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Sample records for underlying deep hydrocarbon

  1. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  2. Producing deep-water hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilenko, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Several studies relate the history and progress made in offshore production from oil and gas fields in relation to reserves and the techniques for producing oil offshore. The intention herein is not to review these studies but rather to argue that the activities of prospecting and producing deep-water oil and gas call for a combination of technology and project management and, above all, of devotion and innovation. Without this sense of commitment motivating men and women in this industry, the human adventure of deep-water production would never have taken place

  3. Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation in deep subsurface oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Carolyn M; Jones, D M; Larter, S R

    2004-09-16

    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs is an important alteration process with major economic consequences. Aerobic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at the surface is well documented and it has long been thought that the flow of oxygen- and nutrient-bearing meteoric waters into reservoirs was necessary for in-reservoir petroleum biodegradation. The occurrence of biodegraded oils in reservoirs where aerobic conditions are unlikely, together with the identification of several anaerobic microorganisms in oil fields and the discovery of anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation mechanisms, suggests that anaerobic degradation processes could also be responsible. The extent of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation processes in the world's deep petroleum reservoirs, however, remains strongly contested. Moreover, no organism has yet been isolated that has been shown to degrade hydrocarbons under the conditions found in deep petroleum reservoirs. Here we report the isolation of metabolites indicative of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation from a large fraction of 77 degraded oil samples from both marine and lacustrine sources from around the world, including the volumetrically important Canadian tar sands. Our results therefore suggest that anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation is a common process in biodegraded subsurface oil reservoirs.

  4. Deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon plays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The geologic setting in the deep-water (depths greater than 1,500 feet) Gulf of Mexico is very favorable for the existence of large, commercial hydrocarbon accumulations. These areas have active salt tectonics that create abundant traps, underlying mature Mesozoic source rocks that can be observed expelling oil and gas to the ocean surface, and good quality reservoirs provided by turbidite sand deposits. Despite the limited amount of drilling in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico, 11 deep-water accumulations have been discovered which, when developed, will rank in the top 100 largest fields in the Gulf of Mexico. Proved field discoveries (those with announced development plans) have added over 1 billion barrels of oil equivalent to Gulf of Mexico reserves, and unproved field discoveries may add to additional billion barrels of oil equivalent. The Minerals Management Service, United States Department of the Interior, has completed a gulf-wide review of over 1,086 oil and gas fields and placed every pay sand in each field into a hydrocarbon play (plays are defined by chronostratigraphy, lithostratigraph, structure, and production). Seven productive hydrocarbon plays were identified in the deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico. Regional maps illustrate the productive limits of each play. In addition, field data, dry holes, and wells with sub-economic pay were added to define the facies and structural limits for each play. Areas for exploration potential are identified for each hydrocarbon play. A type field for each play is chosen to demonstrate the play's characteristics

  5. Modeling of Antenna for Deep Target Hydrocarbon Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Nasir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays control source electromagnetic method is used for offshore hydrocarbon exploration. Hydrocarbon detection in sea bed logging (SBL is a very challenging task for deep target hydrocarbon reservoir. Response of electromagnetic (EM field from marine environment is very low and it is very difficult to predict deep target reservoir below 2km from the sea floor. This work premise deals with modeling of new antenna for deep water deep target hydrocarbon exploration. Conventional and new EM antennas at 0.125Hz frequency are used in modeling for the detection of deep target hydrocarbon  reservoir.  The  proposed  area  of  the  seabed model   (40km ´ 40km   was   simulated   by using CST (computer simulation technology EM studio based on Finite Integration Method (FIM. Electromagnetic field components were compared at 500m target depth and it was concluded that Ex and Hz components shows better resistivity contrast. Comparison of conventional and new antenna for different target  depths  was  done in  our  proposed  model.  From  the results, it was observed that conventional antenna at 0.125Hz shows 70% ,86% resistivity contrast at target depth of 1000m where   as   new   antenna   showed   329%, 355%   resistivity contrast at the same target depth for Ex and Hz field respectively.  It  was  also  investigated  that  at  frequency of0.125Hz, new antenna gave 46% better delineation of hydrocarbon at 4000m target depth. This is due to focusing of electromagnetic waves by using new antenna. New antenna design gave 125% more extra depth than straight antenna for deep target hydrocarbon detection. Numerical modeling for straight  and  new antenna  was also done to know general equation for electromagnetic field behavior with target depth. From this numerical model it was speculated that this new antenna can detect up to 4.5 km target depth. This new EM antenna may open new frontiers for oil and gas

  6. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and

  7. Biotransformation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, H.A.; Reinhard, M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons contained in gasoline are environmental pollutants of particular concern since they are relatively soluble in water, many are toxic, and some are confirmed carcinogens, (e.g., benzene). Although most gasoline constituents are readily degraded in aerobic surface water systems, the groundwater environment associated with hydrocarbon spills is typically anaerobic, thus precluding aerobic degradation pathways. In the absence of oxygen, degradation of gasoline components can take place only with the utilization of alternate electron acceptors such as nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and possibly ferric iron or other metal oxides. Benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers were completely degraded by aquifer- or sewage sludge-derived microorganisms under dentrifying and methanogenic conditions. Recently, a pure culture was found to degrade toluene and m-xylene nitrate or nitrous oxide as an electron acceptor. This paper presents initial results of ongoing study to develop and characterize microbial consortia capable of transforming aromatic hydrocarbons under nitrate-reducing conditions, and understand the effect of environmental factors on the biotransformation processes

  8. Biodiversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from deep sea sediments of the Middle Atlantic Ridge

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Zhisong; Lai, Qiliang; Dong, Chunming; Shao, Zongze

    2008-01-01

    The bacteria involved in the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in deep sea subsurface environments are largely unknown. In order to reveal their biodiversity, sediments from 2.2 m under the bottom surface at a water depth of 3542 m were sampled on the Middle Atlantic Ridge with a gravity column sampler. The sediments were promptly enriched with either crude oil or a mixture of PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene) as the sole carbon source, and further enriched w...

  9. Calculating in situ degradation rates of hydrocarbon compounds in deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thessen, Anne E; North, Elizabeth W

    2017-09-15

    Biodegradation is an important process for hydrocarbon weathering that influences its fate and transport, yet little is known about in situ biodegradation rates of specific hydrocarbon compounds in the deep ocean. Using data collected in the Gulf of Mexico below 700m during and after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we calculated first-order degradation rate constants for 49 hydrocarbons and inferred degradation rate constants for an additional 5 data-deficient hydrocarbons. Resulting calculated (not inferred) half-lives of the hydrocarbons ranged from 0.4 to 36.5days. The fastest degrading hydrocarbons were toluene (k=-1.716), methylcyclohexane (k=-1.538), benzene (k=-1.333), and C1-naphthalene (k=-1.305). The slowest degrading hydrocarbons were the large straight-chain alkanes, C-26 through C-33 (k=-0.0494 through k=-0.007). Ratios of C-18 to phytane supported the hypothesis that the primary means of degradation in the subsurface was microbial biodegradation. These degradation rate constants can be used to improve models describing the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the event of an accidental deep ocean oil spill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhi Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency of source rocks and the kinetics for oil cracking. By determination of light liquid hydrocarbons and numerical calculations, it is concluded that the residual bitumen or hydrocarbons within source rocks can occupy about 50 wt.% of total oil generated at oil generation peak. This implies that considerable amounts of natural gas can be derived from residual hydrocarbon cracking and contribute significantly to the accumulation of shale gas. Based on pyrolysis experiments and kinetic calculations, we established a model for the cracking of oil and its different components. In addition, a quantitative gas generation model was also established to address the contribution of the cracking of residual oil and expulsed oil for natural gas accumulations in deep formations. These models may provide us with guidance for gas resource evaluation and future gas exploration in deep formations.

  11. Thermophilic endospores associated with migrated thermogenic hydrocarbons in deep Gulf of Mexico marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Ellefson, Emily; Li, Carmen; Gittins, Daniel; Brooks, James M; Bernard, Bernie B; Hubert, Casey R J

    2018-03-29

    Dormant endospores of thermophilic bacteria (thermospores) can be detected in cold marine sediments following high-temperature incubation. Thermospores in the cold seabed may be explained by a dispersal history originating in deep biosphere oil reservoir habitats where upward migration of petroleum fluids at hydrocarbon seeps transports viable cells into the overlying ocean. We assessed this deep-to-shallow dispersal hypothesis through geochemical and microbiological analyses of 111 marine sediments from the deep water Eastern Gulf of Mexico. GC-MS and fluorescence confirmed the unambiguous presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons in 71 of these locations, indicating seepage from deeply sourced petroleum in the subsurface. Heating each sediment to 50 °C followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed several thermospores with a cosmopolitan distribution throughout the study area, as well as thermospores that were more geographically restricted. Among the thermospores having a more limited distribution, 12 OTUs from eight different lineages were repeatedly detected in sediments containing thermogenic hydrocarbons. A subset of these were significantly correlated with hydrocarbons (p < 0.05) and most closely related to Clostridiales previously detected in oil reservoirs from around the world. This provides evidence of bacteria in the ocean being dispersed out of oil reservoirs, and suggests that specific thermospores may be used as model organisms for studying warm-to-cold transmigration in the deep sea.

  12. Stress-testing banks under deep uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, T.; Vasilopoulos, C.; Pruyt, E.

    2013-01-01

    Years of turmoil in the banking sector have revealed the need to assess bank performance under deep uncertainty and identify vulnerabilities to different types of risks. Banks are not the safe houses of old. Today, banks are highly uncertain dynamically complex systems that are permanently at risk

  13. Degradation of hydrocarbons under methanogenic conditions in different geosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straaten, Nontje; Jiménez García, Núria; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krueger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    With increasing energy demand the search for new resources is becoming increasingly important for the future energy supply. Therefore the knowledge about fossil fuels like oil or natural gas and their extraction should be expanded. Biodegraded oil is found in many reservoirs worldwide. Consequently, it is very important to get insight in the microbial communities and metabolic processes involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Due to the lack of alternative electron acceptors in hydrocarbon-rich geosystems, degradation often takes place under methanogenic conditions. The aim of the present study is to identify the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the degradation of complex hydrocarbons, like BTEX and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using culture dependent and independent techniques. For this purpose enrichment cultures from marine sediments, shales, coal and oil reservoirs are monitored for their capability to degrade alkanes and aromatic compounds. Moreover the environmental samples of these different geosystems analysed for evidence for the in situ occurrence of methanogenic oil degradation. The gas geochemical data provided in several cases hints for a recent biological origin of the methane present. First results of the microbial community analysis showed in environmental samples and enrichment cultures the existence of Bacteria known to degrade hydrocarbons. Also a diverse community of methanogenic Archaea could be found in the clone libraries. Additionally, in oil and coal reservoir samples the degradation of model hydrocarbons, e.g. methylnaphthalene, hexadecane and BTEX, to CH4 was confirmed by 13C-labeling. To explore the mechanisms involved in biodegradation, the enrichments as well as the original environmental samples are further analysed for the presence of respective functional genes.

  14. Hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDT in the NW Mediterranean deep-sea fish Mora moro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Montserrat; Porte, Cinta; Albaigés, Joan

    2001-02-01

    Data on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in the deep-sea fish Mora moro are reported in relation to the animal's weight/size and tissues (muscle, liver, digestive tube and gills). Fish samples were collected in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) at an approximate depth of 1000 m. The concentrations of these organic pollutants followed the trend musclelipid content of the organs. No clear bioaccumulation dependence on fish weight/size was observed for gills, digestive tube and liver when the fat contents of these tissues were taken into account. However, the concentrations in muscle decreased with size, possibly implying a simple dilution effect by the increase of body weight. Hydrocarbons, and particularly PAHs, were strongly depleted in all tissues with respect to organochlorinated compounds if compared with the amounts present in bottom waters and sediment. Smaller specimens displayed for most pollutants qualitatively different patterns than larger fish, which could be attributed to their particular habitat/diet. The aliphatic hydrocarbon profiles suggested that Mora moro was exposed to a more predominant intake of biogenic rather than petrogenic hydrocarbons. The entrance and storage organs exhibited characteristic PAH and PCB distributions, reflecting different bioaccumulation and metabolic pathways. Compared with the profiles currently found in surface fish species, a relatively higher contribution of heavier components, namely hepta- and octochlorinated PCBs, and 4-6-ringed PAHs, was found in the deep-sea fish.

  15. Mineral-catalyzed dehydrogenation of C6 cyclic hydrocarbons: results from experimental studies under hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, S.; Tassi, F.; Gould, I.; Shock, E.; Lorance, E. D.; Bockisch, C.; Fecteau, K.

    2015-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitously present in volcanic and hydrothermal gases. Their relative abundances have been demonstrated to be sensitive to physical and chemical parameters, suggesting VOCs as potential tools for evaluating deep reservoir conditions. Nevertheless, reaction pathways for VOC production at hydrothermal conditions are still poorly understood. Reversible catalytic reforming may be responsible for the high abundance of benzene observed in hydrothermal gases relative to saturated hydrocarbons. The dehydrogenation of n-hexane to benzene could proceed with C6 cyclic hydrocarbons as intermediates, as suggested by the relative enrichment in cyclic hydrocarbons observed in gases originating at T production of benzene from cyclic hydrocarbons at 300°C and 85 bar. At these conditions in pure water, negligible benzene is produced from cyclohexane after 10 days. The presence of a mineral phase, especially sphalerite, favored the formation of both benzene and cyclohexene. The efficiency of dehydroaromatization reaction increased at increasing mineral/cyclohexane ratio, pointing to a surface catalyzed reaction. The catalytic action of sphalerite on the C-H bonds was confirmed by the large abundance of deuterated cyclohexane resulted in D2O experiments. The same experiment carried out using cyclohexene in pure water mainly produced methyl-cyclopentenes (via isomerization) and cyclohexanol (via oxygenation). In presence of sphalerite, the production of significant amounts of benzene confirmed the critical role of this mineral for the aromatization of cyclic compounds under hydrothermal conditions. Contrarily, products from cyclohexene solution phase oxidation using Cu(II) mainly consisted of oxygenated VOCs.

  16. Nuclides migration tests under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumata, M.; Vandergraaf, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    Migration behaviour of technetium and iodine under deep geological conditions was investigated by performing column tests under in-situ conditions at the 240 m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) constructed in a granitic batholith near Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada. 131 I was injected with tritiated water into the column. Tritium and 131 I were eluted simultaneously. Almost 100 % of injected 131 I was recovered in the tritium breakthrough region, indicating that iodine moved through the column almost without retardation under experimental conditions. On the other hand, the injected technetium with tritium was strongly retarded in the column even though the groundwater was mildly reducing. Only about 7 % of injected 95m Tc was recovered in the tritium breakthrough region and the remaining fraction was strongly sorbed on the dark mafic minerals of column materials. This strong sorption of technetium on the column materials had not been expected from the results obtained from batch experiments carried out under anaerobic conditions. (author)

  17. Benthic Bioprocessing of Hydrocarbons in the Natural Deep-Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, N.; MacDonald, I. R.; Bohrmann, G.; Schubotz, F.; Johansen, C.

    2017-12-01

    Science is accustomed to quantifying ecosystem processes that consume carbon from primary production as it drifts downward through the photic zone. Comparably efficient processes operate in reverse, as living and non-living components sequester and re-mineralize a large fraction of hydrocarbons that migrate out of traps and reservoirs to the seafloor interface. Together, they comprise a sink that prevents these hydrocarbons from escaping upward into the water column. Although quantification of the local or regional magnitude of this sink poses steep challenges, we can make progress by classifying and mapping the biological communities and geological intrusions that are generated from hydrocarbons in the deep sea. Gulf of Mexico examples discussed in this presentation extend across a broad range of depths (550, 1200, and 3200 m) and include major differences in hydrocarbon composition (from gas to liquid oil to asphaltene-dominated solids). Formation of gas hydrate is a dynamic process in each depth zone. At upper depths, gas hydrate is unstable at a timescale of months to years and serves as a substrate for microbial consortia and mussel symbiosis. At extreme depths, gas hydrate supports large and dense tubeworm colonies that conserve the material from decomposition. Timescales for biogeochemical weathering of oil and asphalts are decadal or longer, as shown by sequential alterations and changing biological colonization. Understanding these processes is crucial as we prepare for wider and deeper energy exploitation in the Gulf of Mexico and beyond.

  18. Potential sources of hydrocarbons and their microbial degradation in sediments from the deep geothermal Lusi site, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheeder, Georg; Blumenberg, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Lusi eruption represents one of the largest ongoing sedimentary hosted geothermal systems, which started in 2006 following an earthquake on Java Island. Since then it has been continuously producing hot and hydrocarbon rich mud from a central crater with peaks reaching 180.000 m3 per day. Numerous investigations focused on the study of microbial communities which thrive at offshore methane and oil seeps and mud volcanoes, however very little has been done on onshore seeping structures. Lusi represents a unique opportunity to complete a comprehensive study of onshore microbial communities fed by the seepage of CH4 as well as of liquid hydrocarbons originating from one or more km below the surface. While the source of the methane at Lusi is unambiuous, the origin of the seeping oil is still discussed. Both, source and maturity estimates from biomarkers, are in favor of a type II/III organic matter source. Likely the oils were formed from the studied black shales (deeper Ngimbang Fm.) which contained a Type III component in the Type II predominated organic matter. In all samples large numbers of active microorganisms were present. Rates for aerobic methane oxidation were high, as was the potential of the microbial communities to degrade different hydrocarbons. The data suggests a transition of microbial populations from an anaerobic, hydrocarbon-driven metabolism in fresher samples from center or from small seeps to more generalistic, aerobic microbial communities in older, more consolidated sediments. Ongoing microbial activity in crater sediment samples under high temperatures (80-95C) indicate a deep origin of the involved microorganisms. First results of molecular analyses of the microbial community compositions confirm the above findings. This study represents an initial step to better understand onshore seepage systems and provides an ideal analogue for comparison with the better investigated offshore structures.

  19. Predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damaison, G.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of a carbonaceous gas, e.g. methane, dissolved in a body of water overlying an earth formation to predict hydrocarbon potential of the earth formation under the body of water, the formation being a source of carbonaceous gas, comprises at a known geographic location sampling the water at a selected flow rate and at a selected depth; continuously vacuum separating the water into liquid and gas phases; separating a selected carbonaceous gas from interfering gas species in the presence of an air carrier vented to atmosphere at a known flow rate; and quantitatively oxidizing the selected gas and then cryogenically trapping an oxidant thereof in the presence of said air carrier to provide for an accurate isotopic examination. (author)

  20. The deep ocean under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A; Le Bris, Nadine

    2015-11-13

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. A Geochemical Model of Fluids and Mineral Interactions for Deep Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mutual solubility model for CO2-CH4-brine systems is constructed in this work as a fundamental research for applications of deep hydrocarbon exploration and production. The model is validated to be accurate for wide ranges of temperature (0–250°C, pressure (1–1500 bar, and salinity (NaCl molality from 0 to more than 6 mole/KgW. Combining this model with PHREEQC functionalities, CO2-CH4-brine-carbonate-sulfate equilibrium is calculated. From the calculations, we conclude that, for CO2-CH4-brine-carbonate systems, at deeper positions, magnesium is more likely to be dissolved in aqueous phase and calcite can be more stable than dolomite and, for CO2-CH4-brine-sulfate systems, with a presence of CH4, sulfate ions are likely to be reduced to S2− and H2S in gas phase could be released after S2− saturated in the solution. The hydrocarbon “souring” process could be reproduced from geochemical calculations in this work.

  2. H2-rich and Hydrocarbon Gas Recovered in a Deep Precambrian Well in Northeastern Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, K. David; Doveton, John H.; Merriam, Daniel F.; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Waggoner, William M.; Magnuson, L. Michael

    2007-01-01

    In late 2005 and early 2006, the WTW Operating, LLC (W.T.W. Oil Co., Inc.) no. 1 Wilson well (T.D. = 5772 ft; 1759.3 m) was drilled for 1826 ft (556.6 m) into Precambrian basement underlying the Forest City Basin in northeastern Kansas. Approximately 4500 of the 380,000 wells drilled in Kansas penetrate Precambrian basement. Except for two previous wells drilled into the arkoses and basalts of the 1.1-Ga Midcontinent Rift and another well drilled in 1929 in basement on the Nemaha Uplift east of the Midcontinent Rift, this well represents the deepest penetration into basement rocks in the state to date. Granite is the typical lithology observed in wells that penetrate the Precambrian in the northern Midcontinent. Although no cores were taken to definitively identify lithologies, well cuttings and petrophysical logs indicate that this well encountered basement metamorphic rocks consisting of schist, gneiss, and amphibolitic gneiss, all cut by aplite dikes.The well was cased and perforated in the Precambrian, and then acidized. After several days of swabbing operations, the well produced shows of low-Btu gas, dominated by the non-flammable component gases of nitrogen (20%), carbon dioxide (43%), and helium (1%). Combustible components include methane (26%), hydrogen (10%), and higher molecular-weight hydrocarbons (1%). Although Coveney and others [Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 71, no, 1, p. 39-48, 1987] identified H 2 -rich gas in two wells located close to the Midcontinent Rift in eastern Kansas, this study indicates that high levels of H 2 may be a more widespread phenomenon than previously thought. Unlike previous results, the gases in this study have a significant component of hydrocarbon gas, as well as H 2 , N 2 , and CO 2 . Although redox reactions between iron-bearing minerals and groundwater are a possible source of H 2 in the Precambrian basement rocks, the hydrocarbon gas does not exhibit the characteristics typically associated with proposed

  3. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C; Schwing, Patrick T; Brooks, Gregg R; Larson, Rebekka A; Hastings, David W; Ellis, Greg; Goddard, Ethan A; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000-1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals) in order to evaluate the concentration, composition and input of hydrocarbons to the seafloor. Specifically, we analyzed total organic carbon (TOC), aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), and biomarker (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes) compounds to elucidate possible sources and transport pathways for deposition of hydrocarbons. Results showed higher hydrocarbon concentrations during 2010-2011 compared to years prior to 2010. Hydrocarbon inputs in 2010-2011 were composed of a mixture of sources including terrestrial, planktonic, and weathered oil. Our results suggest that after the DWH event, both soluble and highly insoluble hydrocarbons were deposited at enhanced rates in the deep-sea. We proposed two distinct transport pathways of hydrocarbon deposition: 1) sinking of oil-particle aggregates (hydrocarbon-contaminated marine snow and/or suspended particulate material), and 2) advective transport and direct contact of the deep plume with the continental slope surface sediments between 1000-1200 m. Our findings underline the complexity of the depositional event observed in the aftermath of the DWH event in terms of multiple sources, variable concentrations, and spatial (depth-related) variability in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead.

  4. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Romero

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000-1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals in order to evaluate the concentration, composition and input of hydrocarbons to the seafloor. Specifically, we analyzed total organic carbon (TOC, aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs, and biomarker (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes compounds to elucidate possible sources and transport pathways for deposition of hydrocarbons. Results showed higher hydrocarbon concentrations during 2010-2011 compared to years prior to 2010. Hydrocarbon inputs in 2010-2011 were composed of a mixture of sources including terrestrial, planktonic, and weathered oil. Our results suggest that after the DWH event, both soluble and highly insoluble hydrocarbons were deposited at enhanced rates in the deep-sea. We proposed two distinct transport pathways of hydrocarbon deposition: 1 sinking of oil-particle aggregates (hydrocarbon-contaminated marine snow and/or suspended particulate material, and 2 advective transport and direct contact of the deep plume with the continental slope surface sediments between 1000-1200 m. Our findings underline the complexity of the depositional event observed in the aftermath of the DWH event in terms of multiple sources, variable concentrations, and spatial (depth-related variability in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead.

  5. On the Role of Carbides in the Formation of Hydrocarbons from Deep Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecht, A.

    2012-12-01

    be of the general type: MxCy +nH2O where M is the metal = Hydrocarbons such as CH4 +M(OH)2. In the presence of oxygen such hydrocarbons would react to form CO and ultimately CO2. Similar reactions could occur with nitrides, sulphides and silicides .These compounds are stable at high temperatures and would react with water and oxygen at lower temperatures. Methane hydrates are common in continental sediments. They occur at a depth of around 500 metres(4). Methane is found under lakes such as Lake Kivu(5). It is generally assumed that such deposits are of biological origin. However, no explanation is given as to how complex molecules form organic deposits. No definite synthetic route is proposed. We wish here to consider abiotic synthetic methods as a probable origin of such hydrates and carbides could act as possible precursors. We suggest that selected carbides are synthesised and subsequently reacted with water or oxygen under controlled conditions. In this way the abiotic formation of hydrocarbons may be confirmed. References 1) B. J Wood, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 117, 593, (1993) 2) A. Vecht, Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts, A1060, (2007) 3) F. Cataldo, International Journal of Astrobiology, 2, 51, (2003) 4) K. A. Kvenvolden, 4th Can, Permafrost Conference, 305, (1982) 5) W. G. Deuser et all, Science, New Series 181, 51, (1973)

  6. Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Nigro, L. M.; McKay, L.; Ziervogel, K.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.

    2010-12-01

    We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment and cultivation experiments. Surface oil slick samples were collected 3 nautical miles from ground zero, (5/6/10, RV Pelican) and were added to uncontaminated surface water (collected within a 30 nautical mile radius of ground zero, 5/6/10 - 5/9/10, RV Pelican). This mixture was incubated for 20 days in a rolling bottle at 25°C. 16S rRNA clone libraries from marine snow-like microbial flocs that had formed during the incubation yielded a highly diverse bacterial community, predominately composed of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and a smaller number of Planktomycetes and other bacterial lineages. The most frequently recovered proteobacterial sequences were closely related to cultured species of the genus Cycloclasticus, specialists in aerobic oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. These time series incubation results will be compared to the microbial community structure of contaminated surface water, sampled on the same cruise with RV Pelican (5/6/10-5/9/10) and frozen immediately. Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with C13-labelled alkanes and polycyclic aromatic substrates and gulf water samples have yielded different enrichments. With naphthalene, predominantly Alteromonas-related clones and a smaller share of Cycloclasticus clones were recovered; phenanthrene yielded predominantly clones related to Cycloclasticus, and diverse other Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Analyses of SIP experiments with hexadecane are in progress. The microbial community composition of the deep hydrocarbon plume was characterized using water column profile samples taken

  7. Antenatal Deep Vein Thrombosis with an Underlying Thrombophilia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antenatal Deep Vein Thrombosis with an Underlying Thrombophilia. Emmanuel K Srofenyoh, Ali Samba, Enyonam Y Kwawukume. Abstract. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can cause severe morbidity in the puerperium and, less commonly, during pregnancy. A woman who developed DVT as a result of thrombophilia was ...

  8. Aliphatic hydrocarbons and triterpenes of the Congo deep-sea fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjanelle, Laurence; Rivière, Béatrice; Pinturier, Laurence; Khripounoff, Alexis; Baudin, François; Dachs, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Hydrocarbons were analyzed in sediments from the Congo River deep-sea fan, from the Congo River, and in sinking particles collected by sediment traps 40 m above the sediment. Studied sites encompassed three lobes of decreasing age of formation along the canyon: sites A, F and C and a another lobe system, disconnected from the active channel since 4 ka, Site E. Terrestrial long-chain odd n-alkanes were dominant in all sediments of the lobe system. Unsaturated terpenoids sourced by higher plants, such as gammacerene, lupene, ursene and oleanene, were also detected. At site C, characterized by high accumulation rates (10-20 cm yr-1), the organic matter spends less time in the oxic layer than at other sites and high phytadiene concentrations 10-17 μg gOC-1) evidenced recent terrestrial and phytoplanktonic remains reworked in anaerobic conditions. In these sediments, organic carbon-normalized concentrations of terrestrial alkanes and terpenoids were several fold higher than in the lobe sediments with lower accumulation rates (sites A and F), arguing for a more rapid degradation of terrestrial hydrocarbons than bulk organic carbon in the first steps of pre-diagenesis. Ample variations in the contributions of biomarkers from higher plants, ferns, bacteria and angiosperms, indicate an heterogeneous contribution of the soil and vegetation detritus delivered to the Congo lobe sediments. Lower concentrations in terrestrial hydrocarbons at site E, 45 km away from the active canyon, indicated that river particles are still admixed to the dominant marine organic matter. Diploptene and hop-7(21)-ene have a dual origin, from terrestrial and marine microorganisms. Scatter in their relationship to gammacerene argues for a contribution of marine microorganisms, in addition to soils-sourced microorganisms. The close distribution patterns of diploptene, hop-21-ene, hop-7(21)ene and neohop-13(18)-ene is in line with the hypothesis of sequential clay-catalyzed isomerisation of bacterial

  9. Exploration and Discovery of Hydrocarbon Seeps, Coral Ecosystems, and Shipwrecks in the Deep Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, T. M.; Hsing, P.; Carney, R. S.; Herrera, S.; Heyl, T.; Munro, C.; Bors, E.; Kiene, W.; Vecchione, M.; Evans, A.; Irion, J.; Warren, D.; Malik, M.; Lobecker, M.; Potter, J.

    2012-12-01

    Between March 20 and April 6, 2012, the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer served as a platform for ship-board and shore-side scientists to explore the deep Gulf of Mexico, targeting the northern West Florida Escarpment, DeSoto Canyon, the vicinity (within 11km) of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) well, and deepwater shipwrecks. We systematically explored and discovered natural hydrocarbon seeps, diverse coral ecosystems, wooden and iron-hulled shipwrecks more than 100 years old colonized by coral communities, and sperm whale habitat between 600 and 1200m. A total of sixteen dives took advantage of new and recent maps to explore and groundtruth both hard and soft-bottom habitats, from cretaceous carbonates to mounds of coral rubble. The final ROV dive successfully groundtruthed expected methane-release areas imaged by the ship's mapping systems up to 1150m above the seafloor. The source of the mapping imagery was a stream of bubbles issuing from beneath thriving seep mussel communities. We visited five sites in the Mississippi Canyon (MC) area (lease blocks MC294, MC297, MC388, MC255, and MC036; the DWH incident took place in MC252). These sites were 11.3 km SW, 6.8 km SW, 7.6 km SW, 25.7 km E, and 27.4 km to the NE of the DWH, respectively. We used high-definition imaging systems on the Little Hercules ROV and Seirios camera platform to document more than 130 coral colonies and over 400 associated individual animals to continue to assessing the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. All of these efforts were conducted to provide fundamental knowledge of unknown and poorly known regions, ecosystems, and items of historical significance in the deep Gulf of Mexico.

  10. High-resolution AUV mapping and sampling of a deep hydrocarbon plume in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. P.; Zhang, Y.; Thomas, H.; Rienecker, E.; Nelson, R.; Cummings, S.

    2010-12-01

    During NOAA cruise GU-10-02 on the Ship Gordon Gunter, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Dorado was deployed to map and sample a deep (900-1200 m) volume centered approximately seven nautical miles southwest of the Deepwater Horizon wellhead. Dorado was equipped to detect optical and chemical signals of hydrocarbons and to acquire targeted samples. The primary sensor reading used for hydrocarbon detection was colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence (CF). On June 2 and 3, ship cast and subsequent AUV surveys detected elevated CF in a layer between 1100 and 1200 m depth. While the deep volume was mapped in a series of parallel vertical sections, the AUV ran a peak-capture algorithm to target sample acquisition at layer signal peaks. Samples returned by ship CTD/CF rosette sampling and by AUV were preliminarily examined at sea, and they exhibited odor and fluorometric signal consistent with oil. More definitive and detailed results on these samples are forthcoming from shore-based laboratory analyses. During post-cruise analysis, all of the CF data were analyzed to objectively define and map the deep plume feature. Specifically, the maximum expected background CF over the depth range 1000-1200 m was extrapolated from a linear relationship between depth and maximum CF over the depth range 200 to 1000 m. Values exceeding the maximum expected background in the depth range 1000-1200 m were interpreted as signal from a hydrocarbon-enriched plume. Using this definition we examine relationships between CF and other AUV measurements within the plume, illustrate the three-dimensional structure of the plume boundary region that was mapped, describe small-scale layering on isopycnals, and examine short-term variations in plume depth, intensity and hydrographic relationships. Three-dimensional representation of part of a deep hydrocarbon plume mapped and sampled by AUV on June 2-3, 2010.

  11. Biodiversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from deep sea sediments of the Middle Atlantic Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhisong; Lai, Qiliang; Dong, Chunming; Shao, Zongze

    2008-08-01

    The bacteria involved in the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in deep sea subsurface environments are largely unknown. In order to reveal their biodiversity, sediments from 2.2 m under the bottom surface at a water depth of 3542 m were sampled on the Middle Atlantic Ridge with a gravity column sampler. The sediments were promptly enriched with either crude oil or a mixture of PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene) as the sole carbon source, and further enriched with the PAH mixture mentioned above in the lab. The resulting consortia were named C2CO and C2PPN respectively. Their bacterial composition was analysed with plate cultivation, PCR-DGGE and 16S rDNA library analysis. On plates, isolates belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Thalassospira and Tistrella dominated the culturable populations. With PCR-DGGE, five major bands closely related to Cycloclasticus, Alteromonas, Thalassospira, Alcanivorax and Rhodospirillaceae were detected in consortium C2CO, while only one major band of Cycloclasticus was detected in consortium C2PPN. In addition, the dynamics of community structure in response to aromatic substrate alterations were examined. As a result, three ribotypes of Cycloclasticus were detected by 16S rDNA library analysis, one which played a key role in phenanthrene degradation; two Alteromonas bacteria dominated the naphthalene reselected consortium. Although bacteria of the two genera grew as the main members of the communities, none of them were isolated, probably owing to their poor cultivability. These results confirm that bacteria of Cycloclasticus are important obligate PAH degraders in marine environments, and coexist with other degrading bacteria that inhabit the deep subsurface sediment of the Atlantic. This supports the view that PAH accumulation and bioattenuation occur in remote areas consistently and continuously.

  12. Hydrocarbon accumulation conditions and exploration direction of Baiyun–Liwan deep water areas in the Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heming Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geologic study was performed in the Baiyun–Liwan deep water areas, Pearl River Mouth Basin, based on the achievements obtained during the past five exploration stages. The following understandings were obtained. (1 The Baiyun Sag has superior source rock conditions and has experienced three tectonic evaluation stages like rifting, rifting-depression and depression. The Wenchang–Enping Fms deposited during the rifting stage have large hydrocarbon generation potentials. During the rifting-depression and depression stages, the deposition in the study area was controlled by the Oligocene and Miocene shelf slope break zones. The Oligocene Zhuhai Fm shallow marine delta-longshore depositional system and the Miocene Zhujiang–Hanjiang Fms deep fan depositional system were formed, and they are the most favorable reservoir-caprock assemblages in the study area. (2 The Hydrocarbon accumulation pattern in the deep waters is different from that in the northern shallow waters. Shelf slope break zone, composite conduction system consisting of structural ridge, fault, sandbody, unconformity and fluid diapir as well as late tectonic movement are the three major factors controlling hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the study area. (3 The Liwan 3-1 gas field is a typical example. The superior trapping conditions, high-quality reservoirs of delta distributary channel controlled by shelf slope break zone, vertical conduction system consisting of fault and diapir, as well as the overlying massive marine mudstone caprock provide favorable geologic conditions for the formation of large gas fields. Four areas were identified as the targets of gas exploration in the near future: the deep water fan system in the central sag, the structural-stratigraphic traps in the uplifted areas on both sides of the main sag of Baiyun, a series of large structural traps on the fault terrace to the southwest of the main sag, and the ultra-deep frontiers in

  13. Distribution of hydrocarbons released during the 2010 MC252 oil spill in deep offshore waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spier, Chelsea; Stringfellow, William T.; Hazen, Terry C.; Conrad, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform on April 20th, 2010 resulted in the second largest oil spill in history. The distribution and chemical composition of hydrocarbons within a 45 km radius of the blowout was investigated. All available certified hydrocarbon data were acquired from NOAA and BP. The distribution of hydrocarbons was found to be dispersed over a wider area in subsurface waters than previously predicted or reported. A deepwater hydrocarbon plume predicted by models was verified and additional plumes were identified. Because the samples were not collected systematically, there is still some question about the presence and persistence of an 865 m depth plume predicted by models. Water soluble compounds were extracted from the rising oil in deepwater, and were found at potentially toxic levels outside of areas previously reported to contain hydrocarbons. Application of subsurface dispersants was found to increase hydrocarbon concentration in subsurface waters. - Highlights: ► The hydrocarbon distribution was more widely spread than previously predicted or reported. ► 4 subsurface plumes were identified. ► More soluble compounds were preferentially extracted in the deepwater. ► Percentage of detectable results is a useful data analysis technique. ► Subsurface dispersants application increased hydrocarbons in subsurface waters. - All available certified Deepwater Horizon data was used to determine the spatial, temporal, and chemical distribution of hydrocarbons in subsurface of the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. Seawater capacitance – a promising proxy for mapping and characterizing drifting hydrocarbon plumes in the deep ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fleming

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons released into the deep ocean are an inevitable consequence of natural seep, seafloor drilling, and leaking wellhead-to-collection-point pipelines. The Macondo 252 (Deepwater Horizon well blowout of 2010 was even larger than the Ixtoc event in the Gulf of Campeche in 1979. History suggests it will not be the last accidental release, as deepwater drilling expands to meet an ever-growing demand. For those who must respond to this kind of disaster, the first line of action should be to know what is going on. This includes knowing where an oil plume is at any given time, where and how fast it is moving, and how it is evolving or degrading. We have experimented in the laboratory with induced polarization as a method to track hydrocarbons in the seawater column and find that finely dispersed oil in seawater gives rise to a large distributed capacitance. From previous sea trials, we infer this could potentially be used to both map and characterize oil plumes, down to a ratio of less than 0.001 oil-to-seawater, drifting and evolving in the deep ocean. A side benefit demonstrated in some earlier sea trials is that this same approach in modified form can also map certain heavy placer minerals, as well as communication cables, pipelines, and wrecks buried beneath the seafloor.

  15. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nativ, R.; Hunley, A.E.

    1993-07-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation contains some areas contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater at that depth is saline and has previously been considered stagnant. On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of flow of the saline groundwater and its potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial temperature variations, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. In addition, chemical analyses of brine in adjacent areas in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia were compared with the deep water underlying the reservation to help assess the origin of the brine. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and freshwater-bearing units. The confined water (along with dissolved solutes) moves along open fractures (or man-made shortcuts) at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow probably are small

  16. Dynamic Autoinoculation and the Microbial Ecology of a deep Water Hydrocarbon Irruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    composition of the microbial community shown in Sottom for a parcel experiencing a single exposure, (fl) Time course changes as described for A for...processes acceler- ated hydrocarbon biodegradation and structured microbial ecology during the DWH event through priming of the native microbiota ...Science 131:312-315. 3. Reddy CM. et al. (2012) Composition and fate of gas and oil released to the water column during the Deepweter Horizon oil spill

  17. Innovative Approaches to the Solution of Searching Hydrocarbons in Deep Horizons of the Volga-Ural Oil and Gas Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Trofimov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article draws attention to the problem of hydrocarbon exploration in deep horizons, which is especially important for the old oil and gas bearing provinces, in particular, for the Volga-Ural province. The example of Riphean-Vendian deposits shows that the solution of this problem is possible if we use not only data of the structural plans of the studied horizons, but also the presence in the immediate vicinity of the identified structures of the oil feeding channels (faults allocated by the high-depth CDP seismic survey. Based on a comparative analysis of the structure of the White Tiger field (Vietnam and Zhigulev arch, it was concluded that they are very similar and that it is expedient to set up, within the last tectonic element, purposeful studies to explore the prospects of oil and gas potential of the Precambrian basement.

  18. Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

    2014-10-01

    Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Calculation of Interfacial Tensions of Hydrocarbon-water Systems under Reservoir Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    Assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture are linearly distributed across the interface between the coexisting vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid phases, we developed in this research work a linear-gradient-theory (LGT) model for computing the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon......-brine systems. The new model was tested on a number of hydrocarbon-water/brine mixtures and two crude oil-water systems under reservoir conditions. The results show good agreement between the predicted and the experimental interfacial tension data.......Assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture are linearly distributed across the interface between the coexisting vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid phases, we developed in this research work a linear-gradient-theory (LGT) model for computing the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon-water...... mixtures on the basis of the SRK equation of state. With this model, it is unnecessary to solve the time-consuming density-profile equations of the gradient-theory model. In addition, a correlation was developed for representing the effect of electrolytes on the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon...

  20. Calculation of Interfacial Tensions of Hydrocarbon-water Systems under Reservoir Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, You-Xiang; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    Assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture are linearly distributed across the interface between the coexisting vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid phases, we developed in this research work a linear-gradient-theory (LGT) model for computing the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon......-brine systems. The new model was tested on a number of hydrocarbon-water/brine mixtures and two crude oil-water systems under reservoir conditions. The results show good agreement between the predicted and the experimental interfacial tension data.......Assuming that the number densities of each component in a mixture are linearly distributed across the interface between the coexisting vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid phases, we developed in this research work a linear-gradient-theory (LGT) model for computing the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon......-water mixtures on the basis of the SRK equation of state. With this model, it is unnecessary to solve the time-consuming density-profile equations of the gradient-theory model. In addition, a correlation was developed for representing the effect of electrolytes on the interfacial tension of hydrocarbon...

  1. Differential electron emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules under fast ion impact

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Shubhadeep; Champion, Christophe; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2017-01-01

    Interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecule and energetic ion is a subject of interest in different areas of modern physics. Here, we present measurements of energy and angular distributions of absolute double differential electron emission cross section for coronene (C24H12) and fluorene (C13H10) molecules under fast bare oxygen ion impact. For coronene, the?angular distributions?of the low energy electrons are quite different from that of simpler targets like Ne or CH...

  2. Assessment of organochlorine hydrocarbons transformation in contaminated agricultural products and foodstuffs under gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of an estimation of organochlorinated pollutants transformation (particularly organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)) under gamma-irradiation has become important in connection with radiation technologies application in the food industry. According to earlier researches, small doses of OCP lead to serious damages of an organism, comparable with damages from high doses. Among radiolysis products of OCP in model solutions various substances on a structure have been found out. Though of trace concentration of each of them, in sum with the initial pesticides residue they make up significant of mass contamination (as shown earlier up to 90% from initial OCP). In this work fish samples (bream) containing OCPs (15.20 ng/g of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and 87.10 ng/g of DDT and its metabolites), as well as PCB (18.51 ng/g) were studied. The minced fish was irradiated at dose of 10 kGy with dose rate of 1.35 Gy/sec. Then, by methods of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it was found that the OCPs degradation varied from 3 up to 61% and the PCB degradation - 24-52%. Significant complication of chemical composition was shown comparing to the primary biological sample contamination. As a result of fish irradiation, secondary pollution appeared that included residues of primary organochlorine hydrocarbons and their radiation-induced metabolites. Among the investigated OCPs the most stable proved to be alfa-hexachlorocyclohexane (alfa-HCH), the least stable - DDT which corresponds to the previous findings about the radiation stability of OCPs in model solutions. Mass spectra of the irradiated samples of minced bream showed the presence of radiation metabolites of OCPs, that had also been found at irradiation of model solutions of 2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)-1-chlorethylene (DDMU), DDD and 1a, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e-pentahlorcyclohexane. There was revealed a decomposition product formed during the

  3. [Predominant strains of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading consortia from deep sea of the Middle Atlantic Ridge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhisong; Shao, Zongze

    2009-07-01

    In order to identify the predominant strains of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading consortia harboring in sea water and surface sediment collected from deep sea of the Middle Atlantic Ridge. We employed enrichment method and spread-plate method to isolate cultivable bacteria and PAHs degraders from deep sea samples. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the bacteria. Then we analyzed the dominant bacteria in the PAHs-degrading consortia by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) combined with DNA sequencing. Altogether 16 cultivable bacteria were obtained, including one PAHs degrader Novosphingobium sp. 4D. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strains closely related to Alcanivorax dieselolei NO1A (5/16) and Tistrella mobilis TISTR 1108T (5/16) constituted two biggest groups among the cultivable bacteria. DGGE analysis showed that strain 4L (also 4M and 4N, Alcanivorax dieselolei NO1A, 99.21%), 4D (Novosphingobium pentaromativorans US6-1(T), 97.07%) and 4B (also 4E, 4H and 4K, Tistrella mobilis TISTR 1108T, > 99%) dominated the consortium MC2D. While in consortium MC3CO, the predominant strains were strain 5C (also 5H, Alcanivorax dieselolei NO1A, > 99%), uncultivable strain represented by band 5-8 (Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444T, 99.41%), 5J (Tistrella mobilis TISTR 1108T, 99.52%) and 5F (also 5G, Thalassospira lucentensis DSM 14000T, degrading consortia in sea water and surface sediment of Middle Atlantic Ridge deep sea, with Novosphingobium spp. as their main PAHs degraders.

  4. Analytical calculation of muon intensities under deep sea-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inazawa, H.; Kobayakawa, K.

    1985-01-01

    The study of the energy loss of high energy muons through different materials, such as rock and sea-water can cast light on characteristics of lepton interactions. There are less ambiguities for the values of atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) in sea-water than in rock. Muon intensities should be measured as fundamental data and as background data for searching the fluxes of neutrino. The average range energy relation in sea-water is derived. The correction factors due to the range fluctuation is also computed. By applying these results, the intensities deep under sea are converted from a given muon energy spectra at sea-level. The spectra of conventional muons from eta, K decays have sec theta enhancement. The spectrum of prompt muons from charmed particles is almost isotropic. The effect of prompt muons is examined.

  5. Hydrocarbon-Based Communities in the Ultra-Deep Gulf of Mexico: Protecting the Asphalt Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Sahling, H.

    2016-02-01

    The term `asphalt volcanism' was coined to describe marine sites where extrusions of highly degraded oil form large expanses of hard substratum, which is then colonized by chemosynthetic fauna and sessile invertebrates. A site named `Chapopote', a knoll at 3200m in the southern Gulf of Mexico, was described as the type specimen of asphalt volcanism in 2003. A joint German-Mexican-U.S. expedition on the German ship F/S METEOR returned to the region in February and March, 2015 to quantify the extent and characteristics of Chapopote and other asphalt-hosting knolls using the SEAL AUV, QUEST ROV, shipborne acoustics, and autonomous instrument landers. Preliminary findings have greatly expanded the number of confirmed asphalt volcanoes, as well as sites where seepage was detected as gas flares in the water column. The morphology of asphalt flows, which was investigated using large-scale photo-mosaicking techniques, indicated that they form with a complex interplay of gravity flows, buoyant uplift, and chemical weathering. An unexpected finding was the occurrence of gas hydrate mounds, some exceeding 1000 m2 in area and 10 m in relief. Gas hydrate forms almost instantly at ambient depths and temperatures and there was evidence that large plugs of hydrate that can rapidly breach the seafloor. Older mounds are colonized by massive tubeworm aggregations that may serve to stabilize the hydrate. Mexico recently announced the first energy production lease sales in their `ultra-deep' offshore. In contrast to the U.S. Gulf, where extensive safeguards for chemosynthetic communities have been in place for over 25 years, few existing protocols protect the Mexican deep-sea asphalt ecosystem. The combination of extensive asphalt pavements and exposed gas hydrate also pose unusual hazards for exploration piston coring or drilling operations. The time is ripe to consider what conservation model would best serve the region.

  6. Predicting hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.R.; Demaison, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the on-site collection and examination of small concentrations of methane dissolved in water so as to predict hydrocarbon potential of an earth formation underlying a body of water, said formation being a source of said methane, comprises: (i) sampling the water; (ii) continuously vacuum separating said water into liquid and gas phases; (iii) quantitatively separating interfering gas species from methane; (iv) quantitatively oxidising said methane; (v) cryogenically trapping the resulting gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor at a trapping station, and (vi) isotopically examining said trapped carbon dioxide and water vapour for carbon and deuterium distribution. (author)

  7. Deep overbite malocclusion: analysis of the underlying components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dawlatly, Mostafa M; Fayed, Mona M Salah; Mostafa, Yehya A

    2012-10-01

    A deepbite malocclusion should not be approached as a disease entity; instead, it should be viewed as a clinical manifestation of underlying discrepancies. The aim of this study was to investigate the various skeletal and dental components of deep bite malocclusion, the significance of the contribution of each, and whether there are certain correlations between them. Dental and skeletal measurements were made on lateral cephalometric radiographs and study models of 124 patients with deepbite. These measurements were statistically analyzed. An exaggerated curve of Spee was the greatest shared dental component (78%), significantly higher than any other component (P = 0.0335). A decreased gonial angle was the greatest shared skeletal component (37.1%), highly significant compared with the other components (P = 0.0019). A strong positive correlation was found between the ramus/Frankfort horizontal angle and the gonial angle; weaker correlations were found between various components. An exaggerated curve of Spee and a decreased gonial angle were the greatest contributing components. This analysis of deepbite components could help clinicians design individualized mechanotherapies based on the underlying cause, rather than being biased toward predetermined mechanics when treating patients with a deepbite malocclusion. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction of oxides of nitrogen and aromatic hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrien, R.J.; Green, P.J.; Doty, R.A.; Vanderzanden, J.W.; Easton, R.R.; Irwin, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The reactions of nitrogen oxides with aromatic hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions are investigated. Gaseous reaction products formed when toluene is irradiated under simulated atmospheric conditions in the presence of nitrogen oxides were analyzed by gas chromatography. Reaction products detected include acetylene, water, acetaldehyde, acetone, toluene, benzaldehyde, ortho-, meta- and para-cresol, benzyl nitrate and meta- and para-nitrotoluene. Reaction mechanisms yielding the various products are illustrated. The assumption that all the nitrogen oxides observed to be lost from the reaction products can be accounted for by nitric acid formation in the absence of ozone formation is verified by a model in which the hydroxyl radical is assumed to be the only means of removing toluene. Under conditions in which ozone is formed, nitrogen oxide loss is accounted for by ozone formation in addition to nitric acid formation

  9. Fate and transport potential for dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a shallow to a deep aquifer at the Madisonville Creosote works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.W.; Tzhone, S.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The Remedy selected for a deep aquifer at the Madisonville Creosote Works, which have a potential threat of contamination from a nearby contaminated shallow aquifer is presented. The remedy includes monitoring, in consideration of the low permeability of the clay unit separating the two aquifers and the limited transport potential of the dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A computer model was used for predication of the potential fate and transport of contaminants to the deep drinking water supply aquifer. The model results show conservative breakthrough of naphthalene from the source creosote in the shallow water bearing zone at about 150 years.

