Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…
Until now, Machiavellianism has mainly been studied in personality and social psychological framework, and little attention has been paid to the underlying cognitive and neural equipment. In light of recent findings, Machiavellian social skills are not limited to emotion regulation and "cold-mindedness" as many authors have recently stated, but linked to specific cognitive abilities. Although Machiavellians appear to have a relatively poor mindreading ability and emotional intelligence, they can efficiently exploit others which is likely to come from their flexible problem solving processes in changing environmental circumstances. The author proposed that Machiavellians have specialized cognitive domains of decision making, such as monitoring others' behavior, task orientation, reward seeking, inhibition of cooperative feelings, and choosing victims. He related the relevant aspects of cognitive functions to their neurological substrates, and argued why they make Machiavellians so successful in interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roč. 64, October (2016), s. 94-105 ISSN 2214-8043 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : cognitive ability * reduction of compound lotteries Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2016
Roč. 64, October (2016), s. 94-105 ISSN 2214-8043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : cognitive ability * reduction of compound lotteries Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.809, year: 2016
Marisol Morales Rodríguez
Full Text Available A life skills-based approach allows to develop psychosocial skills in adolescents; specifically, cognitive and social skills play a fundamental role. Thus arises the objective of the present study, strengthen self-efficacy and coping, cognitive skills and social skills in high school adolescents in rural area, through the implementation of two programs of psycho-educational intervention. It is based on a quantitative methodology, pre-experimental design of descriptivo-correlacional scope; participating 96 adolescents. The results highlight an improvement in social skills; In addition to finding partnership between advanced social skills and self-efficacy, as well as active coping with social skills; there were changes in self-efficacy and coping. It is concluded that the program was effective in improving social skills of teenagers; however, it requires more time for the improvement of cognitive abilities, given the conditions of a rural area.
Cognitive skills (e.g., decision making, problem solving) are critical to many jobs in the nuclear power industry, and yet the standard approach to training development does not always train these skills most effectively. In most cases, these skills are not described in sufficient detail, and training programs fail to address them explicitly. Cognitive psychologists have developed a set of techniques, based on analysis of expertise, for describing cognitive skills in more detail. These techniques incorporate a diverse set of human performance measures. An example is given to illustrate a method for determining how experts represent problems mentally. Cognitive psychologists have also established a set of empirical findings concerning skill acquisition. These findings can be used to provide some general rules for structuring the training of cognitive skills
Janik, Vincent M
Bottlenose dolphins display a behavioural skill set that makes them an interesting model system for the study of complexity in communication and cognition. They are capable of vocal learning, referential labelling, syntax comprehension, and joint attention. In their own communication system, these skills are used in individual recognition, group cohesion, and coordination, which suggests that social challenges are a universal selection pressure for complexity in communication and cognition independent of the physical environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Tin Cheuk Leung
Full Text Available This paper studies optimal distribution of skills in an optimal income tax framework with convex skill constraints. The problem is cast as a social planning problem where a redistributive planner chooses how to distribute a given amount of aggregate skills across people. We find that optimal skill distribution is either perfectly equal or perfectly unequal, but an interior level of skill inequality is never optimal.
The author reports a project research which aimed at identifying cognitive skills required for severe accident management. It is based on an analytical model of decision making for severe accident conditions. Moreover, scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision making difficulties and to test cognitive skills associated with each of the model's elements. The model used to identify cognitive skills comprised six general processes to describe decision-making performance: monitor/detect, interpret current state, determine implications, plan, control, feedback. For each of these processes, situational factors, cognitive limitations and biases, individual cognitive skills and team cognitive skills have been identified
Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars
aims to compare CL in traditional cadaveric dissection training and virtual reality (VR) simulation training of mastoidectomy. DESIGN: A prospective, crossover study. Participants performed cadaveric dissection before VR simulation of the procedure or vice versa. CL was estimated by secondary......OBJECTIVE: The cognitive load (CL) theoretical framework suggests that working memory is limited, which has implications for learning and skills acquisition. Complex learning situations such as surgical skills training can potentially induce a cognitive overload, inhibiting learning. This study......-task reaction time testing at baseline and during the procedure in both training modalities. SETTING: The national Danish temporal bone course. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 40 novice otorhinolaryngology residents. RESULTS: Reaction time was increased by 20% in VR simulation training and 55% in cadaveric dissection...
Kellogg, Ronald T.
Full Text Available Writing skills typically develop over a course of more than two decades as a child matures and learns the craft of composition through late adolescence and into early adulthood. The novice writer progresses from a stage of knowledge-telling to a stage of knowledgetransforming characteristic of adult writers. Professional writers advance further to an expert stage of knowledge-crafting in which representations of the author's planned content, the text itself, and the prospective reader's interpretation of the text are routinely manipulated in working memory. Knowledge-transforming, and especially knowledge-crafting, arguably occur only when sufficient executive attention is available to provide a high degree of cognitive control over the maintenance of multiple representations of the text as well as planning conceptual content, generating text, and reviewing content and text. Because executive attention is limited in capacity, such control depends on reducing the working memory demands of these writing processes through maturation and learning. It is suggested that students might best learn writing skills through cognitive apprenticeship training programs that emphasize deliberate practice.
Büchner, C.I.R.; Smits, W.; van der Velden, R.K.W.
This paper analyzes the relationship between cognitive skills, measured at age 12, andearnings of males and females at the age of 35, conditional on their attained educationallevel. Employing a large data set that combines a longitudinal school cohort survey withincome data from Dutch national tax files, our findings show that cognitive skills andspecifically math skills are rewarded on the labor market, but more for females thanfor males. The main factor driving this result is that cognitive...
Mannamaa, Mairi; Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Palu, Anu
Math achievement is not a unidimensional construct but includes different skills that require different cognitive abilities. The focus of this study was to examine associations between a number of cognitive abilities and three domains of math skills (knowing, applying and problem solving) simultaneously in a multivariate framework. Participants…
Barone, C.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.
This article investigates to what extent education is rewarded on the labour market because of the cognitive skills it indicates, using IALS data for the US, the UK, Germany and the Netherlands. By empirically distinguishing between general cognitive ability and work-specific cognitive ability, the
Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thomas, W.A. [Quantum Technologies, Inc., Oak Brook, IL (United States)
Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.
Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M.; Thomas, W.A.
Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills
The aim of this paper is to investigate whether there is a causal relationship between video game playing and children's cognitive and non-cognitive skills. According to the literature, video games have a potential to improve children's cognitive abilities. Video games may also positively a ect such non-cognitive skills as the ability to sustain attention and pro-social behavior. On the other hand, there are concerns that video games can teach children to behave aggressively. The Child Develo...
Doren, Catherine; Grodsky, Eric
Parental income and wealth contribute to children’s success but are at least partly endogenous to parents’ cognitive and noncognitive skills. We estimate the degree to which mothers’ skills measured in early adulthood confound the relationship between their economic resources and their children’s postsecondary education outcomes. Analyses of NLSY79 suggest that maternal cognitive and noncognitive skills attenuate half of parental income’s association with child baccalaureate college attendanc...
This study compared the construct validity and the predictive validity of a new test, called the Cognitive Structure Test, to multiple-choice tests of reading skill, namely the Armed Forces Vocational...
Hua, Håkan; Johansson, Björn; Magnusson, Lennart; Lyxell, Björn; Ellis, Rachel J.
Purpose: To examine the relation between speech recognition and cognitive skills in bimodal cochlear implant (CI) and hearing aid users. Method: Seventeen bimodal CI users (28-74 years) were recruited to the study. Speech recognition tests were carried out in quiet and in noise. The cognitive tests employed included the Reading Span Test and the…
Collet-Klingenberg, Lana; Chadsey-Rusch, Janis
This study evaluated a cognitive-process approach used to train three secondary-aged students with moderate mental retardation on a social skill involving response to criticism. The cognitive-process approach teaches a generative process of social behavior rather than specific component behaviors; relies on receptive and expressive language…
Wu, Qiaofeng; Chan, John S Y; Yan, Jin H
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional phase between normal cognitive aging and dementia. As the world population is aging rapidly, more MCI patients will be identified, posing significant problems to society. Normal aging is associated with cognitive and motor decline, and MCI brings additional impairments. Compared to healthy older adults, MCI patients show poorer motor control in a variety of tasks. Efficient motor control and skill learning are essential for occupational and leisure purposes; degradation of motor behaviors in MCI patients often adversely affects their health and quality of life. In this article, we first define MCI and describe its pathology and neural correlates. After this, we review cognitive changes and motor control and skill learning in normal aging. This section is followed by a discussion of MCI-related degradation of motor behaviors. Finally, we propose that multicomponent interventions targeting both cognitive and motor domains can improve MCI patients' motor functions. Future research directions are also raised.
Westendorp-Haverdings, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Mombarg, Remo; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
Purpose: This study examined the effect of a 16-wk ball skill intervention on the ball skills, executive functioning (in terms of problem solving and cognitive flexibility), and in how far improved executive functioning leads to improved reading and mathematics performance of children with learning
Doren, Catherine; Grodsky, Eric
Parental income and wealth contribute to children's success but are at least partly endogenous to parents' cognitive and noncognitive skills. We estimate the degree to which mothers' skills measured in early adulthood confound the relationship between their economic resources and their children's postsecondary education outcomes. Analyses of…
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Mombarg, Remo; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
This study examined the effect of a 16-wk ball skill intervention on the ball skills, executive functioning (in terms of problem solving and cognitive flexibility), and in how far improved executive functioning leads to improved reading and mathematics performance of children with learning disorders. Ninety-one children with learning disorders (age 7-11 yr old) were recruited from six classes in a Dutch special-needs primary school. The six classes were assigned randomly either to the intervention or to the control group. The control group received the school's regular physical education lessons. In the intervention group, ball skills were practiced in relative static, simple settings as well as in more dynamic and cognitive demanding settings. Both groups received two 40-min lessons per week. Children's scores on the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (ball skills), Tower of London (problem solving), Trail Making Test (cognitive flexibility), Dutch Analysis of Individual Word Forms (reading), and the Dutch World in Numbers test (mathematics) at pretest, posttest, and retention test were used to examine intervention effects. The results showed that the intervention group significantly improved their ball skills, whereas the control group did not. No intervention effects were found on the cognitive parameters. However, within the intervention group, a positive relationship (r = 0.41, P = 0.007) was found between the change in ball skill performance and the change in problem solving: the larger children's improvement in ball skills, the larger their improvement in problem solving. The present ball skill intervention is an effective instrument to improve the ball skills of children with learning disorders. Further research is needed to examine the effect of the ball skill intervention on the cognitive parameters in this population.
-biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...
Jarodzka, Halszka; Boshuizen, Els; Kirschner, Paul A.
Jarodzka, H., Boshuizen, H. P. A., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Cognitive skills in catheter-based cardiovascular interventions. In P. Lanzer (Ed.), Catheter-based cardiovascular interventions (pp. 69-86). Berlin, Germany: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-27676-7_7
The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between the prior experience, cognitive perceptions and psychological skills of senior rugby players in South Africa. The study population included 139 trans-national players, 106 provincial players and 95 club rugby players (N=340). A cross-sectional design was ...
... dimensions of business and in Business Skills Cognition. The findings are important in evaluating the usefulness of the informal sector in employment creation and the ability of the participants to earn a comparative advantage in an increasingly complex and competitive free market system. (Eastern Africa Social Science ...
Farkas, George; And Others
Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…
Full Text Available The presence of lifeguard service on beaches greatly contributes to reducing the number of accidents in and around the water. The lifeguard can be a person with good motor, but also cognitive skills and abilities. In addition to good swimming skills, lifeguard must be able to quickly detect and recognize the accident, and also to be able to timely and correctly act in case of accident in water, but also at the beach. The goal of this study is to determine the structure of cognitive abilities and skills with the sample of lifeguards that work on Montenegrin beaches. Battery KOG-3 was applied on the sample of 40 lifeguards. The collected and achieved results lead to following conclusion: the subjects have good ability to determine relation between elements of a structure and lower characteristics of that structure; subjects have good ability to assess the efficiency of serial processor; and subjects have good ability to assess efficiency of perceptive processor.
Wittorf, Andreas; Jakobi-Malterre, Ute E; Beulen, Silke; Bechdolf, Andreas; Müller, Bernhard W; Sartory, Gudrun; Wagner, Michael; Wiedemann, Georg; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Herrlich, Jutta; Klingberg, Stefan
Despite the promising findings in relation to the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp), little attention has been paid to the therapy skills necessary to deliver CBTp and to the influence of such skills on processes underlying therapeutic change. Our study investigated the associations between general and technical therapy skills and patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. The study sample consisted of 79 patients with psychotic disorders who had undergone CBTp. We randomly selected one tape-recorded therapy session from each of the cases. General and technical therapy skills were assessed by the Cognitive Therapy Scale for Psychosis. The Bern Post Session Report for Patients was applied to measure patient experiences of general change processes in the sense of Grawe's psychological therapy. General skills, such as feedback and understanding, explained 23% of the variance of patients' self-esteem experience, but up to 10% of the variance of mastery, clarification, and contentment experiences. The technical skill of guided discovery consistently showed negative associations with patients' alliance, contentment, and control experiences. The study points to the importance of general therapy skills for patient experiences of change processes in CBTp. Some technical skills, however, could detrimentally affect the therapeutic relationship. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Christopher A. Stevens
Full Text Available Training negotiation is difficult because it is a complex, dynamic activity that involves multiple parties. It is often not clear how to create situations in which students can practice negotiation or how to measure students' progress. Some have begun to address these issues by creating artificial software agents with which students can train. These agents have the advantage that they can be “reset,” and played against multiple times. This allows students to learn from their mistakes and try different strategies. However, these agents are often based on normative theories of how negotiators should conduct themselves, not necessarily how people actually behave in negotiations. Here, we take a step toward addressing this gap by developing an agent grounded in a cognitive architecture, ACT-R. This agent contains a model of theory-of-mind, the ability of humans to reason about the mental states of others. It uses this model to try to infer the strategy of the opponent and respond accordingly. In a series of experiments, we show that this agent replicates some aspects of human performance, is plausible to human negotiators, and can lead to learning gains in a small-scale negotiation task.
Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate
Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding the nature of science), and general information-processing skills (inhibition, intelligence, and language abilities) in a whole-class testing procedure. A multiple indicators multiple causes model revealed a significant influence of social cognition (AToM) on epistemological understanding, and a McNemar test suggested that children's development of AToM is an important precursor for the emergence of an advanced, mature epistemological understanding. Children's epistemological understanding, in turn, predicted their experimentation skills. Importantly, this relation was independent of the common influences of general information processing. Significant relations between experimentation skills and inhibition, and between epistemological understanding, intelligence, and language abilities emerged, suggesting that general information processing contributes to the conceptual development that is involved in scientific thinking. The model of scientific thinking that was tested in this study (social cognition and epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills) fitted the data significantly better than 2 alternative models, which assumed nonspecific, equally strong relations between all constructs under investigation. Our results support the conclusion that social cognition plays a foundational role in the emergence of children's epistemological understanding, which in turn is closely related to the development of experimentation skills. Our findings have significant implications for the teaching of scientific thinking in elementary school and they stress the importance of children's epistemological understanding in
Rogowsky, Beth A.; Papamichalis, Pericles; Villa, Laura; Heim, Sabine; Tallal, Paula
This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students’ reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students’ foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing) in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language), who demonstrated poor writing skills, participated in the training group. The training group received daily training during the spring semester (11 weeks) with the Fast ForWord Literacy (FFW-L) and upper levels of the Fast ForWord Reading series (Levels 3–5). The comparison group (n = 28) selected from the general college population did not receive training. Both the training and comparison groups attended the same university. All students took the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT) and the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS) Written Expression Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the spring college semester. Results from this study showed that the training group made a statistically greater improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 in both their reading skills and their writing skills than the comparison group. The group who received training began with statistically lower writing skills before training, but exceeded the writing skills of the comparison group after training. PMID:23533100
Rogowsky, Beth A; Papamichalis, Pericles; Villa, Laura; Heim, Sabine; Tallal, Paula
This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students' reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students' foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing) in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language), who demonstrated poor writing skills, participated in the training group. The training group received daily training during the spring semester (11 weeks) with the Fast ForWord Literacy (FFW-L) and upper levels of the Fast ForWord Reading series (Levels 3-5). The comparison group (n = 28) selected from the general college population did not receive training. Both the training and comparison groups attended the same university. All students took the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT) and the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS) Written Expression Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the spring college semester. Results from this study showed that the training group made a statistically greater improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 in both their reading skills and their writing skills than the comparison group. The group who received training began with statistically lower writing skills before training, but exceeded the writing skills of the comparison group after training.
Full Text Available This study reports an evaluation of the effect of computer-based cognitive and linguistic training on college students’ reading and writing skills. The computer-based training included a series of increasingly challenging software programs that were designed to strengthen students’ foundational cognitive skills (memory, attention span, processing speed, and sequencing in the context of listening and higher level reading tasks. Twenty-five college students (12 native English language; 13 English Second Language who demonstrated poor writing skills participated in the training group. The training group received daily training during the spring semester (11 weeks with the Fast ForWord Literacy (FFW-L and upper levels of the Fast ForWord Reading series (Levels 3, 4 and 5. The comparison group (n=28 selected from the general college population did not receive training. Both the training and comparison groups attended the same university. All students took the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (GMRT and the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS Written Expression Scale at the beginning (Time 1 and end (Time 2 of the spring college semester. Results from this study showed that the training group made a statistically greater improvement from Time 1 to Time 2 in both their reading skills and their writing skills than the comparison group. The group who received training began with statistically lower writing skills before training, but exceeded the writing skills of the comparison group after training.
Cunha, Flavio; Heckman, James; Schennach, Susanne
This paper formulates and estimates multistage production functions for child cognitive and noncognitive skills. Output is determined by parental environments and investments at different stages of childhood. We estimate the elasticity of substitution between investments in one period and stocks of skills in that period to assess the benefits of early investment in children compared to later remediation. We establish nonparametric identification of a general class of nonlinear factor models. A by-product of our approach is a framework for evaluating childhood interventions that does not rely on arbitrarily scaled test scores as outputs and recognizes the differential effects of skills in different tasks. Using the estimated technology, we determine optimal targeting of interventions to children with different parental and personal birth endowments. Substitutability decreases in later stages of the life cycle for the production of cognitive skills. It increases in later stages of the life cycle for the production of noncognitive skills. This finding has important implications for the design of policies that target the disadvantaged. For some configurations of disadvantage and outcomes, it is optimal to invest relatively more in the later stages of childhood.
Stratton, Leslie S.; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Reimer, David
We examine the role of cognitive and non-cognitive skills on enrollment in and completion of three types of vocational training (VET): education/health, technical, and business. Using two nine-year panels of Danish youths, estimation proceeds separately by gender, controlling for selection...... and right censoring. Cognitive skills are captured with math and language exam scores, non-cognitive skills with teacher-assigned grades. We find that all skills are inversely related to enrollment and math scores are positively related to certification for all VET programs. Language skills are, however...
van Maarseveen, Mariëtte J J; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Mann, David L; Savelsbergh, Geert J P
Many studies have shown that experts possess better perceptual-cognitive skills than novices (e.g., in anticipation, decision making, pattern recall), but it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between performance on those tests of perceptual-cognitive skill and actual on-field performance. In this study, we assessed the in situ performance of skilled soccer players and related the outcomes to measures of anticipation, decision making, and pattern recall. In addition, we examined gaze behaviour when performing the perceptual-cognitive tests to better understand whether the underlying processes were related when those perceptual-cognitive tasks were performed. The results revealed that on-field performance could not be predicted on the basis of performance on the perceptual-cognitive tests. Moreover, there were no strong correlations between the level of performance on the different tests. The analysis of gaze behaviour revealed differences in search rate, fixation duration, fixation order, gaze entropy, and percentage viewing time when performing the test of pattern recall, suggesting that it is driven by different processes to those used for anticipation and decision making. Altogether, the results suggest that the perceptual-cognitive tests may not be as strong determinants of actual performance as may have previously been assumed.
Garraffa, Maria; Beveridge, Madeleine; Sorace, Antonella
We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian–Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian–Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children. PMID:26733903
This study explored the skills students develop through participation in instrumental music and the effect it has on their academic achievement through student and parent/guardian surveys. Fifty-eight percent of cognitive skills were identified as being obtained by a majority of students, 70% of affective skills, and 71% of meta-cognitive skills…
Telzer, Eva H; Qu, Yang; Lin, Lynda C
Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. In Study 1, 71 American (47 females, M=19.68 years) and 68 Chinese (38 females, M=19.37 years) students completed a behavioral cognitive control task that required cognitive persistence across time. In Study 2, 14 American and 15 Chinese students completed the same cognitive persistence task during an fMRI scan. Across both studies, American students showed significant declines in cognitive performance across time, whereas Chinese participants demonstrated effective cognitive persistence. These behavioral effects were explained by cultural differences in self-improvement motivation and paralleled by increasing activation and functional coupling between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral striatum (VS) across the task among Chinese participants, neural activation and coupling that remained low in American participants. These findings suggest a potential neural mechanism by which the VS and IFG work in concert to promote cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards. Thus, frontostriatal circuitry may be a neurobiological signal representing intrinsic motivation for self-improvement that serves an adaptive function, increasing Chinese students' motivation to engage in cognitive persistence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying Auditory Learning. This project seeks to understand the brain mechanisms necessary for people to learn to perceive sounds. Neural circuits and learning. The research team will test people with and without musical training to evaluate their capacity to learn ...
Rosimeri de Oliveira Dias
Full Text Available This study analyzes the formation of teachers and its relationships with the skills society. According to Sennett the skills society appears in the capitalism mutations and brings within it the notion of portable potential ability, stimulating the workers, so they can cope with acceleration and the short-term of information. The investigation distinguishes two cognition policies in the formation of teachers: (information and (transformation, which co-exist. The first is based on information and connects knowing with the transmission and processing of symbolic representations. The second is grounded in experience and highlights the inseparable relationship between knowledge and invention. The study suggests that the processes which reduce formation to training and information, aiming for the development of abilities and competences, consider formation as the acquisition of knowledge ready to be consumed. In another direction, training is an inventive process, which is based on problematization and the knowledge construction experience.
Jarrett, Robin B.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.
The authors describe the development and psychometric properties of a new measure called the Skills of Cognitive Therapy (SoCT) in depressed adults and their cognitive therapists. The 8-item SoCT assesses patients' understanding and use of basic cognitive therapy (CT) skills rated from the perspectives of both observers (SoCT-O; therapists in this…
Huguet, Pascal; Barbet, Isabelle; Belletier, Clément; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Fagot, Joël
From cockroaches to human beings, the presence of other members of the same species typically facilitates dominant (habitual/well-learned) responses regardless of their contextual relevance. This social facilitation requires special attention in animal species such as primates, given their evolved cognitive control mechanisms. Here we tested baboons who freely engaged in (computer-based) conflict response tasks requiring cognitive control for successful performance, and discovered that social presence does not only enhance dominant responses but also consumes cognitive control resources. Under social presence, the baboons experienced greater cognitive conflicts, were less able to inhibit a learned action in favor of a new one, and were also less able to take advantage of previous experience with response conflict, compared with isolation. These findings explain why inappropriate behaviors are not easily suppressed in primates acting in social contexts, and indicate a greater demand for cognitive control in social groups. This extra demand might represent a major evolutionary drive of human intelligence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam
Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Purcell, S; Mullington, J; Moffitt, A; Hoffmann, R; Pigeau, R
This research was directed toward the contradiction sustained by cognitive dream psychology, which on the one hand regards dreaming as higher symbolic activity and, on the other, sees its organizational and functional characteristics as derivative and/or inferior to those of waking consciousness. Study 1 evaluates the degree of self-reflective meta-cognition in dreams from different sleep stages. Subjects were 24 college students selected such that half were self-reported high-frequency dream recallers and half were low-frequency recallers. Both groups were composed equally of men and women. Greater self-reflectiveness (SR) was found in REM dreams as compared with those from stages 2 and 4, which did not differ. High-frequency recallers showed more dream SR than did low-frequency recallers. Study 2 assessed the extent to which self-reflective and lucid dreaming can be learned as a cognitive skill by varying levels of intention and attention paid to dreaming. After 3 weeks of home dream collection, results showed that four experimental groups had greater dream SR than did a baseline group. The most effective treatment was the mnemonic, wherein attention patterning schemas learned in waking resulted in more self-reflective and lucid dreaming than did either baseline or attention-control conditions. These results provide evidence that dreaming is not single-minded but variable along a self-reflective process continuum, and suggest functional and organizational levels that are consistent with the conception of dreaming as higher order cognitive activity.
Encarnação, Pedro; Alvarez, Liliana; Rios, Adriana; Maya, Catarina; Adams, Kim; Cook, Al
To evaluate the feasibility of using virtual robot-mediated play activities to assess cognitive skills. Children with and without disabilities utilized both a physical robot and a matching virtual robot to perform the same play activities. The activities were designed such that successfully performing them is an indication of understanding of the underlying cognitive skills. Participants' performance with both robots was similar when evaluated by the success rates in each of the activities. Session video analysis encompassing participants' behavioral, interaction and communication aspects revealed differences in sustained attention, visuospatial and temporal perception, and self-regulation, favoring the virtual robot. The study shows that virtual robots are a viable alternative to the use of physical robots for assessing children's cognitive skills, with the potential of overcoming limitations of physical robots such as cost, reliability and the need for on-site technical support. Virtual robots can provide a vehicle for children to demonstrate cognitive understanding. Virtual and physical robots can be used as augmentative manipulation tools allowing children with disabilities to actively participate in play, educational and therapeutic activities. Virtual robots have the potential of overcoming limitations of physical robots such as cost, reliability and the need for on-site technical support.
Jashar, Dasal Tenzin; Brennan, Laura A.; Barton, Marianne L.; Fein, Deborah
The current study compared adaptive and cognitive skills, and autism severity of toddlers with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis under DSM-IV but not DSM-5 criteria (DSM-IV only group) to those who met autism criteria under both diagnostic systems (DSM-5 group) and to those without ASD (non-ASD group). The toddlers in the DSM-IV only…
Behrman, Jere R.; Hoddinott, John; Maluccio, John A.; Soler-Hampejsek, Erica; Behrman, Emily L.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ram?rez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D.
Most empirical investigations of the effects of cognitive skills assume that they are produced by schooling. Drawing on longitudinal data to estimate production functions for adult verbal and nonverbal cognitive skills, we find that: (1) School attainment has a significant and substantial effect on adult verbal cognitive skills but not on adult nonverbal cognitive skills; and (2) Pre-school and post-school experiences also have substantial positive significant effects on adult cognitive skill...
Soren Van Hout Solari
Full Text Available Interactions between the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia form the basis ofcognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Understanding the principles ofneuroanatomical organization in these structures is critical to understanding the functions theyperform and ultimately how the human brain works. We have manually distilled and synthesizedhundreds of primate neuroanatomy facts into a single interactive visualization. The resultingpicture represents the fundamental neuroanatomical blueprint upon which cognitive functionsmust be implemented. Within this framework we hypothesize and detail 7 functional circuitscorresponding to psychological perspectives on the brain: consolidated long-term declarativememory, short-term declarative memory, working memory/information processing, behavioralmemory selection, behavioral memory output, cognitive control, and cortical information flow regulation. Each circuit is described in terms of distinguishable neuronal groups including thecerebral isocortex (9 pyramidal neuronal groups, parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus,thalamus (4 neuronal groups, basal ganglia (7 neuronal groups, metencephalon, basal forebrainand other subcortical nuclei. We focus on neuroanatomy related to primate non-primary corticalsystems to elucidate the basis underlying the distinct homotypical cognitive architecture. To dis-play the breadth of this review, we introduce a novel method of integrating and presenting datain multiple independent visualizations: an interactive website (www.cognitiveconsilience.comand standalone iPhone and iPad applications. With these tools we present a unique, annotatedview of neuroanatomical consilience (integration of knowledge.
