent H

    2014-04-01

    Tolerance values (TVs) based on benthic macroinvertebrates are one of the most widely used tools for monitoring the biological impacts of water pollution, particularly in streams and rivers. We compiled TVs of benthic macroinvertebrates from 29 regions around the world to test 11 basic assumptions about pollution tolerance, that: (1) Arthropoda are macroinvertebrates macroinvertebrate taxa < Isopoda + Gastropoda + Hirudinea; (6) Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera (EPT) < Odonata + Coleoptera + Heteroptera (OCH); (7) EPT < non-EPT insects; (8) Diptera < Insecta; (9) Bivalvia < Gastropoda; (10) Baetidae < other Ephemeroptera; and (11) Hydropsychidae < other Trichoptera. We found that the first eight of these 11 assumptions were supported despite regional variability. In addition, we examined the effect of Best Professional Judgment (BPJ) and non-independence of TVs among countries by performing all analyses using subsets of the original dataset. These subsets included a group based on those systems using TVs that were derived from techniques other than BPJ, and groups based on methods used for TV assignment. The results obtained from these subsets and the entire dataset are similar. We also made seven a priori hypotheses about the regional similarity of TVs based on geography. Only one of these was supported. Development of TVs and the reporting of how they are assigned need to be more rigorous and be better described.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased growth, nutrient uptake and tolerance to salinity in olive trees under nursery conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Soriano, Andrés; Soriano-Martín, María Luisa; Porras-Piedra, Andrés; Azcón, Rosario

    2009-09-01

    Inoculating olive plantlets with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices or Glomus claroideum increased plant growth and the ability to acquire nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from non-saline as well as saline media. AMF-colonized plants also increased in survival rate after transplant. Osmotic stress caused by NaCl supply reduced stem diameter, number of shoots, shoot length and nutrients in olive plants, but AMF colonization alleviated all of these negative effects on growth. G. mosseae was the most efficient fungus in reducing the detrimental effects of salinity; it increased shoot growth by 163% and root growth by 295% in the non-saline medium, and by 239% (shoot) and by 468% (root) under the saline conditions. AMF colonization enhanced salt tolerance in terms of olive growth and nutrient acquisition. Mycorrhizal olive plants showed the lowest biomass reduction under salinity (34%), while growth was reduced by 78% in control plants. This G. mosseae effect seems to be due to increased K acquisition; K content was enhanced under salt conditions by 6.4-fold with G. mosseae, 3.4-fold with G. intraradices, and 3.7-fold with G. claroideum. Potassium, as the most prominent inorganic solute, plays a key role in the osmoregulation processes and the highest salinity tolerance of G. mosseae-colonized olive trees was concomitant with an enhanced K concentration in olive plants.

  18. Characteristic Analysis and Fault-Tolerant Control of Circulating Current for Modular Multilevel Converters under Sub-Module Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A modular multilevel converter (MMC is considered to be a promising topology for medium- or high-power applications. However, a significantly increased amount of sub-modules (SMs in each arm also increase the risk of failures. Focusing on the fault-tolerant operation issue for the MMC under SM faults, the operation characteristics of MMC with different numbers of faulty SMs in the arms are analyzed and summarized in this paper. Based on the characteristics, a novel circulating current-suppressing (CCS fault-tolerant control strategy comprised of a basic control unit (BCU and virtual resistance compensation control unit (VRCCU in two parts is proposed, which has three main features: (i it can suppress the multi-different frequency components of the circulating current under different SM fault types simultaneously; (ii it can help fast limiting of the transient fault current caused at the faulty SM bypassed moment; and (iii it does not need extra communication systems to acquire the information of the number of faulty SMs. Moreover, by analyzing the stability performance of the proposed controller using the Root-Locus criterion, the election principle of the value of virtual resistance is revealed. Finally, the efficiency of the control strategy is confirmed with the simulation and experiment studies under different fault conditions.

  19. Damage tolerance optimization of composite stringer run-out under tensile load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badalló, Pere; Trias, Daniel; Lindgaard, Esben

    2015-01-01

    . A parametric finite element model created with python was used to generate a number of different geometrical designs of the stringer run-out. The relevant information of these models was adjusted using Radial Basis Functions (RBF). Finally, the optimization problem was solved using Quasi-Newton method......Stringer run-outs are a common solution to achieve the necessary strength, stiffness and geometric requirements of some structural solutions. The mechanical behavior and complexity of such design details requires careful and thorough studies to ensure the structural integrity of the structure...... and Genetic Algorithms. In the solution process, the RBF were used to compute the objective function: ratio between the energy release rate and the critical energy release rate according to the Benzeggagh–Kenane mixed mode criterion. Some design guidelines to obtain a damage tolerant stringer-panel interface...

  20. Neuroadaptive Fault-Tolerant Control of Nonlinear Systems Under Output Constraints and Actuation Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Song, Yongduan; Shen, Zhixi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a neuroadaptive fault-tolerant tracking control method is proposed for a class of time-delay pure-feedback systems in the presence of external disturbances and actuation faults. The proposed controller can achieve prescribed transient and steady-state performance, despite uncertain time delays and output constraints as well as actuation faults. By combining a tangent barrier Lyapunov-Krasovskii function with the dynamic surface control technique, the neural network unit in the developed control scheme is able to take its action from the very beginning and play its learning/approximating role safely during the entire system operational envelope, leading to enhanced control performance without the danger of violating compact set precondition. Furthermore, prescribed transient performance and output constraints are strictly ensured in the presence of nonaffine uncertainties, external disturbances, and undetectable actuation faults. The control strategy is also validated by numerical simulation.

  1. Tolerance of glue embolization under local anesthesia in varicoceles: A comparative study of two different cyanoacrylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanlangenhove, Peter, E-mail: peter.vanlangenhove@uzgent.be [Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Everaert, Karel [Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Maele, Georges [Department of Statistics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Defreyne, Luc [Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To find out whether in varicocele embolization the copolymer cyanoacrylate glue (NBCA-MS) has a better patient tolerance compared to the monomer n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Materials and methods: N = 112 insufficient spermatic veins (left sided N = 84, right sided N = 28) diagnosed in N = 83 adult males were prospectively randomized for blinded embolization with either NBCA N = 54 (Histoacryl) or with NBCA-MS N = 58 (Glubran2). Before, during and up to one week after embolization, patient discomfort was assessed by a standardized pain scale. Type, location and side of discomfort were noted. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann–Whitney U-test, the McNemar test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: Embolization caused discomfort in N = 48/112 (43%) spermatic veins, comprising N = 26/54 (48%) in the NBCA group and N = 22/58 (38%) in the NBCA-MS group. During the week after embolization, the overall number of discomfort reports rose to N = 62/106 (59%), with an increase to N = 30/53 (57%) in the NBCA group and to N = 32/53 (60%) in the NBCA-MS group. The number of immediate grade 2 to 4 pain reactions was N = 22/112 (20%), and rose to N = 37/106 (35%) after one week. No difference in discomfort during embolization and at 1 week after treatment was noted. Characteristics, severity grading, and location of discomfort were similar in both NBCA groups, regardless the time point of observation. Conclusion: Discomfort after glue embolization of varicocele is a common side effect, which might evolve to pain. The assumed lower inflammatory reaction on NBCA-MS was not translated in an improved tolerance.

  2. Performance comparison between a solar driven rotary desiccant cooling system and conventional vapor compression system (performance study of desiccant cooling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, T.S.; Ziegler, F.; Wang, R.Z.; Wang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Solar driven rotary desiccant cooling systems have been widely recognized as alternatives to conventional vapor compression systems for their merits of energy-saving and being eco-friendly. In the previous paper, the basic performance features of desiccant wheel have been discussed. In this paper, a solar driven two-stage rotary desiccant cooling system and a vapor compression system are simulated to provide cooling for one floor in a commercial office building in two cities with different climates: Berlin and Shanghai. The model developed in the previous paper is adopted to predict the performance of the desiccant wheel. The objectives of this paper are to evaluate and compare the thermodynamic and economic performance of the two systems and to obtain useful data for practical application. Results show that the desiccant cooling system is able to meet the cooling demand and provide comfortable supply air in both of the two regions. The required regeneration temperatures are 55 deg. C in Berlin and 85 deg. C in Shanghai. As compared to the vapor compression system, the desiccant cooling system has better supply air quality and consumes less electricity. The results of the economic analysis demonstrate that the dynamic investment payback periods are 4.7 years in Berlin and 7.2 years in Shanghai.

  3. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes of chickpea under terminal drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain-legume crop that is mainly grown in rainfed areas, where terminal drought is a major constraint to its productivity. We generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) to identify differentially expressed genes in drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes in chickpea. Results EST libraries were generated by SSH from root and shoot tissues of IC4958 (drought tolerant) and ICC 1882 (drought resistant) exposed to terminal drought conditions by the dry down method. SSH libraries were also constructed by using 2 sets of bulks prepared from the RNA of root tissues from selected recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (10 each) for the extreme high and low root biomass phenotype. A total of 3062 unigenes (638 contigs and 2424 singletons), 51.4% of which were novel in chickpea, were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 5949 ESTs. Only 2185 (71%) unigenes showed significant BLASTX similarity (<1E-06) in the NCBI non-redundant (nr) database. Gene ontology functional classification terms (BLASTX results and GO term), were retrieved for 2006 (92.0%) sequences, and 656 sequences were further annotated with 812 Enzyme Commission (EC) codes and were mapped to 108 different KEGG pathways. In addition, expression status of 830 unigenes in response to terminal drought stress was evaluated using macro-array (dot blots). The expression of few selected genes was validated by northern blotting and quantitative real-time PCR assay. Conclusion Our study compares not only genes that are up- and down-regulated in a drought-tolerant genotype under terminal drought stress and a drought susceptible genotype but also between the bulks of the selected RILs exhibiting extreme phenotypes. More than 50% of the genes identified have been shown to be associated with drought stress in chickpea for the first time. This study not only serves as resource for marker discovery, but can provide

  4. Inversion 2La is associated with enhanced desiccation resistance in Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantini Carlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of malignant malaria in Africa, occupies a wide range of habitats. Environmental flexibility may be conferred by a number of chromosomal inversions non-randomly associated with aridity, including 2La. The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological mechanisms associated with the 2La inversion that may result in the preferential survival of its carriers in hygrically-stressful environments. Methods Two homokaryotypic populations of A. gambiae (inverted 2La and standard 2L+a were created from a parental laboratory colony polymorphic for 2La and standard for all other known inversions. Desiccation resistance, water, energy and dry mass of adult females of both populations were compared at several ages and following acclimation to a more arid environment. Results Females carrying 2La were significantly more resistant to desiccation than 2L+a females at emergence and four days post-emergence, for different reasons. Teneral 2La females had lower rates of water loss than their 2L+a counterparts, while at four days, 2La females had higher initial water content. No differences in desiccation resistance were found at eight days, with or without acclimation. However, acclimation resulted in both populations significantly reducing their rates of water loss and increasing their desiccation resistance. Acclimation had contrasting effects on the body characteristics of the two populations: 2La females boosted their glycogen stores and decreased lipids, whereas 2La females did the contrary. Conclusion Variation in rates of water loss and response to acclimation are associated with alternative arrangements of the 2La inversion. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these traits will help explain how inversion polymorphisms permit exploitation of a heterogeneous environment by this disease vector.

  5. Performance study of desiccant coated heat exchanger air conditioning system in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, T.S.; Dai, Y.J.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of desiccant coated heat exchanger AC system is predicted. • Effects of main operation parameters and climatic conditions are discussed. • Regeneration temperature of 30 °C is recommended under simulation condition. • Higher ambient humidity ratio results in increased humidity ratio of supply air. • Temperature of ambient air has neglectable effect on supply air. - Abstract: Conventional air source heat pump system faces several challenges when adopted in winter season. Solid desiccant air conditioning system can provide humidification and heating power simultaneously and can be driven by low grade thermal energy; it provides a good alternative for air source heat pump systems. However, conventional solid desiccant air conditioning system adopts desiccant wheel with high cost as core component, which hinders the development of such system. Recently, desiccant coated heat exchanger (DCHE) with low initial cost and high efficiency was developed and this paper aims to investigate performance of DCHE air conditioning system adopted in Shanghai winter season. Performance of the system is predicted by a developed mathematical model where supply air states, mass of humidification and coefficient of performance (COP) are adopted as performance indices to evaluate the feasibility and energy utilization ratio of the system. Effects of regeneration water temperature on system performance are analyzed. It is found that under the simulation condition, relatively low regeneration temperature (such as 20 °C) cannot meet the designed standard and relatively high regeneration temperature (such as 40 °C) provides too much extra heating power, thus moderate regeneration temperature around 30 °C is recommended. Meanwhile, switch time is a crucial operation parameter for the system to obtain satisfied supply air, switch time from 40 s to 80 s and from 70 s to 240 s are recommended for transient and average supply air states, respectively. Both

  6. Damage Tolerance of Pre-Stressed Composite Panels Under Impact Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alastair F.; Toso-Pentecôte, Nathalie; Schueler, Dominik

    2014-02-01

    An experimental test campaign studied the structural integrity of carbon fibre/epoxy panels preloaded in tension or compression then subjected to gas gun impact tests causing significant damage. The test programme used representative composite aircraft fuselage panels composed of aerospace carbon fibre toughened epoxy prepreg laminates. Preload levels in tension were representative of design limit loads for fuselage panels of this size, and maximum compression preloads were in the post-buckle region. Two main impact scenarios were considered: notch damage from a 12 mm steel cube projectile, at velocities in the range 93-136 m/s; blunt impact damage from 25 mm diameter glass balls, at velocities 64-86 m/s. The combined influence of preload and impact damage on panel residual strengths was measured and results analysed in the context of damage tolerance requirements for composite aircraft panels. The tests showed structural integrity well above design limit loads for composite panels preloaded in tension and compression with visible notch impact damage from hard body impact tests. However, blunt impact tests on buckled compression loaded panels caused large delamination damage regions which lowered plate bending stiffness and reduced significantly compression strengths in buckling.

  7. Proteome analysis of dormancy-released seeds of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. in response to re-dehydration under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Di; Shen, Hailong; Li, Yuhua; Nie, Yuzhe

    2015-03-02

    Desiccation tolerance is the ability of orthodox seeds to achieve equilibrium with atmospheric relative humidity and to survive in this state. Understanding how orthodox seeds respond to dehydration is important for improving quality and long-term storage of seeds under low temperature and drought stress conditions. Long-term storage of seeds is an artificial situation, because in most natural situations a seed that has been shed may not remain in a desiccated state for very long, and if dormant it may undergo repeated cycles of hydration. Different types of seeds are differentially sensitive to desiccation and this directly affects long-term storage. For these reasons, many researchers are investigating loss of desiccation tolerance during orthodox seed development to understand how it is acquired. In this study, the orthodox seed proteome response of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. to dehydration (to a relative water content of 10%, which mimics seed dehydration) was investigated under four different conditions viz. 20 °C; 20 °C with silica gel; 1 °C; and 1 °C after pretreatment with Ca2+. Proteins from seeds dehydrated under different conditions were extracted and separated by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). A total of 2919 protein spots were detected, and high-resolution 2D-DIGE indicated there were 27 differentially expressed. Seven of these were identified using MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Inferences from bioinformatics annotations of these proteins established the possible involvement of detoxifying enzymes, transport proteins, and nucleotide metabolism enzymes in response to dehydration. Of the seven differentially abundant proteins, the amounts of six were down-regulated and one was up-regulated. Also, a putative acyl-coenzyme A oxidase of the glyoxylate cycle increased in abundance. In particular, the presence of kinesin-1, a protein important for regulation and cargo interaction, was up-regulated in seeds exposed to low

  8. Evaluation of Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. To Freezing Tolerance Under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nezami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the freezing tolerance in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., seven cultivars (Suprema, Jolge, Monotunno, Giada, PP8, SBSI1, Palma were exposed to the 10 temperatures (0, -2, -4, -6, -8, -10, -12, -14, -16 and -18˚C .The study carried out as a factorial arrangement of treatments based on randomized completely design with three replications at College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2009. Plants were kept until 4-5 leaf stage in natural environment at early autumn, then transferred to the thermogradient freezer. No. of leaf, leaf area, leaf dry weight, survival percentage, lethal temperature 50 according to the survival percentage (LT50su and reduced dry matter temperature 50 (RDMT50 were determined after 21 days (end of recovery duration. Results showed that by reduction of temperature No. of leaf, leaf area and its dry weight significantly decreased. Amounts of LT50su between the cultivars were significantly different. Monotunno with LT50su -16.9˚C was more cold hardly than others and PP8 and SBSI1 with LT50su -15.2˚C were susceptible to the freezing temperatures. Decreasing temperature below -14˚C reduced survival percentage in all cultivars. PP8 and SBSI1 cultivars perished completely at -16˚C while others like Suprema and Monotunno had high survival percentage, but all of them killed at -18˚C.Correlation between RDMT50 and LT50su was high but not significant. However there was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.99** between LT50su and survival percentage.

  9. Active Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis and Product Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    The Phase 1 report (ORNL/Sub/94-SVO44/1), completed earlier in this program, involved a comprehensive field survey and market analysis comparing various specialized outdoor air handling units. This initial investigation included conventional cooling and reheat, conventional cooling with sensible recovery, total energy recovery systems (passive desiccant technology) and various active desiccant systems. The report concluded that several markets do promise a significant sales opportunity for a Climate Changer-based active desiccant system offering. (Climate Changer is a registered trademark of Trane Company.) This initial market analysis defined the wants and needs of the end customers (design engineers and building owners), which, along with subsequent information included in this report, have been used to guide the determination of the most promising active desiccant system configurations. This Phase 2 report begins with a summary of a more thorough investigation of those specific markets identified as most promising for active desiccant systems. Table 1 estimates the annual sales potential for a cost-effective product line of active desiccant systems, such as that built from Climate Changer modules. The Product Development Strategy section describes the active desiccant system configurations chosen to best fit the needs of the marketplace while minimizing system options. Key design objectives based on market research are listed in this report for these active desiccant systems. Corresponding performance goals for the dehumidification wheel required to meet the overall system design objectives are also defined. The Performance Modeling section describes the strategy used by SEMCO to design the dehumidification wheels integrated into the prototype systems currently being tested as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Desiccant Technology Program. Actual performance data from wheel testing was used to revise the system performance and energy analysis

  10. Tolerance of different rice genotypes (oryza sativa l.) against the infestation of rice stem borers under natural field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Nasrullah; Tofique, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present studies report the genotypic responses of 61 rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (35 aromatic and 26 non aromatic) against the infestation of rice stem borers under natural field conditions. The data obtained on these genotypes on larval infestation in combination with yield were the criteria to assess the resistance depicted by them. The studies showed that among aromatic genotypes, 'Khushboo-95' gave the best yield of grain and harboured the least pest infestation (2.81% dead hearts and 1.85% white heads); on the other hand variety 'Sonahri Sugdasi (P)' harboured the highest borers attack (10.37% and 19.30%) and yielded the lowest grain yield. Regarding non-aromatic genotypes, IR8-2.5-11 received least infestation (1.32% and 0.26% dead hearts and white heads, respectively) generating highest yield showing its tolerance to borer's attack, in contrast, genotype IR6-252 harboured the highest infestation (5.65%, 4.28%) and yielded minimum grain indicating its susceptibility. These results demonstrate the expression of resistance gene in the genome of tolerant rice genotypes that can provide season-long protection from the natural infestation of insect pests. (author)

  11. Physiological ecology of larval muskellunge and norlunge: temperature tolerance and growth rates under hatchery conditions. [Esox masquinongy, E. lucius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    Critical Thermal Maxima (CTM) and growth rates of larval muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) and norlunge (E. masquinongy female x E. lucius male) were determined under hatchery conditions. Two groups of fish were maintained at ambient water temperatures with natural photoperiod. Weekly water samples were collected to monitor the troughs. Parameters measured were dissolved oxygen, pH, and ammonia which were within normal limits. Norlunge had higher temperature tolerance and developed faster than muskellunge. CTM of larval norlunge (30.9/sup 0/ to 36.0/sup 0/C, anti X = 34.0/sup 0/C) were significantly different (P< 0.01) from those of muskellunge (29.9/sup 0/ to 35.6/sup 0/C, anti X = 32.8/sup 0/C). Both species exhibited a sharp decrease in CTM during swim-up, followed by a slow recovery period indicated by a general increase in CTM values. Both species steadily increased in length during development. Weight remained stable through swim-up, decreased with absorption of the yolk sac and then increased as the fry began to feed. The results obtained in this study indicate that both age and past thermal history had a significant effect on the temperature tolerance of muskellunge and norlunge fry.

  12. Experimental study on solar desiccant cooling system. 2nd Report; Taiyonetsu kudo desiccant cooling system no jikkenteki kento. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H.; Funato, H. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Kuma, T. [Seibu Giken Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Study has been made about a desiccant cleaning system using solar heated water for regenerating the dehumidifier. A dehumidifier and evaporation coolers are combined to attain a synergistic effect in dehumidifying and cooling the air in the house. The simultaneous control of humidity and temperature, however, is quite difficult. Under the circumstances, an evaporation cooler was removed from the outdoor air intake side, to leave a humidifier alone for the control of humidity only. In addition, the length of the dehumidifier was reduced into half for saving fan driving power and for downscaling the model. With only one evaporation cooler in operation that is installed at the exhaust side, the cooling effect is diminished by half. For dealing with the situation, ultrasonic atomization is performed at the exhaust side evaporation cooler for the improvement of the air cooling effect for the next sensible heat exchanger (intake side). The return air is heated by the solar heater water (approximately 60{degree}C hot), regenerates the dehumidifier, and then exhausted. The atomization process elevates the cooling effect, and the resultant cooling effect was as high as that expected from a 2-cooler setup. The dehumidification effect, however, lowers a little. Exclusion of the atomization process will enhance the dehumidification effect, but will reduce the cooling effect as well. 3 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Simulation Analysis of the Four Configurations of Solar Desiccant Cooling System Using Evaporative Cooling in Tropical Weather in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. S. Dezfouli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A high demand for air conditioning systems exists in hot and humid regions because of the warm climate during the year. The high energy consumption of conventional air conditioning system is the reason for our investigation of the solar desiccant cooling system as an energy-efficient cooling system. Four model configurations were considered to determine the best configuration of a solar desiccant cooling system: one-stage ventilation, one-stage recirculation, two-stage ventilation, and two-stage recirculation. These models were stimulated for 8,760 hr of operation under hot and humid weather in Malaysia. Several parameters (i.e., coefficient of performance or COP, room temperature and humidity ratio, and the solar fraction of each system were evaluated by detecting the temperature and humidity ratio of the different points of each configuration by TRNSYS simulation. The latent and sensible loads of the test room were 0.875 kW and 2.625 kW, respectively. By investigating the simulation results of the four systems, the ventilation modes were found to be higher than the recirculation modes in the one- and two-stage solar desiccant cooling systems. The isothermal dehumidification COP of the two-stage ventilation was higher than that of the two-stage recirculation. Hence, the two-stage ventilation mode desiccant cooling system in a hot and humid area has higher efficiency than the other configurations.

  14. Numerical and experimental analysis of a solid desiccant wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koronaki Irene P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotary desiccant dehumidifier is an important component which can be used in air conditioning systems in order to reduce the electrical energy consumption and introduce renewable energy sources. In this study a one dimensional gas side resistance model is presented for predicting the performance of the desiccant wheel. Measurements from two real sorption wheels are used in order to validate the model. One wheel uses silica gel as desiccant material and the other lithium chloride. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The model is used to compare the counter flow with the co-current wheel arrangements and to explain why the counter flow one is more efficient for air dehumidification.

  15. Regulation of glutamine synthetase isoforms in two differentially drought-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars under water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kamal Krishna; Ghosh, Shilpi

    2013-02-01

    KEY MESSAGE : The regulation of GS isoforms by WD was organ specific. Two GS isoforms i.e. OsGS1;1 and OsGS2 were differentially regulated in IR-64 (drought-sensitive) and Khitish (drought-tolerant) cultivars of rice. Water deficit (WD) has adverse effect on rice (Oryza sativa L.) and acclimation requires essential reactions of primary metabolism to continue. Rice plants utilize ammonium as major nitrogen source, which is assimilated into glutamine by the reaction of Glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2). Rice plants possess one gene (OsGS2) for chloroplastic GS2 and three genes (OsGS1;1, OsGS1;2 and OsGS1;3) for cytosolic GS1. Here, we report the effect of WD on regulation of GS isoforms in drought-sensitive (cv. IR-64) and drought-tolerant (cv. Khitish) rice cultivars. Under WD, total GS activity in root and leaf decreased significantly in IR-64 seedlings in comparison to Khitish seedlings. The reduced GS activity in IR-64 leaf was mainly due to decrease in GS2 activity, which correlated with decrease in corresponding transcript and polypeptide contents. GS1 transcript and polypeptide accumulated in leaf during WD, however, GS1 activity was maintained at a constant level. Total GS activity in stem of both the varieties was insensitive to WD. Among GS1 genes, OsGS1;1 expression was differently regulated by WD in the two rice varieties. Its transcript accumulated more abundantly in IR-64 leaf than in Khitish leaf. Following WD, OsGS1;1 mRNA level in stem and root tissues declined in IR-64 and enhanced in Khitish. A steady OsGS1;2 expression patterns were noted in leaf, stem and root of both the cultivars. Results suggest that OsGS2 and OsGS1;1 expression may contribute to drought tolerance of Khitish cultivar under WD conditions.

  16. Screening for drought tolerance: comparison of maize hybrids under water deficit condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurban Ali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maize is an important cereal crop, grown throughout the globe for human food and livestock feed, but biotic and abiotic factors had shown adverse effects on biomass and grain yield. Changing climatic conditions have imposed drought (water scarcity as a major problem to combat with yield losses and biomass in maize and other cereals. Methods: The prescribed study was conducted to evaluate F1 hybrids at seedling subject to 45% moisture level. The data was recorded and subjected to multivariate analysis to find the significant variation attributed by various traits under stress conditions for efficient root/shoot development. Results: Significant differences were found in F1 hybrids for all studied traits. Higher heritability was found for root length, shoot length and fresh shoot weight, while fresh shoot weight, dry shoot weight and dry root weight showed higher genetic advance. Significant correlation was found for dry root weight to fresh shoot length and fresh root length, fresh root weight to fresh root/shoot weight ratio and fresh shoot weight. The hybrids Sh-139×B-316, Raka-poshi×B-316, B-327×B-316, Sh-139×EV-340, EV-1097Q×EV-347, EV-1097Q×EV-340, EV-1097Q×Pop/209 and B-327×EV-340 showed higher and positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis for most of the studied traits. To assess the overall variation on dependent structure, we used multivariate analysis, an important tool in breeding program, for efficient selection. Conclusions: EV-1097Q×Pop/209 and Sh-139×EV-340 showed significant results for root and shoot development under various water stress regimes at seedling stage, thus further studies should be carried out to find out the known and un-known loci regarding root and shoot development traits in high yielding maize cultivars under arid/semi-arid regions.

  17. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  18. Comparative study of wild and transformed salt tolerant bacterial strains on Triticum aestivum growth under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Afrasayab

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven salt tolerant bacteria isolated from different sources (soil, plants and their transformed strains were used to study their influence on Triticum aestivum var. Inqlab-91 growth under salt (100 mM NaCl stress. Salt stress caused reduction in germination (19.4%, seedling growth (46% and fresh weight (39% in non-inoculated plants. In general, both wild and transformed strains stimulated germination, seedling growth and fresh weight in salt free and salt stressed conditions. At 100 mM NaCl, Staphylococcus xylosus ST-1 caused 25% increments in seedling length over respective control. Soluble protein content significantly enhanced (49% under salt stress as compared to salt free control. At 100 mM NaCl parental strain PT-5 resulted about 32% enhancement in protein content over respective control treatment. Salt stress induced the promotion of auxin content in seedlings. Overall, Bacillus subtilis HAa2 and transformed E. coli-SP-7-T, caused 33% and 30% increases in auxin content, respectively, were recorded under salt stress in comparison to control.

  19. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required. 2016 FRAME.

  20. Desiccation of sludges as instruments for solid radioactive wastes reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.

    2003-01-01

    In order to maintain as well as possible and optimize use of the radioactive waste storage capacity of El Carbil ENRESA and the Electric Sector put a series of actions into motion in 1994 to reduce and optimize radioactive waste processing. As a result of this strategy, a moist waste desiccation system has been developed with Spanish technology by ENSA. This system was installed in Trillo NPP in 2001 and has operated satisfactorily for the past year, having significantly reduced the volume of waste generated by evaporator concentrates. This article describes the objectives, design and implementation of the desiccation system installed in Trillo NPP. (Author)

  1. Advances in open-cycle solid desiccant cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, T R; Maclaine-cross, I

    1985-05-01

    Of the solar cooling options available open cycle solid desiccant cooling looks very promising. A brief review of the experimental and analytical efforts to date shows that within the last 10 years thermal performance has doubled. Research centers have been developed to explore new materials and geometry options and to improve and validate mathematical models that can be used by design engineers to develop new product lines. Typical results from the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Desiccant Cooling Research Program are shown. Innovative ideas for new cycles and spinoff benefits provide incentives to continue research in this promising field.

  2. Moving Advanced Desiccant Materials into Mainstream Non-CFC Cooling Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, J R [ORNL; Grossman, G [ORNL; Rice, C K [ORNL; Fairchild, P D [ORNL; Gross, I L [Engelhard/ICC

    1994-01-01

    Desiccant air-conditioning systems can be used as alternatives for conventional air-conditioning equipment in any commercial or residential building. Recent breakthroughs in desiccant materials technology and the creation of new markets by Indoor Air Quality issues make desiccant-based air-conditioning equipment practical for many space-conditioning applications.

  3. Screening of sesame ecotypes (Sesamum indicum L. for salinity tolerance under field conditions: 1-Phenological and morphological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fazeli Kakhki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most restrictions in plant growth in dry and semi dry land which effects production of many crops such as sesame. In order to study the phenology and morphology characteristics of 43 ecotypes and line of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under salinity of irrigation water (5.2 dS.m-1 a field experiment was conducted at research farm of center of excellence for special crops, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010 based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that four sesame ecotypes could not emerge, 14 sesame ecotypes had appropriate emergence but died before reproductive stage and only 58 % of sesame ecotypes could alive until maturity. There was significant difference between sesame ecotypes for phenological stages and were varied from 64 to 81 days for vegetative and 60 to 65 days for reproductive stages. Plant height, number and length of branches also were different between sesame ecotypes. The highest and the lowest plant height were observed in MSC43 and MSC12 ecotypes, respectively. Number of branches per plant was from 1 to 8 and length of branches in 32 percent of ecotypes was more than 100 cm. There was a considerable correlation between seed weight in plant with reproductive growth (r=0.38** and plant height (r=0.25. In addition different response of sesame ecotypes to saline water and also better morphological indices in some sesame ecotypes may be show the tolerance of these accessions to salinity. More studies may be useful for selection of sesame salt tolerance resources.