  10. Sequencing Infrastructure Investments under Deep Uncertainty Using Real Options Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishtha Manocha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation tipping point and adaptation pathway approach developed to make decisions under deep uncertainty do not shed light on which among the multiple available pathways should be chosen as the preferred pathway. This creates the need to extend these approaches by means of suitable tools that can help sequence actions and subsequently enable the outlining of relevant policies. This paper presents two sequencing approaches, namely, the “Build to Target” and “Build Up” approach, to aid in sub-selecting a set of preferred pathways. Both approaches differ in the levels of flexibility they offer. They are exemplified by means of two case studies wherein the Net Present Valuation and the Real Options Analysis are employed as selection criterions. The results demonstrate the benefit of these two approaches when used in conjunction with the adaptation pathways and show how the pathways selected by means of a Build to Target approach generally have a value greater than, or at least the same as, the pathways selected by the Build Up approach. Further, this paper also demonstrates the capacity of Real Options to quantify and capture the economic value of flexibility, which cannot be done by traditional valuation approaches such as Net Present Valuation.

  11. Analytic Treatment of Deep Neural Networks Under Additive Gaussian Noise

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadly, Modar M.

    2018-04-12

    Despite the impressive performance of deep neural networks (DNNs) on numerous vision tasks, they still exhibit yet-to-understand uncouth behaviours. One puzzling behaviour is the reaction of DNNs to various noise attacks, where it has been shown that there exist small adversarial noise that can result in a severe degradation in the performance of DNNs. To rigorously treat this, we derive exact analytic expressions for the first and second moments (mean and variance) of a small piecewise linear (PL) network with a single rectified linear unit (ReLU) layer subject to general Gaussian input. We experimentally show that these expressions are tight under simple linearizations of deeper PL-DNNs, especially popular architectures in the literature (e.g. LeNet and AlexNet). Extensive experiments on image classification show that these expressions can be used to study the behaviour of the output mean of the logits for each class, the inter-class confusion and the pixel-level spatial noise sensitivity of the network. Moreover, we show how these expressions can be used to systematically construct targeted and non-targeted adversarial attacks. Then, we proposed a special estimator DNN, named mixture of linearizations (MoL), and derived the analytic expressions for its output mean and variance, as well. We employed these expressions to train the model to be particularly robust against Gaussian attacks without the need for data augmentation. Upon training this network on a loss that is consolidated with the derived output probabilistic moments, the network is not only robust under very high variance Gaussian attacks but is also as robust as networks that are trained with 20 fold data augmentation.

  12. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Junfeng; Chen Jingwen; Martens, D.; Quan Xie; Yang Fenglin; Kettrup, A.; Schramm, K.-W.

    2003-01-01

    Photolysis of PAHs on surfaces may determine their ultimate fate in the environment. - Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorbed on surfaces of spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] needles under sunlight irradiation was investigated. PAHs were produced by combustion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), wood, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and styrene in a stove. The factors of sunlight irradiation on the surfaces of spruce needles were taken into consideration when investigating the kinetic parameters. The photolysis of the 18 PAHs under study follows first-order kinetics. The photolysis half-lives range from 15 h for dibenzo(a,h)anthracene to 75 h for phenanthrene. Photolysis of some PAHs on surfaces of spruce needles may play an important role on the fate of PAHs in the environment

  13. Diagenetic Carbonates Related to Hydrocarbon-rich Fluid Seepage in the Nile Deep Sea Fan (East Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, C.; Gontharet, S.; Blanc-Valleron, M. M.; Bayon, G.; Dupré, S.; Mascle, J.

    2017-12-01

    During the NAUTINIL (September-October 2003), MIMES (July 2004), BIONIL (October 2006) and MEDECO2 (November 2007) cruises, coring and submersible dives were realized in the Nile Deep Sea Fan (NDSF) area. Active fluid venting sites were identified by the presence of living benthic organisms and by methane plumes in the bottom waters above the seeping structures. At all sites, hard carbonate crusts cover irregularly the sea floor. The sediments from the venting areas are organic-rich, contain sometimes carbonate concretions and have a strong H2S smell indicative of active sulfate reduction. The mineralogy of carbonate crusts is dominated by aragonite and Mg-calcite; the mineralogy of concretions is more complex, with mixtures of Mg-calcite, dolomite and ankerite. The oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of the carbonate from crusts and concretions exhibit large variations (-2.8water. The carbonate crusts and concretions from the brine seeps of the north-western NDSF are enriched in 18O indicating that a source of 18O-rich fluids originated from depth. Differently, a few crusts and concretions from the eastern NDSF exhibit relatively low δ18O values, which are due to precipitation at warm temperatures. The very low δ13C values of the diagenetic carbonates indicate that methane and possibly other heavier hydrocarbons were the major source of carbon that was oxidized as bicarbonate mostly through bacterial sulfate reduction coupled with anaerobic methane oxidation within the anoxic sediment. The very positive δ13C values of the diagenetic carbonates from many carbonate concretions are related to the production of 13C-rich CO2 during methanogenesis within the sub-seafloor sediments.

  14. Behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils under freeze-thaw cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, Anne; Schönborn, Maike; Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    The arctic region will be one of the most affected regions by climate change due to the predicted temperature rise. As a result of anthropogenic actions as mining, exploration and refining as well as atmospheric transport pollutions can be found in arctic soils. Therefore questions on the behaviour of organic contaminants in permafrost influenced soils are of high relevance. First investigations showed that permafrost can act as a semi-permeable layer for PAH (Curtosi et al., 2007). Therefore it can be assumed that global warming could result in a mobilization of PAH in these permafrost influenced soils. On the other hand a low but detectable mineralization of organic hydrocarbons by microorganisms under repeated freeze-thaw cycles was analysed (Börresen et al. 2007, Eschenbach et al. 2000). In this study the behaviour and distribution of PAH under freezing and periodically freezing and thawing were investigated in laboratory column experiments with spiked soil materials. Two soil materials which are typical for artic regions, a organic matter containing melt water sand and a well decomposed peat, were homogeneously spiked with a composite of a crude oil and the PAH anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene. After 14days preincubation time the soil material was filled in the laboratory columns (40cm high and 10 cm in diameter). Based on studies by Chuvilin et al. (2001) the impact of freezing of the upper third of the column from the surface downwards was examined. The impact of freezing was tested in two different approaches the first one with a single freezing step and the second one with a fourfold repeated cycle of freezing and thawing which takes about 6 or 7 days each. The experimental design and very first results will be shown and discussed. In some experiments with the peat a higher concentration of anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene could be detected below the freezing front in the unfrozen part of the column. Whereas the concentration of PAH had slightly decreased in

  15. Application of numerical modeling of selective NOx reduction by hydrocarbon under diesel transient conditions in consideration of hydrocarbon adsorption and desorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Asano, A.; Banno, K.; Yokota, K.; Sugiura, M.

    2001-01-01

    A model of NO x selective reduction by hydrocarbon (HC) was developed, which takes into account the adsorption and desorption of HC. The model was applied for predicting the performance of a De-NO x catalytic reactor, working under transient conditions such as a legislative driving cycle. Diesel fuel was used as a supplemental reductant. The behavior of HC and NO x reactions and HC adsorption and desorption has been simulated successfully by our numerical approach under the transient conditions of the simulated Japanese 10-15 driving cycle. Our model is expected to optimize the design of selective diesel NO x reduction systems using a diesel fuel as a supplemental reductant

  16. Persistence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components of creosote under anaerobic enrichment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharak Genthner, B R; Townsend, G T; Lantz, S E; Mueller, J G

    1997-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of an artificial mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which simulates the PAH component of creosote, was examined under methanogenic, sulfidogenic, and nitrate-reducing conditions using creosote-contaminated sediment as the source of inoculum. PAH degradation, CH4 formation and ion reduction were monitored for up to one year. Despite demonstrating active methanogenic and nitrate-reducing anaerobic bacterial communities, only limited degradation of a few PAHs was observed. Under methanogenic conditions limited degradation of all bicyclic (naphthalene, 1-and 2-methylnaphthalene, biphenyl, and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene) and one tricyclic PAH, anthraquinone, was detected. 2-Methylanthracene was apparently degraded under nitrate-reducing conditions. Anthraquinone declined in sulfate enrichments, but this decline was not dependent upon sulfate reduction. None of the 4- or 5-ring PAHs were degraded under any of the enrichment conditions. These data indicate that under the anaerobic conditions tested there is only a limited potential to degrade PAHs which must be considered when proposing bioremediation technologies for PAH-contaminated sites, especially if high-molecular-weight PAHs are present.

  17. Hydrocarbon activation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions proceeds by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Microbial degradation of alkanes typically involves their conversion to fatty acids which are then catabolised by beta-oxidation. The critical step in this process is activation of the hydrocarbon. Under oxic conditions this is catalyzed by monooxygenase enzymes with the formation of long chain alcohols. In the absence of oxygen alternative alkane activation mechanisms have been observed or proposed. Fumarate addition to alkanes to form alkyl succinates is considered a central process in anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation. Comparative studies of crude oil degradation under sulphate-reducing and methanogenic conditions revealed distinctive patterns of compound class removal and metabolite formation. Alkyl succinates derived from C7 to C26 n-alkanes and branched chain alkanes were found in abundance in sulfate-reducing systems but these were not detected during methanogenic crude oil degradation. Only one other mechanism of alkane activation has been elucidated to date. This involves addition of carbon derived from bicarbonate/CO2 to C-3 of an alkane chain to form a 2-ethylalkane with subsequent removal of the ethyl group leading to the formation of a fatty acid 1 carbon shorter than the original alkane. 2-ethylalkanes have never been detected as metabolites of anaerobic alkane degradation and were not detected in crude oil-degrading methanogenic systems. Due to the range of alkanes present in crude oil it was not possible to infer the generation of C-odd acids from C-even alkanes which is characteristic of the C-3 carboxylation mechanism. Furthermore genes homologous to alkysuccinate synthetases were not detected in the methanogenic hydrocarbon degrading community by pyrosequencing of total DNA extracted from methanogenic enrichments cultures. beta-oxidation genes were detected and intriguingly, alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes were present. This offers the possibility that alkane activation in the methanogenic system does not proceed via acid metabolites

  18. Overcoming Methodological Obstacles in Business Process Simulation under Deep Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markensteijn, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations are in ever changing environments which results in the need for constant adaptation of business processes and structures. Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is a commonly used application of Business Process Simulation to support decision makers in complex processes. However, in case deep

  19. Behavior of rigid and flexible culvert pipes under deep fill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Along a section of Interstate 77 in Carroll County, in the mountainous region of southwestern Virginia, it was necessary to construct a fill approximately 258 ft (78 m) deep. The flow of a mountain stream had to be carried through this massive embank...

  20. Temperature effect on hydrocarbon deposition on molybdenum mirrors under ITER-relevant long-term plasma operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; van Rooij, G. J.; Litnovsky, A.; Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Westerhout, J.; Zoethout, E.

    2009-01-01

    Optical diagnostics in ITER will rely on mirrors near the plasma and the deterioration of the reflectivity is a concern. The effect of temperature on the deposition efficiency of hydrocarbons under long-term operation conditions similar to ITER was investigated in the linear plasma generator

  1. Deep greedy learning under thermal variability in full diurnal cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauss, Patrick; Rosario, Dalton

    2017-08-01

    We study the generalization and scalability behavior of a deep belief network (DBN) applied to a challenging long-wave infrared hyperspectral dataset, consisting of radiance from several manmade and natural materials within a fixed site located 500 m from an observation tower. The collections cover multiple full diurnal cycles and include different atmospheric conditions. Using complementary priors, a DBN uses a greedy algorithm that can learn deep, directed belief networks one layer at a time and has two layers form to provide undirected associative memory. The greedy algorithm initializes a slower learning procedure, which fine-tunes the weights, using a contrastive version of the wake-sleep algorithm. After fine-tuning, a network with three hidden layers forms a very good generative model of the joint distribution of spectral data and their labels, despite significant data variability between and within classes due to environmental and temperature variation occurring within and between full diurnal cycles. We argue, however, that more questions than answers are raised regarding the generalization capacity of these deep nets through experiments aimed at investigating their training and augmented learning behavior.

  2. Evaluation on occluded hydrocarbon in deep–ultra deep ancient source rocks and its cracked gas resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-cracked gas, as the main type of high-over mature marine natural gas in China, is mainly derived from occluded hydrocarbon. So it is significant to carry out quantitative study on occluded hydrocarbon. In this paper, the occluded hydrocarbon volume of the main basins in China was calculated depending on their types, abundances and evolution stages by means of the forward method (experimental simulation and the inversion method (geologic profile dissection. And then, occluded hydrocarbon evolution models were established for five types of source rocks (sapropelic, sapropelic prone hybrid, humic prone hybrid, humic and coal. It is shown that the hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency of sapropelic and sapropelic prone hybrid excellent source rocks is lower than 30% at the low-maturity stage, 30%–60% at the principal oil generation stage, and 50%–80% at the high-maturity stage, which are all about 10% higher than that of humic prone hybrid and humic source rocks at the corresponding stages. The resource distribution and cracked gas expulsion of occluded hydrocarbon since the high-maturity stage of marine source rocks in the Sichuan Basin were preliminarily calculated on the basis of the evolution models. The cracked gas expulsion is 230.4 × 1012 m3 at the high evolution stage of occluded hydrocarbon of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm in this basin, and 12.3 × 1012 m3 from the source rocks of Sinian Doushantuo Fm, indicating good potential for natural gas resources. It is indicated that the favorable areas of occluded hydrocarbon cracked gas in the Qiongzhusi Fm source rocks in the Sichuan Basin include Gaoshiti–Moxi, Ziyang and Weiyuan, covering a favorable area of 4.3 × 104 km2.

  3. Molecular systems under shock compression into the dense plasma regime: carbon dioxide and hydrocarbon polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Cochrane, Kyle R.; Root, Seth; Carpenter, John H.

    2013-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) has proven remarkably accurate in predicting properties of matter under shock compression into the dense plasma regime. Materials where chemistry plays a role are of interest for many applications, including planetary science and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). As examples of systems where chemical reactions are important, and demonstration of the high fidelity possible for these both structurally and chemically complex systems, we will discuss shock- and re-shock of liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) in the range 100 to 800 GPa and shock compression of hydrocarbon polymers, including GDP (glow discharge polymer) which is used as an ablator in laser ICF experiments. Experimental results from Sandia's Z machine validate the DFT simulations at extreme conditions and the combination of experiment and DFT provide reliable data for evaluating existing and constructing future wide-range equations of state models for molecular compounds. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Impact of protists on a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial community from deep-sea Gulf of Mexico sediments: A microcosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, David J.; Carmichael, Catherine A.; Nelson, Robert K.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Teske, Andreas P.; Edgcomb, Virginia P.

    2016-07-01

    In spite of significant advancements towards understanding the dynamics of petroleum hydrocarbon degrading microbial consortia, the impacts (direct or indirect via grazing activities) of bacterivorous protists remain largely unknown. Microcosm experiments were used to examine whether protistan grazing affects the petroleum hydrocarbon degradation capacity of a deep-sea sediment microbial community from an active Gulf of Mexico cold seep. Differences in n-alkane content between native sediment microcosms and those treated with inhibitors of eukaryotes were assessed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography following 30-90 day incubations and analysis of shifts in microbial community composition using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries. More biodegradation was observed in microcosms supplemented with eukaryotic inhibitors. SSU rRNA gene clone libraries from oil-amended treatments revealed an increase in the number of proteobacterial clones (particularly γ-proteobacteria) after spiking sediments with diesel oil. Bacterial community composition shifted, and degradation rates increased, in treatments where protists were inhibited, suggesting protists affect the hydrocarbon degrading capacity of microbial communities in sediments collected at this Gulf of Mexico site.

  5. Differential electron emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules under fast ion impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shubhadeep; Champion, Christophe; Weck, P F; Tribedi, Lokesh C

    2017-07-17

    Interaction between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecule and energetic ion is a subject of interest in different areas of modern physics. Here, we present measurements of energy and angular distributions of absolute double differential electron emission cross section for coronene (C 24 H 12 ) and fluorene (C 13 H 10 ) molecules under fast bare oxygen ion impact. For coronene, the angular distributions of the low energy electrons are quite different from that of simpler targets like Ne or CH 4 , which is not the case for fluorene. The behaviour of the higher electron energy distributions for both the targets are similar to that for simple targets. In case of coronene, a clear signature of plasmon resonance is observed in the analysis of forward-backward angular asymmetry of low energy electron emission. For fluorene, such signature is not identified probably due to lower oscillator strength of plasmon compared to the coronene. The theoretical calculation based on the first-order Born approximation with correct boundary conditions (CB1), in general, reproduced the experimental observations qualitatively, for both the molecules, except in the low energy region for coronene, which again indicates the role of collective excitation. Single differential and total cross sections are also deduced. An overall comparative study is presented.

  6. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  7. Contribution of deep sourced carbon from hydrocarbon seeps to sedimentary organic carbon: Evidence from Δ14C and δ13C isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, D.; Peckmann, J.; Peng, Y.; Liang, Q.; Roberts, H. H.; Chen, D.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfate-driven anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) limits the release of methane from marine sediments and promotes the formation of carbonates close to the seafloor along continental margins. It has been established that hydrocarbon seeps are a source of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon to marine environments. However, questions remain about the contribution of deep sourced carbon from hydrocarbon seeps to the sedimentary organic carbon pool. For a number of hydrocarbon seeps from the South China Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, the portion of modern carbon was determined based on natural radiocarbon abundances (Δ14C) and stable carbon isotope (δ13Corganic carbon) compositions of the non-carbonate fractions extracted from authigenic carbonates. Samples from both areas show a mixing trend between ideal planktonic organic carbon (δ13C = -22‰ VPDB and 90% modern carbon) and the ambient methane. The δ13Corganic carbon values of non-carbonate fractions from three ancient seep deposits (northern Italy, Miocene; western Washington State, USA, Eocene to Oligocene) confirm that the proxy can be used to constrain the record of sulfate-driven AOM through most of Earth history by measuring the δ13C values of organic carbon. This study reveals the potential of using δ13C values of organic carbon to discern seep and non-seep environments. This new approach is particularly promising when authigenic carbonate is not present in ancient sedimentary environments. Acknowledgments: The authors thank BOEM and NOAA for their years' support of the deep-sea dives. Funding was provided by the NSF of China (Grants: 41422602 and 41373085).

  8. Co-acclimation of bacterial communities under stresses of hydrocarbons with different structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Dong, Wenwen; Hu, Xiaoke

    2016-01-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with different structures; its components vary in bioavailability and toxicity. It is important to understand how bacterial communities response to different hydrocarbons and their co-acclimation in the process of degradation. In this study, microcosms with the addition of structurally different hydrocarbons were setup to investigate the successions of bacterial communities and the interactions between different bacterial taxa. Hydrocarbons were effectively degraded in all microcosms after 40 days. High-throughput sequencing offered a great quantity of data for analyzing successions of bacterial communities. The results indicated that the bacterial communities responded dramatically different to various hydrocarbons. KEGG database and PICRUSt were applied to predict functions of individual bacterial taxa and networks were constructed to analyze co-acclimations between functional bacterial groups. Almost all functional genes catalyzing degradation of different hydrocarbons were predicted in bacterial communities. Most of bacterial taxa were believed to conduct biodegradation processes via interactions with each other. This study addressed a few investigated area of bacterial community responses to structurally different organic pollutants and their co-acclimation and interactions in the process of biodegradation. The study could provide useful information to guide the bioremediation of crude oil pollution. PMID:27698451

  9. Hydrocarbon composition and distribution in a coastal region under influence of oil production in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Angela de L R; Carreira, Renato S; Hamacher, Claudia; Scofield, Arthur de L; Farias, Cassia O; Cordeiro, Lívia G M S; Luz, Letícia G; Baêta, Aída P; Kalas, Francine A

    2011-08-01

    Waters and sediments from the Potiguar Basin (NE Brazilian coast) were investigated for the presence and nature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The region receives treated produced waters through a submarine outfall system serving the industrial district. The total dispersed/dissolved concentrations in the water column ranged from 10-50 ng L(-1) for ∑16PAH and 5-10 μg L(-1) for total aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the sediments, hydrocarbon concentrations were low (0.5-10 ng g(-1)for ∑16PAH and 0.01-5.0 μg g(-1) for total aliphatic hydrocarbons) and were consistent with the low organic carbon content of the local sandy sediments. These data indicate little and/or absence of anthropogenic influence on hydrocarbon distribution in water and sediment. Therefore, the measured values may be taken as background values for the region and can be used as future reference following new developments of the petroleum industry in the Potiguar Basin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exchangeable cations-mediated photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on smectite surface under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Hanzhong; Li, Li; Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Yue; Li, Xiyou; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Roles of exchangeable cations in PAHs photodegradation on clay surafces under visible light. - Highlights: • Photolysis rate are strongly dependent on the type of cations on clay surface. • The strength of “cation–π” interactions governs the photodegradation rate of PAHs. • Several exchangeable cations could cause a shift in the absorption spectrum of PAHs. • Exchangeable cations influence the type and amount of reactive intermediates. - Abstract: Clay minerals saturated with different exchangeable cations are expected to play various roles in photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via direct and/or indirect pathways on clay surfaces. In the present study, anthracene and phenanthrene were selected as molecule probes to investigate the roles of exchangeable cations on their photodegradation under visible light irradiation. For five types of cation-modified smectite clays, the photodegradation rate of anthracene and phenanthrene follows the order: Fe 3+ > Al 3+ > Cu 2+ >> Ca 2+ > K + > Na + , which is consistent with the binding energy of cation–π interactions between PAHs and exchangeable cations. The result suggests that PAHs photolysis rate depends on cation–π interactions on clay surfaces. Meanwhile, the deposition of anthracene at the Na + -smectite and K + -smectite surface favors solar light absorption, resulting in enhanced direct photodecomposition of PAHs. On the other hand, smectite clays saturated with Fe 3+ , Al 3+ , and Cu 2+ are highly photoreactive and can act as potential catalysts giving rise to oxidative radicals such as O 2 − · , which initiate the transformation of PAHs. The present work provides valuable insights into understanding the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and sheds light on the development of technologies for contaminated land remediation

  11. Exchangeable cations-mediated photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on smectite surface under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hanzhong, E-mail: jiahz@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Li, Li [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Yue [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); School of Geology and Mining Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Li, Xiyou [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Wang, Chuanyi, E-mail: cywang@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Graphical abstract: Roles of exchangeable cations in PAHs photodegradation on clay surafces under visible light. - Highlights: • Photolysis rate are strongly dependent on the type of cations on clay surface. • The strength of “cation–π” interactions governs the photodegradation rate of PAHs. • Several exchangeable cations could cause a shift in the absorption spectrum of PAHs. • Exchangeable cations influence the type and amount of reactive intermediates. - Abstract: Clay minerals saturated with different exchangeable cations are expected to play various roles in photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via direct and/or indirect pathways on clay surfaces. In the present study, anthracene and phenanthrene were selected as molecule probes to investigate the roles of exchangeable cations on their photodegradation under visible light irradiation. For five types of cation-modified smectite clays, the photodegradation rate of anthracene and phenanthrene follows the order: Fe{sup 3+} > Al{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} >> Ca{sup 2+} > K{sup +} > Na{sup +}, which is consistent with the binding energy of cation–π interactions between PAHs and exchangeable cations. The result suggests that PAHs photolysis rate depends on cation–π interactions on clay surfaces. Meanwhile, the deposition of anthracene at the Na{sup +}-smectite and K{sup +}-smectite surface favors solar light absorption, resulting in enhanced direct photodecomposition of PAHs. On the other hand, smectite clays saturated with Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cu{sup 2+} are highly photoreactive and can act as potential catalysts giving rise to oxidative radicals such as O{sub 2}{sup −}· , which initiate the transformation of PAHs. The present work provides valuable insights into understanding the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and sheds light on the development of technologies for contaminated land remediation.

  12. Dithiothreitol activity by particulate oxidizers of SOA produced from photooxidation of hydrocarbons under varied NOx levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jiang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When hydrocarbons (HCs are atmospherically oxidized, they form particulate oxidizers, including quinones, organic hydroperoxides, and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs. These particulate oxidizers can modify cellular materials (e.g., proteins and enzymes and adversely modulate cell functions. In this study, the contribution of particulate oxidizers in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs to the oxidative potential was investigated. SOAs were generated from the photooxidation of toluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, and α-pinene under varied NOx levels. Oxidative potential was determined from the typical mass-normalized consumption rate (reaction time t =  30 min of dithiothreitol (DTTt, a surrogate for biological reducing agents. Under high-NOx conditions, the DTTt of toluene SOA was 2–5 times higher than that of the other types of SOA. Isoprene DTTt significantly decreased with increasing NOx (up to 69 % reduction by changing the HC ∕ NOx ratio from 30 to 5. The DTTt of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene SOA was insensitive to NOx under the experimental conditions of this study. The significance of quinones to the oxidative potential of SOA was tested through the enhancement of DTT consumption in the presence of 2,4-dimethylimidazole, a co-catalyst for the redox cycling of quinones; however, no significant effect of 2,4-dimethylimidazole on modulation of DTT consumption was observed for all SOA, suggesting that a negligible amount of quinones was present in the SOA of this study. For toluene and isoprene, mass-normalized DTT consumption (DTTm was determined over an extended period of reaction time (t =  2 h to quantify their maximum capacity to consume DTT. The total quantities of PANs and organic hydroperoxides in toluene SOA and isoprene SOA were also measured using the Griess assay and the 4-nitrophenylboronic acid assay, respectively. Under the NOx conditions (HC ∕ NOx ratio: 5–36 ppbC ppb−1 applied in

  13. Dithiothreitol activity by particulate oxidizers of SOA produced from photooxidation of hydrocarbons under varied NOx levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanhuan; Jang, Myoseon; Yu, Zechen

    2017-08-01

    When hydrocarbons (HCs) are atmospherically oxidized, they form particulate oxidizers, including quinones, organic hydroperoxides, and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs). These particulate oxidizers can modify cellular materials (e.g., proteins and enzymes) and adversely modulate cell functions. In this study, the contribution of particulate oxidizers in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) to the oxidative potential was investigated. SOAs were generated from the photooxidation of toluene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, and α-pinene under varied NOx levels. Oxidative potential was determined from the typical mass-normalized consumption rate (reaction time t = 30 min) of dithiothreitol (DTTt), a surrogate for biological reducing agents. Under high-NOx conditions, the DTTt of toluene SOA was 2-5 times higher than that of the other types of SOA. Isoprene DTTt significantly decreased with increasing NOx (up to 69 % reduction by changing the HC / NOx ratio from 30 to 5). The DTTt of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene SOA was insensitive to NOx under the experimental conditions of this study. The significance of quinones to the oxidative potential of SOA was tested through the enhancement of DTT consumption in the presence of 2,4-dimethylimidazole, a co-catalyst for the redox cycling of quinones; however, no significant effect of 2,4-dimethylimidazole on modulation of DTT consumption was observed for all SOA, suggesting that a negligible amount of quinones was present in the SOA of this study. For toluene and isoprene, mass-normalized DTT consumption (DTTm) was determined over an extended period of reaction time (t = 2 h) to quantify their maximum capacity to consume DTT. The total quantities of PANs and organic hydroperoxides in toluene SOA and isoprene SOA were also measured using the Griess assay and the 4-nitrophenylboronic acid assay, respectively. Under the NOx conditions (HC / NOx ratio: 5-36 ppbC ppb-1) applied in this study, the amount of organic hydroperoxides was

  14. Release of colloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a contaminated soil under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann, S.; Totsche, K. U.; Kögel-Knabner, I.

    2003-04-01

    Mobile colloidal particles play an important role in the carrier-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing solutes. They act as a possible sorbent for contaminants and are possible pollutant carriers. Knowledge on the release and transport of soil-borne colloidal particles is mandatory for the understanding of the mobility of hydrophobic or surface-complexing contaminants. In soils, the major fraction of colloidal phase particles is of organic provenience. Their mobility in soils is controlled by the release from and the interactions with the immobile solid phase, by microbial formation processes as well as by the flow regime. Important factors of the release and transport are the site-specific meteorological conditions like groundwater recharge, temperature and moisture regime, and amount and distribution of precipitation. We studied the release of natural organic colloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a coarse textured, calcareous porous media under field conditions. Three natural gradient lysimeters and nine precipitation gauges were installed at a contaminated site. Sampling of the seepage water was triggered by rainfall events. Analysis of the samples comprised the determination of the 16 EPA-PAH in the liquid phase and in the colloidal and suspended particle fraction, dissolved and colloidal phase organic carbon (DCOC), pH, electrolytic conductivity and turbidity. Preliminary results show a direct response of the release of colloids to strong rainfall events. The amount of seepage corresponds directly with the precipitation rate. Mean concentrations of DCOC in the seepage water range between 2 and 6 mg/l. PAH concentrations are very low in the liquid phase but reach up to 660 mg/kg in the colloidal and suspended particle fraction. This points to the importance of colloid-facilitated transport of the contaminant through the unsaturated soil zone.

  15. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  16. Desorption of hydrocarbon chains by association with ionic and nonionic surfactants under flow as a mechanism for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón-Mejía, Ketzasmin A; López-Rendón, Roberto; Goicochea, Armando Gama

    2017-08-29

    The need to extract oil from wells where it is embedded on the surfaces of rocks has led to the development of new and improved enhanced oil recovery techniques. One of those is the injection of surfactants with water vapor, which promotes desorption of oil that can then be extracted using pumps, as the surfactants encapsulate the oil in foams. However, the mechanisms that lead to the optimal desorption of oil and the best type of surfactants to carry out desorption are not well known yet, which warrants the need to carry out basic research on this topic. In this work, we report non equilibrium dissipative particle dynamics simulations of model surfactants and oil molecules adsorbed on surfaces, with the purpose of studying the efficiency of the surfactants to desorb hydrocarbon chains, that are found adsorbed over flat surfaces. The model surfactants studied correspond to nonionic and cationic surfactants, and the hydrocarbon desorption is studied as a function of surfactant concentration under increasing Poiseuille flow. We obtain various hydrocarbon desorption isotherms for every model of surfactant proposed, under flow. Nonionic surfactants are found to be the most effective to desorb oil and the mechanisms that lead to this phenomenon are presented and discussed.

  17. Procedure manual: protocol for regulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in water under the special waste and contaminated sites regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.; Partridge, E.

    2002-05-01

    This document details the regulation governing numerical standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in water under the special waste and contaminated sites regulations of British Columbia. Groundwater containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene or xylenes in excess of the leachate standards is exempted from the regulatory regime of the Special Waste Regulation. The document contains a description of the conditions that apply to the management of petroleum hydrocarbons in water at contaminated sites. Some definitions are included, followed by an overview of the regulation. The third section deals with authorization and mandatory conditions, while additional requirements that might apply are enumerated in section four. This protocol directly affects the Environmental Management, and the Environmental Protection Regional Operations organizations. 1 tab

  18. Copper corrosion under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting Ltd, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Vuorinen, U. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Werme, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 20 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear disposal repository located in he Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long- term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature.Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion before and during saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer by groundwater, general and localized corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. Much has been learnt about the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters over the past 20 years. The majority of the information reviewed here is drawn from the Swedish/Finnish and Canadian programmes. Despite differences in scientific approach, and canister and repository design, the results of these two programmes both suggest that copper provides an excellent corrosion barrier in an underground repository. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid.

  19. Copper corrosion under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Ahonen, L.; Taxen, C.; Vuorinen, U.; Werme, L.

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 20 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear disposal repository located in he Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long- term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature.Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion before and during saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer by groundwater, general and localized corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. Much has been learnt about the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters over the past 20 years. The majority of the information reviewed here is drawn from the Swedish/Finnish and Canadian programmes. Despite differences in scientific approach, and canister and repository design, the results of these two programmes both suggest that copper provides an excellent corrosion barrier in an underground repository. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid

  20. Copper corrosion under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Ahonen, L.; Taxen, C.; Vuorinen, U.; Werme, L.

    2002-01-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 20 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear disposal repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion before and during saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer by groundwater, general and localized corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. Much has been learnt about the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters over the past 20 years. The majority of the information reviewed here is drawn from the Swedish/Finnish and Canadian programmes. Despite differences in scientific approach, and canister and repository design, the results of these two programmes both suggest that copper provides an excellent corrosion barrier in an underground repository. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid. (orig.)

  1. The Spalling of Geopolymer High Strength Concrete Wall Panels and Cylinders Under Hydrocarbon Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ali Ahmad Zurisman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete structures were designed to withstand various types of environment conditions from mild to very severe conditions. Fire represents one of the most severe environmental conditions to which concrete structures may be subjected especially in close conduct structure like tunnel. This paper focuses on the spalling of geopolymer high strength concrete exposed to hydrocarbon fire for minimum 2 hours. From the fire test, geopolymer concrete can be classified as a good fire resistance construction materials based on spalling performance of high strength concrete when exposed to hydrocarbon fire. A maximum of 1% (excluding water moisture loss of spalling recorded for high strength geopolymer concrete wall panel. No explosive spallings were observed for high strength geopolymer concrete.

  2. Grammatical markers switch roles and elicit different electrophysiological responses under shallow and deep semantic requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Soshi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Static knowledge about the grammar of a natural language is represented in the cortico-subcortical system. However, the differences in dynamic verbal processing under different cognitive conditions are unclear. To clarify this, we conducted an electrophysiological experiment involving a semantic priming paradigm in which semantically congruent or incongruent word sequences (prime nouns–target verbs were randomly presented. We examined the event-related brain potentials that occurred in response to congruent and incongruent target words that were preceded by primes with or without grammatical case markers. The two participant groups performed either the shallow (lexical judgment or deep (direct semantic judgment semantic tasks. We hypothesized that, irrespective of the case markers, the congruent targets would reduce centro-posterior N400 activities under the deep semantic condition, which induces selective attention to the semantic relatedness of content words. However, the same congruent targets with correct case markers would reduce lateralized negativity under the shallow semantic condition because grammatical case markers are related to automatic structural integration under semantically unattended conditions. We observed that congruent targets (e.g., ‘open' that were preceded by primes with congruent case markers (e.g., ‘shutter-object case' reduced lateralized negativity under the shallow semantic condition. In contrast, congruent targets, irrespective of case markers, consistently yielded N400 reductions under the deep semantic condition. To summarize, human neural verbal processing differed in response to the same grammatical markers in the same verbal expressions under semantically attended or unattended conditions.

  3. Deep catalytic oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts; Oxydation catalytique totale des hydrocarbures lourds sur Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, F.

    1998-12-09

    Deep oxidation by air on Pt supported on alumina of a large number of heavy hydrocarbons representative of those found in a real Diesel car exhaust has been studied. Light-off temperatures between 140 and 320 deg. C on 1%Pt/alumina (80% metal dispersion) have been found. Results show that not only the physical state around the conversion area but also the chemical nature of the hydrocarbon plays an important role. Heavy hydrocarbons deep oxidation behaviour has been classified as a function of their chemical category (alkane, alkene, aromatics etc..). Oxidation of binary mixtures of hydrocarbons has shown strong inhibition effects on n-alkane or CO oxidation by polycyclic compounds like 1-methyl-naphthalene. In some cases, by-product compounds in the gas effluent (other than CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O) have been identified by mass-spectrometry leading to oxidation mechanism proposals for different hydrocarbons. Catalyst nature (metal dispersion, content) influence has also been studied. It is shown that turn-over activity is favoured by the increase of the metal bulk size. Acidity influence of the carrier has shown only very little influence on n-alkane or di-aromatic compound oxidation. (author)

  4. Formation of microspheres under the action of femtosecond laser radiation on titanium samples in hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochuev, D. A.; Khorkov, K. S.; Ivashchenko, A. V.; Prokoshev, V. G.; Arakelian, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    This work describes the original method of laser synthesis of microspheres which contain titanium carbide. The formation of microspheres is carried out by the action of femtosecond laser radiation on the surface of titanium in the reaction medium - the ultimate hydrocarbon. The resulting microspheres have a high surface smoothness, a narrow particle size distribution, an average size of 1-3 μm. They can be used in applications of additive engineering, powder metallurgy as the main raw material, or as an alloying additive.

  5. A new HYSYS model for underground gasification of hydrocarbons under hydrothermal conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Y.M.

    2014-08-01

    A new subsurface process model was developed using the ASPEN HYSYS simulation environment to analyse the process energy and gasification efficiency at steady-state equilibrium conditions. Injection and production wells were simulated using the HYSYS pipe flow utilities which makes use of the Beggs and Brill flow correlation applicable for vertical pipes. The downhole reservoir hydrothermal reactions were assumed to be in equilibrium, and hence, the Gibbs reactor was used. It was found that high W/C ratios and low O/C ratios are required to maximise gasification efficiency at a constant hydrocarbon feed flowrate, while the opposite is true for the energy efficiency. This occurs due to the dependence of process energy efficiency on the gas pressure and temperature at surface, while the gasification efficiency depends on the gas composition which is determined by the reservoir reaction conditions which affects production distribution. Another effect of paramount importance is the increase in reservoir production rate which was found to directly enhance both energy and gasification efficiency showing conditions where the both efficiencies are theoretically maximised. Results open new routes for techno-economic assessment of commercial implementation of underground gasification of hydrocarbons. © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioremediation and phytoremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Patrick; Schulthess, Cristian P; Kuzovkina, Yulia A; Guillard, Karl

    2017-08-03

    Remediation of contaminated soils is often studied using fine-textured soils rather than low-fertility sandy soils, and few studies focus on recontamination events. This study compared aerobic and anaerobic treatments for remediation of freshly introduced used motor oil on a sandy soil previously phytoremediated and bioacclimated (microorganisms already adapted in the soil environment) with some residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination. Vegetated and unvegetated conditions to remediate anthropogenic fill containing residual TPH that was spiked with nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) were evaluated in a 90-day greenhouse pot study. Vegetated treatments used switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). The concentration of aerobic bacteria were orders of magnitude higher in vegetated treatments compared to unvegetated. Nevertheless, final TPH concentrations were low in all saturated soil treatments, and high in the presence of switchgrass. Concentrations were also low in unvegetated pots with fertilizer. Acclimated indigenous microbial communities were shown to be more effective in breaking down hydrocarbons than introducing microbes from the addition of plant treatments in sandy soils. Remediation of fresh introduced NAPLs on pre-phytoremediated and bioacclimated soil was most efficient in saturated, anaerobic environments, probably due to the already pre-established microbial associations, easily bioavailable contaminants, and optimized soil conditions for microbial establishment and survival.

  7. Nonlinear Creep Model for Deep Rock under High Stress and High Pore Water Pressure Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yuanguang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional triaxial compression creep experiments for deep sandstone under high confining pressure and high pore water pressure were carried out, in order to predict the creep response of deep rock under these conditions. A nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic creep constitutive model was proposed based on the experimental results. The theory of component model was used as a basis for the formulation of this model. First, by using mathematical fitting and analogy, a new nonlinear viscous component was introduced based on the properties of the creep curves during the tertiary stage. Second, a timer component to judge whether the creep can get into the tertiary stage was presented. Finally, a nonlinear creep model was proposed. Results showed good agreement between theory curves from the nonlinear creep model and experimental data. This model can be applied to predict deep rock creep responses under high stress and high pore water pressure conditions. Hence, the obtained conclusions in this study are beneficial to deep rock engineering.

  8. A strategy for aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation under anaerobic conditions and the impacts of ethanol: A microcosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu Dao; Barker, James F.; Gui, Lai

    2008-02-01

    Increased use of ethanol-blended gasoline (gasohol) and its potential release into the subsurface have spurred interest in studying the biodegradation of and interactions between ethanol and gasoline components such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) in groundwater plumes. The preferred substrate status and the high biological oxygen demand (BOD) posed by ethanol and its biodegradation products suggests that anaerobic electron acceptors (EAs) will be required to support in situ bioremediation of BTEX. To develop a strategy for aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation and to understand the impacts of ethanol on BTEX biodegradation under strictly anaerobic conditions, a microcosm experiment was conducted using pristine aquifer sand and groundwater obtained from Canadian Forces Base Borden, Canada. The initial electron accepter pool included nitrate, sulfate and/or ferric iron. The microcosms typically contained 400 g of sediment, 600˜800 ml of groundwater, and with differing EAs added, and were run under anaerobic conditions. Ethanol was added to some at concentrations of 500 and 5000 mg/L. Trends for biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons for the Borden aquifer material were first developed in the absence of ethanol, The results showed that indigenous microorganisms could degrade all aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX and trimethylbenzene isomers-TMB) under nitrate- and ferric iron-combined conditions, but not under sulfate-reducing conditions. Toluene, ethylbenzene and m/p-xylene were biodegraded under denitrifying conditions. However, the persistence of benzene indicated that enhancing denitrification alone was insufficient. Both benzene and o-xylene biodegraded significantly under iron-reducing conditions, but only after denitrification had removed other aromatics. For the trimethylbenzene isomers, 1,3,5-TMB biodegradation was found under denitrifying and then iron-reducing conditions. Biodegradation of 1,2,3-TMB or 1,2,4-TMB was slower under iron

  9. Deep India meets deep Asia: a seismological view of lithospheric slab interactions under Hindu Kush and Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Kufner, Sofia; Sippl, Christian; Schneider, Felix; Yuan, Xiaohui; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Mechie, James

    2016-04-01

    It is part of the plate-tectonic paradigm that buoyant continental lithosphere subducts only in tow of a sinking oceanic plate after continent collision and that large deep (> 100 km) earthquakes occur exclusively in subducted oceanic lithosphere. Yet under the Pamir in Central Asia, far away from any (paleo-)ocean basins, continental lithosphere appears to subduct by itself and the Pamir-Hindu Kush seismic zone is one of the most active intermediate (100-300 km) depth earthquake zones globally. We show that large-scale indentation of cratonic Asia by a promontory of the Indian plate is causing subduction of continental lithosphere under the Pamir and that the Hindu Kush earthquakes are due to detachment of a narrow plate sliver. New precise earthquake hypocenters, a large number of source mechanisms and detailed receiver function sections and tomographic images allow us to distinguish an arcuate, stretched and partly torn slab of Asian lithosphere beneath the Pamir and a piece of Indian lithosphere beneath the deepest Hindu Kush earthquakes. This peculiar double subduction zone arises by contrasting modes of convergence under Pamir and Hindu Kush imposed by the different mechanical properties of the three types of lithosphere involved: We suggest that the buoyant northwestern salient of (1) Cratonic India bulldozes into (2) Cratonic Asia forcing delamination and rollback of its lithosphere. At the same time (3) India's thinned margin tears off from Cratonic India and subducts under Asia. The narrow swath of the subducted Indian continental margin forms a prominent high-velocity anomaly down to the mantle transition zone. Its uppermost section is thinned or already severed and intermediate depth earthquakes cluster at the final neck connecting it to the deeper slab. These images provide a rare glimpse of the ephemeral process of slab break-off.

  10. Deep India meets deep Asia: Lithospheric indentation, delamination and break-off under Pamir and Hindu Kush (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufner, Sofia-Katerina; Schurr, Bernd; Sippl, Christian; Yuan, Xiaohui; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Akbar, Arib s./of Mohammad; Ischuk, Anatoly; Murodkulov, Shohrukh; Schneider, Felix; Mechie, James; Tilmann, Frederik

    2016-02-01

    Subduction of buoyant continental lithosphere is one of the least understood plate-tectonic processes. Yet under the Pamir-Hindu Kush, at the northwestern margin of the India-Asia collision zone, unusual deep earthquakes and seismic velocity anomalies suggest subduction of Asian and Indian lithosphere. Here, we report new precise earthquake hypocenters, detailed tomographic images and earthquake source mechanisms, which allow distinguishing a narrow sliver of Indian lithosphere beneath the deepest Hindu Kush earthquakes and a broad, arcuate slab of Asian lithosphere beneath the Pamir. We suggest that this double subduction zone arises by contrasting modes of convergence under the Pamir and Hindu Kush, imposed by the different mechanical properties of the three types of lithosphere involved. While the buoyant northwestern salient of Cratonic India bulldozes into Cratonic Asia, forcing delamination and rollback of its lithosphere, India's thinned western continental margin separates from Cratonic India and subducts beneath Asia. This torn-off narrow plate sliver forms a prominent high-velocity anomaly down to the mantle transition zone. Our images show that its uppermost section is thinned or already severed and that intermediate depth earthquakes cluster at the neck connecting it to the deeper slab, providing a rare glimpse at the ephemeral process of slab break-off.

  11. Clam bioaccumulation of Alkylphenols and Polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Venice lagoon under different pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademollo, N; Patrolecco, L; Matozzo, V; Marin, M G; Valsecchi, S; Polesello, S

    2017-11-15

    Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs) of nonylphenols (NPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ruditapes philippinarum from the Venice Lagoon (Italy) were determined with the aim to verify whether the routine biomonitoring studies are reliable in contaminated sites. Clams and sediments were collected in field campaigns (October 2003 to June 2004) in three sites of the Venice Lagoon. Results showed that Marghera and Campalto sediments were more contaminated by NPs and PAHs than Poveglia. Different trends were observed in the contamination of clams with the highest BSAFs found at Poveglia. BSAF trend appeared to be inversely related to the contaminant pressure on the sites. These results suggest that clam bioaccumulation is not always representative of the chemical pressure on aquatic biota. The direct correlation between sediment and biota concentrations in contaminated sites can be lost as a function of the site-specific conditions such as sediment toxicity and food availability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils under a climate change base scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse; Audí-Miró, Carme; Sierra, Jordi; Soler, Albert; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2016-04-01

    The photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two typical Mediterranean soils, either coarse- or fine-textured, was here investigated. Soil samples, spiked with the 16 US EPA priority PAHs, were incubated in a climate chamber at stable conditions of temperature (20 °C) and light (9.6 W m(-2)) for 28 days, simulating a climate change base scenario. PAH concentrations in soils were analyzed throughout the experiment, and correlated with data obtained by means of Microtox(®) ecotoxicity test. Photodegradation was found to be dependent on exposure time, molecular weight of each hydrocarbon, and soil texture. Fine-textured soil was able to enhance sorption, being PAHs more photodegraded than in coarse-textured soil. According to the EC50 values reported by Microtox(®), a higher detoxification was observed in fine-textured soil, being correlated with the outcomes of the analytical study. Significant photodegradation rates were detected for a number of PAHs, namely phenanthrene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and indeno(123-cd)pyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene, commonly used as an indicator for PAH pollution, was completely removed after 7 days of light exposure. In addition to the PAH chemical analysis and the ecotoxicity tests, a hydrogen isotope analysis of benzo(a)pyrene was also carried out. The degradation of this specific compound was associated to a high enrichment in (2)H, obtaining a maximum δ(2)H isotopic shift of +232‰. This strong isotopic effect observed in benzo(a)pyrene suggests that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) may be a powerful tool to monitor in situ degradation of PAHs. Moreover, hydrogen isotopes of benzo(a)pyrene evidenced a degradation process of unknown origin occurring in the darkness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic reversals in deep basin gas: Evidence for limits to the stability of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, R.C.; Laughrey, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of unconventional natural gas reservoirs of Silurian and Ordovician age in the northern Appalachian basin we observed complete reversal of the normal trend of carbon isotopic composition, such that ??13C methane (C1) >??13C ethane (C2) >??13C propane (C3). In addition, we have observed isotopic reversals in the ??2H in the deepest samples. Isotopic reversals cannot be explained by current models of hydrocarbon gas generation. Previous observations of partial isotopic reversals have been explained by mixing between gases from different sources and thermal maturities. We have constructed a model which, in addition to mixing, requires Rayleigh fractionation of C2 and C3 to cause enrichment in 13C and create reversals. In the deepest samples, the normal trend of increasing enrichment of 13C and 2H in methane with increasing depth reverses and 2H becomes depleted as 13C becomes enriched. We propose that the reactions that drive Rayleigh fractionation of C2 and C3 involve redox reactions with transition metals and water at late stages of catagenesis at temperatures on the order of 250-300??C. Published ab initio calculated fractionation factors for C-C bond breaking in ethane at these temperatures are consistent with our observations. The reversed trend in ??2H in methane appears to be caused by isotopic exchange with formation water at the same temperatures. Our interpretation that Rayleigh fractionation during redox reactions is causing isotopic reversals has important implications for natural gas resources in deeply buried sedimentary basins. ?? 2010.