De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; D'Elia, Alessandra; Giagnotti, Francesca; Matera, Emilia; Quaranta, Nicola
The aim of this study is to examine cognitive skills, adaptive behavior, social and emotional skills in deaf children with cochlear implant (CI) compared to normal hearing children. The study included twenty children affected by profound hearing loss implanted with a CI compared to 20 healthy children matched to chronological age and gender. Results of this study indicated that 55% of children with CI showed a score in the normal range of nonverbal intelligence (IQ > 84), 40% in the borderline range (71 differences were found after comparison with normal hearing children.Children with CI reported more abnormalities in emotional symptoms (p = .018) and peer problems(p = .037) than children with normal hearing. Age of CI was negatively correlated with IQ (p = .002),positively correlated with emotional symptoms (p = .04) and with peer problems (p = .02). CI has a positive effect on the lives of deaf children, especially if it is implanted in much earlier ages.
Moh. Aries Syufagi
Full Text Available To assess the cognitive level of player ability is difficult; many instruments are potentially biased, unreliable, and invalid test. Whereas, in serious game is important to know the cognitive level. If the cognitive level can be measured well, the mastery learning can be achieved. Mastery learning is the core of the learning process in serious game. To classify the cognitive level of players, researchers propose a Cognitive Skill Game (CSG. CSG improves this cognitive concept to monitor how players interact with the game. This game employs Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ for optimizing the cognitive skill input classification of the player. Training data in LVQ use data observation from the teacher. Populations of cognitive skill classification in this research are pupils when playing the game. Mostly players cognitive skill game have cognitive skill category are Trial and Error. Some of them have Expert category, and a few included in the group carefully. Thus, the general level of skill of the player is still low. Untuk menilai tingkat kognitif dari kemampuan pemain sangatlah sulit; banyak instrumen yang berpotensi bias, tidak dapat diandalkan, dan merupakan tes yang tidak valid. Padahal, dalam serious game penting untuk mengetahui tingkat kognitif. Jika tingkat kognitif dapat diukur dengan baik, penguasaan pembelajaran dapat dicapai. Penguasaan belajar adalah inti dari proses belajar dalam serious game. Untuk mengklasifikasikan tingkat kognitif pemain, kami mengusulkan Cognitive Skill Game (CSG. CSG meningkatkan konsep kognitif untuk memantau bagaimana pemain berinteraksi dengan permainan. Permainan ini menggunakan Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ untuk mengoptimalkan input klasifikasi keterampilan kognitif pemain. Data trining dalam observasi LVQ menggunakan data dari guru. Populasi klasifikasi keterampilan kognitif dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa saat memainkan permainan. Sebagian besar pemain CSG berkategori keterampilan kognitif
Bouquet, C A; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Abraini, J H
Psychomotor deficits are a prominent feature in subjects exposed to hypoxia. Eight subjects exposed to chronic hypoxia during a simulated climb to 8848 m (Everest-Comex 97) were investigated using both a simple psychomotor task (Purdue pegboard) and two complex psychomotor tasks including a recognition task of either a color stimulus (high semantic level) or an abstract sign (low semantic level). Exposure to hypoxic stress mainly produced psychomotor skills learning deficits compared to control study, with greater deficits in the complex psychomotor task. The pattern of results suggests disruptions of motor strategic process. Our data further suggest that the relative strength of implicit or automatic memory processes associated with semantic information processing may increase when disturbances occur in brain functions.
Jung, Eunjoo; Molfese, Victoria J.; Beswick, Jennifer; Jacobi-Vessels, Jill; Molnar, Andrew
Research Findings: The present study used a longitudinal design to identify how sleep habits and learning-related behaviors impact the development of cognitive skills in preschoolers (ages 3-5). Sixty- seven children with parental report and cognitive skill assessment data were included. Scores on the Differential Ability Scales (C. Elliott, 1990)…
Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate
Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding…
Moh. Aries Syufagi
Full Text Available Nowadays, serious games and game technology are poised to transform the way of educating and training students at all levels. However, pedagogical value in games do not help novice students learn, too many memorizing and reduce learning process due to no information of player’s ability. To asses the cognitive level of player ability, we propose a Cognitive Skill Game (CSG. CSG improves this cognitive concept to monitor how players interact with the game. This game employs Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ for optimizing the cognitive skill input classification of the player. CSG is using teacher’s data to obtain the neuron vector of cognitive skill pattern supervise. Three clusters multi objective target will be classified as; trial and error, carefully and, expert cognitive skill. In the game play experiments using 33 respondent players demonstrates that 61% of players have high trial and error cognitive skill, 21% have high carefully cognitive skill, and 18% have high expert cognitive skill. CSG may provide information to game engine when a player needs help or when wanting a formidable challenge. The game engine will provide the appropriate tasks according to players’ ability. CSG will help balance the emotions of players, so players do not get bored and frustrated. Players have a high interest to finish the game if the player is emotionally stable. Interests in the players strongly support the procedural learning in a serious game.
Presti, Giovambattista; Messina, Concetta; Mongelli, Francesca; Sireci, Maria Josè; Collotta, Mario
Relational Frame Theory is a post-skinnerian theory of language and cognition based on more than thirty years of basic and applied research. It defines language and cognitive skills as an operant repertoire of responses to arbitrarily related stimuli specific, as far as is now known, of the human species. RFT has been proved useful in addressing cognitive barriers to human action in psychotherapy and also improving children skills in reading, IQ testing, and in metaphoric and categorical repertoires. We present a frame of action where RFT can be used in programming software to help autistic children to develop cognitive skills within a developmental vision.
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the study was to compare the cognitive skills of young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD to same-aged peers referred for possible developmental delays or behavioral concerns using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition. Method. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 147 children ages 16 to 38 months who were referred to a diagnostic clinic for developmental evaluation. Children with ASD were compared to those without ASD with respect to cognition and language outcomes, both overall and by age. Results. While language skills in children with ASD were more significantly delayed than language skills in children without ASD, there was less discrepancy in the cognitive skills of children with and without ASD. Conclusion. Formal cognitive assessment of children with ASD can provide guidance for developmental expectations and educational programming. Cognitive skills of children with ASD may be underappreciated.
Goldstein, Thalia R.
Empathy, theory of mind, and adaptive emotion regulation are critical skills for social functioning. However, the ways in which these skills may co- or differentially develop has thus far been understudied. We explored how these social-cognitive skills converge and diverge across a year of development in early adolescence, and with different kinds…
Paul, Katja; Cnossen, Fokeltje; Lanzer, Peter
Catheter-based cardiovascular interventions (CBCVI) provide a fascinating context to study skill acquisition. In CBCVI, multiple cognitive skills are crucial; technical, perceptual, and decision-making skills are all used at the same time and often depend on each other. In order to be able to
Rosane Reis de Mello
Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Children born prematurely often have worse cognitive performance than those born at term regarding skills such as memory, attention and processing speed. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia may compromise cognitive development. The aims here were: a To describe the cognitive performance of preterm infants with very low birth weight; b To investigate its association with bronchopul-monary dysplasia adjusted for sociodemographic, neonatal and post-neonatal factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study developed in a public tertiary-care hospital. METHODS: To evaluate cognition among 112 children, we applied an intelligence scale (Wechsler scale. The average scores for children with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia were compared across the fve domains of the scale. Associations with bronchopulmonary dysplasia were investigated for domains that showed signifcant diferences between the two groups. Associations between exposure and outcome were estimated via multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: There were no diferences in averages for the full-scale intelligence quotient, verbal intelligence quotient, performance intelligence quotient and general language composite domains. The processing speed quotient was the only domain that presented a signifcant diference between the two groups (P = 0.02. Among the children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, low full-scale intelligence quotient was observed in 28.1%. In the multivariate analysis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (odds ratio: 3.1; 95conf-dence interval: 1.1-8.7 remained associated with the outcome of processing speed quotient. CONCLUSION: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was an independent risk factor for alteration of the processing speed quotient.
Pukk Härenstam, Karin; Gaffney, Drew
Most safety-critical enterprises have programs for teaching and training non-technical skills to their employees. These skills must complement pure technical skills. Programs for teaching and introducing these skills (communication, leadership, teamwork, decision-making, handling of conflicts and feed-back) are developing also in health-care. It is important that non-technical skills in combination with technical skills are seen as the foundation when developing new and safer ways to do the daily work with patients.
Louise B. Glenthøj
Conclusion: Significant impairments in social cognition and social skills were found in UHR patients. The patients' social cognitive function was associated with overall functioning and social skills. Negative symptoms appear to play an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients is warranted.
Soler, Juan José; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio Manuel; Flensted-Jensen, Einar; Møller, Anders Pape
Parasite-mediated selection may affect the evolution of cognitive abilities because parasites may influence development of the brain, but also learning capacity. Here, we tested some predictions of this hypothesis by analyzing the relationship between complex behaviours (feeding innovations (as a measure of behavioural flexibility) and ability to detect foreign eggs in their nests (i.e. a measure of discriminatory ability)) and abundance of microorganisms in different species of birds. A positive relationship would be predicted if these cognitive abilities implied a larger number of visited environments, while if these skills favoured detection and avoidance of risky environments, a negative relationship would be the prediction. Bacterial loads of eggshells, estimated for mesophilic and potentially pathogenic bacteria (i.e. Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Enterobacteriaceae), were used as a surrogate of probability of contact with pathogenic bacteria. We found that bird species with higher feeding innovation rates and rejection rates of experimental brood parasitic eggs had higher density of bacteria on their eggshells than the average species. Since the analysed groups of microorganisms include pathogenic bacteria, these results suggest that both feeding innovation and ability to recognize foreign eggs are costly and highlight the importance of parasite-mediated selection in explaining the evolution of cognitive abilities in animals.
Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun
It is known that different neural circuits are involved in working memory and cognitive skill learning that represent explicit and implicit memory functions, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic correlates of working memory and cognitive skill learning with correlation analysis of FDG PET images. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24 ± 2 yr; 5 males and 9 females) underwent brain FDG PET and neuropsychological testing. Two-back task and weather prediction task were used for the evaluation of working memory and cognitive skill learning, respectively, Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and cognitive task performance was examined using SPM99. A significant positive correlation between 2-back task performance and regional glucose metabolism was found in the prefrontal regions and superior temporal gyri bilaterally. In the first term of weather prediction task the task performance correlated positively with glucose metabolism in the bilateral prefrontal areas, left middle temporal and posterior cingulate gyri, and left thalamus. In the second and third terms of the task, the correlation found in the prefrontal areas, superior temporal and anterior cingulate gyri bilaterally, right insula, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. We identified the neural substrates that are related with performance of working memory and cognitive skill learning. These results indicate that brain regions associated with the explicit memory system are recruited in early periods of cognitive skill learning, but additional brain regions including caudate nucleus are involved in late periods of cognitive skill learning
Savla, Gauri N; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Thompson, Wesley K; Delis, Dean C; Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W
Schizophrenia is associated with executive dysfunction. Yet, the degree to which executive functions are impaired differentially, or above and beyond underlying basic cognitive processes is less clear. Participants included 145 matched pairs of individuals with schizophrenia (SCs) and normal comparison subjects (NCs). Executive functions were assessed with 10 tasks of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), in terms of "achievement scores" reflecting overall performance on the task. Five of these tasks (all measuring executive control) were further examined in terms of their basic component (e.g., processing speed) scores and contrast scores (reflecting residual higher order skills adjusted for basic component skills). Group differences were examined via multivariate analysis of variance. SCs had worse performance than NCs on all achievement scores, but the greatest SC-NC difference was that for the Trails Switching task. SCs also had worse performance than NCs on all basic component skills. Of the executive control tasks, only Trails Switching continued to be impaired after accounting for impairments in underlying basic component skills. Much of the impairment in executive functions in schizophrenia may reflect the underlying component skills rather than higher-order functions. However, the results from one task suggest that there might be additional impairment in some aspects of executive control.
Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Deary, Ian J
Previous research has indicated that education influences cognitive development, but it is unclear what, precisely, is being improved. Here, we tested whether education is associated with cognitive test score improvements via domain-general effects on general cognitive ability (g), or via domain-specific effects on particular cognitive skills. We conducted structural equation modeling on data from a large (n = 1,091), longitudinal sample, with a measure of intelligence at age 11 years and 10 tests covering a diverse range of cognitive abilities taken at age 70. Results indicated that the association of education with improved cognitive test scores is not mediated by g, but consists of direct effects on specific cognitive skills. These results suggest a decoupling of educational gains from increases in general intellectual capacity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Woolley, Norman N; Jarvis, Yvonne
The acquisition of a range of diverse clinical skills is a central feature of the pre-registration nursing curriculum. Prior to exposure to clinical practice, it is essential that learners have the opportunity to practise and develop such skills in a safe and controlled environment under the direction and supervision of clinical experts. However, the competing demands of the HE nursing curriculum coupled with an increased number of learners have resulted in a reduced emphasis on traditional apprenticeship learning. This paper presents an alternative model for clinical skills teaching that draws upon the principles of cognitive apprenticeship [Collins, A., Brown, J.S., Newman, S., 1989. Cognitive Apprenticeship: teaching the crafts of reading, writing and mathematics. In: Resnick, L.B. (Ed.) Knowing. Learning and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glaser. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, pp. 453-494] and situated cognition within a technologically rich and authentic learning environment. It will show how high quality DVD materials illustrating clinical skills performed by expert practitioners have been produced and used in conjunction with CCTV and digital recording technologies to support learning within a pedagogic framework appropriate to skills acquisition. It is argued that this model not only better prepares the student for the time they will spend in the practice setting, but also lays the foundation for the development of a clinically competent practitioner with the requisite physical and cognitive skills who is fit for purpose [UKCC, 1999. Fitness for Practice: The UKCC Commission for Nursing and Midwifery Education. United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing Midwifery and Health Visiting, London].
Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Bäumer, Anita
Kester, L., Kirschner, P., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Bäumer, A. (2001). Just-in-time information presentation and the acquisition of complex cognitive skills. Computers in Human Behavior, 17, 373-391.
Kester, Liesbeth; Lehnen, Chris; Van Gerven, Pascal; Kirschner, Paul A.
Kester, L., Lehnen, C., Van Gerven, P.W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Just-in-time, Schematic Supportive Information Presentation During Cognitive Skill Acquisition. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 93-112 .
Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E., Jr.
Discusses how purposeful heading of soccer balls and head injuries affect soccer players' cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive deficits may occur for many reasons. Heading cannot be blamed when details of the actual event and impact are unknown. Concussions are the most common head injury in soccer and a factor in cognitive deficits and are probably…
van der Fels, Irene M. J.; te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; Hartman, Esther; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
Objectives: This review aims to give an overview of studies providing evidence for a relationship between motor and cognitive skills in typically developing children. Design: A systematic review. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. A total of 21
Kishore, Thekke Adiyat; Pedro, Renato N; Monga, Manoj; Sweet, Robert M
The purpose of the study was to assess the construct validity of an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) developed for cystoscopic and ureteroscopic cognitive and psychomotor skills. An OSATS was designed based on a 14-point comprehensive curriculum prepared by two experts that targeted both cognitive and psychomotor cystoscopic and ureteroscopic skills. Ten urology residents from a single institution with different levels of training were assessed on a series of stations that targeted these skills. Evaluation of cognitive skills was done via a written examination, and psychomotor skills assessment was done by experts using both subjective and objective metrics. Twelve of 15 cognitive tasks and 5 of 5 psychomotor tasks demonstrated construct validity with correlation coefficient (r) more than .75. All three of the cognitive tasks that failed to initially demonstrate validity did so on editorial revision and restructuring of the questions. Our cystoscopic and ureteroscopic OSATS showed excellent construct validity for our population of residents, and we have incorporated it into our urologic skills curriculum.
Wiener, Jan M; Berthoz, Alain; Wolbers, Thomas
Path integration is a fundamental mechanism of spatial navigation. In non-human species, it is assumed to be an online process in which a homing vector is updated continuously during an outward journey. In contrast, human path integration has been conceptualized as a configural process in which travelers store working memory representations of path segments, with the computation of a homing vector only occurring when required. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we tested whether humans can employ different path integration strategies in the same task. Using a triangle completion paradigm, participants were instructed either to continuously update the start position during locomotion (continuous strategy) or to remember the shape of the outbound path and to calculate home vectors on basis of this representation (configural strategy). While overall homing accuracy was superior in the configural condition, participants were quicker to respond during continuous updating, strongly suggesting that homing vectors were computed online. Corroborating these findings, we observed reliable differences in head orientation during the outbound path: when participants applied the continuous updating strategy, the head deviated significantly from straight ahead in direction of the start place, which can be interpreted as a continuous motor expression of the homing vector. Head orientation-a novel online measure for path integration-can thus inform about the underlying updating mechanism already during locomotion. In addition to demonstrating that humans can employ different cognitive strategies during path integration, our two-systems view helps to resolve recent controversies regarding the role of the medial temporal lobe in human path integration.
Moh. Aries Syufagi
Full Text Available Nowadays, serious games and game technology are poised to transform the way of educating and training students at all levels. However, pedagogical value in games do not help novice students learn, too many memorizing and reduce learning process due to no information of player’s ability. To asses the cognitive level of player ability, we propose a Cognitive Skill Game (CSG. CSG improves this cognitive concept to monitor how players interact with the game. This game employs Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ for optimizing the cognitive skill input classification of the player. CSG is using teacher’s data to obtain the neuron vector of cognitive skill pattern supervise. Three clusters multi objective XE "multi objective" target will be classified as; trial and error, carefully and, expert cognitive skill. In the game play experiments employ 33 respondent players demonstrates that 61% of players have high trial and error, 21% have high carefully, and 18% have high expert cognitive skill. CSG may provide information to game engine when a player needs help or when wanting a formidable challenge. The game engine will provide the appropriate tasks according to players’ ability. CSG will help balance the emotions of players, so players do not get bored and frustrated.
Marjorie C. Quieng; Pearly P. Lim; Maria Rita D. Lucas
Teaching and learning in the 21st century aim to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social participation, and workplace success. This study has two goals: to determine the perceived extent of integration of 21st century-based soft skills in the cogniti...
Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.
Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…
Jacob, Karen L.; Christopher, Michael S.; Neuhaus, Edmund C.
Although several theories exist to describe why patients improve in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in only a limited number of studies has CBT skill acquisition been examined, particularly among patients with complex clinical profiles. Thus, the overarching aim of this research was to develop a tool to measure patients' use of CBT skills,…
Decker, Scott L.; Englund, Julia A.; Carboni, Jessica A.; Brooks, Janell H.
Measures of visual-motor integration skills continue to be widely used in psychological assessments with children. However, the construct validity of many visual-motor integration measures remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relative contributions of maturation and cognitive skills to the development of visual-motor integration…
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of instructional method s and students’ cognitive styles toward speaking skill. It was an experimental research using a two -factor ANOVA at 0.05 and 0.01 significance level. Because an interaction between the variables involved was found, the analysis was then continued by Tuckey Test. The data was collected using oral test rating cale and a cognitive style questionnaire. The findings showed the following points: (1 the speaking skill of the students taught by CLL (Cooperative Language Learning was higher than the students taught by TBL(Task-Based Language Learning; (2 the speaking skill of FD (Field Dependent students was higher than FI (Field Independent students; (3 there was an interaction between instructional methods and cognitive style to speaking skill; (4 the speaking skill of the students taught by CLL was higher than the students taught by TBL in the group of FD students; (5 there was no significant difference of the speaking skill of the students taught by CLL and the students taught by TBL in the group of FI students. The findings above led to a conclusion that generally CLL was more effective than TBL in teaching speaking skill. Moreover, besides instructional methods, cognitive style also gives a significant effect to students’ speaking skill
Glick, Peter; Sahn, David E.
We use unique data to estimate the determinants of cognitive ability among 14-17-year olds in Senegal. Unlike standard school-based samples, tests were administered to current students as well as to children no longer--or never--enrolled. Years of schooling strongly affects cognitive skills, but conditional on years of school, parental education…
Chung, Kevin K. H.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Chan, David W.; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han
The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with dyslexia and to assess how these abilities were associated with Chinese word reading, word dictation, and reading comprehension. The cognitive skills of interest were morphological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid…
The Mem-ExSpan Accelerative Cognitive Training System (MESACTS) is described as a cognitive skills training program for schools, businesses, and industry. The program achieves extraordinary academic results in reading and mathematics with 1 semester of input 4 days a week for 30 minutes a day. Intensive versions of the program accelerate…
Niekerk, R.E. van; Klein, A.M.; Allart-van Dam, E.; Hudson, J.L.; Rinck, M.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.; Becker, E.S.
Models of cognitive processing in anxiety disorders state that socially anxious children display several distorted cognitive processes that maintain their anxiety. The present study investigated the role of social threat thoughts and social skills perception in relation to childhood trait and state
Aging is associated with a decline in cognition and motor function. Several SNPs have been linked to neural and cognitive variation in healthy adults. Moreover, it is suggested that the effects of genetic variants are enhanced with human aging. The present study investigates whether aging and genetic variants, in this case the BDNF and COMT Val/Met polymorphisms, influence executive functioning, fine hand motor control and cognitive skills. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers were genotyped fo...
John E. Hagan
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Even though the assessment of competitive anxiety responses (intensity, interpretation, and frequency using the time-to-event paradigm has gained much attention, literature on the account of these same experiences in-event and their corresponding psychological skills adopted under differing conditions is limited. This is a follow up investigation to establish the extent to which associated anxiety responses are stable or dynamic and whether this pattern could be related to reported psychological skills under low or high stressful conditions across gender.Methods: Twenty-three high level (N = 13 males and 10 females Ghanaian Table Tennis players provided data through completion of modified versions of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, incorporated with directional and frequency of intrusion scales and the Test of Performance Strategies inventory during breaks within competitive fixtures.Results: MANCOVAs (gender × stress condition with follow-up analyses revealed no significant interactions and no main effect for gender but significant main effects were realized for all anxiety dimensions and psychological skills for only the second factor. Specifically, the intensity and frequency of cognitive and somatic state anxiety symptoms increased and were interpreted as debilitative under the high stress condition, although self-confidence and other array of psychological skills were highly displayed under the same stressful condition.Conclusion: Findings highlight the dynamic characteristics of in-event associated anxiety responses and ineffectiveness of deployed psychological skills regardless of gender. These perhaps show the exceptionality of affective experiences in an African setting, suggesting a culturally diversified approach to psychological skills application, if desirable effects are to be attained.
Hagan, John E.; Pollmann, Dietmar; Schack, Thomas
Background and Purpose: Even though the assessment of competitive anxiety responses (intensity, interpretation, and frequency) using the time-to-event paradigm has gained much attention, literature on the account of these same experiences in-event and their corresponding psychological skills adopted under differing conditions is limited. This is a follow up investigation to establish the extent to which associated anxiety responses are stable or dynamic and whether this pattern could be related to reported psychological skills under low or high stressful conditions across gender. Methods: Twenty-three high level (N = 13 males and 10 females) Ghanaian Table Tennis players provided data through completion of modified versions of Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, incorporated with directional and frequency of intrusion scales and the Test of Performance Strategies inventory during breaks within competitive fixtures. Results: MANCOVAs (gender × stress condition) with follow-up analyses revealed no significant interactions and no main effect for gender but significant main effects were realized for all anxiety dimensions and psychological skills for only the second factor. Specifically, the intensity and frequency of cognitive and somatic state anxiety symptoms increased and were interpreted as debilitative under the high stress condition, although self-confidence and other array of psychological skills were highly displayed under the same stressful condition. Conclusion: Findings highlight the dynamic characteristics of in-event associated anxiety responses and ineffectiveness of deployed psychological skills regardless of gender. These perhaps show the exceptionality of affective experiences in an African setting, suggesting a culturally diversified approach to psychological skills application, if desirable effects are to be attained. PMID:29312103
Heppe, Holger; Kohler, Axel; Fleddermann, Marie-Therese; Zentgraf, Karen
Team sports place high demands on visuospatial and other cognitive skills. However, there is a lack of research on visuospatial skills of elite athletes and there are heterogeneous results on basic cognitive skills of this population. Therefore, this series of studies tested different cognitive skills in elite team sports athletes. In Experiment 1, elite athletes were compared to recreational athletes, but no differences were observed between the groups in choice response time (CRT) and mental rotation (MR). To see if differences could be observed when the tested groups had a greater difference in expertise and more representative stimuli, in Experiment 2, we tested CRT and MR of elite athletes who had higher level of expertise, and we also used three-dimensional human stimuli. Overall, we still found no differences in MR; however, elite athletes did have shorter CRTs. In Experiment 3, instead of testing MR, we compared elite athletes’ and recreational athletes’ basic cognitive skills, such as processing speed, letter readout speed, memory span, and sustained attention. We found that elite athletes only performed better in sustained attention. Building on this data, in a supplementary analysis (Experiment 4) we tested whether MR and CRTs are correlated with basic cognitive skills. Results show that processing speed is the best predictor for MR, whereas letter readout speed explains most of the variance in CRTs. Finally, we discuss these findings against the backdrop of expertise and offer implications for future studies on mental rotation. PMID:27378994
Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E
Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.
van Niekerk, Rianne E; Klein, Anke M; Allart-van Dam, Esther; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rinck, Mike; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; Becker, Eni S
Models of cognitive processing in anxiety disorders state that socially anxious children display several distorted cognitive processes that maintain their anxiety. The present study investigated the role of social threat thoughts and social skills perception in relation to childhood trait and state social anxiety. In total, 141 children varying in their levels of social anxiety performed a short speech task in front of a camera and filled out self-reports about their trait social anxiety, state anxiety, social skills perception and social threat thoughts. Results showed that social threat thoughts mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety after the speech task, even when controlling for baseline state anxiety. Furthermore, we found that children with higher trait anxiety and more social threat thoughts had a lower perception of their social skills, but did not display a social skills deficit. These results provide evidence for the applicability of the cognitive social anxiety model to children.
Brown, Gregory K; Thase, Michael E; Vittengl, Jeffrey R; Borman, Patricia D; Clark, Lee Anna; Jarrett, Robin B
The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the adaptation and psychometric properties of the Skills for Cognitive Therapy (SoCT) measure for use by an independent observer (SoCT-IO) who rates the cognitive therapy (CT) skill acquisition, comprehension, and use by depressed adults and (b) to compare ratings of CT skill comprehension, acquisition, and use by independent observers to those by patients and therapists. Like the other SoCT versions, the SoCT-IO consists of 8 items that assess patients' comprehension, acquisition, and use of cognitive and behavioral skills for managing depressive symptoms, using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Four experienced raters (2 doctoral-level CT therapists and 2 bachelor-level nontherapists) used the SoCT-IO to rate 80 CT videotapes from both mid and later sessions in acute-phase CT from a randomized controlled trial for outpatients with recurrent major depression. The SoCT-IO ratings showed excellent internal consistency reliability and moderately high interrater reliability. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by convergence of the SoCT-IO with 2 other versions of the SoCT, 1 completed by therapists (SoCT-O) and the other by patients (SoCT-P). SoCT-IO ratings evidenced good predictive validity: Independent observers' ratings of patient CT skills midphase in therapy predicted treatment response even when the predictive effects of SoCT ratings by therapists and patients were controlled. The SoCT-IO is a psychometrically sound measure of CT skill comprehension, acquisition and use for rating outpatients with recurrent depression. The clinical utility and implications for using the SoCT-IO as a measure of CT skills acquisition are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Edward J. Jedlicka
Full Text Available Cognitive training is emerging as a viable intervention for remediating cognitive skill deficits and associated academic struggles. This study investigated whether trainer-delivered cognitive training reduced parent-reported academic difficulties and oppositional behavior for school-age children with learning struggles compared with a no-contact control group. Three groups were surveyed using a standardized rating scale: parents of clients ages 5–18 who had completed the 60-h ThinkRx cognitive training program (n = 67, parents of clients ages 5–18 who had completed the 120-h ReadRx cognitive training with reading program (n = 53, and parents of clients ages 5–18 who completed initial testing but did not enroll in a training program (n = 58. Results indicated there were statistically significant differences overall between the intervention groups and the control group on all measures of academic difficulties. Both intervention groups saw a reduction in academic difficulty ratings following training while the control group saw an increase in academic difficulty during a comparable time interval. Differences between groups on ratings of oppositional behavior were not significant. Both intervention groups achieved statistically significant changes on objective cognitive test measures as well. Although the study is limited by lack of randomization in the sampling, the results and transfer effects are encouraging for evaluating the use of one-on-one cognitive training to enhance academic skills and behavior.
Chung, Gregory K. W. K.; Nagashima, Sam O.; Espinosa, Paul D.; Berka, Chris; Baker, Eva L.