  4. Limitations to the Dutch cannabis toleration policy: Assumptions underlying the reclassification of cannabis above 15% THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laar, Margriet; Van Der Pol, Peggy; Niesink, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug. In 2011, an advisory committee recommended tightening up legislation, leading to a 2013 bill proposing the reclassification of high potency cannabis products with a THC content of 15% or more as a Schedule I drug. The purpose of this measure was twofold: to reduce public health risks and to reduce illegal cultivation and export of cannabis by increasing punishment. This paper focuses on the public health aspects and describes the (explicit and implicit) assumptions underlying this '15% THC measure', as well as to what extent these are supported by scientific research. Based on scientific literature and other sources of information, we conclude that the 15% measure can provide in theory a slight health benefit for specific groups of cannabis users (i.e., frequent users preferring strong cannabis, purchasing from coffee shops, using 'steady quantities' and not changing their smoking behaviour), but certainly not for all cannabis users. These gains should be weighed against the investment in enforcement and the risk of unintended (adverse) effects. Given the many assumptions and uncertainty about the nature and extent of the expected buying and smoking behaviour changes, the measure is a political choice and based on thin evidence. Copyright © 2016 Springer. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing water stress tolerance improves fitness in biological control strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in plant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Badosa, Esther; Francés, Jesús; Montesinos, Emilio; Bonaterra, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum strains PM411 and TC92 can efficiently control bacterial plant diseases, but their fitness on the plant surface is limited under unfavourable low relative humidity (RH) conditions. To increase tolerance of these strains to water stress, an adaptive strategy was used consisting of hyperosmotic and acidic conditions during growth. Adapted cells had higher survival rates under desiccation than non-adapted cells. Transcript levels and patterns of general stress-related genes increased immediately after the combined-stress adaptation treatment, and remained unaltered or repressed during the desiccation challenge. However, there were differences between strains in the transcription patterns that were in agreement with a better performance of adapted cells of PM411 than TC92 in plant surfaces under low RH environmental conditions. The combined-stress adaptation treatment increased the survival of PM411 cells consistently in different plant hosts in the greenhouse and under field conditions. Stress-adapted cells of PM411 had similar biocontrol potential against bacterial plant pathogens than non-adapted cells, but with less variability within experiments.

  6. Enhancing water stress tolerance improves fitness in biological control strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in plant environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Daranas

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum strains PM411 and TC92 can efficiently control bacterial plant diseases, but their fitness on the plant surface is limited under unfavourable low relative humidity (RH conditions. To increase tolerance of these strains to water stress, an adaptive strategy was used consisting of hyperosmotic and acidic conditions during growth. Adapted cells had higher survival rates under desiccation than non-adapted cells. Transcript levels and patterns of general stress-related genes increased immediately after the combined-stress adaptation treatment, and remained unaltered or repressed during the desiccation challenge. However, there were differences between strains in the transcription patterns that were in agreement with a better performance of adapted cells of PM411 than TC92 in plant surfaces under low RH environmental conditions. The combined-stress adaptation treatment increased the survival of PM411 cells consistently in different plant hosts in the greenhouse and under field conditions. Stress-adapted cells of PM411 had similar biocontrol potential against bacterial plant pathogens than non-adapted cells, but with less variability within experiments.

  7. The effect of Piriformospora indica inoculation on salt and drought stress tolerance in Stevia rebaudiana under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Seraj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Piriformospora indica under salt and drought stresses on some vegetative characteristics and physiological parameters of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni medicinal plant, an experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replicates at Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute in Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. Factors include three levels of osmatic potential (0, -5, and -10 bar and with three osmotic sources including NaCl (Na, Mannitol (M and NaCl+Mannitol (N+M and inoculation of mycorrhizae like fungi at two levels (non-inoculated and inoculation with fungi. The plantlets were treated for 30 days and then some morphological and physiological parameters were measured. Results of ANOVA showed that there was a significant interaction between osmatic source and levels with fungi inoculation for the most determined parameters. Inoculation of stevia plantlets with P. indica at osmatic level of -5 bar caused either by M or M+Na markedly improved dry weight of leaf (112 and 156%, respectively and aerial parts (49 and 144%, respectively as compared to the uninoculated control. Fungi inoculation positively improved vegetative parameters of stevia plant under most osmatic levels and sources. The most ameliorate effect, however, was observed where M as drought stress or M+Na were adjusted to -5 bar. Therefore, the results of this study represented a positive effect of P. indica inoculation in inproving osmotic tolerance of stevia medicinal plant.

  8. Drought tolerance acquisition in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.): a research on plant morphology, physiology and proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Ana Elisa; Irar, Sami; Majada, Juan P; Rodríguez, Ana; Fernández, Belén; Pagès, Montserrat

    2013-02-21

    Plants perceiving drought stress activate multiple responses to synchronise developmental and molecular activities aimed at improving survival. In this study we attained a multidisciplinary approach to examine the interplay among plant morphology, physiology and proteomics for understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptive response to drought stress. The stress-related phenotype, the differential expression of putative members of the LEA family of proteins, the seed proteomic profile, and the endogenous content of free and conjugated abscisic acid (ABA and ABAGE) were analysed in two Eucalyptus globulus provenances with contrasting drought tolerance. Differences in morphology were noticeable, drought-tolerant genotypes displaying smaller seeds with higher desiccation in the mature state and a more developed root system that was not reduced under water stress treatments. From physiological and molecular points of view, the endogenous contents of ABA and ABAGE were also higher in the tolerant provenance, as well as the accumulation of proteins involved in abiotic stress tolerance processes. In addition, evidence of two immunologically-related proteins to the maize RAB17 and RAB28 proteins is first reported in Eucalyptus, showing similarities between species. Our results show that E. globulus displays simultaneous adjustments for acquiring drought tolerance that are expressed at physiological, developmental and molecular levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of a diffusion model to measure ion leakage of resurrection plant leaves undergoing desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailova, Gergana; Kocheva, Konstantina; Goltsev, Vasilij; Kalaji, Hazem M; Georgieva, Katya

    2018-04-01

    Haberlea rhodopensis is a chlorophyll-retaining resurrection plant, which can survive desiccation to air dry state under both low light and sunny environments. Maintaining the integrity of the membrane during dehydration of resurrection plants is extremely important. In the present study, the diffusion model was improved and used for a first time to evaluate the changes in ion leakage through different cellular compartments upon desiccation of H. rhodopensis and to clarify the reasons for significant increase of electrolyte leakage from dry leaves. The applied diffusion approach allowed us to distinguish the performance of plants subjected to dehydration and subsequent rehydration under different light intensities. Well-hydrated (control) shade plants had lower and slower electrolyte leakage compared to control sun plants as revealed by lower values of phase amplitudes, lower rate constants and ion concentration. In well-hydrated and moderately dehydrated plants (50% relative water content, RWC) ion efflux was mainly due to leakage from apoplast. The electrolyte leakage sharply increased in severely desiccated leaves (8% RWC) from both sun and shade plants mainly due to ion efflux from symplast. After 1 day of rehydration the electrolyte leakage was close to control values, indicating fast recovery of plants. We suggest that the enhanced leakage in air-dried leaves should not be considered as damage but rather as a survival mechanism based on a reversible modification in the structure of cell wall, plasma membrane and alterations in vacuolar system of the cells. However, further studies should be conducted to investigate the changes in cell wall/plasma membrane to support this conclusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Desiccant wheels for air humidification: An experimental and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Antonellis, Stefano; Intini, Manuel; Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Molinaroli, Luca; Romano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of desiccant wheel to humidify an air stream is investigated. • Air humidification is obtained by extracting water vapour from outdoor air. • Experimental tests in winter humidification conditions are performed. • The design of the proposed humidification system is numerically analyzed. • Effects of boundary conditions on humidification capacity are investigated. - Abstract: In this work the use of a desiccant wheel for air humidification is investigated through a numerical and experimental approach. In the proposed humidification system, water vapour is adsorbed from outdoor environment and it is released directly to the air stream supplied to the building. Such a system can be an interesting alternative to steam humidifiers in hospitals or, more generally, in applications where air contamination is a critical issue and therefore adiabatic humidifiers are not allowed. Performance of the proposed system is deeply investigated and optimal values of desiccant wheel configuration parameters are discussed. It is shown that in the investigated conditions, which are representative of Southern Europe winter climate, the system can properly match the latent load of the building. Finally, power consumption referred to the primary source of the proposed humidification system is compared to the one of steam humidifiers. The present analysis is carried out through experimental tests of a desiccant wheel in winter humidification conditions and through a phenomenological model of the device, based on heat and mass transfer equations.

  11. Survival of methanogens during desiccation: implications for life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Michael G; Kral, Timothy A

    2006-08-01

    The relatively recent discoveries that liquid water likely existed on the surface of past Mars and that methane currently exists in the martian atmosphere have fueled the possibility of extant or extinct life on Mars. One possible explanation for the existence of the methane would be the presence of methanogens in the subsurface. Methanogens are microorganisms in the domain Archaea that can metabolize molecular hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a carbon source and produce methane. One factor of importance is the arid nature of Mars, at least at the surface. If one is to assume that life exists below the surface, then based on the only example of life that we know, liquid water must be present. Realistically, however, that liquid water may be seasonal just as it is at some locations on our home planet. Here we report on research designed to determine how long certain species of methanogens can survive desiccation on a Mars soil simulant, JSC Mars-1. Methanogenic cells were grown on JSC Mars-1, transferred to a desiccator within a Coy anaerobic environmental chamber, and maintained there for varying time periods. Following removal from the desiccator and rehydration, gas chromatographic measurements of methane indicated survival for varying time periods. Methanosarcina barkeri survived desiccation for 10 days, while Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanothermobacter wolfeii were able to survive for 25 days.

  12. Soil desiccation cracks as a suction–contraction process

    KAUST Repository

    Cordero, J. A.

    2017-10-05

    Recent macro- and particle-scale advances in unsaturated soil behaviour have led to an enhanced understanding of the effects of moisture changes on soil response. This research examines desiccation cracks as a suction–contraction-coupled process using sand–clay mixtures. Suction–moisture measurements highlight the role of fines on suction potential even at low fines content; on the other hand, oedometer tests exhibit a marked transition from sand-controlled to clay-controlled compressibility. Time-lapse photography of desiccation tests in flat trays show the onset of crack initiation and the subsequent evolution in horizontal strains; concurrent gravimetric water content measurements relate crack nucleation to suction at air entry. Suction and compressibility increase with the soil-specific surface and have a compounded effect on desiccation-driven lateral contraction. Both layer thickness and its lateral extent affect the development of desiccation cracks. The recently proposed revised soil classification system properly anticipates the transitions in compressibility and capillary phenomena observed in this study (between 15 and 35% fines content).

  13. Soy desiccants herbicides acting in nematode populations on community land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Baiochi Riboldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbicides is the main method of weed control in soybeans. Desiccants are also being used routinely to anticipate the harvest and / or minimize the deterioration of seed quality. There is the possibility of direct or indirect contact with such pesticides, affect the community of nematodes in the soil. However, such effects and their magnitudes are yet to be clarified, especially in the case of selective herbicides. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of selective herbicides in soybean on nematodes harmful to the crop. The experiment was conducted with transgenic soybean (‘M-SOY 7908RR’. The experimental design was a randomized block design with the following treatments: paraquat (400 g a.i ha-1, diquat (200 g a.i ha-1, a mixture of paraquat and diquat (300 + 150 g a.i ha-1, two doses of carfentrazone ethyl (20 g a.i ha-1 and 30 g a.i ha-1 and control (without desiccant application. The nematode community in the area was monitored in four periods. In none of those was found significant variation in the populations of nematodes harmful to soybeans, due to the application of any of desiccants. However, especially in the last sampling time, the desiccant application always resulted in increased populations of free-living nematodes and parasites those considered weak for soybean.

  14. High frequency plant regeneration from desiccated calli of indica rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and reproducible protocol is required to achieve high frequency transformation from transformed calli. We report here high frequency plant regeneration from mature seed derived embryogenic calli of two recalcitrant indica rice cultivars HKR-46 and HKR-126 after partial desiccation treatment. Embryogenic and ...

  15. Simulation of potential standalone liquid desiccant cooling cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Rajat Subhra; Jain, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    LDCS (Liquid desiccant cooling systems), capable of achieving dehumidification and cooling with low-grade heat input, can be effectively used for treating fresh air in hot and humid regions. These can also be operated using non-concentrating solar collectors. The present study is concerned with the evaluation of various potential liquid desiccant cycles for tropical climatic conditions. Six potential standalone liquid desiccant cycles are identified and analyzed to select the best configuration for achieving thermal comfort. A computer simulation model is developed in EES (Equation Solver) software platform to evaluate the performance of all the cycles at various operating conditions. Aqueous solution of LiCl (lithium chloride) is used as desiccant. Mass and energy balance equations of all the components along with their effectiveness and LiCl property correlation equations are solved simultaneously for given ambient conditions. As the desiccant circuit is a closed loop, no assumptions are made about its concentration and temperature in the algorithm. Supply air conditions, cooling capacity, COP (capacity and coefficient of performance) and CR (circulation rate) per unit cooling capacity and hot water temperature requirement are used as a measure for analyzing the performance of the different cycles. The effect of hot water temperature on the performance of the cycles is evaluated at ARI conditions. The performances of the cycles are also evaluated for cities selected from each of the climatic zone of India that represent typical tropical climates. Although all the cycles are feasible at ARI and hot and dry conditions, only two cycles can achieve the selected indoor conditions in the peak humid conditions. The results would be useful for selecting suitable liquid desiccant cycle for a given climate. - Highlights: • Six potential standalone liquid desiccant cycles identified and analyzed to select best configuration. • A computer simulation model is developed in

  16. Overexpression of a pea DNA helicase (PDH45) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) confers improvement of cellular level tolerance and productivity under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjulatha, M; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Kumar, A Manoj; Sudhakar, Chinta; Prasad, T G; Tuteja, Narendra; Udayakumar, M

    2014-02-01

    Peanut, a major edible oil seed crop globally is predominantly grown under rainfed conditions and suffers yield losses due to drought. Development of drought-tolerant varieties through transgenic technology is a valid approach. Besides superior water relation traits like water mining, intrinsic cellular level tolerance mechanisms are important to sustain the growth under stress. To achieve this objective, the focus of this study was to pyramid drought adaptive traits by overexpressing a stress responsive helicase, PDH45 in the background of a genotype with superior water relations. PCR, Southern, and RT-PCR analyses confirmed stable integration and expression of the PDH45 gene in peanut transgenics. At the end of T₃ generation, eight transgenic events were identified as promising based on stress tolerance and improvement in productivity. Several transgenic lines showed stay-green phenotype and increased chlorophyll stability under stress and reduced chlorophyll retardation under etherel-induced simulated stress conditions. Stress-induced root growth was also substantially higher in the case of transformants. This was reflected in increased WUE (low Δ¹³C) and improved growth rates and productivity. The transgenics showed 17.2 and 26.75 % increase in yield under non-stress and stress conditions over wild type ascertaining the feasibility of trait pyramiding strategy for the development of drought-tolerant peanut.

  17. Growth under visible light increases conidia and mucilage production and tolerance to UV-B radiation in the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Henrique D; Massola, Nelson S; Flint, Stephan D; Silva, Geraldo J; Bachmann, Luciano; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto U L

    2015-01-01

    Light conditions can influence fungal development. Some spectral wavebands can induce conidial production, whereas others can kill the conidia, reducing the population size and limiting dispersal. The plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose in several crops. During the asexual stage on the host plant, Colletototrichum produces acervuli with abundant mucilage-embedded conidia. These conidia are responsible for fungal dispersal and host infection. This study examined the effect of visible light during C. acutatum growth on the production of conidia and mucilage and also on the UV tolerance of these conidia. Conidial tolerance to an environmentally realistic UV irradiance was determined both in conidia surrounded by mucilage on sporulating colonies and in conidial suspension. Exposures to visible light during fungal growth increased production of conidia and mucilage as well as conidial tolerance to UV. Colonies exposed to light produced 1.7 times more conidia than colonies grown in continuous darkness. The UV tolerances of conidia produced under light were at least two times higher than conidia produced in the dark. Conidia embedded in the mucilage on sporulating colonies were more tolerant of UV than conidia in suspension that were washed free of mucilage. Conidial tolerance to UV radiation varied among five selected isolates. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. Effects of saturation deficit on desiccation resistance and water balance in seasonal populations of the tropical drosophilid Zaprionus indianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bhawna; Parkash, Ravi

    2016-10-15

    Seasonally varying populations of ectothermic insect taxa from a given locality are expected to cope with simultaneous changes in temperature and humidity through phenotypic plasticity. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of saturation deficit on resistance to desiccation in wild-caught flies from four seasons (spring, summer, rainy and autumn) and corresponding flies reared in the laboratory under season-specific simulated temperature and humidity growth conditions. Flies raised under summer conditions showed approximately three times higher desiccation resistance and increased levels of cuticular lipids compared with flies raised in rainy season conditions. In contrast, intermediate trends were observed for water balance-related traits in flies reared under spring or autumn conditions but trait values overlapped across these two seasons. Furthermore, a threefold difference in saturation deficit (an index of evaporative water loss due to a combined thermal and humidity effect) between summer (27.5 mB) and rainy (8.5 mB) seasons was associated with twofold differences in the rate of water loss. Higher dehydration stress due to a high saturation deficit in summer is compensated by storage of higher levels of energy metabolite (trehalose) and cuticular lipids, and these traits correlated positively with desiccation resistance. In Z. indianus, the observed changes in desiccation-related traits due to plastic effects of simulated growth conditions correspond to similar changes exhibited by seasonal wild-caught flies. Our results show that developmental plastic effects under ecologically relevant thermal and humidity conditions can explain seasonal adaptations for water balance-related traits in Z. indianus and are likely to be associated with its invasive potential. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Natural variation underlies alterations in NRAT1 expression and function that play a key role in rice aluminum tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint for crop production on acid soils which comprise approximately 40% of arable land in the tropics and subtropics. Rice is the most Al tolerant cereal crop, and offers a good model for identifying Al tolerance genes and mechanisms. Here we investigated natu...

  20. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation technology relies on removal of water from a portion of the subsurface such that the resultant low moisture conditions inhibit downward movement of water and dissolved contaminants. Previously, a field test report (Truex et al. 2012a) was prepared describing the active desiccation portion of the test and initial post-desiccation monitoring data. Additional monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and is reported herein along with interpretation with respect to desiccation performance. This is an interim report including about 2 years of post-desiccation monitoring data.

  1. Short Communication: Rhizosphere bacteria containing ACC-deaminase conferred drought tolerance in wheat grown under semi-arid climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Ahmad Shakir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain rhizobacteria have the potential of lowering endogenous ethylene levels in plants because of their 1- aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC-deaminase activity and promoting root growth. This mechanism is of great agronomic significance under stress environments, which are known to induce accelerated production of ethylene. Thirty rhizobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. growing in the Southern Punjab, a semi-arid region of Pakistan. Rhizobacteria were screened for ACC-deaminase activity and their potential to confer drought tolerance in wheat crop. Results of laboratory study revealed that selected rhizobacteria lowered endogenous ethylene levels in the rhizosphere as measured by Gas Chromatograph. Axenic studies showed that inoculation increased root-shoot length, root-shoot mass and lateral root number of the inoculated plants by 141, 44, 196, 52 and 30%, respectively, over control. Better-developed roots because of inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR helped plants, a better crop stand that enhanced moisture and nutrient feeding volume resulting-in improved growth and yields of wheat crop. Two-year multi-location field trials inferred optimum yields with low delta water in semi-arid climate by PGPR containing ACC-deaminase. The enzyme ACC-deaminase probably lowered harmful ethylene levels which partially eliminated drought stress consequently utilizing soil moisture from lower profiles through proliferated roots.

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Tan

    Full Text Available Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp. is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18% had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  4. The ins and outs of water dynamics in cold tolerant soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Many soil invertebrates have physiological characteristics in common with freshwater animals and represent an evolutionary transition from aquatic to terrestrial life forms. Their high cuticular permeability and ability to tolerate large modifications of internal osmolality are of particular importance for their cold tolerance. A number of cold region species that spend some or most of their life-time in soil are in more or less intimate contact with soil ice during overwintering. Unless such species have effective barriers against cuticular water-transport, they have only two options for survival: tolerate internal freezing or dehydrate. The risk of internal ice formation may be substantial due to inoculative freezing and many species rely on freeze-tolerance for overwintering. If freezing does not occur, the desiccating power of external ice will cause the animal to dehydrate until vapor pressure equilibrium between body fluids and external ice has been reached. This cold tolerance mechanism is termed cryoprotective dehydration (CPD) and requires that the animal must be able to tolerate substantial dehydration. Even though CPD is essentially a freeze-avoidance strategy the associated physiological traits are more or less the same as those found in freeze tolerant species. The most well-known are accumulation of compatible osmolytes and molecular chaperones reducing or protecting against the stress caused by cellular dehydration. Environmental moisture levels of the habitat are important for which type of cold tolerance is employed, not only in an evolutionary context, but also within a single population. Some species use CPD under relatively dry conditions, but freeze tolerance when soil moisture is high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Uncovering the basis of viability loss in desiccation sensitive Trichilia dregeana seeds using differential quantitative protein expression profiling by iTRAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothoo-Padayachie, Anushka; Macdonald, Angus; Varghese, Boby; Pammenter, Norman W; Govender, Patrick; Sershen

    2018-02-01

    Recalcitrant seeds, unlike orthodox types, are desiccation sensitive and hence, cannot be stored using conventional seed storage methods In this study, relative changes of protein expression in T. dregeana seeds during desiccation and hydrated storage (a short- to medium-term storage method) were analysed to understand the basis of their desiccation- and storage-induced viability loss. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) were used to compare (selected) protein expression levels across fresh, partially dehydrated and stored seeds. A total of 114 proteins were significantly differentially expressed in embryonic axes of fresh seeds and those seeds exposed to dehydration and hydrated storage (which exposed seeds to a mild dehydration stress). Proteins involved in protein synthesis were up-regulated in stored and dehydrated seeds, possibly in response to dehydration-induced repair processes and/or germinative development. A range of proteins related to antioxidant protection were variably up- and down-regulated in stored and dehydrated seeds, respectively. Additionally, a class I heat shock protein was down-regulated in dehydrated and stored seeds; no late embryogenesis abundant proteins were identified in both stored and dehydrated seeds; and storage and dehydration up-regulated proteins involved in the provision of energy for cell survival. The results suggest that dehydration- and storage-induced viability loss in recalcitrant seeds may be based on proteomic changes that lead to cellular redox imbalance and increased cell energy demands. This, together with the absence/down-regulation of proteins associated with desiccation tolerance in plant tissues may form part of the proteomic footprint for desiccation sensitivity in seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau. Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Program. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 4 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  7. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control...

  8. Salt-tolerant rootstock increases yield of pepper under salinity through maintenance of photosynthetic performance and sinks strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penella, Consuelo; Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia; Nebauer, Sergio G; Pellegrini, Elisa; San Bautista, Alberto; Remorini, Damiano; Nali, Cristina; López-Galarza, Salvador; Calatayud, Angeles

    2016-04-01

    The performance of a salt-tolerant pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) accession (A25) utilized as a rootstock was assessed in two experiments. In a first field experiment under natural salinity conditions, we observed a larger amount of marketable fruit (+75%) and lower Blossom-end Root incidence (-31%) in commercial pepper cultivar Adige (A) grafted onto A25 (A/A25) when compared with ungrafted plants. In order to understand this behavior a second greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine growth, mineral partitioning, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, antioxidant systems and proline content in A and A/A25 plants under salinity conditions (80 mM NaCl for 14 days). Salt stress induced significantly stunted growth of A plants (-40.6% of leaf dry weight) compared to the control conditions, while no alterations were observed in A/A25 at the end of the experiment. Accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in leaves and roots was similar in either grafted or ungrafted plants. Despite the activation of protective mechanisms (increment of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase activity and non-photochemical quenching), A plants showed severely reduced photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (-45.6% of AN390) and substantial buildup of malondialdehyde (MDA) by-product, suggesting the inability to counteract salt-triggered damage. In contrast, A/A25 plants, which had a constitutive enhanced root apparatus, were able to maintain the shoot and root growth under salinity conditions by supporting the maintained photosynthetic performance. No increases in catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were observed in response to salinity, and MDA levels increased only slightly; indicating that alleviation of oxidative stress did not occur in A/A25 plants. In these plants the increased proline levels could protect enzymatic stability from salt-triggered damage, preserving the photosynthetic performance. The results could indicate that salt stress was vanished by

  9. Study of desiccation cracking and fracture properties of clay soils

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Warnakulasuriya D. Susanga M.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the development of shrinkage cracking in clay soils upon drying and the determination of fracture properties of clay soils as applicable to analysis of desiccation cracking phenomenon. The results and conclusions were drawn from comprehensive experimental work analysed drawing from Classical Soil Mechanics, Fracture Mechanics, Unsaturated Soil Mechanics and Mechanics of Materials with the aid of powerful image analysis techniques. Attempts were made to fill the gaps in t...

  10. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  11. Regulation of Nicotine Tolerance by Quorum Sensing and High Efficiency of Quorum Quenching Under Nicotine Stress in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS regulates the behavior of bacterial populations and promotes their adaptation and survival under stress. As QS is responsible for the virulence of vast majority of bacteria, quorum quenching (QQ, the interruption of QS, has become an attractive therapeutic strategy. However, the role of QS in stress tolerance and the efficiency of QQ under stress in bacteria are seldom explored. In this study, we demonstrated that QS-regulated catalase (CAT expression and biofilm formation help Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 resist nicotine stress. CAT activity and biofilm formation in wild type (WT and ΔrhlR strains are significantly higher than those in the ΔlasR strain. Supplementation of ΔlasI strain with 3OC12-HSL showed similar CAT activity and biofilm formation as those of the WT strain. LasIR circuit rather than RhlIR circuit is vital to nicotine tolerance. Acylase I significantly decreased the production of virulence factors, namely elastase, pyocyanin, and pyoverdine under nicotine stress compared to the levels observed in the absence of nicotine stress. Thus, QQ is more efficient under stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that QS contributes to nicotine tolerance in P. aeruginosa. This work facilitates a better application of QQ for the treatment of bacterial infections, especially under stress.

  12. Rapid recovery of cyanobacterial pigments in desiccated biological soil crusts following addition of water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raeid M M Abed

    Full Text Available We examined soil surface colour change to green and hydrotaxis following addition of water to biological soil crusts using pigment extraction, hyperspectral imaging, microsensors and 13C labeling experiments coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALD-TOF MS. The topsoil colour turned green in less than 5 minutes following water addition. The concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chl a, scytonemin and echinenon rapidly increased in the top <1 mm layer while in the deeper layer, their concentrations remained low. Hyperspectral imaging showed that, in both wet and dehydrated crusts, cyanobacteria formed a layer at a depth of 0.2-0.4 mm and this layer did not move upward after wetting. 13C labeling experiments and MALDI TOF analysis showed that Chl a was already present in the desiccated crusts and de novo synthesis of this molecule started only after 2 days of wetting due to growth of cyanobacteria. Microsensor measurements showed that photosynthetic activity increased concomitantly with the increase of Chl a, and reached a maximum net rate of 92 µmol m-2 h-1 approximately 2 hours after wetting. We conclude that the colour change of soil crusts to green upon water addition was not due to hydrotaxis but rather to the quick recovery and reassembly of pigments. Cyanobacteria in crusts can maintain their photosynthetic apparatus intact even under prolonged periods of desiccation with the ability to resume their photosynthetic activities within minutes after wetting.

  13. There Is a "U" in Clutter: Evidence for Robust Sparse Codes Underlying Clutter Tolerance in Human Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Patrick H; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2015-10-21

    The ability to recognize objects in clutter is crucial for human vision, yet the underlying neural computations remain poorly understood. Previous single-unit electrophysiology recordings in inferotemporal cortex in monkeys and fMRI studies of object-selective cortex in humans have shown that the responses to pairs of objects can sometimes be well described as a weighted average of the responses to the constituent objects. Yet, from a computational standpoint, it is not clear how the challenge of object recognition in clutter can be solved if downstream areas must disentangle the identity of an unknown number of individual objects from the confounded average neuronal responses. An alternative idea is that recognition is based on a subpopulation of neurons that are robust to clutter, i.e., that do not show response averaging, but rather robust object-selective responses in the presence of clutter. Here we show that simulations using the HMAX model of object recognition in cortex can fit the aforementioned single-unit and fMRI data, showing that the averaging-like responses can be understood as the result of responses of object-selective neurons to suboptimal stimuli. Moreover, the model shows how object recognition can be achieved by a sparse readout of neurons whose selectivity is robust to clutter. Finally, the model provides a novel prediction about human object recognition performance, namely, that target recognition ability should show a U-shaped dependency on the similarity of simultaneously presented clutter objects. This prediction is confirmed experimentally, supporting a simple, unifying model of how the brain performs object recognition in clutter. The neural mechanisms underlying object recognition in cluttered scenes (i.e., containing more than one object) remain poorly understood. Studies have suggested that neural responses to multiple objects correspond to an average of the responses to the constituent objects. Yet, it is unclear how the identities

  14. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  15. Enhanced water stress tolerance of transgenic maize plants over-expressing LEA Rab28 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Imen; Capellades, Montserrat; Ludevid, M Dolors; Pagès, Montserrat; Goday, Adela

    2013-06-15

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins participate in plant stress responses and contribute to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance. In this report Rab28 LEA gene has been over-expressed in maize plants under a constitutive maize promoter. The expression of Rab28 transcripts led to the accumulation and stability of Rab28 protein in the transgenic plants. Native Rab28 protein is localized to nucleoli in wild type maize embryo cells; here we find by whole-mount immunocytochemistry that in root cells of Rab28 transgenic and wild-type plants the protein is also associated to nucleolar structures. Transgenic plants were tested for stress tolerance and resulted in sustained growth under polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-mediated dehydration compared to wild-type controls. Under osmotic stress transgenic seedlings showed increased leaf and root areas, higher relative water content (RWC), reduced chlorophyll loss and lower Malondialdehyde (MDA) production in relation to wild-type plants. Moreover, transgenic seeds exhibited higher germination rates than wild-type seeds under water deficit. Overall, our results highlight the presence of transgenic Rab28 protein in nucleolar structures and point to the potential of group 5 LEA Rab28 gene as candidate to enhance stress tolerance in maize plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of UV-B Radiation and Desiccation Stress on Photoprotective Compounds Accumulation in Marine Leptolyngbya sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Devika; Mohandass, C; Dhale, Mohan

    2018-01-01

    Increased awareness regarding the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation has led to the search for new sources of natural UV-B protecting compounds. Mycosporine-like amino acids are one of such promising compounds found in several organisms. Cyanobacteria are ideal organisms for isolation of these compounds due to their compatibility and adaptability to thrive under harsh environmental conditions. In the following investigation, we report the production of shinorine in Leptolyngbya sp. isolated from the intertidal region. Based on the spectral characteristics and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the UV-absorbing compound was identified as shinorine. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of shinorine in Leptolyngbya sp. We also investigated the effect of artificial UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation on chlorophyll-a, total carotenoids, and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) production. The UV-B radiation had a negative effect on growth and chlorophyll concentration, whereas it showed an inductive effect on the production of total carotenoids and MAAs. Desiccation along with UV-B radiation led to an increase in the concentration of photoprotective compounds. These results indicate that carotenoids and MAAs thus facilitate cyanobacteria to avoid and protect themselves from the deleterious effects of UV-B and desiccation.