  14. Species distribution and population connectivity of deep-sea mussels at hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Faure

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon seepage is widespread and patchy in the Gulf of Mexico, and six species of symbiont containing bathymodiolin mussels are found on active seeps over wide and overlapping depth and geographic ranges. We use mitochondrial genes to discriminate among the previously known and a newly discovered species and to assess the connectivity among populations of the same species in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM. Our results generally validate the morphologically based distribution of the three previously known GoM species of Bathymodiolus, although we found that approximately 10% of the morphologically based identifications were incorrect and this resulted in some inaccuracies with respect to their previously assigned depth and geographical distribution patterns. These data allowed us to confirm that sympatry of two species of Bathymodiolus within a single patch of mussels is common. A new species of bathymodiolin, Bathymodiolus sp. nov., closely related to B. heckerae was also discovered. The two species live at the same depths but have not been found in sympatry and both have small effective population sizes. We found evidence for genetic structure within populations of the three species of Bathymodiolinae for which we had samples from multiple sites and suggest limited connectivity for populations at some sites. Despite relatively small sample sizes, genetic diversity indices suggest the largest population sizes for B. childressi and Tamu fisheri and the smallest for B. heckerae and B. sp. nov. among the GoM bathymodiolins. Moreover, we detected an excess of rare variants indicating recent demographic changes and population expansions for the four species of bathymodiolins from the Gulf of Mexico.

  15. Formation of Combustible Hydrocarbons and H2 during Photocatalytic Decomposition of Various Organic Compounds under Aerated and Deaerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Mozia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of photocatalytic production of useful aliphatic hydrocarbons and H2 from various organic compounds, including acetic acid, methanol, ethanol and glucose, over Fe-modified TiO2 is discussed. In particular, the influence of the reaction atmosphere (N2, air was investigated. Different gases were identified in the headspace volume of the reactor depending on the substrate. In general, the evolution of the gases was more effective in air compared to a N2 atmosphere. In the presence of air, the gaseous phase contained CO2, CH4 and H2, regardless of the substrate used. Moreover, formation of C2H6 and C3H8 in the case of acetic acid and C2H6 in the case of ethanol was observed. In case of acetic acid and methanol an increase in H2 evolution under aerated conditions was observed. It was concluded that the photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds with simultaneous generation of combustible hydrocarbons and hydrogen could be a promising method of “green energy” production.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Static Behavior of Fibrous Concrete Simply Supported Deep Beams under Patch Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Hanna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of steel and polypropylene fibers on static behavior of simply supported deep beams of normal concrete strength under patch loading. Also the paper studied the effect of web opening and its positions on shear capacity and mode of failures for steel fiber concrete deep beams under the same conditions of loading and strength.       Sixteen beams of (1000*300*100mm, eighteen cubes (150*150*150mm and thirty cylinders (150*300mm in dimensions were cast with different fiber volume content (0, 0.4, 0.64 and 0.89% as additives. Shear capacity, mode of failure and three of mechanical strengths were tested.       After testing, the results indicate that shear capacity increases with increasing volume of steel fiber content with change on mode of failure while midspan displacement decreases.

  17. Investigation of flow resistance characteristics of endothermic hydrocarbon fuel under supercritical pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunben Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of flow resistance of a typical hydrocarbon fuel (RP-3 flow through adiabatic horizontal miniature tubes at supercritical pressures are experimentally investigated for both laminar and turbulent flow. The experiments are conducted by using a long tube measuring section and a short tube measuring section simultaneously in order to eliminate the effect of local pressure drop. In these experiments, the temperature of RP-3 changes from (295 to 789 K and the reduced pressure (P/Pc, Pc=2.33 MPa ranges from 1 to 2.58, the mass flux is up to 1572.7 kg/(m2·s. Test results indicate that frictional pressure drops for various supercritical pressures at the same mass flux can be considered as equal with each other when the reduced temperature Tb/Tpc0.95, difference appears and increases with the increase of Tb/Tpc. Additionally, the friction factor (f of the supercritical fluid for turbulent flow has a critical value at Tb/Tpc=1, the values of f at this point for all pressures and mass fluxes are equal with each other. Moreover, at the same mass flux, there are two corresponding friction factors for the same Re, one is in the region of Tb/Tpc1. Finally, classical correlations of friction factor is inapplicable when Tb/Tpc>0.95 at supercritical pressure and a new correlation has been obtained based on the experimental data.

  18. Assessment of the toxicity of a substance under Canadian environmental protection act, a case study. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadon, B.; Germain, A.; Coillie, R. van [Environment Canada, Montreal (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) proclaimed in 1988 requires the Canadian Ministers of the Environment and of National Health and Welfare to assess the toxicity of different substances. A Priority Substances List containing 44 substances was developed and their assessments had to determine if they were `toxic`, according to the CEPA definition. This definition states that `a substance is toxic if it is entering or may enter the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions (a) having or that may have an immediate or long-term harmful effect on the environment, (b) constituting or that may constitute a danger to the environment on which human life depends; or (c) constituting or that may constitute a danger in Canada to human life of health.` This presentation use the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an example of this procedure. (author)

  19. Constitutive Behavior and Deep Drawability of Three Aluminum Alloys Under Different Temperatures and Deformation Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Sudhy S.; Prasad, K. Sajun; Basak, Shamik; Panda, Sushanta Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, uniaxial tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the stress-strain response of AA2014, AA5052 and AA6082 aluminum alloys at four temperatures: 303, 423, 523 and 623 K, and three strain rates: 0.0022, 0.022 and 0.22 s-1. It was found that the Cowper-Symonds model was not a robust constitutive model, and it failed to predict the flow behavior, particularly the thermal softening at higher temperatures. Subsequently, a comparative study was made on the capability of Johnson-Cook (JC), modified Zerilli-Armstrong (m-ZA), modified Arrhenius (m-ARR) and artificial neural network (ANN) for modeling the constitutive behavior of all the three aluminum alloys under the mentioned strain rates and temperatures. Also, the improvement in formability of the materials was evaluated at an elevated temperature of 623 K in terms of cup height and maximum safe strains by conducting cylindrical cup deep drawing experiments under two different punch speeds of 4 and 400 mm/min. The cup heights increased during warm deep drawing due to thermal softening and increase in failure strains. Also, a small reduction in cup height was observed when the punch speed increased from 4 to 400 mm/min at 623 K. Hence, it was suggested to use high-speed deformation at elevated temperature to reduce both punch load and cycle time during the deep drawing process.

  20. Radiation induced deep level defects in bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chaoming; Yang, Jianqun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Xingji, E-mail: lxj0218@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Guoliang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xiao, Liyi [Department of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Bollmann, Joachim [Institute of Electronics and Sensor Materials, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 71691 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is sensitive to ionization and displacement radiation effects in space. In this paper, 35 MeV Si ions were used as irradiation source to research the radiation damage on NPN and PNP bipolar transistors. The changing of electrical parameters of transistors was in situ measured with increasing irradiation fluence of 35 MeV Si ions. Using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), defects in the bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions are measured after irradiation. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clearly that the bias conditions can affect the concentration of deep level defects, and the radiation damage induced by heavy ions.

  1. Radiation induced deep level defects in bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoming; Yang, Jianqun; Li, Xingji; Ma, Guoliang; Xiao, Liyi; Bollmann, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is sensitive to ionization and displacement radiation effects in space. In this paper, 35 MeV Si ions were used as irradiation source to research the radiation damage on NPN and PNP bipolar transistors. The changing of electrical parameters of transistors was in situ measured with increasing irradiation fluence of 35 MeV Si ions. Using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), defects in the bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions are measured after irradiation. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clearly that the bias conditions can affect the concentration of deep level defects, and the radiation damage induced by heavy ions.

  2. Bradyrhizobium Populations Occur in Deep Soil under the Leguminous Tree Acacia albida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Nicolas C.; Dreyfus, Bernard L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil cores were drilled under the leguminous tree Acacia albida growing in two different ecoclimatic zones of West Africa: the Sahelian area (100 to 500 mm of annual rainfall) and the Sudano-Guinean area (1,000 to 1,500 mm of annual rainfall). Soil samples were collected at different depths from the surface down to the water table level and analyzed for the presence of rhizobia able to nodulate A. albida. In both areas, population densities of rhizobia were substantially greater near the water table than near the surface. In the Sahelian area, rhizobia were present as deep as 34 m at a concentration of 1.3 × 103/g of soil. In the Sudano-Guinean area, population densities at 0.5 to 4.5 m depth were higher than in the Sahelian area and, at several depths, comparable to that of temperate soils supporting legume crops (104 rhizobia per g of soil). Surface and deep soil isolates from all four sites were found to be slow-growing rhizobia (Bradyrhizobium sp.). The proportion of effective isolates was almost the same within surface and deep soils. PMID:16348745

  3. Microbial Degradation of Phenols and Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Creosote-contaminated Groundwater Under Nitrate-reducing Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, John; Arvin, Erik; Jensen, Bjørn K.

    1993-01-01

    Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the biodegradation of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic, nitrate-reducing conditions in groundwater from a creosote-contaminated site at Fredensborg, Denmark. The bacteria in the creosote-contaminated groundwater degraded a mixture...... of toluene, phenol, the cresols (o-, m- and p-cresol) and the dimethylphenols 2,4-DMP and 3,4-DMP at both 10° and 20°C. Benzene, the xylenes, napthalene, 2,3-DMP, 2,5-DMP, 2,6-DMP and 3,5-DMP were resistant to biodegradation during 7–12 months of incubation. It was demonstrated that the degradation...... that in addition to the phenols are toluene other carbon sources present in the groundwater contributed to the consumption of nitrate. If the groundwater was incubated under anaerobic conditions without nitrate, sulphate-reducing conditions evolved after ∼ 1 month at 20°C and ∼2 months at 10°C. In the sulphate...

  4. Reactivity of hydrocarbons in response to injection of a CO2/O2 mixture under depleted reservoir conditions: experimental and numerical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacini-Petitjean, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The geological storage of CO 2 (CO 2 Capture-Storage - CCS) and the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by CO 2 injection into petroleum reservoirs could limit CO 2 atmospheric accumulation. However, CO 2 can be associated with oxygen. To predict the hydrocarbon evolution under these conditions involves the study of oxidation mechanisms. Oxidation experiment and kinetic detailed modeling were carried out with pure compounds. The comparison between experimental and modeling results led to the construction of a hydrocarbon oxidation kinetic model and emphasized the parameters leading to auto ignition. The good agreement between our experiments and modeling are promising for the development of a tool predicting the critical temperature leading to auto-ignition and the evolution of hydrocarbon composition, to estimate the stability of a petroleum system in CO 2 injection context. (author) [fr

  5. The Efficacy of Blue-Green Infrastructure for Pluvial Flood Prevention under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babovic, Filip; Mijic, Ana; Madani, Kaveh

    2017-04-01

    Urban areas around the world are growing in size and importance; however, cities experience elevated risks of pluvial flooding due to the prevalence of impermeable land surfaces within them. Urban planners and engineers encounter a great deal of uncertainty when planning adaptations to these flood risks, due to the interaction of multiple factors such as climate change and land use change. This leads to conditions of deep uncertainty. Blue-Green (BG) solutions utilise natural vegetation and processes to absorb and retain runoff while providing a host of other social, economic and environmental services. When utilised in conjunction with Decision Making under Deep Uncertainty (DMDU) methodologies, BG infrastructure provides a flexible and adaptable method of "no-regret" adaptation; resulting in a practical, economically efficient, and socially acceptable solution for flood risk mitigation. This work presents the methodology for analysing the impact of BG infrastructure in the context of the Adaptation Tipping Points approach to protect against pluvial flood risk in an iterative manner. An economic analysis of the adaptation pathways is also conducted in order to better inform decision-makers on the benefits and costs of the adaptation options presented. The methodology was applied to a case study in the Cranbrook Catchment in the North East of London. Our results show that BG infrastructure performs better under conditions of uncertainty than traditional grey infrastructure.

  6. Literature Survey of Copper Corrosion Modelling under Deep Geological Disposal Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Kook, Dong-Hak; Lee, Min-Soo; Choi, Heui-Joo

    2008-03-15

    As a one of the solution for the spent nuclear fuel problem, deep repository research have been under way in KAERI. To raise the resistance against repository cask corrosion, copper canister was adopted for the outer material of the cask. Duration of the repository with million year order makes the copper corrosion research under the repository environment very important and the corrosion modelling which could trace the real world precisely and predict the corrosion behavior very well is subsequently necessary. With in progress of plan to manufacture unique copper cask corresponding to our country repository system, survey for the preceding research papers in recent research direction and kernel points is expected to significant. This paper arranged the representative literatures for the important corrosion mechanism which are recently published.

  7. Outpatient percutaneous treatment of deep venous malformations using pure ethanol at low doses under local anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Orlando

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Venous malformations are the most frequent vascular malformation. Deep venous malformations are located in subcutaneous tissue or in the muscles. Percutaneous sclerotherapy is the treatment of choice, and the use of ethanol at low doses has not yet been described. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of treating Deep venous malformations patients with low doses of ethanol. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients treated between July 1995 and June 2007 were followed up prospectively over a median period of 18 months. Twenty-nine were female (74.4% and 10 were male (25.6%, with ages ranging from 11 to 59 years (median of 24 years. All of the lesions affected limbs, and the main symptom reported was pain (97.4%. Each patient underwent fortnightly alcohol application sessions under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis. The lesions were classified into three groups according to size using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging: small, up to 3 cm (4 patients; medium, between 3 and 15 cm (27 patients; and large, greater than 15 cm (8 patients. RESULTS: The symptoms completely disappeared in 14 patients (35.9% and improved in 24 (61.5%. The lesion size reduced to zero in 6 patients (15.4% and decreased in 32 (82%. The median number of sessions was 7. There were no complications in 32 patients (82%, while 3 presented local paresthesia (7.7%, 2 superficial trombophlebites (5.1%, 1 skin ulcer (2.6%, and 1 case of hyperpigmentation (2.6%. CONCLUSION: Outpatient treatment for Deep venous malformations patients using ethanol at low doses was effective, with a low complication rate.

  8. A quantum cascade laser infrared spectrometer for CO2 stable isotope analysis: Field implementation at a hydrocarbon contaminated site under bio-remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimbaud, Christophe; Noel, Cécile; Chartier, Michel; Catoire, Valéry; Blessing, Michaela; Gourry, Jean Christophe; Robert, Claude

    2016-02-01

    Real-time methods to monitor stable isotope ratios of CO2 are needed to identify biogeochemical origins of CO2 emissions from the soil-air interface. An isotope ratio infra-red spectrometer (IRIS) has been developed to measure CO2 mixing ratio with δ(13)C isotopic signature, in addition to mixing ratios of other greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O). The original aspects of the instrument as well as its precision and accuracy for the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of CO2 are discussed. A first application to biodegradation of hydrocarbons is presented, tested on a hydrocarbon contaminated site under aerobic bio-treatment. CO2 flux measurements using closed chamber method is combined with the determination of the isotopic signature δ(13)C of the CO2 emission to propose a non-intrusive method to monitor in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons. In the contaminated area, high CO2 emissions have been measured with an isotopic signature δ(13)C suggesting that CO2 comes from petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation. This first field implementation shows that rapid and accurate measurement of isotopic signature of CO2 emissions is particularly useful in assessing the contribution of contaminant degradation to the measured CO2 efflux and is promising as a monitoring tool for aerobic bio-treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Fe3+-montmorillonite surface under visible light: Degradation kinetics, mechanism, and toxicity assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Jia, Hanzhong; Nulaji, Gulimire; Gao, Hongwei; Wang, Fu; Wang, Chuanyi

    2017-10-01

    Photochemical behavior of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Fe 3+ -modified montmorillonite was explored to determine their potential kinetics, pathways, and mechanism under visible light. Depending on the type of PAH molecules, the transformation rate follows the order of benzo[a]pyrene ≈ anthracene > benzo[a]anthracene > phenanthrene. Quantum simulation results confirm the crucial role of "cation-π" interaction between Fe 3+ and PAHs on their transformation kinetics. Primary intermediates, including quinones, ring-opening products and benzene derivatives, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and the possible photodegradation pathway of benzo[a]pyrene was proposed. Meanwhile, radical intermediates, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free organic radicals, were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The photolysis of selected PAHs, such as anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene, on clay surface firstly occurs by electron transfer from PAHs to Fe 3+ -montmorillonite, followed by degradation involving photo-induced ROS such as ·OH and ·O 2 - . To investigate the acute toxicity of photolysis products, the Microtox ® toxicity test was performed during the photodegradation processes of various PAHs. As a result, the photo-irradiation initially induces increased toxicity by generating reactive intermediates, such as free organic radicals, and then the toxicity gradually decreases with increasing of reaction time. Overall, the present study provides useful information to understand the fate and photo-transformation of PAHs in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  11. Immediate effect of instrumentation on the subgingival microflora in deep inflamed pockets under strict plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, G E; Timmerman, M F; Veldkamp, I; Van Winkelhoff, A J; Van der Velden, U

    2006-01-01

    To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at one deep pocket in 22 patients (11 smokers and 11 non-smokers). Immediately after initial therapy, experimental sites, under strict plaque control, were instrumented subgingivally. Microbiological evaluation was performed at pre-instrumentation, immediate post-instrumentation and 1 and 2 weeks post-instrumentation. Mean total anaerobic colony forming units (CFUs) dropped from 3.9 x 10(6) before to 0.09 x 10(6) immediately following instrumentation. Significant reductions were found for Tannerella forsythia, Micromonas micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum and spirochetes. Significant reductions were not observed for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Campylobacter rectus. Except for spirochetes, no reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria was found immediately after instrumentation. During follow-up, mean total CFU tended to increase. Prevalence of periodontal bacteria further reduced. No effect of smoking was found. Results indicate that subgingival mechanical cleaning in itself, has a limited effect, in actually removing bacteria. The subsequent reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria shows that it is apparently difficult for these species to survive in treated pockets.

  12. Co-Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Motile Microorganisms Leads to Enhanced Mass Transfer under Diffusive Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Dorthea; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Winding, Anne

    2014-01-01

    as sink and source for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This resulted in stable concentration gradients in water (>24 h). Adding the model organism Tetrahymena pyriformis to the experimental system enhanced PAH mass transfer up to hundred-fold (benzo[a]pyrene). Increasing mass transfer enhancement...

  13. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  14. Aromatic Hydrocarbon Receptor Suppresses Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis Cells-Induced Vasculogenesis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hypoxia leads to the development of neovascularization in solid tumor by regulating VEGF expression. Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, a receptor for dioxin-like compounds, functions as a transcription factor through dimerization with hypoxia-inducible factors 1β (HIF-1β and inhibits the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. The purpose of this study was to explore whether AHR can suppress hypoxia-induced VEGF production in prostate bone metastasis cells and repress neovascularization in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, and, if so, through what mechanisms. Methods: PC-3 or LNCaP cells induced angiogenesis was detected by Matrigel-based tube formation assay, mRNA expression levels was measured by qRT-PCR, VEGF secretion level was determined by ELISA assay, respectively. Results: AHR activation inhibits hypoxia-induced adhesiveness and vasculogenesis of EPCs induced by PC-3 or LNCaP cells under hypoxia. Moreover, AHR activation suppressed hypoxia-induced VEGF production in PC-3 and LNCaP cells (48 ± 14% in PC-3, p = 0.000; 41 ± 14% in LNCaP, p = 0.000 by attenuating HIF-1α and HIF-1β level that in turn diminished the angiogenic ability of EPCs in vitro. Furthermore, we found the mRNA level of hypoxia-inducible factors 1α (HIF-1α (1.54 ± 0.13 fold in PC-3, p = 0.002, 1.62 ± 0.12 fold in LNCaP, p = 0.001 and HIF-1β (1.67 ± 0.23 fold in PC-3, p = 0.007; 1.75 ± 0.26 fold in LNCaP, p=0.008 were upregulated in prostate cancer bone metastasis PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines in response to hypoxia, and revealed that the regulation of VEGF by HIF-1α and HIF-1β was possibly mediated by the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Conclusion: By providing a mechanistic insight into the modulation of neovascularization by AHR ligand, we suggest that AHR ligand has a strong potential of being a new therapeutic agent with applications in the field of bone metastatic prostate cancer.

  15. Bilateral Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus under Sedation with Propofol and Fentanyl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong-Woo Lee

    Full Text Available Awakening during deep brain stimulation (DBS surgery may be stressful to patients. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect on MER signals and their applicability to subthalmic nucleus (STN DBS surgery for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD under sedation with propofol and fentanyl. Sixteen consecutive patients with PD underwent STN-DBS surgery with propofol and fentanyl. Their MER signals were achieved during the surgery. To identify the microelectrodes positions, the preoperative MRI and postoperative CT were used. Clinical profiles were also collected at the baseline and at 6 months after surgery. All the signals were slightly attenuated and contained only bursting patterns, compared with our previous report. All electrodes were mostly located in the middle one third part of the STN on both sides of the brain in the fused images. Six months later, the patients were improved significantly in the medication-off state and they met with less dyskinesia and less off-duration. Our study revealed that the sedation with propofol and fentanyl was applicable to STN-DBS surgery. There were no significant problems in precise positioning of bilateral electrodes. The surgery also improved significantly clinical outcomes in 6-month follow-up.

  16. Adapt or Perish: A Review of Planning Approaches for Adaptation under Deep Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Kwakkel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in long-term plans that can adapt to changing situations under conditions of deep uncertainty. We argue that a sustainable plan should not only achieve economic, environmental, and social objectives, but should be robust and able to be adapted over time to (unforeseen future conditions. Large numbers of papers dealing with robustness and adaptive plans have begun to appear, but the literature is fragmented. The papers appear in disparate journals, and deal with a wide variety of policy domains. This paper (1 describes and compares a family of related conceptual approaches to designing a sustainable plan, and (2 describes several computational tools supporting these approaches. The conceptual approaches all have their roots in an approach to long-term planning called Assumption-Based Planning. Guiding principles for the design of a sustainable adaptive plan are: explore a wide variety of relevant uncertainties, connect short-term targets to long-term goals over time, commit to short-term actions while keeping options open, and continuously monitor the world and take actions if necessary. A key computational tool across the conceptual approaches is a fast, simple (policy analysis model that is used to make large numbers of runs, in order to explore the full range of uncertainties and to identify situations in which the plan would fail.

  17. Nitrogen cycling in the deep sedimentary biosphere: nitrate isotopes in porewaters underlying the oligotrophic North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankel, S. D.; Buchwald, C.; Ziebis, W.; Wenk, C. B.; Lehmann, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a key component of fundamental biomolecules. Hence, its cycling and availability are central factors governing the extent of ecosystems across the Earth. In the organic-lean sediment porewaters underlying the oligotrophic ocean, where low levels of microbial activity persist despite limited organic matter delivery from overlying water, the extent and modes of nitrogen transformations have not been widely investigated. Here we use the N and oxygen (O) isotopic composition of porewater nitrate (NO3-) from a site in the oligotrophic North Atlantic (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program - IODP) to determine the extent and magnitude of microbial nitrate production (via nitrification) and consumption (via denitrification). We find that NO3- accumulates far above bottom seawater concentrations (~ 21 μM) throughout the sediment column (up to ~ 50 μM) down to the oceanic basement as deep as 90 m b.s.f. (below sea floor), reflecting the predominance of aerobic nitrification/remineralization within the deep marine sediments. Large changes in the δ15N and δ18O of nitrate, however, reveal variable influence of nitrate respiration across the three sites. We use an inverse porewater diffusion-reaction model, constrained by the N and O isotope systematics of nitrification and denitrification and the porewater NO3- isotopic composition, to estimate rates of nitrification and denitrification throughout the sediment column. Results indicate variability of reaction rates across and within the three boreholes that are generally consistent with the differential distribution of dissolved oxygen at this site, though not necessarily with the canonical view of how redox thresholds separate nitrate regeneration from dissimilative consumption spatially. That is, we provide stable isotopic evidence for expanded zones of co-occurring nitrification and denitrification. The isotope biogeochemical modeling also yielded estimates for the δ15N and δ18O of newly produced nitrate (

  18. Deep Sequencing of Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) methanophila, an Epibiotic Sponge on Cold-Seep Tubeworms, Reveals Methylotrophic, Thiotrophic, and Putative Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Associations

    KAUST Repository

    Arellano, Shawn M.

    2012-10-11

    The encrusting sponge Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) methanophila (Poecilosclerida: Myxillidae) is an epibiont on vestimentiferan tubeworms at hydrocarbon seeps on the upper Louisiana slope of the Gulf of Mexico. It has long been suggested that this sponge harbors methylotrophic bacteria due to its low δ13C value and high methanol dehydrogenase activity, yet the full community of microbial associations in M. methanophila remained uncharacterized. In this study, we sequenced 16S rRNA genes representing the microbial community in M. methanophila collected from two hydrocarbon-seep sites (GC234 and Bush Hill) using both Sanger sequencing and next-generation 454 pyrosequencing technologies. Additionally, we compared the microbial community in M. methanophila to that of the biofilm collected from the associated tubeworm. Our results revealed that the microbial diversity in the sponges from both sites was low but the community structure was largely similar, showing a high proportion of methylotrophic bacteria of the genus Methylohalomonas and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria of the genera Cycloclasticus and Neptunomonas. Furthermore, the sponge microbial clone library revealed the dominance of thioautotrophic gammaproteobacterial symbionts in M. methanophila. In contrast, the biofilm communities on the tubeworms were more diverse and dominated by the chemoorganotrophic Moritella at GC234 and methylotrophic Methylomonas and Methylohalomonas at Bush Hill. Overall, our study provides evidence to support previous suggestion that M. methanophila harbors methylotrophic symbionts and also reveals the association of PAH-degrading and thioautotrophic microbes in the sponge. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  19. Imaging microbial metal metabolism in situ under conditions of the deep-sea hydrothermal vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oger, P. M.; Daniel, I.; Simionovici, A.; Picard, A.

    2006-12-01

    High-pressure biotopes are the most widely spread biotopes on Earth. They represent one possible location for the origin of life. They also share striking similarities with extraterrestrial biotopes such as those postulated for Europe or Mars. In absence of light, dissimilatory reduction of metals (DMR) is fueling the ecosystem. Monitoring the metabolism of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent microbial fauna under P, T and chemical conditions relevant to their isolation environment can be difficult because of the confinement and because most spectroscopic probes do not sense metallic ions in solution. We demonstrated the possibility to use Xray spectroscopy to monitor the speciation of metallic species in solution. Experiments were performed at The ESRF using Selenium (Se) detoxification by Agrobacterium tumefaciens as an analog of DMR. The reduction of Se from selenite to the metal was monitored by a combiantion of two Xray spectroscopic techniques (XANES and μXRF). Cells were incubated in the low pressure DAC in growth medium supplemented with 5mM Selenite and incubated under pressures up to 60 Mpa at 30°C for 24h. The evolution of the speciation can be easily monitored and the concentration of each Se species determined from the Xray spectra by linear combinations of standard spectra. Selenite is transformed by the bacterium into a mixture of metal Se and methylated Se after 24 hours. Se detoxification is observed in situ up to at least 25 MPa. The technique, developped for Se can be adapted to monitor other elements more relevant to DMR such as As, Fe or S, which should allow to monitor in situ under controlled pressure and temperature the metabolism of vent organisms. It is also amenable to the monitoring of toxic metals. Xray spectroscopy and the lpDAC are compatible with other spectroscopic techniques, such as Raman, UV or IR spectroscopies, allowing to probe other metabolic activities. Hence, enlarging the range of metabolic information that can be obtained in

  20. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  1. Hydrocarbon production with nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade Watkins, J.

    1970-01-01

    The tremendous energy of nuclear explosives and the small dimensions of the explosive package make an ideal combination for drill-hole explosive emplacement in deep, thick hydrocarbon deposits. Potential applications exist in fracturing low permeability natural-gas and petroleum formations for stimulating production, fracturing oil shale to permit in situ retorting, and creating storage chimneys for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petroleum, petroleum products, helium, and other fluids. Calculations show, for example, that less than 100 shots per year would be needed to stabilize the natural gas reserves to production ratio. Under the Government-industry Plowshare program, two experiments, Projects Gasbuggy and Rulison, were conducted to stimulate natural gas production from low-permeability formations. Incomplete information indicates that both were technically successful. Potential problems associated with the use of nuclear explosives for underground engineering applications are radioactive contamination, maximum yield limitations, high costs of detonating contained nuclear explosives, and adverse public opinion. Results at Project Gasbuggy and other considerations indicated that the problem of radioactive contamination was about as predicted and not an insurmountable one. Also, it was demonstrated that shots at adequate depths could be detonated without appreciable damage to existing surface and subsurface buildings, natural features, and equipment. However, costs must be reduced and the public must be better informed before these techniques can be widely used in field operations. On the basis of present knowledge, the potential of nuclear-explosive stimulation of hydrocarbon production appears good. Additional field experiments will be required to adequately explore that potential. (author)

  2. An-integrated seismic approach to de-risk hydrocarbon accumulation for Pliocene deep marine slope channels, offshore West Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Adel A. A.; Bakr, Ali; Maher, Ali

    2017-12-01

    The Nile Delta basin is a hydrocarbon rich province that has hydrocarbon accumulations generated from biogenic and thermogenic source rocks and trapped in a clastic channel reservoirs ranging in age from Pliocene to Early Cretaceous. Currently, the offshore Nile Delta is the most active exploration and development province in Egypt. The main challenge of the studied area is that we have only one well in a channel system exceeds fifteen km length, where seismic reservoir characterization is used to de-risk development scenarios for the field by discriminating between gas sand, water sand and shale. Extracting the gas-charged geobody from the seismic data is magnificent input for 3D reservoir static modelling. Seismic data, being non-stationary in nature, have varying frequency content in time. Spectral decomposition analysis unravels the seismic signal into its initial constituent frequencies. Frequency decomposition of a seismic signal aims to characterize the time-dependent frequency response of subsurface rocks and reservoirs for imaging and mapping of bed thickness, geologic discontinuities and channel connectivity. Inversion feasibility study using crossplot between P-wave impedance (Ip) and S-wave impedance (Is) which derived from well logs (P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density) is applied to investigate which inversion type would be sufficient enough to discriminate between gas sand, water sand and shale. Integration between spectral analysis, inversion results and Ip vs. Is crossplot cutoffs help to generate 3D lithofacies cubes, which used to extract gas sand and water sand geobodies, which is extremely wonderful for constructing facies depositional static model in area with unknown facies distribution and sand connectivity. Therefore de-risking hydrocarbon accumulation and GIIP estimation for the field became more confident for drilling new development wells.

  3. Evaluation of Deep-Space Laser Communication under Different Mission Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Piazzolla, Sabino; Moision, Bruce; Lisman, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A number of space agencies, including NASA, are considering free-space laser communications as a means for returning higher data-rates from future space missions. In this paper, potential deep-space missions are evaluated to show that with optical communication a 10x increase relative to state-of-the art telecommunication systems could be achieved. The maximum deep-space distance where ground transmitted laser beacons could assist acquisition and tracking; and operating points where optical communication performance degrades faster than the inverse square distance are also discussed.

  4. Beyond optimality: Multistakeholder robustness tradeoffs for regional water portfolio planning under deep uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jonathan D.; Zeff, Harrison B.; Reed, Patrick M.; Characklis, Gregory W.

    2014-10-01

    While optimality is a foundational mathematical concept in water resources planning and management, "optimal" solutions may be vulnerable to failure if deeply uncertain future conditions deviate from those assumed during optimization. These vulnerabilities may produce severely asymmetric impacts across a region, making it vital to evaluate the robustness of management strategies as well as their impacts for regional stakeholders. In this study, we contribute a multistakeholder many-objective robust decision making (MORDM) framework that blends many-objective search and uncertainty analysis tools to discover key tradeoffs between water supply alternatives and their robustness to deep uncertainties (e.g., population pressures, climate change, and financial risks). The proposed framework is demonstrated for four interconnected water utilities representing major stakeholders in the "Research Triangle" region of North Carolina, U.S. The utilities supply well over one million customers and have the ability to collectively manage drought via transfer agreements and shared infrastructure. We show that water portfolios for this region that compose optimal tradeoffs (i.e., Pareto-approximate solutions) under expected future conditions may suffer significantly degraded performance with only modest changes in deeply uncertain hydrologic and economic factors. We then use the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) to identify which uncertain factors drive the individual and collective vulnerabilities for the four cooperating utilities. Our framework identifies key stakeholder dependencies and robustness tradeoffs associated with cooperative regional planning, which are critical to understanding the tensions between individual versus regional water supply goals. Cooperative demand management was found to be the key factor controlling the robustness of regional water supply planning, dominating other hydroclimatic and economic uncertainties through the 2025 planning horizon. Results

  5. Integrated Risk-Capability Analysis under Deep Uncertainty : An ESDMA Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Kwakkel, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Integrated risk-capability analysis methodologies for dealing with increasing degrees of complexity and deep uncertainty are urgently needed in an ever more complex and uncertain world. Although scenario approaches, risk assessment methods, and capability analysis methods are used, few organizations

  6. Mineral-assisted production of benzene under hydrothermal conditions: Insights from experimental studies on C6 cyclic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Stefania; Tassi, Franco; Gould, Ian R.; Shock, Everett L.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.; Lorance, Edward D.; Bockisch, Christiana; Fecteau, Kristopher M.; Capecchiacci, Francesco; Vaselli, Orlando

    2017-10-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitously present at low but detectable concentrations in hydrothermal fluids from volcanic and geothermal systems. Although their behavior is strictly controlled by physical and chemical parameters, the mechanisms responsible for the production of most VOCs in natural environments are poorly understood. Among them, benzene, whose abundances were found to be relatively high in hydrothermal gases, can theoretically be originated from reversible catalytic reforming processes, i.e. multi-step dehydrogenation reactions, involving saturated hydrocarbons. However, this hypothesis and other hypotheses are difficult to definitively prove on the basis of compositional data obtained by natural gas discharges only. In this study, therefore, laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the production of benzene from cyclic hydrocarbons at hydrothermal conditions, specifically 300 °C and 85 bar. The results of experiments carried out in the presence of water and selected powdered minerals, suggest that cyclohexane undergoes dehydrogenation to form benzene, with cyclohexene and cyclohexadiene as by-products, and also as likely reaction intermediates. This reaction is slow when carried out in water alone and competes with isomerization and hydration pathways. However, benzene formation was increased compared to these competing reactions in the presence of sulfide (sphalerite and pyrite) and iron oxide (magnetite and hematite) minerals, whereas no enhancement of any reaction products was observed in the presence of quartz. The production of thiols was observed in experiments involving sphalerite and pyrite, suggesting that sulfide minerals may act both to enhance reactivity and also as reactants after dissolution. These experiments demonstrate that benzene can be effectively produced at hydrothermal conditions through dehydrogenation of saturated cyclic organic structures and highlight the crucial role played by minerals in this

  7. Visual astronomy under dark skies a new approach to observing deep space

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2005-01-01

    Modern astronomical telescopes, along with other advances in technology, have brought the deep sky - star clusters, nebulae and the galaxies - within reach of amateur astronomers. And it isn't even necessary to image many of these deep-sky objects in order to see them; they are within reach of visual observers using modern techniques and enhancement technology. The first requirement is truly dark skies; if you are observing from a light-polluted environment you need Tony Cooke's book, Visual Astronomy in the Suburbs. Given a site with clear, dark night skies everything else follows… this book will provide the reader with everything he needs to know about what to observe, and using some of today's state-of-the-art technique and commercial equipment, how to get superb views of faint and distant astronomical objects.

  8. Spore germination of fungi belonging to Aspergillus species under deep-sea conditions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.; Nagarajan, M.; Raghukumar, C.

    of fungal spores in the deep sea may face several obstacles like the mycostatic effect of seawater (Kirk, 1980), low temperature, elevated hydrostatic pressure and low nutrient conditions. A defining characteristic of spores is their ability to develop... hyphal colony. The first step in this is the spore germina- tion, which can be defined as the sequence of events that converts the resting/dormant spore into a rapidly growing germ tube from which the myce- lium is produced by elongation, septum formation...

  9. CO2 sequestration in deep coal seams: experimental characterization of the fundamental underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, R.; Mazzotti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The process of injecting and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) into suitable deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers, (depleted) oil or gas reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams, is referred to as CO2 sequestration. In little more than a decade, this technology has emerged as one of the most important options for reducing CO2 emissions. Among the different options, unmineable coal seams are not as broadly distributed as saline aquifers or oil/gas reservoirs, but their peculiarity resides in the proven capacity of retaining significant amount of gas (mainly methane, CH4) for a very long time. Additionally, the injection of CO2 into the coal reservoir would enhance the recovery of this natural gas, a source of energy that will most likely play a key role in the power sector over the next 20 years from now. This process is called Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) recovery and, as for enhanced oil recovery, it allows in principle offsetting the costs associated to the storage operation. A study was undertaken aimed at the experimental characterization of the fundamental mechanisms that take place during the process of injection and storage in coal reservoirs, namely adsorption and swelling (Pini et al 2010), and of their effects on the coal's permeability (Pini et al. 2009), the property that plays a dominant role in controlling fluid transport in a porous rock. An apparatus has been built that allows measuring the permeability of rock cores under typical reservoir conditions (high pressure and temperature) by the so-called transient step method. For this study, a coal core from the Sulcis coal mine in Sardinia (Italy) has been used. In the experiments, an inert gas (helium) was used to investigate the effects of the effective pressure on the permeability of the coal sample, whereas two adsorbing gases (CO2 and N2) to quantify those of adsorption and swelling. The experiments have been interpreted by a one-dimensional model that describes the fluid transport

  10. DeepDeath: Learning to predict the underlying cause of death with Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid Reza; Ying Sha; Wang, May D

    2017-07-01

    Multiple cause-of-death data provides a valuable source of information that can be used to enhance health standards by predicting health related trajectories in societies with large populations. These data are often available in large quantities across U.S. states and require Big Data techniques to uncover complex hidden patterns. We design two different classes of models suitable for large-scale analysis of mortality data, a Hadoop-based ensemble of random forests trained over N-grams, and the DeepDeath, a deep classifier based on the recurrent neural network (RNN). We apply both classes to the mortality data provided by the National Center for Health Statistics and show that while both perform significantly better than the random classifier, the deep model that utilizes long short-term memory networks (LSTMs), surpasses the N-gram based models and is capable of learning the temporal aspect of the data without a need for building ad-hoc, expert-driven features.

  11. Deep Margins Under Pressure: Sustaining Biodiversity and Function where Climate Change and Humans Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ocean's deep continental margins (200 - 3000 m) extend for over 150,000 km and cover 45 million square km. Once considered monotonous and of limited environmental value, we now recognize that they are highly heterogeneous and that the diverse habitats and organisms provide key ecological functions and ecosystem services. Driven by increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, continental slopes are experiencing rapid changes in temperature, oxygen and pH. At the same time they are increasingly exploited for their fisheries, energy and mineral resources. This talk will highlight natural- and climate-change induced hypoxia, acidification and warming on upwelling margins. Natural variations in space and time provide lessons about the evolutionary and ecological responses of animals, communities and ecosystems to individual and multiple stressors. We ask, to what extent do they foretell the future? The overprint of stress from climate change is likely to increase ecosystem vulnerability to human disturbance from oil and gas extraction, fishing and minerals mining, with threats to biodiversity and lowered resilience. These challenges demand a global commitment to improved stewardship of deep-ocean ecosystems and resources. Sustaining the integrity of the deep ocean will require integration of oceanography, biodiversity and conservation science, technology, informatics, economics, policy, law and communication, as well as engagement of stakeholders.

  12. Deep level defects in dilute GaAsBi alloys grown under intense UV illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, P. M.; Tarun, Marianne; Beaton, D. A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Alberi, K.

    2016-07-21

    Dilute GaAs1-xBix alloys exhibiting narrow band edge photoluminescence (PL) were recently grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with the growth surface illuminated by intense UV radiation. To investigate whether the improved optical quality of these films results from a reduction in the concentration of deep level defects, p+/n and n+/p junction diodes were fabricated on both the illuminated and dark areas of several samples. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements show that the illuminated and dark areas of both the n- and p-type GaAs1-xBix epi-layers have similar concentrations of near mid-gap electron and hole traps, in the 1015 cm-3 range. Thus the improved PL spectra cannot be explained by a reduction in non-radiative recombination at deep level defects. We note that carrier freeze-out above 35 K is significantly reduced in the illuminated areas of the p-type GaAs1-xBix layers compared to the dark areas, allowing the first DLTS measurements of defect energy levels close to the valence band edge. These defect levels may account for differences in the PL spectra from the illuminated and dark areas of un-doped layers with a similar Bi fraction.

  13. Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Frants H; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T

    2011-10-22

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise.

  14. Evaluation of Spalling Fallout on Excavation Disturbed Zone under Deep Hard Rock Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azit, Romziah; Ashraf Mohamaed Ismail, Mohd; You Jiang, Thang

    2017-08-01

    The prediction of compressive stress-induced failures is of concern when designing and constructing facilities in rock for deep underground excavation. The purpose of this study is to model compressive stress-induced failure and fallouts with appropriate material models and strength parameters for deep hard rock tunnel excavation. Three method of numerical modelling are used, which are Generalised Hoek-Brown; Mohr-Coulomb; and Mohr-Coulomb with Cohesion Softening Friction Hardening (CSFH) material models for capturing the observed rock behaviour. A parametric study was also carried out to verify that the peak friction angle of 10° used in CSFH model. The results show that numerical models used only Generalised Hoek-Brown and Mohr Coulomb strength parameters does not show a good agreement with the observed fallout. The comparison revealed that the numerical models using the Mohr-Coulomb with CSFH provides most realistic to the observation fallout length. This model is valid for prediction of failure and fallouts in hard rock masses with high quality (GSI >65 MPa; intact rock compressive strength >70MPa).

  15. Thermal stability of corn oil flavoured with Thymus capitatus under heating and deep-frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoui, Iness Jabri; Dhifi, Wissal; Jemia, Meriam Ben; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-03-30

    The thermal stability of corn oil flavoured with thyme flowers was determined and compared with that of the original refined corn oil (control). The oxidative stability index (OSI) was measured and samples were exposed to heating (30 min at 150, 180 and 200 °C) and deep-frying (180 °C). Changes in peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA) content, specific absorptivity values (K(232) and K(270)), colour and chlorophyll, carotenoid and total phenol contents were monitored. The OSI and heating results showed that thyme incorporation was effective against thermal oxidation based on the increased induction time observed for the flavoured oil (6.48 vs 4.36 h), which was characterised by lower PV, FFA content, K(232) and K(270) than the control oil after heating from 25 to 200 °C, with higher red and yellow colour intensities and chlorophyll, carotenoid and total phenol contents. The deep-frying test showed the accelerated deterioration of both oils in the presence of French fries. Compared with the control oil, the thyme-flavoured oil showed improved thermal stability after heating. This could be attributed to the presence of thyme pigments and antioxidant compounds allowing extended oil thermal resistance. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. [Myoelectricity study on wearing flat bite plate under different raised distances in deep overbite therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Guang; Wang, Xu-Xia; Ren, Xu-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Li, Na

    2009-06-01

    To analyze changes of myoelectrical activity of anterior funicle of temporal muscle (TA) and masseter muscle (MM) after raising vertical distance of occlusion by flat bite plate during treatment of deep overbite in order to approach an optimal raised vertical distance. A total of 70 persons were selected and divided into two groups: Experiment group (36 patients) with deep overbite and control group (34 persons) with individual normal occlusion. The experiment group was subdivided into three groups that were respectively raised D, D+2 mm and D+4 mm (D means free way space, mm). Electromyologram (EMG) was utilized to measure the average peak potential of TA and MM on quiescent condition before treatment and two weeks after wearing flat bite plate. 1) Before treatment, the average peak potential of experiment group was obviously higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). 2) After two weeks the potential of TA and MM of all persons in experiment group was obviously lower than before (P<0.05), the degree between the group D+2 mm and the group D+4 mm was not manifestly different, but both of the two groups were more obvious than the group D. The raised vertical distance of occlusion by flat bite plate, which exceeded free way space, was favourable to the functional recovery of masticatory muscles.

  17. Thinning behavior of laminated sheets metal in warm deep-drawing process under various grain sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadkhodayan Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research is to investigate the thickness distribution on the warm deep-drawing process of laminated sheets consisting of aluminum alloy series 1050, 5052 and stainless steel 304 (SUS, experimentally. Individually for each layer, the influences of blank temperature and grain size on thinning behavior are clearly demonstrated. In order to survey the thinning behavior in laminate sheet behavior during warm deep-drawing process; three blank temperatures namely, 25° C, 100° C and 160° C are examined. Moreover, to obtain different grain sizes, the aluminium sheets are annealed at 350° C, 400° C and 450° C for 1 hour. Results indicate that increasing temperature and grain size lead to maximum thinning in all layers in Al 1050/SUS and Al 5052/SUS specimens increase. In addition, the most susceptible zone to fracture in aluminum sheets (Al 1050 and Al 5052 is punch profile radius region; nevertheless, for stainless steel sheets this zone switch to central zone of formed cup. These can be attributed to the fact that the adhesive layer play a crucial role in thickness distribution of steel 304 layer, therefore the distribution of thickness strain for adhesive layer is also investigated.

  18. Shallow and Deep Crustal Seismicity under the Precordilleran Belt, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Joern; Salazar, Pablo; Wigger, Peter; Shapiro, Serge A.; Asch, Guenter

    2010-05-01

    We have analyzed crustal and Nazca slab- related seismicity around 21°S in Northern Chile, which has been recorded by a temporary local seismic network in the years 2005-2009. The focus of this study is the high-resolution location of more than 1000 crustal earthquakes in the Precordilleran region with local magnitudes Ml in the range between -0.5 Fissure Fault System at shallow depths (Fissure Fault system at 69°W down to about 25km depth. We have also detected two deep crustal earthquake clusters (35 - 40km depth). Their position and orientation correlate remarkably well with previously found bands of high seismic reflectivity, supporting the interpretation as being images related to ongoing fluid migration.

  19. Physiological impacts of acute Cu exposure on deep-sea vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus under a deep-sea mining activity scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Inês; Goulart, Joana; Martins, Eva; Morales-Román, Rosa; Marín, Sergio; Riou, Virginie; Colaço, Ana; Bettencourt, Raul

    2017-12-01

    -related gene suppression. Under a mining activity scenario, the release of an excess of dissolved Cu to the vent environment may cause serious changes in cellular defense mechanisms of B. azoricus. This outcome, while adding to our knowledge of Cu toxicity, highlights the potentially deleterious impacts of mining activities on the physiology of deep-sea organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecosystem Carbon Budgets under Contrasting Land Use Histories Using Eddy Covariance and Deep Core Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, M.; Gelfand, I.; Hamilton, S. K.; Shao, C.; Su, Y. J.; Robertson, G. P.; Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing demand for agricultural production could be met through conversion of uncultivated lands and/or intensification of production on existing agricultural lands, each with distinct implications for ecosystem carbon budgets. We investigated the carbon budget of two intensively managed continuous no-till corn fields with contrasting land use histories over six years using eddy covariance (EC) and deep core methods. One treatment had been managed as Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grassland for 22 years before conversion, thus representing conversion of uncultivated lands into agriculture, and the other treatment had been managed as conventional agriculture (AGR) in a corn-soybean rotation for several decades before conversion, thus representing agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that the AGR land would sequester more carbon or at least remain neutral owing to the reduced soil disturbance and increased overall productivity of the land following conversion. Accordingly, we expected soil carbon to either increase or remain unchanged compared to its pre-conversion status. We also hypothesized that the CRP grassland converted to no-till would lose carbon to the atmosphere until a new equilibrium is reached owing to the decomposition of the large below- and above-ground plant biomass and soil organic matter that had accumulated during the 22 years of CRP management. Consequently, we anticipated the soil carbon to decrease compared to its pre-conversion status. The EC-derived carbon budget supported our hypothesis in that the former AGR land was on average carbon neutral (-8 g C m-2 yr-1) while the former CRP land emitted 301 g C m-2 yr-1 to the atmosphere over the six year period. In contradiction to the hypothesis, the deep core method indicated that the former AGR land emitted 167 g C m-2 yr-1 to the atmosphere while the former CRP land sequestered 127 g C m-2 yr-1 over the same time period. This could be due to pre-conversion plant biomass and soil

  1. Non-stationary Discharge Patterns in Motor Cortex under Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation: A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabato eSantaniello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN directly modulates the basal ganglia, but how such stimulation impacts the cortex upstream is largely unknown. There is evidence of cortical activation in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats and facilitation of motor evoked potentials in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients, but the impact of the DBS settings on the cortical activity in normal vs. Parkinsonian conditions is still debated.In recent studies, we used point process models to analyze non-stationary activation patterns and inter-neuronal dependencies in the motor and sensory cortices of awake non-human primates during STN DBS. We reported that these features are enhanced after treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, which causes a consistent PD-like motor impairment, and that high-frequency DBS (i.e., >100 pulses-per-second [pps] strongly reduces the short-term patterns (3-7ms period both before and after MPTP treatment, while it elicits a consistent short-latency post-stimulus activation. Low-frequency DBS (≤50pps, instead, had negligible effects on the non-stationary features while decreased the burstiness of the spike trains.We evaluate here the impact of the DBS settings on the cortical discharge patterns by using tools from the information theory (receiver operating characteristic curve, information rate, etc. and report that the probability of spiking of the cortical neurons is significantly conditioned on the DBS settings, with such dependency being significantly larger for high- vs. low-frequency DBS. Overall, the selective suppression of non-stationary features and the increased modulation of the spike probability suggest that high-frequency STN DBS enhances the neuronal activation in motor and sensory cortices, presumably because of reinforcement mechanisms, which perhaps involve the overlap between feedback antidromic and feed-forward orthodromic responses along the basal ganglia

  2. Pre-breakdown and Breakdown Mechanisms of an Inhibited Gas to Liquid Hydrocarbon Transformer Oil under Negative Lightning Impulse Voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wu; Liu, Qian; Wang, Z.D

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, streamer and breakdown phenomena and their mechanisms of an inhibited Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) transformer oil under standard negative lightning impulse voltages were studied. A conventional inhibited mineral oil was also tested as the benchmark. Experiments were carried out in 25 mm and 50 mm point-plane gaps. Streamer and breakdown phenomena of both oils were observed from the streamer inception voltage level up to the voltage level at which fast streamer appears with velocity ove...