In this report, researchers examined rifle marksmanship development within a skill development framework outlined by Chung, Delacruz, de Vries, Bewley, and Baker (2006). Thirty-three novice shooters used an M4 rifle training simulator system to learn to shoot an 8-inch target at a simulated distance of 200 yards. Cognitive, psychomotor, and…
Behrman, Jere R; Hoddinott, John; Maluccio, John A; Soler-Hampejsek, Erica; Behrman, Emily L; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramírez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D
Most empirical investigations of the effects of cognitive skills assume that they are produced by schooling. Drawing on longitudinal data to estimate production functions for adult verbal and nonverbal cognitive skills, we find that: (1) School attainment has a significant and substantial effect on adult verbal cognitive skills but not on adult nonverbal cognitive skills; and (2) Pre-school and post-school experiences also have substantial positive significant effects on adult cognitive skills. Pre-school experiences captured by height for age at 6 years substantially and significantly increase adult nonverbal cognitive skills, even after controlling for school attainment. Post-school tenure in skilled jobs has significant positive effects on both types of cognitive skills. The findings (1) reinforce the importance of early life investments; (2) support the importance of childhood nutrition ("Flynn effect") and work complexity in explaining increases in nonverbal cognitive skills; (3) call into question interpretations of studies reporting productivity impacts of cognitive skills that do not control for endogeneity; and (4) point to limitations in using adult school attainment alone to represent human capital.
Johnco, Carly; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Rapee, Ronald M
Studies examining treatment moderators and mediators in late-life anxiety and depression are sparse. Executive functioning skills decrease with age, and are poorer in the context of anxiety and depression. One of the key cognitive behavioral therapy techniques for anxiety and depression is cognitive restructuring (CR), which teaches people to identify and dispute maladaptive thoughts. There is evidence that cognitive flexibility (CF), one aspect of executive functioning, has a negative impact on CR skill acquisition in nonclinical older adults, and this warrants extension in a clinical sample. This study assessed CR skill acquisition in a clinical sample of 47 older adults with anxiety and depression and 53 nonclinical controls during an experimental paradigm, and investigated the influence of CF on this relationship. A battery of neuropsychological tests assessing CF were administered and CR was learned during a brief intervention. The clinical sample showed poorer CF on some measures, as well as poorer CR quality and efficacy (reduction in subjective distress). CF partially mediated the relationship between clinical status and CR quality, and between clinical status and CR efficacy. These results provide preliminary evidence that older adults with anxiety and depression are worse at learning and benefiting from CR with a brief intervention and this is partially due to having poorer CF skills. These findings warrant further examination in a treatment context to assess whether CR skill acquisition improves over treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Editor & Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Skills Needed for Toilet Training Page Content Article Body If you know how to drive a car with a manual transmission, you probably remember how ...
Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.
number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on
Le Blanc, Katya; Freeman, Sarah
As technology gets more complex and increasingly connected, there is an increasing concern with cyber security. There is also a growing demand for cyber security professionals. Unfortunately there currently are not enough skilled professionals to meet that demand. In order to prepare the next generation of cyber security professionals to meet this demand, we need to understand what characteristics make skilled cyber security professionals. For this work, we focus on professionals who take an offensive approach to cyber security, so called ethical hackers. These hackers utilize many of the same skills that the adversaries that we defend against would use, with the goal of identifying vulnerabilities and address them before they are exploited by adversaries. A commonly held belief among ethical hackers is that hackers must possess exceptional curiosity and problem solving skills in order to be successful. Curiosity is has been studied extensively in psychology, but there is no consensus on what it is and how to measure it. Further, many existing inventories for assessing curiosity are targeted at measuring curiosity in children. Although there isn’t an accepted standard to assess curiosity in adults, a related construct, called Need for Cognition (may capture what is meant when people speak of curiosity. The Need for Cognition scale also captures the tendency toward preferring complex problems (which correlates with good problem solving skills), which may provide insight into what make skilled hackers. In addition to the Need for Cognition, we used a structured interview to assess hacker skill. Hackers rated their own skill on a scale from one to ten on a predefined list of hacker skills. They were then asked to rate a peer who they felt was most skilled in each of the skills. They were asked to rate two peers for each skill, one that they worked with directly and one person that was the most skilled in the field (these could be known by reputation only). The
Barth, R P; Fetro, J V; Leland, N; Volkan, K
A 15-session sex education program was delivered by teachers to 586 10th graders using techniques based on social learning theory, including modeling, in-class and out-of-class practice of skills for abstaining from sexual intercourse, and for contraception. Knowledge about reproduction and birth control, intentions to use skills to avoid pregnancy, and communication with parents about pregnancy prevention were significantly greater at posttest and 6-month follow-up for the trained group than for the control group. Members of the trained group tended to use birth control more often, especially those who started to have sexual intercourse subsequent to the program. No differences in the frequency of sexual intercourse, pregnancy scares, or pregnancies were found. Satisfaction with the program was high. Although skill training by itself may not be sufficient to significantly prevent pregnancies, this program offers promise of being a useful component of combined school, home, and community activities to prevent pregnancy.
van Rijn, S; Stockmann, L; van Buggenhout, G; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C; Swaab, H
Individuals with an extra X chromosome are at increased risk for autism symptoms. This study is the first to assess theory of mind and facial affect labeling in children with an extra X chromosome. Forty-six children with an extra X chromosome (29 boys with Klinefelter syndrome and 17 girls with Trisomy X), 56 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 88 non-clinical controls, aged 9-18 years, were included. Similar to children with ASD, children with an extra X chromosome showed significant impairments in social cognition. Regression analyses showed that different cognitive functions predicted social cognitive skills in the extra X and ASD groups. The social cognitive deficits were similar for boys and girls with an extra X chromosome, and not specific for a subgroup with high Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised autism scores. Thus, children with an extra X chromosome show social cognitive deficits, which may contribute to social dysfunction, not only in children showing a developmental pattern that is 'typical' for autism but also in those showing mild or late presenting autism symptoms. Our findings may also help explain variance in type of social deficit: children may show similar social difficulties, but these may arise as a consequence of different underlying information processing deficits. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Chen, Huilin; Chen, Jinsong
By analyzing the test data of 2718 secondary school students in Guangzhou China on 15 listening items from Guangzhou English Achievement Examination (2015) through G-DINA model, the study explored the relationships among the listening comprehension skills. Based on the test specifications and listening skill taxonomies in existence, 5 experts in…
Uitdewilligen, G.J.A.M.L.; de Voogt, A.
Job sample approaches are amongst the best predictors for performance of ab initio pilots in flight school. The Royal Netherlands Air Force uses a simulator based assessment procedure to select pilot students, which is a relatively expensive method compared to general skill and ability tests.
Drost, Daniel K.; Todorovich, John R.
The development of fundamental movement skills in physical education is an important contributor toward children's' lifetime interest and participation in physical activity. Physical education teachers and their curricula follow national and state standards to provide learning experiences and instruction that support the acquisition of…
McPherson, Gary E.
Reports on a longitudinal study of high school instrumentalists that examined the development of four distinct types of musical performance (playing by ear, playing from memory, sight reading, and improvising) over three years. Reveals a significant improvement in these skills while also demonstrating changes in aural and creative activities. (CMK)
Kim, Helyn; Duran, Chelsea A. K.; Cameron, Claire E.; Grissmer, David
This study explored transactional associations among visuomotor integration, attention, fine motor coordination, and mathematics skills in a diverse sample of one hundred thirty-five 5-year-olds (kindergarteners) and one hundred nineteen 6-year-olds (first graders) in the United States who were followed over the course of 2 school years.…
Wang, Xiaochen; Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.; Li, Qing
The purpose of the present study was twofold: (a) to examine the extent to which Chinese dyslexic children experience deficits in phonological and orthographic processing skills and (b) to examine if Chinese dyslexia is associated with deficits in Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) processing. A total of 27 Grade 4 children…
Carter, Margaret Anne; Frewen, Amie; Chunn, Jennifer
This study reports the importance 244 parents of six-year-old children living in Singapore placed on cognitive (problem-solving and creativity) and non-cognitive (practical school skills and conforming) behaviours. Our research team hypothesised that, as the age of the parent increased, the importance placed on each covariant skill (problem…
Teishima, Jun; Hattori, Minoru; Inoue, Shogo; Hieda, Keisuke; Kobatake, Kohei; Shinmei, Shunsuke; Egi, Hiroyuki; Ohdan, Hideki; Matsubara, Akio
Although previous studies have demonstrated the needs for a spatial cognitive ability that can give an accurate understanding of the position, orientation, and size and form of the objects in endoscopic surgery, there has been no study on the relationship between the skills of robot-assisted surgery and spatial cognitive ability. To assess the effect of spatial cognitive ability on gain in robot-assisted surgical skills of urological surgeons. The robot-assisted surgery skills of 24 urological surgeons who had no previous experience with the Mimic dV-Trainer (MdVT) and had not been the main surgeon in robot-assisted surgery and 20 volunteer medical students who had no previous experience of the MdVT were assessed by using a program consisting of 4 kinds of tasks. Their performances were recorded using a built-in scoring algorithm. Their spatial cognitive abilities were also assessed using a mental rotation test. Although there was a significant correlation between the spatial cognitive ability and a score of 2 for the more difficult tasks for student groups using the MdVT, there was no significant correlation between them for all tasks for groups of urological surgeons. The results of the present study indicate that differences in spatial cognitive ability in urological surgeons have no effect on the gain in fundamental robot-assisted surgery skills whereas there was a significant correlation between the spatial cognitive ability and fundamental robot-assisted surgical skills in the volunteers. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The value and training needs of the future research workforce is under the spotlight. In this article, I take up Ulrich and Dash's (2013 somewhat provocative invitation to engage in discussion and debate about current and future research. In my three-tiered response, I first discuss Ulrich and Dash's article, followed by my own observations about the APEC/Deloitte (2010 research report: "Skills and Competencies Needed in the Research Field: Objectives 2020," and finally, I explore, in some detail, challenges of building a twentyfirst-century research workforce.
Sasson, Noah J.; Nowlin, Rachel B.; Pinkham, Amy E.
Social-cognitive deficits differentiate parents with the "broad autism phenotype" from non-broad autism phenotype parents more robustly than other neuropsychological features of autism, suggesting that this domain may be particularly informative for identifying genetic and brain processes associated with the phenotype. The current study…
Wen, Xu; Xiang, Ping
Objective This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years) were screened. Results A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80%) reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80%) showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood. PMID:29387718
Full Text Available Objective. This study synthesized literature concerning casual evidence of effects of various physical activity programs on motor skills and cognitive development in typically developed preschool children. Methods. Electronic databases were searched through July 2017. Peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs examining the effectiveness of physical activity on motor skills and cognitive development in healthy young children (4–6 years were screened. Results. A total of 15 RCTs were included. Of the 10 studies assessing the effects of physical activity on motor skills, eight (80% reported significant improvements in motor performance and one observed mixed findings, but one failed to promote any beneficial outcomes. Of the five studies investigating the influence of physical activity on cognitive development, four (80% showed significant and positive changes in language learning, academic achievement, attention, and working memory. Notably, one indicated no significant improvements were observed after the intervention. Conclusions. Findings support causal evidence of effects of physical activity on both motor skills and cognitive development in preschool children. Given the shortage of available studies, future research with large representative samples is warranted to explore the relationships between physical activity and cognitive domains as well as strengthen and confirm the dose-response evidence in early childhood.
Nehring, Andreas; Nowak, Kathrin H.; Belzen, Annette Upmeier zu; Tiemann, Rüdiger
Research on predictors of achievement in science is often targeted on more traditional content-based assessments and single student characteristics. At the same time, the development of skills in the field of scientific inquiry constitutes a focal point of interest for science education. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent multiple student characteristics contribute to skills of scientific inquiry. Based on a theoretical framework describing nine epistemological acts, we constructed and administered a multiple-choice test that assesses these skills in lower and upper secondary school level (n = 780). The test items contained problem-solving situations that occur during chemical investigations in school and had to be solved by choosing an appropriate inquiry procedure. We collected further data on 12 cognitive, motivational, and sociodemographic variables such as conceptual knowledge, enjoyment of chemistry, or language spoken at home. Plausible values were drawn to quantify students' inquiry skills. The results show that students' characteristics predict their inquiry skills to a large extent (55%), whereas 9 out of 12 variables contribute significantly on a multivariate level. The influence of sociodemographic traits such as gender or the social background becomes non-significant after controlling for cognitive and motivational variables. Furthermore, the performance advance of students from upper secondary school level can be explained by controlling for cognitive covariates. We discuss our findings with regard to curricular aspects and raise the question whether the inquiry skills can be considered as an autonomous trait in science education research.
Mellard, Daryl F; Woods, Kari L; Md Desa, Z Deana; Vuyk, M Alexandra
This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in the research literature to identify a smaller set of generally uncorrelated constructs. The four underlying factors of the 18 measures explained 62.7% of the variance. We labeled these factors Encode/Decode (44.5%), Vocabulary (9.5%), Processing Speed (5.2%), and Working Memory (3.5%). Regression analysis demonstrated Working Memory, Encode/Decode, and Vocabulary collectively predicted 45.9% functional reading as measured by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System. Alternatively, when measured by the Test of Adult Basic Education, Vocabulary and Encode/Decode predicted 47.1% of variance in reading. Differences in predictive utility of the factors by fluency group suggest approaches to tailoring instruction for each group. Future research might examine the optimal mix of instructional approaches that support the identified factors. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
memory (STMi) in a way that mimics cognitive data about working memory, including primacy , recency , and bowed order and error gradients. As new items are...also shown how network parameters control the type and shape of primacy , recency , or bowed temporal order gradients that will be stored. t Supported...Transient Tritanopia/Euchrornatopsia 58 4. Electrophysiology: Color 58 5. Electroplysiology: Spatial Effects : ERG 59 6. Electrophysiology: Spatial
Happé, Francesca; Conway, Jane R
Social interaction is affected in many different developmental disorders; indeed, the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has introduced social cognition as one of six core components of neurocognitive functioning. Social cognition is not one thing, but a wide range of putative processes, which may be differentially affected in different clinical groups. This review focuses on recent advances in one aspect of social cognition, 'theory of mind' (ToM, representing what people think), and one core clinical group, autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is 30 years since impaired ToM was proposed as an explanation for ASD social difficulties, and recently there has been a widening of interest to other clinical groups. ToM has been found to be distinct from emotion recognition and empathy. Recent research on ASD has focused increasingly on atypical sensory responses and commonly comorbid conditions. Interventions for social deficits, including ToM training and oxytocin, have shown mixed results to date. Heterogeneity poses a major obstacle to current research. Theoretical and empirical refinements are needed to elucidate neurocognitive and aetiological underpinnings of sociocognitive processes and inform clinical advances.
Cameron, Carrie; Lee, Hwa Young; Anderson, Cheryl; Byars-Winston, Angela; Baldwin, Constance D; Chang, Shine
Scientific communication (SciComm) skills are indispensable for success in biomedical research, but many trainees may not have fully considered the necessity of regular writing and speaking for research career progression. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between SciComm skill acquisition and research trainees' intentions to remain in research careers. We used social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to test a model of the relationship of SciComm skills to SciComm-related cognitive variables in explaining career intentions. A sample of 510 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows at major academic health science centers in the Texas Medical Center, Houston, Texas, were surveyed online. Results suggested that interest in performing SciComm tasks, SciComm outcome expectations (SCOEs), and SciComm productivity predicted intention to remain in a research career, while SciComm self-efficacy did not directly predict career intention. SCOEs also predicted interest in performing SciComm tasks. As in other SCCT studies, SciComm self-efficacy predicted SCOEs. We conclude that social cognitive factors of SciComm skill acquisition and SciComm productivity significantly predict biomedical trainees' intentions to pursue research careers whether within or outside academia. While further studies are needed, these findings may lead to evidence-based interventions to help trainees remain in their chosen career paths. © 2015 C. Cameron et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Mohammed, Ali Mohammed Haidar
The present study aims to identify the level of cognitive skills and abilities of children who suffer from the Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the differences in the level of cognitive skills and abilities according to the age group and the level of academic achievement. To achieve the objective of the study, a…
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Respondents were 79…
Full Text Available This paper addresses how measurements of cognitive skill differ based on survey mode, from a face-to-face interview to a self-completed survey, using the Wordsum vocabulary test found in the General Social Survey. The Wordsum acts as a proxy for general cognitive skill, and it has been used to predict a variety of political variables. Therefore, knowing differences in cognitive skill by mode are important for political science research because of the proliferation of self-completed Internet surveys. I leverage a large-scale mode experiment that randomizes a general population sample into a face-to-face or self-completed interview. Results show that historically easy questions are more likely to yield correct answers in the face-to-face treatment, but modest-to-difficult test questions have a higher rate of correct answers in the self-completed treatment (marginal distributions. A cognitive skill scale using item response theory, however, does not differ by mode because the ordering of ideal points does not change from a face-to-face interview to a self-completed survey. When applying the scale to a well-established model of party identification, I show no difference by mode, suggesting that a transition from face-to-face interviews to self-completed surveys may not alter conclusion drawn from models that use the Wordsum test.
West, Martin R.; Kraft, Matthew A.; Finn, Amy S.; Martin, Rebecca E.; Duckworth, Angela L.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.
We used self-report surveys to gather information on a broad set of non-cognitive skills from 1,368 eighth graders. At the student level, scales measuring conscientiousness, self-control, grit, and growth mindset are positively correlated with attendance, behavior, and test-score gains between fourth grade and eighth grade. Conscientiousness,…
Brady, Marilyn H.; Wells, Tanya G.
"Introduction to Cognitive and Affective Skills" (NS 127) is an associate degree nursing course offered at Chattanooga State Technical Community College to help students develop competencies in decision making, communication, teaching-learning, and management. The course syllabus for NS 127 begins with information on class, laboratory, and credit…
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Fletcher, Jack M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive correlates of RD-grade skill in arithmetic, algorithmic computation, and arithmetic word problems. Third graders (N = 312) were measured on language, nonverbal problem solving, concept formation, processing speed, long-term memory, working memory, phonological decoding, and sight word…
van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Vriens, A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the unique contributions of (social) cognitive skills such as inhibition, working memory, perspective taking, facial emotion recognition, and interpretation of situations to the variance in social information processing in children with mild to borderline
Hamui-Sutton, Liz; Barragán-Pérez, Virginia; Fuentes-García, Ruth; Monsalvo-Obregón, Erika Cristina; Fouilloux-Morales, Claudia
In countries such as United States and European Nations changes have been proposed regarding to duty and academic structure of specialists in training, this implies adjustments in the norms concerning the number of hours a week that residents work. The main argument which has underpinned such transformations is based on the assumption that excessive working hours (more than 16 hours uninterrupted) cause cognitive and psychomotor disorders in residents. To evaluate the association between sleep deprivation and cognitive and psychomotor skills of a sample of residents of different specialties of Medicine. Longitudinal study with measurements pre and post shifts, in 31 residents of Medicine. The measured variables were: cognitive and psychomotor skills, demographic data and conditions of the shift, quality of sleep and psychopathology. 81% residents showed detriment in at least one of the tests, however, in psychomotor skills significant different results were found in CPR maneuvers between pre and post shift with an improvement in scores. Sleep deprivation causes detriment of cognitive and psychomotor skills. While our results can't be generalized, they may constitute a precedent for possible changes in the working hours of medical residencies.
Ayoub, Catherine C; O'Connor, Erin; Rappolt-Schlichtmann, Gabrielle; Fischer, Kurt W; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L; Cicchetti, Dante
Through a translational approach, dynamic skill theory enhances the understanding of the variation in the behavioral and cognitive presentations of a high-risk population-maltreated children. Two studies illustrate the application of normative developmental constructs from a dynamic skills perspective to samples of young maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Each study examines the emotional and cognitive development of maltreated children with attention to their developing world view or negativity bias and cognitive skills. Across both studies, maltreated children demonstrate negativity bias when compared to their nonmaltreated counterparts. Cognitive complexity demonstrated by the maltreated children is dependent upon a positive or negative context. Positive problem solving is more difficult for maltreated children when compared to their nonmaltreated counterparts. Differences by maltreatment type, severity, timing of the abuse, and identity of the perpetrator are also delineated, and variation in the resulting developmental trajectories in each case is explored. This translation of dynamic skill theory, as applied to maltreated children, enhances our basic understanding of their functioning, clarifies the nature of their developmental differences, and underscores the need for early intervention.
Bahram A. Ghanbari-Hashemabadi
Full Text Available Background: Today, learning the communication skills such as conflict solving is very important. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of cognitive and transactional analysis group therapy on improving the conflict-solving skill.Materials and Method: This study is an experimental study with pretest-posttest and control group. Forty-five clients who were referring to the counseling and psychological services center of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad were chosen based on screening method. In addition, they were randomly divided into three equal groups: control group (15 participants, cognitive experimental group (15 participants and transactional analysis group (15 participants. Conflict-solving questionnaire was used to collect data and the intervention methods were cognitive and transactional analysis group therapy that was administrated during 8 weekly two-hour sessions. Mean and standard deviation were used for data analysis in the descriptive level and One-Way ANOVA method was used at the inference level.Results: The results of the study suggest that the conflict-solving skills in the two experimental groups were significantly increased. Conclusion: The finding of this research is indicative of the fact that both cognitive and transactional analysis group therapy could be an effective intervention for improving conflict-solving skills
Ferguson, Jason L.; Ready, Douglas D.
Inherited privilege and status remain powerful factors in the distribution of opportunity in American life. These transfers of socioeconomic resources across generations are facilitated by the links between adult educational attainment and children's cognitive skills. Our current study expands the notion of social reproduction beyond this narrow…
Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger
Economic development in Latin America has trailed most other world regions over the past four decades despite its relatively high initial development and school attainment levels. This puzzle can be resolved by considering the actual learning as expressed in tests of cognitive skills, on which Latin American countries consistently perform at the…
Storer, James S.; And Others
The cognitive and skills performances of sleep-deprived pediatrics residents were measured by using questions like those on the pediatrics board certification examination and using tasks that required coordination and dexterity. Implications of findings are discussed in the context of the controversy over the structure and process of medical…
Harris, Muriel; Wachs, Mary
Investigated relationships between individual differences in (1) levels of writing skills and (2) proficiencies at simultaneous and successive cognitive processing. Correlated students' writings with the following word and sentence level problems: spelling errors, missing or inappropriate punctuation of sentence parts, missing noun and verb…
Wang, Shiyu; Yang, Yan; Culpepper, Steven Andrew; Douglas, Jeffrey A.
A family of learning models that integrates a cognitive diagnostic model and a higher-order, hidden Markov model in one framework is proposed. This new framework includes covariates to model skill transition in the learning environment. A Bayesian formulation is adopted to estimate parameters from a learning model. The developed methods are…
Warli; Fadiana, Mu'jizatin
The purpose of this research is to develop mathematical learning models that accommodate the cognitive styles reflective vs. impulsive students to build problem-solving skills, quality (valid, practical, and effective). To achieve the target would do research development (development research) and method development that consists of five stages,…
Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Motallebi, Seyedeh Ameneh; Boosepasi, Shahnaz
There are limited scientific investigations on cognitive remediation in elderly patients with schizophrenia. The present study was aimed to examine the efficacy of cognitive remediation therapy on social skills in institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia. The study employed a randomized clinical trial. A total of 60 institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia from Razi Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran were selected and randomly allocated into two equal groups (control and intervention). The intervention group attended to cognitive remediation therapy for 8 weeks. The Evaluation of Living Skills Scale for psychiatric patients was used for data collection. The Chi Square, independent and paired t-tests using SPSS, version 22, were employed to analyze the data. The mean age of 60 elderly patients participated in the study was 65.25 ± 4.19 years. No significant differences were found between two groups at baseline. However, independent t-tests showed significant differences between the intervention and the control group in social skills after implementation of intervention. Additionally, the results of paired t-tests revealed significant improvements in intervention group on communication skills (t=5.50, psocial skills of elderly patients with schizophrenia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Sollazzo, Nadia
In this study, a unitary path analysis model was developed to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (derived from published studies) and early numerical abilities in children attending the last year of kindergarten. We tested 100 children starting their last year of kindergarten on the following cognitive abilities: intelligence, phonological abilities, counting, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and working memory, processing speed, and early numerical abilities. The same children were tested again on early numerical abilities at the end of the same year. The children's early numerical abilities at the beginning of the final year of kindergarten were found to be directly related to their verbal intelligence, phonological abilities, processing speed, and working memory and to be indirectly related to their nonverbal intelligence. Early numerical abilities at the end of the same year are directly related not only to early numerical abilities assessed at the beginning of the year but also to working memory and phonological abilities as well as have an indirect relationship with verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Overall, our results showed that both general and specific abilities are related to early mathematic learning in kindergarten-age children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A Cognitive Approach to the Compilation of Test Materials for the Evaluation of Translator's Skills This paper discusses the importance of a cognitive approach to the evaluation of translator’s skills. The authors set forth their recommendations for the compilation of test materials for the evaluation of translators’ cognitive ability. Kognitywne podejście do kompilowania tekstów służących ocenie umiejętności tłumacza Artykuł porusza wagę kognitywnego podejścia do ewaluacji umiejętności tłumacza. Autorzy przedstawiają swoje zalecenia co do kompilowania materiałów testowych do ewaluacji kognitywnych zdolności tłumacza.