  17. Experimental investigations on performance of liquid desiccant-vapor compression hybrid air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, B. Shaji; Tiwari, Shaligram; Maiya, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    A coupled desiccant column is integrated with a conventional room air conditioner (AC) to enhance dehumidification of the room air. One desiccant column (absorber) is placed after the evaporator the other (regenerator) after the condenser of the AC unit. Such a novel liquid desiccant vapour compression hybrid air conditioning system has been fabricated and tested in a balanced ambient room type calorimeter for very low flow rates of liquid desiccant (lithium bromide solution). The moisture from the cold supply air is transferred to the hot condenser air by the desiccant flowing in the loop, thereby complimenting the dehumidification of the room air at the evaporator. The supply air is also sensibly heated during the dehumidification process by liquid desiccant in the absorber, which together enables the hybrid system to maintain low humidity in the room. Whereas the liquid desiccant is regenerated by the condenser waste heat, the entire cooling is derived only by the AC unit. The experimental results show that an increase of room temperature reduces both dehumidification of process air and regeneration of liquid desiccant, whereas an increase of room specific humidity enhances both these for the flow rate of the liquid desiccant in the range of 0.2–1.6% of the air flow rate through the absorber. - Highlights: • A liquid desiccant vapor compression hybrid system is fabricated and tested. • The liquid desiccant reduces latent load but equally increases sensible load. • Hybrid system performance is studied for varying room temperature and humidity. • Higher room temperature lowers air dehumidification and desiccant regeneration. • Increase of room specific humidity enhances dehumidification and also regeneration

  18. Prioritized Expression of BDH2 under Bulk Translational Repression and Its Contribution to Tolerance to Severe Vanillin Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yoko; Nguyen, Trinh T M; Kitajima, Sakihito; Izawa, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Vanillin is a potent fermentation inhibitor derived from the lignocellulosic biomass in biofuel production, and high concentrations of vanillin result in the pronounced repression of bulk translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies on genes that are efficiently translated even in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin will be useful for improving yeast vanillin tolerance and fermentation efficiency. The BDH1 and BDH2 genes encode putative medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductases and their amino acid sequences are very similar to each other. Although BDH2 was previously suggested to be involved in vanillin tolerance, it has yet to be clarified whether Bdh1/Bdh2 actually contribute to vanillin tolerance and reductions in vanillin. Therefore, we herein investigated the effects of Bdh1 and Bdh2 on vanillin tolerance. bdh2Δ cells exhibited hypersensitivity to vanillin and slower reductions in vanillin than wild-type cells and bdh1Δ cells. Additionally, the overexpression of the BDH2 gene improved yeast tolerance to vanillin more efficiently than that of BDH1. Only BDH2 mRNA was efficiently translated under severe vanillin stress, however, both BDH genes were transcriptionally up-regulated. These results reveal the importance of Bdh2 in vanillin detoxification and confirm the preferential translation of the BDH2 gene in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin. The BDH2 promoter also enabled the expression of non-native genes under severe vanillin stress and furfural stress, suggesting its availability to improve of the efficiency of bioethanol production through modifications in gene expression in the presence of fermentation inhibitors.

  19. Triple-bore hollow fiber membrane contactor for liquid desiccant based air dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Bettahalli Narasimha, Murthy Srivatsa

    2016-04-26

    Dehumidification is responsible for a large part of the energy consumption in cooling systems in high humidity environments worldwide. Improving efficiency is therefore essential. Liquid desiccants offer a promising solution for dehumidification, as desired levels of humidity removal could be easily regulated. The use of membrane contactors in combination with liquid desiccant is attractive for dehumidification because they prevent direct contact between the humid air and the desiccant, removing both the potential for desiccant carryover to the air and the potential for contamination of the liquid desiccant by dust and other airborne materials, as well as minimizing corrosion. However, the expected additional mass transport barrier of the membrane surface can lower the expected desiccation rate per unit of desiccant surface area. In this context, hollow fiber membranes present an attractive option for membrane liquid desiccant contactors because of their high surface area per unit volume. We demonstrate in this work the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based triple-bore hollow fiber membranes as liquid desiccant contactors, which are permeable to water vapor but impermeable to liquid water, for dehumidification of hot and humid air.

  20. High salinity tolerance of the Red Sea coral Fungia granulosa under desalination concentrate discharge conditions: an in situ photophysiology experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan

    2014-11-10

    Seawater reverse osmosis desalination concentrate may have chronic and/or acute impacts on the marine ecosystems in the near-field area of the discharge. Environmental impact of the desalination plant discharge is supposedly site- and volumetric- specific, and also depends on the salinity tolerance of the organisms inhabiting the water column in and around a discharge environment. Scientific studies that aim to understand possible impacts of elevated salinity levels are important to assess detrimental effects to organisms, especially for species with no mechanism of osmoregulation, e.g., presumably corals. Previous studies on corals indicate sensitivity toward hypo- and hyper-saline environments with small changes in salinity already affecting coral physiology. In order to evaluate sensitivity of Red Sea corals to increased salinity levels, we conducted a long-term (29 days) in situ salinity tolerance transect study at an offshore seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) discharge on the coral Fungia granulosa. While we measured a pronounced increase in salinity and temperature at the direct outlet of the discharge structure, effects were indistinguishable from the surrounding environment at a distance of 5 m. Interestingly, corals were not affected by varying salinity levels as indicated by measurements of the photosynthetic efficiency. Similarly, cultured coral symbionts of the genus Symbiodinium displayed remarkable tolerance levels in regard to hypo- and hypersaline treatments. Our data suggest that increased salinity and temperature levels from discharge outlets wear off quickly in the surrounding environment. Furthermore, F. granulosa seem to tolerate levels of salinity that are distinctively higher than reported for other corals previously. It remains to be determined whether Red Sea corals in general display increased salinity tolerance, and whether this is related to prevailing levels of high(er) salinity in the Red Sea in comparison to other oceans.

  1. Quantitative Trait Loci for Salinity Tolerance Identified under Drained and Waterlogged Conditions and Their Association with Flowering Time in Barley (Hordeum vulgare. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Ma

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting crop production via adverse effects of osmotic stress, specific ion toxicity, and stress-related nutritional disorders. Detrimental effects of salinity are also often exacerbated by low oxygen availability when plants are grown under waterlogged conditions. Developing salinity-tolerant varieties is critical to overcome these problems, and molecular marker assisted selection can make breeding programs more effective.In this study, a double haploid (DH population consisting of 175 lines, derived from a cross between a Chinese barley variety Yangsimai 1 (YSM1 and an Australian malting barley variety Gairdner, was used to construct a high density molecular map which contained more than 8,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Salinity tolerance of parental and DH lines was evaluated under drained (SalinityD and waterlogged (SalinityW conditions at two different sowing times.Three quantitative trait loci (QTL located on chromosome 1H, single QTL located on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 5H and 7H, were identified to be responsible for salinity tolerance under different environments. Waterlogging stress, daylight length and temperature showed significant effects on barley salinity tolerance. The QTL for salinity tolerance mapped on chromosomes 4H and 7H, QSlwd.YG.4H, QSlwd.YG.7H and QSlww.YG.7H were only identified in winter trials, while the QTL on chromosome 2H QSlsd.YG.2H and QSlsw.YG.2H were only detected in summer trials. Genes associated with flowering time were found to pose significant effects on the salinity QTL mapped on chromosomes 2H and 5H in summer trials. Given the fact that the QTL for salinity tolerance QSlsd.YG.1H and QSlww.YG.1H-1 reported here have never been considered in the literature, this warrants further investigation and evaluation for suitability to be used in breeding programs.

  2. Hypophosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 is a molecular mechanism underlying ischemic tolerance induced by either hibernation or preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Shin-ichi; Wakita, Hideaki; Bernstock, Joshua D; Castri, Paola; Ruetzler, Christl; Miyake, Junko; Lee, Yang-Ja; Hallenbeck, John M

    2015-12-01

    Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) have an extraordinary capacity to withstand prolonged and profound reductions in blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain without incurring any cellular damage. As such, the hibernation torpor of I. tridecemlineatus provides a valuable model of tolerance to ischemic stress. Herein, we report that during hibernation torpor, a marked reduction in the phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) occurs within the brains of I. tridecemlineatus. Of note, rpS6 phosphorylation was shown to increase in the brains of rats that underwent an occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. However, such an increase was attenuated after the implementation of an ischemic preconditioning paradigm. In addition, cultured cortical neurons treated with the rpS6 kinase (S6K) inhibitors, D-glucosamine or PF4708671, displayed a decrease in rpS6 phosphorylation and a subsequent increase in tolerance to oxygen/glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of ischemic stroke. Collectively, such evidence suggests that the down-regulation of rpS6 signal transduction may account for a substantial part of the observed increase in cellular tolerance to brain ischemia that occurs during hibernation torpor and after ischemic preconditioning. Further identification and characterization of the mechanisms used by hibernating species to increase ischemic tolerance may eventually clarify how the loss of homeostatic control that occurs during and after cerebral ischemia in the clinic can ultimately be minimized and/or prevented. Mammalian hibernation provides a valuable model of tolerance to ischemic stress. Herein, we demonstrate that marked reductions in the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), extracellular signal-regulated kinase family of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p44/42 (p44/42MAPK) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) occur within the brains of both hibernating squirrels and rats, which have undergone an ischemic

  3. Non-reducing sugar levels in beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds as related to withstanding desiccation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukacka, Stanisława; Ratajczak, Ewelina; Kalemba, Ewa

    2009-09-01

    Levels of sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) (raffinose and stachyose) were determined in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds during development, maturation, desiccation and storage. An increase in RFOs and a marked decrease in the S:(R+St) ratio (i.e. mass ratio of sucrose to the sum of RFOs) were observed at the time of desiccation tolerance (DT) acquisition by seeds. In seeds stored at -10 degrees C through 1, 4, 7, and 12 years, changes in sucrose, raffinose and stachyose levels and in alpha-galactosidase activity were noted. The S/R+St ratio and alpha-galactosidase activity significantly increased in seeds after 7 and 12 years of storage, when a marked decrease in viability, measured as germination capacity, was recorded. Germination capacity was found to be strongly correlated with sucrose content, the S:(R+St) ratio, and alpha-galactosidase activity. A strong positive correlation was found between germination capacity and stachyose content. The results clearly indicated that the composition of RFOs in beech seeds is closely related to DT acquisition and seed viability during storage.

  4. Stable symbiotic nitrogen fixation under water-deficit field conditions by a stress-tolerant alfalfa microsymbiont and its complete genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefkowicz, Cintia; Brambilla, Silvina; Frare, Romina; Stritzler, Margarita; Piccinetti, Carlos; Puente, Mariana; Berini, Carolina Andrea; Pérez, Pedro Reyes; Soto, Gabriela; Ayub, Nicolás

    2017-12-10

    We here characterized the stress-tolerant alfalfa microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti B401. B401-treated plants showed high nitrogen fixation rates under humid and semiarid environments. The production of glycine betaine in isolated bacteroids positively correlated with low precipitation levels, suggesting that this compound acts as a critical osmoprotectant under field conditions. Genome analysis revealed that strain B401 contains alternative pathways for the biosynthesis and uptake of glycine betaine and its precursors. Such genomic information will offer substantial insight into the environmental physiology of this biotechnologically valuable nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phototrophic cultivation of NaCl-tolerant mutant of Spirulina platensis for enhanced C-phycocyanin production under optimized culture conditions and its dynamic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Apurva; Mohan, Devendra; Saxena, Rishi Kumar; Singh, Surendra

    2018-02-01

    Commercial cultivation of Spirulina sp. is highly popular due to the presence of high amount of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and other valuable chemicals like carotenoids and γ-linolenic acid. In this study, the pH and the concentrations of nitrogen and carbon source were manipulated to achieve improved cell growth and C-PC production in NaCl-tolerant mutant of Spirulina platensis. In this study, highest C-PC (147 mg · L -1 ) and biomass (2.83 g · L -1 ) production was achieved when a NaCl-tolerant mutant of S. platensis was cultivated in a nitrate and bicarbonate sufficient medium (40 and 60 mM, respectively) at pH 9.0 under phototrophic conditions. Kinetic study of wildtype S. platensis and its NaCl-tolerant mutant was also done to determine optimum nitrate concentrations for maximum growth and C-PC production. Kinetic parameter of inhibition (Haldane model) was fitted to the relationship between specific growth rate and substrate concentration obtained from the growth curves. Results showed that the maximum specific growth rate (μ max ) for NaCl-tolerant mutant increased by 17.94% as compared to its wildtype counterpart, with a slight increase in half-saturation constant (K s ), indicating that this strain could grow well at high concentration of NaNO 3 . C-PC production rate (C max ) in mutant cells increased by 12.2% at almost half the value of K s as compared to its wildtype counterpart. Moreover, the inhibition constant (K i ) value was 207.85% higher in NaCl-tolerant mutant as compared to its wildtype strain, suggesting its ability to produce C-PC even at high concentrations of NaNO 3 . © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Evaluation of Cold Tolerance in Field Grown Mentha (Mentha piperita‎‏ L.‎ under ‎Laboratory Conditions by Electrolyte Leakage Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Kheirkhah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine cold tolerance of field grown Mentha (Mentha Piperita L. under controlled conditions, using electrolyte leakage index, an experiment was carried out at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, based on a completely randomized design with four replications. Experimental factors included six freezing temperatures (Zero, -4, -8, -12, -16 and -20 °C, seven harvest ‎time (November, December, January, February, March, April and May and ‎four Peppermint organs (leaves, Stems, Stolons and Rhizomes. So, field grown ‎and acclimated Pepermint was harvested from the faculty field every month. ‎After separating the Peppermint organs, they were subjected to freezing ‎temperatures. The membrane stability index was measured through ‎electrolyte leakage (EL and also lethal temperature 50 ‎according to EL (LT50el was determined. The results showed that electrolyte leakages were affected significantly by freezing temperature. By reduction of freezing temperature electrolyte leakages percentage increased. Among different organs of peppermint, stolon and leaf were the most cold tolerant and the most cold sensitive according to EL and LT50el , respectively. Also cold tolerance varied according to different harvest time in all organs. However, in May, all organs had lowest cold tolerance. Also leaves and stolons had the highest and the lowest LT50el, respectively. For all organs the highest LT50el‎ was observed in May. According to the high correlation between electrolyte leakages percent and LT50el (r = 0.96**, it seems that using this index for evaluation of freezing tolerance injury in Mentha piperita could be useful.

  7. The study of Lake Urmia desiccation: morphometry impress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ayoub; Rasouli, Ali Akbar; Roostaei, Shahram

    2017-04-01

    Located in northwestern Iran, the hypersaline Lake Urmia has started a serious uninterrupted desiccation since 1995. The lake has lost about eight meters of water level and about 75% of water surface area during past 20 years. In particular, the lake water volume decrement has been accelerated in recent years. The importance of the Lake Urmia for human life in northwestern Iran, and its destructive effects on a vast region if totally dry up, demands comprehensive studies of the lake level fluctuations mechanism. According to literature review, the water volume of the lake behaves sometimes differently from the water storage of the whole basin. Our time series analysis using Land Data Assimilation Systems also confirms those differences within last decades. In other hand, many studies addressed the lake desiccation to climatic changes and/or anthropogenic influences such as excessive dam constructions in the watershed during last decades. As water leaves the lake only through evaporation, the fluctuation of evaporation has a distinctive role in the lake level variations. Dramatic decreament in the lake extent indicates of a special morphometry. The lake's morphometry has made it vulnerable to temperature and salinity changes. It strongly controls the lake's water heat capacity and water density. And, it therefore controls the rate of evaporation from water surface. We study the role of lake's morphometry on the lake desiccation. Although, the global climatic change is known as the primary reason for current droughts in the Middle East generally, our preliminary results show that the lake's morphometry is the main cause for the accelerating of water volume lost in Lake Urmia. In particular, after 2007, lake's water temperature and density show significant variations. Water heat capacity and evaporation rate are consistent with information of lake's hypsometry.

  8. Tolerance and nutrients consumption of Chlorella vulgaris growing in mineral medium and real wastewater under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Franco Martínez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have the potential of consuming high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater; thus, avoiding the risk of eutrophication of the water bodies. Nevertheless, ammonium can usually inhibit the growth of microalgae. Tolerance to ammonium is specific of each strain; so, the development of tertiary wastewater treatment proposals, employing microalgae, has as a first step the study of its tolerance to N-NH3. In this work, the tolerance of Chlorella vulgaris to N-NH3, using mineral medium, was studied. Afterward, C. vulgaris was used to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from a real wastewater. The maximal biomass concentration was reached at 66 ppm N-NH3 (0.49 gL-1 with the complete depletion of the ammonium and a phosphorus consumption of 2 mgPi L-1d-1 in all the experiments. When C. vulgaris was grown in real wastewater, the final biomass concentration was 0.267 g L-1 and the nutrients (N and P were totally consumed after 3 days. According with these results, this strain of Chlorella has the potential for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from tertiary wastewater and the biomass produced in the process can be used for the production of high value products, such as pigments, proteins, carbohydrate or used for animal feed.

  9. Correlation Coefficient, Path Analysis and Drought Tolerance Indices for Wheat under Deficit Irrigation Conditions and Nitrogen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Tavakoli

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the indices of drought tolerance, correlation coefficient and path analysis at deficit irrigation and nitrogen experiment, this experiment was conducted as split plot arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications during 2000-2003 for wheat at Maragheh agricultural research station of DARI. The treatments were included four levels of deficit irrigation (Rainfed, 100, 160 and 220mm of water use as main plots and five nitrogen rates (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg.N.ha-1 as sub plots. Grain, straw and biological yield, harvest index, productivity degree, plant height, kernel number per spike, Spike number per square meter and TKW determined from the middle of each plot. There were positive significant correlations due to grain yield with all variables: harvest index (r = 0.969 , Productivity degree (r = 0.952 , straw yield (r = 0.904 , plant height (r = 0.904 , biological yield (r = 0.824 , Spike number per square meter (r = 0.817 , kernel number per spike (r = 0.773 and TKW (r = 0.612 respectively. Results of path analysis showed that increase in grain yield was due to increase spike number per square meter and kernel number per spike respectively. On based of indices of drought tolerance (Tolerance Index, Mean Productivity, Geometric Mean Productivity and Harmonic Mean, treatment of %66full irrigation combined with 90KgN.ha-1 was substantially increased water productivity.

  10. Melatonin alleviates low PS I-limited carbon assimilation under elevated CO2 and enhances the cold tolerance of offspring in chlorophyll i>b-deficient mutant wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Brestic, Marian; Tan, Dun-xian

    2018-01-01

    the activities of ATPase and sucrose synthesis and maintaining a relatively higher level of total chlorophyll concentration in leaves. In addition, melatonin priming in maternal plants at grain filling promoted the seed germination in offspring by accelerating the starch degradation and improved the cold......Melatonin is involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and induction of cold tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of melatonin in modulation of carbon assimilation of wild-type wheat and the Chl b-deficient mutant ANK32B in response to elevated...... CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and the transgenerational effects of application of exogenous melatonin (hereafter identified as melatonin priming) on the cold tolerance in offspring. The results showed that the melatonin priming enhanced the carbon assimilation in ANK32B under elevated [CO2], via boosting...

  11. Morphological and photosynthetic variations in the process of spermatia formation from vegetative cells in Porphyra yezoensis Ueda (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) and their responses to desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-Ling; Zhou, Wei; Shen, Song-Dong; Wang, Guang-Ce; He, Lin-Wen; Pan, Guang-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Porphyra yezoensis has a macroscopic foliage gametophyte phase with only a single cell layer, and is ideally suited for the study of the sexual differentiation process, from the vegetative cell to the spermatia. Firstly, we compared variations in the responses of the vegetative and male sectors to desiccation. Later, cell tracking experiments were carried out during the formation of spermatia from vegetative cells. The two sectors showed similar tolerance to desiccation, and the formation of spermatia from vegetative cells was independent of the degree of desiccation. Both light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the differentiation process showed that the formation of spermatia could be divided into six phases: the one-cell, two-cell, four-cell, eight-cell, pre-release and spermatia phases. Photomicrographs of Fluorescent Brightener staining showed that the released spermatia had no cell walls. Photosynthetic data showed that there was a significant rise in Y(II) in the four-cell phase, indicating an increase in photosynthetic efficiency of PSII during this phase. We propose that this photosynthetic rise may be substantial and provide the increased energy needed for the formation and release of spermatia in P. yezoensis.

  12. Variation of structures of ingredients of desiccated coconut during hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian XIONG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Owing to the high content of lignocellulose, desiccated coconut become a healthy material for dietary fiber supplementation. In this study, the changes in solubility of the fibers of desiccated coconut were evaluated. The changes of the pHs and weight losses were studied. Furthermore, variations of the ingredient structures of desiccated coconut by hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. After hydrolysis 30 s, the pHs of all systems increased, while six hours later, the pH of only system with initial pH = 1.00 decreased. The decline of pH only existed in hydrolysis systems with initial pH = 1.00, there is no relevant with the quantities of desiccated coconut. The lower initial pH of hydrolysis system was, the less the intrinsic viscosity of the desiccated coconut after hydrolysis was, the small the crystallinity was. After hydrolysis, the microstructure of the desiccated coconut become looser, and the secondary structure of the coconut protein became more stable and ordered. The results suggest that the hydrolysis of desiccated coconut mainly occurred in the branched chain and the non-crystalline region of lignocellulose, which transforms some insoluble dietary fiber into soluble dietary fiber. This improves the nutritional value of desiccated coconut.

  13. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...

  14. The response of foodborne pathogens to osmotic and desiccation stresses in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Catherine M.; Gianotti, Andrea; Gruzdev, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    In combination with other strategies, hyperosmolarity and desiccation are frequently used by the food processing industry as a means to prevent bacterial proliferation, and particularly that of foodborne pathogens, in food products. However, it is increasingly observed that bacteria, including...... and identifies gaps in knowledge which need to be addressed to ensure the safety of low water activity and desiccated food products....

  15. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Influence of Martian regolith analogs on the activity and growth of methanogenic archaea, with special regard to long-term desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janosch eSchirmack

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic archaea have been studied as model organisms for possible life on Mars for several reasons: they can grow lithoautotrophically by using hydrogen and carbon dioxide as energy and carbon sources, respectively; they are anaerobes; and they evolved at a time when conditions on early Earth are believed to have looked similar to those of early Mars. As Mars is currently dry and cold and as water might be available only at certain time intervals, any organism living on this planet would need to cope with desiccation. On Earth there are several regions with low water availability as well, e.g. permafrost environments, desert soils and salt pans. Here, we present the results of a set of experiments investigating the influence of different Martian regolith analogs on the metabolic activity and growth of three methanogenic strains exposed to culture conditions as well as long-term desiccation. In most cases, concentrations below 1 %wt of regolith in the media resulted in an increase of methane production rates, whereas higher concentrations decreased the rates, thus prolonging the lag phase. Further experiments showed that methanogenic archaea are capable of producing methane when incubated on a water-saturated sedimentary matrix of regolith lacking nutrients. Survival of methanogens under these conditions was analyzed with a 400 day desiccation experiment in the presence of regolith analogs. All tested strains of methanogens survived the desiccation period as it was determined through reincubation on fresh medium and via qPCR following propidium monoazide treatment to identify viable cells. The survival of long-term desiccation and the ability of active metabolism on water-saturated MRAs strengthens the possibility of methanogenic archaea or physiologically similar organisms to exist in environmental niches on Mars. The best results were achieved in presence of a phyllosilicate, which provides insights of possible positive effects in habitats

  17. POST-HARVEST EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT IN GINSENG SEEDS INCREASES DESICCATION SENSITIVITY AND NARROWS THE HYDRATION WINDOW FOR CRYOPRESERVATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E; Popova, E; Cho, G; Park, S; Lee, S; Pritchard, H W; Kim, H H

    Despite its self-pollinating characteristics, Korean ginseng germplasm is mainly maintained in clonal gene banks as there is no defined approach to the long-term conservation of its seed, including the most appropriate stage of embryo development for storage. The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of embryo development on desiccation tolerance and cryopreservation success in ginseng seeds. Seeds of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) at three post-harvest stages (immediately after harvesting and following treatments to enable internal growth of the embryo) were desiccated and cryopreserved. The hydration window for the >80% dehiscence and germination of cryopreserved ginseng seeds varied with embryo developmental stage: 3-9% moisture content (MC) for both unpulped and undehisced seeds when the embryo was 0.1 the length of the endosperm, 7-10% MC for dehisced seeds (0.5 embryo:endosperm) and 9-11% MC for seeds with fully developed embryos (0.9 embryo:endosperm). Whilst dried (4-8% moisture content) and undehisced seeds within fruits (unpulped seeds) lost more than half their viability during 1 year's storage at room temperature, cryopreservation enabled germination levels of c. 90%. Overall, 432 accessions of Korean ginseng landraces have been cryopreserved using undehisced seeds with or without fruits. Post-harvest treatment of Korean ginseng seeds to enable embryo development decreases tolerance of very low MCs, and thus narrows the hydration window for cryopreservation. Fresh-harvested and unpulped seeds that have been dried to c. 5% MC are recommended for long-term cryogenic storage.

  18. Constitutive traits and selective indices of Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc) landraces for drought tolerance under Botswana conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, S. K.; Tabona, T. T.

    Constitutive traits of 12 landraces of Bamabra groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc) were studied during the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 at the Botswana College of Agriculture, for traits which relate to the crop’s adaptation to drought. The objective was to estimate the degree of phenotypic and genotypic variation of traits whose selection would lead to earliness in maturity and drought tolerance through drought escape. The landraces showed significant diversity. Low environmental variability was recorded for days to maturity, root:shoot ratio, canopy spread, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and shelling percentage. Genotypic correlation coefficients and path coefficient of number of pods per plant and seed size on yield were significantly high. The results of this experiment indicate that, canopy spread, root:shoot ratio, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod are among parameters that could be used for indirect selection for drought tolerance in Bambara groundnut in Botswana and other areas where drought is a common occurrence.

  19. An attempt to interpret a biochemical mechanism of C4 photosynthetic thermo-tolerance under sudden heat shock on detached leaf in elevated CO2 grown maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingnan Qu

    Full Text Available Detached leaves at top canopy structures always experience higher solar irradiance and leaf temperature under natural conditions. The ability of tolerance to high temperature represents thermotolerance potential of whole-plants, but was less of concern. In this study, we used a heat-tolerant (B76 and a heat-susceptible (B106 maize inbred line to assess the possible mitigation of sudden heat shock (SHS effects on photosynthesis (PN and C4 assimilation pathway by elevated [CO2]. Two maize lines were grown in field-based open top chambers (OTCs at ambient and elevated (+180 ppm [CO2]. Top-expanded leaves for 30 days after emergence were suddenly exposed to a 45°C SHS for 2 hours in midday during measurements. Analysis on thermostability of cellular membrane showed there was 20% greater electrolyte leakage in response to the SHS in B106 compared to B76, in agreement with prior studies. Elevated [CO2] protected PN from SHS in B76 but not B106. The responses of PN to SHS among the two lines and grown CO2 treatments were closely correlated with measured decreases of NADP-ME enzyme activity and also to its reduced transcript abundance. The SHS treatments induced starch depletion, the accumulation of hexoses and also disrupted the TCA cycle as well as the C4 assimilation pathway in the both lines. Elevated [CO2] reversed SHS effects on citrate and related TCA cycle metabolites in B106 but the effects of elevated [CO2] were small in B76. These findings suggested that heat stress tolerance is a complex trait, and it is difficult to identify biochemical, physiological or molecular markers that accurately and consistently predict heat stress tolerance.

  20. High-affinity naloxone binding to filamin a prevents mu opioid receptor-Gs coupling underlying opioid tolerance and dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoau-Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists enhance opioid analgesia and reduce analgesic tolerance and dependence by preventing a G protein coupling switch (Gi/o to Gs by the mu opioid receptor (MOR, although the binding site of such ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists was previously unknown. Here we show that with approximately 200-fold higher affinity than for the mu opioid receptor, naloxone binds a pentapeptide segment of the scaffolding protein filamin A, known to interact with the mu opioid receptor, to disrupt its chronic opioid-induced Gs coupling. Naloxone binding to filamin A is demonstrated by the absence of [(3H]-and FITC-naloxone binding in the melanoma M2 cell line that does not contain filamin or MOR, contrasting with strong [(3H]naloxone binding to its filamin A-transfected subclone A7 or to immunopurified filamin A. Naloxone binding to A7 cells was displaced by naltrexone but not by morphine, indicating a target distinct from opioid receptors and perhaps unique to naloxone and its analogs. The intracellular location of this binding site was confirmed by FITC-NLX binding in intact A7 cells. Overlapping peptide fragments from c-terminal filamin A revealed filamin A(2561-2565 as the binding site, and an alanine scan of this pentapeptide revealed an essential mid-point lysine. Finally, in organotypic striatal slice cultures, peptide fragments containing filamin A(2561-2565 abolished the prevention by 10 pM naloxone of both the chronic morphine-induced mu opioid receptor-Gs coupling and the downstream cAMP excitatory signal. These results establish filamin A as the target for ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists previously shown to enhance opioid analgesia and to prevent opioid tolerance and dependence.