  3. Development of Deep Penetration Welding Technology with High Brightness Laser under Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Seiji; Yohei, Abe; Mizutani, Masami; Kawahito, Yousuke

    The authors have developed a new chamber for laser welding under the low vacuum conditions achieved by using rotary pumps. High-power disk laser bead-on-plate welding was performed on Type 304 stainless steel or A5052 aluminium alloy plate at the powers of 10, 16 and 26 kW at various welding speeds under low vacuum. The sound welds of more than 50 and 70 mm in penetration depth could be produced in Type 304 at the pressure of 0.1 kPa, the speed of 0.3 m/min and the power of 16 kW and 26 kW, respectively. Similar penetration was achieved in A 5052 aluminum alloy. Welding phenomena under low vacuum were also understood by observing the behavior of a keyhole inlet, a molten pool, melt flows and a plume ejected from a keyhole through high speed video cameras. Low interaction between a laser beam and a plume under low vacuum was confirmed by using probe laser beam method.

  4. Immediate effect of instrumentation on the subgingival microflora in deep inflamed pockets under strict plaque control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhemrev, GE; Timmerman, MF; Veldkamp, A; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Van der Velden, U

    Objective: To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Materials and Method: Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at

  5. Long-term degradation of organic polymers under conditions found in deep repositories for low and intermediate-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warthmann, R.; Mosberger, L.; Baier, U.

    2013-06-01

    On behalf of Nagra, the Environmental Biotechnology Section of the Zürich University of Applied Sciences in Wädenswil investigated the potential for microbiological degradation of organic polymers under the conditions found in a deep geological repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW). The existing scientific literature on the topic was analysed, some thermodynamic calculations carried out and input was elicited from internationally recognised experts in the field. The study was restricted to a few substances which, in terms of mass, are most significant in the Swiss L/ILW inventory; these are polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), other plastics and bitumen. There were no clear indications in the literature that the polymer structure of synthetic polymers is biodegraded under anoxic conditions. However, functional groups of ion exchangers and plasticizers in plastics are considered to be readily available and biodegradable. The greatest obstacle to biological degradation of synthetic polymers is depolymerisation to produce labile monomers. As energy is generally required for such breakdown, the chances of this process taking place outside the cells are very low. In so far as they are present, monomers are, in principle, anaerobically biodegradable. Thermodynamic considerations indicate that degradation of synthetic polymers under repository conditions is theoretically possible. However, the degradation of polystyrene is very close to thermodynamic equilibrium and the usable energy for microorganisms would barely be sufficient. Under high H2 partial pressures, it is predicted that there will be a thermodynamic inhibition of anaerobic degradation, as certain interim steps in degradation are endergonic. The starting conditions for microbial growth in a deep repository are unfavourable in terms of availability of water and prevailing pH values. Practically no known microorganisms can tolerate the combination of these conditions; most known

  6. Exploring critical pathways for urban water management to identify robust strategies under deep uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urich, Christian; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    Long-term projections for key drivers needed in urban water infrastructure planning such as climate change, population growth, and socio-economic changes are deeply uncertain. Traditional planning approaches heavily rely on these projections, which, if a projection stays unfulfilled, can lead to problematic infrastructure decisions causing high operational costs and/or lock-in effects. New approaches based on exploratory modelling take a fundamentally different view. Aim of these is, to identify an adaptation strategy that performs well under many future scenarios, instead of optimising a strategy for a handful. However, a modelling tool to support strategic planning to test the implication of adaptation strategies under deeply uncertain conditions for urban water management does not exist yet. This paper presents a first step towards a new generation of such strategic planning tools, by combing innovative modelling tools, which coevolve the urban environment and urban water infrastructure under many different future scenarios, with robust decision making. The developed approach is applied to the city of Innsbruck, Austria, which is spatially explicitly evolved 20 years into the future under 1000 scenarios to test the robustness of different adaptation strategies. Key findings of this paper show that: (1) Such an approach can be used to successfully identify parameter ranges of key drivers in which a desired performance criterion is not fulfilled, which is an important indicator for the robustness of an adaptation strategy; and (2) Analysis of the rich dataset gives new insights into the adaptive responses of agents to key drivers in the urban system by modifying a strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A deep convolutional neural network with new training methods for bearing fault diagnosis under noisy environment and different working load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Chuanhao; Peng, Gaoliang; Chen, Yuanhang; Zhang, Zhujun

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, intelligent fault diagnosis algorithms using machine learning technique have achieved much success. However, due to the fact that in real world industrial applications, the working load is changing all the time and noise from the working environment is inevitable, degradation of the performance of intelligent fault diagnosis methods is very serious. In this paper, a new model based on deep learning is proposed to address the problem. Our contributions of include: First, we proposed an end-to-end method that takes raw temporal signals as inputs and thus doesn't need any time consuming denoising preprocessing. The model can achieve pretty high accuracy under noisy environment. Second, the model does not rely on any domain adaptation algorithm or require information of the target domain. It can achieve high accuracy when working load is changed. To understand the proposed model, we will visualize the learned features, and try to analyze the reasons behind the high performance of the model.

  8. Enhanced natural attenuation of heterocyclic hydrocarbons: biodegradation under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of H2O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagner, A.; Tiehm, A.

    2005-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen (NSO-HET) are highly mobile due to their high water solubility and low anaerobic degradation rates. In addition some of them are highly toxic and also carcinogenic. However, this class of pollutants is not included in standard risk assessment protocols. In our study, NSO-HET were analyzed in tar oil polluted groundwater plumes originating from (i) a small landfill and (ii) an abandoned manufactured gas plant site. A similar composition of the NSO-HET benzofuran, dibenzo-furan, benzo-thiophene, dibenzo-thiophene, quinoline, and carbazole was found at the two sites. In the polluted groundwater plume, the two ring NSO-HET decreased more rapidly as compared to the three ring NSO-HET. In anaerobic microcosm studies, only benzofuran was degraded under sulfate reducing conditions. In the presence of Fe(III) or nitrate, benzo-thiophene and dibenzo-thiophene were degraded within 400 days. Under aerobic conditions, the degradation of all NSO-HET was observed. In conclusion, the addition of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide is a suitable measure to stimulate biodegradation of hetero-aromatic compounds. (authors)

  9. Deep-C Drilling: Carbon Sequestration at Depth under Vine Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Allister; Mueller, Karin; Clothier, Brent; Deurer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    to at least 0.5 m depth. Using the same methodology to 1 m depth, we determined SCS in two wine grape vineyards on shallow, stony alluvial soils. We found a difference between vineyard and adjacent pasture SCS of nearly 16 t/ha. As the vines are 25 years old, this equates to carbon sequestration rates of 640kg/ha/year. Our results of the 'space-for-time' analysis also showed that all sequestration had occurred below 0.5 m. Therefore, we decided to deep-C drill further. In a 30-year old kiwifruit orchard and an adjacent pasture, SCSs were measured to 9 m depth. In the kiwifruit orchard, we found a sequestration rate of 6.3 tonnes C per hectare per year greater than in the adjacent pasture that was the antecedent land use. The carbon sequestered each year within the top 1 m of soil equates to about 4% of the emissions of kiwifruit grown in New Zealand and consumed in the United Kingdom. However, if the stock in the top 9 m of soil is included in this calculation, then the amount of SOC sequestered equates to about 42% of the respective emissions that would be calculated by life cycle assessment.

  10. Deep coupling of star tracker and MEMS-gyro data under highly dynamic and long exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers and gyroscopes are the two most widely used attitude measurement devices in spacecrafts. The star tracker is supposed to have the highest accuracy in stable conditions among different types of attitude measurement devices. In general, to detect faint stars and reduce the size of the star tracker, a method with long exposure time method is usually used. Thus, under dynamic conditions, smearing of the star image may appear and result in decreased accuracy or even failed extraction of the star spot. This may cause inaccuracies in attitude measurement. Gyros have relatively good dynamic performance and are usually used in combination with star trackers. However, current combination methods focus mainly on the data fusion of the output attitude data levels, which are inadequate for utilizing and processing internal blurred star image information. A method for tracking deep coupling stars and MEMS-gyro data is proposed in this work. The method achieves deep fusion at the star image level. First, dynamic star image processing is performed based on the angular velocity information of the MEMS-gyro. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the star spot could be improved, and extraction is achieved more effectively. Then, a prediction model for optimal estimation of the star spot position is obtained through the MEMS-gyro, and an extended Kalman filter is introduced. Meanwhile, the MEMS-gyro drift can be estimated and compensated though the proposed method. These enable the star tracker to achieve high star centroid determination accuracy under dynamic conditions. The MEMS-gyro drift can be corrected even when attitude data of the star tracker are unable to be solved and only one navigation star is captured in the field of view. Laboratory experiments were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and the whole system. (paper)

  11. Deep Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Morten O. Ravn; Stephanie Schmitt-Grohe

    2004-01-01

    This paper generalizes the standard habit formation model to an environment in which agents form habits over individual varieties of goods as opposed to over a composite consumption good. We refer to this preference specification as ‘deep habit formation’. Under deep habits, the demand function faced by individual producers depends on past sales. This feature is typically assumed ad-hoc in customer market and brand switching cost models. A central result of the paper is that deep habits giv...

  12. Petroleum geological features and exploration prospect of deep marine carbonate rocks in China onshore: A further discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Wenzhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep marine carbonate rocks have become one of the key targets of onshore oil and gas exploration and development for reserves replacement in China. Further geological researches of such rocks may practically facilitate the sustainable, steady and smooth development of the petroleum industry in the country. Therefore, through a deep investigation into the fundamental geological conditions of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, we found higher-than-expected resource potential therein, which may uncover large oil or gas fields. The findings were reflected in four aspects. Firstly, there are two kinds of hydrocarbon kitchens which were respectively formed by conventional source rocks and liquid hydrocarbons cracking that were detained in source rocks, and both of them can provide large-scale hydrocarbons. Secondly, as controlled by the bedding and interstratal karstification, as well as the burial and hydrothermal dolomitization, effective carbonate reservoirs may be extensively developed in the deep and ultra-deep strata. Thirdly, under the coupling action of progressive burial and annealing heating, some marine source rocks could form hydrocarbon accumulations spanning important tectonic phases, and large quantity of liquid hydrocarbons could be kept in late stage, contributing to rich oil and gas in such deep marine strata. Fourthly, large-scale uplifts were formed by the stacking of multi-episodic tectonism and oil and gas could be accumulated in three modes (i.e., stratoid large-area reservoir-forming mode of karst reservoirs in the slope area of uplift, back-flow type large-area reservoir-forming mode of buried hill weathered crust karst reservoirs, and wide-range reservoir-forming mode of reef-shoal reservoirs; groups of stratigraphic and lithologic traps were widely developed in the areas of periclinal structures of paleohighs and continental margins. In conclusion, deep marine carbonate strata in China onshore contain the conditions for

  13. Leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized radioactive waste form under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nagano, Tetsushi; Akimoto, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized waste form was studied to acquire data for the performance assessment of the geologic disposal of bituminized radioactive waste. Laboratory-scale leaching tests were performed for radioactive and non-radioactive waste specimens simulating bituminized waste of a French reprocessing company, COGEMA. The simulated waste was contacted with deionized water, an alkaline solution (0.03-mol/l KOH), and a saline solution (0.5-mol/l KCl) under atmospheric and anoxic conditions. The concentrations of Na, Ba, Cs, Sr, Np, Pu, NO 3 , SO 4 and I in the leachates were determined. Swelling of the bituminized waste progressed in deionized water and KOH. The release of the soluble components, Na and Cs, was enhanced by the swelling, and considered to be diffusion-controlled in the swelled layers of the specimens. The release of sparingly soluble components such as Ba and Np was solubility-limited in addition to the progression of leaching. Neptunium, a redox-sensitive element, showed a distinct difference in release between anoxic and atmospheric conditions. The elemental release from the bituminized waste specimens leached in the KCl was very low, which is likely due to the suppression of swelling of the specimens at high ionic strength. (author)

  14. Deformation and damage modes of deep argillaceous rocks under hydro-mechanical stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vales, F.

    2008-12-01

    An experimental identification of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of an argillite rock is proposed within a multi-scale approach. In particular, interest is focused on the spatial and temporal localization of strain and damage in a specimen during hydro-mechanical loading. Firstly, we describe the techniques used to follow the rock evolutions under loading, and in particular Digital Images Correlation (DIC), Acoustic Emission, microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Measurement errors and device limitations are discussed. The studied material is the Callovo-Oxfordian indurated argillaceous rock (or argillite) of the Bure site where ANDRA has built an underground research laboratory to study the radioactive waste storage. Petrophysical characterizations and microstructural observations by optical and scanning electron microscopy provide an identification of the constitutive phase and a characterization of their spatial distribution and typical sizes. Argillite can be described as a composite structure with a continuous clay matrix and embedded mineral particles, essentially quartz and carbonates. The typical size of these particles ranges from a few micrometers to a few hundreds micrometers, with an average close to 50 μ.m. The general experimental procedure combines two steps: in a fist time, imposed suctions bring samples to a given degree of water saturation, and, in a second time, uniaxial mechanical compression tests are performed. To understand the evolutions of the material under hydric and mechanical loading, samples are instrumented with standard measurement techniques, but also with Digital Image Correlation, at both the global scale of the sample and the local scale of the composite microstructure, and with Acoustic Emissions recording. Moisture transfers are imposed by controlled suctions on the range of 150 to 2.8 MPa, corresponding to the relative humidity range of 32 to 98%RH. During pure hydric solicitation, the changes in physical parameters

  15. Deep Brain Stimulation for Tremor Associated with Underlying Ataxia Syndromes: A Case Series and Discussion of Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genko Oyama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS has been utilized to treat various symptoms in patients suffering from movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Though ataxia syndromes have not been formally or frequently addressed with DBS, there are patients with ataxia and associated medication refractory tremor or dystonia who may potentially benefit from therapy.Methods: A retrospective database review was performed, searching for cases of ataxia where tremor and/or dystonia were addressed by utilizing DBS at the University of Florida Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration between 2008 and 2011. Five patients were found who had DBS implantation to address either medication refractory tremor or dystonia. The patient's underlying diagnoses included spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2, fragile X associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, a case of idiopathic ataxia (ataxia not otherwise specified [NOS], spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17, and a senataxin mutation (SETX.Results: DBS improved medication refractory tremor in the SCA2 and the ataxia NOS patients. The outcome for the FXTAS patient was poor. DBS improved dystonia in the SCA17 and SETX patients, although dystonia did not improve in the lower extremities of the SCA17 patient. All patients reported a transient gait dysfunction postoperatively, and there were no reports of improvement in ataxia‐related symptoms.Discussion: DBS may be an option to treat tremor, inclusive of dystonic tremor in patients with underlying ataxia; however, gait and other symptoms may possibly be worsened.Erratum published on July 27, 2016

  16. Stability Control of Retained Goaf-Side Gateroad under Different Roof Conditions in Deep Underground Y Type Longwall Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyi Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the retained goaf-side gateroad (RGSG is influenced mainly by the movements of the roof strata near coal seam after coalface passes by. To make effective controlling technology for the stability of the RGSG, we analyze the roof structure over the RGSG to illustrate the mechanism causing the RGSG instability under different roof conditions. We then examine the dynamic evolution of the deformation and abutment stress in the rock surrounding the RGSG during coal seam mining, using the FLAC3D numerical software to reveal the instability characteristics of the RGSG under different roof conditions. Next, corresponding stability controlling technologies for the RGSGs are proposed and tested in three typical deep underground coalmines. Results show that: sink and rotation of the roof cantilever over the RGSG impose severer influence on the stability of the RGSG. The RGSG suffers disturbances three times during the coal-seam mining, and the deformation and abutment stress in the rock surrounding the RGSG increase significantly when the main roof becomes thicker and the immediate roof becomes thinner. Staged support technology involving grout cable bolts has better controlling results of the RGSG stability than that composed of conventional rock bolts, when the RGSG is beneath weak immediate roof with large thickness. Roof structure optimizing technology involving pre-split technology can improve the stability of the RGSG effectively when the RGSG is covered by hard main roof with large thickness directly.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Residual Stress in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Plate Induced by Deep Rolling Process under Complex Roller Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Liou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinematics of the deep rolling tool, contact stress, and induced residual stress in the near-surface material of a flat Ti-6Al-4V alloy plate are numerically investigated. The deep rolling tool is under multiaxis nonlinear motion in the process. Unlike available deep rolling simulations in the open literature, the roller motion investigated in this study includes penetrative and slightly translational motions. A three-dimensional finite element model with dynamic explicit technique is developed to simulate the instantaneous complex roller motions during the deep rolling process. The initial motion of the rollers followed by the penetration motion to apply the load and perform the deep rolling process, the load releasing, and material recovery steps is sequentially simulated. This model is able to capture the transient characteristics of the kinematics on the roller and contacts between the roller and the plate due to variations of roller motion. The predictions show that the magnitude of roller reaction force in the penetration direction starts to decrease with time when the roller motion changes to the deep rolling step and the residual stress distributions in the near-surface material after the material recovery step varies considerably along the roller path.

  18. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methane and heavier homologues were recorded in the near-surface soil samples collected from Kutch–. Saurashtra, India. Soil gas alkanes were interpreted to be derived from deep-seated hydrocarbon sources and have migrated to the surface through structural discontinuities. The source of hydrocarbons is assessed to ...

  19. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil gas alkanes were interpreted to be derived from deep-seated hydrocarbon sources and have migrated to the surface through structural discontinuities. The source of hydrocarbons is assessed to be thermogenic and could have been primarily derived from humic organic matter with partial contribution from sapropelic ...

  20. Repair of aortic arch aneurysm under cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermia with low flow: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezwanul Hoque

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aortic arch surgery is the challenging and most difficult surgery among the cardiovascular operations. Cerebral and spinal complications are the most feared and common complications of aortic arch surgery. With best available techniques for cerebral and spinal protection, anesthetic management and good post-operative care; aortic arch surgery is considerably safer nowadays and satisfactory results can be achieved in most patients. Also, selecting the sites for arterial cannulation to maintain whole body circulation, during isolation of the aortic arch to operate on it, need proper anatomical description of the extent of the aneurysm. This is also achievable by the availability of the imaging techniques like Computed Tomog­raphy (CT with or without contrast, CT Angiography (CTA and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. We are reporting a case of aneurysm of aortic arch in a young adult, who had undergone repair under cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermia with low flow and had normal convalescence without any cerebral or spinal complications.

  1. Reducing regional drought vulnerabilities and multi-city robustness conflicts using many-objective optimization under deep uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, B. C.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.; Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.

    2017-06-01

    Emerging water scarcity concerns in many urban regions are associated with several deeply uncertain factors, including rapid population growth, limited coordination across adjacent municipalities and the increasing risks for sustained regional droughts. Managing these uncertainties will require that regional water utilities identify coordinated, scarcity-mitigating strategies that trigger the appropriate actions needed to avoid water shortages and financial instabilities. This research focuses on the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, seeking to engage the water utilities within Raleigh, Durham, Cary and Chapel Hill in cooperative and robust regional water portfolio planning. Prior analysis of this region through the year 2025 has identified significant regional vulnerabilities to volumetric shortfalls and financial losses. Moreover, efforts to maximize the individual robustness of any of the mentioned utilities also have the potential to strongly degrade the robustness of the others. This research advances a multi-stakeholder Many-Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM) framework to better account for deeply uncertain factors when identifying cooperative drought management strategies. Our results show that appropriately designing adaptive risk-of-failure action triggers required stressing them with a comprehensive sample of deeply uncertain factors in the computational search phase of MORDM. Search under the new ensemble of states-of-the-world is shown to fundamentally change perceived performance tradeoffs and substantially improve the robustness of individual utilities as well as the overall region to water scarcity. Search under deep uncertainty enhanced the discovery of how cooperative water transfers, financial risk mitigation tools, and coordinated regional demand management must be employed jointly to improve regional robustness and decrease robustness conflicts between the utilities. Insights from this work have general merit for regions where

  2. MANTLE SOURCES OF GENERATION OF HYDROCARBONS: GEOLOGY-PHYSICAL SIGNS AND FORECAST-SEARCHING CRITERIONS OF MAPPING; REGULARITY OF AN OIL-AND-GAS-BEARING CAPACITY AS UNLOADING REFLEX OF MANTLE HYDROCARBON-SYSTEMS IN THE CRUST OF THE EARTH

    OpenAIRE

    Тімурзіїв, А.І.

    2017-01-01

    In the conditions of the developed uncertainty concerning the nature of primary sources (donors) and the generation focal (reactionary chambers) of deep hydrocarbons, questions of the nature of donors and the sources of generation of deep hydrocarbons systems, the mechanism and ways of generation and in-source mobilization of hydrocarbons in the top mantle of the Earth and evacuation (vertical migration) of hydrocarbon-systems from the generation sources in the mantle of the Earth into the ac...

  3. Demetallization of hydrocarbon containing feed streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukes, S.G.; Hawley, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes how metals contained in a hydrocarbon containing feed stream are removed by contacting the hydrocarbon containing feed stream under suitable demetallization conditions with hydrogen and a catalyst composition comprising zirconium phosphate, cobalt phosphate and iron phosphate. The life and activity of the catalyst composition may be increased by introducing a decomposable metal compound selected from the group consisting of the metals of Group V-B, Group VI-B, Group VII-B and Group VIII of the Periodic Table into the hydrocarbon containing feed stream prior to contacting the hydrocarbon containing feed stream with the catalyst composition

  4. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Frozen Hydrocarbon Particles of Cometary Halos as Carriers of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The possible nature of unidentified cometary emissions is under discussion. We propose a new model of the ice particles in cometary halos as a mixture of frozen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and acyclic hydrocarbons.We describe principal properties of frozen hydrocarbon particles (FHPs) and suggest interpreting ...

  6. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and plants of the tundra zone under the impact of coal-mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovleva, E. V.; Gabov, D. N.; Beznosikov, V. A.; Kondratenok, B. M.

    2016-11-01

    Thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were identified in organic horizons of tundra surface-gleyed soils ( Histic Stagnosols (Gelistagnic) and plants. The total content of PAHs in contaminated soils exceeded the background values by three times. Concentrations of low-molecular weight hydrocarbons in soils at different distances from the coalmines were relatively stable. Concentrations of highmolecular weight hydrocarbons had a distinct maximum at a distance of about 0.5 km from the source of emission. The increased values of correlation coefficients were found between PAH concentrations in organic soil horizons, plants, and coal of the Vorkutinskaya mine. Mostly low-molecular weight structures predominated in the organic soil horizons and in the studied plant species. The maximum capacity for the biological accumulation of PAHs was displayed by Pleurozium schreberi and the minimum capacity was displayed by Vaccinium myrtillus. Mosses and lichens actively absorbed polyarenes from the surface; most of the PAHs were transported into the plants. This phenomenon was not observed for Vaccinium myrtillus Concentrations of PAHs on the surface and in plant tissues decreased with an increase in the distance from the mine. Distribution of polyarenes in plant organs was nonuniform. Insignificant excess of concentration of polyarenes was found in dead part of Pleurozium schreberi in comparison with its living part. The accumulation of polyarenes in the leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus was higher than that in its stems and roots.

  7. Study of the earth's deep interior and crystallography. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    History of the study of the Earth's deep interior was reviewed. In order to understand Earth's deep interior from the view point of materials science, X-ray diffraction under high pressure and high temperature played very important role. Use of synchrotron radiation dramatically advanced this experimental technique and it is now possible to make precise X-ray study under the P-T conditions corresponding even to the center of the Earth. In order to clarify the behavior of light elements such as hydrogen, however, studies using neutron diffraction are also required. A new neutron beam line dedicated for high-pressure science is constructed at J-PARC and is now ready for use. (author)

  8. Syntrophic biodegradation of hydrocarbon contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieg, Lisa M; Fowler, S Jane; Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic environments are crucial to global carbon cycling wherein the microbial metabolism of organic matter occurs under a variety of redox conditions. In many anaerobic ecosystems, syntrophy plays a key role wherein microbial species must cooperate, essentially as a single catalytic unit, to metabolize substrates in a mutually beneficial manner. Hydrocarbon-contaminated environments such as groundwater aquifers are typically anaerobic, and often methanogenic. Syntrophic processes are needed to biodegrade hydrocarbons to methane, and recent studies suggest that syntrophic hydrocarbon metabolism can also occur in the presence of electron acceptors. The elucidation of key features of syntrophic processes in defined co-cultures has benefited greatly from advances in 'omics' based tools. Such tools, along with approaches like stable isotope probing, are now being used to monitor carbon flow within an increasing number of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia to pinpoint the key microbial players involved in the degradative pathways. The metagenomic sequencing of hydrocarbon-utilizing consortia should help to further identify key syntrophic features and define microbial interactions in these complex communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analytical Study on Dynamic Response of Deep Foundation Pit Support Structure under the Action of Subway Train Vibration Load: A Case Study of Deep Foundation Pit of the New Museum Near Metro Line 2 in Chengdu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, foundation pit support structures are generally regarded as the temporary structures and the impact of vibration loads is often overlooked. As opposed to static and seismic loads, the vibration loads of subway trains are a type of cyclic load with a relatively long duration of action and a definite cycle; it is of great importance for the design of foundation pit support structures to correctly evaluate the impact of subway train vibrations on deep foundation pit and support works. In this paper, a dynamic three-dimensional numerical model is built that considers the vibration load of subway trains on the basis of the static numerical model for deep foundation pit support structures and simplified train loads to study the impact of train vibrations on deep foundation pit and permanent support structures. Studies have shown that the dynamic response of surface displacement mainly occurs in the early period of dynamic load, the vibration load of subway trains has little impact on ground subsidence, the support pile structure is in an elastic state during dynamic response under the action of subway train vibrations, and the action of train vibration loads is inimical to the safety of foundation pit support structures and should be closely studied.

  10. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation -- Assessing the potential for active groundwater flow and origin of the brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Soil and Water Sciences; Halleran, A.; Hunley, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1997-08-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) contains contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater in the deep system is saline and has been considered to be stagnant in previous studies. This study was designed to address the following questions: is groundwater in the deep system stagnant; is contaminant migration controlled by diffusion only or is advection a viable mechanism; where are the potential outlet points? On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of saline groundwater flow and potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial and temporal temperature variations at depth, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. The observations suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active, freshwater-bearing units. Influx of recent water does occur. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow are likely to be small. The origin of the saline groundwater was assessed by using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model that best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated.

  11. Optical properties of the deep brain in the red and NIR: changes observed under in-vivo, post-mortem, frozen and formalin-fixated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, A.; Lovisa, B.; Seydoux, O.; Zellweger, M.; Pfleiderer, M.; Haenggi, M.; Oertel, M.; Tardy, Y.; Wagnières, G.

    2015-07-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a promising approach to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms in cellular or animal models. Unfortunately, little information is available on the optical parameters playing a role in the light dosimetry during PBM. We conducted a study to determine the effective attenuation coefficient μeff of PD-relevant human deep brain tissues at 671 and 808 nm, using a multichannel fluence rate-meter comprising sub-millimeter isotropic detectors. The first step involved measurements of tissue modifications induced by postmortem situation and tissue storage on rabbit brains. The parameter μeff was measured using various tissue conditions (in vivo, immediately after sacrifice, after six weeks' storage at -20°C or in 10 % formaldehyde solution) on eight female New Zealand white rabbits. In the second step, fluence rate was measured at various locations of a frozen human deep brain when the deep brain was illuminated from the sphenoidal sinus. The results were processed by an iterative Monte-Carlo algorithm to generate sets of optical parameters, and results collected on rabbit brains were used to extrapolate the μeff value that would be observed in human deep brain tissues in vivo. Under all tissue conditions, the value of μeff at 808 nm was smaller than that at 671 nm. After long-term storage for six weeks at -20°C, μeff decreased, on average by 15 to 25 % at all wavelengths, while it increased by 5 to 15 % at all wavelengths after storage in formaldehyde. Therefore, a reasonable estimate of in vivo human deep brain μeff values at 671 and 808 nm can be obtained by multiplying the data we report by 120 %.

  12. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    It is widely recognized that international environmental technological change is key to reduce the rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions of emerging nations. In 2010, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP) agreed to the creation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This new multilateral organization has been created with the collective contributions of COP members, and has been tasked with directing over USD 100 billion per year towards investments that can enhance the development and diffusion of clean energy technologies in both advanced and emerging nations (Helm and Pichler, 2015). The landmark agreement arrived at the COP 21 has reaffirmed the key role that the GCF plays in enabling climate mitigation as it is now necessary to align large scale climate financing efforts with the long-term goals agreed at Paris 2015. This study argues that because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanics of international technological change, the multiplicity of policy options and ultimately the presence of climate and technological change deep uncertainty, climate financing institutions such as the GCF, require new analytical methods for designing long-term robust investment plans. Motivated by these challenges, this dissertation shows that the application of new analytical methods, such as Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Exploratory Modeling (Lempert, Popper and Bankes, 2003) to the study of international technological change and climate policy provides useful insights that can be used for designing a robust architecture of international technological cooperation for climate change mitigation. For this study I developed an exploratory dynamic integrated assessment model (EDIAM) which is used as the scenario generator in a large computational experiment. The scope of the experimental design considers an ample set of climate and technological scenarios. These scenarios combine five sources of uncertainty

  13. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  14. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  15. A method of calculating of the thermodynamic properties and the composition of the explosion products of hydrocarbons and air under partial chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargatov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    We examined the approximate method to calculate composition and thermodynamic parameters of hydrocarbons-air nonequilibrium explosion products based on the assumption of the existence of a partial chemical equilibrium. With excellent accuracy of calculating thermodynamic properties and species mass fraction the respective stiff system of detailed kinetics differential equations can be replaced by the one differential equation or the two differential equations and a system of algebraic equations. This method is always consistent with the detailed kinetic mechanism. The constituent equations of the method were derived and the respective computer code written. We examine the applicability of the method by solving the test problem. The proposed method simulation results are in excellent agreement with the detailed kinetics model results corresponding the stiff ordinary differential equation solver including NO time histories.

  16. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental pollution on exogenous and oxidative DNA damage (EXPAH project): description of the population under study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taioli, Emanuela; Sram, Radim J; Garte, Seymour; Kalina, Ivan; Popov, Todor A; Farmer, Peter B

    2007-07-01

    The EXPAH project was a molecular epidemiology study whose aims were to evaluate the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major source of genotoxic activities of organic mixtures associated with air pollution. Biomarkers of exposure, effects and susceptibility, and oxidative DNA damage were measured in three PAH-exposed populations from Prague (Czech Republic), Kosice (Slovakia) and Sofia (Bulgaria). Control populations were included from each city. In total 356 individuals were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to determine life style/dietary factors. Ambient air exposure was measured by stationary monitoring, and personal exposure monitoring was also carried out. The characteristics of the population are described in this paper together with their personal exposure to carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs). The dose of c-PAH exposure was found to vary between the occupationally exposed (e.g. policemen and bus drivers) and the control populations in each country, and also varied from country to country.

  17. Biodiversity's big wet secret: the global distribution of marine biological records reveals chronic under-exploration of the deep pelagic ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Webb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the distribution of marine biodiversity is a crucial first step towards the effective and sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Recent efforts to collate location records from marine surveys enable us to assemble a global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. They also effectively highlight gaps in our knowledge of particular marine regions. In particular, the deep pelagic ocean--the largest biome on Earth--is chronically under-represented in global databases of marine biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use data from the Ocean Biogeographic Information System to plot the position in the water column of ca 7 million records of marine species occurrences. Records from relatively shallow waters dominate this global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. In addition, standardising the number of records from regions of the ocean differing in depth reveals that regardless of ocean depth, most records come either from surface waters or the sea bed. Midwater biodiversity is drastically under-represented. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The deep pelagic ocean is the largest habitat by volume on Earth, yet it remains biodiversity's big wet secret, as it is hugely under-represented in global databases of marine biological records. Given both its value in the provision of a range of ecosystem services, and its vulnerability to threats including overfishing and climate change, there is a pressing need to increase our knowledge of Earth's largest ecosystem.

  18. Hydrocarbons as food contaminants:

    OpenAIRE

    Lommatzsch, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The contamination of foods with hydrocarbon mixtures migrating from food contact materials (FCM) was first observed for jute and sisal bags treated with batching oil in the 1990s. Since the millennium, the focus has shifted to printing inks and recycled cardboard packaging as most recognized sources for hydrocarbon contamination from FCM. Mineral oil containing printing inks can either release hydrocarbons directly from the printing of folding boxes into food or indirectly entering the recycl...

  19. Hydrocarbons and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herz, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows the influence of hydrocarbons vapors, emitted by transports or by volatile solvents using, on air pollution. Hydrocarbons are the principal precursors of photochemical pollution. After a brief introduction on atmospheric chemistry and photochemical reactions, the author describes the french prevention program against hydrocarbons emissions. In the last chapter, informations on international or european community programs for photochemical pollution study are given. 5 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Airway support using a pediatric intubation tube in adult patients with atrial fibrillation: A simple and unique method to prevent heart movement during catheter ablation under continuous deep sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masateru Takigawa, MD

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: This unique airway management technique using a pediatric intubation tube for CA procedures performed in adult patients with AF under continuous deep sedation was easy, safe, and effective.

  1. Displacement potential solution of a guided deep beam of composite materials under symmetric three-point bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Muzibur; Ahmad, S. Reaz

    2017-12-01

    An analytical investigation of elastic fields for a guided deep beam of orthotropic composite material having three point symmetric bending is carried out using displacement potential boundary modeling approach. Here, the formulation is developed as a single function of space variables defined in terms of displacement components, which has to satisfy the mixed type of boundary conditions. The relevant displacement and stress components are derived into infinite series using Fourier integral along with suitable polynomials coincided with boundary conditions. The results are presented mainly in the form of graphs and verified with finite element solutions using ANSYS. This study shows that the analytical and numerical solutions are in good agreement and thus enhances reliability of the displacement potential approach.

  2. Deep intronic mis-splicing mutation in JAK3 gene underlies T-B+NK- severe combined immunodeficiency phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepensky, Polina; Keller, Baerbel; Shamriz, Oded; NaserEddin, Adeeb; Rumman, Nisreen; Weintraub, Michael; Warnatz, Klaus; Elpeleg, Orly; Barak, Yaacov

    2016-02-01

    Severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is a group of genetically heterogeneous diseases caused by an early block in T cell differentiation and present with life threatening infections, often within the first year of life. Janus kinase (JAK)3 gene mutations have been found to cause autosomal recessive T-B+ SCID phenotype. In this study we describe three patients with a novel deep intronic mis-splicing mutation in JAK3 as a cause of T-B+NK- SCID highlighting the need for careful evaluation of intronic regulatory elements of known genes associated with clearly defined clinical phenotypes. We present the cases and discuss the current literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Buoyancy under control: underwater locomotor performance in a deep diving seabird suggests respiratory strategies for reducing foraging effort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée R Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants--as in other families of diving seabirds--of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control.

  4. Iraq`s significant hydrocarbon potential remains relatively undeveloped

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL-Gailani, M. [GeoDesign Ltd., Kingston-upon-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-29

    Iraq is probably one of the least explored countries in the Middle East, despite the fact that it possesses one of the richest hydrocarbon basins in the world almost on a par to Saudi Arabia`s potential, if not more. The aim of this article is to state the facts about Iraq and focus on the huge but untapped and undeveloped hydrocarbon resources to the international oil community. Perhaps it is best to start by describing briefly the sedimentary and tectonic elements responsible for accumulating such large hydrocarbon resources. The paper describes the basin, tectonic elements, structural anomalies, deep drilling, source rocks, reservoir rocks, characteristics, and new reserves.

  5. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  6. Differentially expressed genes under simulated deep-sea conditions in the psychrotolerant yeast Cryptococcus sp. NIOCCPY13

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, P.; Raghukumar, C.; Verma, A.K.; Meena, R.M.

    to assist in the survival of microorganisms under stress conditions. Interestingly, about 50 percent of the upregulated genes matched with hypothetical proteins at a percentage similarity of less than or equal to 96, suggesting their probability of being...

  7. Deep global cycling of carbon constrained by the solidus of anhydrous, carbonated eclogite under upper mantle conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Hirschmann, Marc M.; Withers, Anthony C.

    2004-10-01

    We present partial melting experiments that constrain the near solidus phase relations of carbonated eclogite from 2 to 8.5 GPa. The starting material was prepared by adding 5 wt.% CO 2 in the form of a mixture of Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K carbonates to an eclogite from Salt Lake crater, Oahu, Hawaii and is a reasonable approximation of carbonated oceanic crust from which siliceous hydrous fluids have been extracted during subduction. Melt-present versus melt-absent conditions are distinguished based on textural criteria. Garnet and clinopyroxene appear in all the experiments. Between 2 and 3 GPa, the subsolidus assemblage also includes ilmenite±calcio-dolomite ss±CO 2, whereas above the solidus (1050-1075 °C at 3 GPa) calcio-dolomitic liquid appears. From 3 to 4.5 GPa, dolomite ss is stable at the solidus and the near-solidus melt becomes increasingly dolomitic. The appearance of dolomite above 3 GPa is accompanied by a negative Clapeyron slope of the solidus, with a minimum located between 995 and 1025 °C at ca. 4 GPa. Above 4 GPa, the solidus rises with increasing pressure to 1245±35 °C at 8.5 GPa and magnesite becomes the subsolidus carbonate. Dolomitic melt coexists with magnesite+garnet+cpx+rutile along the solidus from 5 to 8.5 GPa. Comparison of our results to other recent experimental studies [T. Hammouda, High-pressure melting of carbonated eclogite and experimental constraints on carbon recycling and storage in the mantle, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 214 (2003) 357-368; G.M. Yaxley, G.P. Brey, Phase relations of carbonate-bearing eclogite assemblages from 2.5 to 5.5 GPa: implications for petrogenesis of carbonatites, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 146 (2004) 606-619] shows that carbonate minerals are preserved in anhydrous or slightly hydrous carbonated eclogite to temperatures >1100 and >1200 °C at 5 and 9 GPa, respectively. Thus, deep subduction of carbonate is expected along any plausible subduction geotherm. If extrapolated to higher pressures, the carbonated

  8. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediments from four different hydrocarbon polluted sites in Ogala-Bonny, Rivers State Nigeria and water samples from effluent discharge points of four different flow stations in Delta State were sampled. They were analyzed for presence of indigenous fungi. This was to establish possible fungal involvement in ...

  9. Acute survivorship of the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the Gulf of Mexico under acidification, warming, and deoxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay J Lunden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changing global climate due to anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are driving rapid changes in the physical and chemical environment of the oceans via warming, deoxygenation, and acidification. These changes may threaten the persistence of species and populations across a range of latitudes and depths, including species that support diverse biological communities that in turn provide ecological stability and support commercial interests. Worldwide, but particularly in the North Atlantic and deep Gulf of Mexico, Lophelia pertusa forms expansive reefs that support biological communities whose diversity rivals that of tropical coral reefs. In this study, L. pertusa colonies were collected from the Viosca Knoll region in the Gulf of Mexico (390 to 450 m depth, genotyped using microsatellite markers, and exposed to a series of treatments testing survivorship responses to acidification, warming, and deoxygenation. All coral nubbins survived the acidification scenarios tested, between pH of 7.67 and 7.90 and aragonite saturation states of 0.92 and 1.47. However, calcification generally declined with respect to pH, though a disparate response was evident where select individuals net calcified and others exhibited net dissolution near a saturation state of 1. Warming and deoxygenation both had negative effects on survivorship, with up to 100% mortality observed at temperatures above 14ºC and oxygen concentrations of approximately 1.5 ml·l-1. These results suggest that, over the short-term, climate change and OA may negatively impact L. pertusa in the Gulf of Mexico, though the potential for acclimation and the effects of genetic background should be considered in future research.

  10. Acute survivorship of the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the Gulf of Mexico under acidification, warming, and deoxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunden, Jay J.; McNicholl, Conall G.; Sears, Christopher R.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Cordes, Erik E.

    2014-01-01

    Changing global climate due to anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are driving rapid changes in the physical and chemical environment of the oceans via warming, deoxygenation, and acidification. These changes may threaten the persistence of species and populations across a range of latitudes and depths, including species that support diverse biological communities that in turn provide ecological stability and support commercial interests. Worldwide, but particularly in the North Atlantic and deep Gulf of Mexico, Lophelia pertusa forms expansive reefs that support biological communities whose diversity rivals that of tropical coral reefs. In this study, L. pertusa colonies were collected from the Viosca Knoll region in the Gulf of Mexico (390 to 450 m depth), genotyped using microsatellite markers, and exposed to a series of treatments testing survivorship responses to acidification, warming, and deoxygenation. All coral nubbins survived the acidification scenarios tested, between pH of 7.67 and 7.90 and aragonite saturation states of 0.92 and 1.47. However, net calcification generally declined with respect to pH, though a disparate response was evident where select individuals net calcified and others exhibited net dissolution near a saturation state of 1. Warming and deoxygenation both had negative effects on survivorship, with up to 100% mortality observed at temperatures above 14°C and oxygen concentrations of approximately 1.5 ml· l−1. These results suggest that, over the short-term, climate change and OA may negatively impact L. pertusa in the Gulf of Mexico, though the potential for acclimation and the effects of genetic background should be considered in future research.

  11. What is the Nondominated Formulation? A Demonstration of de Novo Water Supply Portfolio Planning Under Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.; Kirsch, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    This paper proposes and demonstrates a new interactive framework for sensitivity-informed de Novo programming, in which a learning approach to formulating decision problems can confront the deep uncertainty within water management problems. The framework couples global sensitivity analysis using Sobol’ variance decomposition with multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) to generate planning alternatives and test their robustness to new modeling assumptions and scenarios. We explore these issues within the context of a risk-based water supply management problem, where a city seeks the most efficient use of a water market. The case study examines a single city’s water supply in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas, using both a 10-year planning horizon and an extreme single-year drought scenario. The city’s water supply portfolio comprises a volume of permanent rights to reservoir inflows and use of a water market through anticipatory thresholds for acquiring transfers of water through optioning and spot leases. Diagnostic information from the Sobol’ variance decomposition is used to create a sensitivity-informed problem formulation testing different decision variable configurations, with tradeoffs for the formulation solved using a MOEA. Subsequent analysis uses the drought scenario to expose tradeoffs between long-term and short-term planning and illustrate the impact of deeply uncertain assumptions on water availability in droughts. The results demonstrate water supply portfolios’ efficiency, reliability, and utilization of transfers in the water supply market and show how to adaptively improve the value and robustness of our problem formulations by evolving our definition of optimality to discover key tradeoffs.

  12. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eHe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  13. The Arctic Gakkel Vents (AGAVE) Expedition: Technology Development and the Search for Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Fields Under the Arctic Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reves-Sohn, R. A.; Singh, H.; Humphris, S.; Shank, T.; Jakuba, M.; Kunz, C.; Murphy, C.; Willis, C.

    2007-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal fields on the Gakkel Ridge beneath the Arctic ice cap provide perhaps the best terrestrial analogue for volcanically-hosted chemosynthetic biological communities that may exist beneath the ice-covered ocean of Europa. In both cases the key enabling technologies are robotic (untethered) vehicles that can swim freely under the ice and the supporting hardware and software. The development of robotic technology for deep- sea research beneath ice-covered oceans thus has relevance to both polar oceanography and future astrobiological missions to Europa. These considerations motivated a technology development effort under the auspices of NASA's ASTEP program and NSF's Office of Polar Programs that culminated in the AGAVE expedition aboard the icebreaker Oden from July 1 - August 10, 2007. The scientific objective was to study hydrothermal processes on the Gakkel Ridge, which is a key target for global studies of deep-sea vent fields. We developed two new autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for the project, and deployed them to search for vent fields beneath the ice. We conducted eight AUV missions (four to completion) during the 40-day long expedition, which also included ship-based bathymetric surveys, CTD/rosette water column surveys, and wireline photographic and sampling surveys of remote sections of the Gakkel Ridge. The AUV missions, which lasted 16 hours on average and achieved operational depths of 4200 meters, returned sensor data that showed clear evidence of hydrothermal venting, but for a combination of technical reasons and time constraints, the AUVs did not ultimately return images of deep-sea vent fields. Nevertheless we used our wireline system to obtain images and samples of extensive microbial mats that covered fresh volcanic surfaces on a newly discovered set of volcanoes. The microbes appear to be living in regions where reducing and slightly warm fluids are seeping through cracks in the fresh volcanic terrain. These discoveries

  14. Enhancing the Adaptability of the Deep-Sea Bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 to High Pressure and Low Temperature by Experimental Evolution under H2O2Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhe; Jian, Huahua; Jin, Zheng; Xiao, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    Oxidative stresses commonly exist in natural environments, and microbes have developed a variety of defensive systems to counteract such events. Although increasing evidence has shown that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and low temperature (LT) induce antioxidant defense responses in cells, there is no direct evidence to prove the connection between antioxidant defense mechanisms and the adaptation of bacteria to HHP and LT. In this study, using the wild-type (WT) strain of a deep-sea bacterium, Shewanella piezotolerans WP3, as an ancestor, we obtained a mutant, OE100, with an enhanced antioxidant defense capacity by experimental evolution under H 2 O 2 stress. Notably, OE100 exhibited better tolerance not only to H 2 O 2 stress but also to HHP and LT (20 MPa and 4°C, respectively). Whole-genome sequencing identified a deletion mutation in the oxyR gene, which encodes the transcription factor that controls the oxidative stress response. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that the genes associated with oxidative stress defense, anaerobic respiration, DNA repair, and the synthesis of flagella and bacteriophage were differentially expressed in OE100 compared with the WT at 20 MPa and 4°C. Genetic analysis of oxyR and ccpA2 indicated that the OxyR-regulated cytochrome c peroxidase CcpA2 significantly contributed to the adaptation of WP3 to HHP and LT. Taken together, these results confirmed the inherent relationship between antioxidant defense mechanisms and the adaptation of a benthic microorganism to HHP and LT. IMPORTANCE Oxidative stress exists in various niches, including the deep-sea ecosystem, which is an extreme environment with conditions of HHP and predominantly LT. Although previous studies have shown that HHP and LT induce antioxidant defense responses in cells, direct evidence to prove the connection between antioxidant defense mechanisms and the adaptation of bacteria to HHP and LT is lacking. In this work, using the deep-sea bacterium

  15. Hydrocarbon toxicity: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoehlen, L M; Tekulve, K J; Nañagas, K A

    2014-06-01

    Clinical effects of hydrocarbon exposure have been reported since 1897. These substances are ubiquitous, and their exposures are common. The specific hydrocarbon and route of exposure will determine the clinical effect, and an understanding of this is helpful in the care of the hydrocarbon-exposed patient. To complete a comprehensive review of the literature on hydrocarbon toxicity and summarize the findings. Relevant literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed/OVID) and Cochrane Library databases (inclusive of years 1975-2013), as well as from multiple toxicology textbooks. Bibliographies of the identified articles were also reviewed. Search terms included combinations of the following: hydrocarbons, inhalants, encephalopathy, coma, cognitive deficits, inhalant abuse, huffing, sudden sniffing death, toluene, renal tubular acidosis, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmia, dermatitis, and aspiration pneumonitis. All pertinent clinical trials, observational studies, and case reports relevant to hydrocarbon exposure and published in English were reviewed. Chronic, occupational hydrocarbon toxicity was not included. Exposure to hydrocarbons occurs through one of the following routes: inhalation, ingestion with or without aspiration, or dermal exposure. Inhalational abuse is associated with central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and arrhythmia. The exact mechanism of the CNS depression is unknown, but experimental evidence suggests effects on NMDA, dopamine, and GABA receptors. Chronic toluene inhalation causes a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis associated with hypokalemia. Halogenated hydrocarbon abuse can cause a fatal malignant arrhythmia, termed "sudden sniffing death". Individuals who regularly abuse hydrocarbons are more likely to be polysubstance users, exhibit criminal or violent behavior, and develop memory and other cognitive deficits. Heavy, long-term use results in cerebellar dysfunction, encephalopathy, weakness, and dementia

  16. Degeneracy factor and pressure dependence of Si-induced deep impurity states in AlxGa1-xAs from transport experiments under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azema, S.; Camassel, J.; Piotrzkowski, R.; Robert, J.L.; Mosser, V.; Gibart, P.; Contour, J.P.; Massie, J.; Marty, A.