Thomaidis, L; Choleva, A; Janikian, M; Bertou, G; Tsitsika, A; Giannakopoulos, G; Anagnostopoulos, D C
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) constitutes a neurobehavioral disorder which may potentially adversely affect children's wellbeing and academic achievement. The onset of symptoms is present prior to 12 years of age, and often the symptoms are evident in the preschool years. In fact, it has been suggested that screening for ADHD symptoms may be initiated as early as four years of age. Preschool children with ADHD have been shown to present with poor pre-academic skills and might be at increased risk for numerous school-related problems, including functional impairment during elementary school years and persistent poor academic performance thereafter. Although preschool years are characterized by rapid cognitive growth, preschoolers with ADHD may present with poorer cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. Due to the early onset of ADHD symptoms, exploring the cognitive correlates of this condition among preschool children is thought to be of notable importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate any association between ADHD symptoms and cognitive skills among preschool children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a nationwide random sample of 4,480 preschool children. ADHD symptoms were assessed though interviews with parents and teachers based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. Cognitive skills were assessed through a standardized school readiness test (A' TEST). Among participants, the occurrence of ADHD symptoms was 4.6% (boys/girls: 3.4/1). The presence of ADHD symptoms among children was inversely associated with non-verbal and verbal cognitive skills; specifically, with abstract thinking (aOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.30-3.00), language (2.36, 1.55-3.59), critical reasoning (2.58, 1.84-3.62), visual perception (2.42, 1.38- 4.24), and visual motor skills (2.61, 1.91-3.55). Children with ADHD symptoms were five times as likely to have compromised organizational skills (4.92, 3.04-7.97). Abstract thinking was the least affected domain
Fenning, RM; Baker, BL; Juvonen, J
This study examined parent-child emotion discourse, children’s independent social information processing, and social skills outcomes in 146 families of 8-year-olds with and without developmental delays. Children’s emergent social-cognitive understanding (internal state understanding, perspective taking, and causal reasoning/problem solving) was coded in the context of parent-child conversations about emotion, and children were interviewed separately to assess social problem solving. Mothers, fathers, and teachers reported on children’s social skills. The proposed strengths-based model partially accounted for social skills differences between typically developing children and children with delays. A multigroup analysis of the model linking emotion discourse to social skills through children’s prosocial problem solving suggested that processes operated similarly across the two groups. Implications for ecologically focused prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:21410465
Bangirana, Paul; Allebeck, Peter; Boivin, Michael J; John, Chandy C; Page, Connie; Ehnvall, Anna; Musisi, Seggane
Infection with severe malaria in African children is associated with not only a high mortality but also a high risk of cognitive deficits. There is evidence that interventions done a few years after the illness are effective but nothing is known about those done immediately after the illness. We designed a study in which children who had suffered from severe malaria three months earlier were enrolled into a cognitive intervention program and assessed for the immediate benefit in cognitive, academic and behavioral outcomes. This parallel group randomised study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-one Ugandan children aged 5 to 12 years with severe malaria were assessed for cognition (using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, second edition and the Test of Variables of Attention), academic skills (Wide Range Achievement Test, third edition) and psychopathologic behaviour (Child Behaviour Checklist) three months after an episode of severe malaria. Twenty-eight were randomised to sixteen sessions of computerised cognitive rehabilitation training lasting eight weeks and 33 to a non-treatment group. Post-intervention assessments were done a month after conclusion of the intervention. Analysis of covariance was used to detect any differences between the two groups after post-intervention assessment, adjusting for age, sex, weight for age z score, quality of the home environment, time between admission and post-intervention testing and pre-intervention score. The primary outcome was improvement in attention scores for the intervention group. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN53183087. Significant intervention effects were observed in the intervention group for learning mean score (SE), [93.89 (4.00) vs 106.38 (4.32), P = 0.04] but for working memory the intervention group performed poorly [27.42 (0.66) vs 25.34 (0.73), P = 0.04]. No effect was observed in the other cognitive
John Chandy C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with severe malaria in African children is associated with not only a high mortality but also a high risk of cognitive deficits. There is evidence that interventions done a few years after the illness are effective but nothing is known about those done immediately after the illness. We designed a study in which children who had suffered from severe malaria three months earlier were enrolled into a cognitive intervention program and assessed for the immediate benefit in cognitive, academic and behavioral outcomes. Methods This parallel group randomised study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-one Ugandan children aged 5 to 12 years with severe malaria were assessed for cognition (using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, second edition and the Test of Variables of Attention, academic skills (Wide Range Achievement Test, third edition and psychopathologic behaviour (Child Behaviour Checklist three months after an episode of severe malaria. Twenty-eight were randomised to sixteen sessions of computerised cognitive rehabilitation training lasting eight weeks and 33 to a non-treatment group. Post-intervention assessments were done a month after conclusion of the intervention. Analysis of covariance was used to detect any differences between the two groups after post-intervention assessment, adjusting for age, sex, weight for age z score, quality of the home environment, time between admission and post-intervention testing and pre-intervention score. The primary outcome was improvement in attention scores for the intervention group. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN53183087. Results Significant intervention effects were observed in the intervention group for learning mean score (SE, [93.89 (4.00 vs 106.38 (4.32, P = 0.04] but for working memory the intervention group performed poorly [27.42 (0.66 vs 25.34 (0.73, P = 0.04]. No
Slimani, Maamer; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Tod, David; Dellal, Alexandre; Hue, Olivier; Cheour, Foued; Taylor, Lee; Chamari, Karim
Soccer players are required to have well-developed physical, technical and cognitive abilities. The present systematic review, adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, examined the effects of cognitive training strategies on motor and positive psychological skills development in soccer performance and identified the potential moderators of the "cognitive training-soccer performance" relationship. Thirteen databases were systematically searched using keywords related to psychological or cognitive training in soccer players. The review is based on 18 studies, employing 584 soccer players aged 7-39 years. Cognitive strategies, particularly imagery, appear to improve sports performance in soccer players. Regarding imagery, the combination of two different types of cognitive imagery training (i.e., cognitive general and cognitive specific) has a positive influence on soccer performance during training, whereas motivational imagery (i.e., motivational general-arousal, motivational general-mastery and motivational specific) enhance competition performance. Younger soccer players employ cognitive general and cognitive specific imagery techniques to a greater extent than older soccer players. Combined cognitive training strategies were more beneficial than a single cognitive strategy relative to motor skills enhancement in elite (particularly midfielders) and amateur (i.e., when practising complex and specific soccer skills in precompetitive period) soccer players. In conclusion, it appears that there are differences in cognitive/psychological training interventions, and their efficacy, according to whether they are directed towards training or competition, and the age, standard and playing position of the players.
Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader's view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
Academic writing is a challenging task. Expert writers apply various writing skills as they anticipate the reader’s view of their text while paying attention to structure and content. Research in the high school setting shows that the acquisition of writing skills can be supported by single-strategy training. However, research in higher education is scarce. We tested whether the development of academic writing skills can also be effectively supported by training single strategies or even combined strategies. As metacognition is an important skill for advanced and adult learners, we focused in this study on the benefit of combined cognitive strategies with and without a metacognitive strategy. An experiment including three conditions was conducted (N = 60 German-speaking psychology undergraduates, M = 22.8, SD = 4.4), which lasted for three hours. Each group received a modeling intervention of a basic cognitive strategy on the application of text structure knowledge. Two groups received an additional modeling intervention with either a cognitive strategy treatment on text summarization or a metacognitive strategy treatment on self-monitoring the writing process. One group received no further strategy treatment. Prior knowledge and learning outcomes were measured with a specially developed test on academic writing skills. In addition, all participants wrote an abstract of an empirical article. We found that learners who received the additional self-monitoring strategy intervention benefited significantly more in terms of acquisition of academic writing skills and the quality of their texts than learners who did not receive this intervention. Thus, the results underline the importance of self-monitoring strategies in academic writing. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed. PMID:26941671
Henricson, Cecilia; Wass, Malin; Lidestam, Björn; Möller, Claes; Lyxell, Björn
Usher syndrome is a genetic condition causing deaf-blindness and is one of the most common causes of syndromic deafness. Individuals with USH1 in Sweden born during the last 15 years have typically received cochlear implants (CI) as treatment for their congenital, profound hearing loss. Recent research in genetics indicates that the cause of deafness in individuals with Usher type 1 (USH1) could be beneficial for the outcome with cochlear implants (CI). This population has not previously been the focus of cognitive research. The present study aims to examine the phonological and lexical skills and working memory capacity (WMC) in children with USH1 and CI and to compare their performance with children with NH, children with hearing-impairment using hearing-aids and to children with non-USH1 deafness using CI. The participants were 7 children aged 7-16 years with USH1 and CI. The participants performed 10 sets of tasks measuring phonological and lexical skills and working memory capacity. The results indicate that children with USH1 and CI as a group in general have a similar level of performance on the cognitive tasks as children with hearing impairment and hearing aids. The group with USH1 and CI has a different performance profile on the tests of working memory, phonological skill and lexical skill than children with non-USH1 deafness using CI, on tasks of phonological working memory and phonological skill. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten
The cognitive load (CL) theoretical framework suggests that working memory is limited, which has implications for learning and skills acquisition. Complex learning situations such as surgical skills training can potentially induce a cognitive overload, inhibiting learning. This study aims to compare CL in traditional cadaveric dissection training and virtual reality (VR) simulation training of mastoidectomy. A prospective, crossover study. Participants performed cadaveric dissection before VR simulation of the procedure or vice versa. CL was estimated by secondary-task reaction time testing at baseline and during the procedure in both training modalities. The national Danish temporal bone course. A total of 40 novice otorhinolaryngology residents. Reaction time was increased by 20% in VR simulation training and 55% in cadaveric dissection training of mastoidectomy compared with baseline measurements. Traditional dissection training increased CL significantly more than VR simulation training (p < 0.001). VR simulation training imposed a lower CL than traditional cadaveric dissection training of mastoidectomy. Learning complex surgical skills can be a challenge for the novice and mastoidectomy skills training could potentially be optimized by employing VR simulation training first because of the lower CL. Traditional dissection training could then be used to supplement skills training after basic competencies have been acquired in the VR simulation. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bhise, Vikram V.; Burack, Gail D.; Mandelbaum, David E.
Aim: Epilepsy is associated with difficulties in cognition and behavior in children. These problems have been attributed to genetics, ongoing seizures, psychosocial issues, underlying abnormality of the brain, and/or antiepileptic drugs. In a previous study, we found baseline cognitive differences between children with partial versus generalized…
Full Text Available Contemporary culture is a visual culture. Visual images become the predominant form of communication. Students should be visually literate and be able to read and use visual language, to decode, interpret and evaluate visual messages successfully, and, last but not least, to encode and compose meaningful visual communication. The combination of modeling with other methods in scientific knowledge increases its potential as a cognitive method. Infographics can play a significant role in the process as tool or target according to the age and cognitive abilities of the students. Information images (infographics are visual representations of information, data or knowledge. The use of infographics as a modeling method can develop different cognitive skills such as interpretation, analysis, assessment, conclusion, explanation, which are all part of the modeling process. In fact, they can be a tool for achieving the next stage of literacy - visual literacy. All this necessitates the exploration of infographics as an instrument in the development of a comprehensive system of cognitive tasks in education related to the formation of skills for modeling. In the paper, six types of cognitive tasks in education are analyzed as well as their relation to the visual literacy competence standards approved by the Association of College & Research Libraries. A comparison of freely available infographics tools is provided and the suitability of different infographics templates is discussed.
Full Text Available The teaching learning process constitutes the main field where the students get the knowledge, skills and values needed by the society and which are expressed in the formation process that takes place in the teaching institutions. In this bilateral process, where the interaction between teachers and students take place, actions directed towards formation and development of students´ cognitive performance play an essential role. Deficiencies in the formation of the main integrated skill of the subject Technical Mechanics limit the assimilation process of the needed technical knowledge and its practical application during the repairs and technical maintenance, that constitute the bases for an efficient performance in the professional activity.
Full Text Available Although a number of cognitive deficits have been described in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID, few studies have examined the use of computer-assisted cognitive training programmes in this group of people. This study sought to determine the cognitive mechanisms underlying 16 activities included in Armoni, a computerized cognitive training programme for individuals with ID, in order to validate its use with this population. Fifty adults with ID from four residential care centres in Spain underwent neuropsychological testing tapping attention, verbal memory, visual memory, comprehension, visuoperception, visuoconstruction, naming ability, verbal fluency, verbal reasoning and motor function. In addition, they performed 16 activities included in the Armoni programme. The relationships between cognitive function and the computer-based activities were assessed using Spearman correlations. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were then used to explore how cognitive function predicted the performance of individuals with ID on the programme activities. Most programme activities correlated with visuoconstruction, comprehension and naming ability. Naming ability, visual memory, comprehension and visuoconstruction contributed the most to the predictive models regarding performance on the Armoni activities. Our findings support the validity of Armoni for cognitive training in individuals with ID.
Engel, Lisa; Bar, Yael; Beaton, Dorcas E; Green, Robin E; Dawson, Deirdre R
Financial management skills-that is, the skills needed to handle personal finances such as banking and paying bills-are essential to a person's autonomy, independence, and community living. To date, no comprehensive review of financial management skills instruments exists, making it difficult for clinicians and researchers to choose relevant instruments. The objectives of this review are to: (a) identify all available instruments containing financial management skill items that have been used with adults with acquired cognitive impairments; (b) categorize the instruments by source (i.e., observation based, self-report, proxy report); and (c) describe observation-based performance instruments by populations, overarching concepts measured, and comprehensiveness of financial management items. Objective (c) focuses on observation-based performance instruments as these measures can aid in situations where the person with cognitive impairment has poor self-awareness or where the proxy has poor knowledge of the person's current abilities. Two reviewers completed two systematic searches of five databases. Instruments were categorized by reviewing published literature, copies of the instruments, and/or communication with instrument authors. Comprehensiveness of items was based on nine key domains of financial management skills developed by the authors. A total of 88 discrete instruments were identified. Of these, 44 were categorized as observation-based performance and 44 as self- and/or proxy-reports. Of the 44 observation-based performance instruments, 8 had been developed for acquired brain injury populations and 24 for aging and dementia populations. Only 7 of the observation-based performance instruments had items spanning 6 or more of the 9 financial management skills domains. The majority of instruments were developed for aging and dementia populations, and few were comprehensive. This review provides foundation for future instrument psychometric and clinimetric
Coolin, Alisha; Erdfelder, Edgar; Bernstein, Daniel M; Thornton, Allen E; Thornton, Wendy Loken
After learning an event's outcome, people's recollection of their former prediction of that event typically shifts toward the actual outcome. Erdfelder and Buchner (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 387-414, 1998) developed a multinomial processing tree (MPT) model to identify the underlying processes contributing to this hindsight bias (HB) phenomenon. More recent applications of this model have revealed that, in comparison to younger adults, older adults are more susceptible to two underlying HB processes: recollection bias and reconstruction bias. However, the impact of cognitive functioning on these processes remains unclear. In this article, we extend the MPT model for HB by incorporating individual variation in cognitive functioning into the estimation of the model's core parameters in older and younger adults. In older adults, our findings revealed that (1) better episodic memory was associated with higher recollection ability in the absence of outcome knowledge, (2) better episodic memory and inhibitory control and higher working memory capacity were associated with higher recollection ability in the presence of outcome knowledge, and (3) better inhibitory control was associated with less reconstruction bias. Although the pattern of effects was similar in younger adults, the cognitive covariates did not significantly predict the underlying HB processes in this age group. In sum, we present a novel approach to modeling individual variability in MPT models. We applied this approach to the HB paradigm to identify the cognitive mechanisms contributing to the underlying HB processes. Our results show that working memory capacity and inhibitory control, respectively, drive individual differences in recollection bias and reconstruction bias, particularly in older adults.
Erb, Christopher D; Moher, Jeff; Sobel, David M; Song, Joo-Hyun
The current study uses reach tracking to investigate how cognitive control is implemented during online performance of the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and the Eriksen flanker task (Experiment 2). We demonstrate that two of the measures afforded by reach tracking, initiation time and reach curvature, capture distinct patterns of effects that have been linked to dissociable processes underlying cognitive control in electrophysiology and functional neuroimaging research. Our results suggest that initiation time reflects a response threshold adjustment process involving the inhibition of motor output, while reach curvature reflects the degree of co-activation between response alternatives registered by a monitoring process over the course of a trial. In addition to shedding new light on fundamental questions concerning how these processes contribute to the cognitive control of behavior, these results present a framework for future research to investigate how these processes function across different tasks, develop across the lifespan, and differ among individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of teaching contrastive skills of Islam originated from versus of holly book of Quran and cognitive-behavioral for coping on anxiety among some high school students in city of Tehran, Iran. The study uses a standard method developed by Cattell and Scheier (1963 [Cattell, R. B., & Scheier, I. H. (1963. Handbook for the IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire: Self Analysis Form. Institute for Personality & Ability Testing.] to measure the anxiety. The results have indicated that both methods, contrastive skills and cognitive-behavioral, not only could reduce anxiety in short term but also it could reduce the anxiety over the long term period.
Lett, Lanair A; Stingone, Jeanette A; Claudio, Luz
Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child's neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050), isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m³) had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: -2.91, -0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12) had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: -2.30, -0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [-1.48, 95% CI: -2.79, -0.18; -1.05, 95% CI: -2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone exposure and a low HOME score had a
Lévesque, David; Sévigny, Serge; Giroux, Isabelle; Jacques, Christian
The Gambling-Related Cognition Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004) was developed to evaluate gambling-related cognitive distortions for all types of gamblers, regardless of their gambling activities (poker, slot machine, etc.). It is therefore imperative to ascertain the validity of its interpretation across different types of gamblers; however, some skills-related items endorsed by players could be interpreted as a cognitive distortion despite the fact that they play skills-related games. Using an intergroup (168 poker players and 73 video lottery terminal [VLT] players) differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, this study examined the possible manifestation of item biases associated with the GRCS. DIF was analyzed with ordinal logistic regressions (OLRs) and Ramsay's (1991) nonparametric kernel smoothing approach with TestGraf. Results show that half of the items display at least moderate DIF between groups and, depending on the type of analysis used, 3 to 7 items displayed large DIF. The 5 items with the most DIF were more significantly endorsed by poker players (uniform DIF) and were all related to skills, knowledge, learning, or probabilities. Poker players' interpretations of some skills-related items may lead to an overestimation of their cognitive distortions due to their total score increased by measurement artifact. Findings indicate that the current structure of the GRCS contains potential biases to be considered when poker players are surveyed. The present study conveys new and important information on bias issues to ponder carefully before using and interpreting the GRCS and other similar wide-range instruments with poker players. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Seyyedeh Somayyeh Jalil-Abkenar
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of the effectiveness of cognitive & cognitive-metacognitive strategies based on mathematical problem-solving skills on 9th grade girl students with intellectual disability in Tehran Province. Materials & Methods: The research is an experimental, comparing pre-test and post-test data. The participants were chosen by cluster sampling from three schools three districts of Tehran Province (Gharchak, Shahrerey and Shahryar. Fifteen female students with Intellectual disability were assigned from each school and they were divided into three, one control and two experiment groups. For experimental groups students cognitive & cognitive-metacognitive strategies were taught in the 15 instructional sessions, but the control group students did not receive none of strategies in the same sessions. The instruments consist of Wechsler intelligence test was used for matching the groups in terms of IQ, a teacher performed the tests for mathematical problem-solving and instructional pakage of cognitive and cognitive-metacognitive strategies. The data analysis was done by using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and frequency table and ANCOVA. Results: The findings of this research showed that there was significant increasing in mathematical problem-solving skills in the group receiving cognitive-metacognitive strategies in comparison with the cognitive group (P<0.005 and control group (P<0.001. Beside, the mean difference of the cognitive group was significantly more than the control group (P<0.003. Conclusion: The mathematical problem-solving skill of the students have been improved through cognitive-metacognitive and cognitive strategies. Also, the instruction of cognitive-metacognitive strategies, in compared with cognitive strategy caused more improvement on the performance of mathematical problem-solving skills.
Full Text Available Procedural memory allows acquisition, consolidation and use of motor skills and cognitive routines. Automation of procedures is achieved through repeated practice. In children, improvement in procedural skills is a consequence of natural neurobiological development and experience.The aim of the present research was to make a preliminary evaluation and description of repetition-based improvement of procedures in typically developing children (TDC. Ninety TDC children aged 6-12 years were asked to perform two procedural learning tasks. In an assembly learning task, which requires predominantly motor skills, we measured the number of assembled pieces in 60 seconds. In a mirror drawing learning task, which requires more cognitive functions, we measured time spent and efficiency. Participants were tested four times for each task: three trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after a 10-minute nonverbal interference task. The influence of repeated practice on performance was evaluated by means of the analysis of variance with repeated measures and the paired-sample test. Correlation coefficients and simple linear regression test were used to examine the relationship between age and performance.TDC achieved higher scores in both tasks through repetition. Older children fitted more pieces than younger ones in assembling learning and they were faster and more efficient at the mirror drawing learning task.These findings indicate that three consecutive trials at a procedural task increased speed and efficiency, and that age affected basal performance in motor-cognitive procedures.
Vanbinst, Kiran; Ceulemans, Eva; Peters, Lien; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert
Although symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills are key for learning arithmetic, their developmental trajectories remain unknown. Therefore, we delineated during the first 3years of primary education (5-8years of age) groups with distinguishable developmental trajectories of symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills using a model-based clustering approach. Three clusters were identified and were labeled as inaccurate, accurate but slow, and accurate and fast. The clusters did not differ in age, sex, socioeconomic status, or IQ. We also tested whether these clusters differed in domain-specific (nonsymbolic magnitude processing and digit identification) and domain-general (visuospatial short-term memory, verbal working memory, and processing speed) cognitive competencies that might contribute to children's ability to (efficiently) process the numerical meaning of Arabic numerical symbols. We observed minor differences between clusters in these cognitive competencies except for verbal working memory for which no differences were observed. Follow-up analyses further revealed that the above-mentioned cognitive competencies did not merely account for the cluster differences in children's development of symbolic numerical magnitude processing skills, suggesting that other factors account for these individual differences. On the other hand, the three trajectories of symbolic numerical magnitude processing revealed remarkable and stable differences in children's arithmetic fact retrieval, which stresses the importance of symbolic numerical magnitude processing for learning arithmetic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran ARIAS dan ARIAS Dipadu Peta Konsep terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis, Kognitif, dan Afektif Abstract: The learning model Assurance, Relevance, Interest, Assessment, and Satisfaction (ARIAS combined concept maps can enhance critical thinking skills, cognitive, and affective. The study aims to examine the effect of learning model ARIAS, combined ARIAS concept maps and concept maps on the ability of critical thinking, cognitive, and affective. The research data were collected through the test description and observation sheet. The result showed that the average value of critical thinking skills, cognitive and affective for group learning model combined ARIAS Concept maps very well classified category, class learning ARIAS treatment, and treatment classes Concept maps including both categories. Key Words: influence, ARIAS, concept maps, critical thinking, cognitive, and affective Abstrak: Model pembelajaran Assurance, Relevance, Interest, Assessment, dan Satisfaction (ARIAS dipadu peta konsep dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis, kognitif, dan afektif. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh model pembelajaran ARIAS, ARIAS dipadu peta konsep, dan peta konsep terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis, kognitif, dan afektif. Data penelitian dikumpulkan melalui tes uraian dan lembar observasi. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa nilai rata-rata kemampuan berpikir kritis, kognitif dan afektif untuk kelompok model pembelajaran ARIAS dipadu Peta Konsep tergolong kategori sangat baik, kelas perlakuan pembelajaran ARIAS, dan kelas perlakuan Peta Konsep termasuk kategori baik. Kata kunci: pengaruh, ARIAS, peta konsep, berpikir kritis, kognitif, afektif
Sino, C. G. M.; Sietzema, M.; Egberts, T. C. G.; Schuurmans, M. J.
Objective: to determine the medication management capacity of independently living older people (>= 75 years) on polypharmacy (>= 5 medications) in relation to their cognitive- and self-management skills. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: two homecare organizations in the Netherlands.
Mohammad Hossein Bahadori
Full Text Available Background: Self assertiveness can be considered as hearth of interpersonal behavior and weakness in this area is one of the obvious characteristic in the patients with social phobia disorder. This study aimed to determine the effect of meta-cognitive therapy on the rate of self assertiveness skill in patients with social phobia disorder. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted with pretest-posttest and follow-up design, using control group. From all social phobia disorder patients visited in psychology clinics in Shiraz, south western part of Iran in 2012, 22 patients were selected through the objective sampling method and randomly divided into two experimental (11 persons and control (11 persons groups. The instruments of this study were social phobia symptoms assessment questioner (SPSAQ and self assertiveness scale (SAS. The experimental group received 8 weeks of Wells’ meta-cognitive therapy sessions. Data were analyzed through covariance analysis method. Results: The results showed that the mean of the self assertiveness scores in post-test and follow up in the experimental group is significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05. The results of analysis of multivariate covariance showed that MCT had a significant effect on increscent of the self assertiveness skill scores of posttest (0.39 and follow up (0.38 in patients with social phobia disorder (p<0.001. Conclusion: This intervention is believed to improve self assertiveness skill in SPD patients by facilitating transmission from the object mode to the meta-cognitive mode and enhancing the efficient and flexible coping skills.
Adam S. Goodie
Full Text Available Many natural decisions contain an element of skill. Modern conceptions of the skill component include control (Goodie, 2003 and competence (Heath and Tversky, 1991. The control hypothesis states that a task's skill component (the sensitivity of the task to skill affects decision making; the competence hypothesis states decision making is affected only if the participant possesses the skill. Three experiments compared risk taking patterns between two groups. One group faced bets on random events, and another group faced bets on their answers to general knowledge questions, which is a task characterized by control. In Experiment 1, control increased risk taking markedly with all statistical properties held constant. In Experiment 2, decisions made in domains of varying difficulty, and by individuals of varying ability, yielded further qualified support for the role of competence. In Experiment 3, the role of control was replicated, and participants' perceptions of the differences in group treatments aligned more with the implications of the control hypothesis than with the competence hypothesis. Results offered support for the control hypothesis across a range of competence.
Gumpel, Thomas P.; Nativ-Ari-Am, Hagit
Two multiple baseline designs were used to evaluate a two-stage model for training four young adults with visual and cognitive impairments to grocery shop. A task-analytical flow chart of the behavioral skills involved in grocery shopping was used to increase completed skill steps and the number of correct items purchased. (Contains references.)…
Lickel, Athena; MacLean, William E., Jr.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Hepburn, Susan
The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) thought to be necessary for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Forty children with ASD and forty age-matched typically developing children between the ages of 7-12 years participated. Groups were comparable with regard to nonverbal IQ,…
Horan, William P; Dolinsky, Michelle; Lee, Junghee; Kern, Robert S; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine A; Glynn, Shirley M; Green, Michael F
Impairments in social cognition are key determinants of poor functioning in psychosis and an important new target for treatment development. Initial studies support the feasibility and efficacy of training interventions for social cognition, but have been small and have had substantial methodological limitations. This report describes the largest rigorously controlled study of a social cognitive treatment to date. We evaluated the efficacy of a refined version of the 24-session Social Cognitive Skills Training (SCST) program, and whether adding in vivo training sessions in community settings would enhance generalization to functional improvements. One hundred thirty-nine outpatients with psychotic disorders were randomly assigned to one of 3 time- and format-matched conditions: (1) SCST plus in vivo community-based training, (2) SCST plus clinic-based training, or (3) Illness management control condition. SCST targeted the domains of emotion processing, social perception, attributional bias, empathy, and mentalizing. Assessments of social cognition, nonsocial cognition, symptoms, and functioning were completed at baseline, mid-treatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. On the primary social cognitive outcome measures, there was significant, durable SCST-related improvement in facial emotion identification. There was also a significant SCST benefit for emotional intelligence and an in vivo training effect for empathy, though these improvements were not durable. Further, there were no overall or in vivo-related changes in functioning. This study bolsters and extends support for the efficacy of SCST in a relatively large and rigorously controlled trial, although our effort to enhance generalization to functional improvements through in vivo community-based training was not successful. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Natalie H. Brito
Full Text Available Past research has demonstrated links between cortical activity, measured via EEG power, and cognitive processes during infancy. In a separate line of research, family socioeconomic status (SES has been strongly associated with children’s early cognitive development, with socioeconomic disparities emerging during the second year of life for both language and declarative memory skills. The present study examined associations among resting EEG power at birth, SES, and language and memory skills at 15-months in a sample of full-term infants. Results indicate no associations between SES and EEG power at birth. However, EEG power at birth was related to both language and memory outcomes at 15-months. Specifically, frontal power (24–48 Hz was positively correlated with later Visual Paired Comparison (VPC memory scores. Power (24–35 Hz in the parietal region was positively correlated with later PLS-Auditory Comprehension language scores. These findings suggest that SES disparities in brain activity may not be apparent at birth, but measures of resting neonatal EEG power are correlated with later memory and language skills independently of SES.
Omer Serkan Turan
Full Text Available Dr Francis Peabody commented that the swing of the pendulum toward specialization had reached its apex, and that modern medicine had fragmented the health care delivery system too greatly. Thus the system was in need of a generalist physician to provide comprehensive personalized care. Family physician is the perfect candidate to fill the gap which Dr Peabody once speaks of and grants biopsychosocial model as its main philosophy. Biopsychosocial model proposes physician to consider multiple aspects of patient's life in order to manage disease. Behavioral pathogens such as poor diet, lack of physical activity, stress, substance abuse, unsafe sexual activity, inadequate emotional support, nonadherence to medical advice contribute to disease progress. Family physician can guide patient like a coach to obtain higher levels in Maslows hierarchy of needs as biopsychosocial model suggests and obtain the change in behavior towards a healthier life with using cognitive behavioral therapy skills. So family physician, biopsychosocial model and cognitive behavioral skills are three pillars of comprehensive personalized care and family physicians having these skill sets can be very helpful in making positive changes in the life of the patient. [JCBPR 2017; 6(2.000: 98-100
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among science process skills, attitude toward science, cognitive development and academic achievement of elementary preservice teachers. Especially, the combined predictive value of science process skills, attitude toward science and cognitive development on student academic achievement were determined. The data were obtained from 85 pre-service elementary teachers at a teachers college in Thailand. Science process skills, attitude toward science in school and cognitive development were addressed by the Thai translation of the respective instruments: Dillashaw and Okey's (1980) Test of Science Process Skills (TIPS), Germann's (1988) Attitude Toward Science in School Assessment (ATSSA) and Tobin and Capie's (1981) Test Of Logical Thinking (TOLT). Grade point average (GPA) in science courses and overall college grade point average (GPA) as a measure of academic achievement were taken from students' records. Data were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistic, the Pearson Product Moment correlation, stepwise multiple linear regression and canonical correlation. Results indicated a significant high correlation between pre-service teachers' science process skills and cognitive development, overall college GPA, GPA in science courses, and between overall college GPA and GPA in science courses; significant moderate correlation between cognitive development and overall college GPA, and GPA in science courses; significant low correlation between attitude toward science and GPA in science courses. In addition, science process skills was an effective predictor of individual academic achievement.
Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.
Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations. PMID:27560512
Gerdes, Jodi; Kahol, Kanav; Smith, Marshall; Leyba, Mario J; Ferrara, John J
Fatigue and sleep deprivation and their effects on surgical proficiency have been actively researched areas. Past studies that have focused solely on residents have provided an important insight into how fatigue affects residents' ability to perform. This study aims to quantify the effect of fatigue on attending surgeons. To quantify the effect of fatigue on psychomotor and cognitive skills of surgical residents and attending surgeons, visiohaptic simulations were created to mimic realistic interactions. Both groups showed a significant decrement in proficiency measures postcall. When tasks were separated based on psychomotor versus cognitive-dominated skills, attending surgeons made 25% fewer (P Psychomotor skills were equally affected in both groups. Call-associated fatigue is associated with increased error rates in the cognitive skill domain, although less so in attending surgeons compared with their resident counterparts.
Full Text Available Abstract This study was set to identify self-regulation skills required for online learning and to characterize cognitive transfer of on-campus and online students. The study included two groups of undergraduate students who studied the same course, but in different settings: online and on-campus. Data collected via an online survey and semi-structured interviews indicated that cognitive strategies and regulation of cognition are significant for successful online learning. Findings also indicated that the online students were more aware of mastery learning and information processing strategies than the on-campus peers. The online students specified the importance of planning, controlling, and evaluation skills for meaningful learning; whereas the on-campus students asserted lack of self-discipline and limited communication skills as barriers for distance learning. Near- and far-transfer components were identified, showing a significant positive correlation with self-regulation skills for both groups of learners.
Soorya, Latha V; Siper, Paige M; Beck, Todd; Soffes, Sarah; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph; Wang, A Ting
This study evaluated the efficacy of a targeted social skills training group in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention, Seaver-NETT (Nonverbal communication, Emotion recognition, and Theory of mind Training), is a 12-session cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) for verbal, school-aged children targeting ASD-specific social behavioral impairments. Sixty-nine children with ASD, 8 to 11 years of age, with verbal IQs greater than 70, participated in a randomized comparative trial to examine the efficacy of NETT relative to a facilitated play group. Treatment outcomes included caregiver reports of social behavior and neuropsychological assessments of social cognition conducted by blinded raters. Outcomes were collected at baseline, endpoint, and 3 months posttreatment. Significant improvements were found on social behavior outcomes such as nonverbal communication, empathic responding, and social relations in the NETT condition relative to the active control at endpoint. Verbal IQ moderated the interaction effect on social behavior, with higher verbal IQ associated with improvements in the CBI condition. No significant improvements were found on social cognitive outcomes. No significant group differences were found at 3-month follow-up conducted with approximately half the sample (n = 34). These data indicate that targeted CBI social skills groups such as NETT improve social communication deficits in verbal, school-aged children with ASD. The moderating effects of high verbal IQ suggest a need to consider participant and treatment characteristics associated with outcomes in future studies. Clinical trial registration information-Neural and Behavioral Outcomes of Social Skills Groups in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder; https://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01190917. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar
A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an already existing model by Cheung and Chan [Cheung, C. K., & Chan, C. M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organisation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253]. The expanded model showed a better fit. Furthermore, the expanded model explained two-thirds of the variance of the intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign. The greatest predictor of the intention to donate proved to be "Past donation to disaster relief campaigns." The factor "News exposure" was indicated to be a valuable additional factor, as it had a significant direct effect on "Awareness of a disaster relief campaign" and was the only factor that had a total effect on all other factors, including "Intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign."
Omanbayev, Bekhzod; Salahodjaev, Raufhon; Lynn, Richard
Are greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and cognitive skills (CS) related? We attempt to answer this question by exploring this relationship, using cross-country data for 150 countries, for the period 1997-2012. After controlling for the level of economic development, quality of political regimes, population size and a number of other controls, we document that CS robustly predict GHG. In particular, when CS at a national level increase by one standard deviation, the average annual rate of air pollution changes by nearly 1.7% (slightly less than one half of a standard deviation). This significance holds for a number of robustness checks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hancock, Laura; Correia, Stephen; Ahern, David; Barredo, Jennifer; Resnik, Linda
Purpose The objectives were to 1) identify major cognitive domains involved in learning to use the DEKA Arm; 2) specify cognitive domain-specific skills associated with basic versus advanced users; and 3) examine whether baseline memory and executive function predicted learning. Method Sample included 35 persons with upper limb amputation. Subjects were administered a brief neuropsychological test battery prior to start of DEKA Arm training, as well as physical performance measures at the onset of, and following training. Multiple regression models controlling for age and including neuropsychological tests were developed to predict physical performance scores. Prosthetic performance scores were divided into quartiles and independent samples t-tests compared neuropsychological test scores of advanced scorers and basic scorers. Baseline neuropsychological test scores were used to predict change in scores on physical performance measures across time. Results Cognitive domains of attention and processing speed were statistically significantly related to proficiency of DEKA Arm use and predicted level of proficiency. Conclusions Results support use of neuropsychological tests to predict learning and use of a multifunctional prosthesis. Assessment of cognitive status at the outset of training may help set expectations for the duration and outcomes of treatment. Implications for Rehabilitation Cognitive domains of attention and processing speed were significantly related to level of proficiencyof an advanced multifunctional prosthesis (the DEKA Arm) after training. Results provide initial support for the use of neuropsychological tests to predict advanced learningand use of a multifunctional prosthesis in upper-limb amputees. Results suggest that assessment of patients' cognitive status at the outset of upper limb prosthetictraining may, in the future, help patients, their families and therapists set expectations for theduration and intensity of training and may help set
Lipskaya-Velikovsky, Lena; Elgerisi, Dikla; Easterbrook, Adam; Ratzon, Navah Z
Employment offers many benefits to people with mental illness, yet their employment rate is much lower than that of the general population. We investigated the effect of work-related motor skills, neurocognition, and job attitudes on the work performance of people with mental illness, comparing those working in sheltered workshops, with controls working in similar jobs. Twenty-nine adults with severe mental illness and 27 controls matched by gender and age were enrolled into the study using convenience sampling. They were assessed for gross and fine motor hand functioning, job attitudes, work performance, and cognition. People with mental illness scored lower on work performance, cognitive functioning, and hand dexterity while sitting and working with tools. They were assigned lower job loads than were controls, and perceived the physical environment at work as more constraining than did controls. Assembling motor skills significantly explained the work performance of people with mental illness. The results expand our understanding of the complexities involved in the employment of people with severe mental illness, and point to new paths for improving vocational outcomes of people with severe mental illness, taking into account their motor skills and job attitudes. Implications for rehabilitation Therapists should be aware that employed people with severe mental illness may have various unmet needs, affecting their work performance and experience of stress. This study results demonstrate importance of motor skills and perception of the work environment for the promotion of vocational outcomes among individuals with severe mental illness. Employment of people with severe mental illness should be viewed from holistic perspective as with general population, rather than focused on traditionally illness-related factors.
Glenthøj, Louise B; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Jepsen, Jens R M; Bak, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Tina D; Wenneberg, Christina; Krakauer, Kristine; Roberts, David L; Nordentoft, Merete
Patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show significant impairments in functioning. It is essential to determine which factors influence functioning, as it may have implications for intervention strategies. This study examined whether social cognitive abilities and clinical symptoms are associated with functioning and social skills. The study included 65 UHR patients and 30 healthy controls. Social cognitive function, social skills, and a broad range of functioning measures were assessed. The UHR patients demonstrated significant decrements on The Awareness of Social Inferences Task total score (p = .046, d = .51), and on the CANTAB emotion recognition task total percent correct (p = .023, d = .54) displaying particular difficulties in negative affect recognition. The patients exhibited significant impairments in social skills measured with the High Risk Social Challenge (p˂.001, d = 1.05). Aspects of emotion recognition were associated with role functioning and social skill performance. The level of attributional bias was associated with overall functioning, and theory of mind ability was associated with self-reported functioning. Negative symptoms were associated with all measures of functioning (p ≤ .05). Significant impairments in social cognition and social skills were found in UHR patients. The patients' social cognitive function was associated with overall functioning and social skills. Negative symptoms appear to play an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients is warranted.
Shipster, C; Hearst, D; Dockrell, J E; Kilby, E; Hayward, R
There are few studies that report findings on the speech and language characteristics of Apert syndrome and little is known about the cognitive profile of the syndrome. The current study addresses this gap and explores speech, language, resonance/voice, attention oro-motor and cognitive skills in a group of 10 children (4;1-5;11) with Apert syndrome. The speech and language battery included: the CELF-Pre-school, the PLS-3, the Vocal Profile Analysis, GOS.SP.ASS, PACS; and the Brodsky Drooling Scale. Subscales of the BAS II-Early Years Version were used to assess cognition. Data were also collected on other factors that could influence developmental outcome such as audiological history and management; occlusion/dentition; respiratory problems and management; neuroanatomical abnormalities; the number and nature of cranial surgeries; and the occurrence of raised intracranial pressure. All children for whom a Performance IQ was obtained (n = 8) had abilities within the average range and IQ scores were considerably higher than those reported in previous studies. Eight children had moderate or severe language difficulties and expressive language difficulties were the most frequent. These language difficulties were not associated with a general cognitive deficit. All the children had problems with attention, speech and oro-motor skills. Nine had abnormal voice. In addition, a range of other associated factors that could affect functioning were identified. The discrepancies between the current study and previous investigations are outlined. Parameters for assessment are considered. The implications of these findings for valid assessments of children with Apert syndrome are discussed. Multidisciplinary assessment of children with Apert syndrome across a broad range of dimensions is recommended to obtain a profile of each child's strengths and weaknesses to ensure that appropriate educational placements and early interventions are implemented. Considering patterns of
Zhan, Jun; Wu, Xiaofei; Fan, Jin; Guo, Jianyou; Zhou, Jianshe; Ren, Jun; Liu, Chang; Luo, Jing
Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER), especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film) could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., "sadness counteracts anger" (SCA)] (Zhan et al., 2015). Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants' subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one's ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER induction was found to
Full Text Available Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER, especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., “sadness counteracts anger” (SCA] (Zhan et al., 2015. Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants’ subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one’s ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER
Lange, Florian; Seer, Caroline; Loens, Sebastian; Wegner, Florian; Schrader, Christoph; Dressler, Dirk; Dengler, Reinhard; Kopp, Bruno
Cognitive inflexibility is a hallmark of executive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). This deficit consistently manifests itself in a PD-related increase in the number of perseverative errors committed on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). However, the neural processes underlying perseverative WCST performance in PD are still largely unknown. The present study is the first to investigate the event-related potential (ERP) correlates of cognitive inflexibility on the WCST in PD patients. Thirty-two PD patients and 35 matched control participants completed a computerized version of the WCST while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Behavioral results revealed the expected increase in perseverative errors in patients with PD. ERP analysis focused on two established indicators of executive processes: the fronto-central P3a as an index of attentional orienting and the sustained parietal positivity (SPP) as an index of set-shifting processes. In comparison to controls, P3a amplitudes were significantly attenuated in PD patients. Regression analysis further revealed that P3a and SPP amplitudes interactively contributed to the prediction of perseverative errors in PD patients: The number of perseverative errors was only increased when both ERP amplitudes were attenuated. Notably, the two ERP markers of executive processes accounted for more than 40% of the variance in perseverative errors in PD patients. We conclude that cognitive inflexibility in PD occurs when the neural bases of multiple executive processes are affected by the pathophysiology of PD. The combined measurement of P3a and SPP might yield an electrophysiological marker of cognitive inflexibility in PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Connor, Kieron P; Lavoie, Marc E; Stip, Emmanuel; Borgeat, François; Laverdure, Anick
The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of 55 patients with TD were recruited at baseline from participants in a behavioural management programme. A comparison group of 55 patients suffering from a variety of habit disorders (HD) involving complex manual movements, were matched on age and level of education to 34 non-psychiatric controls. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-treatment and post-waitlist with a neuropsychological evaluation focusing on executive function (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST) and skilled motor performance (Purdue Pegboard, Hole Steadiness Test, and the Groove Test). Results revealed WCST scores in the normal range, while motor performance differed significantly on the Purdue Pegboard Tests in both TD and HD as compared to the control group. Cognitive-behavioural treatment selectively improved motor performance in both clinical groups compared to waitlist control, and this improvement related to clinical outcome measures.
Svend Sparre Geertsen
Full Text Available To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests.This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls. Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C. Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001, whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046 and spatial working memory (P<0.038. Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001, exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the
P D Shallie
Full Text Available Background : Patients taking lithium often report of difficulties in concentration, memory, learning, and attention. Laboratory tests of cognitive functions in healthy volunteers on chronic lithium demonstrate that disruptions in memory-learning processes are apparent at the time of memory retrieval. Aim : This study has attempted to evaluate the impact of lithium ingestion on cognition and some subset of sensory skill, by examining comparatively how lithium or a lithium / saline supplement either harms or helps the brain. Materials and Methods : Wistar Rats (male and female were housed in individual improvised cages. The rats were acclimatized for two weeks after which they were randomly grouped into three, namely, control, lithium-treated, and lithium with saline-treated groups, and treated for four weeks. The lithium-treated group received 40 mM lithium bicarbonate per kg of feed for the first one week, and the dosage was increased to 60mM per kg of feed for the rest of the three weeks. The lithium-saline group received saline solution in addition to lithium. The control group was given normal feed and water liberally for the period of the experiment. The rats were subjected to a cognitive test using the Barnes maze, assessments of negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance, and some neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and glutamate. The data were analyzed by Microsoft excel 2007. Results : This study shows that lithium ingestion is characterized by a significant ( P ≤ 0.05 decline in learning and memory as compared to the control. While the lithium-saline-treated animals exhibit enhanced cognitive ability. The subset of sensory activity was assessed; negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance were grossly compromised, thus lithium carbonate appeared to have definite negative effects on the psychsensory speed. Conclusion : In conclusion lithium should be co-administered with saline to counter the detrimental effects of lithium noticed in this study, which
Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francjan J; de Sonneville, Leo M J; van der Meere, Jaap J; Bosch, Annet M; Hollak, Carla E M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Hofstede, Floris C; de Vries, Maaike C; Janssen, Mirian C H; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Langendonk, Janneke G; Huijbregts, Stephan C J
Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Ninety five PKU-patients (mean age 21.6 ± 10.2 years) and 95 healthy controls (mean age 19.6 ± 8.7 years) were compared on performance of computerized and paper-and-pencil tasks measuring social-cognitive abilities and on parent- and self-reported social skills, using multivariate analyses of variance, and controlling for general cognitive ability (IQ-estimate). Further comparisons were made between patients using tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4, N = 30) and patients not using BH4. Associations with Phe-levels on the day of testing, during childhood, during adolescence and throughout life were examined. PKU-patients showed poorer social-cognitive functioning and reportedly had poorer social skills than controls (regardless of general cognitive abilities). Quality of social-cognitive functioning was negatively related to recent Phe-levels and Phe-levels between 8 and 12 years for adolescents with PKU. Quality of social skills was negatively related to lifetime phenylalanine levels in adult patients, and specifically to Phe-levels between 0 and 7, and between 8 and 12 years. There were no differences with respect to social outcome measures between the BH4 and non-BH4 groups. PKU-patients have Phe-related difficulties with social-cognitive functioning and social skills. Problems seem to be more evident among adolescents and adults with PKU. High Phe-levels during childhood and early adolescence seem to be of greater influence than current and recent Phe-levels for these patients.
Foskett, Andrew; Ali, Ajmol; Gant, Nicholas
There is little evidence regarding the benefits of caffeine ingestion on cognitive function and skillful actions during sporting performance, especially in sports that are multifaceted in their physiological, skill, and cognitive demands. To examine the influence of caffeine on performance during simulated soccer activity. Twelve male soccer players completed two 90-min soccer-specific intermittent running trials interspersed with tests of soccer skill (LSPT). The trials were separated by 7 days and adhered to a randomized crossover design. On each occasion participants ingested 6 mg/kg body mass (BM) of caffeine (CAF) or a placebo (PLA) in a double-blind fashion 60 min before exercise. Movement time, penalties accrued, and total time were recorded for the LSPT. Physiological and performance markers were measured throughout the protocol. Water (3 ml/kg BM) was ingested every 15 min. Participants accrued significantly less penalty time in the CAF trial (9.7 +/- 6.6 s vs. PLA 11.6 +/- 7.4 s; p = .02), leading to a significantly lower total time in this trial (CAF 51.6 +/- 7.7 s vs. PLA 53.9 +/- 8.5 s; p = .02). This decrease in penalty time was probably attributable to an increased passing accuracy in the CAF trial (p = .06). Jump height was 2.7% (+/- 1.1%) higher in the CAF trial (57.1 +/- 5.1 cm vs. PLA 55.6 +/- 5.1 cm; p = .01). Caffeine ingestion before simulated soccer activity improved players' passing accuracy and jump performance without any detrimental effects on other performance parameters.
Soto-Icaza, Patricia; Aboitiz, Francisco; Billeke, Pablo
Social skills refer to a wide group of abilities that allow us to interact and communicate with others. Children learn how to solve social situations by predicting and understanding other's behaviors. The way in which humans learn to interact successfully with others encompasses a complex interaction between neural, behavioral, and environmental elements. These have a role in the accomplishment of positive developmental outcomes, including peer acceptance, academic achievement, and mental health. All these social abilities depend on widespread brain networks that are recently being studied by neuroscience. In this paper, we will first review the studies on this topic, aiming to clarify the behavioral and neural mechanisms related to the acquisition of social skills during infancy and their appearance in time. Second, we will briefly describe how developmental diseases like Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can inform about the neurobiological mechanisms of social skills. We finally sketch a general framework for the elaboration of cognitive models in order to facilitate the comprehension of human social development. PMID:26483621
Soto-Icaza, Patricia; Aboitiz, Francisco; Billeke, Pablo
Social skills refer to a wide group of abilities that allow us to interact and communicate with others. Children learn how to solve social situations by predicting and understanding other's behaviors. The way in which humans learn to interact successfully with others encompasses a complex interaction between neural, behavioral, and environmental elements. These have a role in the accomplishment of positive developmental outcomes, including peer acceptance, academic achievement, and mental health. All these social abilities depend on widespread brain networks that are recently being studied by neuroscience. In this paper, we will first review the studies on this topic, aiming to clarify the behavioral and neural mechanisms related to the acquisition of social skills during infancy and their appearance in time. Second, we will briefly describe how developmental diseases like Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can inform about the neurobiological mechanisms of social skills. We finally sketch a general framework for the elaboration of cognitive models in order to facilitate the comprehension of human social development.
Daza, María Teresa; Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Ruiz-Cuadra, María del Mar; López-López, Francisco
The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between language skills (vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness), nonverbal cognitive processes (attention, memory and executive functions) and reading comprehension in deaf children. Participants were thirty prelingually deaf children (10.7 ± 1.6 years old; 18 boys, 12 girls), who were classified as either good readers or poor readers by their scores on two reading comprehension tasks. The children were administered a rhyme judgment task and seven computerized neuropsychological tasks specifically designed and adapted for deaf children to evaluate vocabulary knowledge, attention, memory and executive functions in deaf children. A correlational approach was also used to assess the association between variables. Although the two groups did not show differences in phonological awareness, good readers showed better vocabulary and performed significantly better than poor readers on attention, memory and executive functions measures. Significant correlations were found between better scores in reading comprehension and better scores on tasks of vocabulary and non-verbal cognitive processes. The results suggest that in deaf children, vocabulary knowledge and nonverbal cognitive processes such as selective attention, visuo-spatial memory, abstract reasoning and sequential processing may be especially relevant for the development of reading comprehension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this paper, we present robust joint relay precoder designs and transceiver power allocations for a cognitive radio network under imperfect channel state information (CSI). The secondary (or cognitive) network consists of a pair of single-antenna transceiver nodes and a non-regenerative two-way relay with multiple antennas which aids the communication process between the transceiver pair. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) while guaranteeing that the interference to the PU receiver is maintained below a specified threshold. We consider two robust designs: the first is based on the minimization of the total transmit power of the secondary relay node required to provide the minimum quality of service, measured in terms of mean-square error (MSE) of the transceiver nodes, and the second is based on the minimization of the sum-MSE of the transceiver nodes. The robust designs are based on worst-case optimization and take into account known parameters of the error in the CSI to render the performance immune to the presence of errors in the CSI. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed designs can be reformulated as tractable convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently. We illustrate the performance of the proposed designs through some selected numerical simulations. © 2013 IEEE.
Palmer, Edward J; Devitt, Peter G
Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs) are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs). MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs) used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination.
Palmer Edward J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs. MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. Methods An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Results Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Conclusion Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination.
Van Impe, A; Bruijn, S M; Coxon, J P; Wenderoth, N; Sunaert, S; Duysens, J; Swinnen, S P
Behavioral studies suggest that postural control requires increased cognitive control and visuospatial processing with aging. Consequently, performance can decline when concurrently performing a postural and a demanding cognitive task. We aimed to identify the neural substrate underlying this
Mohammed Abdelhady Abdelsamea
Full Text Available Although there are a number of studies on English writing skills, the relation among metalearning, cognitive holding power and writing skills is not well understood. Thus, this study investigated the relation among metalearning capacity (high versus low and cognitive holding power (CHP; first-order versus second-order in explaining the English Language writing skills of Egyptian pre-service teachers. We constructed and validated new measures of metalearning and English writing skills, and adapted an existing measure of CHP for use with our Egyptian sample. Participants with high metalearning capacity demonstrated better writing skills than those with low metalearning capacity. In addition, participants with second-order CHP exhibited better writing skills than those with first-order CHP. The two factors made independent contributions (i.e., did not interact because, we argue that metalearning operates at the level of the individual learner whereas CHP is an attribute of the larger instructional environment (as orchestrated by the teacher. These findings generalize and extend our current understanding of the role of metalearning and CHP in developing writing skills to a new population, and establish the utility of newly developed and adapted instruments and adapted instruments. They also set the stage for future interventions for developing better English writing skills in pre-service teachers.
Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam
As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance (signal detection rate, SDR and recognition reaction time, RRT) as measures of CL. In phase 1 of the study, novice learners and expert surgeons attempted a visual-monitoring task under two conditions: single-task (monitoring a virtual patient's heart-rate) and dual-task (tying surgical knots on a bench-top simulator while monitoring the virtual patient's heart-rate). Novices demonstrated higher mental effort and inferior secondary-task performance on the dual-task compared to experts (RRT 1.76 vs. 0.73, p = 0.012; SDR 0.27 vs. 0.97, p task performance deteriorated from baseline to dual-task among novices (RRT 0.63 vs. 1.76 s, p task trials. A significant increase in SDR (F(9,63) = 6.63, p task performance can be used to track changes in CL among novices, particularly in early phases of simulation-based skills training. The implications for measuring CL in simulation instructional design research are discussed.
Gibson, Clare M; Penn, David L; Smedley, Kelly L; Leserman, Jane; Elliott, Tonya; Pedersen, Cort A
The current study explored whether oxytocin can improve social cognition and social skills in individuals with schizophrenia using a six-week, double-blind design. Fourteen participants with schizophrenia were randomized to receive either intranasal oxytocin or a placebo solution and completed a battery of social cognitive, social skills and clinical psychiatric symptom measures. Results showed within group improvements in fear recognition, perspective taking, and a reduction in negative symptoms in the oxytocin group. These preliminary findings indicate oxytocin treatment may help improve certain components of functioning in schizophrenia. Implications for the treatment of social functioning in schizophrenia are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
We investigated component language and cognitive skills of oral language comprehension of narrative texts (i.e., listening comprehension). Using the construction-integration model of text comprehension as an overarching theoretical framework, we examined direct and mediated relations of foundational cognitive skills (working memory and attention), foundational language skills (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge), and higher-order cognitive skills (inference, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring) to listening comprehension. A total of 201 first grade children in South Korea participated in the study. Structural equation modeling results showed that listening comprehension is directly predicted by working memory, grammatical knowledge, inference, and theory of mind and is indirectly predicted by attention, vocabulary, and comprehension monitoring. The total effects were .46 for working memory, .07 for attention, .30 for vocabulary, .49 for grammatical knowledge, .31 for inference, .52 for theory of mind, and .18 for comprehension monitoring. These results suggest that multiple language and cognitive skills make contributions to listening comprehension, and their contributions are both direct and indirect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baker, Dale R.; Piburn, Michael
This is a report of the effects of a scientific literacy course on the skills, cognitive ability, and attitude of students in the first year of high school. Specifically, the research examines (1) whether it is possible to teach scientific skills, (2) whether a literacy curriculum affects attitude and cognitive ability, and (3) whether incoming student characteristics affect the development of attitude and cognitive abilities. Two hundred and fifty (126 male and 124 female) ninth grade students were enrolled in a specially designed literacy course which met for 3 hours and 20 minutes each week for 39 weeks. Students were pretested for logical, spatial, verbal, and mathematical ability, as well as for attitude toward self and science, and psychological type. The course was successful in teaching skills. In addition, there were significant increases in spatial, verbal, and quantitative ability. Increases in cognitive ability were predicted by logical ability, measurement skills, and academic self-concept. Attitudes declined as a result of participation in the course. Self concept and mastery were related to cognitive variables and motivation, mastery, and control were related to psychological type.
Kirsten G Volz
Full Text Available We deal with risk versus uncertainty, a distinction that is of fundamental importance for cognitive neuroscience yet largely neglected. In a world of risk (small world, all alternatives, consequences, and probabilities are known. In uncertain (large worlds, some of this information is unknown or unknowable. Most of cognitive neuroscience studies exclusively study the neural correlates for decisions under risk (e.g., lotteries, with the tacit implication that understanding these would lead to an understanding of decision making in general. First, we show that normative strategies for decisions under risk do not generalize to uncertain worlds, where simple heuristics are often the more accurate strategies. Second, we argue that the cognitive processes for making decisions in a world of risk are not the same as those for dealing with uncertainty. Because situations with known risks are the exception rather than the rule in human evolution, it is unlikely that our brains are adapted to them. We therefore suggest a paradigm shift towards studying decision processes in uncertain worlds and provide first examples.
Full Text Available Amy Lawson Moore, Terissa M Miller Gibson Institute of Cognitive Research, Colorado Springs, CO, USA Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills.Methods: This study included 2,737 participants aged 5–85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test–retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement.Results: Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test–retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93.Conclusion: The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan. Keywords: testing, cognitive skills, memory, processing speed, visual processing, auditory processing
Creed, Torrey A; Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Feinberg, Betsy; Evans, Arthur C; Beck, Aaron T
Policy-makers, payers, and consumers often make decisions based on therapists' reported theoretical orientations, but little is known about whether these labels represent actual or potential skills. Prior to CBT training, therapists (n = 321) reported theoretical orientations. Experts rated CBT competency using the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale Therapy at pre-, mid-, and post-training. CBT- and non-CBT identified therapists showed equivalent, non-competent baseline CBT skills. CBT-identified therapists showed greater CBT skills at mid-training, but by end of training, groups evidenced equivalent achieved competency. Baseline CBT orientations were neither valid, nor useful markers of later competency. Policy, clinical and research implications are discussed.
Guerra, Ernesto; Mellado, Guido
In the digital era, tech devices (hardware and software) are increasingly within hand's reach. Yet, implementing information and communication technologies for educational contexts that have robust and long-lasting effects on student learning outcomes is still a challenge. We propose that any such system must a) be theoretically motivated and designed to tackle specific cognitive skills (e.g., inference making) supporting a given cognitive task (e.g., reading comprehension) and b) must be able to identify and adapt to the user's profile. In the present study, we implemented a feedback-based adaptive system called A-book (assisted-reading book) and tested it in a sample of 4th, 5th, and 6th graders. To assess our hypotheses, we contrasted three experimental assisted-reading conditions; one that supported meta-cognitive skills and adapted to the user profile (adaptive condition), one that supported meta-cognitive skills but did not adapt to the user profile (training condition) and a control condition. The results provide initial support for our proposal; participants in the adaptive condition improved their accuracy scores on inference making questions over time, outperforming both the training and control groups. There was no evidence, however, of significant improvements on other tested meta-cognitive skills (i.e., text structure knowledge, comprehension monitoring). We discussed the practical implications of using the A-book for the enhancement of meta-cognitive skills in school contexts, as well as its current limitations and future developments that could improve the system.