  1. High-Affinity Naloxone Binding to Filamin A Prevents Mu Opioid Receptor–Gs Coupling Underlying Opioid Tolerance and Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hoau-Yan; Frankfurt, Maya; Burns, Lindsay H.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists enhance opioid analgesia and reduce analgesic tolerance and dependence by preventing a G protein coupling switch (Gi/o to Gs) by the mu opioid receptor (MOR), although the binding site of such ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists was previously unknown. Here we show that with approximately 200-fold higher affinity than for the mu opioid receptor, naloxone binds a pentapeptide segment of the scaffolding protein filamin A, known to interact with the mu opioid receptor, to disrupt its chronic opioid-induced Gs coupling. Naloxone binding to filamin A is demonstrated by the absence of [3H]-and FITC-naloxone binding in the melanoma M2 cell line that does not contain filamin or MOR, contrasting with strong [3H]naloxone binding to its filamin A-transfected subclone A7 or to immunopurified filamin A. Naloxone binding to A7 cells was displaced by naltrexone but not by morphine, indicating a target distinct from opioid receptors and perhaps unique to naloxone and its analogs. The intracellular location of this binding site was confirmed by FITC-NLX binding in intact A7 cells. Overlapping peptide fragments from c-terminal filamin A revealed filamin A2561-2565 as the binding site, and an alanine scan of this pentapeptide revealed an essential mid-point lysine. Finally, in organotypic striatal slice cultures, peptide fragments containing filamin A2561-2565 abolished the prevention by 10 pM naloxone of both the chronic morphine-induced mu opioid receptor–Gs coupling and the downstream cAMP excitatory signal. These results establish filamin A as the target for ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists previously shown to enhance opioid analgesia and to prevent opioid tolerance and dependence. PMID:18253501

  2. High-affinity naloxone binding to filamin a prevents mu opioid receptor-Gs coupling underlying opioid tolerance and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hoau-Yan; Frankfurt, Maya; Burns, Lindsay H

    2008-02-06

    Ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists enhance opioid analgesia and reduce analgesic tolerance and dependence by preventing a G protein coupling switch (Gi/o to Gs) by the mu opioid receptor (MOR), although the binding site of such ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists was previously unknown. Here we show that with approximately 200-fold higher affinity than for the mu opioid receptor, naloxone binds a pentapeptide segment of the scaffolding protein filamin A, known to interact with the mu opioid receptor, to disrupt its chronic opioid-induced Gs coupling. Naloxone binding to filamin A is demonstrated by the absence of [(3)H]-and FITC-naloxone binding in the melanoma M2 cell line that does not contain filamin or MOR, contrasting with strong [(3)H]naloxone binding to its filamin A-transfected subclone A7 or to immunopurified filamin A. Naloxone binding to A7 cells was displaced by naltrexone but not by morphine, indicating a target distinct from opioid receptors and perhaps unique to naloxone and its analogs. The intracellular location of this binding site was confirmed by FITC-NLX binding in intact A7 cells. Overlapping peptide fragments from c-terminal filamin A revealed filamin A(2561-2565) as the binding site, and an alanine scan of this pentapeptide revealed an essential mid-point lysine. Finally, in organotypic striatal slice cultures, peptide fragments containing filamin A(2561-2565) abolished the prevention by 10 pM naloxone of both the chronic morphine-induced mu opioid receptor-Gs coupling and the downstream cAMP excitatory signal. These results establish filamin A as the target for ultra-low-dose opioid antagonists previously shown to enhance opioid analgesia and to prevent opioid tolerance and dependence.

  3. Kinetics of biofilm formation and desiccation survival of Listeria monocytogenes in single and dual species biofilms with Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia proteamaculans or Shewanella baltica on food-grade stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar Alavi, Hessam Edin; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of static biofilm formation (100% RH, 15 °C, 48-72 h) and desiccation survival (43% RH, 15 °C, 21 days) of Listeria monocytogenes, in dual species biofilms with the common spoilage bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia proteamaculans and Shewanella baltica, on the surface of food grade stainless steel. The Gram-negative bacteria reduced the maximum biofilm population of L. monocytogenes in dual species biofilms and increased its inactivation during desiccation. However, due to the higher desiccation resistance of Listeria relative to P. fluorescens and S. baltica, the pathogen survived in greater final numbers. In contrast, S. proteamaculans outcompeted the pathogen during the biofilm formation and exhibited similar desiccation survival, causing the N21 days of Serratia to be ca 3 Log10(CFU cm(-2)) greater than that of Listeria in the dual species biofilm. Microscopy revealed biofilm morphologies with variable amounts of exopolymeric substance and the presence of separate microcolonies. Under these simulated food plant conditions, the fate of L. monocytogenes during formation of mixed biofilms and desiccation depended on the implicit characteristics of the co-cultured bacterium.

  4. Meta-analysis of geographical clines in desiccation tolerance of Indian drosophilids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajpurohit, S.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Gibbs, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 2 (2013), s. 391-398 ISSN 1095-6433 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) 0723930 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Drosophila * climatic adaptation * geographic variability Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.371, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S109564331200520X

  5. Development of industrial yeast strain with improved acid- and thermo-tolerance through evolution under continuous fermentation conditions followed by haploidization and mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Liu, Ze-Shen; Tang, Yue-Qin; Akamatsu, Takashi; Taguchi, Hisataka; Kida, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Continuous fermentation using the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strain WW was carried out under acidic or high-temperature conditions to achieve acid- or thermo-tolerant mutants. Mutants isolated at pH 2.5 and 41°C showed improved growth and fermentation ability under acidic and elevated temperature conditions. Haploid strains WW17A1 and WW17A4 obtained from the mutated diploid strain WW17A showed better growth and 4.5-6.5% higher ethanol yields at pH 2.7 than the original strains. Haploid strain WW12T4 obtained from mutated diploid strain WW12T showed 1.25-1.50 times and 2.8-4.7 times higher total cell number and cell viability, respectively, than the original strains at 42°C. Strain AT, which had significantly improved acid- and thermo-tolerance, was developed by mating strain WW17A1 with WW12T4. Batch fermentation at 41°C and pH 3.5 showed that the ethanol concentration and yield achieved during fermentation by strain AT were 55.4 g/L and 72.5%, respectively, which were 10 g/L and 13.4% higher than that of the original strain WW. The present study demonstrates that continuous cultivation followed by haploidization and mating is a powerful approach for enhancing the tolerance of industrial strains. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and/or bacteria to enhancing plant drought tolerance under natural soil conditions: effectiveness of autochthonous or allochthonous strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, N; Armada, E; Duque, E; Roldán, A; Azcón, R

    2015-02-01

    Autochthonous microorganisms [a consortium of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] were assayed and compared to Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri), Bacillus megaterium (Bm) or Pseudomonas putida (Psp) and non-inoculation on Trifolium repens in a natural arid soil under drought conditions. The autochthonous bacteria Bt and the allochthonous bacteria Psp increased nutrients and the relative water content and decreased stomatal conductance, electrolyte leakage, proline and APX activity, indicating their abilities to alleviate the drought stress. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly enhanced plant growth, nutrient uptake and the relative water content, particularly when associated with specific bacteria minimizing drought stress-imposed effects. Specific combinations of autochthonous or allochthonous inoculants also contributed to plant drought tolerance by changing proline and antioxidative activities. However, non-inoculated plants had low relative water and nutrients contents, shoot proline accumulation and glutathione reductase activity, but the highest superoxide dismutase activity, stomatal conductance and electrolyte leakage. Microbial activities irrespective of the microbial origin seem to be coordinately functioning in the plant as an adaptive response to modulated water stress tolerance and minimizing the stress damage. The autochthonous AM fungi with Bt or Psp and those allochthonous Ri with Bm or Psp inoculants increased water stress alleviation. The autochthonous Bt showed the greatest ability to survive under high osmotic stress compared to the allochthonous strains, but when single inoculated or associated with Ri or AM fungi were similarly efficient in terms of physiological and nutritional status and in increasing plant drought tolerance, attenuating and compensating for the detrimental effect of water limitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Salinity tolerance of halophyte Atriplex nummularia L. grown under increasing NaCl levels Tolerância à salinidade da halófita Atriplex nummularia L. cultivada em níveis crescentes de NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro A.M. de Araújo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports effects of salt stress on growth, K+ nutrition and organic composition of Atriplex nummularia. The upper limit of the NaCl gradient imposed on the plants was close to seawater salinity (600 mM. An external NaCl of 150 mM improved the growth of this species, which corroborates its halophytic nature. Evidence show that Atriplex nummularia was responsive to NaCl, but the mechanisms of this response are still not known. In such stress condition, Na+ and Cl- accumulation in leaves was far greater than that in roots; therefore salinity tolerance of Atriplex nummularia is not due to ion exclusion mechanism. In spite of a reduction of K+ content of tissues under salinity conditions, no corresponding physiological relevance of this in terms of growth was found. The high affinity of root cells for Na+ during uptake and, probably, its subsequent sequestration into cell vacuoles and structures of protection seems to contribute to osmotic adjustment as an increase in relative water content (RWC of leaves was observed. NaCl caused a decrease in total soluble proteins and chlorophylls; the relevance of this is discussed in terms of mechanisms of salinity tolerance. The ability of Atriplex nummularia plants to keep Na+ and Cl- away from enzymes and cytosolic structures, together with an effective osmotic adjustment, is suggested as having a role in its tolerance to high salinity.O presente estudo relata os efeitos do estresse salino no crescimento, na nutrição de K+ e na composição orgânica de Atriplex nummularia. A maior concentração de NaCl imposta às plantas foi similar a da salinidade da água do mar (600 mM. Uma concentração externa de 150 mM de NaCl estimulou o crescimento da espécie o que, em parte, explica seu caráter halofítico. As evidências mostram que a Atriplex nummularia foi receptiva ao NaCl, porém os mecanismos envolvidos são ainda esperados. Em tais condições de estresse a acumulação de Na+ e Cl

  8. Evidence for the involvement of hydraulic root or shoot adjustments as mechanisms underlying water deficit tolerance in two Sorghum bicolor genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutka, Moira R; Manzur, Milena E; Vitali, Victoria A; Micheletto, Sandra; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2016-03-15

    Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is an ancient drought-tolerant crop with potential to sustain high yields even in those environments where water is limiting. Understanding the performance of this species in early phenological stages could be a useful tool for future yield improvement programs. The aim of this work was to study the response of Sorghum seedlings under water deficit conditions in two genotypes (RedLandB2 and IS9530) that are currently employed in Argentina. Morphological and physiological traits were studied to present an integrated analysis of the shoot and root responses. Although both genotypes initially developed a conserved and indistinguishable response in terms of drought tolerance parameters (growth rate, biomass reallocation, etc.), water regulation displayed different underlying strategies. To avoid water loss, both genotypes adjusted their plant hydraulic resistance at different levels: RedLandB2 regulated shoot resistance through stomata (isohydric strategy), while IS9530 controlled root resistance (anisohydric strategy). Moreover, only in IS9530 was root hydraulic conductance restricted in the presence of HgCl2, in agreement with water movement through cell-to-cell pathways and aquaporins activity. The different responses between genotypes suggest a distinct strategy at the seedling stage and add new information that should be considered when evaluating Sorghum phenotypic plasticity in changing environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The precipitation response to the desiccation of Lake Chad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauwaet D.; VanWeverberg K.; vanLipzig, N. P. M., Weverberg, K. V., Ridderb, K. D., and Goyens, C.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the semi-arid African Sahel, Lake Chad has shrunk from a surface area of 25000 km2 in 1960 to about 1350 km2 due to a series of droughts and anthropogenic influences. The disappearance of such a large open-water body can be expected to have a noticeable effect on the meteorology in the surroundings of the lake. The impact could extend even further to the west as westward propagating convective systems pass Lake Chad in the rainfall season. This study examines the sensitivity of the regional hydrology and convective processes to the desiccation of the lake using a regional atmospheric model. Three Lake Chad scenarios are applied reflecting the situation in 1960, the current situation and a potential future scenario in which the lake and the surrounding wetlands have disappeared. The model simulations span the months July-September in 2006, which includes the rainfall season in the Lake Chad area. Total precipitation amounts and the components of the hydrological cycle are found to be hardly affected by the existence of the lake. A filled Lake Chad does, however, increase the precipitation at the east side of the lake. The model results indicate that the boundary layer moisture and temperature are significantly altered downwind of the lake. By investigating a mesoscale convective system (MCS) case, this is found to affect the development and progress of the system. At first, the MCS is intensified by the more unstable boundary layer air but the persistence of the system is altered as the cold pool propagation becomes less effective. The proposed mechanism is able to explain the differences in the rainfall patterns nearby Lake Chad between the scenarios. This highlights the local sensitivity to the desiccation of Lake Chad whereas the large-scale atmospheric processes are not affected.

  10. Open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier and hybrid solar/electric absorption refrigeration system. Annual report, January 1993--December 1993. Calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmo, B.G.; Thornbloom, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This annual report presents work performed during calendar year 1993 by the Florida Solar Energy Center under contract to the US Department of Energy. Two distinctively different solar powered indoor climate control systems were analyzed: the open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier, and an improved efficiency absorption system which may be fired by flat plate solar collectors. Both tasks represent new directions relative to prior FSEC research in Solar Cooling and Dehumidification.

  11. Developing a Standard Method of Test for Packaged, Solid-Desiccant Based Dehumidification Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    A draft Method of Test (MOT) has been proposed for packaged, air-to-air, desiccant-based dehumidifier systems that incorporate a thermally-regenerated desiccant material for dehumidification. This MOT is intended to function as the ''system'' testing and rating compliment to the desiccant ''component'' (desiccant wheels and/or cassettes) MOT (ASHRAE 1998) and rating standard (ARI 1998) already adopted by industry. This draft standard applies to ''packaged systems'' that: Use desiccants for dehumidification of conditioned air for buildings; Use heated air for regeneration of the desiccant material; Include fans for moving process and regeneration air; May include other system components for filtering, pre-cooling, post-cooling, or heating conditioned air; and May include other components for humidification of conditioned air. The proposed draft applies to four different system operating modes depending on whether outdoor or indoor air is used for process air and regeneration air streams . Only the ''ventilation'' mode which uses outdoor air for both process and regeneration inlets is evaluated in this paper. Performance of the dehumidification system is presented in terms that would be most familiar and useful to designers of building HVAC systems to facilitate integration of desiccant equipment with more conventional hardware. Parametric performance results from a modified, commercial desiccant dehumidifier undergoing laboratory testing were used as data input to evaluate the draft standard. Performance results calculated from this experimental input, results from an error-checking/heat-balance verification test built into the standard, and estimated comparisons between desiccant and similarly performing conventional dehumidification equipment are calculated and presented. Some variations in test procedures are suggested to aid in analytical assessment of individual component performance

  12. Cover Your Cough! A Short and Simple Activity to Demonstrate the Antimicrobial Effect of Desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cook Easterwood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many undergraduate microbiology laboratory manuals include exercises demonstrating the antimicrobial effects of physical agents, such as UV light and heat, and chemical agents, such as disinfectants and antibiotics (3, 4. There is, however, a lack of exercises examining the effects of desiccation on bacterial growth and survival. This particular form of antimicrobial control is especially relevant today with an increased emphasis on coughing and sneezing into one’s sleeve or a tissue, where microbes will not contaminate hands and will eventually desiccate and die (2. Desiccation can have bacteriostatic or bactericidal effects depending on the species, the material on which the organism has desiccated, and the length of time. The absence of water can damage many cellular components, including enzymes, nucleic acids, and cell membranes (1. However, many prokaryotes have some degree of resistance to desiccation, with Escherichia coli surviving around 24 hours and Bacillus species surviving upwards of 300 years, though these numbers can vary due to a number of confounding factors (5. Some of these factors include the method by which desiccation occurred, whether desiccation occurred in a natural or laboratory situation, and the species itself (5. To address the effects of desiccation on bacterial growth and survival, a short, simple exercise was developed. By inoculating various materials with bacterial cultures and allowing them to air-dry for 24 hours, students can visualize the effects of desiccation by analyzing the growth, or lack thereof, when organisms are transferred to nutrient agar plates. This exercise has been used in a health professions microbiology course as well as a microbiology course for biology and biochemistry majors. It is short enough to be conducted during a standard lecture period or during a longer laboratory period in conjunction with other experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of physical agents on microbial

  13. Heat Shock Followed by Priming Increases the Quality of Agropyron elongatum Seeds under Accelerated Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe AKBARPOUR BAHREH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the possibilities of obtaining primed seeds that maintain high germination quality and the same longevity as the untreated seeds. For Tall wheatgrass tested, we found that the desired longevity could be obtained by keeping the seeds under heat shock for a period of several hours, after a priming treatment. Decreasing germination and seedling vigour in BAP 25 and 50 ppm, for 24 priming, did not happen again due to such a treatment. In addition, following priming, heat shock affects the initial quality of primed seeds in some treatments. Optimal temperature was strongly duration dependent. The method was applied to obtain primed seeds without the loss of storability, which is similar to those procedures used to induce desiccation tolerance in germinated seeds and acquire thermo tolerance in plant vegetative tissues.

  14. Fault-Tolerant Control of ANPC Three-Level Inverter Based on Order-Reduction Optimal Control Strategy under Multi-Device Open-Circuit Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Zhou; Wang, Chun-Jie; Lin, Fang-Li; Li, Shi-Xiang

    2017-10-31

    The multi-device open-circuit fault is a common fault of ANPC (Active Neutral-Point Clamped) three-level inverter and effect the operation stability of the whole system. To improve the operation stability, this paper summarized the main solutions currently firstly and analyzed all the possible states of multi-device open-circuit fault. Secondly, an order-reduction optimal control strategy was proposed under multi-device open-circuit fault to realize fault-tolerant control based on the topology and control requirement of ANPC three-level inverter and operation stability. This control strategy can solve the faults with different operation states, and can works in order-reduction state under specific open-circuit faults with specific combined devices, which sacrifices the control quality to obtain the stability priority control. Finally, the simulation and experiment proved the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  15. Laboratory and Modeling Evaluations in Support of Field Testing for Desiccation at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2011-02-23

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau includes testing of the desiccation technology as a potential technology to be used in conjunction with surface infiltration control to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. Laboratory and modeling efforts were conducted to investigate technical uncertainties related to the desiccation process and its impact on contaminant transport. This information is intended to support planning, operation, and interpretation of a field test for desiccation in the Hanford Central Plateau.

  16. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg{sup -1}. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: > Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. > Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. > The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  17. Desiccant-Based Combined Systems: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Development and Testing Final Report- Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, J

    2005-05-06

    This report summarizes the results of a research and development (R&D) program to design and optimize an active desiccant-vapor compression hybrid rooftop system. The primary objective was to combine the strengths of both technologies to produce a compact, high-performing, energy-efficient system that could accommodate any percentage of outdoor air and deliver essentially any required combination of temperature and humidity, or sensible heat ratio (SHR). In doing so, such a product would address the significant challenges imposed on the performance capabilities of conventional packaged rooftop equipment by standards 62 and 90.1 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. The body of work completed as part of this program built upon previous R&D efforts supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and summarized by the Phase 3b report ''Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC Units'' (Fischer and Sand 2002), in addition to Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000; and Fischer and Sand 2004. All initial design objectives established for this development program were successfully achieved. The performance flexibility desired was accomplished by a down-sized active desiccant wheel that processes only a portion of the supply airflow, which is pre-conditioned by a novel vapor compression cycle. Variable-speed compressors are used to deliver the capacity control required by a system handling a high percentage of outdoor air. An integrated direct digital control system allows for control capabilities not generally offered by conventional packaged rooftop systems. A 3000-cfm prototype system was constructed and tested in the SEMCO engineering test laboratory in Columbia, MO, and was found to operate in an energy-efficient fashion relative to more conventional systems. Most important, the system offered the capability to independently control the supply air temperature and

  18. Physio-biochemical and molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced heavy metal tolerance in highland barley seedlings pre-treated with low-dose gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Ma, Ruonan; Cui, Dongjie; Cao, Qing; Shan, Zhe; Jiao, Zhen

    2017-10-27

    Heavy metal pollution, as a consequence of rapid industrialization and urbanization, poses a threat to highland barley grown in Tibet. This study investigates the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (50-300 Gy) on the physio-biochemical and molecular mechanism of highland barley under heavy metal stress. Growth data showed that 50-Gy gamma irradiation had the maximal beneficial effects on the highland barley seedlings under lead/cadmium stress. The results of oxidative parameters demonstrated that 50-Gy gamma-irradiated seedlings had lower hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents under lead/cadmium stress compared to non-irradiated seedlings. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzyme and proline levels in 50-Gy gamma-irradiated seedlings were drastically higher than those in non-irradiated seedlings under lead/cadmium stress. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the 50-Gy gamma-irradiated seedlings exhibited improved chloroplasts ultrastructure compared with non-irradiated seedlings exposed to lead/cadmium stress. Notably, transcriptional expression analysis showed that 50-Gy gamma irradiation could significantly affect the expression of genes related to heavy metal transport and abscisic acid metabolism under lead/cadmium stress. Collectively, these results provide insights into the physio-biochemical and molecular mechanisms of low-dose-gamma-irradiation-enhanced heavy metal tolerance in highland barley seedlings, thus proposing gamma irradiation as a potential technology to mitigate heavy metal toxicity in crops.

  19. A contribution to the study of mechanical behaviour of concrete structures taking into account the effects of desiccation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, F.X.

    2004-12-01

    In this work, is given a model of the drying influence on the mechanical behaviour of concrete and a reliable anticipating tool is proposed for engineers. The drying of hardened concrete has several consequences on the mechanical properties of concrete. The desiccation shrinkage is the first sign, generating crack visible at the surface level under the form of crackling and core cracking particularly on the account of the presence of aggregates which prevent the shrinkage of the cement paste to make easily. Then, the elastic parameters are strongly affected (decrease of stiffness, of the Poisson coefficient). A simplified model of the stiffness loss during the drying is proposed under the form of an isotropic hydric damage. The model is validated in the unidimensional case with tests results carried out in the LML. With this model, it is possible to estimate with more accuracy the state of the hydric constraints in concrete. Numerical simulations on 3D structures are then proposed. An application to the case of a wall being manufactured is given. The contributions of the model are tested too in the case where the global mechanical response of cylindrical mortar specimens submitted to drying and to compression tests is simulated. The effect of the capillary suction as well as the increase of the elastic limit during drying are then discussed. At last, the contributions of the model for creep calculations and desiccation are presented. (O.M.)

  20. Erasmus Darwin's Deistic Dissent and Didactic Epic Poetry: Promoting Science Education to a Mixed Audience Under the Banner of Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kirsten Anne

    Erasmus Darwin's task as a Deistic Dissenter poet who wished to promote science education to a mixed audience was complex. There was mainstream concern over what Deists and Dissenters actually believed about God, their involvement in science, and, especially, how their published works, whatever the subject, might affect public morality and politics. I argue that Darwin's poetry is primarily in the genre of Lucretian didactic epic but that it also involves elements of other written traditions (literary and non-literary). I focus on English didactic poetry, the theological written traditions of Dissent and Deism, and a particular tradition of erotic satire. The genre of Lucretian didactic epic and the tradition of English didactic poetry are non-identical. In Darwin's Lucretian didactic epic, resemblances to such poems as Pope's Essay on Man challenge ideas about what kind of narrative a didactic poem in the English language can deliver. Techniques from the theological written traditions of Dissent and Deism reflect Darwin's affiliations, signal that science education fits within a larger debate about intellectual freedom, and promote tolerance for differences of opinion about nature. Mimicry of a particular tradition of erotic satire helps to downplay the address to a mixed audience while satirising some common misconceptions about poetry, botany, and women in the period. Darwin's poetry challenges ideas about what people from his community of belief meant to communicate or transmit by writing for the general public, what the general public was entitled to learn, and what poetry was able to teach. Perhaps Darwin's biggest modification of Lucretian didactic epic was that he did not tell his readers exactly what to think, but how.

  1. Infectious Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, freshly isolated CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. This infectious suppressive activity, transferred from CD25+ Treg cells via cell contact, is cell contact–independent and partially mediated by soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The induction of suppressive properties in conventional CD4+ Th cells represents a mechanism underlying the phenomenon of infectious tolerance. This explains previously published conflicting data on the role of TGF-β in CD25+ Treg cell–induced immunosuppression. PMID:12119350

  2. Variation in the Abundance of OsHAK1 Transcript Underlies the Differential Salinity Tolerance of an indica and a japonica Rice Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity imposes a major constraint over the productivity of rice. A set of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs, derived from a cross between the japonica type cultivar (cv. Nipponbare (salinity sensitive and the indica type cv. 9311 (moderately tolerant, was scored using a hydroponics system for their salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. Two of the CSSLs, which share a ∼1.2 Mbp stretch of chromosome 4 derived from cv. Nipponbare, were as sensitive to the stress as cv. Nipponbare itself. Fine mapping based on an F2 population bred from a backcross between one of these CSSLs and cv. 9311 narrowed this region to 95 Kbp, within which only one gene (OsHAK1 exhibited a differential (lower transcript abundance in cv. Nipponbare and the two CSSLs compared to in cv. 9311. The gene was up-regulated by exposure to salinity stress both in the root and the shoot, while a knockout mutant proved to be more salinity sensitive than its wild type with respect to its growth at both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Seedlings over-expressing OsHAK1 were more tolerant than wild type, displaying a superior photosynthetic rate, a higher leaf chlorophyll content, an enhanced accumulation of proline and a reduced level of lipid peroxidation. At the transcriptome level, the over-expression of OsHAK1 stimulated a number of stress-responsive genes as well as four genes known to be involved in Na+ homeostasis and the salinity response (OsHKT1;5, OsSOS1, OsLti6a and OsLti6b. When the stress was applied at booting through to maturity, the OsHAK1 over-expressors out-yielded wild type by 25%, and no negative pleiotropic effects were expressed in plants gown under non-saline conditions. The level of expression of OsHAK1 was correlated with Na+/K+ homeostasis, which implies that the gene should be explored a target for molecular approaches to the improvement of salinity tolerance in rice.

  3. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Soil Desiccation for Vadose Zone Remediation: Report for Fiscal Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.; Oostrom, Mart; Bacon, Diana H.

    2008-02-04

    Apart from source excavation, the options available for the remediation of vadose zone metal and radionuclide contaminants beyond the practical excavation depth (0 to 15 m) are quite limited. Of the available technologies, very few are applicable to the deep vadose zone with the top-ranked candidate being soil desiccation. An expert panel review of the work on infiltration control and supplemental technologies identified a number of knowledge gaps that would need to be overcome before soil desiccation could be deployed. The report documents some of the research conducted in the last year to fill these knowledge gaps. This work included 1) performing intermediate-scale laboratory flow cell experiments to demonstrate the desiccation process, 2) implementing a scalable version of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases–Water-Air-Energy (STOMP-WAE), and 3) performing numerical experiments to identify the factors controlling the performance of a desiccation system.

  5. Low consumption air conditioning. Desiccation and evaporation; Climatisation basse consommation. Dessication et evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This technical note recalls the principle of air treatment by desiccation and evaporative cooling and gives some cost and performance indications about this technique. An example of realization is presented. (J.S.)

  6. Genetic and molecular analyses of natural variation indicate CBF2 as a candidate gene for underlying a freezing tolerance quantitative trait locus in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Blanco, C.; Gomez-Mena, C.; Llorente, F.; Koornneef, M.; Salinas, J.; Martinez-Zapater, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Natural variation for freezing tolerance is a major component of adaptation and geographic distribution of plant species. However, little is known about the genes and molecular mechanisms that determine its naturally occurring diversity. We have analyzed the intraspecific freezing tolerance

  7. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... at hand. The respect conception therefore seems to be at best a theoretical idea belonging in ideal-theory, not a useful practical solution to actual conflicts under conditions of pluralism....

  8. Preliminary investigation of microbiological effect for radioactive waste disposal system. 1. Experimental investigation of tolerance of some bacterias under alkaline and reducing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yui, Mikazu; Mihara, Morihiro; Fukunaga, Sakae; Asano, Hidekazu.

    1995-01-01

    Activities and tolerance of some bacteria were investigated under alkaline and reducing conditions for geological disposal. A fermenter was used to control pH and Eh with a liquid culture inoculated with sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methane-producing bacteria (MPB) and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). Growth of SRB was obtained at maximum pH 8.6 (Eh -340 mV) or maximum Eh -100 mV (pH 7). Ranges of Eh for the growth of MPB and SOB were estimated to be less than -210 mV at pH8, and more than +240 mV at pH 7.5, respectively. Activity for SOB was not observed in the pH range more than 8. (author)

  9. Research and development needs for desiccant cooling technology 1992--1997. (Supplement to the NREL report, Desiccant Cooling: State-of-the-Art Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A A

    1992-12-01

    This report is a supplement to Desiccant Cooling: State-of-the-Art Assessment (NREL/TP-254-4147, DE93000013). In this supplement document we have described a detailed program assuming sufficient funding to implement the R&D activities needed. Desiccant dehumidification is a mature technology for industrial applications, and in recent years the technology has been used for air conditioning a number of institutional and commercial buildings. Our proposal is based on argumentative discussions at various national meetings with leaders of the technology. The goal is the penetration of the broad air conditioning market. This work is funded by the Buildings technology Office of the US Department of Energy.