    1989-01-01

    Deep electron traps (the so-called DX centers) have been studied by means of Hall and conductivity measurements under hydrostatic pressure, between 77 K and 500 K in n-type MBE grown Al .33 Ga . 67 As doped with Si. From our measurements we can access quantities such as the net doping concentration and the mobilities in each valley of the conduction band. The knowledge of these parameters allows us to interpret the Hall carrier density over the whole temperature range without the use of fitting parameters. The value of the pressure coefficient is found to be equal to -11.5 meV/kbar with respect to the Γ minimum, in agreement with the value from the activated temperature range. Two sets of values for the temperature dependence and the degeneracy factor of the level are proposed. (author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  17. Water movement and solute transport in deep vadose zone under four irrigated agricultural land-use types in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Leilei; Shen, Yanjun; Pei, Hongwei; Wang, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Groundwater-fed agriculture has caused water table declines and groundwater quality degradation in the North China Plain. Based on sediment sampling in deep vadose zone (with a maximum depth of 11.0 m), groundwater recharge, seepage velocity, solute inventory and transport under four typical irrigated agricultural land-use types (winter wheat and summer maize, WM; pear orchards, PO; outdoor vegetables, VE; and cotton, CO) were investigated in this study. The results reveal that there are many solutes stored in the vadose zone. Nitrate storage per unit depth in the vadose zone is highest under PO (1703 kg/ha), followed by VE (970 kg/ha), WM (736 kg/ha) and CO (727 kg/ha). However, the amount of annual leached nitrate under the four land-use types results in a different order (VE, 404 kg/ha; WM, 108 kg/ha; PO, 23 kg/ha; CO, 13 kg/ha). The estimated average recharge rates are 180 mm/yr for WM, 27 mm/yr for CO, 320 mm/yr for VE and 49 mm/yr for PO. The seepage velocity under VE (2.22 m/yr) exceeds the values under the other three land-use types (WM, 0.85 m/yr; PO, 0.49 m/yr; CO, 0.09 m/yr). The highest seepage velocity under VE caused significant nitrate contamination in groundwater, whereas the other two land-use types (WM and PO) had no direct influence on groundwater quality. The results of this work could be used for groundwater resources management.

  18. Fracture Behavior Investigation of a Typical Sandstone Under Mixed-Mode I/II Loading Using the Notched Deep Beam Bending Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Ren, L.; Xie, L. Z.; Ai, T.; He, B.

    2017-08-01

    The brittle fracture behavior of rocks under mixed-mode loading is important in rock engineering. First, a new configuration called the notched deep beam (NDB) specimen was introduced for the fracture testing of rock materials under mixed-mode I/II loading, and a series of finite element analyses were performed to calibrate the dimensionless fracture parameters (i.e., Y I, Y II and T^{*}). The results showed that an NDB specimen subjected to three-point bending is able to generate pure mode I loading, pure mode II loading, and any mixed-mode loading in between. Then, several NDB specimens made of sandstone were used to investigate the brittle fracture behavior of rock under mixed-mode I/II loading. The fracture surfaces were theoretically described using a statistical method, and the results indicated that all the fracture surfaces generated under different mixed-mode loading were statistically identical; to some extent, these results experimentally showed that only tensile fracture occurs under mixed-mode I/II loading. The obtained fracture strengths were then analyzed using several brittle fracture criteria. The empirical criterion, maximum energy release rate criterion, generalized maximum tangential stress (GMTS) criterion, and improved R-criterion accurately predicted the fracture strength envelope of the sandstone. Finally, based on the concepts of point stress and mean stress, the micro-crack zones (MCZs) under different mixed-mode loading were theoretically estimated based on the MTS and GMTS criteria. The critical radius of MCZ in the crack propagation direction was not a constant for all mixed-mode loading conditions regardless of whether the T-stress was considered. This result suggests that the size of the core region used to predict the crack initiation direction and fracture strength based on the GMTS criterion should be chosen more carefully.

  19. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  20. Metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikole Elizabeth Kimes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine subsurface environments, such as deep-sea sediments, house abundant and diverse microbial communities that are believed to influence large-scale geochemical processes. These processes include the biotransformation and mineralization of numerous petroleum constituents. Thus, microbial communities in the Gulf of Mexico are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic bioremediation of crude oil released by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill. While hydrocarbon contamination is known to enrich for aerobic, oil-degrading bacteria in deep-seawater habitats, relatively little is known about the response of communities in deep-sea sediments, where low oxygen levels may hinder such a response. Here, we examined the hypothesis that increased hydrocarbon exposure results in an altered sediment microbial community structure that reflects the prospects for oil biodegradation under the prevailing conditions. We explore this hypothesis using metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediment samples following the DWH oil spill. The presence of aerobic microbial communities and associated functional genes was consistent among all samples, whereas, a greater number of Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic functional genes were found in sediments closest to the DWH blowout site. Metabolite profiling also revealed a greater number of putative metabolites in sediments surrounding the blowout zone relative to a background site located 127 km away. The mass spectral analysis of the putative metabolites revealed that alkylsuccinates remained below detection levels, but a homologous series of benzylsuccinates (with carbon chain lengths from 5 to 10 could be detected. Our findings suggest that increased exposure to hydrocarbons enriches for Deltaproteobacteria, which are known to be capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism. We also provide evidence for an active microbial community metabolizing aromatic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the

  1. Observations of CO{sub 2} clathrate hydrate formation and dissolution under deep-ocean disposal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Holder, G.D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Disposal of anthropogenic emissions of CO{sub 2} may be required to mitigate rises in atmospheric levels of this greenhouse gas if other measures are ineffective and the worst global warming scenarios begin to occur. Long-term storage of large quantities of CO{sub 2} has been proposed, but the feasibility of large land and ocean disposal options remains to be established. Determining the fate of liquid CO{sub 2} injected into the ocean at depths greater than 500 m is complicated by uncertainties associated with the physical behavior of CO{sub 2} under these conditions, in particular the possible formation of the ice-like CO{sub 2} clathrate hydrate. Resolving this issue is key to establishing the technical feasibility of this option. Experimental and theoretical work in this area is reported.

  2. Improvement of thermal exchange between feedstock and effluent in a hydrocarbon processing unit under hydrogen atmosphere by partial recycling of the product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orieux, A.

    1990-01-19

    Heat exchange is improved in light naphta hydroisomerization and catalytic reforming by recirculation of a part of the product in the thermal exchange zone at a temperature higher than the dew point of the effluent under hydrogen atmosphere and preferentially as a temperature lower than the temperature of the recycled product.

  3. Trabeculectomy combined with deep sclerectomy and scleral flap suture tension adjustment under an anterior chamber maintainer: a new modification of trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayikcioglu, Ozcan R; Emre, Sinan; Kaya, Ziya

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of trabeculectomy combined with deep sclerectomy in patients with primary open angled glaucoma (POAG) and to compare the results with those from conventional trabeculectomy. In the study 12 eyes of 10 patients operated with trabeculectomy combined with deep sclerectomy (Group I) and 16 eyes of 16 patients operated with conventional trabeculectomy surgery (Group II) were included. In the described form of combined deep sclerectomy with the trabeculectomy technique the superficial scleral flap was sutured with 10/0 monofilament, the number and tension of sutures were adjusted according to the outflow dynamics, under the scleral flap, of balanced salt solution (BSS) provided by an anterior chamber maintainer. In groups I and II all the patients were male POAG cases with mean ages of 60.0 +/- 19.4 and 67.0 +/- 7.1 years, respectively. The mean follow-up periods were 8.3 +/- 3.5 months for group I and 16.6 +/- 7.0 months for group II. Preoperative mean IOP were 29.7 +/- 8.3 and 29.1 +/- 12.8 mmHg mmHg, and average topical antiglaucomatous medications were 2.9 +/- 0.7 and 2.7 +/- 1.1 for groups I and II, respectively. Postoperatively mean IOP measurements were reduced in groups I and II to 10.5 +/- 2.9 vs. 9.6 +/- 4.8 mmHg at 1 week, 13.7 +/- 5.6 vs. 16.0 +/- 9.8 at 1st month, 12.3 +/- 6.4 vs. 17.3 +/- 8.0 at 3rd month, 11.0 +/- 4.1 vs. 15.3 +/- 5.8 at 6th month, 10.8 +/- 1.6 vs. 16.1 +/- 4.4 at 12th month, and 11.0 +/- 1.0 vs. 16.7 +/- 5.0 at 18th month. Statistical analysis revealed that mean postoperative IOP measurements for group I were significantly lower than for group II for all measurements except the first week (P < 0.05). At 12th month, the complete (IOP <22 mmHg without medication) and qualified (IOP <22 mmHg with medication) success rates were 83.3 and 100% for group I and 63.6 and 90.9% for group II. Postoperatively at 12th month, the mean number of antiglaucoma medications had fallen to

  4. Linking Metabolism, Elemental Cycles, and Environmental Conditions in the Deep Biosphere: Growth of a Model Extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Under High-Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, G. C. M.; Cario, A.; Rogers, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Earth's biosphere is hosted in subsurface environments where global-scale biogeochemical and energy cycles are driven by diverse microbial communities that operate on and are influenced by micro-scale environmental variables. While the subsurface hosts a variety of geochemical and geothermal conditions, elevated pressures are common to all subsurface ecosystems. Understanding how microbes adapt to and thrive in high-pressure environments is essential to linking microbial subsurface processes with global-scale cycles. Here we are using a model extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, to determine how elevated pressures affect the growth, metabolism, and physiology of subsurface microorganisms. A. fulgidus cycles carbon and sulfur via heterotrophic and autotrophic sulfate reduction in various high temperature and high-pressure niches including shallow marine vents, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and deep oil reservoirs. Here we report the results of A. fulgidus growth experiments at optimum temperature, 83°C, and pressures up to 600 bars. Exponential growth was observed over the entire pressure range, though growth rates were diminished at 500 and 600 bars compared to ambient pressure experimental controls. At pressures up to 400 bars, cell density yields and growth rates were at least as high as ambient pressure controls. Elevated pressures and extended incubation times stimulated cell flocculation, a common stress response in this strain, and cellular morphology was affected at pressures exceeding 400 bars. These results suggest that A. fulgidus continues carbon, sulfur and energy cycling unaffected by elevated pressures up to 400 bars, representing a variety of subsurface environments. The ability of subsurface organisms to drive biogeochemical cycles at elevated pressures is a critical link between the surface and subsurface biospheres and understanding how species-scale processes operate under these conditions is a vital part of global

  5. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in tropical coastal soils. I. Selection of promising woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenhao H; Lo, Joey B; Robert, Françoise M; Ray, Chittaranjan; Tang, Chung-Shih

    2004-01-01

    This glasshouse study is aimed at evaluating tropical plants for phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated saline sandy subsurface soils. Tropical plants were selected for their ability to tolerate high salinity and remove No. 2 diesel fuel in coastal topsoil prior to further investigation of the phytoremediation feasibility in deep contaminated soils. The residual petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminant at the John Rogers Tank Farm site, a former petroleum storage facility, at Hickam Air Force Base, Honolulu, Hawaii, is located in a coastal area. It lies below a layer of silt in the subsurface, in loamy sand characterized by moderate salinity and high pH. Little is known regarding the ability of tropical plants to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated subsurface soil in Hawaiian and other Pacific Island ecosystems although suitable plants have been identified and utilized for bioremediation in surface soil or marine sediments. The experiments were conducted in long narrow pots under glasshouse conditions in two phases. A preliminary experiment was done with nine tropical plants: kiawe (Prosopis pallida), milo (Thespesia populnea), common ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia), kou (Cordia subcordata), tropical coral tree (Erythrina variegata), false sandalwood (Myoporum sandwicense), beach naupaka (Scaevola sericea), oleander (Nerium oleander), and buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris). These plants were screened for resistance to high salinity treatment (2% NaCl) and two diesel fuel levels (5 and 10 g No. 2 diesel fuel/kg soil) in separate treatments. Plants that showed good tolerance of both factors were further evaluated in a second phase for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of diesel-fuel petroleum hydrocarbons under moderate salinity treatment (1% NaCl). Tropical coral tree and buffelgrass were susceptible to either 2% NaCl or diesel fuel at 10 g/kg soil, but tolerant of diesel fuel at 5 g/kg soil. Kiawe, milo, kou, common ironwood, N. oleander

  6. Hot, deep origin of petroleum: deep basin evidence and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the model of a hot deep origin of oil places rigid constraints on the migration and entrapment of crude oil. Specifically, oil originating from depth migrates vertically up faults and is emplaced in traps at shallower depths. Review of petroleum-producing basins worldwide shows oil occurrence in these basins conforms to the restraints of and therefore supports the hypothesis. Most of the world's oil is found in the very deepest sedimentary basins, and production over or adjacent to the deep basin is cut by or directly updip from faults dipping into the basin deep. Generally the greater the fault throw the greater the reserves. Fault-block highs next to deep sedimentary troughs are the best target areas by the present concept. Traps along major basin-forming faults are quite prospective. The structural style of a basin governs the distribution, types, and amounts of hydrocarbons expected and hence the exploration strategy. Production in delta depocenters (Niger) is in structures cut by or updip from major growth faults, and structures not associated with such faults are barren. Production in block fault basins is on horsts next to deep sedimentary troughs (Sirte, North Sea). In basins whose sediment thickness, structure and geologic history are known to a moderate degree, the main oil occurrences can be specifically predicted by analysis of fault systems and possible hydrocarbon migration routes. Use of the concept permits the identification of significant targets which have either been downgraded or ignored in the past, such as production in or just updip from thrust belts, stratigraphic traps over the deep basin associated with major faulting, production over the basin deep, and regional stratigraphic trapping updip from established production along major fault zones.

  7. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  8. Natural gas geological characteristics and great discovery of large gas fields in deep-water area of the western South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfeng Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To accelerate the petroleum exploration in deep sea of China, since the period of “the 11th Five-Year Plan”, the sedimentary process, source rock formation and hydrocarbon generation and expulsion process in deep-water area of the Qiongdongnan Basin in the western South China Sea have been studied systematically using the data like large-area 3D seismic survey, logging, drill core (cuttings and geochemical analysis, providing three innovative understandings, i.e. excellent hydrocarbon source conditions, good accumulation conditions, and grouping and zonal distribution of large exploration targets. From the study, the following conclusions are drawn. First, the deep-water area located in the southern and central parts of the Qiongdongnan Basin was formed under the control of such tectonic events as Indosinian–Eurasian Plate collision, Himalayan uplifting and South China Sea expansion, and experienced Paleogene lift and Neogene depression stages. Second, accompanied by lacustrine deposition, faulting activity was violent in Eocene; whereas in Early Oligocene, rift continued to develop under a sedimentary environment of marine–terrestrial transitional facies and littoral-neritic facies. Third, oil generation predominated Eocene lacustrine mudstone and gas generation predominated Lower Oligocene marine–terrestrial transitional facies coal-measure strata compose two sets of major source rocks. Fourth, analysis in respect of thermal evolution level, hydrocarbon generation volume and hydrocarbon generation intensity shows that Ledong, Lingshui, Baodao and Changchang sags belong to potential hydrocarbon-rich kitchens, among which Ledong and Lingshui sags have been proved to have great hydrocarbon generation potential by drilling. Fifth, researches of deep-water sedimentology and hydrocarbon accumulation dynamics reveal that Paleogene and Neogene plays are developed vertically, and favorable hydrocarbon accumulation zones like the Central

  9. An investigation of the physiology and potential role of components of the deep ocean bacterial community (of the NE Atlantic) by enrichments carried out under minimal environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Simon T.; McCarthy, David M.; Patching, John W.; Fleming, Gerard T. A.

    2012-03-01

    Samples of deep-ocean water (3170 m) taken from the Rockall Trough (North-East Atlantic) were incubated for one-month at atmospheric and in-situ pressure (31 MPa), at 4 °C and in the absence and presence of added nutrients. Prokaryotic abundance (direct cell counts) increased by at least 28-fold in enrichments without added nutrients. However, the magnitude of increase in abundance was less for incubations carried out at in-situ pressure (131-181-fold) than those incubations at surface pressure (163-1714-fold increase in abundance). Changes in the prokaryotic community profile as a result of one-month incubation were measured by means of Denaturing Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of extracted 16S rDNA. The profiles of post-incubation samples incubated at in-situ pressure were separated from all other profiles as were those of unpressurised samples with added nutrients. The behaviour (fitness) of individual community members (Operational Taxonomic Units: OTUs) was determined on the basis of change in relative DGGE band intensities between pre- and post-incubation samples. Of twenty-one OTUs examined, six were fitter when incubated in the presence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure and one of these was advantaged when grown in the absence of added nutrients and at in-situ pressure. These represented autochthonous and active members of the deep-ocean prokaryotic community. In contrast, seven OTUs were disadvantaged when grown under in-situ pressure and were indicative surface-derived allochtonous microorganisms. A further two OTUs came to dominance in incubations with added nutrients (pressurised and unpressurised) and similar to the previous category were probably surface-derived microorganisms. A single OTU showed characteristics of piezophilic and oliogrophic behaviour and four OTUs were disadvantaged under all incubation conditions examined. The twenty-one DGGE bands were sequenced and the bacterial communities were dominated by Gamma proteobactria and to a

  10. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Vazquez-Guillen

    Full Text Available Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance could be selected due to sub-therapeutic levels of HAART at each interruption period. Genotyping methods to determine the resistance profiles of the infecting viruses have become increasingly important for the management of patients under STI, thus low-abundance antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations (DRM's at levels under limit of detection of conventional genotyping (<20% of quasispecies could increase the risk of virologic failure. In this work, we analyzed the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by ultra-deep sequencing in pediatric patients under STI with the aim of determining the presence of high- and low-abundance DRM's in the viral rebounds generated by the STI. High-abundance mutations in protease and high- and low-abundance mutations in reverse transcriptase were detected but no one of these are directly associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The results could suggest that the evaluated STI program is virologically safe, but strict and carefully planned studies, with greater numbers of patients and interruption/restart cycles, are still needed to evaluate the selection of DRM's during STI.

  11. Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capability of freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capability and growth profile of indigenous filamentous freshwater fungi from four (4) different streams were determined in vitro. The result indicated that the streams under investigation contained an average heterotrophic fungal count of 5.55 0.25x105 cfu ml-1 while the mean count of ...

  12. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the valu....... Lastly, we find that deep value episodes tend to cluster and a deep value trading strategy generates excess returns not explained by traditional risk factors.......We define "deep value" as episodes where the valuation spread between cheap and expensive securities is wide relative to its history. Examining deep value across global individual equities, equity index futures, currencies, and global bonds provides new evidence on competing theories for the value...... premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  13. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  14. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  15. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  16. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  17. Deep learning

    CERN Document Server

    Goodfellow, Ian; Courville, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language proces...

  18. Aspects of petroleum hydrocarbon metabolism in marine animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, O. G.

    1980-03-01

    Studies on hydrocarbon composition of Black Sea mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from different habitats indicate that the quantity and composition of hydrocarbons distributed in the molluscs depend on season and sea-water quality. The data obtained under experimental conditions testify to the possibility of hydrocarbon concentration in mussel tissues after death. During filtration in sea water containing oil and oil products, these pollutants are bound into faeces and pseudofaeces which contain a greater percentage of aromatic compounds than the oil initially present in sea water. Quantitative data are presented on hydrocarbon changes in mussel excretory products during transfer from oil-polluted to clean sea water. When Black Sea crabs Eriphia verrucosa are fed with mussels containing fuel-oil components accumulated from sea water, the pollutants concentrate in the whole body of the crab. This is in contrast to parenteral oil uptake, which leads to a concentration of most of the hydrocarbon in the muscles.

  19. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  20. Ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of single-core and multi-core polyaromatic hydrocarbons under variable conditions of collisional cooling: insights into the generation of molecular ions, fragments and oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Francisco; Hortal, Ana R; Martínez-Haya, Bruno; Soltwisch, Jens; Dreisewerd, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    The ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated under different background pressures of an inert gas (up to 1.2 mbar of N2) in the ion source of a hybrid, orthogonal-extracting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (oTOF-MS). The study includes an ensemble of six model PAHs with isolated single polyaromatic cores and four ones with multiple cross-linked aromatic and polyaromatic cores. In combination with a weak ion extraction field, the variation of the buffer gas pressure allowed to control the degree of collisional cooling of the desorbed PAHs and, thus, to modulate their decomposition into fragments. The dominant fragmentation channels observed are related to dehydrogenation of the PAHs, in most cases through the cleavage of even numbers of C-H bonds. Breakage of C-C bonds leading to the fragmentation of rings, side chains and core linkages is also observed, in particular, at low buffer gas pressures. The precise patterns of the combined fragmentation processes vary significantly between the PAHs. The highest abundances of molecular PAH ions and cleanest mass spectra were consistently obtained at the highest buffer gas pressure of 1.2 mbar. The effective quenching of the fragmentation pathways at this elevated pressure improves the sensitivity and data interpretation for analytical applications, although the fragmentation of side chains and of bonds between (poly)aromatic cores is not completely suppressed in all cases. Moreover, these results suggest that the detected fragments are generated through thermal equilibrium processes rather than as a result of rapid photolysis. This assumption is further corroborated by a laser desorption/ionization post-source decay analysis using an axial time-of-flight MS. In line with these findings, covalent oligomers of the PAHs, which are presumably formed by association of two or more dehydrogenated fragments, are detected with higher abundances at the lower buffer gas

  1. Geochemical assessment of light gaseous hydrocarbons in near-surface soils of Kutch-Saurashtra: Implication for hydrocarbon prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Lakshmi Srinivasa; Madhavi, T.; Srinu, D.; Kalpana, M. S.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.

    2013-02-01

    Light hydrocarbons in soil have been used as direct indicators in geochemical hydrocarbon exploration, which remains an unconventional path in the petroleum industry. The occurrence of adsorbed soil gases, methane and heavier homologues were recorded in the near-surface soil samples collected from Kutch-Saurashtra, India. Soil gas alkanes were interpreted to be derived from deep-seated hydrocarbon sources and have migrated to the surface through structural discontinuities. The source of hydrocarbons is assessed to be thermogenic and could have been primarily derived from humic organic matter with partial contribution from sapropelic matter. Gas chromatographic analyses of hydrocarbons desorbed from soil samples through acid extraction technique showed the presence of methane through n-butane and the observed concentrations (in ppb) vary from: methane (C1) from 4-291, ethane (C2) from 0-84, propane (C3) from 0-37, i-butane (iC4) from 0-5 and n-butane (nC4) from 0-4. Carbon isotopes measured for methane and ethane by GC-C-IRMS, range between -42.9‰ to -13.3‰ (Pee Dee Belemnite - PDB) and -21.2‰ to -12.4‰ (PDB), respectively. The increased occurrence of hydrocarbons in the areas near Anjar of Kutch and the area south to Rajkot of Saurashtra signifies the area potential for oil and gas.

  2. Forecasting the evolution in the mixing regime of a deep subalpine lake under climate change scenarios through numerical modelling (Lake Maggiore, Northern Italy/Southern Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenocchi, Andrea; Rogora, Michela; Sibilla, Stefano; Ciampittiello, Marzia; Dresti, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The impact of air temperature rise is eminent for the large deep lakes in the Italian subalpine district, climate change being caused there by both natural phenomena and anthropogenic greenhouse-gases (GHG) emissions. These oligomictic lakes are experiencing a decrease in the frequency of winter full turnover and an intensification of stability. As a result, hypolimnetic oxygen concentrations are decreasing and nutrients are accumulating in bottom water, with effects on the whole ecosystem functioning. Forecasting the future evolution of the mixing pattern is relevant to assess if a reduction in GHG releases would be able to revert such processes. The study focuses on Lake Maggiore, for which the thermal structure evolution under climate change in the 2016-2085 period was assessed through numerical simulations, performed with the General Lake Model (GLM). Different prospects of regional air temperature rise were considered, given by the Swiss Climate Change Scenarios CH2011. Multiple realisations were performed for each scenario to obtain robust statistical predictions, adopting random series of meteorological data produced with the Vector-Autoregressive Weather Generator (VG). Results show that a reversion in the increasing thermal stability would be possible only if global GHG emissions started to be reduced by 2020, allowing an equilibrium mixing regime to be restored by the end of the twenty-first century. Otherwise, persistent lack of complete-mixing, severe water warming and extensive effects on water quality are to be expected for the centuries to come. These projections can be extended to the other lakes in the subalpine district.

  3. Forbidden word entropy of cerebral oximetric values predicts postoperative neurocognitive decline in patients undergoing aortic arch surgery under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dubovoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Up to 53% of cardiac surgery patients experience postoperative neurocognitive decline. Cerebral oximetry is designed to detect changes in cerebral tissue saturation and therefore may be useful to predict which patients are at risk of developing neurocognitive decline. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a prospective study originally designed to determine if treatment of cerebral oximetry desaturation is associated with improvement in postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing aortic reconstruction under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Cognitive function was measured, preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively, with 15 neuropsychologic tests administered by a psychologist; the individual test scores were summed and normalized. Bilateral cerebral oximetry data were stored and analyzed using measures of entropy. Cognitive decline was defined as any decrease in the summed normalized score from baseline to 3 months. Results: Seven of 17 (41% patients suffered cognitive decline. There was no association between baseline cerebral oximetry and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Nor were changes in oximetry values associated with cognitive decline. However, cognitive decline was associated with loss of forbidden word entropy (FwEn (correlation: Rho ρ = 0.51, P = 0.037 for left cerebral oximetry FwEn and ρ = 0.54, P = 0.025 for right cerebral oximetry FwEn. Conclusion: Postoperative cognitive decline was associated with loss of complexity of the time series as shown by a decrease in FwEn from beginning to end of the case. This suggests that regulation of cerebral oximetry is different between those who do and those who do not develop cognitive decline.

  4. Biogeochemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, P.; Gruden, C.; McCormick, M. L.

    2003-12-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons originate from both natural and industrial sources. Whereas direct anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and biosphere are often easy to assess, particularly when they are tied to major industrial activities, the attribution of emissions to other human activities (e.g., biomass burning), diffuse sources (e.g., atmospheric discharge, run off), and natural production (e.g., soils, fungi, algae, microorganisms) are difficult to quantify. The widespread occurrence of both alkyl and aryl halides in groundwater, surface water, soils, and various trophic food chains, even those not affected by known point sources, suggests a substantial biogeochemical cycling of these compounds (Wania and Mackay, 1996; Adriaens et al., 1999; Gruden et al., 2003). The transport and reactive fate mechanisms controlling their reactivity are compounded by the differences in sources of alkyl-, aryl-, and complex organic halides, and the largely unknown impact of biogenic processes, such as enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter, fungal production of halogenated hydrocarbons, and microbial or abiotic transformation reactions (e.g., Asplund and Grimvall, 1991; Gribble, 1996; Watling and Harper, 1998; Oberg, 2002). The largest source may be the natural halogenation processes in the terrestrial environment, as the quantities detected often exceed the amount that can be explained by human activities in the surrounding areas ( Oberg, 1998). Since biogeochemical processes result in the distribution of a wide range of halogenated hydrocarbon profiles, altered chemical structures, and isomer distributions in natural systems, source apportionment (or environmental forensics) can often only be resolved using multivariate statistical methods (e.g., Goovaerts, 1998; Barabas et al., 2003; Murphy and Morrison, 2002).This chapter will describe the widespread occurrence of halogenated hydrocarbons, interpret their distribution and biogeochemical cycling in light of

  5. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  6. GXNOR-Net: Training deep neural networks with ternary weights and activations without full-precision memory under a unified discretization framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Jiao, Peng; Pei, Jing; Wu, Zhenzhi; Li, Guoqi

    2018-04-01

    Although deep neural networks (DNNs) are being a revolutionary power to open up the AI era, the notoriously huge hardware overhead has challenged their applications. Recently, several binary and ternary networks, in which the costly multiply-accumulate operations can be replaced by accumulations or even binary logic operations, make the on-chip training of DNNs quite promising. Therefore there is a pressing need to build an architecture that could subsume these networks under a unified framework that achieves both higher performance and less overhead. To this end, two fundamental issues are yet to be addressed. The first one is how to implement the back propagation when neuronal activations are discrete. The second one is how to remove the full-precision hidden weights in the training phase to break the bottlenecks of memory/computation consumption. To address the first issue, we present a multi-step neuronal activation discretization method and a derivative approximation technique that enable the implementing the back propagation algorithm on discrete DNNs. While for the second issue, we propose a discrete state transition (DST) methodology to constrain the weights in a discrete space without saving the hidden weights. Through this way, we build a unified framework that subsumes the binary or ternary networks as its special cases, and under which a heuristic algorithm is provided at the website https://github.com/AcrossV/Gated-XNOR. More particularly, we find that when both the weights and activations become ternary values, the DNNs can be reduced to sparse binary networks, termed as gated XNOR networks (GXNOR-Nets) since only the event of non-zero weight and non-zero activation enables the control gate to start the XNOR logic operations in the original binary networks. This promises the event-driven hardware design for efficient mobile intelligence. We achieve advanced performance compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. Furthermore, the computational sparsity

  7. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... of the frictional shear stress for both cases. In our simulations, the polymer films are very thin (∼3 nm), and the solid walls are connected to a thermostat at a short distance from the polymer slab. Under these circumstances we find that frictional heating effects are not important, and the effective temperature...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...

  8. Depleted Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Present a Safe and Practical Burial Solution for Graphite Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, L.

    2016-01-01

    A solution for graphite waste is proposed that combines reliance on thick impermeable host rock that is needed to confine the long-life radioactivity content of most irradiated graphite with low capitalistic and operational unit volume costs that are required to render this bulky waste form manageable. The solution, uniquely applicable to irradiated graphite due to its low dose rates, moderate mechanical strength and light density, consists in three steps: first, graphite is fine-crushed under water; second, it is made in an aqueous suspension; third, the suspension is injected into a deep, disused hydrocarbon reservoir. Each of these steps only involves well mastered techniques. Regulatory changes that may allow this solution to be added to the gamut of available waste routes, geochemical issues, availability of depleted reservoirs and cost projections are presented. (author)

  9. Microbial Hydrocarbon and ToxicPollutant Degradation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Dietrich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Janabi, Mustafa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Neil, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Budinger, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-16

    The goal of this project is to determine optimum conditions for bacterial oxidation of hydrocarbons and long-chain alkanes that are representative of petroleum contamination of the environment. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of concern because of their toxicity, low volatility, and resistance to microbial degradation, especially under anaerobic conditions. The uniqueness of our approach is to use carbon-11 in lieu of the traditional use of carbon-14.

  10. Microbial consortia involved in the anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski; Harris, R F; Hickey, W J

    2000-01-01

    In this review, we examine the energetics of well-characterized biodegradation pathways and explore the possibilities for these to support growth of multiple organisms interacting in consortia. The relevant phenotypic and/or phylogenetic characteristics of isolates and consortia mediating hydrocarbon degradation coupled with different terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAP) are also reviewed. While the information on metabolic pathways has been gained from the analysis of individual isolates, the energetic framework presented here demonstrates that microbial consortia could be readily postulated for hydrocarbon degradation coupled to any TEAP. Several specialized reactions occur within these pathways, and the organisms mediating these are likely to play a key role in defining the hydrocarbon degradation characteristics of the community under a given TEAP. Comparing these processes within and between TEAPs reveals biological unity in that divergent phylotypes display similar degradation mechanisms and biological diversity in that hydrocarbon-degraders closely related as phylotypes differ in the type and variety of hydrocarbon degradation pathways they possess. Analysis of microcosms and of field samples suggests that we have only begun to reveal the diversity of organisms mediating anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation. Advancements in the understanding of how hydrocarbon-degrading communities function will be significantly affected by the extent to which organisms mediating specialized reactions can be identified, and tools developed to allow their study in situ.

  11. Laticiferous taxa as a source of energy and hydrocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, S.; Subramanian, R.B.; Kothari, I.L.; Inamdar, J.A. (Sardar Patel Univ., Gujarat (India))

    Twenty-nine laticiferous taxa of Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, and Sapotaceae were screened for suitability as alternative sources of renewable energy, rubber, and phytochemicals and to select the most promising ones for large-scale cultivation. Of these, Allamanda violacea (14.9% protein, 13.8% polyphenol, 8.6% oil, 3.2% hydrocarbon), Catharanthus roseus (15.4% protein, 10.4% polyphenol, 11.5% oil, 1.9% hydrocarbon), and Holarrhena antidysenterica (14.2% protein, 16.4% polyphenol, 5,4% oil, 4.8% hydrocarbon) of Apocynaceae; Asclepias curassavica (19.3% protein, 6.5% polyphenol, 3.9% oil, 2.0% hydrocarbon), Calotropis gigantea (18.5% protein, 6.8% polyphenol, 7.0% oil, 2.8% hydrocarbon) of Asclepiadaceae; Mimusops elengi (11.3% protein, 9.7% polyphenol, 7.2% oil, 4.0% hydrocarbon) of Sapotaceae show promising potential for future petrochemical plantations; of all these taxa, Holarrhena antidysenterica yielded an unusually high percentage (4.8%) of hydrocarbon fraction followed by Mimusops elengi (4.0%). NMR spectra confirmed the presence of cis-polyisoprene in all species studied except Nerium indicum (white-flowered var.). These data indicate that the majority of the species under investigation may be considered for large-scale cultivation as an alternative source of rubber, intermediate energy, and other phytochemicals.

  12. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  13. Hydrocarbons: source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imarisio, G.; Frias, M.; Bemtgen, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are at present the single most important source of energy, since they are the most versatile and widely used. It is expected that their importance will extend well into the next century and therefore it is essential to provide for all those improvements which will extend their availability and usefulness. The sub-programme ''Optimization of the production and utilization of hydrocarbons'' (within the Non-Nuclear Energy R and D Programme of the European Communities) is pursuing a number of R and D topics aimed at the above-mentioned results. It is implemented by means of shared-cost R and D contracts. At this first Seminar held in Lyon (France) from 21-23 September, 1988, all contractors of the sub-programme presented the state of progress of their R and D projects. These proceedings comprise all the papers presented at the Seminar. The section on oilfield exploration includes a report of work on the interpretation of nuclear logs by means of mathematical models. (author)

  14. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  15. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  16. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  17. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting

  18. Effects of deep sedation under mechanical ventilation on cognitive outcome in patients undergoing surgery for oral and maxillofacial cancer and microvascular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Y; Inoue, S; Konda, M; Egawa, J; Ueda, J; Kirita, T; Kawaguchi, M

    2017-12-16

    Cognitive impairment after intensive care unit (ICU) admission is becoming increasingly recognized. High-dose deep sedation has been suggested to play an important role in the development of cognitive impairment. However, the impact of heavy sedation as a single cause in the development of cognitive impairment in ICU patients remains unclear. In this study we investigated whether a three-day deep sedation protocol could reduce cognitive function in mechanically ventilated non-critical patients. A prospective observational study was carried out. A total of 17 surgical patients were studied. None. Cognitive function before and after ICU admission. Thirty-one patients requiring three days of sedation after microvascular reconstruction were initially enrolled in the study. Sedation in the ICU was maintained with propofol and dexmedetomidine combined with fentanyl. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests two days before surgery and three weeks after surgery. Finally, a total of 17 patients were included in the analysis. Cognitive impairment (defined as a decline of >20% from the pre-admission cognitive evaluation scores in at least two of 6 tests) was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29%). However, there were no significant differences between the pre- and post-admission cognitive evaluations in 6 tests. Middle-term cognitive function can be impaired in some patients subjected to deep sedation during several days following maxillary-mandibular oral surgery with microvascular reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Enhancement of seismic monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Götz

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) is widely considered as one of the most significant enablers of the successful exploitation of hydrocarbons in North America. Massive usage of HF is currently adopted to increase the permeability in shale and tight-sand deep reservoirs, despite the economical downturn. The exploitation success is less due to the subsurface geology, but in technology that improves exploration, production, and decision-making. This includes monitoring of the reservoir, which is vital. Indeed, the general mindset in the industry is to keep enhancing seismic monitoring. It allows understanding and tracking processes in hydrocarbon reservoirs, which serves two purposes, a) to optimize recovery, and b) to help minimize environmental impact. This raises the question of how monitoring, and especially seismic techniques could be more efficient. There is a pressing demand from seismic service industry to evolve quickly and to meet the oil-gas industry's changing needs. Nonetheless, the innovative monitoring techniques, to achieve the purpose, must enhance the characterization or the visualization of a superior-quality images of the reservoir. We discuss recent applications of seismic monitoring in hydrocarbon reservoirs, detailing potential enhancement and eventual limitations. The aim is to test the validity of these seismic monitoring techniques, qualitatively discuss their potential application to energy fields that are not only limited to HF. Outcomes from our investigation may benefit operators and regulators in case of future massive HF applications in Europe, as well. This work is part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu), funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, whose aims is to help minimize the environmental footprint of the shale-gas exploration and exploitation.

  20. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  1. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R.; MacIvor, W.

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  2. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  3. Panorama 2012 - Offshore hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbutoviez, Sylvain

    2011-12-01

    Technological progress is enabling production from offshore oil and gas fields at increasingly ambitious depths (3, 000 metres). Investment in offshore production is running at around $100 billion per year, accounting for one-fifth of all investment in oil exploration and development worldwide. However, the global economic crisis that broke at the end of 2008 and the accident involving the Macondo well temporarily disrupted the race to deep offshore technology. (author)

  4. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  5. Migration of hydrocarbons in the subsoil of an industrial installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorpe, F.

    2000-01-01

    transport of PAHs under an old coke plant, taking biodegradation and soil sorption into account. The simulation results discussed in this paper were obtained by assuming tar pollution 7 m deep underground to be the only source. This aquifer pollution in a chalky formation mainly consists of PAHs (naphthalene, fluoranthene, etc). A broad field investigation was conducted on the site by monitoring the water (16 piezometers, piezometric measurements, pollutant concentration analysis) to characterize the location and extent of the PAH plume. The numerical modeling was aimed to characterize PAH migration in the unsaturated and saturated zones and to assess the vulnerability of a drinking water well located downstream. The model helped estimate the time for dissolved naphthalene to reach steady state (20 years) and the plume dimensions (1200 m long, 300 m wide and 15 m thick). Simulation were performed of water samplings in piezometers inside and outside the polluted area and the naphthalene concentration in water samples was reproduced, in good agreement with real observations on boreholes of the site. However, for two piezometers located between the two lagoons of coal tars, a large contribution of a second source of PAH, enriched in PAHs with 2 or 3 rings and located at the base of aquifer, was identified in water samples, in the pumped water. This significant share of the pollution is not transported with groundwater flow, but only with water pumping. Thus SIMUSCOPP served to identify the dissolved phase of PAH and to quantify the rest of the pollution, possibly a colloidal phase. As a consequence, a new water sampling strategy could be developed in order to adjust the pump discharge, use specific filters, etc. The major conclusion of the transport simulation is that the PAH plume does not reach the drinking water well located 4 km downstream of the site. However, some remediation measures are necessary and the polluted soils are currently being excavated. (author)

  6. Research on the teaching evaluation reform of agricultural eco-environmental protection specialties under the background of deep integration of production and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    With the implementation of the personnel training mode of deep integration between production and education, the original evaluation method cannot adapt to the goal of personnel training, so that the traditional teaching evaluation methods need to be reformed urgently. This paper studies and analyzes the four main problems in the teaching evaluation of agricultural eco-environmental protection specialties, and puts forward three measures to reform the teaching evaluation methods: establishing diversified evaluation indexes, establishing diversified evaluation subjects, and establishing diversified evaluation feedback mechanisms.

  7. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein ... the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  8. New Insights into Pore Characteristics and Hydrocarbon Generation of Shale Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M.; Hartl, M.; Wang, Y.; Hjelm, R.

    2014-12-01

    Pore size, distribution, connectivity, and shape as well as hydrocarbon saturation and composition reflect the history of hydrocarbon maturation and migration. However, characterization of the underlying factors and processes controlling hydrocarbons behavior in tight rocks is extremely limited, especially lacking of direct experimental observations. We have studied the pore characteristics of marine and lacustrine shale from the Erdos basin, China during laboratory pyrolysis using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Our SANS results show that scattering intensity of smaller pores (industry.

  9. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  10. Combustion and NOx emission characteristics with respect to staged-air damper opening in a 600 MWe down-fired pulverized-coal furnace under deep-air-staging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Wang, Zhihua; Jing, Xinjing; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi; Ling, Zhongqian

    2014-01-01

    Deep-air-staging combustion conditions, widely used in tangential-fired and wall-arranged furnaces to significantly reduce NOx emissions, are premature up to now in down-fired furnaces that are designed especially for industry firing low-volatile coals such as anthracite and lean coal. To uncover combustion and NOx emission characteristics under deep-air-staging conditions within a newly operated 600 MWe down-fired furnace and simultaneously understand the staged-air effect on the furnace performance, full-load industrial-size measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the furnace, CO and NOx emissions in flue gas, and carbon in fly ash were performed at various staged-air damper openings of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50%. Increasing the staged-air damper opening, gas temperatures along the flame travel (before the flame penetrating the staged-air zone) increased initially but then decreased, while those in the staged-air zone and the upper part of the hopper continuously decreased and increased, respectively. On opening the staged-air damper to further deepen the air-staging conditions, O2 content initially decreased but then increased in both two near-wall regions affected by secondary air and staged air, respectively, whereas CO content in both two regions initially increased but then decreased. In contrast to the conventional understanding about the effects of deep-air-staging conditions, here increasing the staged-air damper opening to deepen the air-staging conditions essentially decreased the exhaust gas temperature and carbon in fly ash and simultaneously increased both NOx emissions and boiler efficiency. In light of apparently low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash (i.e., 696-878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 9.81-13.05%, respectively) developing in the down-fired furnace under the present deep-air-staging conditions, further adjustments such as enlarging the staged-air declination angle to prolong pulverized-coal residence times in the

  11. Deep Reinforcement Fuzzing

    OpenAIRE

    Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh

    2018-01-01

    Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...

  12. Deep smarts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  13. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  14. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  15. Predicting hydrocarbon release from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppendieck, D.; Loehr, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The remediation of hazardous chemicals from soils can be a lengthy and costly process. As a result, recent regulatory initiatives have focused on risk-based corrective action (RBCA) approaches. Such approaches attempt to identify the amount of chemical that can be left at a site with contaminated soil and still be protective of human health and the environment. For hydrocarbons in soils to pose risk to human heath and the environment, the hydrocarbons must be released from the soil and accessible to microorganisms, earthworms, or other higher level organisms. The sorption of hydrocarbons to soil can reduce the availability of the hydrocarbon to receptors. Typically in soils and sediments, there is an initial fast release of a hydrocarbon from the soil to the aqueous phase followed by a slower release of the remaining hydrocarbon to the aqueous phase. The rate and extent of slow release can influence aqueous hydrocarbon concentrations and the fate and transport of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Once the fast fraction of the chemical has been removed from the soil, the remaining fraction of a chemical may desorb at a rate that natural mechanisms can attenuate the released hydrocarbon. Hence, active remediation may be needed only until the fast fraction has been removed. However, the fast fraction is a soil and chemical specific parameter. This presentation will present a tier I type protocol that has been developed to quickly estimate the fraction of hydrocarbons that are readily released from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Previous research in our laboratory and elsewhere has used long-term desorption (four months) studies to determine the readily released fraction. This research shows that a single short-term (less than two weeks) batch extraction procedure provides a good estimate of the fast released fraction derived from long-term experiments. This procedure can be used as a tool to rapidly evaluate the release and bioavailability of

  16. Sedimentary facies and lithologic characters as main factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulations and their critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qing Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking more than 1000 clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs of Bohai Bay Basin, Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin, China as examples, the paper has studied the main controlling factors of hydrocarbon reservoirs and their critical conditions to reveal the hydrocarbon distribution and to optimize the search for favorable targets. The results indicated that the various sedimentary facies and lithologic characters control the critical conditions of hydrocarbon accumulations, which shows that hydrocarbon is distributed mainly in sedimentary facies formed under conditions of a long-lived and relatively strong hydrodynamic environment; 95% of the hydrocarbon reservoirs and reserves in the three basins is distributed in siltstones, fine sandstones, lithified gravels and pebble-bearing sandstones; moreover, the probability of discovering conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs decreases with the grain size of the clastic rock. The main reason is that the low relative porosity and permeability of fine-grained reservoirs lead to small differences in capillary force compared with surrounding rocks small and insufficiency of dynamic force for hydrocarbon accumulation; the critical condition for hydrocarbon entering reservoir is that the interfacial potential in the surrounding rock (Φn must be more than twice of that in the reservoir (Φs; the probability of hydrocarbon reservoirs distribution decreases in cases where the hydrodynamic force is too high or too low and when the rocks have too coarse or too fine grains.

  17. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  18. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  19. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  20. Investigation of Underground Hydrocarbon Leakage using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigutomo, Wahyu; Trimadona; Agustine, Eleonora

    2016-08-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out in several petroleum plants to investigate hydrocarbon contamination beneath the surface. The hydrocarbon spills are generally recognized as Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) if the plume of leakage is distributed in the capillary fringe above the water table and as Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPL) if it is below the water table. GPR antennas of 200 MHz and 400 MHz were deployed to obtain clear radargrams until 4 m deep. In general, the interpreted radargram sections indicate the presence of surface concrete layer, the compacted silty soill followed by sand layer and the original clayey soil as well as the water table. The presence of hydrocarbon plumes are identified as shadow zones (radar velocity and intensity contrasts) in the radargram that blur the layering pattern with different intensity of reflected signal. Based on our results, the characteristic of the shadow zones in the radargram is controlled by several factors: types of hydrocarbon (fresh or bio-degraded), water moisture in the soil, and clay content which contribute variation in electrical conductivity and dielectric constants of the soil.

  1. Investigation of Underground Hydrocarbon Leakage using Ground Penetrating Radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srigutomo, Wahyu; Trimadona; Agustine, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out in several petroleum plants to investigate hydrocarbon contamination beneath the surface. The hydrocarbon spills are generally recognized as Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL) if the plume of leakage is distributed in the capillary fringe above the water table and as Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPL) if it is below the water table. GPR antennas of 200 MHz and 400 MHz were deployed to obtain clear radargrams until 4 m deep. In general, the interpreted radargram sections indicate the presence of surface concrete layer, the compacted silty soill followed by sand layer and the original clayey soil as well as the water table. The presence of hydrocarbon plumes are identified as shadow zones (radar velocity and intensity contrasts) in the radargram that blur the layering pattern with different intensity of reflected signal. Based on our results, the characteristic of the shadow zones in the radargram is controlled by several factors: types of hydrocarbon (fresh or bio-degraded), water moisture in the soil, and clay content which contribute variation in electrical conductivity and dielectric constants of the soil. (paper)

  2. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  3. Hydrogeologic Controls on the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere - Chemolithotrophic Energy for Subsurface Life on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Moran, J.; Tille, S.; Voglesonger, K.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.; Onstott, T.; Pratt, L.; Slater, G.