Full Text Available We investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying the exploration and decision-making in realistic and novel environments. Twelve human subjects were shown small circular U.S. city maps with two locations highlighted on the circumference, as possible choices for a post office (targets. At the beginning of a trial, subjects fixated a spot at the center of the map and ultimately chose one of the two locations. A space syntax analysis of the map paths (from the center to each target revealed that the chosen location was associated with the less convoluted path, as if subjects navigated mentally the paths in an ant’s way, i.e. by staying within street boundaries, and ultimately choosing the target that could be reached from the center in the shortest way, and the fewest turns and intersections. The subjects’ strategy for map exploration and decision making was investigated by monitoring eye position during the task. This revealed a restricted exploration of the map delimited by the location of the two alternative options and the center of the map. Specifically, subjects explored the areas around the two target options by repeatedly looking at them before deciding which one to choose, presumably implementing an evaluation and decision-making process. The ultimate selection of a specific target was significantly associated with the time spent exploring the area around that target. Finally, an analysis of the sequence of eye fixations revealed that subjects tended to look systematically towards the target ultimately chosen even from the beginning of the trial. This finding indicates an early cognitive selection bias for the ensuing decision process.
Saly Said Abd El-Hady
Full Text Available Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS have delayed motor and cognitive development and have problems in health related quality of life (HRQOL. Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between cognitive function; attention/concentration, gross motor skills; standing and walking, running, jumping domains and HRQOL in children with DS. Subjects and methods: Seventy children with DS of both sexes (37 boys and 33 girls were selected from El Tarbia El Fekria School for children with Special Needs and Education and National Institute of neuro motor system. They were selected to be ranged in age from 8 to 12 years and to be free from visual, hearing or perceptual problems. They were divided into two age groups; group A (8–10 years, and group B (10–12 years. The Rehacom was used to evaluate the cognitive function (attention/concentration, the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88 was used to evaluate the gross motor skills and the Pediatric quality of life inventory parent-proxy report (PedsQL TM was used to evaluate the HRQOL. Results: There was a weak to moderate correlation between the cognitive function, GMFM and HRQOL in both age groups. The level of difficulty of attention/concentration was moderate, positively and significantly correlated with GMFM; standing and walking, running, jumping domains in both age groups. There was a moderate, positive and significant correlation was found between the physical score of HRQOL and walking, running, jumping domain in age group B and between the psychosocial score of HRQOL and standing domain in age group A. Conclusion: The cognitive function and HRQOL should be considered in the evaluation of children with DS in addition to gross motor skills as there was a correlation between the cognitive function, HRQOL and GMFM. Keywords: Cognitive function, Gross motor skills, Health – related quality of life, Down syndrome children
Syadzili, A. F.; Soetjipto; Tukiran
This research aims to produce physics learning materials in Indonesian high school using guided inquiry with cognitive conflict strategy to drill students’ creative thinking skills in a static fluid learning. This development research used 4D model with one group pre-test and post-test design implemented in the eleventh grade students in the second semester of 2016/2017 academic year. The data were collected by validation sheets, questionnaires, tests and observations, while data analysis techniques is descriptive quantitative analysis. This research obtained several findings, they are : the learning material developed had an average validity score with very valid category. The lesson plan can be implemented very well. The students’ responses toward the learning process were very possitive with the students’ interest to follow the learning. Creative thinking skills of student before the implementation of product was inadequate, then it is very creative after product was implemented. The impacts of the research suggest that guided inquiry may stimulate the students to think creatifly.
Scott A. Wylie
Full Text Available American football is played in a chaotic visual environment filled with relevant and distracting information. We investigated the hypothesis that collegiate football players show exceptional skill at shielding their response execution from the interfering effects of distraction (interference control. The performances of 280 football players from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football programs were compared to age-matched controls in a variant of the Eriksen flanker task (Eriksen and Eriksen, 1974. This task quantifies the magnitude of interference produced by visual distraction on split-second response execution. Overall, football athletes and age controls showed similar mean reaction times (RTs and accuracy rates. However, football athletes were more proficient at shielding their response execution speed from the interfering effects of distraction (i.e., smaller flanker effect costs on RT. Offensive and defensive players showed smaller interference costs compared to controls, but defensive players showed the smallest costs. All defensive positions and one offensive position showed statistically smaller interference effects when compared directly to age controls. These data reveal a clear cognitive advantage among football athletes at executing motor responses in the face of distraction, the existence and magnitude of which vary by position. Individual differences in cognitive control may have important implications for both player selection and development to improve interference control capabilities during play.
Wylie, Scott A.; Bashore, Theodore R.; Van Wouwe, Nelleke C.; Mason, Emily J.; John, Kevin D.; Neimat, Joseph S.; Ally, Brandon A.
American football is played in a chaotic visual environment filled with relevant and distracting information. We investigated the hypothesis that collegiate football players show exceptional skill at shielding their response execution from the interfering effects of distraction (interference control). The performances of 280 football players from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football programs were compared to age-matched controls in a variant of the Eriksen flanker task (Eriksen and Eriksen, 1974). This task quantifies the magnitude of interference produced by visual distraction on split-second response execution. Overall, football athletes and age controls showed similar mean reaction times (RTs) and accuracy rates. However, football athletes were more proficient at shielding their response execution speed from the interfering effects of distraction (i.e., smaller flanker effect costs on RT). Offensive and defensive players showed smaller interference costs compared to controls, but defensive players showed the smallest costs. All defensive positions and one offensive position showed statistically smaller interference effects when compared directly to age controls. These data reveal a clear cognitive advantage among football athletes at executing motor responses in the face of distraction, the existence and magnitude of which vary by position. Individual differences in cognitive control may have important implications for both player selection and development to improve interference control capabilities during play. PMID:29479325
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate working memory, phonological skills, lexical skills, and reading comprehension in adults with Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2.Design: The participants performed tests of phonological processing, lexical access, working memory and reading comprehension. The design of the test situation and tests was specifically considered for use with persons with low vision in combination with hearing impairment. The performance of the group with USH2 on the different cognitive measures was compared to that of a matched control group with normal hearing and vision (NVH.Study Sample: Thirteen participants with USH2 aged 21–60 years and a control group of ten individuals with NVH, matched on age and level of education.Results: The group with USH2 displayed significantly lower performance on tests of phonological processing, and on measures requiring both fast visual judgment and phonological processing. There was a larger variation in performance among the individuals with USH2 than in the matched control group.Conclusions: The performance of the group with USH2 indicated similar problems with phonological processing skills and phonological working memory as in individuals with long-term hearing loss. The group with USH2 also had significantly longer reaction times, indicating that processing of visual stimuli is difficult due to the visual impairment. These findings point toward the difficulties in accessing information that persons with USH2 experience, and could be part of the explanation of why individuals with USH2 report high levels of fatigue and feelings of stress (Wahlqvist et al., 2013.
Mills, Jonathan N.; Cheng, Albert; Hitt, Collin E.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Greene, Jay P.
This report examines the short-term effects of the Louisiana Scholarship Program (LSP) on students' non-cognitive skills and civic values. While a growing number of studies have evaluated K-12 school voucher programs along academic dimensions, few have focused on the development of non-cognitive skills and civic values. This study aims to address…
Meng, A.; Siren, A.; Teasdale, Thomas William
drivers may recognise cognitive problems, they tend not to recognise changes to their driving, which may reflect reluctance to acknowledge the impact of cognitive impairment on their driving. Furthermore, the results suggest that driving-related discomfort plays an important role in the self-regulation......The results of a previous study indicate that in general, older drivers who recognise cognitive problems show realistic self-assessment of changes in their driving skills and that driving-related discomfort may function as an indirect monitoring of driving ability, contributing to their safe...... of driving among cognitively impaired older drivers. However, it is less clear what triggers driving-related discomfort among cognitively impaired older drivers indicating that it may be a less reliable aspect of their self-monitoring of driving ability....
Dankbaar, Mary E. W.; Alsma, Jelmer; Jansen, Els E. H.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Schuit, Stephanie C. E.
Simulation games are becoming increasingly popular in education, but more insight in their critical design features is needed. This study investigated the effects of fidelity of open patient cases in adjunct to an instructional e-module on students' cognitive skills and motivation. We set up a three-group randomized post-test-only design: a…
Kovess-Masfety, V.; Keyes, K.M.; Hamilton, A.; Hanson, G.; Bitfoi, A.; Golitz, D.; Koç, C.; Kuijpers, R.C.W.M.; Lesinskiene, S.; Mihova, Z.; Otten, R.; Fermanian, C.; Pez, O.
Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills.
Lee, HyeJin; Park, BoRa; Yang, YeongAe
[Purpose] This research aims to identify the relationships among visual perceptual skills, cognitive functioning, and fall efficacy of older adults based on whether they are at risk for falls. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included 116 older adults over 65 years of age who use D Seniors Welfare Center and Y Senior Citizen Center in Busan Metropolitan City. All research subjects were classified based on balance maintenance ability evaluation and whether or not they had experienced falls more than once. Those with scores below the cut-off standard were selected as a group of older adults at risk for falls. An MVPT-3 test was used to assess visual perceptual skill, MMSE-KC, and MoCA-K tests to assess cognitive function, and the FES-K falls efficacy test to classify subjects as either at risk for falls or not. [Results] After comparing scores for visual perceptual skills, cognitive functioning, and fall efficacy, subjects at risk for falls showed significantly lower scores than did those not at risk. [Conclusion] The study found that there are significant differences in balance ability, visual perceptual skill, cognitive functioning, and fall efficacy between older adults at risk for falls and those not at risk.
Weaver, Sallie J.; Newman-Toker, David E.; Rosen, Michael A.
Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective…
Kleemans, M.A.J.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
The present study investigated the role of both cognitive and linguistic predictors in basic arithmetic skills (i.e., addition and subtraction) in 69 first-language (L1) learners and 60 second-language (L2) learners from the second grade of primary schools in the Netherlands. All children were
Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia
This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…
Kostons, Danny; Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred
Kostons, D., Van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2012). Training self-assessment and task-selection skills: A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning. Learning and Instruction, 22(2), 121-132. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.08.004
Full Text Available Skill management is a key factor in improving effectiveness of industrial companies, notably their maintenance services. The problem considered in this paper concerns scheduling of maintenance tasks under resource (maintenance teams constraints. This problem is generally known as unrelated parallel machine scheduling. We consider the problem with a both objectives of minimizing total weighted tardiness (TWT and number of tardiness tasks. Our interest is focused particularly on solving this problem under skill constraints, which each resource has a skill level. So, we propose a new efficient heuristic to obtain an approximate solution for this NP-hard problem and demonstrate his effectiveness through computational experiments. This heuristic is designed for implementation in a static maintenance scheduling problem (with unequal release dates, processing times and resource skills, while minimizing objective functions aforementioned.
Howes, Andrew; Lewis, Richard L.; Vera, Alonso
The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition--cognitively bounded rational analysis--that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated…
Zammar, Samer G; El Tecle, Najib E; El Ahmadieh, Tarek Y; Adelson, P David; Veznedaroglu, Erol; Surdell, Daniel L; Harrop, James S; Benes, Vladimir; Rezai, Ali R; Resnick, Daniel K; Bendok, Bernard R
To assess microsurgical and diagnostic cerebral angiography modules and their corresponding objective assessment scales as educational tools for European neurosurgical residents at the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies Resident Vascular Neurosurgery course, which was held in Prague, Czech Republic, on September 2013. Microsurgical skills and cerebral angiography are fundamental skills in vascular neurosurgery. There is a need to develop a simulation-based curriculum focusing on these skills for neurosurgical trainees worldwide. The course consisted of 2 modules: microanastomosis and diagnostic cerebral angiography. In addition to an initial screening survey, each module was divided into 3 components: 1) a before didactic cognitive knowledge and technical skills testing, 2) a didactic lecture, and 3) an after didactic cognitive knowledge and technical skills testing. We compared the trainees' cognitive and technical scores from the before and after testing phases. Wilcoxon sum rank test was used to test statistical significance. The knowledge test median scores increased from 63% and 68% to 80% and 88% (P technical proficiency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Moore, Amy Lawson; Miller, Terissa M
The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the revised Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills, a computer-based battery of tests measuring short-term memory, long-term memory, processing speed, logic and reasoning, visual processing, as well as auditory processing and word attack skills. This study included 2,737 participants aged 5-85 years. A series of studies was conducted to examine the validity and reliability using the test performance of the entire norming group and several subgroups. The evaluation of the technical properties of the test battery included content validation by subject matter experts, item analysis and coefficient alpha, test-retest reliability, split-half reliability, and analysis of concurrent validity with the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and Tests of Achievement. Results indicated strong sources of evidence of validity and reliability for the test, including internal consistency reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.98, test-retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.69 to 0.91, split-half reliability coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.91, and concurrent validity coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 0.93. The Gibson Test of Cognitive Skills-2 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing cognition in the general population across the lifespan.
Thompson, Joseph J; McColeman, C M; Stepanova, Ekaterina R; Blair, Mark R
Many theories of complex cognitive-motor skill learning are built on the notion that basic cognitive processes group actions into easy-to-perform sequences. The present work examines predictions derived from laboratory-based studies of motor chunking and motor preparation using data collected from the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. We examined 996,163 action sequences in the telemetry data of 3,317 players across seven levels of skill. As predicted, the latency to the first action (thought to be the beginning of a chunked sequence) is delayed relative to the other actions in the group. Other predictions, inspired by the memory drum theory of Henry and Rogers, received only weak support. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Dankbaar, Mary E W; Alsma, Jelmer; Jansen, Els E H; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J G; van Saase, Jan L C M; Schuit, Stephanie C E
Simulation games are becoming increasingly popular in education, but more insight in their critical design features is needed. This study investigated the effects of fidelity of open patient cases in adjunct to an instructional e-module on students' cognitive skills and motivation. We set up a three-group randomized post-test-only design: a control group working on an e-module; a cases group, combining the e-module with low-fidelity text-based patient cases, and a game group, combining the e-module with a high-fidelity simulation game with the same cases. Participants completed questionnaires on cognitive load and motivation. After a 4-week study period, blinded assessors rated students' cognitive emergency care skills in two mannequin-based scenarios. In total 61 students participated and were assessed; 16 control group students, 20 cases students and 25 game students. Learning time was 2 h longer for the cases and game groups than for the control group. Acquired cognitive skills did not differ between groups. The game group experienced higher intrinsic and germane cognitive load than the cases group (p = 0.03 and 0.01) and felt more engaged (p Students did not profit from working on open cases (in adjunct to an e-module), which nonetheless challenged them to study longer. The e-module appeared to be very effective, while the high-fidelity game, although engaging, probably distracted students and impeded learning. Medical educators designing motivating and effective skills training for novices should align case complexity and fidelity with students' proficiency level. The relation between case-fidelity, motivation and skills development is an important field for further study.
Palter, Vanessa N; Grantcharov, Teodor; Harvey, Adrian; Macrae, Helen M
Surgical training in the operating room includes acquiring technical skills and cognitive knowledge. Technical skills training on simulated models has been shown to improve technical performance in the operating room, and may also enhance the acquisition of other skills by freeing cognitive capacity. This has yet to be investigated. We conducted a single-blinded randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of ex vivo technical skills training on cognitive learning in the operating room. Eighteen novice surgical residents were randomized to 2 groups. All participants were taught the basics of fascial closure and performed 1 closure on a low fidelity synthetic model. Residents in the intervention group practiced on the models until technical proficiency was reached. Residents in the control group had no further contact with the models. All residents then performed a fascial closure on a patient in the operating room while listening to a script that contained relevant clinical information. A validated evaluation tool was used to assess the technical merit of the closure. Finally, all participants completed a multiple-choice test designed to test the information retained from the script. The technical performance of the ex vivo trained group was significantly higher than that of the untrained group (P = 0.04). The ex vivo trained group also performed significantly better on the cognitive retention test (P = 0.03). Technical skills training using a low fidelity synthetic simulator resulted in improved technical performance in the operating room, and enhanced the ability of residents to attend to cognitive components of surgical expertise. (C) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Durak, Halil Ibrahim; Certuğ, Agah; Calişkan, Ayhan; van Dalen, Jan
Although the Basic Life Support (BLS) ability of a medical student is a crucial competence, poor BLS training programs have been documented worldwide. Better training designs are needed. This study aims to share detailed descriptions and the test results of two cognitive-constructivist training models for the BLS skills in the first year of medical curriculum. A BLS skills training module was implemented in the first year curriculum in the course of 6 years (1997-2003). The content was derived from the European Resuscitation Council Guidelines. Initially, a competence-based model was used and was upgraded to a cognitive apprenticeship model in 2000. The main performance-content type that was expected at the end of the course was: competent application of BLS procedures on manikins and peers at an OSCE as well as 60% achievement in a test consisting of 25 MCQ items. A retrospective cohort survey design using exam results and a self-completed anonymous student ratings' questionnaire were used in order to test models. Training time for individual students varied from 21 to 29 hours. One thousand seven hundred and sixty students were trained. Fail rates were very low (1.0-2.2%). The students were highly satisfied with the module during the 6 years. In the first year of the medical curriculum, a competence-based or cognitive apprenticeship model using cognitive-constructivist designs of skills training with 9 hours theoretical and 12-20 hours long practical sessions took place in groups of 12-17 students; medical students reached a degree of competence to sufficiently perform BLS skills on the manikins and their peers. The cognitive-constructivist designs for skills training are associated with high student satisfaction. However, the lack of controls limits the extrapolation of this conclusion.
Avtzon, Sarah Abitbol
Working memory, executive functions, and cognitive processes associated with specific academic areas, are empirically identified as being the core underlying cognitive deficits in students with specific learning disabilities. Using Hebb's theory of neuroplasticity and the principle of automaticity as theoretical bases, this experimental study…
Dittrich, Kerstin; Stahl, Christoph
Load theory predicts that concurrent cognitive load impairs selective attention. For visual stimuli, it has been shown that this impairment can be selective: Distraction was specifically increased when the stimulus material used in the cognitive load task matches that of the selective attention task. Here, we report four experiments that…
Full Text Available Motor skill learning is critical in post-stroke motor recovery, but little is known about its underlying neural substrates. Recently, using a new visuomotor skill learning paradigm involving a speed/accuracy trade-off in healthy individuals we identified three subpopulations based on their behavioral trajectories: fitters (in whom improvement in speed or accuracy coincided with deterioration in the other parameter, shifters (in whom speed and/or accuracy improved without degradation of the other parameter, and non-learners. We aimed to identify the neural substrates underlying the first stages of motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients and to determine whether specific neural substrates were recruited in shifters versus fitters. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, 23 patients learned the visuomotor skill with their paretic upper limb. In the whole-group analysis, correlation between activation and motor skill learning was restricted to the dorsal prefrontal cortex of the damaged hemisphere (DLPFCdamh: r=-0.82 and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMddamh: r=0.70; the correlations was much lesser (-0.160.25 in the other regions of interest. In a subgroup analysis, significant activation was restricted to bilateral posterior parietal cortices of the fitters and did not correlate with motor skill learning. Conversely, in shifters significant activation occurred in the primary sensorimotor cortexdamh and supplementary motor areadamh and in bilateral PMd where activation changes correlated significantly with motor skill learning (r=0.91. Finally, resting-state activity acquired before learning showed a higher functional connectivity in the salience network of shifters compared with fitters (qFDR<0.05. These data suggest a neuroplastic compensatory reorganization of brain activity underlying the first stages of motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients, with a key role of
Full Text Available Changes in pupil diameter can reflect high-level cognitive signals that depend on central neuromodulatory mechanisms. However, brain mechanisms that adjust pupil size are also exquisitely sensitive to changes in luminance and other events that would be considered a nuisance in cognitive experiments recording pupil size. We implemented a simple auditory experiment involving no changes in visual stimulation. Using finite impulse-response fitting we found pupil responses triggered by different types of events. Among these are pupil responses to auditory events and associated surprise: cognitive effects. However, these cognitive responses were overshadowed by pupil responses associated with blinks and eye movements, both inevitable nuisance factors that lead to changes in effective luminance. Of note, these latter pupil responses were not recording artifacts caused by blinks and eye movements, but endogenous pupil responses that occurred in the wake of these events. Furthermore, we identified slow (tonic changes in pupil size that differentially influenced faster (phasic pupil responses. Fitting all pupil responses using gamma functions, we provide accurate characterisations of cognitive and non-cognitive response shapes, and quantify each response's dependence on tonic pupil size. These results allow us to create a set of recommendations for pupil size analysis in cognitive neuroscience, which we have implemented in freely available software.
L Mohammadi; M Salehzade Abarghoei; M Nasirian
Introduction: Today, third wave therapy in psychotherapy puts special emphasis on the individuals’ awareness as well as their emotional and cognitive acceptance rather than challenging the cognitions. Therfore, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on cognitive emotion regulation in the addicted men under Methadone treatment. Method: The study population consisted of all the addicted men under Methadone treatment referring to an addiction ...
Elanda Laksinta Putri
Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to describe the mathematical communication skills and the confidence of grade X SMK students on Van Hiele model geometry learning based on their cognitive styles. It was a qualitative descriptive research. The subjects were 2 impulsive students and 2 reflective students which were selected with MFFT instrument. The data collection techniques were mathematical communication skills tests (written and orally, interviews, documentation, attitude scale and activity observation sheets. The results showed that both written and orally, reflective students were able to meet 5 indicators of mathematical communication skills, and less meet another indicators. While, impulsive students less meet all of the mathematical communication skills indictors. The impulsive students confidence was in the medium category. In contrary, the reflective students confidence was in the high category.
The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive, single group, pretest posttest design study was to explore the influence of a Virtual Science Laboratory (VSL) on middle school students' cognitive knowledge, skill development, and attitudes toward science. This study involved 2 eighth grade Physical Science classrooms at a large urban charter middle school located in Southern California. The Buoyancy and Density Test (BDT), a computer generated test, assessed students' scientific knowledge in areas of Buoyancy and Density. The Attitude Toward Science Inventory (ATSI), a multidimensional survey assessment, measured students' attitudes toward science in the areas of value of science in society, motivation in science, enjoyment of science, self-concept regarding science, and anxiety toward science. A Virtual Laboratory Packet (VLP), generated by the researcher, captured students' mathematical and scientific skills. Data collection was conducted over a period of five days. BDT and ATSI assessments were administered twice: once before the Buoyancy and Density VSL to serve as baseline data (pre) and also after the VSL (post). The findings of this study revealed that students' cognitive knowledge and attitudes toward science were positively changed as expected, however, the results from paired sample t-tests found no statistical significance. Analyses indicated that VSLs were effective in supporting students' scientific knowledge and attitude toward science. The attitudes most changed were value of science in society and enjoyment of science with mean differences of 1.71 and 0.88, respectively. Researchers and educational practitioners are urged to further examine VSLs, covering a variety of topics, with more middle school students to assess their learning outcomes. Additionally, it is recommended that publishers in charge of designing the VSLs communicate with science instructors and research practitioners to further improve the design and analytic components of these
It was hypothesized that subjects receiving increased resistance in the squat exercise would demonstrate better technique and better understanding of how to perform the skill than subjects performing the exercise with no increase in resistance. Scores were recorded on the following analyses: the questionnaire analysis, which measured cognitive representation; the video analysis, which measured squat performance technique; and the 3-dimensional figure analysis, which measured the degree of similarity between the position of the model and the position of the subjects during the performance task. Ten undergraduate students were sampled, half of whom received increased resistance in the squat exercise. Admission requirements were that the subjects be men, be matched for age, body weight, and height, and have no experience in resistance training or formal instruction in proper squat technique. After measuring subjects' cognitive representation with the questionnaire, subsequent analyses were conducted to further clarify treatment effects. The second analysis involved measuring differences between the videotaped performance of the model and the videotaped performance of naive subjects. The third analysis consisted of subjects assembling a 3-dimensional wooden figure to duplicate the proper biomechanics of the expert model, which was then photographed and compared with the model's template assembly of the wooden figure. It was concluded that subjects performing the squat with increased resistance showed significant (p technique compared with subjects who performed the squat with no increase in resistance. The directional hypothesis was supported. Namely, the scores of subjects receiving the treatment were predicted to be significantly greater than the scores of those who received no treatment. These data suggest that increasing the resistance in subsequent trials of the squat exercise may be a positive factor in enhancing the performance and improving the biomechanical
Buac, Milijana; Kaushanskaya, Margarita
The present study examined whether linguistic cognitive control skills were related to non-linguistic cognitive control skills in monolingual children (Study 1) and in bilingual children from low socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds (Study 2). Linguistic inhibitory control was measured using a grammaticality judgment (GJ) task in which children judged the grammaticality of sentences while ignoring their meaning. Non-linguistic inhibitory control was measured using a flanker task. Study 1, in which we tested monolingual English-speaking children, revealed that better inhibitory control skills, as indexed by the performance on the flanker task, were associated with improved performance on the GJ task. Study 2, in which we tested bilingual English-Spanish speaking children from low SES backgrounds, revealed that better non-linguistic inhibitory control skills did not yield better performance on the GJ task. Together, these findings point to a role of domain-general attention mechanisms in language performance in typically developing monolingual children, but not in bilingual children from low SES. Present results suggest that the relationship between linguistic and domain-general cognitive-control abilities is instantiated differently in bilingual vs. monolingual children, and that language-EF interactions are sensitive to language status and SES. PMID:25309499
Cameron, Carrie; Lee, Hwa Young; Anderson, Cheryl; Byars-Winston, Angela; Baldwin, Constance D.; Chang, Shine
Scientific communication (SciComm) skills are indispensable for success in biomedical research, but many trainees may not have fully considered the necessity of regular writing and speaking for research career progression. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between SciComm skill acquisition and research trainees’ intentions to remain in research careers. We used social cognitive career theory (SCCT) to test a model of the relationship of SciComm skills to SciComm-related cognitive variables in explaining career intentions. A sample of 510 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows at major academic health science centers in the Texas Medical Center, Houston, Texas, were surveyed online. Results suggested that interest in performing SciComm tasks, SciComm outcome expectations (SCOEs), and SciComm productivity predicted intention to remain in a research career, while SciComm self-efficacy did not directly predict career intention. SCOEs also predicted interest in performing SciComm tasks. As in other SCCT studies, SciComm self-efficacy predicted SCOEs. We conclude that social cognitive factors of SciComm skill acquisition and SciComm productivity significantly predict biomedical trainees’ intentions to pursue research careers whether within or outside academia. While further studies are needed, these findings may lead to evidence-based interventions to help trainees remain in their chosen career paths. PMID:26628562
Myrseth, Helga; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Eidem, Magnus
Cognitive distortions have been thought to play an important role in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. The present study investigated whether severity of gambling problems and gamblers' preference for chance or skill games were related to two sub-factors of cognitive distortions as measured by the Gamblers Belief Questionnaire: Luck/Perseverance, which reflects an individual's perception that chance is favorable to him/her, and Illusion of Control, which reflects an individual's perception that his/her behavior influences chance occurrences. Participants (N = 166) were recruited from a race track (n = 79), off-course betting facilities (n = 50) and from an online treatment program for problem gamblers (n = 49). Gambling severity was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen, and 73 were classified as pathological gamblers whereas 93 were classified as non-pathological gamblers. The present study supports previous proposals that cognitive distortions are core processes related to gambling behavior as pathological gamblers reported more cognitive distortions than did non-pathological gamblers. A preference for skill games was also associated with greater Illusion of Control compared to a preference for chance games. For gamblers preferring skill games there were no differences in Luck/Perseverance or Illusion of Control between pathological and non-pathological gamblers.
Full Text Available Psychotherapy for bipolor disorder has been very much neglected. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the meta cognitive, emotional processing training (MEPT with medical and standard therapy (drug in increasing emotional, cognitive and social skills, of the patients with bipolar disorders. Materials and Methods: This semi experimental study with control group was carried out on 32 females in the 16-40 age bracket, diagnosed with bipolar disorder by means of DSM - IV –R criteria selected among referrals from Isfahan hospitals and psychology clinics. One group randomly received medical therapy plus MEPT. The second group (control group received standard drug therapy. Data gathering instruments were a semi – structural interview based on DSM – IV – R criteria and the following questionnaires: Mania (Bech, et al, 1979, Depression (Hamilton, 1980, Emotional intelligence (Cooper, 1999, Self – control (Rosenbaum, 1980, Insigt (David, et al, 1992, Social function (Hurry, et al, 1983. And the Aconomic, social, cultural questionnaire was used to control social ststus of the subjects. this questionnaire was made by the researcher. Results: The MEPT method influenced on increasing all of the emotional skills, sub scales and total scales. And also influenced on cognitive scales such as: dysfunctional thought, (p=0. 000, insight (p=0. 05, self – control (p=0. 000. Social skills could be increased (p=0. 02 by use of MEPT. Conclusion: Using pschological treatment in addition to pharmacotherapy increases treatment efficay. Therefor an educational program about MEPT is necessary for therapists.