  10. Impact of Desiccation of Aral Sea on the Regional Climate of Central Asia Using WRF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashish; Huang, Huei-Ping; Zavialov, Peter; Khan, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the impacts of the desiccation of the Aral Sea and large-scale climate change on the regional climate of Central Asia in the post-1960 era. A series of climate downscaling experiments for the 1960's and 2000's decades were performed using the Weather Research and Forecast model at 12-km horizontal resolution. To quantify the impacts of the changing surface boundary condition, a set of simulations with an identical lateral boundary condition but different extents of the Aral Sea were performed. It was found that the desiccation of the Aral Sea leads to more snow (and less rain) as desiccated winter surface is relatively much colder than water surface. In summer, desiccation led to substantial warming over the Aral Sea. These impacts were largely confined to within the area covered by the former Aral Sea and its immediate vicinity, although desiccation of the Sea also led to minor cooling over the greater Central Asia in winter. A contrasting set of simulations with an identical surface boundary condition but different lateral boundary conditions produced more identifiable changes in regional climate over the greater Central Asia which was characterized by a warming trend in both winter and summer. Simulations also showed that while the desiccation of the Aral Sea has significant impacts on the local climate over the Sea, the climate over the greater Central Asia on inter-decadal time scale was more strongly influenced by the continental or global-scale climate change on that time scale.

  11. Effect of different arrangements of sector on the performance of desiccant wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Laxmikant; Yadav, Avadhesh

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, desiccant wheel is divided into three sections, namely process, regeneration and the third small section or sector (TSS). The Performance of the desiccant wheel changes when TSS is installed in different positions. So this study numerically investigated the position of TSS in the desiccant wheel by installing the TSS in four different arrangements. In the first arrangement there is only two sections i.e. process and regeneration, in the second arrangement the TSS has been installed in the process section while in the third arrangement, it has been installed in the regeneration portion of the desiccant wheel. In the fourth arrangement, the same TSS section has been installed in such a manner that half the portion of the TSS is in regeneration side and remaining half is in the process side. A comparative performance study among these arrangements of desiccant wheel reveals that for low exit humidity, TSS should be installed in the process side while for the air conditioning application (where humidity is expected to be moderate, DCOP should be high and the increase in temperature of process air should be less), TSS be installed on the regeneration side of the desiccant wheel.

  12. Energy saving effect of desiccant ventilation system using Wakkanai siliceous shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Yuki; Togawa, Jun-ya; Nagano, Katsunori; Kazuyo, Tsuzuki

    2017-10-01

    The nuclear power station accident resulting from the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster has resulted in a constrained electricity supply. However, in this Asian region there is high temperature and high humidity and consequently dehumidification process requires a huge amount of energy. This is the reason for the increasing energy consumption in the residential and commercial sectors. Accordingly, a high efficiency air-conditioning system is needed to be developed. The desiccant ventilation system is effective to reduce energy consumption for the dehumidification process. This system is capable of dehumidifying without dew condensing unlike a conventional air-conditioning system. Then we focused on Wakkanai Siliceous Shale (WSS) as a desiccant material to develop a new desiccant ventilation system. This is low priced, high performance, new type of thing. The aim of this study is to develop a desiccant ventilation unit using the WSS rotor which can be regenerated with low-temperature by numerical calculation. The results of performance prediction of the desiccant unit, indicate that it is possible to regenerate the WSS rotor at low-temperature of between 35 - 45 °C. In addition, we produced an actual measurement for the desiccant unit and air-conditioning unit. This air-conditioning system was capable to reduce roughly 40 % of input energy consumption.

  13. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  14. Epidermal transmittance and phenolic composition in leaves of atrazine-tolerant and atrazine-sensitive cultivars of Brassica napus grown under enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, L.C.; Veit, M.; Bornman, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the atrazine-tolerant mutant Stallion and the atrazine-sensitive cv. Paroll of Brassica napus L., which were grown under either visible light or with the addition of UV-B radiation (280–320 nm) for 15 days. The mutant has been shown to be sensitive to high levels of visible light as compared to the atrazine-sensitive cultivar and therefore we wished to determine plant response to UV-B radiation with respect to potential pigment changes, certain anatomical features, radiation penetration and partial photosynthesis. With regard to pigment changes, we were particularly interested in whether the compositional shift in flavonol pigments under enhanced UV-B radiation, previously suggested to favour increased antioxidant activity, is confined to the adaxial epidermis, which generally receives most UV-B radiation or whether the pigment shift is also inducible in the abaxial epidermis.As was to be expected, the penetration of UV-B radiation (310 nm) was lower in the UV-B-exposed plants, which was correlated with an increased amount of UV-screening pigments in the adaxial and abaxial epidermal layers. The main flavonoid glycosides showed the largest shift from kaempferol to quercetin as aglycone moiety in the adaxial epidermal layer. However, in the abaxial epidermal layer the hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives and kaempferol glycosides were predominant. Penetration of 430 nm light was higher after UV-B exposure, and probably contributed to the fact that photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II was unchanged or higher after UV-B exposure. UV-B radiation decreased leaf area in the atrazine-tolerant mutant only. Both cultivars showed an increased leaf thickness after UV-B exposure due to cell elongation mainly of the palisade tissue. This was especially evident in the mutant

  15. A BAX inhibitor-1 gene in Capsicum annuum is induced under various abiotic stresses and endows multi-tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbat, Mohammad; Zeba, Naheed; Kim, Seong Ryong; Hong, Choo Bong

    2009-10-15

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly conserved cellular suicide process important in developmental processes and elimination of damaged cells upon environmental stresses. Among the important regulators of PCD, much interest has been centered on BCL2-associated x protein (BAX) as the pro-PCD factor. On the other hand, BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1) has been implicated as an anti-PCD factor that balances out the activity of BAX in the developmental processes and responses to environment. A cDNA clone coding a BI-1 gene was isolated from a cDNA library of heat-stressed hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) and named as CaBI-1. This gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 248 amino acids encoding a BI-1 protein. Genomic DNA-blot analysis for CaBI-1 suggested one or two loci in the C. annuum genome. Transcription of CaBI-1 was induced in response to high or low temperatures, drought, high salinity, flooding and heavy metal stresses, and ABA. We introduced the ORF of CaBI-1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter (P(35S)) into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The P(35S):CaBI-1 transgenic plants displayed markedly improved tolerance to high temperature, water deficit, and high salinity in comparison to the control plants. The results indicate that CaBI-1 is a BI-1 gene of which expression induced under various abiotic stresses and endows tolerance to several types of environmental stresses.

  16. Provision of water by halite deliquescence for Nostoc commune biofilms under Mars relevant surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänchen, Jochen; Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by findings of new mineral related water sources for organisms under extremely dry conditions on Earth we studied in an interdisciplinary approach the water sorption behaviour of halite, soil component and terrestrial Nostoc commune biofilm under Mars relevant environmental conditions. Physicochemical methods served for the determination of water sorption equilibrium data and survival of heterotrophic bacteria in biofilm samples with different water contents was assured by recultivation. Deliquescence of halite provides liquid water at temperatures hygroscopic and tends to store water at lower humidity values. Survival tests showed that a large proportion of the Alphaproteobacteria dominated microbiota associated to N. commune is very desiccation tolerant and water uptake from saturated NaCl solutions (either by direct uptake of brine or adsorption of humidity) did not enhance recultivability in long-time desiccated samples. Still, a minor part can grow under highly saline conditions. However, the salinity level, although unfavourable for the host organism, might be for parts of the heterotrophic microbiota no serious hindrance for growing in salty Mars-like environments.

  17. Improved stress tolerance and productivity in transgenic rice plants constitutively expressing the Oryza sativa glutathione synthetase OsGS under paddy field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Im; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Jin-Ju; Mok, Ji-Eun; Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Il-Sup; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2017-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species, which increase under various environmental stresses, have deleterious effects on plants. An important antioxidant, glutathione, is used to detoxify reactive oxygen species in plant cells and is mainly produced by two enzymes: gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). To evaluate the functional roles of the glutathione synthetase gene (OsGS) in rice, we generated four independent transgenic rice plants (TG1-TG4) that overexpressed OsGS under the control of the constitutively expressed OsCc1 promoter. When grown under natural paddy field conditions, the TG rice plants exhibited greater growth development, higher chlorophyll content, and higher GSH/GSSH ratios than control wild-type (WT) rice plants. Subsequently, the TG rice plants enhanced redox homeostasis by preventing hydroperoxide-mediated membrane damage, which improved their adaptation to environmental stresses. As a result, TG rice plants improved rice grain yield and total biomass following increases in panicle number and number of spikelets per panicle, despite differences in climate during the cultivation periods of 2014 and 2015. Overall, our results indicate that OsGS overexpression improved redox homeostasis by enhancing the glutathione pool, which resulted in greater tolerance to environmental stresses in the paddy fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Heat and mass transfer analysis of a desiccant dehumidifier matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report documents the SERI Single-Blow Test Facility's design, fabrication, and testing for characterizing desiccant dehumidifiers for solar cooling applications. The first test article, a silica-gel parallel-plate dehumidifier with highly uniform passages, was designed and fabricated. Transient heat and mass transfer data and pressure drop data across the dehumidifier were obtained. Available heat and mass transfer models were extended to the parallel-place geometry, and the experimental data were compared with model predictions. Pressure drop measurements were also compared with model predictions of the fully developed laminar flow theory. The comparisons between the lumped-capacitance model and the experimental data were satisfactory. The pressure drop data compared satisfactorily with the theory (within 15%). A solid-side resistance model that is more detailed and does not assume symmetrical diffusion in particles was recommended for performance. This study has increased our understanding of the heat and mass transfer in silica gel parallel-plate dehumidifiers.

  19. Tolerância à dessecação e longevidade de sementes germinadas de Sesbania virgata (Cav.) Pers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Maria Cecília Dias; Faria, José Marcio Rocha; José, Anderson Cleiton; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Seed desiccation tolerance (DT) and longevity are necessary for better dissemination of plant species and establishment of soil seed bank. They are acquired by orthodox seeds during the maturation phase of development and lost upon germination. DT can be re-induced in germinated seeds by an

  20. MAPK-mediated regulation of growth and essential oil composition in a salt-tolerant peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Wang, Wenwen; Li, Guilong; Guo, Kai; Harvey, Paul; Chen, Quan; Zhao, Zhongjuan; Wei, Yanli; Li, Jishun; Yang, Hetong

    2016-11-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) is an important and commonly used flavoring agent worldwide, and salinity is a major stress that limits plant growth and reduces crop productivity. This work demonstrated the metabolic responses of essential oil production including the yield and component composition, gene expression, enzyme activity, and protein activation in a salt-tolerant peppermint Keyuan-1 with respect to NaCl stress. Our results showed that Keyuan-1 maintained normal growth and kept higher yield and content of essential oils under NaCl stress than wild-type (WT) peppermint.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and qPCR results showed that compared to WT seedlings, a 150-mM NaCl stress exerted no obvious changes in essential oil composition, transcriptional level of enzymes related to essential oil metabolism, and activity of pulegone reductase (Pr) in Keyuan-1 peppermint which preserved the higher amount of menthol and menthone as well as the lower content of menthofuran upon the 150-mM NaCl stress. Furthermore, it was noticed that a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein exhibited a time-dependent activation in the Keyuan-1 peppermint and primarily involved in the modulation of the essential oil metabolism in the transcript and enzyme levels during the 12-day treatment of 150 mM NaCl. In all, our data elucidated the effect of NaCl on metabolic responses of essential oil production, and demonstrated the MAPK-dependent regulation mechanism of essential oil biosynthesis in the salt-tolerant peppermint, providing scientific basis for the economic and ecological utilization of peppermint in saline land.

  1. Innovative PCM-desiccant packet to provide dry microclimate and improve performance of cooling vest in hot environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itani, Mariam; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ghali, Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A PCM and desiccant packet is proposed for use in personal cooling vest to keep dry air next to skin. • A PCM-Desiccant model for clothed heated wet cylinder is developed and validated experimentally. • The microclimate air temperature was 0.6 °C higher in PCM-Desiccant case compared to PCM-only case. • Microclimate humidity content decreased due to desiccant from 21.23 to 19.74 g/kg dry air. • PCM melted fraction increased due to desiccant from 0.24 to 0.5. - Abstract: A novel combination of phase change material (PCM) and a solid desiccant layer is proposed for the aim of maintaining dry cool microclimate air adjacent to wet warm skin and hence improve PCM performance in cooling vests used in hot humid environment. A fabric-PCM-Desiccant model is developed to predict the temperature and moisture content of the microclimate air layer in the presence of a PCM-Desiccant packet. The developed model is validated through experiments conducted on a wet clothed heated cylinder for the two cases of using (i) a PCM only packet and (ii) a PCM-Desiccant packet. Microclimate air temperatures and humidity content as well as PCM and desiccant temperatures were measured experimentally and were compared with predicted values by the fabric-PCM-Desiccant model. Good agreement was attained with a maximum relative error of 7% in measured temperatures. A decrease is observed in the humidity content of the microclimate air in the presence of the solid desiccant from 21.23 g/kg dry air to 19.74 g/kg dry air and an increase in the melted fraction of the PCM at the end of the experiment from 0.24 to 0.5.

  2. Tolerância de cultivares de feijão ao s-metolachlor em diferentes condições de aplicação Dry bean to s-metolachlor tolerance under different spray conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O s-metolachlor se apresenta como excelente opção ao produtor de feijão, por proporcionar ótimo controle de gramíneas e de algumas latifoliadas. No entanto, problemas de toxicidade deste herbicida às plantas de feijoeiro são observados com freqüência em condições de campo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho agronômico e a tolerância de cinco cultivares de feijão (Jalo Precoce, Xamego, Carioca, Rudá e Pérola ao smetolachlor, sob duas condições de irrigação nas aplicações do herbicida. O trabalho foi conduzido em campo, no plantio das "águas", em um solo Podzólico Câmbico, fase terraço, com 35 dag kg-1 de argila e 3,6 dag kg-1 de matéria orgânica. Foram realizados dois ensaios, tendo como única diferença na metodologia entre ambos o fato de que no primeiro aplicou-se uma lâmina de 20 mm de "chuva" imediatamente antes do tratamento com o herbicida e, no segundo, a aplicação da mesma lâmina foi imediatamente após a aplicação do herbicida. Foram avaliadas seis doses do s-metolachlor (0; 0,48; 0,72; 0,96; 1,20; e 1,92 kg ha-1, associadas aos cinco cultivares citados. Não se observou toxicidade do s-metolachlor, nas doses avaliadas, a nenhum dos cultivares de feijão, independentemente das condições de irrigação antes ou após a aplicação do herbicida.The s-metolachlor is an excellent option for bean growers, since it provides effective control of grass and some broad leaf weeds. Even so, toxicity problems caused by this herbicide to the bean plants are observed frequently under field conditions. The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance and tolerance of five bean cultivars (Jalo Precoce, Xamego, Carioca, Rudá, and Pérola to s-metolachlor, under two irrigation conditions close to herbicide application. The work was conducted in the field, in the rainy season in a Cambic Podzolic soil, terrace phase, with 35 dag kg-1 of clay and 3.6 dag kg-1 of organic matter

  3. A low-cost-solar liquid desiccant system for residential cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Joel D., III

    The use of liquid desiccants for dehumidification of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) process air is becoming a more promising concept as the drive for energy conservation continues to grow. Recently, liquid desiccant systems have been implemented on the commercial level in conjunction with evaporative coolers and have recorded energy savings upwards of 50%. The aim of this research is to test the potential liquid desiccant systems have on the residential level when paired with a conventional vapor compression cycle and to construct a system that would overcome some of its barriers to the residential market. A complete low-cost-solar liquid desiccant system was designed, constructed, and tested in the Off-Grid Zero Emissions Building (OGZEB) at the Florida State University. Key design characteristics include turbulent process air flow through the conditioner and airside heating in the regenerator. The system was tested in the two following ways: (1) for the energy savings while maintaining a constant temperature over a twenty four hour period and (2) for the energy savings over a single cooling cycle. The liquid desiccant system achieved a maximum energy savings of 38% over a complete day and 52% over a single cooling cycle. It was projected that the system has the potential to save 1064 kWh over the course of a year. When combined with a renewable source of heat for regeneration, liquid desiccant systems become very cost effective. The levelized cost of energy for the combination of the liquid desiccant system and solar thermal collectors was calculated to be 7.06 C/kWh with a payback period of 4.4 years. This research provides evidence of the technology's potential on the residential sector and suggests ways for it to become competitive in the market.

  4. Desiccation resistance: effect of cuticular hydrocarbons and water content in Drosophila melanogaster adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Ferveur

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The insect cuticle covers the whole body and all appendages and has bi-directionnal selective permeability: it protects against environmental stress and pathogen infection and also helps to reduce water loss. The adult cuticle is often associated with a superficial layer of fatty acid-derived molecules such as waxes and long chain hydrocarbons that prevent rapid dehydration. The waterproofing properties of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs depend on their chain length and desaturation number. Drosophila CH biosynthesis involves an enzymatic pathway including several elongase and desaturase enzymes. Methods The link between desiccation resistance and CH profile remains unclear, so we tested (1 experimentally selected desiccation-resistant lines, (2 transgenic flies with altered desaturase expression and (3 natural and laboratory-induced CH variants. We also explored the possible relationship between desiccation resistance, relative water content and fecundity in females. Results We found that increased desiccation resistance is linked with the increased proportion of desaturated CHs, but not with their total amount. Experimentally-induced desiccation resistance and CH variation both remained stable after many generations without selection. Conversely, flies with a higher water content and a lower proportion of desaturated CHs showed reduced desiccation resistance. This was also the case in flies with defective desaturase expression in the fat body. Discussion We conclude that rapidly acquired desiccation resistance, depending on both CH profile and water content, can remain stable without selection in a humid environment. These three phenotypes, which might be expected to show a simple relationship, turn out to have complex physiological and genetic links.

  5. A desiccant-enhanced evaporative air conditioner: Numerical model and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Jason; Kozubal, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied a new process combining liquid desiccants and evaporative cooling. ► We modeled the process using a finite-difference numerical model. ► We measured the performance of the process with experimental prototypes. ► Results show agreement between model and experiment of ±10%. ► Results add confidence to previous modeled energy savings estimates of 40–85%. - Abstract: This article presents modeling and experimental results on a recently proposed liquid desiccant air conditioner, which consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler. Each stage is a stack of channel pairs, where a channel pair is a process air channel separated from an exhaust air channel with a thin plastic plate. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film, which lines the process air channels, removes moisture from the air through a porous hydrophobic membrane. An evaporating water film wets the surface of the exhaust channels and transfers the enthalpy of vaporization from the liquid desiccant into an exhaust airstream, cooling the desiccant and enabling lower outlet humidity. The second stage is a counterflow indirect evaporative cooler that siphons off and uses a portion of the cool-dry air exiting the second stage as the evaporative sink. The objectives of this article are to (1) present fluid-thermal numerical models for each stage, (2) present experimental results of prototypes for each stage, and (3) compare the modeled and experimental results. Several experiments were performed on the prototypes over a range of inlet temperatures and humidities, process and exhaust air flow rates, and desiccant concentrations and flow rates. The model predicts the experiments within ±10%.

  6. A Liquid Desiccant Cycle for Dehumidification and Fresh Water Supply in Controlled Environment Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2017-12-01

    Controlled environment agriculture allows the production of fresh food indoors from global locations and contexts where it would not otherwise be possible. Growers in extreme climates and urban areas produce food locally indoors, saving thousands of food import miles and capitalizing upon the demand for fresh, tasty, and nutritious food. However, the growing of food, both indoors and outdoors, consumes huge quantities of water - as much as 70-80% of global fresh water supplies. The utilization of liquid desiccants in a closed indoor agriculture cycle provides the possibility of capturing plant-transpired water vapor. The regeneration/desalination of these liquid desiccants offers the potential to recover fresh water for irrigation and also to re-concentrate the desiccants for continued dehumidification. Through the utilization of solar thermal energy, the process can be completed with a very small to zero grid-energy footprint. The primary research in this dissertation focused on two areas: the dehumidification of indoor environments utilizing liquid desiccants inside membrane contactors and the regeneration of these desiccants using membrane distillation. Triple-bore PVDF hollow fiber membranes yielded dehumidification permeance rates around 0.25-0.31 g m-2 h-1 Pa-1 in lab-scale trials. A vacuum membrane distillation unit utilizing PVDF fibers yielded a flux of 2.8-7.0 kg m-2 hr-1. When the membrane contactor dehumidification system was applied in a bench scale controlled environment agriculture setup, the relative humidity levels responded dynamically to both plant transpiration and dehumidification rates, reaching dynamic equilibrium levels during day and night cycles. In addition, recovered fresh water from distillation was successfully applied for irrigation of crops and concentrated desiccants were successfully reused for dehumidification. If applied in practice, the liquid desiccant system for controlled environment agriculture offers the potential to reduce

  7. Efficiency Evaluation of Five-Phase Outer-Rotor Fault-Tolerant BLDC Drives under Healthy and Open-Circuit Faulty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARASHLOO, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fault tolerant motor drives are an interesting subject for many applications such as automotive industries and wind power generation. Among different configurations of these systems, five-phase BLDC drives are gaining more importance which is because of their compactness and high efficiency. Due to replacement of field windings by permanent magnets in their rotor structure, the main sources of power losses in these drives are iron (core losses, copper (winding losses, and inverter unit (semiconductor losses. Although low amplitude of power losses in five-phase BLDC drives is an important aspect for many applications, but their efficiency under faulty conditions is not considered in previous studies. In this paper, the efficiency of an outer-rotor five phase BLDC drive is evaluated under normal and different faulty conditions. Open-circuit fault is considered for one, two adjacent and two non-adjacent faulty phases. Iron core losses are calculated via FEM simulations in Flux-Cedrat software, and moreover, inverter losses and winding copper losses are simulated in MATLAB� environment. Experimental evaluations are conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the entire BLDC drive which verifies the theoretical developments.

  8. Simultaneous decolorization of sulfonated azo dyes and reduction of hexavalent chromium under high salt condition by a newly isolated salt-tolerant strain Bacillus circulans BWL1061.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijie; Liu, Cong; Liu, Liang; You, Yanting; Jiang, Jihong; Zhou, Zhengkun; Dong, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    The co-existence of dyes, Cr(VI) and high concentration of salt in dyeing wastewater causes serious and complex environmental problems. In this study, a salt-tolerant strain Bacillus circulans BWL1061 was reported to simultaneously remove 50mg/L methyl orange and 50mg/L Cr(VI) under the anaerobic condition with 60g/L NaCl. During the decolorization process, the Cr(VI) reduction occurred preferentially over the dye decolorization due to the dominate utilization of electron by Cr(VI). The analysis of enzyme activities suggested that azoreductase, NADH-DCIP reductase, and laccase were associated with decolorization of methyl orange. A possible degradation pathway was proposed based on the metabolites analysis. The decolorization of methyl orange is involved in the symmetric cleavage of azo bond, which formed N,N-dimethyl p-phenylenediamine and 4-amino sulfonic acid, or the asymmetric cleavage of azo bond, which formed 4-(dimethylamino) phenol and 4-diazenylbenzene sulfonic acid. Phytotoxicity assays showed that strain BWL1061 could decrease the toxicity of methyl orange to Triticum aestivum, Pogostemon cablin and Isatis indigotica Fort during the decolorization process. In this study, Bacillus circulans is reported for the first time that could simultaneously remove azo dyes and Cr (VI) under high salt condition. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Theoretical study on volatile organic compound removal and energy performance of a novel heat pump assisted solid desiccant cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei; Zhang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model was established for predicting the volatile organic compound (VOC) removal and energy performance of a novel heat pump assisted solid desiccant cooling system (HP-SDC). The HP-SDC was proposed based on the combination of desiccant rotor with heat pump, and was designed...... for cooling, dehumidification and indoor air cleaning in normal office, commercial or residential buildings. The desiccant rotor was used for dehumidification and indoor air cleaning; the heat pump provided sensible cooling and regeneration heat for the desiccant rotor. The theoretical model consisted of two...

  10. A new photobioreactor concept enabling the production of desiccation induced biotechnological products using terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, S; Strieth, D; Lakatos, M; Muffler, K; Ulber, R

    2014-12-20

    Cyanobacteria offer great potential for the production of biotechnological products for pharmaceutical applications. However, these organisms can only be cultivated efficiently using photobioreactors (PBR). Under submerged conditions though, terrestrial cyanobacteria mostly grow in a suboptimal way, which makes this cultivation-technique uneconomic and thus terrestrial cyanobacteria unattractive. Therefore, a novel emersed photobioreactor (ePBR) has been developed, which can provide the natural conditions for these organisms. Proof of concept as well as first efficiency tests are conducted using the terrestrial cyanobacteria Trichocoleus sociatus as a model organism. The initial maximum growth rate of T. sociatus (0.014±0.001h(-1)) in submerged systems could be increased by 35%. Furthermore, it is now possible to control desiccation-correlated product formation and related metabolic processes. This is shown for the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). In this case the yield of 0.068±0.006g of EPS/g DW could be increased by more than seven times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... at hand. The respect conception therefore seems to be at best a theoretical idea belonging in ideal-theory, not a useful practical solution to actual conflicts under conditions of pluralism....... that avoids various so-called ‘paradoxes of toleration’. The paper first examines whether Forst’s respect conception can be applied descriptively to distinguish between actual patterns of behaviour and classify different acts of toleration. Then the focus is shifted to toleration out of respect as a normative...

  12. Tolerância de juvenis do pampo Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae ao choque agudo de salinidade em laboratório Acute salinity tolerance of juvenile pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Sampaio

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O pampo Trachinotus marginatus é uma espécie com potencial para piscicultura, mas a sua utilização pode ser limitada pelas variações de salinidade comuns em estuários ou em ambientes super-salinos. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a tolerância à salinidade de juvenis de T. marginatus em laboratório. Foram testadas 12 salinidades em duplicata (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65 e 75‰ e um tratamento controle (35‰. Dez peixes (comprimento total: 20,7±2,3mm e peso úmido: 427±113mg foram colocados em tanques plásticos de 3L. A temperatura da água foi mantida em 24ºC com um banho termostatisado, aeração constante e, a cada 24 horas, os meios experimentais foram completamente renovados. Após 96 horas de exposição, as salinidades letais médias inferior e superior, com os respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC 95%, foram estimadas em 6,99‰ (IC 95% = 6,86-7,13‰ e 58,50‰ (IC 95% = 56,81-60,24‰, respectivamente. Estes resultados permitem caracterizar esta espécie como eurialina. O estudo da influência da salinidade sobre T. marginatus deve ser aprofundado, buscando avaliar principalmente os efeitos sobre o crescimento, de modo que seja possível determinar o potencial do seu cultivo em ambientes com diferentes salinidades.The pompano Trachinotus marginatus shows good potential for aquaculture, but the success of its culture might be limited by the salinity fluctuations common in estuaries or in hyper-saline environments. The objective of this work was to establish the salinity tolerance of juvenile T. marginatus under laboratory conditions. Twelve salinities (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65, and 75‰ plus a control (35‰ were tested in duplicate. Groups of ten fish (total length: 20.7±2,3mm and wet weight: 427±113mg were placed in plastic tanks with 3L of water. A water bath was set to control the temperature at 24ºC, water was continuously aerated, and completely exchanged

  13. Salt-tolerant and -sensitive alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars have large variations in defense responses to the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera litura under normal and salt stress condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunting; Liu, Qing; Hettenhausen, Christian; Cao, Guoyan; Tan, Qing; Zhao, Weiye; Lin, Honghui; Wu, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    In nature, plants are often exposed to multiple stress factors at the same time. Yet, little is known about how plants modulate their physiology to counteract simultaneous abiotic and biotic stresses, such as soil salinity and insect herbivory. In this study, insect performance bioassays, phytohormone measurements, quantification of transcripts, and protein determination were employed to study the phenotypic variations of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cultivars in response to insect Spodoptera litura feeding under normal and salt stress condition. When being cultivated in normal soil, the salt-tolerant alfalfa cultivar Zhongmu-1 exhibited lower insect resistance than did the salt-sensitive cultivar Xinjiang Daye. Under salinity stress, the defense responses of Xinjiang Daye were repressed, whereas Zhongmu-1 did not show changes in resistance levels. It is likely that salinity influenced the resistance of Xinjiang Daye through suppressing the accumulation of jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile), which is the bioactive hormone inducing herbivore defense responses, leading to attenuated trypsin proteinase inhibitor (TPI) activity. Furthermore, exogenous ABA supplementation suppressed the insect herbivory-induced JA/JA-Ile accumulation and levels of JAR1 (jasmonate resistant 1) and TPI, and further decreased the resistance of Xinjiang Daye, whereas Zhongmu-1 showed very little response to the increased ABA level. We propose a mechanism, in which high levels of abscisic acid induced by salt treatment may affect the expression levels of JAR1 and consequently decrease JA-Ile accumulation and thus partly suppress the defense of Xinjiang Daye against insects under salt stress. This study provides new insight into the mechanism by which alfalfa responds to concurrent abiotic and biotic stresses.

  14. The genome of Austrofundulus limnaeus offers insights into extreme vertebrate stress tolerance and embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Josiah T; Singh, Param Priya; Romney, Amie L; Riggs, Claire L; Minx, Patrick; Woll, Steven C; Roush, Jake; Warren, Wesley C; Brunet, Anne; Podrabsky, Jason E

    2018-02-20

    The annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus inhabits ephemeral ponds in northern Venezuela, South America, and is an emerging extremophile model for vertebrate diapause, stress tolerance, and evolution. Embryos of A. limnaeus regularly experience extended periods of desiccation and anoxia as a part of their natural history and have unique metabolic and developmental adaptations. Currently, there are limited genomic resources available for gene expression and evolutionary studies that can take advantage of A. limnaeus as a unique model system. We describe the first draft genome sequence of A. limnaeus. The genome was assembled de novo using a merged assembly strategy and was annotated using the NCBI Eukaryotic Annotation Pipeline. We show that the assembled genome has a high degree of completeness in genic regions that is on par with several other teleost genomes. Using RNA-seq and phylogenetic-based approaches, we identify several candidate genes that may be important for embryonic stress tolerance and post-diapause development in A. limnaeus. Several of these genes include heat shock proteins that have unique expression patterns in A. limnaeus embryos and at least one of these may be under positive selection. The A. limnaeus genome is the first South American annual killifish genome made publicly available. This genome will be a valuable resource for comparative genomics to determine the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms that support the unique biology of annual killifishes. In a broader context, this genome will be a valuable tool for exploring genome-environment interactions and their impacts on vertebrate physiology and evolution.