    2009-05-01

    As exploration for gold, diamonds and base metals expand mine workings to depths of almost 3 km below the Earth's surface, the mines of the Canadian Shield provide a window into the deep biosphere as diverse, but to date less well-explored than the South African Gold Mines. To date investigations of the deep biosphere have, in most cases, focused on the marine subsurface, including deep sea sediments, hydrothermal vents, off-axis spreading centers and cold seeps. Yet the deep terrestrial subsurface hosted in the fracture waters of Archean Shield rocks provides an important analog and counterpoint to studies of the deep marine biosphere. Depending on the particular geologic and hydrogeologic setting, sites vary from those dominated by paleometeoric waters and microbial hydrocarbon production, to those in which H2 and hydrocarbon gases have been suggested to be a function of long-term accumulation of the products of water-rock interaction in the deepest, most saline fracture waters with residence times on the order of tens of millions of years. The hydrogeologically isolated fracture-controlled ground water system periodically generates steep redox gradients and chemical disequilibrium due to fracture opening, and episodic release of mM levels of H2 that support a redox driven microbial community of H2-utilizing sulfate reducers and methanogens. Exploration of these systems may provide information about the limits of the deep terrestrial biosphere, controls on the distribution of deep subsurface life, and the diversity of geochemical reactions that produce substrates on which microbiological communities at great depths survive. The geologically stable Precambrian cratons of Earth are arguably the closest analogs available to single-plate planets such as Mars. Studies of these Earth analogs imply that the habitability of the Martian crust might similarly not be restricted to sites of localized hydrothermal activity. While the presence of the Martian cryosphere and

  4. Chemical data quantify Deepwater Horizon hydrocarbon flow rate and environmental distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, Thomas B; Camilli, Richard; Kessler, John D; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Reddy, Christopher M; Valentine, David L; Atlas, Elliot; Blake, Donald R; de Gouw, Joost; Meinardi, Simone; Parrish, David D; Peischl, Jeff; Seewald, Jeffrey S; Warneke, Carsten

    2012-12-11

    Detailed airborne, surface, and subsurface chemical measurements, primarily obtained in May and June 2010, are used to quantify initial hydrocarbon compositions along different transport pathways (i.e., in deep subsurface plumes, in the initial surface slick, and in the atmosphere) during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Atmospheric measurements are consistent with a limited area of surfacing oil, with implications for leaked hydrocarbon mass transport and oil drop size distributions. The chemical data further suggest relatively little variation in leaking hydrocarbon composition over time. Although readily soluble hydrocarbons made up ∼25% of the leaking mixture by mass, subsurface chemical data show these compounds made up ∼69% of the deep plume mass; only ∼31% of the deep plume mass was initially transported in the form of trapped oil droplets. Mass flows along individual transport pathways are also derived from atmospheric and subsurface chemical data. Subsurface hydrocarbon composition, dissolved oxygen, and dispersant data are used to assess release of hydrocarbons from the leaking well. We use the chemical measurements to estimate that (7.8 ± 1.9) × 10(6) kg of hydrocarbons leaked on June 10, 2010, directly accounting for roughly three-quarters of the total leaked mass on that day. The average environmental release rate of (10.1 ± 2.0) × 10(6) kg/d derived using atmospheric and subsurface chemical data agrees within uncertainties with the official average leak rate of (10.2 ± 1.0) × 10(6) kg/d derived using physical and optical methods.

  5. Proceedings of the Hydrocarbons annual days - JAH 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunck, Robert; Bouchard, Georges; Jones, Richard; Percebois, Jacques; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Barre, Bertrand; Duval, Valerie; Nauroy, Jean-Francois; Su, Kun; Borelli, Antoine; Daniel, Olivier; Bobrie, Xavier; Cambos, Philippe; Foussard, Christian; Despeche, Jean-Michel; Sigonney, Pierre; Vially, Roland; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Chateau, Bertrand; Pelcot, Julien; Aulnoit, Thierry de l'; Pinchon, Philippe; Karnik, Jean-Luc; Josse, Philippe; Bouteca, Maurice; Argillier, Jean-Francois; Durieux, Jean-Yves; Josseron, Eric; Zaitoun, Alain; Alazard Toux, Nathalie; Lacoin, Geoffroy; Marcus, Philippe; Malcor, Jean-Georges; Bales, Vincent; Appert, Olivier; Le Cuziat, Jean-Yves; Peyrat, Olivier; Fort, Joel; Fallouey, Patrick; Contie, Michel; Heurtier, Jean-Michel; Bouchard, Alban; Hazel, Terence; Baylocq, Pascal; Saincry, Daniel; Laparra, Thibault; Burban, Bruno; Poyet, Jean-Pierre; Travers, Christine; Foussard, Christian; Collieux, Regis; Schilansky, Jean-Louis; Nusbaumer, Bertrand; Muller, Isabelle; Lefebvre, Francois; Jullian, Sophie; Blez, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations proposed during plenary sessions and workshops. Plenary sessions addressed the relationship between hydrocarbons and new energy balances, the attractiveness of oil industry for students, operators operating in France, perspectives for the refining activity in Europe, the evolution of French system for research and innovation. The workshop topics have been: Gas, renewable and nuclear as the winning trio for 2050, Geomechanics for a better production, Economic intelligence, Ships for offshore service, Safety in the oil industry, Peak oil or peak demand, A know-how at the service of sea energies, Education in oil producing countries, Water treatment in hydrocarbon industries, Re-development of mature fields, Standards as an unavoidable tool for the international development, Future underwater fields, Technological challenges, environmental impact and safety for deep sea and ground-based drillings, Refining development and project financing

  6. Deep geological disposal system development; mechanical structural stability analysis of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister under the internal/external pressure variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwen, Y. J.; Kang, S. W.; Ha, Z. Y. [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    This work constitutes a summary of the research and development work made for the design and dimensioning of the canister for nuclear fuel disposal. Since the spent nuclear fuel disposal emits high temperature heats and much radiation, its careful treatment is required. For that, a long term(usually 10,000 years) safe repository for spent fuel disposal should be securred. Usually this repository is expected to locate at a depth of 500m underground. The canister construction type introduced here is a solid structure with a cast iron insert and a corrosion resistant overpack, which is designed for spent nuclear fuel disposal in a deep repository in the crystalline bedrock, which entails an evenly distributed load of hydrostatic pressure from undergroundwater and high pressure from swelling of bentonite buffer. Hence, the canister must be designed to withstand these high pressure loads. Many design variables may affect the structural strength of the canister. In this study, among those variables array type of inner baskets and thicknesses of outer shell and lid and bottom are tried to be determined through the mechanical linear structural analysis, thicknesses of outer shell is determined through the nonlinear structural analysis, and the bentonite buffer analysis for the rock movement is conducted through the of nonlinear structural analysis Also the thermal stress effect is computed for the cast iron insert. The canister types studied here are one for PWR fuel and another for CANDU fuel. 23 refs., 60 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  7. Investigation on the Sources of Recharge and Salinity in Deep Groundwater System Underlying a Coastal City of Bangladesh by Combined Geochemical and Isotopic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Khulna city, situated in the southwestern coastal Bangladesh, has been abstracting deep groundwater (DGW, >150 m below ground level, bgl) since 1970s due to the prevalence of salinity, iron, and arsenic in shallow groundwater (SGW, pond water (PndW), and river water (RW). δ18O and δ2H of DGW, SGW, and RW fall on the local meteoric water line (LMWL) whereas PndW shows evaporation effect as plotted below the LMWL. All these water features form distinct clusters among one another. DGW was not recharged from modern precipitation as 3H values were below detection limit (0.3 TU). 14C activities of 7.9 to 17.5 pMC and apparent radiocarbon age of around 14-21 ka most probably indicate the recharge with paleo-meteoric water. However, elevated 3H and 14C in SGW, reported in recent studies, suggest their recharge with modern precipitation. Neither modern seawater nor SGW influences the salinization of DGW as perceived from a cross plot between Cl- and δ18O. Salinity in DGW might have evolved through mineral dissolution, rock weathering, or mixing with paleo-brackish water. Although DGW level and SGW level fluctuate similarly with monsoon rainfall and river stages, we found no direct connection between SGW and DGW with respect to geochemical and isotopic signatures. Further efforts are necessary for improved understanding of the system for sustainable groundwater management and ensuring long-term freshwater supply for the Khulna city, Bangladesh.

  8. Petrophysics and hydrocarbon potential of Paleozoic rocks in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fowzia; Shaaban, Fouad; Khalaf, Fikry; Bahaman, Fatma; Akbar, Bibi; Al-Khamiss, Awatif

    2017-10-01

    Well logs from nine deep exploratory and development wells in Kuwaiti oil fields have been used to study petrophysical characteristics and their effect on the reservoir quality of the subsurface Paleozoic Khuff and Unayzah formations. Petrophysical log data have been calibrated with core analysis available at some intervals. The study indicates a complex lithological facies of the Khuff Formation that is composed mainly of dolomite and anhydrite interbeds with dispersed argillaceous materials and few limestone intercalations. This facies greatly lowered the formation matrix porosity and permeability index. The porosity is fully saturated with water, which is reflected by the low resistivity logs responses, except at some intervals where few hydrocarbon shows are recorded. The impermeable anhydrites, massive (low-permeability) carbonate rock and shale at the lower part of the formation combine to form intraformational seals for the clastic reservoirs of the underlying Unayzah Formation. By contrast, the log interpretation revealed clastic lithological nature of the Unayzah Formation with cycles of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and shales. The recorded argillaceous materials are mainly of disseminated habit, which control, for some extent, the matrix porosity, that ranges from 2% to 15% with water saturation ranges from 65% to 100%. Cementation, dissolution, compaction and clay mineral authigenesis are the most significant diagenetic processes affecting the reservoir quality. Calibration with the available core analysis at some intervals of the formation indicates that the siliciclastic sequence is a fluvial with more than one climatic cycle changes from humid, semi-arid to arid condition and displays the impact of both physical and chemical diagenesis. In general, the study revealed that the Unyazah Formation has a better reservoir quality than the Khuff Formation and possible gas bearing zones.

  9. Deep geological disposal system development; thermal stress analysis and nonlinear structural analysis of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister under sudden rock movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Joo; Kim, Jin An; Ha, Jun Yong [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This work constitutes a summary of research and development made for design and dimensioning of the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. Since the spent nuclear fuel disposal emits high temperature heats and much radiation, its careful treatment is required. For that, a long term(usually 10,000 years) safe repository for the spent nuclear fuel disposal should be secured. Usually this repository is expected to locate at a depth of 500m underground. In this work the thermal stress analysis of the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister in a deep repository at 500m underground is performed for the underground pressure variation. Thermal stresses of the canister due to thermal loads of the heat generation of spent nuclear fuels inside baskets are computed. The thermal stress analysis result shows that even though some high thermal stresses occur due to the heat generation of nuclear fuels inside baskets, the canister is still structurally safe because the maximum stress occurred in the canister is smaller than the yield strength of the cast iron. In this work, the nonlinear structural analysis for the composite structure of the spent nuclear fuel disposal canister and the 50cm thick bentonite buffer is also carried out to predict the collapse of the canister while the sudden rock movement of 10cm is applied on the composite structure. Elastoplastic material model is adopted. Drucker-Prager yield criterion is used for the material yield prediction of the bentonite buffer and von-Mises yield criterion is used for the material yield prediction of the canister(cast iron insert, copper outer shell and lid and bottom). The analysis result shows that even though very large deformations occur beyond the yield point in the bentonite buffer, the canister structure still endures elastic small strains and stresses below the yield strength. Analysis results also show that bending deformations occur in the canister structure due to the shear deformation of the bentonite buffer. 24

  10. Is Multitask Deep Learning Practical for Pharma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsundar, Bharath; Liu, Bowen; Wu, Zhenqin; Verras, Andreas; Tudor, Matthew; Sheridan, Robert P; Pande, Vijay

    2017-08-28

    Multitask deep learning has emerged as a powerful tool for computational drug discovery. However, despite a number of preliminary studies, multitask deep networks have yet to be widely deployed in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. This lack of acceptance stems from both software difficulties and lack of understanding of the robustness of multitask deep networks. Our work aims to resolve both of these barriers to adoption. We introduce a high-quality open-source implementation of multitask deep networks as part of the DeepChem open-source platform. Our implementation enables simple python scripts to construct, fit, and evaluate sophisticated deep models. We use our implementation to analyze the performance of multitask deep networks and related deep models on four collections of pharmaceutical data (three of which have not previously been analyzed in the literature). We split these data sets into train/valid/test using time and neighbor splits to test multitask deep learning performance under challenging conditions. Our results demonstrate that multitask deep networks are surprisingly robust and can offer strong improvement over random forests. Our analysis and open-source implementation in DeepChem provide an argument that multitask deep networks are ready for widespread use in commercial drug discovery.

  11. Long range transport of hydrocarbons in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinturier, L.; Leureillard, J.; Arnold, M.; Tisnerat, N.; Pichon, J.J.; Gireaudau, J.

    1999-01-01

    We report here the first results for hydrocarbon analyses of deep surface sediments collected in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples were taken along a north-south transect ranging from 43 deg. S to 55 deg. S in the southwestern Crozet Basin. In order to identify these compounds and elucidate their origins, various techniques were used: gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry; Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (Tandetron: mass spectrometer coupled with a Tandem accelerator allowing the measure of 14 C/ 12 C ratio)

  12. Non-oxidative conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molybdenum impregnated zeolite catalyst has been well-known for methane conversion into higher hydrocarbons under non-oxidative condition. HZSM-5 & HMCM-22 zeolites are the effective supports for this purpose. However, the catalytic performance of HMCM-22 supported molybdenum catalyst is consideredsuitable ...

  13. Bioremediation of a Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Polluted Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combination of field cells involving a control and five treatment cells were evaluated under field conditions in the bioremediation of a petroleum- hydrocarbon polluted agricultural soil over a six-week period. Previous works have indicated that crude oil contamination of soils depletes oxygen reserves in the soils and slows ...

  14. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000440.htm Deep breathing after surgery To use the sharing features on ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated ...

  15. Alkanes as Components of Soil Hydrocarbon Status: Behavior and Indication Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Zavgorodnyaya, Yu. A.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Smirnova, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of soils on three key plots with different climatic conditions and technogenic impacts in Volgograd, Moscow, and Arkhangelsk oblasts have showed that alkanes in the soil exchange complex have some indication potential for the identification of soil processes. The following combinations of soil-forming factors and processes have been studied: (a) self-purification of soil after oil pollution; (b) accumulation of hydrocarbons coming from the atmosphere to soils of different land use patterns; and (c) changes in the soil hydrocarbon complex beyond the zone of technogenic impact due to the input of free hydrocarbon-containing gases. At the injection input of hydrocarbon pollutants, changes in the composition and proportions of alkanes allow tracing the degradation trend of pollutants in the soil from their initial content to the final stage of soil self-purification, when the background concentrations of hydrocarbons are reached. Upon atmospheric deposition of hydrocarbons onto the soil, from the composition and mass distribution of alkanes, conclusions can be drawn about the effect of toxicants on biogeochemical processes in the soil, including their manifestation under different land uses. Composition analysis of soil alkanes in natural landscapes can reveal signs of hydrocarbon emanation fluxes in soils. The indication potentials of alkanes in combination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other components of soil hydrocarbon complex can also be used for the solution of other soil-geochemical problems.

  16. Tissue distribution and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coby Schal

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between epicuticular and internal hydrocarbons in the adult house fly, Musca domestica and the distribution of hydrocarbons, including the female sex pheromone component, (Z-9-tricosene, in tissues. Internal hydrocarbons increased dramatically in relation to sexual maturation and were found in the hemolymph, ovaries, digestive tract, and fat body. (Z-9-Tricosene comprised a relatively large fraction of the hydrocarbons in the female carcass and hemolymph, and less so in other tissues, while other hydrocarbons were represented in greater amounts in the ovaries than in other tissues. It therefore appears that certain hydrocarbons were selectively provisioned to certain tissues such as the ovaries, from which pheromone was relatively excluded. Both KBr gradient ultracentrifugation and specific immunoprecipitation indicated that > 90% of hemolymph hydrocarbons were associated with a high-density lipophorin (density = 1.09 g ml-1, composed of two apoproteins under denaturing conditions, apolipophorin I (~240 kD and apolipophorin II (~85 kD. Our results support a predicted model (Chino, 1985 that lipophorin is involved in the transport of sex pheromone in M. domestica. In addition to delivering hydrocarbons and sex pheromones to the cuticular surface, we suggest that lipophorin may play an important role in an active mechanism that selectively deposits certain subsets of hydrocarbons at specific tissues.

  17. New hydrologic model of fluid migration in deep porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrievsky, A.; Balanyuk, I.

    2009-04-01

    The authors present a new hydrological model of mantle processes that effect on formation of oil-and-gas bearing basins, fault tectonics and thermal convection. Any fluid migration is initially induced by lateral stresses in the crust and lithosphere which result from global geodynamic processes related to the mantle convection. The global processes are further transformed into regional movements in weakness zones. Model of porous media in deep fractured zones and idea of self-oscillation processes in mantle layers and fractured zones of the crust at different depths was used as the basis for developed concept. The content of these notions resides in the fact that there are conditions of dynamic balance in mantle layers originating as a result of combination and alternate actions of compaction and dilatance mechanisms. These mechanisms can be manifested in different combinations and under different conditions as well as can be complemented by other processes influencing on regime of fluid migration. They can act under condition of passive margin, ocean rift and ocean subduction zones as well as in consolidated platform and sheet. Self-oscillation regime, sub vertical direction of fluid flows, anomalously high layer pressure, and high level of anomalies of various geophysical fields are common for them. A certain class of fluid dynamic models describing consolidation of sedimentary basins, free oscillation processes slow and quick (at the final stage) fluid dynamic processes of the evolution of a sedimentary basin in subduction zones is considered for the first time. The last model of quick fluid dynamic processes reflects the process of formation of hydrocarbon deposits in the zones of collision of lithosphere plates. The results of numerical simulation and diagrams reflecting consecutive stages of the gas-fluid dynamic front propagation are assessed of the Pri-Caspian depression as the example. Calculations with this model will simultaneously be carried out for

  18. Model of alteration of the matrix (MAM) under deep geological repository; Modelo de alteracion de la matriz (MAM) en condiciones de respositorio geologico profundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riba, O.; Duro, L.; Martinez-Esparza, A.; Bruno, J.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the work is the presentation MAJVI model and its validation against experimental data obtained in different experimental conditions, including alteration of U0{sub 2} results in the presence of alpha, beta and gamma, and carbonates and chlorides, as well as behavioral data irradiated fuel under reducing and oxidizing conditions.

  19. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly...

  20. Long-term degradation of organic polymers under conditions found in deep repositories for low and intermediate-level wastes; Langzeit-Degradation von organischen Polymeren unter SMA-Tiefenlagerbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warthmann, R.; Mosberger, L.; Baier, U.

    2013-06-15

    On behalf of Nagra, the Environmental Biotechnology Section of the Zürich University of Applied Sciences in Wädenswil investigated the potential for microbiological degradation of organic polymers under the conditions found in a deep geological repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW). The existing scientific literature on the topic was analysed, some thermodynamic calculations carried out and input was elicited from internationally recognised experts in the field. The study was restricted to a few substances which, in terms of mass, are most significant in the Swiss L/ILW inventory; these are polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), other plastics and bitumen. There were no clear indications in the literature that the polymer structure of synthetic polymers is biodegraded under anoxic conditions. However, functional groups of ion exchangers and plasticizers in plastics are considered to be readily available and biodegradable. The greatest obstacle to biological degradation of synthetic polymers is depolymerisation to produce labile monomers. As energy is generally required for such breakdown, the chances of this process taking place outside the cells are very low. In so far as they are present, monomers are, in principle, anaerobically biodegradable. Thermodynamic considerations indicate that degradation of synthetic polymers under repository conditions is theoretically possible. However, the degradation of polystyrene is very close to thermodynamic equilibrium and the usable energy for microorganisms would barely be sufficient. Under high H2 partial pressures, it is predicted that there will be a thermodynamic inhibition of anaerobic degradation, as certain interim steps in degradation are endergonic. The starting conditions for microbial growth in a deep repository are unfavourable in terms of availability of water and prevailing pH values. Practically no known microorganisms can tolerate the combination of these conditions; most known

  1. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjana Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems.

  2. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  3. A randomized, dose-response study of sugammadex given for the reversal of deep rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade under sevoflurane anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaldestin, Philippe; Kuizenga, Karel; Saldien, Vera

    2010-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first of a new class of selective muscle relaxant binding drugs developed for the rapid and complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium and vecuronium. Many studies have demonstrated a dose-response relationship with sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular...... blockade in patients induced and maintained under propofol anesthesia. However, sevoflurane anesthesia, unlike propofol, can prolong the effect of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) such as rocuronium and vecuronium....

  4. DeepPy: Pythonic deep learning

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2016-01-01

    This technical report introduces DeepPy – a deep learning framework built on top of NumPy with GPU acceleration. DeepPy bridges the gap between highperformance neural networks and the ease of development from Python/NumPy. Users with a background in scientific computing in Python will quickly be able to understand and change the DeepPy codebase as it is mainly implemented using high-level NumPy primitives. Moreover, DeepPy supports complex network architectures by letting the user compose mat...

  5. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland soils under different land uses in a coastal estuary: toxic levels, sources and relationships with soil organic matter and water-stable aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Wang, Junjing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Zhao, Qingqing; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the soils from industrial, wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites to characterize their distributions, toxic levels and possible sources in the Pearl River Estuary and identify their relationships with soil organic matter (SOM) and water-stable aggregates (WSAs). Our results indicate that the average concentration of total PAHs in this region reached a moderate pollution level, which was higher than that in other larger estuaries in Asia. The average level of total PAHs in industrial soils was 1.2, 1.5, 1.6 and 2.3 times higher than those in soils from wharf, cropland, milldam and natural wetland sites, respectively. Greater accumulation of PAHs occurred in the middle and/or bottom soil layers where 3-ring PAHs were dominant. Industrial soils also exhibited the highest toxic levels with the highest toxic equivalent concentrations of PAHs, followed by wharf and milldam soils, and the cropland and wetland soils had the lowest toxicity. The diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs primarily originated from biomass and coal combustion at industrial and milldam sites, and petroleum combustion was determined to be the primary source of PAHs at the wharf, cropland and wetland sites. Both 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs in the milldam and wharf soils were significantly positively correlated with the SOM, whereas the 4,5,6-ring PAHs and total PAHs in industrial soils and the 2-ring PAHs in cropland soils were significantly negatively correlated with the SOM. In addition, large WSAs also exhibited a significant positive correlation with PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deep-sea oil plume enriches psychrophilic oil-degrading bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, T.C.; Dubinsky, E.A.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Andersen, G.L.; Piceno, Y.M.; Singh, N.; Jansson, J.K.; Probst, A.; Borglin, S.E.; Fortney, J.L.; Stringfellow, W.T.; Bill, M.; Conrad, M.S.; Tom, L.M.; Chavarria, K.L.; Alusi, T.R.; Lamendella, R.; Joyner, D.C.; Spier, C.; Auer, M.; Zemla, M.L.; Chakraborty, R.; Sonnenthal, E.L.; D' haeseleer, P.; Holman, H.-Y. N.; Osman, S.; Lu, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Deng, Y.; Zhou, J.; Mason, O.U.

    2010-09-01

    The biological effects and expected fate of the vast amount of oil in the Gulf of Mexico from the Deepwater Horizon blowout are unknown owing to the depth and magnitude of this event. Here, we report that the dispersed hydrocarbon plume stimulated deep-sea indigenous {gamma}-Proteobacteria that are closely related to known petroleum degraders. Hydrocarbon-degrading genes coincided with the concentration of various oil contaminants. Changes in hydrocarbon composition with distance from the source and incubation experiments with environmental isolates demonstrated faster-than-expected hydrocarbon biodegradation rates at 5 C. Based on these results, the potential exists for intrinsic bioremediation of the oil plume in the deep-water column without substantial oxygen drawdown.

  8. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Alfy, I.M.; Nabih, M.A.; Eysa, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. - Highlights: ► The positive DRAD values indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. ► Thorium normalization was applied to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities. ► The conventional well logs are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in wells. ► Determining hydrocarbon potentialities zones using spectrometric gamma-ray logs

  9. Surfactant-enhanced recovery of dissolved hydrocarbons at petroleum production facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.T.; Mayes, M. [Groundwater Solutions Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Wassmuth, F.; Taylor, K. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada); Rae, W. [Chemex Labs. (Alberta) Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kuipers, F. [Pembina Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The feasibility and cost effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced pumping to reduce source concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils was discussed. Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) hydrocarbons are present beneath many petroleum production processing facilities in western Canada. Complete removal of LNAPLs from geologic materials is difficult and expensive. Treatment technologies include costly ex-situ methods such as excavation and in-situ methods such as physical extraction by soil venting and pumping, bioremediation, and combination methods such as bioventing, bioslurping or air sparging. Surfactant-aided pumping can reduce source hydrocarbon concentrations when used in conjunction with traditional pump and treat, or deep well injection. This study involved the selection of an appropriate surfactant from a wide variety of commercially available products. A site contaminated by hydrocarbons in Turner Valley, Alberta, was used for field scale testing. One of the major problems was quantifying the increase in the dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations in the recovered water once a surfactant was added. From the 30 surfactants screened in a series of washing and oil solubilization tests, two surfactants, Brij 97 and Tween 80, were selected for further evaluation. Increased hydrocarbon recovery was observed within 10 days of the introduction of the first surfactant. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Statistical evaluation of variables affecting occurrence of hydrocarbons in aquifers used for public supply, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Burton, Carmen A.; Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2014-01-01

    The variables affecting the occurrence of hydrocarbons in aquifers used for public supply in California were assessed based on statistical evaluation of three large statewide datasets; gasoline oxygenates also were analyzed for comparison with hydrocarbons. Benzene is the most frequently detected (1.7%) compound among 17 hydrocarbons analyzed at generally low concentrations (median detected concentration 0.024 μg/l) in groundwater used for public supply in California; methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is the most frequently detected (5.8%) compound among seven oxygenates analyzed (median detected concentration 0.1 μg/l). At aquifer depths used for public supply, hydrocarbons and MTBE rarely co-occur and are generally related to different variables; in shallower groundwater, co-occurrence is more frequent and there are similar relations to the density or proximity of potential sources. Benzene concentrations are most strongly correlated with reducing conditions, regardless of groundwater age and depth. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that benzene and other hydrocarbons detected in old, deep, and/or brackish groundwater result from geogenic sources of oil and gas. However, in recently recharged (since ~1950), generally shallower groundwater, higher concentrations and detection frequencies of benzene and hydrocarbons were associated with a greater proportion of commercial land use surrounding the well, likely reflecting effects of anthropogenic sources, particularly in combination with reducing conditions.

  11. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  12. Methods for deactivating copper in hydrocarbon fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roling, P.V.; Niu, J.H.Y.; Reid, D.K.

    1988-06-07

    This patent describes a method of inhibiting the formation of free radicals in a hydrocarbon medium by deactivating a metallic species selected from the group consisting of Cu, Fe, CO, Ni, V, Cr, and Mn contained in the hydrocarbon medium, wherein in the absence of the deactivating the metallic species would initiate formation of free radicals in the hydrocarbon medium in turn leading to decomposition of the hydrocarbon medium. The method comprises inhibiting the formation of free radicals by adding to the hydrocarbon medium, which already contains the metal species, an effective amount to deactivate the metallic species of an effective Mannich product formed by reaction of reactants (A), (B), and (C).

  13. Experimental study of hydrocarbon mixtures to replace HFC-134a in a domestic refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongwises, Somchai; Chimres, Nares

    2005-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study on the application of hydrocarbon mixtures to replace HFC-134a in a domestic refrigerator. The hydrocarbons investigated are propane (R290), butane (R600) and isobutane (R600a). A refrigerator designed to work with HFC-134a with a gross capacity of 239 l is used in the experiment. The consumed energy, compressor power and refrigerant temperature and pressure at the inlet and outlet of the compressor are recorded and analysed as well as the distributions of temperature at various positions in the refrigerator. The refrigerant mixtures used are divided into three groups: the mixture of three hydrocarbons, the mixture of two hydrocarbons and the mixture of two hydrocarbons and HFC-134a. The experiments are conducted with the refrigerants under the same no load condition at a surrounding temperature of 25 deg. C. The results show that propane/butane 60%/40% is the most appropriate alternative refrigerant to HFC-134a

  14. Greedy Deep Dictionary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tariyal, Snigdha; Majumdar, Angshul; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a new deep learning tool called deep dictionary learning. Multi-level dictionaries are learnt in a greedy fashion, one layer at a time. This requires solving a simple (shallow) dictionary learning problem, the solution to this is well known. We apply the proposed technique on some benchmark deep learning datasets. We compare our results with other deep learning tools like stacked autoencoder and deep belief network; and state of the art supervised dictionary learning t...

  15. An update of the state-of-the-art report on the corrosion of copper under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Fraser (Integrity Corrosion Consulting Limited (Canada)); Lilja, Christina (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden)); Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden)); Pitkaenen, Petteri; Vaehaenen, Marjut (Posiva Oy (Finland))

    2010-12-15

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 30 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear waste repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical and microbiological conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion during the operational phase and in the bentonite prior to saturation of the buffer by groundwater, general and localised corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. This report is an updated version of that originally published in 2001/2002. The original material has been supplemented by information from studies carried out over the last decade. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid

  16. An update of the state-of-the-art report on the corrosion of copper under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting Limited (Canada); Lilja, C. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Pedersen, K. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Molnlycke (Sweden); Pitkaenen, P.; Vaehaenen, M.

    2012-07-15

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 30 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear waste repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical and microbiological conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion during the operational phase and in the bentonite prior to saturation of the buffer by groundwater, general and localised corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. This report is an updated version of that originally published in 2001/2002. The original material has been supplemented by information from studies carried out over the last decade. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid. (orig.)

  17. An update of the state-of-the-art report on the corrosion of copper under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Fraser; Lilja, Christina; Pedersen, Karsten; Pitkaenen, Petteri; Vaehaenen, Marjut

    2010-12-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 30 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear waste repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical and microbiological conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion during the operational phase and in the bentonite prior to saturation of the buffer by groundwater, general and localised corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. This report is an updated version of that originally published in 2001/2002. The original material has been supplemented by information from studies carried out over the last decade. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid

  18. An update of the state-of-the-art report on the corrosion of copper under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Lilja, C.; Pedersen, K.; Pitkaenen, P.; Vaehaenen, M.

    2012-07-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 30 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear waste repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical and microbiological conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion during the operational phase and in the bentonite prior to saturation of the buffer by groundwater, general and localised corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. This report is an updated version of that originally published in 2001/2002. The original material has been supplemented by information from studies carried out over the last decade. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid. (orig.)

  19. Distributed Episodic Exploratory Planning (DEEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    38 Figure 16: Chromosome representation for the DEEP-StarCraft GA ......................................................... 39 Figure 17...air mission planning and execution environment. The JAGUAR case base contains historical executed plans and objectives, along with the anomalies ... anomalies detected during execution of the underlying models, and plan message data (e.g., world state, monitored events), that was collected during the

  20. Corrosion of iron and low alloyed steel within a water saturated brick of clay under anaerobic deep geological disposal conditions: An integrated experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.A.; Bataillon, C.; Schlegel, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the corrosion behaviour of iron and low alloyed steels under simulated geological disposal conditions, related to long-term disposal of nuclear wastes in the site of Bure (Meuse-Haute Marne, Champagne, France). The dedicated experiment was a fully integrated set-up: three different bars of material (iron, steel or nickel) have been introduced inside a solid block of clay, which has been saturated with synthetic Bure water and maintained at 90 deg. C during 8 months. Two types of clay have been tested: first, a compacted MX80 (Wyoming, USA) and second, argilite directly taken from the Bure site (Callovo-Oxfordian). In situ electrochemistry has been performed: impedance spectra, chronopotentiometry... The samples have been analysed using a combination of techniques, such as SEM, XRD, EDS, μXAS, μRaman, gravimetry after desquamation. In both cases, the steel or the iron seemed to passivate in contact with the clay. Post-processing of the EIS determined the corrosion rates and the changes in the kinetics have been noticed. The post mortem analysis of the corrosion products showed in both cases the presence of an internal layer made of magnetite (Raman, EDX). The external layer was made of partially Ca-substituted siderite (Fe 1-x Ca x CO 3 ), which could play an extra role in the passivation. Moreover, the samples embedded in the Bure argilite presented an intermediate unique layer containing Fe, O, Na and Si. This study suggests the corrosion products started to react with the silica issued from the dissolution of the Bure clay minerals, resulting in clay minerals neo-formation and in corrosion kinetic changes

  1. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  2. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  3. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  4. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  5. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A; Eysa, E A

    2013-03-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Culture of the green microalga Botryococcus braunii Showa with LED irradiation eliminating violet light enhances hydrocarbon production and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atobe, Sueko; Saga, Kiyotaka; Maeyama, Haruko; Fujiwara, Kazuhiro; Okada, Shigeru; Imou, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The green microalga Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii), race B, was cultured under light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation with and without violet light. This study examined the effect of violet light on hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. C34 botryococcene hydrocarbons were efficiently extracted by thermal pretreatments at lower temperatures when the alga was cultured without violet light. The hydrocarbon content was also higher (approximately 3%) in samples cultured without violet light. To elucidate the mechanism of effective hydrocarbon recovery and production, we examined structural components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The amounts of extracellular carotenoids and water-soluble polymers extracted by thermal pretreatment from the ECM were decreased when the alga was cultured without violet light. These results indicate that LED irradiation without violet light is more effective for hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii. Furthermore, structural ECM components are closely involved in hydrocarbon recovery and production in B. braunii.

  7. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may impact on the growth

  8. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  9. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations

  10. Diesel-related hydrocarbons can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Dunmore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are key precursors to two priority air pollutants, ozone and particulate matter. Those with two to seven carbons have historically been straightforward to observe and have been successfully reduced in many developed cities through air quality policy interventions. Longer chain hydrocarbons released from diesel vehicles are not considered explicitly as part of air quality strategies and there are few direct measurements of their gaseous abundance in the atmosphere. This study describes the chemically comprehensive and continuous measurements of organic compounds in a developed megacity (London, which demonstrate that on a seasonal median basis, diesel-related hydrocarbons represent only 20–30 % of the total hydrocarbon mixing ratio but comprise more than 50 % of the atmospheric hydrocarbon mass and are a dominant local source of secondary organic aerosols. This study shows for the first time that 60 % of the winter primary hydrocarbon hydroxyl radical reactivity is from diesel-related hydrocarbons and using the maximum incremental reactivity scale, we predict that they contribute up to 50 % of the ozone production potential in London. Comparing real-world urban composition with regulatory emissions inventories in the UK and US highlights a previously unaccounted for, but very significant, under-reporting of diesel-related hydrocarbons; an underestimation of a factor ~4 for C9 species rising to a factor of over 70 for C12 during winter. These observations show that hydrocarbons from diesel vehicles can dominate gas phase reactive carbon in cities with high diesel fleet fractions. Future control of urban particulate matter and ozone in such locations requires a shift in policy focus onto gas phase hydrocarbons released from diesels as this vehicle type continues to displace gasoline world-wide.

  11. Conversion of Pentose-Derived Furans into Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moens, L.; Johnson, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the conversion of biomass-derived hemicellulose into hydrocarbon molecules that can be used in the formulation of 'drop-in' fuels such as gasoline (C5-12), diesel (C10-20) and jet fuel (C9-16). Our focus lies on the use of furfuryl alcohol as a starting material since that is already produced commercially from hemicellulose-derived pentoses. The steps required to convert the latter into hydrocarbons are 1) oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol to form dimers (C10) and trimers (C15), and 2) hydrotreatment of the dimers and trimers to produce a mixture of linear hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths in the range of diesel and jet fuels. However, furfuryl alcohol readily polymerizes to form resins in the presence of an acid catalyst, and the exothermic oligomerization must be carried out under reaction control. This presentation will discuss our progress in the development of this sugar-to-hydrocarbon pathway.

  12. Deep Incremental Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosca, Alan; Magoulas, George D

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces Deep Incremental Boosting, a new technique derived from AdaBoost, specifically adapted to work with Deep Learning methods, that reduces the required training time and improves generalisation. We draw inspiration from Transfer of Learning approaches to reduce the start-up time to training each incremental Ensemble member. We show a set of experiments that outlines some preliminary results on some common Deep Learning datasets and discuss the potential improvements Deep In...

  13. Desalination Economic Evaluation Program (DEEP). User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    DEEP (formerly named ''Co-generation and Desalination Economic Evaluation'' Spreadsheet, CDEE) has been developed originally by General Atomics under contract, and has been used in the IAEA's feasibility studies. For further confidence in the software, it was validated in March 1998. After that, a user friendly version has been issued under the name of DEEP at the end of 1998. DEEP output includes the levelised cost of water and power, a breakdown of cost components, energy consumption and net saleable power for each selected option. Specific power plants can be modelled by adjustment of input data including design power, power cycle parameters and costs

  14. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of research on the development of new catalytic pathways for the hydrogenation of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons and the hydrotreating of coal liquids at The University of Chicago under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91056. The work, which is described in three parts, is primarily concerned with the research on the development of new catalytic systems for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen. Part A discusses the activation of dihydrogen by very basic molecular reagents to form adducts that can facilitate the reduction of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons. Part B examines the hydrotreating of coal liquids catalyzed by the same base-activated dihydrogen complexes. Part C concerns studies of molecular organometallic catalysts for the hydrogenation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under mild conditions.

  15. Methods for deactivating iron in hydrocarbon fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roling, P.V.; Niu, J.H.Y.

    1989-11-28

    This patent describes a method of deactivating an iron species disposed in a hydrocarbon medium wherein the absence of the deactivating the metal would initiate decomposition of the hydrocarbon medium. The method comprises: adding to the hydrocarbon medium an effective amount of a Mannich reaction product formed by reaction of reactants A, B, and C; wherein A comprises an alkyl substituted phenol; B comprises of polyoxyalkylenediamine; and C comprises an aldehyde.

  16. Understanding the Mechanisms Underlying Heterotrophic CO2 and CH4 Fluxes in a Peatland with Deep Soil Warming and Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgham, Scott D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Ecology and Evolution; Keller, Jason K. [Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Schmid College of Science and Technology; Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences and Agronomy

    2016-09-12

    This project was funded from June 15, 2012 through June 15, 2015, with a no-cost extension until Sept. 15, 2016. Our project focused on a whole-ecosystem warming and enhanced atmospheric CO2 experiment in the S1 Bog in Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota, USA called “Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change” (SPRUCE; http://mnspruce.ornl.gov). Construction of substantial infrastructure required for these treatments was beyond our control and led to a staggered initiation of experimental treatments at this site. Deep peat heating (DPH) was instituted in June 2014, whole-ecosystem warming began in August 2015, and the CO2 enhancement began in June 2016. Prior to the initiation of the experimental treatments, we completed a large amount of research to better understand factors controlling anaerobic carbon (C) cycling, and particularly methane (CH4) dynamics, in northern peatlands in an effort to put the SPRUCE project in a broader context. We additionally focused extensively on the DPH treatment, which provided a unique opportunity to isolate warming effects on the vast reservoir of permanently anaerobic C stored in peatlands below the water table.

  17. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  18. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio; Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  19. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  20. Hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine hydrocarbon seep sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kleindienst, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms are key players in our biosphere because of their ability to degrade various organic compounds including a wide range of hydrocarbons. At marine hydrocarbon seeps, more than 90% of sulfate reduction (SR) is potentially coupled to non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation. Several hydrocarbon-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were enriched or isolated from marine sediments. However, in situ active SRB remained largely unknown. In the present thesis, the global distribution and a...

  1. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrajano, T. A., Jr.; Yan, B.; O'Malley, V.

    2003-12-01

    compounds were introduced to shallow environments through forest fires and natural coking of crude oil ( Ballentine et al., 1996; O'Malley et al., 1997). The full development of natural microbial enzymatic systems that can utilize HMW hydrocarbons as carbon or energy source attests to the antiquity of hydrocarbon dispersal processes in the environment. The environmental concern is, therefore, primarily due to the rate and spatial scale by which petroleum products are released in modern times, particularly with respect to the environmental sensitivity of some ecosystems to these releases ( Schwarzenbach et al., 1993; Eganhouse, 1997; NRC, 2002).Crude oil is produced by diagenetic and thermal maturation of terrestrial and marine plant and animal materials in source rocks and petroleum reservoirs. Most of the petroleum in use today is produced by thermal and bacterial decomposition of phytoplankton material that once lived near the surface of the world's ocean, lake, and river waters (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Terrestrially derived organic matter can be regionally significant, and is the second major contributor to the worldwide oil inventory ( Tissot and Welte, 1984; Peters and Moldowan, 1993; Engel and Macko, 1993). The existing theories hold that the organic matter present in crude oil consists of unconverted original biopolymers and new compounds polymerized by reactions promoted by time and increasing temperature in deep geologic formations. The resulting oil can migrate from source to reservoir rocks where the new geochemical conditions may again lead to further transformation of the petrogenic compounds. Any subsequent changes in reservoir conditions brought about by uplift, interaction with aqueous fluids, or even direct human intervention (e.g., drilling, water washing) likewise could alter the geochemical makeup of the petrogenic compounds. Much of our understanding of environmental sources and fate of hydrocarbon compounds in shallow environments indeed borrowed from

  2. Bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - Monthly information bulletin. June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands, allocations and extension of research permits and concessions; list of demands under instruction), drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  3. Bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - Monthly information bulletin. September 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands of research permits; list of demands under instruction), drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  4. Information bulletin of the bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - December 2007 no.12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands, allocations and extension of research permits and concessions; list of demands under instruction), drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  5. Information bulletin of the bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - January 2008 no.13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands, allocations and extension of research permits and concessions; list of demands under instruction), drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  6. Bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - Monthly information bulletin. May 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands of research permits; list of demands under instruction), seismic survey activity, production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins). (J.S.)

  7. Regulating low-NOx and high-burnout deep-air-staging combustion under real-furnace conditions in a 600 MWe down-fired supercritical boiler by strengthening the staged-air effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Wang, Zhihua; Zhu, Yanqun; Ling, Zhongqian; Li, Zhengqi

    2014-10-21

    A 600 MW(e) down-fired pulverized-coal supercritical boiler, which was equipped with a deep-air-staging combustion system for reducing the particularly high NOx emissions, suffered from the well-accepted contradiction between low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash, in addition to excessively high gas temperatures in the hopper that jeopardized the boiler's safe operations. Previous results uncovered that under low-NOx conditions, strengthening the staged-air effect by decreasing the staged-air angle and simultaneously increasing the staged-air damper opening alleviated the aforementioned problems to some extent. To establish low-NOx and high-burnout circumstances and control the aforementioned hopper temperatures, a further staged-air retrofit with horizontally redirecting staged air through an enlarged staged-air slot area was performed to greatly strengthen the staged-air effect. Full-load industrial-size measurements were performed to confirm the availability of this retrofit. The present data were compared with those published results before the retrofit. High NOx emissions, low carbon in fly ah, and high hopper temperatures (i.e., levels of 1036 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 3.72%, and about 1300 °C, respectively) appeared under the original conditions with the staged-air angle of 45° and without overfire air (OFA) application. Applying OFA and reducing the angle to 20° achieved an apparent NOx reduction and a moderate hopper temperature decrease while a sharp increase in carbon in fly ash (i.e., levels of 878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, about 1200 °C, and 9.81%, respectively). Fortunately, the present staged-air retrofit was confirmed to be applicable in regulating low-NOx, high-burnout, and low hopper temperature circumstances (i.e., levels of 867 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, 5.40%, and about 1100 °C, respectively).

  8. Performance of a Throttle Cycle Refrigerator with Nitrogen-Hydrocarbon and Argon-Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatarathnam, G.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    2004-06-01

    Throttle cycle refrigerators are a class of vapor compression refrigerators that can provide refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and operate with refrigerant mixtures. The performance of our prototype refrigerators with nitrogen-hydrocarbon, nitrogen-hydrocarbon-helium and argon-hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures is presented in this paper.

  9. Simulation ofDeepwater Horizonoil plume reveals substrate specialization within a complex community of hydrocarbon degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Dubinsky, Eric A; Probst, Alexander J; Wang, Jian; Sieber, Christian M K; Tom, Lauren M; Gardinali, Piero R; Banfield, Jillian F; Atlas, Ronald M; Andersen, Gary L

    2017-07-11

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident released an estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 10 10 mol of natural gas into the Gulf of Mexico, forming deep-sea plumes of dispersed oil droplets and dissolved gases that were largely degraded by bacteria. During the course of this 3-mo disaster a series of different bacterial taxa were enriched in succession within deep plumes, but the metabolic capabilities of the different populations that controlled degradation rates of crude oil components are poorly understood. We experimentally reproduced dispersed plumes of fine oil droplets in Gulf of Mexico seawater and successfully replicated the enrichment and succession of the principal oil-degrading bacteria observed during the DWH event. We recovered near-complete genomes, whose phylogeny matched those of the principal biodegrading taxa observed in the field, including the DWH Oceanospirillales (now identified as a Bermanella species), multiple species of Colwellia , Cycloclasticus , and other members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Rhodobacteria. Metabolic pathway analysis, combined with hydrocarbon compositional analysis and species abundance data, revealed substrate specialization that explained the successional pattern of oil-degrading bacteria. The fastest-growing bacteria used short-chain alkanes. The analyses also uncovered potential cooperative and competitive relationships, even among close relatives. We conclude that patterns of microbial succession following deep ocean hydrocarbon blowouts are predictable and primarily driven by the availability of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons rather than natural gases.

  10. Hydrocarbons biodegradation in unsaturated porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, C.

    2007-12-01

    Biological processes are expected to play an important role in the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. However, factors influencing the kinetics of biodegradation are still not well known, especially in the unsaturated zone. To address these biodegradation questions in the unsaturated zone an innovative experimental set up based on a physical column model was developed. This experimental set up appeared to be an excellent tool for elaboration of a structured porous medium, with well defined porous network and adjusted water/oil saturations. Homogeneous repartition of both liquid phases (i.e., aqueous and non aqueous) in the soil pores, which also contain air, was achieved using ceramic membranes placed at the bottom of the soil column. Reproducible interfaces (and connectivity) are developed between gas, and both non mobile water and NAPL phases, depending on the above-defined characteristics of the porous media and on the partial saturations of these three phases (NAPL, water and gas). A respirometric apparatus was coupled to the column. Such experimental set up have been validated with hexadecane in dilution in an HMN phase. This approach allowed detailed information concerning n-hexadecane biodegradation, in aerobic condition, through the profile of the oxygen consumption rate. We have taken benefit of this technique, varying experimental conditions, to determine the main parameters influencing the biodegradation kinetics and compositional evolution of hydrocarbons, under steady state unsaturated conditions and with respect to aerobic metabolism. Impacts of the nitrogen quantity and of three different grain sizes have been examined. Biodegradation of petroleum cut, as diesel cut and middle distillate without aromatic fraction, were, also studied. (author)

  11. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  12. [Fe(III)(F(20)-tpp)Cl] is an effective catalyst for nitrene transfer reactions and amination of saturated hydrocarbons with sulfonyl and aryl azides as nitrogen source under thermal and microwave-assisted conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungen; Che, Chi-Ming

    2010-09-10

    [Fe(III)(F(20)-tpp)Cl] (F(20)-tpp=meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinato dianion) is an effective catalyst for imido/nitrene insertion reactions using sulfonyl and aryl azides as nitrogen source. Under thermal conditions, aziridination of aryl and alkyl alkenes (16 examples, 60-95 % yields), sulfimidation of sulfides (11 examples, 76-96 % yields), allylic amidation/amination of α-methylstyrenes (15 examples, 68-83 % yields), and amination of saturated C--H bonds including that of cycloalkanes and adamantane (eight examples, 64-80 % yields) can be accomplished by using 2 mol % [Fe(III)(F(20)-tpp)Cl] as catalyst. Under microwave irradiation conditions, the reaction time of aziridination (four examples), allylic amination (five examples), sulfimidation (two examples), and amination of saturated C--H bonds (three examples) can be reduced by up to 16-fold (24-48 versus 1.5-6 h) without significantly affecting the product yield and substrate conversion.

  13. What Is Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep Vein Thrombosis Leer en español What Is Deep vein thrombosis ( ... life-threatening problems if not treated. Deep Vein Thrombosis Only about half of the people who have ...

  14. Characteristics of PAHs from deep-frying and frying cooking fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Li, Jing; Wu, Bobo; Hao, Xuewei; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Xi

    2015-10-01

    Cooking fumes are an important indoor source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Because indoor pollution has a more substantial impact on human health than outdoor pollution, PAHs from cooking fumes have drawn considerable attention. In this study, 16 PAHs emitted through deep-frying and frying methods using rapeseed, soybean, peanut, and olive oil were examined under a laboratory fume hood. Controlled experiments were conducted to collect gas- and particulate-phase PAHs emitted from the cooking oil fumes, and PAH concentrations were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that deep-frying methods generate more PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (1.3 and 10.9 times, respectively) because they consume greater volumes of edible oil and involve higher oil temperatures relative to those of frying methods. In addition, the total B[a]Peq concentration of deep-frying is 2.2-fold larger than that of frying. Regarding the four types of edible oils studied, rapeseed oil produced more PAH emission than the other three oil varieties. For all of the cooking tests, three- and four-ringed PAHs were the main PAH components regardless of the food and oil used. Concerning the PAH partition between gas and particulate phase, the gaseous compounds accounted for 59-96 % of the total. Meanwhile, the particulate fraction was richer of high molecular weight PAHs (five-six rings). Deep-frying and frying were confirmed as important sources of PAH pollution in internal environments. The results of this study provide additional insights into the polluting features of PAHs produced via cooking activities in indoor environments.