Hugo F. Posada-Quintero
Full Text Available When divers are at depth in water, the high pressure and low temperature alone can cause severe stress, challenging the human physiological control systems. The addition of cognitive stress, for example during a military mission, exacerbates the challenge. In these conditions, humans are more susceptible to autonomic imbalance. Reliable tools for the assessment of the autonomic nervous system (ANS could be used as indicators of the relative degree of stress a diver is experiencing, which could reveal heightened risk during a mission. Electrodermal activity (EDA, a measure of the changes in conductance at the skin surface due to sweat production, is considered a promising alternative for the non-invasive assessment of sympathetic control of the ANS. EDA is sensitive to stress of many kinds. Therefore, as a first step, we tested the sensitivity of EDA, in the time and frequency domains, specifically to cognitive stress during water immersion of the subject (albeit with their measurement finger dry for safety. The data from 14 volunteer subjects were used from the experiment. After a 4-min adjustment and baseline period after being immersed in water, subjects underwent the Stroop task, which is known to induce cognitive stress. The time-domain indices of EDA, skin conductance level (SCL and non-specific skin conductance responses (NS.SCRs, did not change during cognitive stress, compared to baseline measurements. Frequency-domain indices of EDA, EDASymp (based on power spectral analysis and TVSymp (based on time-frequency analysis, did significantly change during cognitive stress. This leads to the conclusion that EDA, assessed by spectral analysis, is sensitive to cognitive stress in water-immersed subjects, and can potentially be used to detect cognitive stress in divers.
Christensen, Thomas Nordahl; Nielsen, Iben Gammelgaard; Stenager, Elsebeth
-related social skills training, and (3) service as usual. The primary outcome is number of hours in competitive employment or education at 18-month follow-up. Secondary and exploratory outcomes are money earned, days to first employment, symptoms, functional level, self-esteem, and self-efficacy at 18-month...... with a higher minimum wage and fewer entry-level jobs in comparison with other countries such as the US. Furthermore, long-term job retention and economic self-sufficiency have not been clearly demonstrated. Integrating methods such as cognitive remediation and work-related social skills training may be ways...
Put, Koen; Wagemans, Johan; Spitz, Jochim; Williams, A Mark; Helsen, Werner F
In association football, the difficulty in making offside decisions depends on both perceptual and cognitive processes. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to enhance the decision-making skills of assistant referees by further developing their ability to (1) time slice the incoming information flow into series of isolated time frames during an ongoing offside situation and (2) use this information to mentally read off the spatial positions of the key-role players. Training (n = 10) and control groups (n = 10) were exposed to a pre- and post-test, consisting of an offside decision-making and frame recognition test. In the latter, assistant referees were asked to indicate which of five photos best represented the spatial position of the defender and attacker at the moment of the pass. Only the training group received 12 web-based offside training sessions. First, the training group improved in mentally freezing, holding and scanning the mental picture of the offside situation in short-term memory from pre- to post-test, as evidenced by an increased recognition accuracy. Second, the improvement in recognition accuracy resulted in enhanced performance on the offside decision-making task. The benefits of web-based training are highlighted.
Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst
sustained attention (Pmemory (Pmemory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading......OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish...... the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between...
Oudejans, R.R.D.; Kuipers, W.; Kooijman, C.C.; Bakker, F.C.
Choking under pressure in sport has been explained by either explicit attention to skill execution (self-focus theories), or attention to performance worries (distraction theories). The aim of the present study was to find out which focus of attention occurs most often when expert athletes perform
Serra, M.; Minderaa, R.B.; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.
The present study re-examined the ability of children with lesser variants of autism (classified as PDD-NOS) to infer emotions of other people and to describe others in terms of inner, psychological characteristics. It also explores the hypothesis that these children may have the skill to infer
Background Gait ability and cognitive function are interrelated during both normal walking (NW) and dual-task walking (DTW), and gait ability is thus adversely affected by cognitive impairment in both situations. However, this association is insufficiently understood in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we conducted a study with MCI participants, to examine whether the association depends on walking conditions and MCI subtypes. Methods We classified 389 elderly adults into amnestic MCI (n = 191) and non-amnestic MCI (n = 198), assessed their cognitive functions, and administered gait experiments under NW and DTW conditions. Gait ability was defined as gait speed. Five aspects of cognitive function were assessed: processing speed, executive function, working memory, verbal memory, and visual memory. Results Regression analysis adjusted for covariates showed a significant association between cognitive functions and gait speed. Processing speed and executive function correlated with gait speed during both NW and DTW (p Gait speed during DTW was also significantly associated with working memory (p gait speed and cognitive function depends on walking condition and MCI subtypes. Additional studies are necessary to determine the neural basis for the disruption in gait control in older adults with MCI. PMID:24694100
The paper compares several generational groups of Turkish children in Germany with respect to cognitive skills and German language skills at an early age. Empirically, children of inter-marriages outperform the other groups of Turkish children in both tests while children with a first generation mother and a second generation father score worse than all others. All group differences regarding children’s cognitive skills can be explained by the families’ socio-economic status and educational resources. In contrast, with respect to children’s language skills also parents’ endowment with receiving country specific resources (e.g., parental German language proficiency) needs to be taken into account.
Li, Xin; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Junying; Chen, Yaojing; Zhang, Zhanjun; Sun, Xuan; Chen, Kewei
Hypertension is considered a risk factor of cognitive impairments and could result in white matter changes. Current studies on hypertension-related white matter (WM) changes focus only on regional changes, and the information about global changes in WM structure network is limited. We assessed the cognitive function in 39 hypertensive patients and 37 healthy controls with a battery of neuropsychological tests. The WM structural networks were constructed by utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. The direct and indirect correlations among cognitive impairments, brain WM network disruptions and hypertension were analyzed with structural equation modelling (SEM). Hypertensive patients showed deficits in executive function, memory and attention compared with controls. An aberrant connectivity of WM networks was found in the hypertensive patients (P Eglob = 0.005, P Lp = 0.005), especially in the frontal and parietal regions. Importantly, SEM analysis showed that the decline of executive function resulted from aberrant WM networks in hypertensive patients (p = 0.3788, CFI = 0.99). These results suggest that the cognitive decline in hypertensive patients was due to frontal and parietal WM disconnections. Our findings highlight the importance of brain protection in hypertension patients. (orig.)
Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been some changes on traditional training methodologies in the world, specially, in elementary schools. Many schools have decided to perform their assessments in elementary schools based on qualitative methods compared with traditional quantitative techniques. This paper performs an empirical investigation to find out whether the new evaluation technique has been able to improve student teacher’s cognitive abilities and skills on evaluation of academic achievement practices. These student-teacher people taught at elementary schools while they also were studying at university. There are two types of questionnaires: The first one measures cognitive capabilities in four categories including levels of learning and educational objectives, designing paper and pencil test, functional test design and analysis and interpretation of results. The second test is associated with measuring functional skills in the evaluation of academic progress. The information were analyzed based on t-student test as well as two-way analysis of variance. The result of t-statistics was significant only for the last item, analysis and interpretation. In addition, the results of ANOVA test have indicated that there were some differences on cognitive capabilities between two methods of assessments but gender did not make any meaningful difference on functional skills.
Welsh, Janet A; Nix, Robert L; Blair, Clancy; Bierman, Karen L; Nelson, Keith E
This study examined developmental associations between growth in domain-general cognitive processes (working memory and attention control) and growth in domain-specific skills (emergent literacy and numeracy) across the pre-kindergarten year, and their relative contributions to kindergarten reading and math achievement. One hundred sixty-four Head Start children (44% African American or Latino; 57% female) were followed longitudinally. Path analyses revealed that working memory and attention control predicted growth in emergent literacy and numeracy skills during the pre-kindergarten year, and furthermore, that growth in these domain-general cognitive skills made unique contributions to the prediction of kindergarten math and reading achievement, controlling for growth in domain-specific skills. These findings extend research highlighting the importance of working memory and attention control for academic learning, demonstrating the effects in early childhood, prior to school entry. We discuss the implications of these findings for pre-kindergarten programs, particularly those designed to reduce the school readiness gaps associated with socio-economic disadvantage.
Neimeyer, Robert A; Feixas, Guillem
Despite the crucial role typically accorded to between-session self-help assignments in cognitive therapy of depression, the actual impact of homework assignment on therapy outcome has received little empirical attention. The present study evaluated the effect of homework by assigning 63 carefully diagnosed unipolar depressives to one of two otherwise identical 10-week cognitive therapy conditions, only one of which utilized weekly homework assignments. As predicted, assignment to the homework condition predicted more substantial improvement in symptomatic features of depression as rated by an independent clinician at therapy termination, although this effect was not maintained at six month follow-up. However, a post-therapy assessment of skill acquisition in completing the core cognitive restructuring technique did predict self-rated maintenance of treatment gains six months later, irrespective of the treatment condition to which the subject had been assigned. Taken together, these findings reinforce the value of homework in improving treatment response during the active treatment phase of cognitive therapy for depression, and the importance of skill acquisition in promoting maintenance of treatment gams once therapy has ended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Talents are extraordinary but not completely developed characteristics in a field. These attributes cover a relatively wide range in sports. Tests perused in selection of athletes are generally motoric sports tests and measure predominantly conditional attributes. It is known that in sports, performance is related to cognitive skills as well as physical features and motor skills. This study explored a new method that could be utilized in the selection and tracking the level of improvement of athletes, and evaluate their attention, perception and learning levels, on athlete and other female students. 9 female table tennis athletes that trained for 16 hours per week for the last 5 years and 9 female students that never played in any sports, aged between 10 and 14 years, were participated in our study. For the Selective Action Array, developed for this study, a table tennis robot was utilized. Robot was set up to send a total of 26 balls in 3 different colors (6 whites, 10 yellows, 10 pinks to different areas of the table, in random colors and at the rate of 90 balls per minute. The participants were asked to ignore the white balls, to touch the yellow balls and to grab the pink balls using their dominant hands. Pursuant to explaining the task to the participants, two consecutive trials were executed and recorded using a camera. Every action performed/not performed by the participants was transformed into points in the scoring system. First trial total points in the Selective Action Array were 104±17 for athletes and 102±19 for non-athletes, whereas on the second trial total points were 122±11 and 105±20, respectively. The higher scores obtained in the second trial were significant for the athletes; the difference in the scores for non-athletes was minor. Non-athletes scored 33% better for the white balls as compared to the table tennis athletes. For the yellow balls, athletes and non-athletes scored similar points on the first trial, whereas
Van Rijn, Sophie; Aleman, Andre; De Sonneville, Leo; Swaab, Hanna
Because of the risk for development of psychopathology such as psychotic symptoms, it has been suggested that studying men with the XXY karyotype may help in the search for underlying cognitive, neural and genetic mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify cognitive mechanisms that may
Meng, Annette; Siren, Anu Kristiina
-regulation of driving as measured by the avoidance of certain driving situations by older drivers with different levels of self-rated cognitive problems. Eight hundred and forty Danish drivers aged 75–95 completed a structured telephone interview. The results showed that the recognition of cognitive problems...... was associated with an experience of improvement in higher level driving skills but also of a decline in lower level driving skills. Moreover, cognitive problems recognised by drivers were associated with discomfort in, and avoidance of, driving situations. Finally, a linear relationship between discomfort...... in driving and avoidance was found and this tended to be stronger for drivers recognising cognitive problems. The results indicate that older drivers who recognise problems with cognitive functions display good self-assessment of changes in their driving skills. In addition, the results suggest that driving...
Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Laloux, Patrice; Vandermeeren, Yves
Motor learning plays a central role in daily life and in neurorehabilitation. Several forms of motor learning have been described, among which motor skill learning, i.e. reaching a superior level of performance (a skill) through a shift of the speed/accuracy trade-off. During the first stage of learning a visuomotor skill, we observed differential patterns of evolution of the speed/accuracy trade-off in normal subjects. Half of the subjects rapidly achieved successful motor skill learning with an early shift of the speed/accuracy trade-off leading to a superior level of performance (shift pattern). The other subjects attained only minimal global improvement due to a converse evolution of speed and accuracy (i.e. a respect of the speed/accuracy trade-off: fit pattern). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to explore the neural substrates underlying these differential patterns during the first stage of motor skill learning in normal subjects. Twenty right-handed normal subjects performed an implicit visuomotor learning task with their non-dominant hand. The task ("circuit game") consisted in learning to navigate a pointer along a circuit as quickly and accurately as possible using a fMRI-compatible mouse. Velocity, accuracy, and performance indexes were used to characterise the motor learning pattern (shift/fit) and to perform fMRI correlation analysis in order to find the neural substrate associated with the shift and fit patterns during early motor skill learning. Nine subjects showed a fit pattern (fitters), and eleven, a shift pattern ("shifters"). fMRI analyses at whole group level (ANOVA) and at sub-group level demonstrated that the supplementary motor area (SMA) was more activated in "shifters" than in the "fitters" groups and that the BOLD activation within the SMA correlated significantly with the on-line shift of the speed/accuracy trade-off in the "shifters" group. Despite identical instructions and experimental conditions, during the
Ståhl, Tomas; Van Laar, Colette; Ellemers, Naomi
Previous research has demonstrated that stereotype threat induces a prevention focus and impairs central executive functions. The present research examines how these 2 consequences of stereotype threat are related. The authors argue that the prevention focus is responsible for the effects of stereotype threat on executive functions and cognitive performance. However, because the prevention focus is adapted to deal with threatening situations, the authors propose that it also leads to some beneficial responses to stereotype threat. Specifically, because stereotype threat signals a high risk of failure, a prevention focus initiates immediate recruitment of cognitive control resources. The authors further argue that this response initially facilitates cognitive performance but that the additional cognitive demands associated with working under threat lead to cognitive depletion over time. Study 1 demonstrates that stereotype threat (vs. control) facilitates immediate cognitive control capacity during a stereotype-relevant task. Study 2 experimentally demonstrates the process by showing that stereotype threat (vs. control) facilitates cognitive control as a default, as well as when a prevention focus has been experimentally induced, but not when a promotion focus has been induced. Study 3 shows that stereotype threat facilitates initial math performance under a prevention focus, whereas no effect is found under a promotion focus. Consistent with previous research, however, stereotype threat impaired math performance over time under a prevention focus, but not under a promotion focus. 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Andi Saparuddin Nur
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the geometry skills in solving problems in terms of cognitive styles differences in the students of SMP Negeri Urumb. The type of this research is descriptive research that is qualitative with case study approach. The subject of this research is all students of SMP Negeri Urumb. Subject selection is done by using snowball sampling technique. The main instrument in this study is the researchers themselves and accompanied by supporting instruments such as diagnostic tests, geometry solving test, and interview guides. Validity and reliability of data is done through credibility test, transferability test, dependability test, and confirmability test. Data analysis consists of data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and conclusions. The results of this study were (1 reflective FI subjects showing visual, verbal, drawing, and logic skills with level of geometry thinking at level 2 (informal deduction; (2 impulsive FI subjects exhibiting visual, verbal, and drawing skills with geometric thinking level at level 1 (analysis, (3 reflective FD subjects exhibit visual skills, and draw with level of geometric thinking at level 0 (visualization, and (4 impulsive FD subjects exhibit visual, verbal skills with geometric level thinking at level 0 (visualization.
Gheith, Eman; Aljaberi, Nahil M.
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of interactive training programs in developing a set of non-cognitive skills in students at the University of Petra. Furthermore, it sought to examine the impact of the sex, academic year, and university major variables on developing these skills in students who underwent the training program, as…
Hawley, Lance L; Padesky, Christine A; Hollon, Steven D; Mancuso, Enza; Laposa, Judith M; Brozina, Karen; Segal, Zindel V
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression is highly effective. An essential element of this therapy involves acquiring and utilizing CBT skills; however, it is unclear whether the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential symptom alleviation. Outpatients (N = 356) diagnosed with a primary mood disorder received 14 two-hour group sessions of CBT for depression, using the Mind Over Mood protocol. In each session, patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory and throughout the week they reported on their use of CBT skills: behavioral activation (BA), cognitive restructuring (CR), and core belief (CB) strategies. Bivariate latent difference score (LDS) longitudinal analyses were used to examine patterns of differential skill use and subsequent symptom change, and multigroup LDS analyses were used to determine whether longitudinal associations differed as a function of initial depression severity. Higher levels of BA use were associated with a greater subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms for patients with mild to moderate initial depression symptoms relative to those with severe symptoms. Higher levels of CR use were associated with a greater subsequent decrease in depressive symptoms, whereas higher levels of CB use were followed by a subsequent increase in depressive symptoms, regardless of initial severity. Results indicated that the type of CBT skill used is associated with differential patterns of subsequent symptom change. BA use was associated with differential subsequent change as a function of initial severity (patients with less severe depression symptoms demonstrated greater symptom improvement), whereas CR use was associated with symptom alleviation and CB use with an increase in subsequent symptoms as related to initial severity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I; Neider, Mark; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika; Lee, HyunKyu; Low, Kathy A; Kramer, Arthur F
We explored the theoretical underpinnings of a commonly used training strategy by examining issues of training and transfer of skill in the context of a complex video game (Space Fortress, Donchin, 1989). Participants trained using one of two training regimens: Full Emphasis Training (FET) or Variable Priority Training (VPT). Transfer of training was assessed with a large battery of cognitive and psychomotor tasks ranging from basic laboratory paradigms measuring reasoning, memory, and attention to complex real-world simulations. Consistent with previous studies, VPT accelerated learning and maximized task mastery. However, the hypothesis that VPT would result in broader transfer of training received limited support. Rather, transfer was most evident in tasks that were most similar to the Space Fortress game itself. Results are discussed in terms of potential limitations of the VPT approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod
The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development-the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem-solving strategies-are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 7-9-year-old children revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Longitudinal improvements in retrieval-strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval-strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood and was associated with decreased activation but more stable interproblem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development.
Baker-Ericzén, Mary J; Fitch, Meghan A; Kinnear, Mikaela; Jenkins, Melissa M; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Smith, Linda; Montano, Gabriel; Feder, Joshua; Crooke, Pamela J; Winner, Michelle G; Leon, Juan
The population of adults on the autism spectrum continues to increase, and vocational outcomes are particularly poor. Longitudinal studies of adults with autism spectrum and without intellectual disability have shown consistent and persistent deficits across cognitive, social, and vocational domains, indicating a need for effective treatments of functional disabilities as each impact employment. This initial pilot study is an open trial investigation of the feasibility, acceptability, and initial estimates of outcomes for the newly developed Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills intervention, a manualized "soft skills" curriculum, to enhance both cognitive and social development in adults with autism spectrum. A total of eight adults with autism spectrum, without intellectual disability (78% males), participated in the study. Results support the original hypothesis that adults with autism spectrum can improve both cognitive (i.e. executive functioning) and social cognitive (i.e. social thinking and social communication) abilities. Further Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills was found to be feasible, acceptable, and highly satisfactory for participants and parents. Employment rates more than doubled post-intervention, with an increase from 22% to 56% of participants employed. Conclusion is that Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills has promise as an intervention that can be easily embedded into exiting supported employment vocational training programs to improve cognitive, social, and vocational outcomes.
Connie V. Chan
Full Text Available Background: Consumer eHealth tools play an increasingly important role in engaging patients as participants in managing their health and seeking health information. However, there is a documented gap between the skill and knowledge demands of eHealth systems and user competencies to benefit from these tools. Objective: This research aims to reveal the knowledge- and skill-related barriers to effective use of eHealth tools. Methods: We used a micro-analytic framework for characterizing the different cognitive dimensions of eHealth literacy to classify task demands and barriers that 20 participants experienced while performing online information-seeking and decision-making tasks. Results: Participants ranged widely in their task performance across all 6 tasks as measured by task scores and types of barriers encountered. The highest performing participant experienced only 14 barriers whereas the lowest scoring one experienced 153. A more detailed analysis of two tasks revealed that the highest number of incorrect answers and experienced barriers were caused by tasks requiring: (a Media literacy and Science literacy at high cognitive complexity levels and (b a combination of Numeracy and Information literacy at different cognitive complexity levels. Conclusions: Applying this type of analysis enabled us to characterize task demands by literacy type and by cognitive complexity. Mapping barriers to literacy types provided insight into the interaction between users and eHealth tasks. Although the gap between eHealth tools, users’ skills, and knowledge can be difficult to bridge, an understanding of the cognitive complexity and literacy demands can serve to reduce the gap between designer and consumer.
Savla, Gauri N.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Delis, Dean C.; Jeste, Dilip V.; Palmer, Barton W.
Schizophrenia is associated with executive dysfunction. Yet, the degree to which executive functions are impaired differentially, or above and beyond underlying basic cognitive processes is less clear. Participants included 145 matched pairs of individuals with schizophrenia (SCs) and normal comparison subjects (NCs). Executive functions were assessed with 10 tasks of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), in terms of “achievement scores” reflecting overall performance on the ta...
Lewis, Pamela; Abbeduto, L.; Murphy, M.; Richmond, E.; Giles, N.; Bruno, L.; Schroeder, S.
Background: It is not known whether those with co-morbid fragile X syndrome (FXS) and autism represent a distinct subtype of FXS; whether the especially severe cognitive delays seen in studies of young children with co-morbid FXS and autism compared with those with only FXS continue into adolescence and young adulthood; and whether autism in those…
.... (2) Extension of previous work by Ackerman and Kanfer on the determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition by examining performance after extended practice, and by examining performance...
Full Text Available Recent research has shown that dogs' possess surprisingly sophisticated human-like social communication skills compared to wolves or chimpanzees. The effects of domestication on the emergence of socio-cognitive skills, however, are still highly debated. One way to investigate this is to compare socialized individuals from closely related domestic and wild species. In the present study we tested domestic ferrets (Mustela furo and compared their performance to a group of wild Mustela hybrids and to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris. We found that, in contrast to wild Mustela hybrids, both domestic ferrets and dogs tolerated eye-contact for a longer time when facing their owners versus the experimenter and they showed a preference in a two-way choice task towards their owners. Furthermore, domestic ferrets, unlike the wild hybrids, were able to follow human directional gestures (sustained touching; momentary pointing and could reach the success rate of dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that domestic ferrets, in a certain sense, are more dog-like than their wild counterparts. These findings support the hypothesis that domestic species may share basic socio-cognitive skills that enable them to engage in effectively orchestrated social interactions with humans.
Hernádi, Anna; Kis, Anna; Turcsán, Borbála; Topál, József
Recent research has shown that dogs' possess surprisingly sophisticated human-like social communication skills compared to wolves or chimpanzees. The effects of domestication on the emergence of socio-cognitive skills, however, are still highly debated. One way to investigate this is to compare socialized individuals from closely related domestic and wild species. In the present study we tested domestic ferrets (Mustela furo) and compared their performance to a group of wild Mustela hybrids and to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). We found that, in contrast to wild Mustela hybrids, both domestic ferrets and dogs tolerated eye-contact for a longer time when facing their owners versus the experimenter and they showed a preference in a two-way choice task towards their owners. Furthermore, domestic ferrets, unlike the wild hybrids, were able to follow human directional gestures (sustained touching; momentary pointing) and could reach the success rate of dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that domestic ferrets, in a certain sense, are more dog-like than their wild counterparts. These findings support the hypothesis that domestic species may share basic socio-cognitive skills that enable them to engage in effectively orchestrated social interactions with humans.
Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Lewine, Jeffrey D
Although there is an extensive literature on domains of social skill deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), little research has examined the relation between specific social cognitive skills and complex social behaviors in daily functioning. This was the aim of the present study. Participants were 37 (26 male and 11 female) children and adolescents aged 6-18 years diagnosed with ASD. To determine the amount of variance in parent-rated complex social behavior accounted for by the linear combination of five directly-assessed social cognitive variables (i.e., adult and child facial and vocal affect recognition and social judgment) after controlling for general intellectual ability, a hierarchical regression analysis was performed. The linear combination of variables accounted for 35.4 % of the variance in parent-rated complex social behavior. Vocal affect recognition in adult voices showed the strongest association with complex social behavior in ASD. Results suggest that assessment and training in vocal affective comprehension should be an important component of social skills interventions for individuals with ASD.
performance on " change ," "combine," and "compare" addition and subtraction word problems showed consistent patterns of performance. Emphasizes the...factors that differentiate skilled from low-skill performers include manangement of memory load, organization of an appropriate declarative knowledge
Gilchrist, Lewayne D.; And Others
A study examined an assumption commonly held by many smoking prevention programs that social skills can affect the onset of tobacco smoking. Data from 129 sixth graders were used to predict smoking behavior 15 months later. Five skill variables emerged as the best predictors of future smoking. (Author/CB)
Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Su, Liang-Hao; Huang, Yueh-Min
The aim of nursing education is to foster in students the competence of applying integrated knowledge with clinical skills to the application domains. In the traditional approach, in-class knowledge learning and clinical skills training are usually conducted separately, such that the students might not be able to integrate the knowledge and the…
Casagrand, Janet; Semsar, Katharine
Here we describe a 4-yr course reform and its outcomes. The upper-division neurophysiology course gradually transformed from a traditional lecture in 2004 to a more student-centered course in 2008, through the addition of evidence-based active learning practices, such as deliberate problem-solving practice on homework and peer learning structures, both inside and outside of class. Due to the incremental nature of the reforms and absence of pre-reform learning assessments, we needed a way to retrospectively assess the effectiveness of our efforts. To do this, we first looked at performance on 12 conserved exam questions. Students performed significantly higher post-reform on questions requiring lower-level cognitive skills and those requiring higher-level cognitive skills. Furthermore, student performance on conserved questions was higher post-reform in both the top and bottom quartiles of students, although lower-quartile student performance did not improve until after the first exam. To examine student learning more broadly, we also used Bloom's taxonomy to quantify a significant increase in the Bloom's level of exams, with students performing equally well post-reform on exams that had over twice as many questions at higher cognitive skill levels. Finally, we believe that four factors provided critical contributions to the success of the course reform, including: transformation efforts across multiple course components, alignment between formative and evaluative course materials, student buy-in to course instruction, and instructional support. This reform demonstrates both the effectiveness of incorporating student-centered, active learning into our course, and the utility of using Bloom's level as a metric to assess course reform. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Shariff, U; Kullar, N; Haray, P N; Dorudi, S; Balasubramanian, S P
Conventional teaching in surgical training programmes is constrained by time and cost, and has room for improvement. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a multimedia educational tool developed for an index colorectal surgical procedure (anterior resection) in teaching and assessment of cognitive skills and to evaluate its acceptability amongst general surgical trainees. Multimedia educational tools in open and laparoscopic anterior resection were developed by filming multiple operations which were edited into procedural steps and substeps and then integrated onto interactive navigational platforms using Adobe® Flash® Professional CS5 10.1. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on general surgical trainees to evaluate the effectiveness of online multimedia in comparison with conventional 'study day' teaching for the acquisition of cognitive skills. All trainees were assessed before and after the study period. Trainees in the multimedia group evaluated the tools by completing a survey. Fifty-nine trainees were randomized but 27% dropped out, leaving 43 trainees randomized to the multimedia group (n = 25) and study day group (n = 18) who were available for analysis. Posttest scores improved significantly in both groups (P multimedia group was not significantly different from the study day group (6.02 ± 5.12 and 5.31 ± 3.42, respectively; P = 0.61). Twenty-five trainees completed the evaluation survey and experienced an improvement in their decision making (67%) and in factual and anatomical knowledge (88%); 96% agreed that the multimedia tool was a useful additional educational resource. Multimedia tools are effective for the acquisition of cognitive skills in colorectal surgery and are well accepted as an educational resource. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
Tchanturia, Kate; Doris, Eli; Mountford, Vicki; Fleming, Caroline
To evaluate self-reported outcomes after a brief course of skills-based individual therapy for inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN). In this case series study 37 adults with AN participated in cognitive remediation and emotion skills training (CREST) sessions, and completed social anhedonia, alexithymia and motivational measures before and after the intervention. The CREST primary outcome measures were total scores on the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS), which decreased significantly (p = 0.03) with an effect size of 0.31, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), which also decreased significantly (p = 0.05) with an effect size of 0.35. The secondary outcome measures focused on motivation: perceived 'importance to change' and 'ability to change'; the second of which increased significantly (p emotions, and increased confidence in their ability to change. Considering the limited number of individual sessions, this is a promising preliminary finding which warrants further research.