  15. Soil Desiccation Techniques Strategies For Immobilization Of Deep Vadose Contaminants At The Hanford Central Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benecke, M.W.; Chronister, G.B.; Truex, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Deep vadose zone contamination poses some of the most difficult remediation challenges for the protection of groundwater at the Hanford Site where processes and technologies are being developed and tested for use in the on-going effort to remediate mobile contamination in the deep vadose zone, the area deep beneath the surface. Historically, contaminants were discharged to the soil along with significant amounts of water, which continues to drive contaminants deeper in the vadose zone toward groundwater. Soil desiccation is a potential in situ remedial technology well suited for the arid conditions and the thick vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Desiccation techniques could reduce the advance of contaminants by removing the pore water to slow the rate of contaminants movement toward groundwater. Desiccation technologies have the potential to halt or slow the advance of contaminants in unsaturated systems, as well as aid in reduction of contaminants from these same areas. Besides reducing the water flux, desiccation also establishes capillary breaks that would require extensive rewetting to resume pore water transport. More importantly, these techniques have widespread application, whether the need is to isolate radio nuclides or address chemical contaminant issues. Three different desiccation techniques are currently being studied at Hanford.

  16. Rapid reactivation of cyanobacterial photosynthesis and migration upon rehydration of desiccated marine microbial mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun eChennu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Desiccated cyanobacterial mats are the dominant biological feature in the Earth's arid zones. While the response of desiccated cyanobacteria to rehydration is well documented for terrestrial systems, information about the response in marine systems is lacking. We used high temporal resolution hyperspectral imaging, liquid chromatography, pulse-amplitude fluorometry, oxygen microsensors and confocal laser microscopy to study this response in a desiccated microbial mat from Exmouth Gulf, Australia. During the initial 15 minutes after rehydration chlorophyll a concentrations increased 2-5 fold and cyanobacterial photosynthesis was re-established. Although the mechanism behind this rapid increase of chlorophyll a remains unknown, we hypothesize that it involves resynthesis from a precursor stored in desiccated cyanobacteria. The subsequent phase (15 min – 48 h involved migration of the reactivated cyanobacteria towards the mat surface, which led, together with a gradual increase in chlorophyll a, to a further increase in photosynthesis. We conclude that the response involving an increase in chlorophyll a and recovery of photosynthetic activity within minutes after rehydration is common for cyanobacteria from desiccated mats of both terrestrial and aquatic origin. However the response of upward migration and its triggering factor appears to be mat-specific and likely linked to other factors.

  17. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y D; Wang, R Z; Ge, T S; Zheng, X

    2017-01-12

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump's efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  18. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y. D.; Wang, R. Z.; Ge, T. S.; Zheng, X.

    2017-01-01

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8–3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump’s efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications. PMID:28079171

  19. Rapid Reactivation of Cyanobacterial Photosynthesis and Migration upon Rehydration of Desiccated Marine Microbial Mats

    KAUST Repository

    Chennu, Arjun

    2015-12-24

    Desiccated cyanobacterial mats are the dominant biological feature in the Earth’s arid zones. While the response of desiccated cyanobacteria to rehydration is well-documented for terrestrial systems, information about the response in marine systems is lacking. We used high temporal resolution hyperspectral imaging, liquid chromatography, pulse-amplitude fluorometry, oxygen microsensors, and confocal laser microscopy to study this response in a desiccated microbial mat from Exmouth Gulf, Australia. During the initial 15 min after rehydration chlorophyll a concentrations increased 2–5 fold and cyanobacterial photosynthesis was re-established. Although the mechanism behind this rapid increase of chlorophyll a remains unknown, we hypothesize that it involves resynthesis from a precursor stored in desiccated cyanobacteria. The subsequent phase (15 min–48 h) involved migration of the reactivated cyanobacteria toward the mat surface, which led, together with a gradual increase in chlorophyll a, to a further increase in photosynthesis. We conclude that the response involving an increase in chlorophyll a and recovery of photosynthetic activity within minutes after rehydration is common for cyanobacteria from desiccated mats of both terrestrial and marine origin. However, the response of upward migration and its triggering factor appear to be mat-specific and likely linked to other factors.

  20. SOIL DESICCATION TECHNIQUES STRATEGIES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF DEEP VADOSE CONTAMINANTS AT THE HANFORD CENTRAL PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE MW; CHRONISTER GB; TRUEX MJ

    2012-01-30

    Deep vadose zone contamination poses some of the most difficult remediation challenges for the protection of groundwater at the Hanford Site where processes and technologies are being developed and tested for use in the on-going effort to remediate mobile contamination in the deep vadose zone, the area deep beneath the surface. Historically, contaminants were discharged to the soil along with significant amounts of water, which continues to drive contaminants deeper in the vadose zone toward groundwater. Soil desiccation is a potential in situ remedial technology well suited for the arid conditions and the thick vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Desiccation techniques could reduce the advance of contaminants by removing the pore water to slow the rate of contaminants movement toward groundwater. Desiccation technologies have the potential to halt or slow the advance of contaminants in unsaturated systems, as well as aid in reduction of contaminants from these same areas. Besides reducing the water flux, desiccation also establishes capillary breaks that would require extensive rewetting to resume pore water transport. More importantly, these techniques have widespread application, whether the need is to isolate radio nuclides or address chemical contaminant issues. Three different desiccation techniques are currently being studied at Hanford.

  1. Thermal analysis of a direct evaporative cooling system enhancement with desiccant dehumidification for vehicular air conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis was conducted to design a desiccant evaporative cooling system for vehicular air conditioning. • EC is more efficient than the conventional air conditioning when the gasoline price is more than 0.34 $/liter. • Drawbacks of evaporative cooler of increased weight and reduced COP. • A rotary desiccant dehumidifier with generation was combined with evaporative cooling to be more efficient. - Abstract: This manuscript analyzes the sub-systems of evaporative cooler (EC) combined with desiccant dehumidification and regeneration for automotive air conditioning purpose. The thermodynamic and psychometric analysis was conducted to design all evaporative cooling system components in terms of desiccant selection, regeneration process, compact heat exchanger and evaporative cooler. Moreover, the effect of the desiccant, heat exchanger and evaporative performances on the mass flow rate and water sprayed required for evaporative cooling system was investigated. The results show that the theoretical evaporative cooling design will achieve two main objectives: lower fuel consumption and less environmental pollutants. However, it has the two drawbacks in terms of increased weight and reduces the coefficient of performance (COP). The main remark is that evaporating cooling system is more efficient than the conventional air conditioning when the gasoline price is more than 0.34 $/liter.

  2. Natural variation underlies alterations in Nramp aluminum transporter (NRAT1) expression and function that play a key role in rice aluminum tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint for crop production on acid soils that comprise approximately 50% of arable land in the tropics and subtropics. Rice is the most Al tolerant cereal crop, and offers a good model for identifying Al tolerance genes and mechanisms. Here we investigated natur...

  3. Testing and performance analysis of a hollow fiber-based core for evaporative cooling and liquid desiccant dehumidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jradi, Muhyiddine; Riffat, Saffa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an innovative heat and mass transfer core is proposed to provide thermal comfort and humidity control using a hollow fiber contactor with multiple bundles of micro-porous hollow fibers. The hollow fiberbased core utilizes 12 bundles aligned vertically, each with 1,000 packed polypr...... of 47%. Being cheap and simple to design with their attractive heat and mass transfer characteristics and the corresponding large surface area-to-volume ratio, hollow fiber membrane contactors provide a promising alternative for cooling and dehumidification applications....... polypropylene hollow fibers. The proposed core was developed and tested under various operating and ambient conditions as a cooling core for a compact evaporative cooling unit and a dehumidification core for a liquid desiccant dehumidification unit. As a cooling core, the fiber-based evaporative cooler provides...

  4. Sunflower seed protein content in relation to desiccation date and seed moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanak Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of desiccation date and seed moisture content on sunflower seed protein content. The experimental materials were three new parental sunflower lines of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops from Novi Sad, Serbia (L1, L2 and L3. Reglone forte (2 l ha-1 was used for desiccation and it was applied at 7-day intervals from the end of flowering to harvest maturity. The protein content was determined by the classical method of Kjeldahl. The stabilization of the protein content was determined in treatment that was performed 21 days after flowering (DAF at seed moisture of about 45%. Regression analysis determined the highest and statistically significant effect of seed moisture at the moment of desiccation on seed protein content in the line L1, while the effects in lines L2 and L3 were not significant.

  5. Enhanced Salt Tolerance under Nitrate Nutrition is Associated with Apoplast Na+ Content in Canola (Brassica. napus L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Limin; Liu, Mei; Wang, Min; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the effect of nitrogen form on salt stress, we studied the response of two different plant species, canola (Brassica napus L.), a dicotyledon which prefers NO 3 - nutrition, and rice (Oryza sativa L.), a monocotyledon which prefers NH 4 + nutrition, to salt stress under NO 3 - (NN) and NH 4 + (AN) nutrition. Salt stress was simulated by the addition of 150 and 100 mM NaCl to NN (NNS) and AN (ANS) in canola and rice seedlings, respectively. Salt stress induced reductions of shoot and root biomass that were more drastic under ANS. A higher Na + content was obtained in NNS than in ANS. The impact of Na + on the reduction of biomass (Δbiomass/Na + ) was 162, 181, 230 and 245% higher in canola root, canola shoot, rice root and rice shoot in ANS than in NNS, respectively. In both canola and rice seedlings, the ratio of leaf Na + content in apoplasts to symplasts ([Na + ] apo /[Na + ] sym ) was higher in NNS than in ANS. Also, in canola seedlings, the ratio of apoplast Na + in the leaf edge to the leaf center ([Na + ] LE /[Na + ] LC ) was 18 times higher in NNS than in ANS. Our results illustrate that the confinement of Na + in the canola leaf edge, as well as the restriction of Na + in leaf apoplasts of canola and rice seedlings, protect cells from suffering Na + stress and contribute to the higher tolerance of NO 3 - -fed plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Tolerância ao alumínio em cultivares de aveia branca sob cultivo hidropônico Tolerance to the aluminum in oat cultivars under hydroponic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego do cultivo hidropônico para avaliar a tolerância à toxicidade pelo alumínio em genótipos de aveia pode ser feito por meio da medida da retomada do crescimento de raiz. Avaliaram-se 12 cultivares de aveia branca indicadas para o cultivo no Sul do Brasil com o intuito de caracterizar a tolerância ao alumínio, de maneira a ser estrategicamente recomendadas e/ou incluídas em blocos de cruzamento na obtenção de constituições genéticas de elevado potencial produtivo e tolerante ao íon metálico. Foram utilizadas doses de 10, 15 e 20 mg L-1 de alumínio na solução hidropônica e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o completamente casualizado, com três repetições, seguindo o esquema fatorial (12 x 3. As doses empregadas são altamente eficientes na identificação de genótipos de aveia tolerantes e sensíveis ao alumínio tóxico. As cultivares UPF 16, URS 21, UFRGS 14, UPF 19 e UFRGS 17 expressam tolerância.The use of hidroponic culture to evaluate tolerance to aluminum toxicity in oat genotypes can be performed by measuring root regrowth, allowing phenotypically to discriminate tolerant genetic constitutions sensitivity. Twelve white oat cultivars indicated for cultivation in Southern Brazil were evaluated aiming at to characterize their aluminum tolerance, in order to use them as parents in crosses or to recommend them for in cultivation regions. Aluminum concentration of 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1 were used in the hydroponic solution arranged in complete randomized blocks with three replications in 12 x 3 factorial designs. Concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1 were highly efficient for the identification of tolerant and sensitive oat genotypes. Cultivars UPF 16, URS 21, UFRGS 14, UPF 19 and UFRGS 17 showed aluminum.

  7. Successive dehumidification/regeneration cycles by LiCL desiccant for air-conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenada, S.; Kaabi, A. N.; Fraikin, L.; Léonard, A.

    2017-02-01

    Dehumidification by desiccant is a new application in air-conditioning system. This technology is providing important advantages in solving many problems and brings environmentally friendly products. Desiccants are natural substances that are capable of showing a strong attraction for water vapour and can be regenerated. They can undergo continuous cycles. An experimental study is carried out on successive phases of absorption/regeneration, during 7 days by using LiCl desiccant and on separate phases. The effect of climatic parameters on moisture removal rate and salt concentration on absorption and regeneration processes is discussed. The results show that higher air humidity gives a higher mass transfer potential then a higher moisture rate absorbed dm/dt. The decrease of salt concentration affects the dm/dt and vapour pressure. Also, these results show that at regeneration temperature, the amount of water desorbed is nearly equal to the amount of water absorbed (equilibrium condition) for a complete cycle. The amount of 7.87 mg of water vapor can be absorbed in the first hour of absorption cycle for 12.6144 mg at 50% of relative humidity, and 7.004mg for 36.31 mg of initial mass subjected at 70% RH. The LiCl desiccant is able to return to almost its original concentration 31.39% during regeneration phase. Also, LiCl desiccant is able to be regenerated at low temperature 40°C which can be easily obtained by using solar energy. Then, the LiCl is a good hygroscopic material for using in liquid desiccant air-conditioning system.

  8. Low pressure and desiccation effects on methanogens: Implications for life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Timothy A.; Altheide, Travis S.; Lueders, Adrienne E.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2011-02-01

    Conditions on the surface of Mars would appear to be too hostile for life as we know it. But the subsurface is another matter. If liquid water is present, even intermittently, life forms present would at least be protected from the lethal radiation bombarding the surface. However, life would have to contend with variations in pressure and possibly extended periods of desiccation. The research reported here involves both active metabolism (methanogenesis) at 400 and 50 mbar of pressure, pressures that would be found in the near subsurface of Mars, and survival following desiccation at both 1 bar (a pressure that would be found in the Martian subsurface) and 6 mbar (the lowest pressure at the surface and very near subsurface). The three methanogens tested for active metabolism, Methanothermobacter wolfeii, Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanobacterium formicicum, all demonstrated methane production at both 400 and 50 mbar on JSC Mars-1, a Mars soil simulant. Methane production at 50 mbar was much reduced compared to that at 400 mbar, most likely due to the greater stress at the lower pressure. In desiccation survival experiments, M. barkeri had survived 330 days of desiccation at 1 bar, while M. wolfeii and M. formicicum survived 180 and 120 days, respectively. Methanococcus maripaludis did not survive desiccation at all at 1 bar. At 6 mbar, M. wolfeii, M. barkeri and M. formicicum survived 120 days of desiccation while M. maripaludis survived 60 days. These results along with results from previous research would seem to indicate that there is no reason that methanogens could not inhabit the subsurface of Mars.

  9. Performance assessment and transient optimization of multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems with building PV/T integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Mohamed; Saghafifar, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    One of the popular solar air conditioning technologies is desiccant air conditioning. Nonetheless, single stage desiccant air conditioning systems' coefficient of performance (COP) are relatively low. Therefore, multi-stage solid desiccant air conditioning systems are recommended. In this paper, an integrated double-stage desiccant air conditioning systems and PV/T collector is suggested for hot and humid climates such as the UAE. The results for the PV/T implementation in the double-stage desiccant cooling system are assessed against the PV/T results for a single-stage desiccant air conditioning system. In order to provide a valid comparative evaluation between the single and double stage desiccant air conditioning systems, an identical PV/T module, in terms of dimensions, is incorporated into these systems. The overall required auxiliary air heating is abated by 46.0% from 386.8 MWh to 209.0 MWh by replacing the single stage desiccant air conditioning system with the proposed double stage configuration during June to October. Moreover, the overall averaged solar share during the investigated months for the single and double stage systems are 36.5% and 43.3%.

  10. Energy performance of an innovative liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a counter-flow heat and mass exchanger using potassium formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jradi, Muhyiddine; Riffat, Saffa

    2014-01-01

    An innovative micro-scale liquid desiccant dehumidification system is numerically investigated. The liquid desiccant dehumidification unit employs a counter-flow low-cost and efficient heat and mass exchange core, improving the thermal performance and eliminating desiccant carryover...... that the dehumidifier effectiveness is directly proportional to the intake air temperature, intake air relative humidity and liquid desiccant flow rate where the effectiveness is inversely proportional to the intake air velocity and the heat exchanger air channel height....

  11. Crafting tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Antje; Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing changes in social structures, orientation, and value systems confront us with the growing necessity to address and understand transforming patterns of tolerance as well as specific aspects, such as social tolerance. Based on hierarchical analyses of the latest World Values Survey (2005...... results show that specific institutional qualities, which reduce status anxiety, such as inclusiveness, universality, and fairness, prevail over traditional socio-economic, societal, cultural, and democratic explanations....

  12. Evaluation of a minimally invasive system for measuring glucose area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance tests: usefulness of sweat monitoring for precise measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Yushi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Ogawa, Wataru; Hamaguchi, Tomoya; Matsuo, Toshihiro; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro; Namba, Mitsuyoshi; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Tomita, Koji; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Kaneto, Hideaki; Kosugi, Keisuke; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Hiromu; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2013-05-01

    We developed a system for measuring glucose area under the curve (AUC) using minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Sweat contamination during interstitial fluid glucose (IG) extraction affects the accuracy of glucose AUC measurement, because this technology uses extracted sodium ion levels as an internal standard. Therefore, we developed a sweat monitoring patch to reduce this effect and investigated its efficacy in volunteers undergoing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). Fifty diabetes mellitus inpatients and 10 healthy subjects undergoing the 75 g OGTT were included. Two sites on the forearm were pretreated with microneedle arrays, then hydrogels for interstitial fluid extraction were placed on the treated sites. Simultaneously, hydrogels for sweat monitoring were placed on untreated sites near the treated sites. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h to calculate reference AUC values. Using MIET, IG AUC was calculated from extracted glucose and sodium ion levels after attachment of the hydrogel for 2 h. Good correlation between IG AUC measurements using MIET and reference AUCs measured using PG levels was confirmed over a wide AUC range (202-610 mg/h/dl) after correction for the sweat-induced error detected by the hydrogel patches on the nonpretreated skin. Strong correlation between IG AUC and peak glucose levels indicates that glucose spikes can be easily detected by this system. We confirmed the effectiveness of a sweat monitoring patch for precise AUC measurement using MIET. This novel, easy-to-use system has potential for glucose excursion evaluation in daily clinical practice. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Performance investigation of solid desiccant evaporative cooling system configurations in different climatic zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Muzaffar; Vukovic, Vladimir; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Ali, Hafiz M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five configurations of a DEC system are analyzed in five climate zones. • DEC system model configurations are developed in Dymola/Modelica. • Performance analysis predicted a suitable DEC system configuration for each climate zone. • Results show that climate of Vienna, Sao Paulo, and Adelaide favors the ventilated-dunkle cycle. • While ventilation cycle configuration suits the climate of Karachi and Shanghai. - Abstract: Performance of desiccant evaporative cooling (DEC) system configurations is strongly influenced by the climate conditions and varies widely in different climate zones. Finding the optimal configuration of DEC systems for a specific climatic zone is tedious and time consuming. This investigation conducts performance analysis of five DEC system configurations under climatic conditions of five cities from different zones: Vienna, Karachi, Sao Paulo, Shanghai, and Adelaide. On the basis of operating cycle, three standard and two modified system configurations (ventilation, recirculation, dunkle cycles; ventilated-recirculation and ventilated-dunkle cycles) are analyzed in these five climate zones. Using an advance equation-based object-oriented (EOO) modeling and simulation approach, optimal configurations of a DEC system are determined for each climate zone. Based on the hourly climate data of each zone for its respective design cooling day, performance of each system configuration is estimated using three performance parameters: cooling capacity, COP, and cooling energy delivered. The results revealed that the continental/micro-thermal climate of Vienna, temperate/mesothermal climate of Sao Paulo, and dry-summer subtropical climate of Adelaide favor the use of ventilated-dunkle cycle configuration with average COP of 0.405, 0.89 and 1.01 respectively. While ventilation cycle based DEC configuration suits arid and semiarid climate of Karachi and another category of temperate/mesothermal climate of Shanghai with average COP of

  14. 77 FR 46304 - Rimsulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Research Project No. 4 (IR-4) requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... enforce the tolerance expression. The method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch...

  15. Black Sea desiccation during the Messinian Salinity Crisis: Fact or fiction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grothe, A.; Sangiorgi, F; Mulders, Y.; Vasiliev, I.; Brinkhuis, H.; Stoica, M.; Krijgsman, W.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The late Miocene Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) was an extraordinary geologic event inthe Mediterranean Basin marked by massive salt accumulation and presumably basin desiccationas a consequence of the reduced water exchange with the Atlantic Ocean. The discoveryof a desiccation deposit in the

  16. The impact of desiccation on the adhesion of barnacles attached to non-stick coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegemann, Maja; Watermann, Burkard

    2004-06-01

    Fouling-release coatings prevent fouling of ships' hulls through hydrodynamic forces generated as the ship moves through the water. The effectiveness of such coatings may be evaluated by measuring the adhesion strength of settled organisms, e.g. barnacles. The influence of desiccation of the barnacle adhesive on such measurements was investigated. Shear forces required to remove barnacles of the genus Balanus increased during the course of desiccation up to the point when the barnacles suddenly self-detached. The increase was thought to be due to the rising cohesive strength of the adhesive. Growing tensile forces within the weakly cross-linked adhesive, however, are suggested to have led to self-detachment. The shear forces required to remove barnacles of the genus Elminius were generally low and did not differ significantly during the course of desiccation. The different results may be attributed to specific base morphologies. It was concluded that measuring the adhesion strength of members of the Balanidae on non-stick surfaces in air could produce flawed results due to the influence of desiccation of the barnacle adhesive. The investigations have also provided new insights into the characteristics of barnacle adhesive.

  17. The impact of land use on water loss and soil desiccation in the soil profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Li

    2018-02-01

    Farmlands have gradually been replaced by apple orchards in Shaanxi province, China, and there will be a risk of severe soil-water-storage deficit with the increasing age of the apple trees. To provide a theoretical basis for the sustainable development of agriculture and forestry in the Loess Plateau, soil water content in a 19-year-old apple orchard, a 9-year-old apple orchard, a cornfield and a wheat field in the Changwu Tableland was investigated at different depths from January to October 2014. The results showed that: (1) the soil moisture content is different across the soil profile—for the four plots, the soil moisture of the cornfield is the highest, followed by the 9-year-old apple orchard and the wheat field, and the 19-year-old apple orchard has the lowest soil moisture. (2) There are varying degrees of soil desiccation in the four plots: the most serious degree of desiccation is in the 19-year-old apple orchard, followed by the wheat field and the cornfield, with the least severe desiccation occurring in the 9-year-old apple orchard. Farmland should replace apple orchards for an indefinite period while there is an extremely desiccated soil layer in the apple orchard so as to achieve the purpose of sustainable development. It will be necessary to reduce tree densities, and to carry out other research, if development of the economy and ecology of Changwu is to be sustainable.

  18. C4 grasses prosper as carbon dioxide eliminates desiccation in warmed semi-arid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jack A; LeCain, Daniel R; Pendall, Elise; Blumenthal, Dana M; Kimball, Bruce A; Carrillo, Yolima; Williams, David G; Heisler-White, Jana; Dijkstra, Feike A; West, Mark

    2011-08-03

    Global warming is predicted to induce desiccation in many world regions through increases in evaporative demand. Rising CO(2) may counter that trend by improving plant water-use efficiency. However, it is not clear how important this CO(2)-enhanced water use efficiency might be in offsetting warming-induced desiccation because higher CO(2) also leads to higher plant biomass, and therefore greater transpirational surface. Furthermore, although warming is predicted to favour warm-season, C(4) grasses, rising CO(2) should favour C(3), or cool-season plants. Here we show in a semi-arid grassland that elevated CO(2) can completely reverse the desiccating effects of moderate warming. Although enrichment of air to 600 p.p.m.v. CO(2) increased soil water content (SWC), 1.5/3.0 °C day/night warming resulted in desiccation, such that combined CO(2) enrichment and warming had no effect on SWC relative to control plots. As predicted, elevated CO(2) favoured C(3) grasses and enhanced stand productivity, whereas warming favoured C(4) grasses. Combined warming and CO(2) enrichment stimulated above-ground growth of C(4) grasses in 2 of 3 years when soil moisture most limited plant productivity. The results indicate that in a warmer, CO(2)-enriched world, both SWC and productivity in semi-arid grasslands may be higher than previously expected.

  19. The effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile components of desiccated coconut during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, T.P.; Azanza, M.P.

    1989-11-01

    Flavor volatiles of desiccated and irradiated desiccated coconut stored for 24 weeks at room temperature were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Chromatograms of fresh coconut meat revealed sone esters, ketones, aldehydes and alcohols which were responsible for its fruity odor. The oily odor of fresh coconut meat was attributed to minimal amount of delta lactones. Freshly desiccated coconut contained the same volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor but the concentration of the delta lactones was considerably higher. The newly irradiated desiccated coconut had the highest concentration of the delta lactones with other volatiles such as ethyl caproate, 1-hexanol, and caprylic aldehyde being also present. With storage, development of oily odor to rancid odor was noted due to increasing amount of delta lactones. Corresponding decrease of volatiles responsible for the fresh fruity odor was noted as shown by the chromatographic profiles of both irradiated and unirradiated samples. Odor deterioration was more pronounced in the irradiated sample. Significant changes in moisture content, peroxide and iodine values, and free acid were observed during storage. No significant changes, however were noted in percent oil, pH and water activity. Significant difference in color, taste and general acceptability were noted at the start of storage with odor changes becoming more evident only after 4 weeks of storage. (Auth.). 69 refs.; 15 figs.; 14 tabs.; Appendix p. 90-205

  20. Optimization analysis of high temperature heat pump coupling to desiccant wheel air conditioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Zhang, Yufeng; Fang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The high temperature heat pump and desiccant wheel (HTHP&DW) system can make full use of heat released from the condenser of heat pump for DW regeneration without additional heat. In this study, DW operation in the HTHP&DW system was investigated experimentally, and the optimization analysis...

  1. Giant desiccation fissures on the Black Rock and Smoke Creek Deserts, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, R.; Mabey, D.R.

    1961-01-01

    Open fissures, from 100 to several hundred feet apart, that have produced polygonal patterns on the Black Rock Desert, Nevada, are believed to be giant desiccation cracks resulting from a secular trend toward aridity in the last few decades. Similar features on the Smoke Creek Desert probably have the same origin.

  2. Vapour pressures and densities of the mixed-solvent desiccants (glycols + water + salts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.-F.; Soriano, Allan N. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Li, M.-H. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mhli@cycu.edu.tw

    2009-06-15

    The vapour pressures and densities of the mixed-solvent desiccants have been studied for temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 343.15) K. The mixed-solvent desiccants investigated were aqueous-organic systems with salt. The studied organic solvents were diethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, and dipropylene glycol. The chosen salts were lithium chloride and lithium bromide. Six ternaries (glycol/water/salt) were selected for this study. For each ternary system, four systems of which (4-25) mass% salt mixed with various glycols (50-80) mass% were investigated. Incorporated with the pseudo-solvent approach, a vapour pressure model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions was used to represent the measured vapour pressure of glycol/water/salt systems. A simplified density equation was applied to model the measured density of glycol/water/salt systems. Satisfactory results were obtained for vapour pressure and density calculations. The vapour pressures of the aqueous-organic systems with salt yield smaller values of vapour pressures compared to the conventionally used liquid desiccants. The properties obtained and presented in this study are, in general, of sufficient accuracy for most engineering-design calculations, such as the design of dehumidifier process using mixed-solvent desiccants as absorbents.

  3. Phenotypic differentiation of species from Aspergillus section Flavi on neutral red desiccated coconut agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atanda, O. O.; Adetunji, M. C.; Ezekiel, C. N.

    2014-01-01

    In order to facilitate easy and rapid identification of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species, the phenotypic traits of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates were examined on neutral red desiccated coconut agar (NRDCA). Phenotype variations in colony morphology and the relationship between colour...

  4. Ectomycorrhizal root development in wet Alder carr forests in response to desiccation and eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, J.; Bastiaans, T.; Coevering van de, M.A.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of desiccation and eutrophication on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root development in wet Alder carr forests in The Netherlands were studied. In northwestern Europe, wet Alder carr forests are found mostly in peatlands and along streams, forming an important component of wetland ecosystems. The

  5. PCR detection of malaria parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes is uninhibited by storage time and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rider Mark A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable methods to preserve mosquito vectors for malaria studies are necessary for detecting Plasmodium parasites. In field settings, however, maintaining a cold chain of storage from the time of collection until laboratory processing, or accessing other reliable means of sample preservation is often logistically impractical or cost prohibitive. As the Plasmodium infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes is a central component of the entomological inoculation rate and other indicators of transmission intensity, storage conditions that affect pathogen detection may bias malaria surveillance indicators. This study investigated the effect of storage time and temperature on the ability to detect Plasmodium parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods Laboratory-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were chloroform-killed and stored over desiccant for 0, 1, 3, and 6 months while being held at four different temperatures: 28, 37, -20 and -80°C. The detection of Plasmodium DNA was evaluated by real-time PCR amplification of a 111 base pair region of block 4 of the merozoite surface protein. Results Varying the storage time and temperature of desiccated mosquitoes did not impact the sensitivity of parasite detection. A two-way factorial analysis of variance suggested that storage time and temperature were not associated with a loss in the ability to detect parasites. Storage of samples at 28°C resulted in a significant increase in the ability to detect parasite DNA, though no other positive associations were observed between the experimental storage treatments and PCR amplification. Conclusions Cold chain maintenance of desiccated mosquito samples is not necessary for real-time PCR detection of parasite DNA. Though field-collected mosquitoes may be subjected to variable conditions prior to molecular processing, the storage of samples over an inexpensive and logistically

  6. Experimental Evolution of UV-C Radiation Tolerance: Emergence of Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Traits in Escherichia coli Under Differing Flux Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffet, A.; Okansinski, A.; Sloan, C.; Grace, J. M.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Gentry, D.; Rothschild, L. J.; Camps, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-energy ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation is a significant challenge to life in environments such as high altitude areas, the early Earth, the Martian surface, and space. As UV-C exposure is both a selection pressure and a mutagen, adaptation dynamics in such environments include a high rate of change in both tolerance-related and non-tolerance-related genes, as well changes in linkages between the resulting traits. Determining the relationship between the intensity and duration of the UV-C exposure, mutation rate, and emergence of UV-C resistance will inform our understanding of both the emergence of radiation-related extremophily in natural environments and the optimal strategies for generating artificial extremophiles. In this study, we iteratively exposed an Escherichia colistrain to UV-C radiation of two different fluxes, 3.3 J/m^2/s for 6 seconds and 0.5 J/m^2/s for 40 seconds, with the same overall fluence of 20 J/m^2. After each iteration, cells from each exposure regime were assayed for increased UV-C tolerance as an adaptive trait. The exposed cells carried a plasmid bearing a TEM beta-lactamase gene, which in the absence of antibiotic treatment is a neutral reporter for mutagenesis. Sequencing of this gene allowed us to determine the baseline mutation frequency for each flux. As an additional readout for adaptation, the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase mutations was tested by plating UV-exposed cultures in cefotaxime plates. We observed an increase of approximately one-million-fold in UV-C tolerance over seven iterations; no significant difference between the two fluxes was found. Future work will focus on identifying the genomic changes responsible for the change in UV-C tolerance; determining the mechanisms of the emerged UV-C tolerance; and performing competition experiments between the iteration strains to quantify fitness tradeoffs resulting from UV-C adaptation.