  15. Selection of bacteria with hydrocarbon degrading capacity isolated from Colombian Caribbean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narvaez Florez, Silvia; Gomez, Martha L; Martinez Maria M

    2008-01-01

    Thirty one bacterial isolations in minimal salts supplemented medium with hydrocarbons (ACPM or crude oil) as sole carbon source were isolated from sediment samples from the Colombian Caribbean. Bacterial strains underwent selection tests in different concentrations of hydrocarbons; 11 tolerant crude oil and ACPM strains in a range of 1-8%v/v were chosen. A mixed bacterial culture was created and assessed its ability to degrade hydrocarbons in a laboratory-scale test, with a concentration of 2% v/v of ACPM over a period of 21 days. Measurements of biomass in Colony Forming Units (CFU)/mL were used to develop the growth curve of the mixed culture. Hydrocarbons remotion was measured by mass chromatography. The mixed culture was able to degrade the 68.6% of aliphatic hydrocarbons in preference of long chain n- alkenes (C12- C31), reaching a maximum growth of 3.13 x 10 9 UFC / mL. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons was not evidenced under the observation time. Nine of the eleven strains were identified using the biochemical systems BBL and API 50 CHB/E; they belonged to the genus Klebsiella, Chromobacterium, Flavimonas, Enterobacter,Pseudomonas, and Bacillus. The evaluated strains have enzymatic potential to degrade hydrocarbons and it is necessary to characterize them at molecular level in order to develop and effective consortium for field application

  16. Deep learning with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Chollet, Francois

    2018-01-01

    DESCRIPTION Deep learning is applicable to a widening range of artificial intelligence problems, such as image classification, speech recognition, text classification, question answering, text-to-speech, and optical character recognition. Deep Learning with Python is structured around a series of practical code examples that illustrate each new concept introduced and demonstrate best practices. By the time you reach the end of this book, you will have become a Keras expert and will be able to apply deep learning in your own projects. KEY FEATURES • Practical code examples • In-depth introduction to Keras • Teaches the difference between Deep Learning and AI ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY Deep learning is the technology behind photo tagging systems at Facebook and Google, self-driving cars, speech recognition systems on your smartphone, and much more. AUTHOR BIO Francois Chollet is the author of Keras, one of the most widely used libraries for deep learning in Python. He has been working with deep neural ...

  17. Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luise, G.

    1991-01-01

    When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)

  18. Contribution to radiolysis study of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimbaud, Michel.

    1978-01-01

    This work deals with radiolysis of liquid hydrocarbons. First, the radiochemical yields of various products are correlated with the theoretical bond energies, for some hydrocarbons. Several values of scavenging parameter αsub(S) are calculated and the methods for these determinations are criticized. In the last part, we present a new method for the calculation of electron scavenging rate constants [fr

  19. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  20. hydrocarbons biodegradation and evidence of mixed petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    mode (EI) at 70Ev ionisation energy and scanned from 50 to 650 dalton. 3.0 Result and discussion. 3.1 n-alkanes and Isoprenoid Hydrocarbons. The concentrations (mgkg-1) ..... community in the Yellowish geothermal environment. Nature 434, 1000-1014. Cross River System. HYDROCARBONS BIODEGRADATION AND ...

  1. Occurrence and growth potentials of hydrocarbon degrading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon degraders identified as Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Micrococcus were obtained. Most of the organisms grew well on diesel. Pseudomonas sp. grew luxuriantly on diesel and kerosene while Bacillus sp. did not grow on kerosene. Optimal growth on the hydrocarbon occurred between the 8th and 14th ...

  2. Interactions of Cyclic Hydrocarbons with Biological Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIKKEMA, J; DEBONT, JAM; POOLMAN, B

    1994-01-01

    Many cyclic hydrocarbons, e.g. aromatics, cycloalkanes, and terpenes, are toxic to microorganisms. The primary site of the toxic action is probably the cytoplasmic membrane, but the mechanism of the toxicity is still poorly understood. The effects of cyclic hydrocarbons were studied in liposomes

  3. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H 2 O, and CO 2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  4. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the hydrocarbon source rock evaluation of the Subathu Formation exposed at. Marhighat on Sarahan–Narag road in Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh. Hydrocarbon potential of these sediments is estimated on the basis of palynofacies analysis and thermal alteration index (TAI) values based on the ...

  5. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Devleena; Kumar, T. Satish; Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V.

    2011-01-01

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana–Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r 2 < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  6. Private sector perspectives on hydrocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    In order to effectively resolve a problem, one should attempt to gain a comprehensive understanding of all facets of the problem. With regard to hydrocarbon contamination, it is essential for regulators, consultants, attorneys, bankers, business owners, and others involved with this issue to develop a comprehensive understanding of the major perspectives associated with hydrocarbon contamination in order to address and effectively resolve the specific hydrocarbon contamination issues these groups are, or will be, facing. The purpose of this paper is to identify the hydrocarbon contamination issues from private and public sector perspectives. In doing so, the author hopes to present another important perspective that will provide those involved with hydrocarbon contamination a more complete picture of the scope of the problem

  7. Apparatus for recovery of liquid hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamphere, D.A.; Bowles, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    A pump unit is described for recovery of liquid hydrocarbon from a body of liquid with a hydrocarbon/water interface, comprising a pump with a pump intake, and a linear probe, fixed in relation to said pump intake, and oriented to extend perpendicularly to said hydrocarbon/water interface and through said hydrocarbon/water interface, when in use, said probe including antenna means for generating an electromagnetic signal and electrical driving means for driving said antenna means, said driving means including signaling means for generating a signal indicative of the linear location of said hydrocarbon/water interface relative to said pump intake, wherein said linear probe includes a linearly extending electrically conductive member comprising said antenna means, a non-conductive coating on said conductive member, and means for electrically driving said conductive member with a low frequency electrical signal

  8. USGS investigations of water produced during hydrocarbon reservoir development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Mark A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Smith, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Significant quantities of water are present in hydrocarbon reservoirs. When brought to the land surface during oil, gas, and coalbed methane production, the water—either naturally occurring or injected as a method to enhance production—is termed produced water. Produced water is currently managed through processes such as recycling, treatment and discharge, spreading on roads, evaporation or infiltration, and deep well injection. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists conduct research and publish data related to produced water, thus providing information and insight to scientists, decisionmakers, the energy industry, and the public. The information advances scientific knowledge, informs resource management decisions, and facilitates environmental protection. This fact sheet discusses integrated research being conducted by USGS scientists supported by programs in the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Areas. The research products help inform decisions pertaining to understanding the nature and management of produced water in the United States.

  9. A field experiment for the anaerobic biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds at Seal Beach, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, M.; Wills, L.E.; Ball, H.A.; Harmon, T.

    1991-01-01

    Biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions is of interest because dissolved oxygen is rapidly consumed in groundwater contaminant plumes of hydrocarbon fuel. Anaerobic biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbons has been demonstrated under different redox regimes including nitrate-reducing iron-reducing and fermentative-methanogenic conditions. Recently, laboratory evidence has been obtained for the degradation of alkylbenzenes including toluene under sulfate-reducing conditions. The long-term objective of this study is to determine transformation rates under the conditions of the Seal Beach site, and second to explore the feasibility of inducing nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions and fermentative-methanogenic conditions in field bioreactors. Both laboratory studies and field studies in bioreactors are being conducted. This paper reports on the experimental design of the bioreactors and initial results

  10. The deep cerebral stimulation of the under thalamic nucleus modifies the cerebral metabolism in {sup 18}FDG-Tep of obsessive compulsive patients; La stimulation cerebrale profonde du noyau sous thalamique modifie le metabolisme cerebral en 18FDG-TEP des patients obsessionnels compulsifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Jeune, F.; Garin, E. [Service de medecine nucleaire, centre Eugene-Marquis, Rennes, (France); Verin, M.; Peron, J. [service de neurologie, CHU Pontchaillou, Rennes, (France); Mallet, L.; Yelnik, J. [Inserm, Avenir Team, Behavior, Emotion and Basal Ganglia, IFR 70, Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris, (France); Kreps, M.O. [Inserm U796, service de psychiatrie, hopital Sainte-Anne, Paris, (France); Drapier, D.; Millet, B. [service de psychiatrie adulte, centre hospitalier Guillaume-Regnier, Rennes, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The aim of this work was to find again this orbito-frontal hyper metabolism among the resistant obsessive compulsive disorder patients that are going to benefit of a deep cerebral stimulation of the under thalamus nucleus and to demonstrate that this new therapy approach leads a reduction of the metabolism in this area in correlation with the clinical improvement. It is about the first study realized in isotopic functional imaging on ten resistant compulsive disorder patients treated by bilateral deep cerebral stimulation of the under thalamus nucleus. It shows that the treatment efficiency is in relation with a reduction of the glucide metabolism in the right orbito-frontal cortex. It suggests equally that the under thalamus nucleus would be functionally linked to the orbito-frontal cortex. (N.C.)

  11. Oxidative stress in entomopathogenic fungi grown on insect-like hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Juárez, M Patricia; Pedrini, Nicolás

    2015-08-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi mostly attack their insect hosts by penetration through the cuticle. The outermost insect surface is covered by a lipid-rich layer, usually composed of very long chain hydrocarbons. These fungi are apt to grow on straight chain hydrocarbons (alkanes) as the sole carbon source. Insect-like hydrocarbons are first hydroxylated by a microsomal P450 monooxygenase system, and then fully catabolized by peroxisomal β-oxidation reactions in Beauveria bassiana. In this review, we will discuss lipid metabolism adaptations in alkane-grown fungi, and how an oxidative stress scenario is established under these conditions. Fungi have to pay a high cost for hydrocarbon utilization; high levels of reactive oxygen species are produced and a concomitant antioxidant response is triggered in fungal cells to cope with this drawback.

  12. Surfactant Membrane Phases Containing Mixtures of Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Campo, Liliana; Warr, G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We describe the structure and stability of sponge and lamellar phases comprising mixtures of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon surfactants. Such mixtures can show limited miscibility with each other, forming for example coexisting populations of hydrocarbon rich and fluorocarbon rich micelles under some circumstances. Our system is based on the well-characterised lamellar and sponge phases of cetylpyridinium chloride, hexanol and 0.2M brine, into which the partially fluorinated surfactant N-1H,1H,2H,2H-tridecafluorooctylpyridinium chloride is incorporated. By probing the structures with SAXS (small angle x-ray scattering) and SANS (small angle neutron scattering) using contrast variation, and by characterizing the dynamic properties with dynamic light scattering, we will describe the effect of incorporating the fluorinated surfactant on the phase equilibria and properties of the surfactant membrane structures. (authors)

  13. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  14. IBM Deep Learning Service

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Bishwaranjan; Boag, Scott; Doshi, Chandani; Dube, Parijat; Herta, Ben; Ishakian, Vatche; Jayaram, K. R.; Khalaf, Rania; Krishna, Avesh; Li, Yu Bo; Muthusamy, Vinod; Puri, Ruchir; Ren, Yufei; Rosenberg, Florian; Seelam, Seetharami R.

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning driven by large neural network models is overtaking traditional machine learning methods for understanding unstructured and perceptual data domains such as speech, text, and vision. At the same time, the "as-a-Service"-based business model on the cloud is fundamentally transforming the information technology industry. These two trends: deep learning, and "as-a-service" are colliding to give rise to a new business model for cognitive application delivery: deep learning as a servi...

  15. Deep cascade learning

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez, Enrique, Salvador; Hare, Jonathon; Niranjan, Mahesan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach for efficient training of deep neural networks in a bottom-up fashion using a layered structure. Our algorithm, which we refer to as Deep Cascade Learning, is motivated by the Cascade Correlation approach of Fahlman who introduced it in the context of perceptrons. We demonstrate our algorithm on networks of convolutional layers, though its applicability is more general. Such training of deep networks in a cascade, directly circumvents the well-know...

  16. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Montagna

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer.

  17. Recent studies in microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Zhereppa Fathepure

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many hypersaline environments are often contaminated with petroleum compounds. Among these, oil and natural gas production sites all over the world and hundreds of kilometers of coastlines in the more arid regions of Gulf countries are of major concern due to the extent and magnitude of contamination. Because conventional microbiological processes do not function well at elevated salinities, bioremediation of hypersaline environments can only be accomplished using high salt-tolerant microorganisms capable of degrading petroleum compounds. In the last two decades, there have been many reports on the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in moderate to high salinity environments. Numerous microorganisms belonging to the domain Bacteria and Archaea have been isolated and their phylogeny and metabolic capacity to degrade a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in varying salinities have been demonstrated. This article focuses on our growing understanding of bacteria and archaea responsible for the degradation of hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions in moderate to high salinity conditions. Even though organisms belonging to various genera have been shown to degrade hydrocarbons, members of the genera Halomonas Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Haloferax, Haloarcula, and Halobacterium dominate the published literature. Despite rapid advances in understanding microbial taxa that degrade hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions, not much is known about organisms that carry out similar processes in anaerobic conditions. Also, information on molecular mechanisms and pathways of hydrocarbon degradation in high salinity is scarce and only recently there have been a few reports describing genes, enzymes and breakdown steps for some hydrocarbons. These limited studies have clearly revealed that degradation of oxygenated and non-oxygenated hydrocarbons by halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms occur by pathways similar to those found in non-halophiles.

  18. Hydrocarbon pollution from marinas in estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos A.; Smith, Craig L.

    1986-03-01

    A measure of the impact of marinas on three Eastern Virginia estuarine creeks was obtained by a study of hydrocarbons in their sediments. Two of the creeks support considerable marine activity, including pleasure boat marinas, boat repair facilities, and commercial fishing operations. The third creek, which served as a control, is seldom used by boats, and is surrounded by marsh and woodland. Sediments from the creeks with marinas contained significantly higher levels of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons than did the control. Differences in the concentrations of certain oil-pollution indicators, such as the 17α,21β-hopane homologs and phytane, and low molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, are indicative of light petroleum fractions. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons from all creeks, however, appear to have a pyrogenic origin. Although hydrocarbons from three probable origins (petroleum, pyrogenesis, and recent biosynthesis) were detected in all locations, the petroleum-derived and pyrogenic hydrocarbons were of only minor importance relative to the biogenic hydrocarbons in the control creek.

  19. Crop response to deep tillage - a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian; Don, Axel; Hennings, Inga; Schmittmann, Oliver; Seidel, Sabine J.

    2017-04-01

    Subsoil, i.e. the soil layer below the topsoil, stores tremendous stocks of nutrients and can keep water even under drought conditions. Deep tillage may be a method to enhance the plant-availability of subsoil resources. However, in field trials, deep tillage effects on crop yields were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of crop yield response to subsoiling, deep ploughing and deep mixing of soil profiles. Our search resulted in 1530 yield comparisons following deep and conventional control tillage on 67 experimental cropping sites. The vast majority of the data derived from temperate latitudes, from trials conducted in the USA (679 observations) and Germany (630 observations). On average, crop yield response to deep tillage was slightly positive (6% increase). However, individual deep tillage effects were highly scattered including about 40% yield depressions after deep tillage. Deep tillage on soils with root restrictive layers increased crop yields about 20%, while soils containing >70% silt increased the risk of yield depressions following deep tillage. Generally, deep tillage effects increased with drought intensity indicating deep tillage as climate adaptation measure at certain sites. Our results suggest that deep tillage can facilitate the plant-availability of subsoil nutrients, which increases crop yields if (i) nutrients in the topsoil are growth limiting, and (ii) deep tillage does not come at the cost of impairing topsoil fertility. On sites with root restrictive soil layers, deep tillage can be an effective measure to mitigate drought stress and improve the resilience of crops. However, deep tillage should only be performed on soils with a stable structure, i.e. <70% silt content. We will discuss the contribution of deep tillage options to enhance the sustainability of agricultural production by facilitating the uptake of nutrients and water from the subsoil.

  20. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  1. Process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.F.; Cockshott, J.E.

    1978-04-11

    Methane is recovered as a gas for discharge to a pipeline from a gas stream containing methane and heavier hydrocarbons, principally ethane and propane. Separation is accomplished by condensing the heavier hydrocarbons and distilling the methane therefrom. A liquid product (LPG) comprising the heavier hydrocarbons is subsequently recovered and transferred to storage. Prior to being discharged to a pipeline, the recovered methane gas is compressed and in undergoing compression the gas is heated. The heat content of the gas is employed to reboil the refrigerant in an absorption refrigeration unit. The refrigeration unit is used to cool the LPG prior to its storage.

  2. The offshore hydrocarbon releases (HCR) database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, R.A.P.

    1995-01-01

    Following Cullen Recommendation 39 which states that: ''The regulatory body should be responsible for maintaining a database with regard to hydrocarbon leaks, spills, and ignitions in the Industry and for the benefit of Industry'', HSE Offshore Safety Division (HSE-OSD) has now been operating the Hydrocarbon Releases (HCR) Database for approximately 3 years. This paper deals with the reporting of Offshore Hydrocarbon Releases, the setting up of the HCR Database, the collection of associated equipment population data, and the main features and benefits of the database, including discussion on the latest output information. (author)

  3. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  4. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...

  5. The pulsed migration of hydrocarbons across inactive faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Geological fault zones are usually assumed to influence hydrocarbon migration either as high permeability zones which allow enhanced along- or across-fault flow or as barriers to the flow. An additional important migration process inducing along- or across-fault migration can be associated with dynamic pressure gradients. Such pressure gradients can be created by earthquake activity and are suggested here to allow migration along or across inactive faults which 'feel' the quake-related pressure changes; i.e. the migration barriers can be removed on inactive faults when activity takes place on an adjacent fault. In other words, a seal is viewed as a temporary retardation barrier which leaks when a fault related fluid pressure event enhances the buoyancy force and allows the entry pressure to be exceeded. This is in contrast to the usual model where a seal leaks because an increase in hydrocarbon column height raises the buoyancy force above the entry pressure of the fault rock. Under the new model hydrocarbons may migrate across the inactive fault zone for some time period during the earthquake cycle. Numerical models of this process are presented to demonstrate the impact of this mechanism and its role in filling traps bounded by sealed faults.

  6. Towards Carbon-Neutral CO2 Conversion to Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, Davide; Jones, Matthew D; O'Byrne, Justin P; Griffiths, Owen G; Owen, Rhodri E; Sackville, Emma; McManus, Marcelle; Plucinski, Pawel

    2015-12-07

    With fossil fuels still predicted to contribute close to 80 % of the primary energy consumption by 2040, methods to limit further CO2 emissions in the atmosphere are urgently needed to avoid the catastrophic scenarios associated with global warming. In parallel with improvements in energy efficiency and CO2 storage, the conversion of CO2 has emerged as a complementary route with significant potential. In this work we present the direct thermo-catalytic conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons using a novel iron nanoparticle-carbon nanotube (Fe@CNT) catalyst. We adopted a holistic and systematic approach to CO2 conversion by integrating process optimization-identifying reaction conditions to maximize conversion and selectivity towards long chain hydrocarbons and/or short olefins-with catalyst optimization through the addition of promoters. The result is the production of valuable hydrocarbons in a manner that can approach carbon neutrality under realistic industrial process conditions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Porphyrins Fused with Unactivated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Diev, Vyacheslav V.

    2012-01-06

    A systematic study of the preparation of porphyrins with extended conjugation by meso,β-fusion with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is reported. The meso-positions of 5,15-unsubstituted porphyrins were readily functionalized with PAHs. Ring fusion using standard Scholl reaction conditions (FeCl 3, dichloromethane) occurs for perylene-substituted porphyrins to give a porphyrin β,meso annulated with perylene rings (0.7:1 ratio of syn and anti isomers). The naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene derivatives do not react under Scholl conditions but are fused using thermal cyclodehydrogenation at high temperatures, giving mixtures of syn and anti isomers of the meso,β-fused porphyrins. For pyrenyl-substituted porphyrins, a thermal method gives synthetically acceptable yields (>30%). Absorption spectra of the fused porphyrins undergo a progressive bathochromic shift in a series of naphthyl (λ max = 730 nm), coronenyl (λ max = 780 nm), pyrenyl (λ max = 815 nm), and perylenyl (λ max = 900 nm) annulated porphyrins. Despite being conjugated with unsubstituted fused PAHs, the β,meso-fused porphyrins are more soluble and processable than the parent nonfused precursors. Pyrenyl-fused porphyrins exhibit strong fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, with a progressive improvement in luminescent efficiency (up to 13% with λ max = 829 nm) with increasing degree of fusion. Fused pyrenyl-porphyrins have been used as broadband absorption donor materials in photovoltaic cells, leading to devices that show comparatively high photovoltaic efficiencies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Evaluation of hydrocarbons level and identification of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters analyzed over an experimental period of 60 days were; total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and total hydrocarbon content (THC). The total heterotrophic bacterial count (THB) ranges from 1.36 x 106 ...

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation under mixed denitrifying/microaerophilic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Hutchins, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    Data are presented for aqueous-flow, soil-column microcosms in which removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) is observed for two operating conditions: (1) nitrate, 25 to 26 mg(N)/L, as the single electron acceptor and (2) nitrate, 27 to 28 mg(N)/L combined with low levels of oxygen, 0.8 to 1.2 mg O 2 /L. Soils used in this study include aquifer material from Traverse City, Michigan; Park City, Kansas; and Eglin Air Force Base (AFB), Florida. BTEX compounds are introduced at concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 5 mg/L, with total BTEX loading from 20 to 22 mg/L Complete removal of toluene and partial removal of ethylbenzene, m-xylene, and o-xylene were observed for all soils during trials in which nitrate was the only electron acceptor. Combining low levels of oxygen with nitrate produced varying effects on BTEX removal, nitrate utilization, and nitrite production. Benzene proved recalcitrant throughout all operating trials

  11. Colonial life under the Humboldt Current System: deep-sea corals from O'Higgins I seamount La vida colonial bajo el sistema de la corriente de Humboldt: corales de aguas profundas en el monte submarino O'Higgins I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A benthic community constituted by an assemblage of at least four species of deep-sea corals collected in only one trawl carried-out on the summit of the O'Higgins I seamount, central Chile. The corals were collected in only one trawl carried-out during a Chilean-Japanese cruise onboard the R/V" Koyo Maru" in December 29, 2004. Presence of oxygenated and cold Antarctic Intermediate Water (>400 m depth on the plateau was recorded under of the Equatorial Subsurface Water associated to the oxygen-minimum zone (OMZ, Se describe una comunidad bentónica constituida por un ensamble de cuatro especies de corales de profundidad recolectados mediante un lance de arrastre efectuado sobre el margen de la meseta del monte submarino O'Higgins I, Chile central. Sobre la meseta se detectó la presencia de agua oxigenadas frías correspondientes al Agua Intermedia Antártica (>400 m de profundidad y sobre ésta, el Agua Ecuatorial Subsuperficial asociada a la zona de mínimo de oxígeno (OMZ, <1 mL O2 L-1. La fauna muestra un origen biogeográfico de tipo subantártico sumado a la presencia de fauna típica del margen continental de la zona central de Chile. Este ensamble está representado por dos especies de Antipataria (Leiopathes sp. y Chrysopathes sp., una especie no identificada de la familia Paragorgiidae y una especie perteneciente a la familia Isididae (Acanella chilensis. Este estudio muestra que este ensamble de corales de profundidad provee un hábitat crítico para el camarón nailon (Heterocarpus reedi, crustáceo de importancia pesquera. La presencia de este crustáceo más algunos peces como el alfonsino (Beryx splendens y orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus podrían atraer la atención de la industria sobre estas frágiles, singulares y escasamente conocidas comunidades bentónicas chilenas y por lo tanto se requiere con urgencia acciones para su conservación.

  12. Evaluation of Synthetic Hydrocarbon Instrument Bearing Oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rebuck, Neal

    1982-01-01

    The work reported herein resulted from the testing of three viscosity grade synthetic hydrocarbon oils to determine their suitability as replacements for Specification MIL-L-83176 superrefined mineral oils...

  13. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  14. Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen H

    1992-01-01

    This "Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste" forms part of a series of "Informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in

  15. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  16. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  17. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J. (Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO[sub 2] evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans.

  18. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    detoxify organic contaminants has been established as an economical, efficient, versatile and environmentally friendly treatment. ... required to provide informed and quick response to emergent environmental challenges. Therefore the objectives of this ... hydrocarbon pollutants in the environment. Materials and Methods.

  19. cyclic -perimeter hydrocarbon ruthenium complexes bearing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - cyclic -perimeter hydrocarbon ruthenium complexes bearing functionalized pyridyl diketones: Isolation of complexes with 2-N∩O and 4-N∩O bonding modes of ligands. Saphidabha L Nongbri Babulal Das Mohan Rao Kollipara.

  20. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), anthracene in different variety of fish samples in the Bangsai river of Bangladesh. F Yeasmin, SMM Rahman, S Rana, KJ Fatema, MA Hossain ...

  1. Deep Learning the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiwangi; Bard, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is an effective tool to map the structure of matter in the universe, and has been used for more than ten years as a probe of the nature of dark energy. Beyond the well-established two-point summary statistics, attention is now turning to methods that use the full statistical information available in the lensing observables, through analysis of the reconstructed shear field. This offers an opportunity to take advantage of powerful deep learning methods for image analysis. We present two early studies that demonstrate that deep learning can be used to characterise features in weak lensing convergence maps, and to identify the underlying cosmological model that produced them.We developed an unsupervised Denoising Convolutional Autoencoder model in order to learn an abstract representation directly from our data. This model uses a convolution-deconvolution architecture, which is fed with input data (corrupted with binomial noise to prevent over-fitting). Our model effectively trains itself to minimize the mean-squared error between the input and the output using gradient descent, resulting in a model which, theoretically, is broad enough to tackle other similarly structured problems. Using this model we were able to successfully reconstruct simulated convergence maps and identify the structures in them. We also determined which structures had the highest “importance” - i.e. which structures were most typical of the data. We note that the structures that had the highest importance in our reconstruction were around high mass concentrations, but were highly non-Gaussian.We also developed a supervised Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for classification of weak lensing convergence maps from two different simulated theoretical models. The CNN uses a softmax classifier which minimizes a binary cross-entropy loss between the estimated distribution and true distribution. In other words, given an unseen convergence map the trained CNN determines

  2. Hydrocarbon fractions. Aromatic determination by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Analysis of hydrocarbon fractions by mass spectrometry using low energy electrons, for determination of aromatic hydrocarbons repartition, suitable for fraction with the following properties: boiling point up to 320 0 C, whithout olefine, sulfur content up to 0.1 per cent, boiling range up to 100 0 C, if the final temperature is 200 0 C, and up to 50 0 C, if over 200 0 C [fr

  3. Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks Fuzzy Inference System

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Hiram; Ponce, Pedro; Molina, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel fuzzy inference model based on artificial hydrocarbon networks, a computational algorithm for modeling problems based on chemical hydrocarbon compounds. In particular, the proposed fuzzy-molecular inference model (FIM-model) uses molecular units of information to partition the output space in the defuzzification step. Moreover, these molecules are linguistic units that can be partially understandable due to the organized structure of the topology and metadata param...

  4. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  5. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  6. Hydrocarbon pollution and monitorin in Augusta Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisafi, E.; De Domenico, L.; Puglisi, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Messina (Italy). Thallasographic Inst.; Magazzu`, G. [Lecce, Univ. (Italy). Biology Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Surveys in the coastal waters of Sicily (Augusta Bay) were carried out between 1900 and 1991 in order to assess the level of the hydrocarbon - pollution. Results show that helicopter tele-survey is an optimal technique for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). High PAH concentrations, due to the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents, as well as shipping activity, were found in the area.

  7. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  8. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  9. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  10. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  11. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  12. Polycyclic hydrocarbons - occurrence and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a special group of atmospheric contaminants included in the persistent toxic substances (PTS) and also in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) groups. PAHs are present in the atmosphere and their origin can be due to anthropogenic activities. The main source of emission of PAH is the combustion of fossil fuels. Their specific characteristics, high volatility, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, easily transportable for long distances with the wind, make them important contaminants despite of the fact that they are present at very low concentrations. The report provides a review of main analytical methods applied in the determination of PAH in air. Special attention was devoted to heterocyclic PAH which contain one or more heteroatom (sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen) in the multiple-fused ring. The presence of heterocyclic PAH requires very complex, laborious and long lasting sample separation methods before analysis. In some cases, application of different temperature programs in gas chromatography allows to determine PAH and heterocyclic PAH in gaseous samples without sample pretreatment. Gas chromatography methods for the determination of PAH and heterocyclic PAH in the gas from combustion of light heating oil has been optimized. (author) [pl

  13. Monitoring of microbial hydrocarbon remediation in the soil

    OpenAIRE

    Chikere, Chioma Blaise; Okpokwasili, Gideon Chijioke; Chikere, Blaise Ositadinma

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants is advantageous owing to the cost-effectiveness of the technology and the ubiquity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms in the soil. Soil microbial diversity is affected by hydrocarbon perturbation, thus selective enrichment of hydrocarbon utilizers occurs. Hydrocarbons interact with the soil matrix and soil microorganisms determining the fate of the contaminants relative to their chemical nature and microbial degradative capabilities, respectively....

  14. Deep learning in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seonwoo; Lee, Byunghan; Yoon, Sungroh

    2017-09-01

    In the era of big data, transformation of biomedical big data into valuable knowledge has been one of the most important challenges in bioinformatics. Deep learning has advanced rapidly since the early 2000s and now demonstrates state-of-the-art performance in various fields. Accordingly, application of deep learning in bioinformatics to gain insight from data has been emphasized in both academia and industry. Here, we review deep learning in bioinformatics, presenting examples of current research. To provide a useful and comprehensive perspective, we categorize research both by the bioinformatics domain (i.e. omics, biomedical imaging, biomedical signal processing) and deep learning architecture (i.e. deep neural networks, convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, emergent architectures) and present brief descriptions of each study. Additionally, we discuss theoretical and practical issues of deep learning in bioinformatics and suggest future research directions. We believe that this review will provide valuable insights and serve as a starting point for researchers to apply deep learning approaches in their bioinformatics studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Deep subsurface microbial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of the deep subsurface is necessary in order to understand the factors controlling the rate and extent of the microbially catalyzed redox reactions that influence the geophysical properties of these environments. Furthermore, there is an increasing threat that deep aquifers, an important drinking water resource, may be contaminated by man's activities, and there is a need to predict the extent to which microbial activity may remediate such contamination. Metabolically active microorganisms can be recovered from a diversity of deep subsurface environments. The available evidence suggests that these microorganisms are responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of organic matter coupled to a variety of electron acceptors just as microorganisms do in surface sediments, but at much slower rates. The technical difficulties in aseptically sampling deep subsurface sediments and the fact that microbial processes in laboratory incubations of deep subsurface material often do not mimic in situ processes frequently necessitate that microbial activity in the deep subsurface be inferred through nonmicrobiological analyses of ground water. These approaches include measurements of dissolved H2, which can predict the predominant microbially catalyzed redox reactions in aquifers, as well as geochemical and groundwater flow modeling, which can be used to estimate the rates of microbial processes. Microorganisms recovered from the deep subsurface have the potential to affect the fate of toxic organics and inorganic contaminants in groundwater. Microbial activity also greatly influences 1 the chemistry of many pristine groundwaters and contributes to such phenomena as porosity development in carbonate aquifers, accumulation of undesirably high concentrations of dissolved iron, and production of methane and hydrogen sulfide. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in interest in deep subsurface microbiology, in comparison with the study of

  16. Fault and conduit controlled burial dolomitization of the Devonian west-central Alberta deep Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.G. [BP America, Houston, TX (United States); Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2005-06-01

    A semi-regional comparison of dolomites from 3 stratigraphic horizons were studied to better understand the geometry of dolomite bodies and the link between dolomites at different stratigraphic horizons. The timing, mechanisms and geochemistry of pervasive dolomites of the west-central Alberta deep basin were clarified along with the distribution and mechanisms of dolomitization in deep gas reservoirs. This study contributes to more efficient hydrocarbon exploration in the deep basin of western Alberta where pervasive dolomite occurs in the Devonian reservoirs in the Swan Hills, Leduc and Wabamun formations. This study showed that pervasive dolomite in the Swan Hills Formation is restricted to zones of primary porosity and permeability near the buildup margins that decrease quickly towards the interior of the buildups. Two petrographic types of dolomite exist in the study area. Type 1 is a fine crystalline planar dolomite, while type 2 is a more pervasive medium to coarse crystalline dolomite. The wide spread of oxygen isotope values for the two types of dolomites was discussed with reference to how these values were influenced by depositional history. The estimated temperatures of type 2 dolomite ranges from 45 to 75 degrees C, which is equivalent to burial depths of 700 to 1500 m. It was suggested that fault-controlled conduits may have controlled local and restricted dolomite occurrences in the Swan Hills and the middle Wabamun Formation as evidenced by seismic data, log marker correlations and fractured dolomite. It was also suggested that porous Leduc dolomites may have been connected via the underlying dolomitized part of the Lower Leduc platform. This formed a basin-wide channel system through which basin fluids flowed up along vertical faults and laterally updip until they reached a stratigraphically controlled conduit during early basin filling in the late Devonian to Carboniferous Orogeny or early Tertiary Orogeny. 52 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs.

  17. Short-chain alkane cycling in deep Gulf of Mexico cold-seep sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, R.; Joye, S. B.; Hunter, K.

    2015-12-01

    Mixtures of light hydrocarbon gases are common in deep Gulf of Mexico cold-seep sediments, and are typically dissolved in pore fluids, adsorbed to sediment particles, trapped in methane ice, or as free gas. The dominant component in these natural gas mixtures is usually methane (>80% C1), but ethane (C2) and propane (C3) are nearly always present in trace amounts (95% of the methane produced at depth never reaches the water column. Production of C1 and C2 in deep-sea sediments has been historically attributed only to thermocatalytic processes, though limited data suggests production of C2/C3 compounds through the activity of archaea at depth. Furthermore, carbon isotopic data on ethane and propane from deep cores of Gulf of Mexico sediments suggest alkanogenesis at >3 m depth in the sediment column and alkane oxidation in uppermost oxidant-rich sediments. Additional studies have also isolated microorganisms capable of oxidizing ethane and propane in the laboratory, but field studies of microbial-driven dynamics of C2/C3 gases in cold-seep sediments are rare. Here, we present the results of a series of incubation experiments using sediment slurries culled from surface sediments from one of the most prolific natural oil and gas seeps in the Gulf of Mexico. Rates of alkane oxidation were measured under a variety of conditions to assess the surface-driven microbial controls on C2/C3 cycling in cold-seep environments. Such microbial processes are important in terms of the possible 'oxidative overprinting' of alkane isotopic signatures produced at depth, possibly obscuring typical microbial isotopic signals.

  18. University of Central Florida / Deep Space Industries Asteroid Regolith Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Daniel; Covey, Steven D.; Schultz, Cody

    2017-10-01

    Introduction: The University of Central Florida (UCF), in partnership with Deep Space Industries (DSI) are working under a NASA Phase 2 SBIR contract to develop and produce a family of asteroid regolith simulants for use in research, engineering, and mission operations testing. We base simulant formulas on the mineralogy, particle size, and physical characteristics of CI, CR, CM, C2, CV, and L-Chondrite meteorites. The advantage in simulating meteorites is that the vast majority of meteoritic materials are common rock forming minerals that are available in commercial quantities. While formulas are guided by the meteorites our approach is one of constrained maximization under the limitations of safety, cost, source materials, and ease of handling. In all cases our goal is to deliver a safe, high fidelity analog at moderate cost.Source Materials, Safety, and Biohazards: A critical factor in any useful simulant is to minimize handling risks for biohazards or toxicity. All the terrestrial materials proposed for these simulants were reviewed for potential toxicity. Of particular interest is the organic component of volatile rich carbonaceous chondrites which contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known carcinogens and mutagens. Our research suggests that we can maintain rough chemical fidelity by substituting much safer sub-bituminous coal as our organic analog. A second safety consideration is the choice of serpentine group materials. While most serpentine polymorphs are quite safe we avoid fibrous chrysotile because of its asbestos content. Terrestrial materials identified as inputs for our simulants are common rock forming minerals that are available in commercial quantities. These include olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar, smectite, serpentine, saponite, pyrite, and magnetite in amounts that are appropriate for each type. For CI's and CR’s, their olivines tend to be Fo100 which is rare on Earth. We have substituted Fo90 olivine

  19. Deep Space Gateway Science Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincy, C. D.; Charles, J. B.; Hamill, Doris; Sidney, S. C.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Life Sciences Research Capabilities Team (LSRCT) has been discussing deep space research needs for the last two years. NASA's programs conducting life sciences studies - the Human Research Program, Space Biology, Astrobiology, and Planetary Protection - see the Deep Space Gateway (DSG) as affording enormous opportunities to investigate biological organisms in a unique environment that cannot be replicated in Earth-based laboratories or on Low Earth Orbit science platforms. These investigations may provide in many cases the definitive answers to risks associated with exploration and living outside Earth's protective magnetic field. Unlike Low Earth Orbit or terrestrial locations, the Gateway location will be subjected to the true deep space spectrum and influence of both galactic cosmic and solar particle radiation and thus presents an opportunity to investigate their long-term exposure effects. The question of how a community of biological organisms change over time within the harsh environment of space flight outside of the magnetic field protection can be investigated. The biological response to the absence of Earth's geomagnetic field can be studied for the first time. Will organisms change in new and unique ways under these new conditions? This may be specifically true on investigations of microbial communities. The Gateway provides a platform for microbiology experiments both inside, to improve understanding of interactions between microbes and human habitats, and outside, to improve understanding of microbe-hardware interactions exposed to the space environment.

  20. Hydrocarbon Accumulation and Distribution Characteristics of the Silurian in the Tazhong Uplift of Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LÜ, Xiuxiang; BAI, Zhongkai; ZHAO, Fengyun

    Hydrocarbon accumulation of the Silurian in the Tazhong uplift of Tarim basin is characterized by "two sources and three stages". "Two sources" means that the hydrocarbons are derived from two source rocks of the Cambrian and Middle-Upper Ordovician. "Three stages" means that asphalt and movable oil undergoes three hydrocarbon accumulation stages, i.e., Late Caledonian, Late Hercynian, and Yanshanian-Himalayan. The formation of asphalt resulted from the destruction of the hydrocarbons accumulated and migrated in the early stages. The present movable oil, mostly derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician source rock, resulted from the hydrocarbons accumulated in the late stage. There are three types of reservoirs, i.e., anticline structural, stratigraphic lithological, and lava shield reservoirs in the Tazhong uplift. Hydrocarbon accumulation of the Silurian in the Tazhong uplift is controlled by the three factors. (1) The background of uplift structure. Around the ancient uplift, the compounding of many types makes up the composite hydrocarbon accumulation areas. (2) Effective cover. The show of oil gas including asphalt, heavy crude oil, and normal oil is quite active in the Silurian. Asphalt and heavy crude oil are distributed under the red mudstone member and movable oil is distributed under the gray mudstone member. (3) High quality reservoir bed. Sandstone is distributed widely in the Tazhong area. Reservoir pore space can be divided into three types: a) secondary origin-primary origin pore space; b) primary origin-secondary origin pore space, and c) micropore space. Porosity is 3.3-17.4%, and permeability is (0.1-667.97) × 10 -3 μm 2.

  1. Discrete fracture modeling of multiphase flow and hydrocarbon production in fractured shale or low permeability reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y.; Settgast, R. R.; Fu, P.; Tompson, A. F. B.; Morris, J.; Ryerson, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    geomechanical and reservoir simulation capability for an accurate prediction and assessment of hydrocarbon production and hydraulic fracturing performance. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Etude comparative de tubes en matériaux composites en vue de l'application à l'exploitation des hydrocarbures en mer profonde Comparative Study of Composite-Material Tubes with a View to Their Use for Deep Offshore Hydrocarbon Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonavent G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les prévisions de développement de la production pétrolière en mer profonde font apparaître de nouveaux besoins en tubes légers et à haute résistance pour les liaisons verticales entre les têtes de puits sous-marines et les plates-formes flottantes, et les conduites immergées par grand fond. Certains matériaux composites peuvent répondre à ces besoins et présentent en outre l'avantage d'une excellente résistance à la corrosion dans l'environnement marin. Toutefois, les choix sont imposés essentiellement par des contraintes d'ordre mécanique. On cherche ici à comparer, par rapport à l'acier, les avantages de deux types de matériaux composites - les composites acier-résine - les composites fibres-résine dont on résume les principales caractéristiques et les domaines d'applications possibles en fonction des spécifications pétrolières Development forecosts for deep offshore petroleum production bring out new needs for light tubes for vertlcaf linksbetween subsea wellheads and floating piatforms as well as for subsea pipelines ut great depths. Some composite materials moy meet such requirements while also hoving the advantoge of high résistance ta corrosion in a marine environment. However, the choices are mainly governed by stresses of a mechanical nature. Compared with steel, this article seeks ta describe the advantages of the following two types of composite materials : (il steel-resin composites, and (ii fiber-resin composites. The leading properties and the possible arecs of application are summed up as a function of petroleum specifications.

  3. Preparation and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Removal Performance of Potassium Ferrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment adopts the hypochlorite oxidation method to constantly synthesize potassium ferrate. Under the condition of micropolluted source water pH and on the basis of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene as research objects, the effects of different systems to remove aromatic hydrocarbons were studied. Various oxidation systems to remove phenanthrene intermediate are analyzed and the detailed mechanisms for removal of phenanthrene are discussed. The study found that the main intermediate of potassium ferrate system to transform phenanthrene is 9,10-phenanthraquinone and its area percentage reached 82.66%; that is, 9,10-phenanthraquinone is the key entity to remove phenanthrene.

  4. Deep Water Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The deep water biodiversity surveys explore and describe the biodiversity of the bathy- and bentho-pelagic nekton using Midwater and bottom trawls centered in the...

  5. Deep Learning in Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharchuk, G; Gong, E; Wintermark, M; Rubin, D; Langlotz, C P

    2018-02-01

    Deep learning is a form of machine learning using a convolutional neural network architecture that shows tremendous promise for imaging applications. It is increasingly being adapted from its original demonstration in computer vision applications to medical imaging. Because of the high volume and wealth of multimodal imaging information acquired in typical studies, neuroradiology is poised to be an early adopter of deep learning. Compelling deep learning research applications have been demonstrated, and their use is likely to grow rapidly. This review article describes the reasons, outlines the basic methods used to train and test deep learning models, and presents a brief overview of current and potential clinical applications with an emphasis on how they are likely to change future neuroradiology practice. Facility with these methods among neuroimaging researchers and clinicians will be important to channel and harness the vast potential of this new method. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. Deep Space Atomic Clock

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) project will develop a small, low mass atomic clock based on mercury-ion trap technology and demonstrate it in space providing the...

  7. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  8. Exploration in the Deep water Niger Delta: Technical to Business Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Prolific source rocks, high quality deep water reservoirs and a high technical success rate in finding hydrocarbons make the Nigeria deep water one of the top exploration opportunities in the world. Several major discoveries have resulted from exploration on blocks awarded in 1993. Enthusiastic participation by industry in the 2000 Tender Round clearly indicates the continuing appeal of deep water exploration in Nigeria.Commercially, challenges still exist in the Nigerian deep water. Industry has spent more than $2 Billion USD on exploration and appraisal, yet only a handful of developments are moving forward to development. First oil from the deep water is not expected until 2004, 11 years after acreage award and 8 years after discovery. Tougher economic terms, OPEC quota constraints, an abundance of deep water gas, lengthy approval processes and high up-front bonus and exploration costs challenge the economic returns on deep water gas, lengthy approval processes and high up-front bonus and exploration costs challenge the economic returns on deep water investments. Will deep water exploration, development and production deliver the financial returns industry expected when it signed up for the blocks 10 years ago? What are the indications for the 2000 Tender Round blocks?A good explorer learns form experience. What can be learned technically and commercially by looking back over the results of the last 10 years of exploration in Nigeria's deep water? A perspective is provided on the successes, the failures and the challenges to be overcome in realizing the commercial potential of the basin

  9. High-resolution gas chromatographic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.; Gonzalez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the analysis by gas chromatography of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons and aliphatic hydrocarbons is presented. The separation has been carried out by glass and fused silica capillary column in two different polar stationary phases OV-1 and SE-54. The limitation and the advantages of the procedure are discussed in terms of separation, sensitivity and precision. (Author) 20 refs

  10. Pathogenesis of deep endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordts, Stephan; Koninckx, Philippe; Brosens, Ivo

    2017-12-01

    The pathophysiology of (deep) endometriosis is still unclear. As originally suggested by Cullen, change the definition "deeper than 5 mm" to "adenomyosis externa." With the discovery of the old European literature on uterine bleeding in 5%-10% of the neonates and histologic evidence that the bleeding represents decidual shedding, it is postulated/hypothesized that endometrial stem/progenitor cells, implanted in the pelvic cavity after birth, may be at the origin of adolescent and even the occasionally premenarcheal pelvic endometriosis. Endometriosis in the adolescent is characterized by angiogenic and hemorrhagic peritoneal and ovarian lesions. The development of deep endometriosis at a later age suggests that deep infiltrating endometriosis is a delayed stage of endometriosis. Another hypothesis is that the endometriotic cell has undergone genetic or epigenetic changes and those specific changes determine the development into deep endometriosis. This is compatible with the hereditary aspects, and with the clonality of deep and cystic ovarian endometriosis. It explains the predisposition and an eventual causal effect by dioxin or radiation. Specific genetic/epigenetic changes could explain the various expressions and thus typical, cystic, and deep endometriosis become three different diseases. Subtle lesions are not a disease until epi(genetic) changes occur. A classification should reflect that deep endometriosis is a specific disease. In conclusion the pathophysiology of deep endometriosis remains debated and the mechanisms of disease progression, as well as the role of genetics and epigenetics in the process, still needs to be unraveled. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deep Time Contagion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Weir

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An artist from London researching the effects of deprioritised subjectivity and contemporary art, Weir presents acoustic recordings made in deep geological repository sites. Repurposing these sites from their typical use as storage space for nuclear waste, Weir addresses the extra-human scale of Deep Time through sonic-fiction. Inhumanly enduring and impinging upon humanity largely imperceptibly, what agency—at what scale—is present?

  12. Auxiliary Deep Generative Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Sønderby, Søren Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Deep generative models parameterized by neural networks have recently achieved state-of-the-art performance in unsupervised and semi-supervised learning. We extend deep generative models with auxiliary variables which improves the variational approximation. The auxiliary variables leave...... faster with better results. We show state-of-the-art performance within semi-supervised learning on MNIST (0.96%), SVHN (16.61%) and NORB (9.40%) datasets....

  13. Mathematics of Deep Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Rene; Bruna, Joan; Giryes, Raja; Soatto, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Recently there has been a dramatic increase in the performance of recognition systems due to the introduction of deep architectures for representation learning and classification. However, the mathematical reasons for this success remain elusive. This tutorial will review recent work that aims to provide a mathematical justification for several properties of deep networks, such as global optimality, geometric stability, and invariance of the learned representations.

  14. Novel extension of the trap model for electrons in liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, M.A.; Watt, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    A novel extension for the trap model of electron mobilities in liquid hydrocarbons is described. The new model assumes: (a) two main types of electron trap exist in liquid hydrocarbons, one is deep and the second is shallow; (b) these traps are the same in all liquid alkanes. The difference in electron mobilities in different alkanes is accounted for by the difference in the frequency of electron trapping in each state. The probability of trapping in each state has been evaluated from the known structures of the normal alkanes. Electron mobilities in normal alkanes (C 3 -C 10 ) show a very good correlation with the probability of trapping in deep traps, suggesting that the C-C bonds are the main energy sinks of the electron. A mathematical formula which expresses the electron mobility in terms of the probability of trapping in deep traps has been found from the Arrhenius relationship between electron mobilities and probability of trapping. The model has been extended for branched alkanes and the relatively high electron mobilities in globular alkanes has been explained by the fact that each branch provides some degree of screening to the skeleton structure of the molecule resulting in reduction of the probability of electron interaction with the molecular skeleton. (author)

  15. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Hong Kong marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, G.J.; Richardson, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 20 surficial sediment samples, obtained from Hong Kong coastal waters, were analysed for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and a suite of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results indicate that Hong Kong coastal sediments are often seriously polluted with petroleum related hydrocarbons. This is especially so in heavily urbanised or industrialized localities, such as Kowloon Bay (Victoria Harbour), Tsing Yi North and Tolo Harbour. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in marine sediments are believed to be mainly derived from the transportation of oil, shipping activities, spillages, and industrial, stormwater and waste wastewater discharge. The ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to n-alkanes, carbon preference index (CPI), and n-C 16 values indicate that the main contribution to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination is via oil and its products. Pollutant sources appear to be stable and continuing when compared with previous data. (author)

  17. Rare etiological causes of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis: Reports of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Ereren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep venous thrombosis is frequently seen in lower extremities. However, when seen in the iliac level, mass effect of an underlying pathology must be considered. In this report, we present two cases with upper region deep venous thrombosis, which had underlying pathologies of appendicitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Keywords: Deep venous thrombosis, Etiology, Emergency department

  18. Why & When Deep Learning Works: Looking Inside Deep Learnings

    OpenAIRE

    Ronen, Ronny

    2017-01-01

    The Intel Collaborative Research Institute for Computational Intelligence (ICRI-CI) has been heavily supporting Machine Learning and Deep Learning research from its foundation in 2012. We have asked six leading ICRI-CI Deep Learning researchers to address the challenge of "Why & When Deep Learning works", with the goal of looking inside Deep Learning, providing insights on how deep networks function, and uncovering key observations on their expressiveness, limitations, and potential. The outp...