  7. On the Importance of the Heat and Mass Transfer Resistances in Internally-Cooled Liquid Desiccant Dehumidifiers and Regenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Jason D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kozubal, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Liquid desiccant heat and mass exchangers are a promising technology for efficient humidity control in buildings. Many researchers have investigated these exchangers, often using numerical models to predict their performance. However, there is a lack of information in the literature on the magnitude of the heat and mass transfer resistances, both for the dehumidifier (which absorbs moisture from the air) and the regenerator (which heats the liquid desiccant to re-concentrate it). This article focuses on internally-cooled, 3-fluid exchangers in a parallel plate geometry. Water heats or cools a desiccant across a plate, and the desiccant absorbs or releases water into an airstream through a membrane. A sensitivity analysis was used to estimate the importance of each of the heat and mass transfer resistances (air, membrane, desiccant, plate, water), and how it changes with different design geometries. The results show that, for most designs, the latent and sensible heat transfer of the dehumidifier is dominated by the air mass transfer resistance and air heat transfer resistance, respectively. The air mass transfer resistance is also important for the regenerator, but much less so; the change in the desiccant equilibrium humidity ratio due to a change in either temperature or desiccant mass fraction is much higher at the regenerator's higher temperatures. This increases the importance of (1) getting heat from the water to the desiccant/membrane interface, and (2) diffusing salt ions quickly away from the desiccant/membrane interface. The membrane heat transfer and water heat transfer resistances were found to be the least important. These results can help inform decisions about what simplifying assumptions to make in numerical models, and can also help in designing these exchangers by understanding which resistances are most important.

  8. Intolerant tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushf, G

    1994-04-01

    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. In a pluralistic context where the free exercise of religion is respected, John Locke's account of tolerance is preferable. However, it (in a reconstructed form) leads to a minimal state. Positive entitlements to benefits like artificial contraception or nontherapeutic abortions can legitimately be resisted, because an intolerance has already been shown with respect to those that consider the benefit immoral, since their resources have been coopted by taxation to advance an end that is contrary to their own. There is a sliding scale from tolerance (viewed as forbearance) to the affirmation of communal integrity, and this scale maps on to the continuum from negative to positive rights.

  9. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  10. Desiccant wheels as gas-phase absorption (GPA) air cleaners: evaluation by PTR-MS and sensory assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Zhang, G.; Wisthaler, A.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of the co-sorption effect of a desiccant wheel for improving indoor air quality. One experiment was conducted in a climate chamber to investigate the co-sorption effect of a desiccant wheel on the chemical removal of indoor air pollutants......; another experiment was conducted in an office room to investigate the resulting effect on perceived air quality. A dehumidifier with a silica-gel desiccant wheel was installed in the ventilation system of the test chamber and office room to treat the recirculation airflow. Human subjects, flooring...

  11. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  12. The drought-tolerant Solanum pennellii regulates leaf water loss and induces genes involved in amino acid and ethylene/jasmonate metabolism under dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Isabel; Albaladejo, Irene; Meco, Victoriano; Morales, Belén; Sevilla, Angel; Bolarin, Maria C; Flores, Francisco B

    2018-02-12

    Breeding for drought-tolerant crops is a pressing issue due to the increasing frequency and duration of droughts caused by climate change. Although important sources of variation for drought tolerance exist in wild relatives, the mechanisms and the key genes controlling tolerance in tomato are little known. The aim of this study is to determine the drought response of the tomato wild relative Solanum pennellii (Sp) compared with the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum (Sl). The paper investigates the physiological and molecular responses in leaves of Sp and Sl plants without stress and moderate drought stress. Significant physiological differences between species were found, with Sp leaves showing greater ability to avoid water loss and oxidative damage. Leaf transcriptomic analysis carried out when leaves did not as yet show visual dehydration symptoms revealed important constitutive expression differences between Sp and Sl species. Genes linked to different physiological and metabolic processes were induced by drought in Sp, especially those involved in N assimilation, GOGAT/GS cycle and GABA-shunt. Up-regulation in Sp of genes linked to JA/ET biosynthesis and signaling pathways was also observed. In sum, genes involved in the amino acid metabolism together with genes linked to ET/JA seem to be key actors in the drought tolerance of the wild tomato species.

  13. Negative affectivity as a mechanism underlying perceived distress tolerance and cannabis use problems, barriers to cessation, and self-efficacy for quitting among urban cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Kara; Paulus, Daniel J; Hogan, Julianna B D; Buckner, Julia D; Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis use rates continue to rise in the United States and currently cannabis is among the most widely used substances in the world. Cannabis use is associated with several mental health problems, low educational attainment, low income, and underemployment. The current study explored the tendency to experience negative affect (negative affectivity) as a factor accounting for the association between perceived distress tolerance and problems related to the use of cannabis. Participants included 203 urban adult daily cannabis users (29.2% female, M=37.7years, 63% African American). Results indicated that there was a significant indirect effect of distress tolerance via negative affectivity in terms of cannabis use problems (b=-0.58, 95%CI [-1.14, -0.21]), cannabis withdrawal (b=-0.65, 95%CI [-1.36, -0.21]), self-efficacy for quitting (b=-0.83, 95%CI [-1.85, -0.22]), and perceived barriers for cannabis cessation (b=-0.71, 95%CI [-1.51, -0.24]). The present data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting negative affectivity may help explain the relation between perceived distress tolerance and an array of clinically significant cannabis use processes. Intervention programming for daily cannabis users may benefit from targeting negative affectivity to facilitate change in cannabis use processes among users who tend to perceive that they are less capable of tolerating distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Overexpression of the Rice SUMO E3 Ligase Gene OsSIZ1 in Cotton Enhances Drought and Heat Tolerance, and Substantially Improves Fiber Yields in the Field under Reduced Irrigation and Rainfed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neelam; Sun, Li; Zhu, Xunlu; Smith, Jennifer; Prakash Srivastava, Anurag; Yang, Xiaojie; Pehlivan, Necla; Esmaeili, Nardana; Luo, Hong; Shen, Guoxin; Jones, Don; Auld, Dick; Burke, John

    2017-01-01

    The Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase gene AtSIZ1 plays important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses as loss of function in AtSIZ1 leads to increased sensitivity to drought, heat and salt stresses. Overexpression of the AtSIZ1 rice homolog, OsSIZ1, leads to increased heat and drought tolerance in bentgrass, suggesting that the function of the E3 ligase SIZ1 is highly conserved in plants and it plays a critical role in abiotic stress responses. To test the possibility that the SUMO E3 ligase could be used to engineer drought- and heat-tolerant crops, the rice gene OsSIZ1 was overexpressed in cotton. We report here that overexpression of OsSIZ1 in cotton results in higher net photosynthesis and better growth than wild-type cotton under drought and thermal stresses in growth chamber and greenhouse conditions. Additionally, this tolerance to abiotic stresses was correlated with higher fiber yield in both controlled-environment and field trials carried out under reduced irrigation and rainfed conditions. These results suggest that OsSIZ1 is a viable candidate gene to improve crop yields under water-limited and rainfed agricultural production systems. PMID:28340002

  15. Desiccation of the Aral Sea and climate change in Central Asia: Interplay and mutual feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, Peter; Huang, Huei-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this presentation, we report results of a research project supported by US Civil Research and Development Foundation aimed at investigating the interplays between the Aral Sea desiccation, anthropogenic impacts, and climate change in Central Asia, and quantify principal feedbacks in the climatic system of the Aral Sea region by means of numerical model experiments as well as analyses of historical and newly obtained observational data. Aral Sea desiccation has been recognized as one of the worst anthropogenic ecological disasters ever. However, it is believed that a part of the desiccation may have been due to the natural climate variability manifested in larger scale warming trends across the Central Asia. The interaction between the lake and the climate change is a "two-way street": the shrinking of the Aral Sea leads to reduction in evaporation and precipitation, thus affecting regional moisture and temperature regimes, and atmospheric circulation. The altered meteorological condition may, in turn, induce further changes in the Aral Sea. In this study, we attempted to quantify the relative contribution from the alterations in the lake's hydrology and surface area to the regional climate change, and, reciprocally, from the large-scale and regional climate trends to the desiccation of the Aral Sea. We show, in particular, that the Aral Sea desiccation has led to significant changes in the regional precipitation, snow cover, and air temperature regimes. On the other hand, the large-scale variability of climate across Central Asia has modulated the hydrology of the lake and caused at least a part of the water level drop. We assessed the long-term trends of air temperature at different isobaric surfaces in the Aral Sea region basing on reanalysis and historical data. Temperature and rainfall daily measurements from 223 meteorological stations of the former USSR in period from 1936 to 1990 were used, as well as the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data. The differences between

  16. Salinity tolerance of Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Polle, A

    2010-03-01

    The genus Populus has a wide distribution in different climatic zones. Besides its economic and ecological relevance, Populus also serves as a model for elucidating physiological and molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in tree species. In this review, adaptation strategies of poplars to excess soil salinity are addressed at different scales, from the cellular to the whole-plant level. Striking differences in salt tolerance exist among different poplar species and ecotypes, with Populus euphratica being outstanding in this respect. Key mechanisms identified in this species to mediate salt tolerance are compartmentalisation of Cl(-) in the vacuoles of the root cortex cells, diminished xylem loading of NaCl, activation of Na(+) extrusion into the soil solution under stress, together with simultaneously avoiding excessive K(+) loss by regulation of depolarisation-activated cation channels. This leads to improved maintenance of the K(+)/Na(+) balance, a crucial precondition for survival under salt stress. Leaf cells of this species are able to compartmentalise Na(+) preferentially in the apoplast, whereas in susceptible poplar species, as well as in crop plants, vacuolar Na(+) deposition precedes apoplastic transport. ABA, Ca(2+)and ROS are involved in stress sensing, with higher or faster activation of defences in tolerant than in susceptible poplar species. P. euphratica develops leaf succulence after prolonged salt exposure as a plastic morphological adaptation that leads to salt dilution. Transgenic approaches to improve salt tolerance by transformation of candidate genes have had limited success, since salt tolerance is a multigenic trait. In future attempts towards increased salt resistance, barriers between different poplar sections must be overcome and application of novel biotechnological tools, such as gene stacking, are recommended.

  17. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Wang, H.; Feng, Q.Z.; Cui, X.Y.; Liu, R.Y.; Sun, Y.B.; Li, G.C.; Tan, H.; Song, D.M.; Liu, W.; Ruan, W.B.; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDDirect application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  18. Desiccation and cold storage of Galleria mellonella cadavers and effects on in vivo production of Steinernema carpocapsae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Huan; Feng, Qing-zhou; Cui, Xi-yang; Liu, Ri-yue; Sun, Yan-bo; Li, Guo-chao; Tan, Hao; Song, Dong-min; Liu, Wen; Ruan, Wei-bin; Harvey, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Direct application of insect cadavers infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) can successfully control target pest insects. Little is known about the effects of environmental factors (desiccation and temperature) on the production process for infective juveniles (IJ) in insects.

  19. Tolerance to baked and fermented cow's milk in children with IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in patients under two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncuoglu, A; Yologlu, N; Simsek, I E; Uyan, Z S; Aydogan, M

    IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA) has been shown consistent in milder heated-milk tolerant and severe heated-milk reactant groups in patients older than two years. Little is known whether fermentation of milk gives rise to similar clinical phenotypes. We aimed to determine the influence of extensively heated and fermented cow's milk on the IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated CMA in children younger than two years. Subjects followed with the diagnosis of IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated CMA for at least six months underwent unheated milk challenge. IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated groups were categorised as unheated milk-reactive and tolerant, separately. Unheated milk-reactive groups were further challenged sequentially with fermented milk (yoghurt) and baked milk, 15 days apart. Allergy evaluation with skin tests, prick-to-prick tests and atopy patch tests were performed. Fifty-seven children (median age: 14 months; range: 7-24 months) underwent unheated milk challenge. Eleven of 27 children with IgE-mediated CMA and 14 of 30 children with non-IgE-mediated CMA tolerated unheated milk. Among subjects who reacted to unheated milk; 15 of 16 subjects (93%) with IgE-mediated CMA also reacted to yoghurt, whereas 11 of 16 subjects (68%) with non-IgE-mediated CMA tolerated fermented milk. Thirteen subjects (81%) of the unheated milk-reactive IgE-mediated group tolerated to heated milk. None of 16 subjects of unheated milk-reactive non-IgE-mediated group reacted to baked milk. The majority of children under the age of two years with both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated CMA tolerated baked-milk products. Yoghurt was tolerated in two thirds of unheated milk reactive patients suffering from non-IgE-mediated CMA. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Prioritized Expression of BDH2 under Bulk Translational Repression and Its Contribution to Tolerance to Severe Vanillin Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Yoko; Nguyen, Trinh T. M.; Kitajima, Sakihito; Izawa, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Vanillin is a potent fermentation inhibitor derived from the lignocellulosic biomass in biofuel production, and high concentrations of vanillin result in the pronounced repression of bulk translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies on genes that are efficiently translated even in the presence of high concentrations of vanillin will be useful for improving yeast vanillin tolerance and fermentation efficiency. The BDH1 and BDH2 genes encode putative medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reduc...

  1. In vitro PGPR properties and osmotic tolerance of different Azospirillum native strains and their effects on growth of maize under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Julia E; Maroniche, Guillermo; Creus, Cecilia; Suárez-Rodríguez, Ramón; Ramirez-Trujillo, José Augusto; Groppa, María D

    2017-09-01

    Osmotic variations in the soil can affect bacterial growth diminishing the number of inoculated bacteria. In a scenario of water deficit having tolerant bacteria would be beneficial to achieve a better response of the plant to stress. Thus, selection of more resistant bacteria could be useful to design new inoculants to be used in arid zones. In this sense, a group of Azospirillum isolates deposited in INTA collection was characterized in order to select strains tolerant to osmotic stress. The results obtained demonstrated that Az19 strain has similar in vitro PGPR characteristics to Az39, the most used strain in Argentina for inoculants industries, with the advantage of a better tolerance to osmotic and salt stress. Inoculation of maize plants with this strain resulted in a better response against water deficit compared to Az39 strain, encouraging us to further study the behavior of this strain in greenhouse and field trials in view of developing new inoculants suitable for areas with water deficit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. HAA1 and PRS3 overexpression boosts yeast tolerance towards acetic acid improving xylose or glucose consumption: unravelling the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Joana T; Costa, Carlos E; Ferraz, Luís; Romaní, Aloia; Johansson, Björn; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Domingues, Lucília

    2018-04-02

    Acetic acid tolerance and xylose consumption are desirable traits for yeast strains used in industrial biotechnological processes. In this work, overexpression of a weak acid stress transcriptional activator encoded by the gene HAA1 and a phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase encoded by PRS3 in a recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain containing a xylose metabolic pathway was evaluated in the presence of acetic acid in xylose- or glucose-containing media. HAA1 or PRS3 overexpression resulted in superior yeast growth and higher sugar consumption capacities in the presence of 4 g/L acetic acid, and a positive synergistic effect resulted from the simultaneous overexpression of both genes. Overexpressing these genes also improved yeast adaptation to a non-detoxified hardwood hydrolysate with a high acetic acid content. Furthermore, the overexpression of HAA1 and/or PRS3 was found to increase the robustness of yeast cell wall when challenged with acetic acid stress, suggesting the involvement of the modulation of the cell wall integrity pathway. This study clearly shows HAA1 and/or, for the first time, PRS3 overexpression to play an important role in the improvement of industrial yeast tolerance towards acetic acid. The results expand the molecular toolbox and add to the current understanding of the mechanisms involved in higher acetic acid tolerance, paving the way for the further development of more efficient industrial processes.

  3. Excised Embryo Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Dan Kepekaannya Terhadap Pengeringan*[desiccation Sensitivity of Rambutan (Nephelium Lappaceum L.) Excised Embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Soetisna, Usep; Zebua, Lisye Iriana

    2005-01-01

    A study on desiccation sensitivity of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.)excised embryo has been conducted.Excised embryos were desiccated into target moisture content of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15% and 10% respectively.Results shown that the critical level for moisture content was 20% with 60% viability and 7.431% per etmal growth rate and 929ms electric conduction Further study is needed as to investigate on how long the embryo will withstand subsequent storage treatments.

  4. The effect of light, temperature and desiccation on differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steadiness and photoperiodism of wheat and Barley varieties Selekcia KN11 grown under stress conditions. A total RNA preparation was isolated from spring and winter seedlings using phenol-detergent method, and the isolated poly (A) RNA ...

  5. Frost Growth CFD Model of an Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    A frost growth model is incorporated into a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of a heat pump by means of a user-defined function in FLUENT, a commercial CFD code. The transient model is applied to the outdoor section of an Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop (IADR) unit in heating mode. IADR is a hybrid vapor compression and active desiccant unit capable of handling 100% outdoor air (dedicated outdoor air system) or as a total conditioning system, handling both outdoor air and space cooling or heating loads. The predicted increase in flow resistance and loss in heat transfer capacity due to frost build-up are compared to experimental pressure drop readings and thermal imaging. The purpose of this work is to develop a CFD model that is capable of predicting frost growth, an invaluable tool in evaluating the effectiveness of defrost-on-demand cycles.

  6. Survival, sublethal injury, and recovery of environmental Burkholderia pseudomallei in soil subjected to desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Eloise; Smith, James J; Norton, Robert; Corkeron, Maree

    2013-04-01

    Environmental Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated from sandy soil at Castle Hill, Townsville, in the dry tropic region of Queensland, Australia, was inoculated into sterile-soil laboratory microcosms subjected to variable soil moisture. Survival and sublethal injury of the B. pseudomallei strain were monitored by recovery using culture-based methods. Soil extraction buffer yielded higher recoveries as an extraction agent than sterile distilled water. B. pseudomallei was not recoverable when inoculated into desiccated soil but remained recoverable from moist soil subjected to 91 days' desiccation and showed a growth response to increased soil moisture over at least 113 days. Results indicate that endemic dry tropic soil may act as a reservoir during the dry season, with an increase in cell number and potential for mobilization from soil into water in the wet season.

  7. Arabinose-rich polymers as an evolutionary strategy to plasticize resurrection plant cell walls against desiccation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, John P.; Nguema-Ona, Eric E.; Vicré-Gibouin, Mäite

    2013-01-01

    A variety of Southern African resurrection plants were surveyed using high-throughput cell wall profiling tools. Species evaluated were the dicotyledons, Myrothamnus flabellifolia and Craterostigma plantagineum; the monocotyledons, Xerophyta viscosa, Xerophyta schlecterii, Xerophyta humilis...... and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling in combination with multivariate data analysis. The data obtained suggest that three main functional strategies appear to have evolved to prepare plant cell walls for desiccation. Arabinan-rich pectin and arabinogalactan proteins are found in the resurrection fern M......-like Xerophyta spp. and the resurrection grass E. nindensis were found to contain highly arabinosylated xylans and arabinogalactan proteins. These data support a general mechanism of ‘plasticising’ the cell walls of resurrection plants to desiccation and implicate arabinose-rich polymers (pectin...

  8. Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubal, Eric Joseph

    2016-12-13

    An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

  9. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Co., Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, John E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hubbard, Susan S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Anderson L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-02-20

    Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths where direct exposure pathways are not of concern, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Department of Energy developed a treatability test program for technologies to address Tc-99 and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment, have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. The treatability test of desiccation described herein was conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation was shown to be a potentially effective vadose zone remediation technology to protect groundwater when used in conjunction with a surface infiltration barrier.

  10. Effects of radiational heating at low air temperature on water balance, cold tolerance, and visible injury of red spruce foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, J L; Amundson, R G

    1992-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that winter needle mortality in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) is increased by exposure to direct solar radiation, possibly as a result of photo-oxidative damage, accelerated winter desiccation, or reduced cold tolerance due to heating of sun-exposed needles. In an experiment at controlled subfreezing air temperatures of -10 to -20 degrees C, visible radiation was less effective than infrared radiation in producing needle desiccation and visible injury during freeze-thaw cycles. However, visible radiation produced a red-brown color in injured needles, similar to natural winter injury, whereas injured needles exposed to infrared radiation were yellow and injured needles kept in darkness were dark brown. Thus, visible radiation was necessary to produce the red-brown color of damaged needles, but not the injury itself. Needle desiccation was not strongly correlated with visible injury, but the pattern of variation in visible injury among trees and the positive correlation between electrolyte leakage and visible injury suggested that freezing damage following freeze-thaw cycles might cause the visible injury. This was confirmed by a second experiment that showed loss of cold hardiness in needles thawed by radiational heating for six consecutive days. Even with a constant nighttime temperature of -10 degrees C, six days of radiational heating of needles to above freezing caused a small (2.8 degrees C) mean decrease in needle cold tolerance, as measured by electrolyte leakage. Continuous darkness at -10 degrees C for six days resulted in an estimated 5.6 degrees C mean increase in needle cold tolerance. Freezing injury stimulated desiccation: cooling at 4 degrees C h(-1) to -43 or -48 degrees C increased the dehydration rate of isolated shoots by a factor of two to three during the first day after thawing. Within three days at 15 to 22 degrees C and 50% relative humidity, the mean water content of these shoots fell to 60% or lower, compared to

  11. OsLEA3-2, an abiotic stress induced gene of rice plays a key role in salt and drought tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Duan

    Full Text Available Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins are involved in tolerance to drought, cold and high salinity in many different organisms. In this report, a LEA protein producing full-length gene OsLEA3-2 was identified in rice (Oryza sativa using the Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE method. OsLEA3-2 was found to be only expressed in the embryo and can be induced by abiotic stresses. The coding protein localizes to the nucleus and overexpression of OsLEA3-2 in yeast improved growth performance compared with control under salt- and osmotic-stress conditions. OsLEA3-2 was also inserted into pHB vector and overexpressed in Arabidopsis and rice. The transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings showed better growth on MS media supplemented with 150 mM mannitol or 100 mM NaCl as compared with wild type plants. The transgenic rice also showed significantly stronger growth performance than control under salinity or osmotic stress conditions and were able to recover after 20 days of drought stress. In vitro analysis showed that OsLEA3-2 was able to protect LDH from aggregation on freezing and inactivation on desiccation. These results indicated that OsLEA3-2 plays an important role in tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  12. Shrinkage-reducing admixtures and early-age desiccation in cement pastes and mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, D. P.; Geiker, Mette Rica; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2001-01-01

    to map the drying profile, internal relative humidity (RH), and autogenous deformation. Interestingly, although the SRA accelerates the drying of bulk solutions, in cement paste with a water-to-cement (w/c) ratio of 0.35, it actually reduces the measured drying rate. Based on the accompanying X...... to low w/c ratio concretes undergoing self-desiccation, in addition to their normal usage to reduce drying shrinkage....

  13. Moving Advanced Desiccant Materials into Mainstream Non-CFC Cooling Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, J. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Grossman, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fairchild, P. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gross, I. L. [Engelhard/ICC, Hatboro, PA (United States). Fresh Air Solutions

    2004-12-30

    Desiccant dehumidification technology is emerging as a technically viable alternative for comfort conditioning in many commercial and institutional buildings. Attempts to improve the indoor air quality of buildings has resulted in increasingly stringent guidelines for occupant outdoor air ventilation rates. Additionally, revised building heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) design criteria based on regional peak dew point data highlight the important of the latent (moisture removal) building load relative to the sensible (temperature) building load.

  14. Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant-Based Outdoor Air Preconditioning Systems, Final Report: Phase 3; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the performance of two active desiccant cooling systems that were installed as pilot systems in two locations-a college dormitory and a research laboratory-during the fall of 1999. The laboratory system was assembled in the field from commercially available Trane air-handling modules combined with a standard total energy recovery module and a customized active desiccant wheel, both produced by SEMCO. The dormitory system was a factory-built, integrated system produced by SEMCO that included both active desiccant and sensible-only recovery wheels, a direct-fired gas regeneration section, and a pre-piped Trane heat pump condensing section. Both systems were equipped with direct digital control systems, complete with full instrumentation and remote monitoring capabilities. This report includes detailed descriptions of these two systems, installation details, samples of actual performance, and estimations of the energy savings realized. These pi lot sites represent a continuation of previous active desiccant product development research (Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000). Both systems performed as anticipated, were reliable, and required minimal maintenance. The dehumidification/total-energy-recovery hybrid approach was particularly effective in all respects. System performance showed remarkable improvement in latent load handling capability and operating efficiency compared with the original conventional cooling system and with the conventional system that remained in another, identical wing of the facility. The dehumidification capacity of the pilot systems was very high, the cost of operation was very low, and the system was cost-effective, offering a simple payback for these retrofit installations of approximately 5 to 6 years. Most important, the dormitory system resolved numerous indoor air quality problems in the dormitory by providing effective humidity control and increased, continuous ventilation air

  15. Germinability after desiccation, storage and cryopreservation of seeds from endemic Encholirium Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. and Dyckia Schult. & Schult. f. species (Bromeliaceae Germinabilidade de sementes de espécies endêmicas de Encholirium Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. e Dyckia Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae após dessecação, armazenamento e criopreservação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Tarré

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Germinability after desiccation, storage and cryopreservation of seeds from endemic Encholirium Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. and Dyckia Schult. & Schult. f. species (Bromeliaceae. Seed storage procedures require previous determination of optimal temperature and light conditions for germination, as well as of tolerance to desiccation and low temperatures. The aim of this paper was to study the effects of desiccation, storage at low temperatures and cryopreservation on the germinability of seeds of six Encholirium and two Dyckia species, which were selected according to vulnerability criteria. Initial germinability of newly harvested seeds varied from 35 to 95%. Seeds presented photoblastic behaviour since light was necessary to induce or increase germination. Except for E. heloisae and E. scrutor, desiccation did not affect significantly the germinability of tested seeds. Storage for one year at 4 and -20 ºC did not affect the germinability of desiccated seeds, except for E. pedicellatum. Germinability after freezing in liquid nitrogen was higher than or similar to control seeds for all species. However, freezing tolerance of E. pedicellatum seeds was only achieved after desiccation to 2.5% moisture content. As regards tolerance to desiccation and to storage at low temperatures, the seeds studied here can be classified as orthodox and conserved ex situ.(Germinabilidade de sementes de espécies endêmicas de Encholirium Mart. ex Schult. & Schult. f. e Dyckia Schult. & Schult. f. (Bromeliaceae após dessecação, armazenamento e criopreservação. O armazenamento de sementes requer a determinação prévia das condições ótimas de temperatura e luz para a germinação, assim como da tolerância à dessecação e a baixas temperaturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o estudo do efeito da dessecação, armazenamento a baixa temperatura e criopreservação de seis espécies de Encholirium e duas de Dyckia, selecionadas de acordo com critérios de

  16. Calculation method of the desiccant amount for the protection of packed electronic equipments and its comparison with other methods currently used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Valle, J.C.; Guido, O.O.

    1982-01-01

    The silica gel characteristics and properties are reviewed from the viewpoint of its use as a desiccant under static conditions. There were developed two calculation methods of the desiccant amount required for the protection from moisture of electronic equipments packed into rigid synthetic foam containers, for a given period and with an adequate safety margin. Besides, MIL specifications methods applicable to this type of packages have been also included. The proposed method considers the depression due to the contraction of the inside air volume during the temperature decrease periods as the only cause of the water vapor ingress into the container, the moisture permeation by diffusion through the closed cell synthetic foams being negligible. Owing to the marked thermal inertia of the package material, the thermal amplitude inside the container is lower than the outside thermal amplitude; therefore the method includes the calculation of the former. The other method is based on a procedure applicable to large storage rooms, briefly described in the literature, and where the moisture entrance is due to the above mentioned cause. A test to verify the reliability of the estimation is proposed. Finally, the amount of silica gel required for the protection of an electronic equipment packed in a given container has been calculated by the aforementioned methods, and the results compared. The value found by the proposed method was over 30% lower than that obtained by the most adequate procedure described in the MIL specification. (author) [es

  17. Factors affecting stress tolerance in recalcitrant embryonic axes from seeds of four Quercus (Fagaceae) species native to the USA or China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Hill, Lisa M; Li, De-Zhu; Walters, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Quercus species are often considered 'foundation' components of several temperate and/or subtropical forest ecosystems. However, the populations of some species are declining and there is considerable urgency to develop ex situ conservation strategies. In this study, the storage physiology of seeds within Quercus was explored in order to determine factors that affect survival during cryopreservation and to provide a quantitative assessment of seed recalcitrance to support future studies of this complex trait. Water relations and survival of excised axes in response to water loss and cryo-exposure were compared for four Quercus species from subtropical China (Q. franchetii, Q. schottkyana) and temperate USA (Q. gambelii, Q. rubra). Seed tissues initially had high water contents and water potentials. Desiccation tolerance of the embryonic axis was not correlated with the post-shedding rainfall patterns where the samples originated. Instead, higher desiccation tolerance was observed in samples growing in areas with colder winters. Survival following cryo-exposure correlated with desiccation tolerance. Among species, plumule tissues were more sensitive than radicles to excision, desiccation and cryo-exposure, and this led to a higher proportion of abnormally developing embryos during recovery following stress. Quercus species adapted to arid and semi-humid climates still produce recalcitrant seeds. The ability to avoid freezing rather than drought may be a more important selection factor to increase desiccation tolerance. Cryopreservation of recalcitrant germplasm from temperate species is currently feasible, whilst additional protective treatments are needed for ex situ conservation of Quercus from tropical and subtropical areas. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Performance analysis of four-partition desiccant wheel and hybrid dehumidification air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jongsoo; Yamaguchi, Seiichi; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao [Department of Applied Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, School of Fundamental Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1-58-210 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    A desiccant dehumidification system with air can decrease energy consumption because it can be driven by low-grade waste heat below 80 C. If this system can be driven by low-temperature heat sources whose temperature is below 50 C, exhausted heat from fuel cells or air conditioners that exist everywhere can be used as heat sources. This could lead to considerable energy saving. This study provides a detailed evaluation of the performance of a four-partition desiccant wheel to make a low-temperature driving heat source possible and achieve considerable energy saving by the simulation and experiment. Further, the study investigates the in-depth performance of a hybrid air-conditioning system with a four-partition desiccant wheel by simulation. As a result, it was clear that there exists an optimum rotational speed to maximize the dehumidification performance and that the hybrid air-conditioning system improves COP by approximately 94% as compared to the conventional vapour compression-type refrigerator. (author)

  19. Effect of wetting-drying cycles on soil desiccation cracking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Chao-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Better understanding the desiccation cracking process is essential in analysing drought effects on soil hydraulic and mechanical properties through consideration of the atmosphere-ground interaction. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the consequence of wetting-drying cycles on the initiation and propagation characteristics of desiccation cracks on soil surface. Initially saturated slurry specimens were prepared and subjected to five subsequent wetting-drying cycles. Image processing technique was employed to quantitatively analyze the morphology characteristics of crack patterns formed during each drying path. The results show that the desiccation cracking behaviour of soil is significantly affected by the wetting-drying cycles. Before the third wetting-drying cycle is reached, the surface crack ratio and the average crack width increases while the average clod area decreases with increasing the number of wetting-drying cycles. The number of intersections and crack segments per unit area reaches the peak values after the second wetting-drying cycle. After the third wetting-drying cycle is reached, the effect of increasing wetting-drying cycles on crack patterns is insignificant. Moreover, it is observed that the applied wetting-drying cycles are accompanied by a continual reconstruction of soil structure. The initial homogenous slurry structure is completely replaced with aggregated structure after the third cycles, and a significant increase in the inter-aggregate porosity can be observed.