  19. Worldwide overview of hydrocarbons and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data regarding the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy consumption, hydrocarbon trade flows, the new situation created by the emergence of shale hydrocarbons and the consequences for the world economy, and possible risks. The authors first comment the evolution of energy consumption and outline that the objectives of CO 2 and greenhouse gas emission will not be reached (these emissions increased in 2012 and in 2013). They indicate the emission situation in the USA and Japan, and notice that the objectives defined by the IEA are quite different from those defined by the EU. They analyse the evolutions by distinguishing different periods: 2005-2008 as a reference period, 2008-2012 as a period of change, and the current period as a period of flow inversion. Then, the authors propose two different scenarios of evolution of economic and energy policies. The evolution of hydrocarbon demand is commented, and the levels of reserves (oil, conventional gas, coal, nuclear fuels) are discussed. The market evolution is also discussed, not only from an economic point of view, but also in relationship with geopolitics. The authors notably outline that the energy price is different from one country to the other, discuss the issue of hydrocarbon refining, the role of CO 2 tax

  20. Photochemistry on Pluto - I. Hydrocarbons and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luspay-Kuti, Adrienn; Mandt, Kathleen; Jessup, Kandis-Lea; Kammer, Joshua; Hue, Vincent; Hamel, Mark; Filwett, Rachael

    2017-11-01

    In light of the recent New Horizons flyby measurements, we present a coupled ion-neutral-photochemistry model developed for simulating the atmosphere of Pluto. Our model results closely match the observed density profiles of CH4, N2 and the C2 hydrocarbons in the altitude range where available New Horizons measurements are most accurate (above ∼100-200 km). We found a high eddy coefficient of 106 cm2 s-1 from the surface to an altitude of 150 km, and 3 × 106 cm2 s-1 above 150 km for Pluto's atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that C2 hydrocarbons must stick to and be removed by aerosol particles in order to reproduce the C2 profiles observed by New Horizons. Incorporation into aerosols in Pluto's atmosphere is a significantly more effective process than condensation, and we found that condensation alone cannot account for the observed shape of the vertical profiles. We empirically determined the sticking efficiency of C2 hydrocarbons to aerosol particles as a function of altitude, and found that the sticking efficiency of C2 hydrocarbons is inversely related to the aerosol surface area. Aerosols must harden and become less sticky as they age in Pluto's atmosphere. Such hardening with ageing is both necessary and sufficient to explain the vertical profiles of C2 hydrocarbons in Pluto's atmosphere. This result is in agreement with the fundamental idea of aerosols hardening as they age, as proposed for Titan's aerosols.

  1. Coliform Bacteria for Bioremediation of Waste Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Raw, domestic sewage of Kuwait City contained about 106 ml−1 colony forming units of Enterobacter hormaechei subsp. oharae (56.6%), Klebsiella spp. (36%), and Escherichia coli (7.4%), as characterized by their 16S rRNA-gene sequences. The isolated coliforms grew successfully on a mineral medium with crude oil vapor as a sole source of carbon and energy. Those strains also grew, albeit to different degrees, on individual n-alkanes with carbon chains between C9 and C36 and on the individual aromatic hydrocarbons, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and biphenyl as sole sources of carbon and energy. These results imply that coliforms, like other hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, oxidize hydrocarbons to the corresponding alcohols and then to aldehydes and fatty acids which are biodegraded by β-oxidation to acetyl CoA. The latter is a well-known key intermediate in cell material and energy production. E. coli cells grown in the presence of n-hexadecane (but not in its absence) exhibited typical intracellular hydrocarbon inclusions, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Raw sewage samples amended with crude oil, n-hexadecane, or phenanthrene lost these hydrocarbons gradually with time. Meanwhile, the numbers of total and individual coliforms, particularly Enterobacter, increased. It was concluded that coliform bacteria in domestic sewage, probably in other environmental materials too, are effective hydrocarbon-biodegrading microorganisms. PMID:29082238

  2. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  3. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, M.J.; Ashworth, J.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1992-12-01

    The bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil environments was reviewed via a literature survey and discussions with workers in relevant disciplines. The impacts of hydrocarbons on soil are discussed along with a range of methods available to assist in their decomposition by soil microorganisms. The range of petroleum-based materials considered includes conventional and synthetic crude oils, refined oils, sludges, asphalts and bitumens, drilling mud residues, creosote tars, and some pesticides. The degradability of hydrocarbons largely depends upon their aqueous solubility and their adsorption on soil surfaces and, therefore, is related to their molecular structures. The ease of decomposition decreases with increasing complexity of structure, in the order aliphatics > aromatics > heterocyclics and asphaltenes (most recalcitrant). Most soils contain an adequate population of microorganisms and hence bioaugmentation may only be needed in special circumstances. Decomposition is fastest in soils where the hydrocarbon loading rate, aeration, nutrition, moisture, and pH are all optimized. At spill sites there is little control over the application rate, although containment measures can assist in either limiting contamination or distributing it more evenly. The enhancement of bioremediation is discussed in light of all these factors. Other techniques such as enhanced aeration, hydrocarbon decomposition by anaerobic processes, surfactants, and burning are also discussed. 211 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Hydrocarbon potential of a new Jurassic play, central Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, A.O.; Law, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    A largely unrecognized Jurassic Sag Basin has been identified in central Tunisia, proximal to the Permo-Carboniferous flexure delineating the northern boundary of the Saharan platform of north Africa. The northwestern margin of the Sag is delineated by an extensive region of salt-cored anticlines and localized salt diapirs extending north and west. Due to lack of deep drilling, delineation of the Sag is largely based on regional gravity data. Subsidence of the Jurassic Sag Basin is characterized by rapid expansion of Jurassic sediments from 400 m. of tidal flat and shelf carbonate at the western outcrop to over 2000 meters of tidal flat and basinal carbonate and shale within the basin center, a five-fold expansion. Rapid loading of the basin continued into Lower Cretaceous time, marked by lateral flowage of Triassic salt into pronounced structural trends. Published source rock data and interpreted subsurface well data provided the basis for GENEX 1-D hydrocarbon generation and expulsion modeling of the Sag. Middle Jurassic black source shales typically contain Type II and Type III kerogens with T.O.C.'s ranging up to 4 percent. Modeling results indicate that middle Jurassic shales are presently mature for liquid generation within portions of the Sag, with maximum generation taking place during the Tertiary. Potential hydrocarbon generation yields, based on 60 meters of mature source shale, are 20,000 BOE/acre for gas and 75,000 BOE/acre for liquids. Prospects within the region could contain an estimated potential reserve of several T.C.F. or over 1 billion barrels of oil

  5. Environmental Remediation: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2012-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous persistent semi-volatile organic compounds. They are contaminants that are resistant to degradation and can remain in the environment for long periods due to their high degree of conjugation, and aromaticity. PAHs are present in industrial effluents as products of incomplete combustion processes of organic compounds. Petroleum, coal and shale oil contain extremely complex mixtures of these PAHs, and their transport and refining process can also result in the release of PAHs. It is therefore prudent that such effluents are treated before discharge into the environment. In this project, different approaches to the treatment of PAHs have been investigated. Hydrous pyrolysis has been explored as a potential technique for degrading PAHs in water using anthracene as a model compound. The experiments were performed under different conditions of temperature, substrate, redox systems and durations. The conditions include oxidising systems comprising pure water, hydrogen peroxide and Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts to assess a range of reactivities. Products observed in GCMS analysis of the extract from the water phase include anthrone, anthraquinone, xanthone and multiple hydro-anthracene derivatives (Paper I). In addition a modified version of the Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water oxidising system was tested; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts were adopted for the conversion of a mixture of anthracene, fluorene and fluoranthene. The rate of conversion in the mixture was high as compared to that of only anthracene (Paper II). Also the use of LECA (Lightweight expanded clay aggregates) as an adsorbent (Paper III) for PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) removal from water has been.(Author)

  6. Searching for prostate cancer by fully automated magnetic resonance imaging classification: deep learning versus non-deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinggang; Yang, Wei; Weinreb, Jeffrey; Han, Juan; Li, Qiubai; Kong, Xiangchuang; Yan, Yongluan; Ke, Zan; Luo, Bo; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liang

    2017-11-13

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major cause of death since ancient time documented in Egyptian Ptolemaic mummy imaging. PCa detection is critical to personalized medicine and varies considerably under an MRI scan. 172 patients with 2,602 morphologic images (axial 2D T2-weighted imaging) of the prostate were obtained. A deep learning with deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) and a non-deep learning with SIFT image feature and bag-of-word (BoW), a representative method for image recognition and analysis, were used to distinguish pathologically confirmed PCa patients from prostate benign conditions (BCs) patients with prostatitis or prostate benign hyperplasia (BPH). In fully automated detection of PCa patients, deep learning had a statistically higher area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) than non-deep learning (P = 0.0007 deep learning method and 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.77) for non-deep learning method, respectively. Our results suggest that deep learning with DCNN is superior to non-deep learning with SIFT image feature and BoW model for fully automated PCa patients differentiation from prostate BCs patients. Our deep learning method is extensible to image modalities such as MR imaging, CT and PET of other organs.

  7. BioKonversion technology recovers, remediates and reuses waste and hydrocarbons from oil drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topf, A.

    2008-01-15

    Houston-based Nopal Group has developed a solution to dispose of oilfield waste in a safe and cost-effective manner. The company is actively engaged in a large-scale project to remediate a 400-hectare site on the Aspheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan. The site is currently regarded as the most polluted place in the world after a century of oil extraction with little regard for the surrounding environment. The Nopal Group will use its patented BioKonversion technology, which cleanses the soil of hydrocarbons in a two-part process using a large machine known as the Green Machine. Several pipelines will need to be relocated, and ancient drilling rigs that have been there as long as 100 years will have to be dealt with. The cleanup cost has been estimated at between $20 million to $40 million, and will take between 18 and 36 months, depending on how deep into the ground the machines have to dig for hydrocarbons. The 90-foot by 40-foot machine processes drill cuttings, contaminated soil and drill fluids by first separating the dirt from the liquid hydrocarbons, which can be recycled or refined for resale. The remaining dirt, which still contains 3 to 7 percent oil, is then placed into a centrifuge and mixed with a heating agent and other elements, including naturally oleophilic kenaf powder. The process micronizes and absorbs hydrocarbons. Once the process is finished, the hydrocarbons are immediately non-detectable and non-leachable. The leftover benign dirt can be used as landfill cover, or mixed with road aggregate. BioKonversion can also be adapted for use on oil rigs. This article demonstrated that the process has clear advantages over traditional oilfield remediation methods such as land farming. Opportunities exist to utilize the process in Venezuela and Kuwait. 1 fig.

  8. Constraining subducted slab properties with deep earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Z.; Yang, T.; Gurnis, M.; Shen, Z.; Wu, F.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of deep earthquakes and Wadati-Benioff zone was a critical piece in the early history of plate tectonics. Today, deep earthquakes continue to serve as important markers/probes of subducted slab geometry, structure, and stress state. Here we discuss three examples in which we have recently used deep earthquakes to provide new insights to subducted slab properties. In the first application, we investigate the slab morphology and stress regimes under different trench motion histories with geodynamic models. We find that the isolation of the 2015 Mw 7.9 Bonin Islands deep earthquake from the background Wadati-Benioff zone may be explained as a result of Pacific slab buckling in response to the slow trench retreat. Additionally, subducted slab is inherently heterogeneous due to non-linear viscosity, contributing to the occurrences of isolated deep earthquakes. In the second application, we quantify the coda waveform differences from nearby deep earthquakes to image fine-scale slab structures. We find that large metastable olivine wedge suggested by several previous studies can not fit our observations. Therefore, the effects of metastable olivine on slab dynamics should be re-assessed. In the third application, we take advantage of P and S differential travel times from deep earthquake clusters to isolate signatures of Vp/Vs ratios within slabs from ambient mantle. We observe substantial deviations of slab Vp/Vs from that in 1D reference Earth models, and even possible lateral variations. This sheds light on potential difference in slab temperature or water content. All three applications underscore that deep earthquakes are still incredibly useful in informing us more about subducted slabs.

  9. The IAEA desalination economic evaluation programme (DEEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.

    2009-01-01

    DEEP is derived from desalination cost evaluation package developed in the eighties by General Atomics on behalf of the IAEA. The old version, named 'Co-generation and Desalination Economic Evaluation' Spreadsheet, CDEE) was used for feasibility studies related to nuclear desalination in the IAEA and other Member States. Subsequently, with its increasing popularity, a user-friendly version was issued by the Agency towards the end of 1998 under the name of DEEP. Through the next years the software was updated constantly within DEEP-1 family (versions 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 and working version 1.7). Both the user interface and model structure were further developed and in 2000 a new upgrade - first version from the DEEP-2 family was released. Its salient feature was the complete modularization of various cases. As the user group enlarged, new ideas as well as criticisms of the DEEP models appeared. Some of them were implemented gradually in different working versions (versions 2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6). The four year period of continuous development culminated in the development of DEEP 3.0, released in August 2005. Following further development, the latest version of DEEP 3.1 is currently available for user to down load freely from the web site of the IAEA at no cost. This paper summarizes the salient features of DEEP software and echoes some of the information presented in the TECDOC draft prepared as a result of the CRP on 'Economic Research on, and Assessment of, Selected Nuclear Desalination Projects and Case Studies' which was closed at the end of 2006

  10. Variability of soil potential for biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a heterogeneous subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Andreas Houlberg; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Mortensen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial variability of factors affecting natural attenuation of hydrocarbons in the unsaturated zone is important to (i) performing a reliable risk assessment and (ii) evaluating the possibility for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted sites. Most studies to date have focused...... on the shallow unsaturated zone. Based on a data set comprising analysis of about 100 soil samples taken in a 16-m-deep unsaturated zone polluted with volatile petroleum compounds, we statistically and geostatistically analyzed values of essential soil properties. The subsurface of the site was highly layered...

  11. Geological evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the Hatton Basin (UK sector), north-east Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    McInroy, David; Hitchen, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The deep-water Hatton Basin (flanked by the Hatton and Rockall Highs) is located 600km west of Scotland (NE Atlantic Ocean) on the western margin of the Eurasian continental plate. Prior to Atlantic opening the area was adjacent to SE Greenland. The basin straddles the UK/Irish median line. Water depths increase southwards from 1000m to over 1300m. The basin has never been licensed for hydrocarbon exploration and is currently the subject of ownership negotiations related to the UN Conven...

  12. Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiram Ponce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy inference model based on artificial hydrocarbon networks, a computational algorithm for modeling problems based on chemical hydrocarbon compounds. In particular, the proposed fuzzy-molecular inference model (FIM-model uses molecular units of information to partition the output space in the defuzzification step. Moreover, these molecules are linguistic units that can be partially understandable due to the organized structure of the topology and metadata parameters involved in artificial hydrocarbon networks. In addition, a position controller for a direct current (DC motor was implemented using the proposed FIM-model in type-1 and type-2 fuzzy inference systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the fuzzy-molecular inference model can be applied as an alternative of type-2 Mamdani’s fuzzy control systems because the set of molecular units can deal with dynamic uncertainties mostly present in real-world control applications.

  13. Condensation Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Field Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalin, Oleg; Vafina, Nailya

    2017-08-31

    Petroleum geology explains how hydrocarbon fluids are generated, but there is a lack of understanding regarding how oil is expelled from source rocks and migrates to a reservoir. To clarify the process, the multi-layer Urengoy field in Western Siberia was investigated. Based on this example, we have identified an alternative mechanism of hydrocarbon field formation, in which oil and gas accumulations result from the phase separation of an upward hydrocarbon flow. There is evidence that the flow is generated by the gases released by secondary kerogen destruction. This study demonstrates that oil components are carried by the gas flow and that when the flow reaches a low-pressure zone, it condenses into a liquid with real oil properties. The transportation of oil components in the gas flow provides a natural explanation for the unresolved issues of petroleum geology concerning the migration process. The condensation mechanism can be considered as the main process of oil field formation.

  14. EVALUATION OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS ELUTION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Piekutin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on oil removal from soil by means of water elution with a help of shaking out the contaminants from the soil. The tests were performed on simulated soil samples contaminated with a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons. The study consisted in recording the time influence and the number of elution cycles to remove contaminants from the soil. The samples were then subject to the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene. Due to adding various concentrations of petroleum into particular soil samples and applying different shaking times, it was possible to find out the impact of petroleum content and sample shaking duration on the course and possibility of petroleum substances removal by means of elution process.

  15. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-polluted dredged peat sediments and earthworms: a mutual interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Jonge, de S.; Muijs, B.; Slijkerman, D.; Gestel, van C.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    In lowland areas of the Netherlands, any peat sediments will gradually become enriched with anthropogenically derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Due to Dutch policy standards these (anaerobic) sediments are not allowed to be dredged and placed onto land. Under aerobic conditions, however,

  17. Extraction of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen from Seawater and Hydrocarbon Production Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    extracted from the acidified seawater. Optionally, the ion exchange reaction can be conducted under conditions which produce hydrogen as well as carbon dioxide . The carbon dioxide and hydrogen may be used to produce hydrocarbons....acidification of seawater by subjecting the seawater to an ion exchange reaction to exchange H.sup. ions for Na.sup. ions. Carbon dioxide may be

  18. Kinetics of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Toxicity of Trichloroethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenhuis, Roelof; Oedzes, Johannes Y.; Waarde, Jacob J. van der; Janssen, Dick B.

    The kinetics of the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and seven other chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b were studied. All experiments were performed with cells grown under copper stress and thus expressing soluble methane monooxygenase. Compounds that were

  19. Deep Overbite Dan Cara Penanggulangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Rofiah Nasution

    2008-01-01

    Masalah deep overbite dan seluruh dimensi vertikal harus dipertimbangkan pada setiap perawatan maloklusi. Deep overbite merupakan keadaan pada relasi sentrik di mana terdapat jarak vertikal yang besar antara kedua insisal insisivus rahang atas dan bawah dengan hubungan oklusal posterior yang normal. Berdasarkan etiologi deep overbite dapat dibedakan atas dua bagian besar yaitu deep overbite dentoalveolar (melibatkan gigi dan tulang alveolar) dan deep overbite skeletal (melibatkan gigi, tulang...

  20. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  1. Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Craig; Johnsson, Anna; Moll, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell-radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial spe...

  2. Surface geochemical data evaluation and integration with geophysical observations for hydrocarbon prospecting, Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Satish Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Deccan Syneclise is considered to have significant hydrocarbon potential. However, significant hydrocarbon discoveries, particularly for Mesozoic sequences, have not been established through conventional exploration due to the thick basalt cover over Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. In this study, near-surface geochemical data are used to understand the petroleum system and also investigate type of source for hydrocarbons generation of the study area. Soil samples were collected from favorable areas identified by integrated geophysical studies. The compositional and isotopic signatures of adsorbed gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane were used as surface indicators of petroleum micro-seepages. An analysis of 75 near-surface soil-gas samples was carried out for light hydrocarbons (C1–C4 and their carbon isotopes from the western part of Tapti graben, Deccan Syneclise, India. The geochemical results reveal sites or clusters of sites containing anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbon gases. High concentrations of adsorbed thermogenic methane (C1 = 518 ppb and ethane plus higher hydrocarbons (ΣC2+ = 977 ppb were observed. Statistical analysis shows that samples from 13% of the samples contain anomalously high concentrations of light hydrocarbons in the soil-gas constituents. This seepage suggests largest magnitude of soil gas anomalies might be generated/source from Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, beneath Deccan Traps. The carbon isotopic composition of methane, ethane and propane ranges are from −22.5‰ to −30.2‰ PDB, −18.0‰ to 27.1‰ PDB and 16.9‰–32.1‰ PDB respectively, which are in thermogenic source. Surface soil sample represents the intersection of a migration conduit from the deep subsurface to the surface connected to sub-trappean Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Prominent hydrocarbon concentrations were associated with dykes, lineaments and presented on thinner basaltic cover in the study area

  3. How to study deep roots–and why it matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc eMaeght

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The drivers underlying the development of deep root systems, whether genetic or environmental, are poorly understood but evidence has accumulated that deep rooting could be a more widespread and important trait among plants than commonly anticipated from their share of root biomass. Even though a distinct classification of deep roots is missing to date, deep roots provide important functions for individual plants such as nutrient and water uptake but can also shape plant communities by hydraulic lift. Subterranean fauna and microbial communities are highly influenced by resources provided in the deep rhizosphere and deep roots can influence soil paedogenesis and carbon storage. Despite recent technological advances, the study of deep roots and their rhizosphere remains inherently time-consuming, technically demanding and costly, which explains why deep roots are yet to be given the attention they deserve. While state-of-the-art technologies are promising for laboratory studies involving relatively small soil volumes, they remain of limited use for the in situ observation of deep roots. Thus, basic techniques such as destructive sampling or observations at transparent interfaces with the soil (e.g., root windows which have been known and used for decades to observe roots near the soil surface, must be adapted to the specific requirements of deep root observation. In this review, we successively address major physical, biogeochemical and ecological functions of deep roots to emphasise the significance of deep roots and to illustrate the yet limited knowledge. In a second part we describe the main methodological options to observe and measure deep roots, providing researchers interested in the field of deep root/rhizosphere studies with a comprehensive overview. Addressed methodologies are excavations, trenches and soil coring approaches, minirhizotrons, access shafts, caves and mines, and indirect approaches such as tracer-based techniques.

  4. Bureau of hydrocarbons exploration-production (BEPH) - Monthly information bulletin. December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    This newsletter takes stock of the recent highlights in the domain of hydrocarbons exploration and production in the French territory: mining domain (demands and allocations of research permits and concessions; list of demands under instruction), drilling activity (new drillings, advance of existing exploratory and extension-development drillings); production activity (interventions on wells, crude oil, crude gas, commercialized gas, natural gas-derived hydrocarbons, related products, production shares by company in the Paris and Aquitain basins); underground storage facilities (allocation and extension of concessions). (J.S.)

  5. UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Clemett, S. J.; Zare, R. N.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.

  6. Fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon incompatibility in micellar polymerizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Sarah E; Eastoe, Julian; Hudson, Laura; Gold, Sarah; Heenan, Richard K; Grillo, Isabelle

    2009-02-15

    A new approach to micellar polymerization is described. It is well known that hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons exhibit local phase segregation (demixing) owing to mutual antipathy; here this effect is employed in monomer swollen micelles with appropriate combinations of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon monomers and surfactants. A matrix of these hydro- and fluorocarbon components has been investigated to delineate the effects of H-F antipathy on the outcomes of polymerization reactions to generate nanolatices of different size (and possibly morphology). Phase diagrams, (1)H NMR and small-angle neutron (SANS) data have been generated to characterize the systems, indicating new routes to influence nanolatex formation.

  7. Mathematics of Periodic Tables for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jerry Ray

    2007-01-01

    The upper and lower bounds for invariants of polyhex systems based on the Harary and Harborth inequalities are studied. It is shown that these invariants are uniquely correlated by the Periodic Table for Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. A modified periodic table for total resonant sextet (TRS) benzenoids based on the invariants of Ds and r(empty) is presented; Ds is the number of disconnections among the empty rings for fused TRS benzenoid hydrocarbons. This work represents a contribution toward deciphering the topological information content of benzenoid formulas.

  8. Plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya; Kolgan, V.V.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Solomenko, O.V.; Fedirchyk, I.I.; Martysh, E.V.; Demchina, V.P.; Klochok, N.V.; Dragnev, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    The series of experiments studying the plasma-catalytic reforming of liquid hydrocarbons was carried out. The dynamic plasma-liquid system based on a low-power rotating gliding arc with solid electrodes was used for the investigation of liquid hydrocarbons reforming process. Conversion was done via partial oxidation. A part of oxidant flow was activated by the discharge. Synthesis-gas composition was analysed by means of mass-spectrometry and gas-chromatography. A standard boiler, which operates on natural gas and LPG, was used for the burning of synthesis-gas

  9. High Temperature Chemistry of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Lawrence T. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Merkert Chemistry Center, Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-05-15

    The primary goal of this research was to uncover the principal reaction channels available to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperatures in the gas phase and to establish the factors that determine which channels will be followed in varying circumstances. New structure-property relationships for PAHs were also studied. The efficient production of clean energy from fossil fuels will remain a major component of the DOE mission until alternative sources of energy eventually displace coal and petroleum. Hydrocarbons constitute the most basic class of compounds in all of organic chemistry, and as the dominant species in fossil fuels, they figure prominently into the programs of the DOE. Much is already known about the normal chemistry of hydrocarbons under ambient conditions, but far less is known about their intrinsic chemistry at temperatures close to those reached during combustion. An understanding of the fundamental molecular transformations, rearrangements, and interconversions of PAHs at high temperatures in the gas phase, as revealed by careful studies on small, well-designed, molecular systems, provides insights into the underlying chemistry of many important processes that are more complex, such as the generation of energy by the combustion of fossil fuels, the uncatalyzed gasification and liquefaction of coal, the production of fullerenes in fuel-rich flames, and the formation of soot and carcinogenic pollutants in smoke (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene). The rational control of any of these processes, whether it be the optimization of a desirable process or the minimization of an undesirable one, requires a clear knowledge of the basic chemistry that governs the fate of the species involved. Advances in chemistry at the most fundamental level come about primarily from the discovery of new reactions and from new insights into how reactions occur. Harnessing that knowledge is the key to new technologies. The recent commercialization of a combustion

  10. Deep Learning from Crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Pereira, Francisco Camara

    Over the last few years, deep learning has revolutionized the field of machine learning by dramatically improving the stateof-the-art in various domains. However, as the size of supervised artificial neural networks grows, typically so does the need for larger labeled datasets. Recently......, crowdsourcing has established itself as an efficient and cost-effective solution for labeling large sets of data in a scalable manner, but it often requires aggregating labels from multiple noisy contributors with different levels of expertise. In this paper, we address the problem of learning deep neural...... networks from crowds. We begin by describing an EM algorithm for jointly learning the parameters of the network and the reliabilities of the annotators. Then, a novel general-purpose crowd layer is proposed, which allows us to train deep neural networks end-to-end, directly from the noisy labels...

  11. Holography as deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wen-Cong; Shu, Fu-Wen

    Quantum many-body problem with exponentially large degrees of freedom can be reduced to a tractable computational form by neural network method [G. Carleo and M. Troyer, Science 355 (2017) 602, arXiv:1606.02318.] The power of deep neural network (DNN) based on deep learning is clarified by mapping it to renormalization group (RG), which may shed lights on holographic principle by identifying a sequence of RG transformations to the AdS geometry. In this paper, we show that any network which reflects RG process has intrinsic hyperbolic geometry, and discuss the structure of entanglement encoded in the graph of DNN. We find the entanglement structure of DNN is of Ryu-Takayanagi form. Based on these facts, we argue that the emergence of holographic gravitational theory is related to deep learning process of the quantum-field theory.

  12. Deep Dysgraphia in Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Raman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep dysgraphic patients make semantic errors when writing to dictation and they cannot write nonwords. Extant reports of deep dysgraphia come from languages with relatively opaque orthographies. Turkish is a transparent orthography because the bidirectional mappings between phonology and orthography are completely predictable. We report BRB, a biscriptal Turkish-English speaker who has acquired dysgraphia characterised by semantic errors as well as effects of grammatical class and imageability on writing in Turkish. Nonword spelling is abolished. A similar pattern of errors is observed in English. BRB is the first report of acquired dysgraphia in a truly transparent writing system. We argue that deep dysgraphia results from damage to the mappings that are common to both languages between word meanings and orthographic representations.

  13. News on Deep Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, John C.; Dearborn, Davis S. P.; Eggleton, Peter P.

    2008-04-01

    We briefly summarize the abundant observational evidence for the need of a ``deep mixing'' mechanism in first-ascent red-giant stars, and probably in AGB stars as well. By the term ``deep mixing'' we mean some mixing mechanism which operates in the radiative zone below the convective envelope, and which transports material from the convective region to hotter regions, near the top of the hydrogen shell, where nuclear burning may take place. We then discuss a recent discovery of deep-mixing caused by the burning of 3He following first dredge-up in low-mass stars. This is expected to be a thermohaline process and preliminary calculations show that it has many of the properties required to explain the observations.

  14. DeepCAD: A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Mammographic Masses Using Deep Invariant Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD system for differentiation between benign and malignant mammographic masses is a challenging task due to the use of extensive pre- and post-processing steps and ineffective features set. In this paper, a novel CAD system is proposed called DeepCAD, which uses four phases to overcome these problems. The speed-up robust features (SURF and local binary pattern variance (LBPV descriptors are extracted from each mass. These descriptors are then transformed into invariant features. Afterwards, the deep invariant features (DIFs are constructed in supervised and unsupervised fashion through multilayer deep-learning architecture. A fine-tuning step is integrated to determine the features, and the final decision is performed via softmax linear classifier. To evaluate this DeepCAD system, a dataset of 600 region-of-interest (ROI masses including 300 benign and 300 malignant masses was obtained from two publicly available data sources. The performance of DeepCAD system is compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUC curve. The difference between AUC of DeepCAD and other methods is statistically significant, as it demonstrates a sensitivity (SN of 92%, specificity (SP of 84.2%, accuracy (ACC of 91.5% and AUC of 0.91. The experimental results indicate that the proposed DeepCAD system is reliable for providing aid to radiologists without the need for explicit design.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of hydrophobic zeolite for the treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated ground water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Kathy A; Bacus, Joannelle; Taya, Naoyuki; Komatsu, Yu; Perera, Jilska M; Stevens, Geoffrey W

    2010-11-15

    Hydrophobic zeolite was synthesized, modified and characterized for its suitability as a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) material for treatment of hydrocarbons in groundwater. Batch sorption tests were performed along with a number of standard characterization techniques. High and low ionic strength and pH tests were also conducted to determine their impact on hydrocarbon uptake. Further ion exchange tests were conducted to determine the potential for the zeolite to act as both a hydrocarbon capture material and nutrient a delivery system for bioremediation. The zeolite was coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane (C18) to change its surface properties. The results of the surface characterization tests showed that the underlying zeolite structure was largely unaffected by the coating. TGA measurements showed a reactive carbon content of 1-2%. Hydrocarbon (o-xylene and naphthalene) sorption isotherms results compared well with the behaviour of similar materials investigated by other researchers. Ionic strength and pH had little effect on hydrocarbon sorption and the treated zeolite had an ion exchange capacity of 0.3 mequiv./g, indicating it could be utilised as a nutrient source in PRBs. Recycle tests indicated that the zeolite could be used cleaned and reused at least three times without significant reduction in treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Separation of C2 hydrocarbons from methane in a microporous metal-organic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fu-Shun; Lin, Rui-Biao; Lin, Rong-Guang; Zhao, John Cong-Gui; Chen, Banglin

    2018-02-01

    The recovery of C2 hydrocarbons including acetylene, ethylene and ethane is challenging but important for natural gas upgrading. The separation of C2 hydrocarbons over methane was demonstrated here by using a microporous metal-organic framework [Zn3(OH)2(SDB)2] (H2SDB = 4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoic acid) consisting narrow one-dimensional pore channels. Gas sorption experiments revealed that this MOF material showed considerable uptake capacity for C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6 under ambient conditions, while its capacity for CH4 was very low. High selectivity from IAST calculations for C2H2/CH4, C2H4/CH4 and C2H6/CH4 binary mixtures demonstrated that this MOF material were promising for efficiently separating important separation of C2 hydrocarbons from methane in natural gas processing.

  17. MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC RATIOS TO ASSESS THE APPORTIONMENT OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS CONTAMINANTION IN MARINE SEDIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Dhamar Syakti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As maritime fulcrum nation, in Indonesia, marine environmental analytical chemistry field is still under developed. So that why, this review paper aims to provide basic understanding of the use some molecular diagnostic indices using n-alkanes indexes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs diagnostic ratios to estimate the source of apportionment of the hydrocarbons contamination and origin. The n-alkane chromatograms were then used to characterize the predominance of petrogenic or biogenic either terrestrial or aquatic. Furthermore, characterization allowed to discriminate riverine versus marine input. The occurrence of a broad unresolved complex mixture can be an evidence of biodegraded petroleum residues. For aromatic compounds, the prevalence of petrogenic, pyrolitic, and combustion-derived can be easily plotted by using isomers ratio calculation. This paper thus provides useful information on the hydrocarbon contamination origin, especially in marine sediments. Further researches should be undertaken in order to validate the use of molecular diagnostic ratio with isotopic approach.

  18. Fate of petroleum hydrocarbons and toxic organics in Louisiana coastal environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaune, R.D.; Gambrell, R.P.; Pardue, J.H.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous potentially toxic compounds are entering Louisiana's inshore and nearshore coastal environments. To a large degree there is insufficient information for predicting the fate and effect of these materials in aquatic environments. Studies documenting the impact of petroleum hydrocarbons entering Louisiana coastal wetlands are summarized. Also included are research findings on factors affecting the persistence of petroleum hydrocarbons and other toxic organics (pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), creosote, etc.) in sediment-water systems. Sediment pH and redox conditions have been found to play an important role in the microbial degradation of toxic organics. Most of the hydrocarbons investigated degrade more rapidly under high redox (aerobic) conditions although there are exceptions (e.g., 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)(DDT) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs)). Some of these compounds, due to their slow degradation in anaerobic sediment, may persist in the system for decades

  19. Deep boreholes; Tiefe Bohrloecher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracke, Guido [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit gGmbH Koeln (Germany); Charlier, Frank [NSE international nuclear safety engineering gmbh, Aachen (Germany); Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung; and others

    2016-02-15

    The report on deep boreholes covers the following subject areas: methods for safe enclosure of radioactive wastes, requirements concerning the geological conditions of possible boreholes, reversibility of decisions and retrievability, status of drilling technology. The introduction covers national and international activities. Further chapters deal with the following issues: basic concept of the storage in deep bore holes, status of the drilling technology, safe enclosure, geomechanics and stability, reversibility of decisions, risk scenarios, compliancy with safe4ty requirements and site selection criteria, research and development demand.

  20. Deep Learning Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rivenson, Yair; Gorocs, Zoltan; Gunaydin, Harun; Zhang, Yibo; Wang, Hongda; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that a deep neural network can significantly improve optical microscopy, enhancing its spatial resolution over a large field-of-view and depth-of-field. After its training, the only input to this network is an image acquired using a regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with rem...

  1. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels containing high molecular weight Mannich bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udelhofen, J.H.; Watson, R.W.

    1980-11-04

    Reaction products obtained from the Mannich condensation of high molecular weight alkyl-substituted hydroxy aromatic compounds, amines and aldehydes provide improved detergency in liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Optionally, a non-volatile hydrocarbon carrier fluid may be included.

  2. Hydrocarbons in soil: analytical problems and interpretations in risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambiaghi, M.; Cogliati, N.; Maspero, M.

    2009-01-01

    Risk analysis application to industrial sites contaminated by heavy hydrocarbons remains problematic. This is mainly due to a lack in analytical methods required to quantity hydrocarbons fractions needed to asses site quality, especially when aged pollution is involved. [it

  3. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that hydrocarbon addition to soil provokes soil organic matter priming (Zyakun et al., 2011). It has further been shown that petroleum hydrocarbons deposit to roadside soils bound to fine mineral particles and together with vehicle spray (Mykhailova et al., 2014), and that hydrocarbon concentrations decrease to safe levels within the first 15 m from the road, reaching background concentrations at 60-100 m distance (Mykhailova et al., 2013). It was the aim of this study to (I) identify the bioavailability of different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions to degradation and to (II) identify the native (i.e. pedogenic) C fraction affected by hydrocarbon-mediated soil organic matter priming during decay. To address this aim, we collected soil samples at distances from 1 to 100 m (sampling depth 15 cm) near the Traktorostroiteley avenue and the Pushkinskaya street in Kharkov, as well as near the country road M18 near Kharkov, Ukraine. The roads have been under exploitation for several decades, so microbial adaptation to enhanced hydrocarbon levels and full expression of effects could be assumed. The following C fractions were quantified using 13C-CP/MAS-NMR: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lignin, Aliphates, Carbonyl/Carboxyl as well as black carbon according to Nelson and Baldock (2005). Petroleum hydrocarbons were determind after hexane extraction using GC-MS and divided into a light fraction (chain-length C27, Mykhailova et al., 2013). Potential soil respiration was determined every 48 h by trapping of CO2 evolving from 20 g soil in NaOH at 20 ° C and at 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and titration after a total incubation period of 4 weeks in the lab. It was found that soil respiration positively correlated with the ratio of the light fraction to the sum of medium and heavy fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons, which indicates higher biodegradation primarily of the light petroleum hydrocarbon fraction. Further, soil respiration was

  4. Hydrocarbon degassing of the earth and origin of oil-gas fields (isotope-geochemical and geodynamic aspects)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyaev, Boris; Dremin, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    More than half a century ago, Academician PN Kropotkin substantiated the relationship of the formation and distribution of oil and gas fields with the processes of emanation hydrocarbon degassing of the Earth. Over the years, the concept of PN Kropotkin received further development and recognition of studies based on new factual material. Of particular importance are the following factors: a) the results of studies on global and regional uneven processes of traditional oil and gas and the role of deep faults in controlling the spread of oil and gas fields; b) the results of the research on gigantic volumes and localization of the discharges of hydrocarbon fluids (mud volcanoes, seeps) on land and into the atmosphere and through the bottom of the World ocean; c) the results of the studies on grand volumes of the spread of unconventional hydrocarbon resources in their non-traditional fields, especially on near-surface interval of unconventional oil and gas accumulation with gas hydrates, heavy oil and bitumen, as well as extraordinary resources of oil and gas in the shale and tight rocks. Deep mantle-crust nature of oil and gas in traditional and nontraditional deposits thus received further substantiation of geological and geophysical data and research results. However, isotopic and geochemical data are still interpreted in favor of the concept of the genesis of oil and gas in the processes of thermal catalytic conversion of organic matter of sedimentary rocks, at temperatures up to 200°C. In this report an alternative interpretation of the isotope carbon-hydrogen system (δ13C-δD) for gas and of oil deposits, isotope carbon system for methane and carbon dioxide (δ13C1-δ13C0) will be presented. An alternative interpretation will also be presented for the data on carbon-helium isotope geochemical system for oil and gas fields, volcanoes and mud volcanoes. These constructions agree with the geological data on the nature of deep hydrocarbon fluids involved in the

  5. GDR Hycar work on the origin, fate and consequences of hydrocarbons in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumenq, P.; Guiliano, M.; Beaulieu, J.L. de; Bertrand, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the experimental results achieved by GDR Hycar concerning the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine deposits. The authors describe the experimental strategy that has been set up, in situ, in the Fos Gulf. 96 sediment pancakes, one cm thick and contaminated with a known quantity of petroleum have been installed on the sea bed, 5 meters below the water line. The aim was to follow the decay and migration of oil in deeper sediment layers underneath the pancakes. The experiment shows: -) a good decontamination of the pancake after 3 years, -) the presence of oil decay products in the 2-4 cm deep sediment layer, -) the presence of low-degraded oil (coming from the experiment and from previous contaminations of the site) in the 6 cm deep layer. The last result shows that the alteration process of oil slows down as it takes place deeper in the sediment layers. (A.C.)

  6. On energetics of hydrocarbon chemical reactions by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaykin, Yu.A.; Zaykina, R.F.; Mirkin, G.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The present global energy crisis requires the industry to look for technologies that are more effective and, particularly, less energy consuming. The hydrocarbon processing technology based on the electron radiation-induced thermal chemical conversion has a great potential. Comparing the presently predominant thermocatalytic processing, it is much more energy efficient, because chemical conversions go at a minimal processing temperature and pressure. To compare energy consumption by electron irradiation with thermal and thermocatalytic technologies of hydrocarbon processing one must see major differences between them. While traditional thermocatalytic processes are equilibrium and their energetics can be evaluated based on principles of classic thermodynamics, HEET processing is non-equilibrium and this evaluation approach is not valid for it. However, a theoretical description of radiation-chemical conversion using reaction rate constants determined in thermally equilibrium systems is approximately adequate to radiation processes by substituting equilibrium concentrations of reacting particles as their non-equilibrium concentrations under irradiation. In particular, description of radical reactions initiated by radiation requires substitution of thermally equilibrium radical concentration by much higher concentration defined by the dynamic equilibrium of radical radiation generation and their recombination. The paper presents the comparative analysis of energy consumption in different stages of hydrocarbon processing using classic thermal cracking by heating versus radiation induced cracking. It is shown that in the most energy-consuming stage of processing - the chain reaction initiation necessary for concentration of active radicals, irradiation processing has the great advantage compared to thermal cracking by heating and allows cutting down the total energy consumption by approximately 40%

  7. Deep Count: Fruit Counting Based on Deep Simulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Sheppard, Clay

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed significant advancement in computer vision research based on deep learning. Success of these tasks largely depends on the availability of a large amount of training samples. Labeling the training samples is an expensive process. In this paper, we present a simulated deep convolutional neural network for yield estimation. Knowing the exact number of fruits, flowers, and trees helps farmers to make better decisions on cultivation practices, plant disease prevention, and the size of harvest labor force. The current practice of yield estimation based on the manual counting of fruits or flowers by workers is a very time consuming and expensive process and it is not practical for big fields. Automatic yield estimation based on robotic agriculture provides a viable solution in this regard. Our network is trained entirely on synthetic data and tested on real data. To capture features on multiple scales, we used a modified version of the Inception-ResNet architecture. Our algorithm counts efficiently even if fruits are under shadow, occluded by foliage, branches, or if there is some degree of overlap amongst fruits. Experimental results show a 91% average test accuracy on real images and 93% on synthetic images. PMID:28425947

  8. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  9. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolation and surfactant influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbons are substantially insoluble in water, often remaining partitioned in the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). However, there had been little or no attempts to advance the bioavailability of hydrocarbons through the use of surfactants. This study was conducted based on the need to isolate hydrocarbon degrading ...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3650 - Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. 178.3650... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3650 Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons. Odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used, as a component of nonfood articles intended for use in...

  11. Occurrence and Toxicity of Hydrocarbon Residues in Crab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To elucidate seasonal changes in hydrocarbons including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to oil spill, tissues of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) were investigated. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (n-alkanes) concentrations ranged from 0.17-0.32ìg/gdw and 0.28-0.62ìg/gdw during the dry and wet seasons ...

  12. BIOREMEDIATION OF A PETROLEUM-HYDROCARBON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES OBE

    These results highlight the view that the availability of large amounts of oxygen in the soil profile induces an accelerated biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a polluted agricultural soil and implies that regular tillage of contaminated soils in the presence of nutrients could achieve the decontamination of such soils.

  13. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contaminated soil (FAO: Lithosol) containing >380 000 mg kg-1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was bioremediated by composting. The soil was inoculated with sewage sludge and incubated for 19 months. The soil was mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with wood chips. The soil-wood chips mixture was then mixed in a ratio ...

  14. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted systems: Exploiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The irrepressible quest for a cheap source of energy to meet the extensive global industrialization demand has expanded the frontiers of petroleum hydrocarbon exploration. These exploration activities amongst others often result in pollution of the environment, thus creating serious imbalance in the biotic and abiotic ...

  15. Biosurfactant-enhanced remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude biosurfactant extract produced by two microbial isolates, Pseudomonas mallei and Pseudomonas pseudomallei were used to enhance the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants in a mangrove swamp in Nigeria. Nutrient application in combination with biosurfactants showed very significant ...

  16. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  17. Synthesis and Screening of Advanced Hydrocarbon Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suri, Suresh

    2000-01-01

    .... The theoretical specific impulse (Isp) calculation reflected that hydrocarbons AFRL-1 (Isp = 311.4 sec), AFRL-2 (Isp = 307 sec), AFRL-3 (Isp = 307.2 sec), AFRL-4 (Isp = 321 sec) and AFRL-5 (Isp = 308.7 sec) outperform the current candidates...

  18. Mathematical modelling on transport of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A brief theory has been included on the composition and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons following an onshore oil spill in order to demonstrate the level of complexity associated with the LNAPL dissolution mass transfer even in a classical porous medium. However, such studies in saturated fractured rocks are highly ...

  19. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. GODSON

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy. Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers ... Exploration and production activities of petroleum in the Niger delta, Nigeria has led to the accidental ..... Chemical and bio-geophysical impact of four- dimensional seismic exploration.

  20. Dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Mean dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons, measured using UV-spectrophotometry, at 0 and 10m were 51 plus or minus 1 and 55 plus or minus 1.2 mu g/litre respectively; range of variation being between 28 and 83 mu g/litre. Very little difference...

  1. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory studies were carried out to assess the bacterial population dynamics and distribution in composite soil samples collected from five (5) different automobile workshops at various locations (Ikpa road, Nwaniba road, Udi street, Idakokpo lane and Mechanic village) within Uyo metropolis. The hydrocarbon utilizing ...

  2. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ter and its facies are considered very important while evaluating source rock potential. These types of organic matter must be identified and distin- guished, for different types of organic matter have different hydrocarbon potentials and products. The dispersed organic matter is classified in to various categories depending on ...

  3. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Contaminated soil (FAO: Lithosol) containing >380 000 mg kg-1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was bioremediated by composting. The soil was inoculated with sewage sludge and incubated for 19 months. The soil was mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with wood chips. The soil-wood chips mixture was.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and crabs in the mangrove ecosystems of Zanzibar. Sediments and crabs from eight sampling sites were analysed for eleven selected PAHs. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonication, ...

  5. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in water, soil and sediment samples collected from crude oil-impacted sites at Bodo community, Ogoniland in the Niger Delta were isolated using Bushnell-Haas agar. Bacterial genera tentatively characterized were Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, ...

  6. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  7. The role of hydrocarbons in energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents some reflections and statements as well as data regarding the role of hydrocarbons in energy production and consumption, in order to better highlight the role hydrocarbons may have in energy transition. It outlines the still very important share of oil in primary and final energy, and more particularly in transports, and that, despite the development of other energies, an energy transition is always very slow. It discusses the perspectives for hydrocarbon reserves and production of oil and natural gas. It outlines that oil remains the most important energy for mobility, the benefits of conventional fuels, and that distribution infrastructures must be preserved and developed. It discusses the evolution of the economic situation of the refining activity (more particularly its margin). It outlines the high contribution of oil industry to economic activity and employment in France, discusses the French energy taxing policy and environmental taxing policy, discusses the issue of security of energy supply (with its different components: exploration-production, refining, logistics and depots, distribution and station network). It discusses the possible role shale hydrocarbons may have in the future. For each issue, the position and opinion of the UFIP (the French Union of oil industries) is stated. The second part of the document proposes a Power Point presentation with several figures and data on these issues

  8. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  9. Measurements of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with both fluorescence and ultraviolet detection. The genotoxicity was investigated by means of two bacterial assays: the Ames test and the SOS Chromotest. A number of PAHs were identified and genotoxic activity was observed in both of the assays. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, toll plaza, genotoxicity.

  10. The sulfurous compounds consisting of hydrocarbon fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.В. Медвєдєва

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  The sulfurous compounds have been studied and their negative influence on operation properties of the oil and products of its processing have been described. Basic methods of definition of the hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans in the hydrocarbon fuels have been shown.

  11. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate catalyzed by manganese(III) tetra-arylporphyrins, to study the axial ligation of imidazole. REZA TAYEBEE. Department of Chemistry, Sabzevar Teacher Training University, Sabzevar, Iran 397 e-mail: rtayebee@sttu.ac.ir. MS received 4 June ...

  12. Cleaning up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arniella, E.F.; Holley, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes one new technology used to clean up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from underground storage tanks. Topics covered include cleanup criteria, soil remediation technologies, air stripping-soil venting system and process design and performance. This contaminated site was located in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area

  13. Antioxidant Functions of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a transcription factor belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM family. It is activated by a variety of ligands, such as environmental contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dioxins, but also by naturally occurring compounds and endogenous ligands. Binding of the ligand leads to dimerization of the AhR with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT and transcriptional activation of several xenobiotic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. It is generally accepted that the toxic responses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and structurally related compounds are mediated by activation of the AhR. A multitude of studies indicate that the AhR operates beyond xenobiotic metabolism and exerts pleiotropic functions. Increasing evidence points to a protective role of the AhR against carcinogenesis and oxidative stress. Herein, I will highlight data demonstrating a causal role of the AhR in the antioxidant response and present novel findings on potential AhR-mediated antioxidative mechanisms.

  14. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  15. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  16. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several water bodies in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where extensive crude oil production activities take place were analyzed for the presence of 16 US EPA priority polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) namely: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorine, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, ...

  17. Petroleum-hydrocarbons biodegradation by Pseudomonas strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. In this study, two bacterial strains were isolated from a contaminated soil of a refinery of Arzew (Oran). The isolated strains were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P3) and Pseudomonas fluoresens (P4).

  18. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  19. Adsorption of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The adsorption efficiency of a new hybrid clay adsorbent for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. (PAHs) is compared with known modified clay adsorbents. The new hybrid clay adsorbent (HYCA) showed far higher adsorption capacities for the adsorption of various PAH molecules compared with sodium ...

  20. Predicting the Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and this was followed by a 'plateau' concentration signifying the attainment of endpoint of the degradation process. Keywords: Model, Neuron, Feed forward, Training, Input, Hidden and Output layers. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, ...