  20. Infectious Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, ...

  1. Desiccation-induced changes in viability, lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... ascorbate peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell Physiol., 22: 867-880. Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., 49: 249-279. Oliver AE, Leprince O, Wolkers WF, Hincha DK, Heyer AG, Growe JH. (2001).

  2. Comparison of inhibition of N2 fixation and ureide accumulation under water deficit in four common bean genotypes of contrasting drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleto, I; Pineda, M; Rodiño, A P; De Ron, A M; Alamillo, J M

    2014-05-01

    Drought is the principal constraint on world production of legume crops. There is considerable variability among genotypes in sensitivity of nitrogen fixation to drought, which has been related to accumulation of ureides in soybean. The aim of this study was to search for genotypic differences in drought sensitivity and ureide accumulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) germplasm that may be useful in the improvement of tolerance to water deficit in common bean. Changes in response to water deficit of nitrogen fixation rates, ureide content and the expression and activity of key enzymes for ureide metabolism were measured in four P. vulgaris genotypes differing in drought tolerance. A variable degree of drought-induced nitrogen fixation inhibition was found among the bean genotypes. In addition to inhibition of nitrogen fixation, there was accumulation of ureides in stems and leaves of sensitive and tolerant genotypes, although this was higher in the leaves of the most sensitive ones. In contrast, there was no accumulation of ureides in the nodules or roots of stressed plants. In addition, the level of ureides in the most sensitive genotype increased after inhibition of nitrogen fixation, suggesting that ureides originate in vegetative tissues as a response to water stress, probably mediated by the induction of allantoinase. Variability of drought-induced inhibition of nitrogen fixation among the P. vulgaris genotypes was accompanied by subsequent accumulation of ureides in stems and leaves, but not in nodules. The results indicate that shoot ureide accumulation after prolonged exposure to drought could not be the cause of inhibition of nitrogen fixation, as has been suggested in soybean. Instead, ureides seem to be produced as part of a general response to stress, and therefore higher accumulation might correspond to higher sensitivity to the stressful conditions.

  3. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 from Medicago falcata promotes cold tolerance and growth under NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-06-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), which belong to aquaporins (AQPs) superfamily, are subdivided into two groups, PIP1 and PIP2, based on sequence similarity. Several PIP2s function as water channels, while PIP1s have low or no water channel activity, but have a role in water permeability through interacting with PIP2. A cold responsive PIP2 named as MfPIP2-7 was isolated from Medicago falcata (hereafter falcata), a forage legume with great cold tolerance, and transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfPIP2-7 were analyzed in tolerance to multiple stresses including freezing, chilling, and nitrate reduction in this study. MfPIP2-7 transcript was induced by 4 to 12 h of cold treatment and 2 h of abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Pretreatment with inhibitor of ABA synthesis blocked the cold induced MfPIP2-7 transcript, indicating that ABA was involved in cold induced transcription of MfPIP2-7 in falcata. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 resulted in enhanced tolerance to freezing, chilling and NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants as compared with the wild type. Moreover, MfPIP2-7 was demonstrated to facilitate H2O2 diffusion in yeast. Higher transcript levels of several stress responsive genes, such as NtERD10B, NtERD10C, NtDREB1, and 2, and nitrate reductase (NR) encoding genes (NtNIA1, and NtNIA2) were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type with dependence upon H2O2. In addition, NR activity was increased in transgenic plants, which led to alterations in free amino acid components and concentrations. The results suggest that MfPIP2-7 plays an important role in plant tolerance to freezing, chilling, and NO3 (-) deficiency by promoted H2O2 diffusion that in turn up-regulates expression of NIAs and multiple stress responsive genes.

  4. Genotypes Associated with Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Displaying Impaired or Enhanced Tolerances to Cold, Salt, Acid, or Desiccation Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hingston, Patricia A.; Chen, Jessica; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a large concern in the food industry where its continuous detection in food products has caused a string of recalls in North America and Europe. Most recognized for its ability to grow in foods during refrigerated storage, L. monocytogenes can also...

  5. Heat stability of proteins in desiccation tolerant cattail pollen (Typha latifolia): A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkers, W.F.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary structure and aggregation behavior of proteins, as determined in situ in Typha latifolia pollen, were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The amide-I band, arising from the peptide backbone, was recorded over a temperature range from -50 to 120°C at different

  6. Nitrogen Limitation and Slow Drying Induce Desiccation Tolerance in Conjugating Green Algae (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) from Polar Habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pichrtová, Martina; Kulichová, J.; Holzinger, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2014), č. článku e113137. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Biological soil crust * High-alpine habitat * land plants Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  7. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Adaptive alterations in the fatty acids composition under induced oxidative stress in heavy metal-tolerant filamentous fungus Paecilomyces marquandii cultured in ascorbic acid presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słaba, Mirosława; Gajewska, Ewa; Bernat, Przemysław; Fornalska, Magdalena; Długoński, Jerzy

    2013-05-01

    The ability of the heavy metal-tolerant fungus Paecilomyces marquandii to modulate whole cells fatty acid composition and saturation in response to IC50 of Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu was studied. Cadmium and nickel caused the most significant growth reduction. In the mycelia cultured with all tested metals, with the exception of nickel, a rise in the fatty acid unsaturation was noted. The fungus exposure to Pb, Cu, and Ni led to significantly higher lipid peroxidation. P. marquandii incubated in the presence of the tested metals responded with an increase in the level of linoleic acid and escalation of electrolyte leakage. The highest efflux of electrolytes was caused by lead. In these conditions, the fungus was able to bind up to 100 mg g(-1) of lead, whereas the content of the other metals in the mycelium was significantly lower and reached from 3.18 mg g(-1) (Cu) to 15.21 mg g(-1) (Zn). Additionally, it was shown that ascorbic acid at the concentration of 1 mM protected fungal growth and prevented the changes in the fatty acid composition and saturation but did not alleviate lipid peroxidation or affect the increased permeability of membranes after lead exposure. Pro-oxidant properties of ascorbic acid in the copper-stressed cells manifested strong growth inhibition and enhanced metal accumulation as a result of membrane damage. Toxic metals action caused cellular modulations, which might contributed to P. marquandii tolerance to the studied metals. Moreover, these changes can enhance metal removal from contaminated environment.

  9. Overexpression of AtOGG1, a DNA glycosylase/AP lyase, enhances seed longevity and abiotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huhui; Chu, Pu; Zhou, Yuliang; Li, Yin; Liu, Jun; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic by-products generated continuously during seed desiccation, storage, and germination, resulting in seed deterioration and therefore decreased seed longevity. The toxicity of ROS is due to their indiscriminate reactivity with almost any constituent of the cell, such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. The damage to the genome induced by ROS has been recognized as an important cause of seed deterioration. A prominent DNA lesion induced by ROS is 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G), which can form base pairs with adenine instead of cytosine during DNA replication and leads to GC→TA transversions. In Arabidopsis, AtOGG1 is a DNA glycosylase/apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase that is involved in base excision repair for eliminating 8-oxo-G from DNA. In this study, the functions of AtOGG1 were elaborated. The transcript of AtOGG1 was detected in seeds, and it was strongly up-regulated during seed desiccation and imbibition. Analysis of transformed Arabidopsis protoplasts demonstrated that AtOGG1-yellow fluorescent protein fusion protein localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of AtOGG1 in Arabidopsis enhanced seed resistance to controlled deterioration treatment. In addition, the content of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in transgenic seeds was reduced compared to wild-type seeds, indicating a DNA damage-repair function of AtOGG1 in vivo. Furthermore, transgenic seeds exhibited increased germination ability under abiotic stresses such as methyl viologen, NaCl, mannitol, and high temperatures. Taken together, our results demonstrated that overexpression of AtOGG1 in Arabidopsis enhances seed longevity and abiotic stress tolerance.

  10. Ectopic expression of NnPER1, a Nelumbo nucifera 1-cysteine peroxiredoxin antioxidant, enhances seed longevity and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hu-Hui; Chu, Pu; Zhou, Yu-Liang; Ding, Yu; Li, Yin; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Li-Wen; Huang, Shang-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    Seed longevity, the maintenance of viability during storage, is a major factor for conservation of genetic resources and biodiversity. Seed longevity is an important trait of agriculture crop and is impaired by reactive oxygen species (ROS) during seed desiccation, storage and germination (C. R. Biol., 331, 2008 and 796). Seeds possess a wide range of systems (protection, detoxification, repair) allowing them to survive during storage and to preserve a high germination ability. In many plants, 1-cys peroxiredoxin (1-Cys Prx, also named PER1) is a seed-specific antioxidant which eliminates ROS with cysteine residues. Here we identified and characterized a seed-specific PER1 protein from seeds of sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). Purified NnPER1 protein protects DNA against the cleavage by ROS in the mixed-function oxidation system. The transcription and protein accumulation of NnPER1 increased during seed desiccation and imbibition and under abiotic stress treatment. Ectopic expression of NnPER1 in Arabidopsis enhanced the seed germination ability after controlled deterioration treatment (CDT), indicating that NnPER1 improves seed longevity of transgenic plants. Consistent with the function of NnPER1 on detoxifying ROS, we found that the level of ROS release and lipid peroxidation was strikingly lower in transgenic seeds compared to wild-type with or without CDT. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis seeds ectopic-expressing NnPER1 displayed enhanced tolerance to high temperature and abscisic acid (ABA), indicating that NnPER1 may participate in the thermotolerance and ABA signaling pathway. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Co-overexpression of two Heat Shock Factors results in enhanced seed longevity and in synergistic effects on seedling tolerance to severe dehydration and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personat, José-María; Tejedor-Cano, Javier; Prieto-Dapena, Pilar; Almoguera, Concepción; Jordano, Juan

    2014-03-04

    We have previously reported that the seed-specific overexpression of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Heat Shock Factor A9 (HaHSFA9) enhanced seed longevity in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). In addition, the overexpression of HaHSFA9 in vegetative organs conferred tolerance to drastic levels of dehydration and oxidative stress. Here we found that the combined overexpression of sunflower Heat Shock Factor A4a (HaHSFA4a) and HaHSFA9 enhanced all the previously reported phenotypes described for the overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone. The improved phenotypes occurred in coincidence with only subtle changes in the accumulation of small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSP) that are encoded by genes activated by HaHSFA9. The single overexpression of HaHSFA4a in vegetative organs (which lack endogenous HSFA9 proteins) did not induce sHSP accumulation under control growth conditions; neither it conferred thermotolerance. The overexpression of HaHSFA4a alone also failed to induce tolerance to severe abiotic stress. Thus, a synergistic functional effect of both factors was evident in seedlings. Our study revealed that HaHSFA4a requires HaHSFA9 for in planta function. Our results strongly support the involvement of HaHSFA4a and HaHSFA9 in transcriptional co-activation of a genetic program of longevity and desiccation tolerance in sunflower seeds. These results would also have potential application for improving seed longevity and tolerance to severe stress in vegetative organs.

  12. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20–30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20–30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development. PMID:26786011

  13. Avian food selection with application to pesticide risk assessment: are dead and desiccated insects a desirable food source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jennifer M; Brewer, Larry W; Gessaman, James A

    2003-06-01

    Past evaluations of pesticide exposure have been conducted with substantial uncertainty regarding avian consumption of contaminated food items. One question is whether birds consume invertebrates that are killed by a chemical application and that may present an increasing chemical concentration as they desiccate. We addressed the research question in two phases. First, a laboratory study was conducted in which wild-caught birds were individually offered three food choices, i.e., live, fresh-dead, and desiccated insect larvae. Second, these same food choices plus live, fresh-dead, and desiccated crickets were presented in study plots in two agricultural crops, i.e., a cornfield and an orchard. The experimental food items were monitored with videography equipment to determine their fate and to compare laboratory and field results. Laboratory results showed that birds have a strong preference for live and fresh-dead prey over desiccated prey, with live prey taken before fresh-dead prey in most trials. The field study revealed a similar preference for live prey over desiccated prey, with preference for fresh-dead prey intermediate to the two other types.

  14. Abiotic stress tolerance of charophyte green algae: New challenges for omics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHolzinger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Charophyte green algae are a paraphyletic group of freshwater and terrestrial green algae, comprising the classes of Chlorokybophyceae, Coleochaetphyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Mesostigmatophyceae and Charophyceae. Zygnematophyceae (Conjugating green algae are considered to be closest algal relatives to land plants (Embryophyta. Therefore, they are ideal model organisms for studying stress tolerance mechanisms connected with transition to land, one of the most important events in plant evolution and the Earth’s history. In Zygnematophyceae, but also in Coleochaetophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Klebsormidiophyceae terrestrial members are found which are frequently exposed to naturally occurring abiotic stress scenarios like desiccation, freezing and high photosynthetic active (PAR as well as ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Here, we summarize current knowledge about various stress tolerance mechanisms including insight provided by pioneer transcriptomic and proteomic studies.While formation of dormant spores is a typical strategy of freshwater classes, true terrestrial groups are stress tolerant in vegetative state. Aggregation of cells, flexible cell walls, mucilage production and accumulation of osmotically active compounds are the most common desiccation tolerance strategies. In addition, high photophysiological plasticity and accumulation of UV-screening compounds are important protective mechanisms in conditions with high irradiation. Now a shift from classical chemical analysis to next-generation genome sequencing, gene reconstruction and annotation, genome-scale molecular analysis using omics technologies followed by computer-assisted analysis will give new insights in a systems biology approach. For example, changes in transcriptome and role of phytohormone signaling in Klebsormidium during desiccation were recently described. Application of these modern approaches will deeply enhance our understanding of stress reactions

  15. Abiotic Stress Tolerance of Charophyte Green Algae: New Challenges for Omics Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Pichrtová, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Charophyte green algae are a paraphyletic group of freshwater and terrestrial green algae, comprising the classes of Chlorokybophyceae, Coleochaetophyceae, Klebsormidiophyceae, Zygnematophyceae, Mesostigmatophyceae, and Charo- phyceae. Zygnematophyceae (Conjugating green algae) are considered to be closest algal relatives to land plants (Embryophyta). Therefore, they are ideal model organisms for studying stress tolerance mechanisms connected with transition to land, one of the most important events in plant evolution and the Earth's history. In Zygnematophyceae, but also in Coleochaetophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae, and Klebsormidiophyceae terrestrial members are found which are frequently exposed to naturally occurring abiotic stress scenarios like desiccation, freezing and high photosynthetic active (PAR) as well as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Here, we summarize current knowledge about various stress tolerance mechanisms including insight provided by pioneer transcriptomic and proteomic studies. While formation of dormant spores is a typical strategy of freshwater classes, true terrestrial groups are stress tolerant in vegetative state. Aggregation of cells, flexible cell walls, mucilage production and accumulation of osmotically active compounds are the most common desiccation tolerance strategies. In addition, high photophysiological plasticity and accumulation of UV-screening compounds are important protective mechanisms in conditions with high irradiation. Now a shift from classical chemical analysis to next-generation genome sequencing, gene reconstruction and annotation, genome-scale molecular analysis using omics technologies followed by computer-assisted analysis will give new insights in a systems biology approach. For example, changes in transcriptome and role of phytohormone signaling in Klebsormidium during desiccation were recently described. Application of these modern approaches will deeply enhance our understanding of stress reactions in an

  16. Facing the Heat: Does Desiccation and Thermal Stress Explain Patterns of Orientation in an Intertidal Invertebrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa M L Fraser

    Full Text Available A key challenge for ecologists is to quantify, explain and predict the ecology and behaviour of animals from knowledge of their basic physiology. Compared to our knowledge of many other types of distribution and behaviour, and how these are linked to individual function, we have a poor level of understanding of the causal basis for orientation behaviours. Most explanations for patterns of animal orientation assume that animals will modify their exposure to environmental factors by altering their orientation. We used a keystone grazer on rocky shores, the limpet Cellana tramoserica, to test this idea. Manipulative experiments were done to evaluate whether orientation during emersion affected limpet desiccation or body temperature. Body temperature was determined from infrared thermography, a technique that minimises disturbance to the test organism. No causal relationships were found between orientation and (i level of desiccation and (ii their body temperature. These results add to the growing knowledge that responses to desiccation and thermal stress may be less important in modifying the behaviour of intertidal organisms than previously supposed and that thermoregulation does not always reflect patterns of animal orientation. Much of what we understand about orientation comes from studies of animals able to modify orientation over very short time scales. Our data suggests that for animals whose location is less flexible, orientation decisions may have less to do with responses to environmental factors and more to do with structural habitat properties or intrinsic individual attributes. Therefore we suggest future studies into processes affecting orientation must include organisms with differing levels of behavioural plasticity.

  17. A rapid transcriptome response is associated with desiccation resistance in aerially-exposed killifish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Tingaud-Sequeira

    Full Text Available Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70% appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5-1 h transcriptional differences in representatives of classical "stress" proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic

  18. Performance analysis of ventilation systems with desiccant wheel cooling based on exergy destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Rang; Liu, Xiao-Hua; Hwang, Yunho; Ma, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ventilation systems with desiccant wheel were analyzed from exergy destruction. • Main performances influencing factors for ventilation systems are put forward. • Improved ventilation systems with lower exergy destruction are suggested. • Performances of heat pumps driven ventilation systems are greatly increased. - Abstract: This paper investigates the performances of ventilation systems with desiccant wheel cooling from the perspective of exergy destructions. Based on the inherent influencing factors for exergy destructions of heat and mass transfer and heat sources, provide guidelines for efficient system design. First, performances of a basic ventilation system are simulated, which is operated at high regeneration temperature and low coefficient of performance (COP). Then, exergy analysis of the basic ventilation system shows that exergy destructions mainly exist in the heat and mass transfer components and the heat source. The inherent influencing factors for the heat and mass transfer exergy destruction are heat and mass transfer capacities, which are related to over dehumidification of the desiccant wheel, and unmatched coefficients, which represent the uniformity of the temperature or humidity ratio differences fields for heat and mass transfer components. Based on these findings, two improved ventilation systems are suggested. For the first system, over dehumidification is avoided and unmatched coefficients for each component are reduced. With lower heat and mass transfer exergy destructions and lower regeneration temperature, COP and exergy efficiency of the first system are increased compared with the basic ventilation system. For the second system, a heat pump, which recovers heat from the process air to heat the regeneration air, is adopted to replace the electrical heater and cooling devices. The exergy destruction of the heat pump is considerably reduced as compared with heat source exergy destruction of the basic ventilation

  19. Surviving extreme polar winters by desiccation: clues from Arctic springtail (Onychiurus arcticus EST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kube Michael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ice, snow and temperatures of -14°C are conditions which most animals would find difficult, if not impossible, to survive in. However this exactly describes the Arctic winter, and the Arctic springtail Onychiurus arcticus regularly survives these extreme conditions and re-emerges in the spring. It is able to do this by reducing the amount of water in its body to almost zero: a process that is called "protective dehydration". The aim of this project was to generate clones and sequence data in the form of ESTs to provide a platform for the future molecular characterisation of the processes involved in protective dehydration. Results Five normalised libraries were produced from both desiccating and rehydrating populations of O. arcticus from stages that had previously been defined as potentially informative for molecular analyses. A total of 16,379 EST clones were generated and analysed using Blast and GO annotation. 40% of the clones produced significant matches against the Swissprot and trembl databases and these were further analysed using GO annotation. Extraction and analysis of GO annotations proved an extremely effective method for identifying generic processes associated with biochemical pathways, proving more efficient than solely analysing Blast data output. A number of genes were identified, which have previously been shown to be involved in water transport and desiccation such as members of the aquaporin family. Identification of these clones in specific libraries associated with desiccation validates the computational analysis by library rather than producing a global overview of all libraries combined. Conclusion This paper describes for the first time EST data from the arctic springtail (O. arcticus. This significantly enhances the number of Collembolan ESTs in the public databases, providing useful comparative data within this phylum. The use of GO annotation for analysis has facilitated the identification of a

  20. Desiccation risk drives the spatial ecology of an invasive anuran (Rhinella marina in the Australian semi-desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Tingley

    Full Text Available Some invasive species flourish in places that impose challenges very different from those faced in their native geographic ranges. Cane toads (Rhinella marina are native to tropical and subtropical habitats of South and Central America, but have colonised extremely arid regions over the course of their Australian invasion. We radio-tracked 44 adult cane toads at a semi-arid invasion front to investigate how this invasive anuran has managed to expand its geographic range into arid areas that lie outside of its native climatic niche. As predicted from their low physiological control over rates of evaporative water loss, toads selected diurnal shelter sites that were consistently cooler and damper (and thus, conferred lower water loss rates than nearby random sites. Desiccation risk also had a profound influence on rates of daily movement. Under wet conditions, toads that were far from water moved further between shelter sites than did conspecifics that remained close to water, presumably in an attempt to reach permanent water sources. However, this relationship was reversed under dry conditions, such that only toads that were close to permanent water bodies made substantial daily movements. Toads that were far from water bodies also travelled along straighter paths than did conspecifics that generally remained close to water. Thus, behavioural flexibility--in particular, an ability to exploit spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the availability of moist conditions--has allowed this invasive anuran to successfully colonize arid habitats in Australia. This finding illustrates that risk assessment protocols need to recognise that under some circumstances an introduced species may be able to thrive in conditions far removed from any that it experiences in its native range.

  1. Desiccated coconut industry of Sri Lanka: opportunities for energy efficiency and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. E-mail: kumar@ait.ac.th; Senanayake, G.; Visvanathan, C.; Basu, B

    2003-08-01

    The desiccated coconut (DC) industry is one of the major export oriented food processing industries in Sri Lanka. This paper discusses the production processes, types of fuel used, energy use pattern and the overall specific thermal and electrical energy consumption in the DC sector. An analysis of the energy use highlights the inefficient processes and the key energy loss areas. Options for energy conservation in the DC mills have been discussed, and carbon dioxide emissions from this sector and its mitigation potential are estimated. Other options to improve efficiency and reduce other pollution and policy aspects have been presented.

  2. Formulation and validation of a two-dimensional steady-state model of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    systems. A steady-state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented, aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times with the purpose of inclusion in complete system models. The model includes mass and energy balances and correlations for heat and mass transfer based on empirical...... relations from the scientific literature. Convective heat and mass transfer coefficients are computed locally accounting for the entrance length effects. Mass diffusion inside the desiccant material is neglected. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces...

  3. Tolerance to Gamma Radiation in the Tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini from Embryo to Adult Correlate Inversely with Cellular Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Beltrán-Pardo

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are highly tolerant to desiccation and ionizing radiation but the mechanisms of this tolerance are not well understood. In this paper, we report studies on dose responses of adults and eggs of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini exposed to gamma radiation. In adults the LD50/48h for survival was estimated at ~ 4200 Gy, and doses higher than 100 Gy reduced both fertility and hatchability of laid eggs drastically. We also evaluated the effect of radiation (doses 50 Gy, 200 Gy, 500 Gy on eggs in the early and late embryonic stage of development, and observed a reduced hatchability in the early stage, while no effect was found in the late stage of development. Survival of juveniles from irradiated eggs was highly affected by a 500 Gy dose, both in the early and the late stage. Juveniles hatched from eggs irradiated at 50 Gy and 200 Gy developed into adults and produced offspring, but their fertility was reduced compared to the controls. Finally we measured the effect of low temperature during irradiation at 4000 Gy and 4500 Gy on survival in adult tardigrades, and observed a slight delay in the expressed mortality when tardigrades were irradiated on ice. Since H. dujardini is a freshwater tardigrade with lower tolerance to desiccation compared to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the high radiation tolerance in adults, similar to limno-terrestrial tardigrades, is unexpected and seems to challenge the idea that desiccation and radiation tolerance rely on the same molecular mechanisms. We suggest that the higher radiation tolerance in adults and late stage embryos of H. dujardini (and in other studied tardigrades compared to early stage embryos may partly be due to limited mitotic activity, since tardigrades have a low degree of somatic cell division (eutely, and dividing cells are known to be more sensitive to radiation.

  4. Abscisic Acid and Cytokinin-Induced Osmotic and Antioxidant Regulation in Two Drought-Tolerant and Drought-Sensitive Cultivars of Wheat During Grain Filling Under Water Deficit in Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza SARAFRAZ-ARDAKANI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytohormones play critical roles in regulating plant responses to stress. The present study investigates the effect of cytokinin, abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid interaction on some osmoprotectants and antioxidant parameters induced by drought stress in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. of ‘Pishgam’ and ‘MV-17’ as tolerant and sensitive to drought during post-anthesis phase, respectively grown in field conditions. The most considerable effect of the treatments was exhibited 21 days after anthesis. Under drought conditions, the flag leaf soluble carbohydrate content increased in both cultivars while starch content was remarkably decreased in ‘Pishgam’ as compared to ‘MV-17’. Abscisic acid increased total soluble sugar and reduced starch more than other hormonal treatments, although it decreased studied monosaccharaides in ‘Pishgam’, especially. Drought stress induced high proportion of gylycinebetain and free proline in ‘Pishgam’ cultivar. Application of abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid interaction increased gylycinebetain and proline content in both cultivars under irrigation and drought conditions. The tolerant cultivar exhibited less accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in relation to significant increase of catalase and peroxidase activities and α-tocpherol content under drought conditions. All hormonal treatments increased the named enzyme activities under both irrigation and drought conditions, while higher accumulation of α-tocopherol was only showed in case of cytokinin application. Also, abscisic acid and cytokinin/abscisic acid could decrease drought-induced hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde level to some extent, although abscisic acid increased both of hydrogen peroxide andmalondialdehyde content in irrigation phase, especially.

  5. DROUGHT TOLERANCE OF LOCAL ROTE AND CHECK VARIETIES OF GROUNDNUT (Arachis hypogaea L. UNDER DRY SEASON IN TWO LOCATIONS IN EAST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosep S. Mau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Groundnut is the most important pulse crop in East Nusa Tenggara (ENT; however, the crop yield in ENT is low due to erratic climatic condition, drought stress, and low yielding ability of most cultivated genotypes. Local Rote is a well-known local groundnut variety in ENT, which is a potential superior variety and parental source due its large seed size and high yielding ability. Information on its resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses is important for its future development. Five groundnut genotypes, Local Rote and check varieties were elucidated to identify drought resistant genotypes. The study was carried out in a split-plot design with three replicates in two locations during dry season 2013. Two irrigation regimes (optimum and stress conditions were assigned as main plot and 5 groundnut geno-types as sub-plot. Research results revealed significant effect of irrigation by genotype interaction on observed yield and yield compo-nent characters in both locations. Seed yields of most tested genotypes were below their yield potential. Local Rote yielded best over two locations (1.26 t.ha-1 seed yield. Yields of check varieties were below 1.0 t.ha-1. Local Rote was considered tolerant to drought based on STI, GMP, SSI and YL selection indices.

  6. Improvement of stress tolerance and leavening ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions by overexpression of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Bing; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-03-16

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast cells are exposed to multiple baking-associated stresses, such as elevated high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. There is a high demand for baker's yeast strains that could withstand these stresses with high leavening ability. The SNR84 gene encodes H/ACA snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), which is known to be involved in pseudouridylation of the large subunit rRNA. However, the function of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast coping with baking-associated stresses remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SNR84 overexpression on baker's yeast which was exposed to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. These results suggest that overexpression of the SNR84 gene conferred tolerance of baker's yeast cells to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses and enhanced their leavening ability in high-sucrose and freeze-thaw dough. These findings could provide a valuable insight for breeding of novel stress-resistant baker's yeast strains that are useful for baking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inactivation of Nondesiccated and Desiccated Cronobacter sakazakii in Reconstituted Infant Formula by Combination of Citral and Mild Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Jia, Zhenyu; Sun, Yi; Chen, Yifei; Guo, Du; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wen, Qiwu; Guo, Xiao; Ma, Linlin; Yang, Baowei; Baloch, Allah Bux; Xia, Xiaodong

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of citral plus mild heat on nondesiccated and desiccated Cronobacter sakazakii in reconstituted infant formula. Various concentrations of citral (0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9%) combined with various temperatures (25, 45, 50, and 55°C) were applied to nondesiccated and desiccated cocktails of three C. sakazakii strains (approximately 6.0 log CFU mL -1 ) in reconstituted infant formula, and the bacterial populations were assayed periodically. The combined treatments had marked antimicrobial effects on C. sakazakii compared with the control. Desiccated cells were more susceptible to citral than were nondesiccated cells in reconstituted infant formula. These findings suggest there is a potential application of citral in combination with mild heat to control C. sakazakii during preparation of reconstituted infant formula.