Mariño-Sanchez, F S; Alobid, I; Cantellas, S; Alberca, C; Guilemany, J M; Canals, J M; De Haro, J; Mullol, J
Wine experts show higher accuracy than novices in selecting a wine that matches a sample. Only one study has compared wine experts with non-trained healthy controls on smell. The aim of this study was to compare the smell characteristics, both sensorial and cognitive, of wine tasters with Spanish healthy population using the Barcelona Smell Test-24. Wine tasters were tested for smell and compared with a control group of healthy volunteers, by tasting 20 odours and scoring smell detection, identification, intensity, irritability, freshness, pleasure and forced choice. Wine tasters performed significantly better on identification and forced choice than healthy controls. In addition, wine tasters perceived more odours as intense, but fewer as irritating than controls. Probably linked to smell education, wine tasters show better cognitive but not sensorial smell skills than a non-trained healthy population.
Essau, Cecilia A; Olaya, Beatriz; Sasagawa, Satoko; Pithia, Jayshree; Bray, Diane; Ollendick, Thomas H
The present study examined the effectiveness of a transdiagnostic prevention programme, Super Skills for Life (SSL), in children with anxiety problems. SSL is based on the principles of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT), behavioural activation, social skills training, and uses video-feedback and cognitive preparation as part of the treatment. Participants were 61 primary school children, aged 8-10 years, who were referred by their teachers as having significant anxiety problems. Children were video-recorded during a 2-min speech task in sessions 1 and 8, and during a social interaction task. All the children completed measures of anxiety symptoms, social skills, and self-esteem before and after participating in the 8-week SSL and at the 6-months follow-up assessment. Anxiety symptoms were significantly reduced at post-test and follow-up assessments. SSL also had a positive effect on hyperactivity, conduct, and peer problems although it took longer for these effects to occur. Behavioural indicators of anxiety during the 2-min speech task decreased, indicating that the independent raters observed behavioural change in the children from pre-treatment to follow-up. Boys had higher overall behavioural anxiety during the 2-min speech task at all three assessment periods, specifically showing higher lip contortions and leg movement than girls. The present study used an open clinical trial design, had small sample size, and did not use structured diagnostic interview schedules to assess anxiety disorders. This study provides preliminary empirical support for the effectiveness of SSL in children with anxiety problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wiltsey Stirman, Shannon; Miller, Christopher J; Toder, Katherine; Calloway, Amber; Beck, Aaron T; Evans, Arthur C; Crits-Christoph, Paul
Despite the mounting evidence of the benefits of cognitive therapy for depression and suicidal behaviors over usual care, like other evidence-based psychosocial treatments (EBTs), it has not been widely adopted in clinical practice. Studies have shown that training followed by intensive consultation is needed to prepare providers to an appropriate level of competency in complex, multisession treatment packages such as cognitive therapy. Given the critical role of training in EBT implementation, more information on factors associated with the success and challenges of training programs is needed. To identify potential reasons for variation in training outcomes across ten agencies in a large, urban community mental health system, we explored program evaluation data and examined provider, consultant, and training program administrator perspectives through follow-up interviews. Perceptions of cognitive therapy, contextual factors, and reactions to feedback on audio recordings emerged as broad categories of themes identified from interviews. These factors may interact and impact clinician efforts to learn cognitive therapy and deliver it skillfully in their practice. The findings highlight experiences and stakeholder perspectives that may contribute to more or less successful training outcomes.
Shannon Wiltsey Stirman
Full Text Available Despite the mounting evidence of the benefits of cognitive therapy for depression and suicidal behaviors over usual care, like other evidence-based psychosocial treatments (EBTs, it has not been widely adopted in clinical practice. Studies have shown that training followed by intensive consultation is needed to prepare providers to an appropriate level of competency in complex, multisession treatment packages such as cognitive therapy. Given the critical role of training in EBT implementation, more information on factors associated with the success and challenges of training programs is needed. To identify potential reasons for variation in training outcomes across ten agencies in a large, urban community mental health system, we explored program evaluation data and examined provider, consultant, and training program administrator perspectives through follow-up interviews. Perceptions of cognitive therapy, contextual factors, and reactions to feedback on audio recordings emerged as broad categories of themes identified from interviews. These factors may interact and impact clinician efforts to learn cognitive therapy and deliver it skillfully in their practice. The findings highlight experiences and stakeholder perspectives that may contribute to more or less successful training outcomes.
Nuesse, Theresa; Steenken, Rike; Neher, Tobias
, and it has been suggested that differences in cognitive abilities may also be important. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between performance in cognitive tasks and speech recognition under different listening conditions in older adults with either age appropriate hearing...... or hearing-impairment. To that end, speech recognition threshold (SRT) measurements were performed under several masking conditions that varied along the perceptual dimensions of dip listening, spatial separation, and informational masking. In addition, a neuropsychological test battery was administered....... In repeated linear regression analyses, composite scores of cognitive test outcomes (evaluated using PCA) were included to predict SRTs. These associations were different for the two groups. When hearing thresholds were controlled for, composed cognitive factors were significantly associated with the SRTs...
Cognitive Performance Under Conditions of Acute Sleep Deprivation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER Nicholas J...cognitive assessments as having a high tolerance (n=6) or low tolerance (n=6) to sleep deprivation could be classified separately with statistical...at early (0-12h) and late (28h) times during the 36-h sleep deprivation period. Man of these metabolites (11 of 20) appeared to be associated with
Full Text Available Motor performance fluctuates trial by trial even in a well-trained motor skill. Here we show neural substrates underlying such behavioral fluctuation in humans. We first scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants repeatedly performed a 10 s skillful sequential finger-tapping task. Before starting the experiment, the participants had completed intensive training. We evaluated task performance per trial (number of correct sequences in 10 s and depicted brain regions where the activity changes in association with the fluctuation of the task performance across trials. We found that the activity in a broader range of frontoparietocerebellar network, including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices, and left cerebellar hemisphere, was negatively correlated with the task performance. We further showed in another transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS experiment that task performance deteriorated, when we applied anodal tDCS to the right DLPFC. These results indicate that fluctuation of brain activity in the nonmotor frontoparietocerebellar network may underlie trial-by-trial performance variability even in a well-trained motor skill, and its neuromodulation with tDCS may affect the task performance.
Sullivan, Maura E; Ortega, Adrian; Wasserberg, Nir; Kaufman, Howard; Nyquist, Julie; Clark, Richard
The purpose of this study was to determine if a cognitive task analysis (CTA) could capture steps and decision points that were not articulated during traditional teaching of a colonoscopy. Three expert colorectal surgeons were videotaped performing a colonoscopy. After the videotapes were transcribed, the experts participated in a CTA. A 26-step procedural checklist and a 16-step cognitive demands table was created by using information obtained in the CTA. The videotape transcriptions were transposed onto the procedural checklist and cognitive demands table to identify steps and decision points that were omitted during traditional teaching. Surgeon A described 50% of "how-to" steps and 43% of decision points. Surgeon B described 30% of steps and 25% of decisions. Surgeon C described 26% of steps and 38% of cognitive decisions. By using CTA, we were able to identify relevant steps and decision points that were omitted during traditional teaching by all 3 experts.
Corgnet, Brice; Esp?n, Antonio M.; Hern?n-Gonz?lez, Roberto
International audience; Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ult...
Brice Corgnet; Antonio M. Espín; Antonio M. Espín; Roberto Hernan Gonzalez; Roberto Hernan Gonzalez
Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ultimately hamper the recru...
Brice, Corgnet; Espín, Antonio M.; Hernan-Gonzalez, Roberto
Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ultimately hamper the recru...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the development of students’ reading comprehension skills about using cognitive strategies in foreign language teaching by means of awareness raising activities. To this end, the research was conducted for 11 weeks with 77 students studying in an English preparatory school program. The experimental group was exposed to a training which is based on awareness raising activities about using cognitive strategies. A pre-test and a post-test were designed for 2 experimental and 2 control groups with random sampling, and then the statistical differences were tested based on the scores of the both groups in terms of significance. Moreover, the study aims to determine the views of the participants about the strategy training. The results show that there was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group in terms of their achievement in reading skill, and the post-test scores of the both experimental group and control group were in favor of the experimental group. Also, it has also found that the experiment had a positive impact on the participants.
Borgonovi, Francesca; Pokropek, Artur
We examine the contribution of human capital to health in 23 countries worldwide using the OECD Survey of Adult Skills, a unique large-scale international assessment of 16-65 year olds that contains information about self-reported health, schooling, cognitive skills and indicators of interpersonal trust, which represents the cognitive dimension of social capital. We identify cross-national differences in education, skill and social capital gradients in self-reported health and explore the interaction between human capital and social capital to examine if and where social capital is a mediator or a moderator of years of schooling and cognitive abilities. We find large education gaps in self-reported health across all countries in our sample and a strong positive relationship between self-reported health and both literacy and trust in the majority of countries. Education and skill gradients in self-reported health appear to be largest in the United States and smallest in Italy, France, Sweden and Finland. On average around 5.5% of both the schooling gap in self-reported health and the literacy gap in self-reported health can be explained by the higher levels of interpersonal trust that better educated/more skilled individuals have, although the mediating role of trust varies considerably across countries. We find no evidence of a moderation effect: the relationships between health and years of schooling and health and cognitive skills are similar among individuals with different levels of trust.
We examine the contribution of human capital to health in 23 countries worldwide using the OECD Survey of Adult Skills, a unique large-scale international assessment of 16–65 year olds that contains information about self-reported health, schooling, cognitive skills and indicators of interpersonal trust, which represents the cognitive dimension of social capital. We identify cross-national differences in education, skill and social capital gradients in self-reported health and explore the interaction between human capital and social capital to examine if and where social capital is a mediator or a moderator of years of schooling and cognitive abilities. We find large education gaps in self-reported health across all countries in our sample and a strong positive relationship between self-reported health and both literacy and trust in the majority of countries. Education and skill gradients in self-reported health appear to be largest in the United States and smallest in Italy, France, Sweden and Finland. On average around 5.5% of both the schooling gap in self-reported health and the literacy gap in self-reported health can be explained by the higher levels of interpersonal trust that better educated/more skilled individuals have, although the mediating role of trust varies considerably across countries. We find no evidence of a moderation effect: the relationships between health and years of schooling and health and cognitive skills are similar among individuals with different levels of trust. PMID:26901130
O'Grady, Michael G; Dusing, Stacey C
Play is vital for development. Infants and children learn through play. Traditional standardized developmental tests measure whether a child performs individual skills within controlled environments. Play-based assessments can measure skill performance during natural, child-driven play. The purpose of this study was to systematically review reliability, validity, and responsiveness of all play-based assessments that quantify motor and cognitive skills in children from birth to 36 months of age. Studies were identified from a literature search using PubMed, ERIC, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases and the reference lists of included papers. Included studies investigated reliability, validity, or responsiveness of play-based assessments that measured motor and cognitive skills for children to 36 months of age. Two reviewers independently screened 40 studies for eligibility and inclusion. The reviewers independently extracted reliability, validity, and responsiveness data. They examined measurement properties and methodological quality of the included studies. Four current play-based assessment tools were identified in 8 included studies. Each play-based assessment tool measured motor and cognitive skills in a different way during play. Interrater reliability correlations ranged from .86 to .98 for motor development and from .23 to .90 for cognitive development. Test-retest reliability correlations ranged from .88 to .95 for motor development and from .45 to .91 for cognitive development. Structural validity correlations ranged from .62 to .90 for motor development and from .42 to .93 for cognitive development. One study assessed responsiveness to change in motor development. Most studies had small and poorly described samples. Lack of transparency in data management and statistical analysis was common. Play-based assessments have potential to be reliable and valid tools to assess cognitive and motor skills, but higher-quality research is needed. Psychometric properties
Bharathan, Rasiah; Vali, Saaliha; Setchell, Thomas; Miskry, Tariq; Darzi, Ara; Aggarwal, Rajesh
Validation of a virtual reality (VR) simulator for the training and assessment of laparoscopic tubal surgery and mapping of cognitive load. Prospective cohort study conducted at the Imperial College Virtual Reality Surgical Skills laboratory amongst 25 trainees and nine senior gynaecologists. Participants performed two sessions of salpingectomy and salpingotomy procedures on a VR simulator to assess construct validity. Nine novices performed ten such sessions to enable assessment of the learning curve. The relationship between cognitive load and the dexterity parameters was assessed. Simulator fidelity was reported by experienced and intermediate level gynaecologists. Statistical analyses utilised non-parametric tests, Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Learning curves were assessed using the Friedman test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test. Relationship between dexterity metrics and cognitive load was performed using Spearman's rank order correlation. Salpingectomy demonstrated construct validity for time taken by experienced, intermediate and novice gynaecologists (median 170 vs. 191 vs. 313s (P=0.003) respectively) and movements (median 200 vs. 267 vs. 376s, P=0.045). Salpingotomy demonstrated construct validity for time taken (median 183 vs. 191 vs. 306s, P=<0.001) and movements (median 210 vs. 233 vs. 328s, P=0.005). Learning curve analysis for salpingectomy displayed a plateau for time taken after the eighth session, and the fourth session for movements. Salpingotomy displayed a plateau after the eighth session for both time taken and movements. Cognitive load correlated significantly with dexterity parameters. The fidelity scores were not significantly different between the two procedures (P=0.619). The LAP Mentor VR laparoscopic simulator is a valid and effective tool for training novice surgeons in ectopic pregnancy surgery. Reduction in cognitive load significantly correlates with the learning curves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights
Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Baker, Amanda L
SMART Recovery groups are cognitive-behaviorally oriented mutual support groups for individuals with addictions. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which the quality of group facilitation, group cohesion and the use of between session homework activities contribute to self-rated use of cognitive-behavioral skills amongst group participants. Participants attending SMART Recovery groups in Australia completed a cross sectional survey (N=124). The survey included measures of cognitive and behavioral skill utilization, group cohesion, quality of group facilitation and a rating of how frequently participants leave group meetings with an achievable between session homework plan. On average, participants had been attending SMART Recovery meetings for 9 months. Participants were most likely to attend SMART Recovery for problematic alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that group cohesion significantly predicted use of cognitive restructuring, but that only provision of homework at the end of each group session predicted self-reported behavioral activation. Both group cohesion and leaving a group with an achievable homework plan predicted participant use of cognitive behavioral skills. The concrete actions associated with homework activities may facilitate behavioral activation. There is a need for longitudinal research to examine the relationship between the utilization of cognitive and behavioral skills and participant outcomes (e.g. substance use, mental health) for people attending SMART Recovery groups. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jarrett, Robin B; Minhajuddin, Abu; Kangas, Julie L; Friedman, Edward S; Callan, Judith A; Thase, Michael E
The aims were to predict cognitive therapy (CT) noncompletion and to determine, relative to other putative predictors, the extent to which the patient skills in CT for recurrent major depressive disorder predicted response in a large, two-site trial. Among 523 outpatients aged 18e70, exposed to 12e14 weeks of CT, 21.6% dropped out. Of the 410 completers, 26.1% did not respond. To predict these outcomes, we conducted logistic regression analyses of demographics, pre-treatment illness characteristics and psychosocial measures, and midtreatment therapeutic alliance. The 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) scores at entry predicted dropout and nonresponse. Patients working for pay, of non-Hispanic white race, who were older, or had more education were significantly more likely to complete. Controlling for HRSD17, significant predictors of nonresponse included: lower scores on the Skills of Cognitive Therapy-Observer Version (SoCT-O), not working for pay, history of only two depressive episodes, greater pre-treatment social impairment. Midphase symptom reduction was a strong predictor of final outcome. These prognostic indicators forecast which patients tend to be optimal candidates for standard CT, as well as which patients may benefit from changes in therapy, its focus, or from alternate modalities of treatment. Pending replication, the findings underscore the importance of promoting patients’ understanding and use of CT skills, as well as reducing depressive symptoms early. Future research may determine the extent to which these findings generalize to other therapies, providers who vary in competency, and patients with other depressive subtypes or disorders.
Petry, Nancy M; Litt, Mark D; Kadden, Ronald; Ledgerwood, David M
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is useful for treating substance abusers, and recent data suggest it is also efficacious for pathological gamblers. CBT is purported to exert its beneficial effects by altering coping skills, but data supporting coping changes as the mechanism of action are mixed. This study examined whether coping skills acquisition mediated the effects of CBT on decreasing gambling in pathological gamblers. Participants were assigned randomly to CBT plus referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA) or to GA referral alone. Setting Out-patient clinic. A total of 127 pathological gamblers. Participants completed the Coping Strategies Scale (CSS) before treatment and 2 months later; indices of gambling behavior and problems were administered pretreatment and at months 2 and 12. Overall, CSS scores increased for participants in both conditions, but those receiving CBT evidenced larger increases than those in the GA condition (P < 0.05), and they also reduced gambling more substantially between pretreatment and month 2. Changes in CSS scores mediated the relationship between treatment assignment and gambling outcomes from pretreatment to month 2, but little evidence of mediation occurred for the long-term follow-ups. CBT's beneficial effects in decreasing gambling may be related partly to changes in coping responses, and improvements in coping are associated with long-term changes in gambling. However, relationships between coping skills and gambling behavior are fairly strong, regardless of treatment received.
Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett
The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.
Corgnet, Brice; Espín, Antonio M.; Hernán-González, Roberto
Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ultimately hamper the recruitment of creative workers. To answer this question, we study the relationship between millennials' creativity and their performance on fluid intelligence (Raven) and cognitive reflection (CRT) tests. The good news for recruiters is that we report, in line with previous research, evidence of a positive relationship of fluid intelligence, and to a lesser extent cognitive reflection, with convergent creative thinking. In addition, we observe a positive effect of fluid intelligence on originality and elaboration measures of divergent creative thinking. The bad news for recruiters is the inverted U-shape relationship between cognitive reflection and fluency and flexibility measures of divergent creative thinking. This suggests that thinking too much may hinder important dimensions of creative thinking. Diligent and creative workers may thus be a rare find. PMID:27826268
Full Text Available Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ultimately hamper the recruitment of creative workers. To answer this question, we study the relationship between millennials’ creativity and their performance on fluid intelligence (Raven and cognitive reflection (CRT tests. The good news for recruiters is that we report, in line with previous research, evidence of a positive relationship of fluid intelligence, and to a lesser extent cognitive reflection, with convergent creative thinking. In addition, we observe a positive effect of fluid intelligence on originality and elaboration measures of divergent creative thinking. The bad news for recruiters is the inverted U-shape relationship between cognitive reflection and fluency and flexibility measures of divergent creative thinking. This suggests that thinking too much may hinder important dimensions of creative thinking. Diligent and creative workers may thus be a rare find.
Corgnet, Brice; Espín, Antonio M; Hernán-González, Roberto
Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ultimately hamper the recruitment of creative workers. To answer this question, we study the relationship between millennials' creativity and their performance on fluid intelligence (Raven) and cognitive reflection (CRT) tests. The good news for recruiters is that we report, in line with previous research, evidence of a positive relationship of fluid intelligence, and to a lesser extent cognitive reflection, with convergent creative thinking . In addition, we observe a positive effect of fluid intelligence on originality and elaboration measures of divergent creative thinking . The bad news for recruiters is the inverted U-shape relationship between cognitive reflection and fluency and flexibility measures of divergent creative thinking . This suggests that thinking too much may hinder important dimensions of creative thinking. Diligent and creative workers may thus be a rare find.
Csábi, Eszter; Janacsek, Karolina; Várszegi, Mária; Németh, Dezsô
In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) hypoxia and sleep deprivation lead to neuropsychological impairments. Our goal in this study to evaluate working memory and skill learning to get a complex picture about cortical and sub-cortical function in patients with sleep apnea. Twenty-one OSAS patients and 21 healthy controls participated in the study. We analyzed verbal-, vizuo-spatial, complex working memory, general skill learning and sequence specific learning separately. Our data show that complex working memory was impaired in OSAS patients, in contrary OSAS patients represented better achievement in the vizuo-spatial task compared to the control group. We found that OSAS patients showed general skill learning and implicit learning of probabilistic sequences similar to that of controls. Taken together, we found dissociation between working memory and implicit sequence learning in OSAS. These findings suggest that sleep has less influence on the functions related to sub-cortical structures like cortical functions.
Amirian, Ilda; Andersen, Lærke T; Rosenberg, Jacob
OBJECTIVE: To monitor surgeons' performance and cognition during night shifts. DESIGN: Surgeons were monitored before call and on call (17-hour shift). Psychomotor performance was assessed by laparoscopic simulation and cognition by the d2 test of attention. The surgeons performed the laparoscopi...... compared with on-call values. The d2 test of attention showed significantly improved values on call compared with before call. CONCLUSION: Sleep deprivation during a 17-hour night shift did not impair surgeons' psychomotor or cognitive performance....... simulation and the d2 test of attention at 8 a.m. before call and at 4 a.m. on call. Sleep was measured by wrist actigraphy and sleepiness by the Karolinska sleepiness scale. SETTING: Department of Surgery at Herlev Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Overall, 30 interns, residents, and attending surgeons were...
Amirian, Ilda; Andersen, Lærke; Rosenberg, Jacob
OBJECTIVE: To monitor surgeons' performance and cognition during night shifts. DESIGN: Surgeons were monitored before call and on call (17-hour shift). Psychomotor performance was assessed by laparoscopic simulation and cognition by the d2 test of attention. The surgeons performed the laparoscopi...... compared with on-call values. The d2 test of attention showed significantly improved values on call compared with before call. CONCLUSION: Sleep deprivation during a 17-hour night shift did not impair surgeons' psychomotor or cognitive performance....... simulation and the d2 test of attention at 8 a.m. before call and at 4 a.m. on call. Sleep was measured by wrist actigraphy and sleepiness by the Karolinska sleepiness scale. SETTING: Department of Surgery at Herlev Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Overall, 30 interns, residents, and attending surgeons were...
Lemberger, Matthew E.; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Moore, Molly M.
An overview of the Student Success Skills program is offered, including descriptions of the curricular structure, extant research support related to SSS effectiveness for academic achievement and improved school behaviors, and a theory of change for student development. Recent research has demonstrated the value of the SSS program as it connects…
Tare, Medha; Gelman, Susan A.
Pragmatic differentiation in bilinguals is the ability to use two languages appropriately with different speakers. Although some sensitivity emerges by 2 years, the effects of context on these skills and their relation to other developing metacognitive capacities have not been examined. The current study compared the language use of 28 bilingual…
Lavoie, Jennifer; Yachison, Sarah; Crossman, Angela; Talwar, Victoria
Lying is an interpersonal exercise that requires the intentional creation of a false belief in another's mind. As such, children's development of lie-telling is related to their increasing understanding of others and may reflect the acquisition of basic social skills. Although certain types of lies may support social relationships, other types of…
Zhang, Ting; Torney-Purta, Judith; Barber, Carolyn
In 2 related studies framed by social constructivism theory, the authors explored a fine-grained analysis of adolescents' civic conceptual knowledge and skills and investigated them in relation to factors such as teachers' qualifications and students' classroom experiences. In Study 1 (with about 2,800 U.S. students), the authors identified 4…
de Jager, Bernadet
Governments, organisations and educators agree that education should not just focus on basic skills, but also on more complex outcomes such as metacognition. Youngsters must be prepared to deal with the rapidly changing society; they need to become life-long learners. Schools must provide
Ritter, S.M.; Mostert, N.
Creative thinking skills can be considered one of the key competencies for the twenty-first century - they allow us to remain flexible and provide us with the capacity to deal with the opportunities and challenges that are part of our complex and fast-changing world. The increased focus on
Full Text Available The field of enacted/embodied cognition has emerged as a contemporary attempt to connect the mind and body in the study of cognition. However, there has been a paucity of methods that enable a multi-layered approach tapping into different levels of functionality within the nervous systems (e.g., continuously capturing in tandem multi-modal biophysical signals in naturalistic settings. The present study introduces a new theoretical and statistical framework to characterize the influences of cognitive demands on biophysical rhythmic signals harnessed from deliberate, spontaneous and autonomic activities. In this study, nine participants performed a basic pointing task to communicate a decision while they were exposed to different levels of cognitive load. Within these decision-making contexts, we examined the moment-by-moment fluctuations in the peak amplitude and timing of the biophysical time series data (e.g., continuous waveforms extracted from hand kinematics and heart signals. These spike-trains data offered high statistical power for personalized empirical statistical estimation and were well-characterized by a Gamma process. Our approach enabled the identification of different empirically estimated families of probability distributions to facilitate inference regarding the continuous physiological phenomena underlying cognitively driven decision-making. We found that the same pointing task revealed shifts in the probability distribution functions (PDFs of the hand kinematic signals under study and were accompanied by shifts in the signatures of the heart inter-beat-interval timings. Within the time scale of an experimental session, marked changes in skewness and dispersion of the distributions were tracked on the Gamma parameter plane with 95% confidence. The results suggest that traditional theoretical assumptions of stationarity and normality in biophysical data from the nervous systems are incongruent with the true statistical nature of
Vergis, Ashley; Hardy, Krista
Assessment is an integral component of training and credentialing surgeons for practice. Traditional methods of cognitive and technical appraisal are well established but have clear shortcomings. This review outlines the components of the surgical care assessment model, identifies the deficits of current evaluation techniques, and discusses novel and emerging technologies that attempt to ameliorate this educational void.
Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit
This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Stuebing, Karla; Fletcher, Jack M.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Lambert, Warren
The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of difficulty in 2 domains of mathematical cognition: computation and problem solving. Third graders (n = 924; 47.3% male) were representatively sampled from 89 classrooms; assessed on computation and problem solving; classified as having difficulty with computation, problem solving, both domains,…
respond adaptively in uncertain situations (4) Understand nonlinearity and the unintended consequences of decisions and incorporate flexibility into...Series Ed.) & C. S. Burke, L. G. Pierce , & E. Salas (Vol. Eds.), Advances in human performance and cognitive engineering research: Vol. 6...Army Training and Doctrine Command TRM tactical road march TTP tactics, techniques, and procedures UAS unmanned aircraft system VEILS Virtual
Mutlu, Mehmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan
This study has been carried out to compare the integrated science process of the students having field dependent and independent cognitive style. A total of 496 students (285 female, 211 male) participated using by stratified sampling method from seven high schools located in the Cappadocia Region of Turkey. While students' science process skills…
Lind, Rune Rasmussen; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Geertsen, Svend Sparre
Purpose: The current literature is concentrated around the positive effects of aerobic fitness (AF) on performance in cognitive tests (CP) and academic performance (AP) (reviewed in Hillman 2008). However, motor skills (MS) are often overlooked in this equation, and studies evaluating both AF......, phonological working-memory capacity (PWM), spatial working-memory capacity (SWM), math performance (MP) and fine- and gross-motor skill (FMS & GMS) assessed. Results: Significant associations were found between FMS and MP (P
Kiluk, Brian D; DeVito, Elise E; Buck, Matthew B; Hunkele, Karen; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M
The acquisition of coping skills has long been considered one of the putative mechanisms of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders, yet consistent statistical support is lacking. This study sought to replicate and extend prior findings regarding the quality of coping skills as a mediator of abstinence outcomes from a computerized CBT program for substance users. Participants were methadone-maintained, cocaine dependent individuals enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of computer-based training for CBT ('CBT4CBT') as an add-on to treatment as usual (TAU+CBT4CBT) compared to TAU only. A subsample (N=71) completed a role play assessment to measure coping skills, the Drug Risk Response Test (DRRT), which was administered before, during (week 4), and after the 8-week treatment period. Participants' verbal responses to various high-risk situations for cocaine use were recorded and independent evaluators rated the quality of the coping responses. Results of repeated measures analyses revealed a main effect of time for the quality of overall responses [F(1, 141.26)=4.29, pskills across groups, yet no differential effect of treatment. Despite the significant association between coping responses and abstinence outcomes, analyses did not support the quality of coping skills as a mediator of treatment effects. However, among the high-risk situations wherein individuals provided lower quality responses at baseline, those assigned to TAU+CBT4CBT showed greater improvement compared to those assigned to TAU only [F(1, 697.65)=6.47, p=0.01]. This study failed to replicate the quality of coping skills as a mediator of CBT4CBT's effect on reducing drug use previously shown in a mixed outpatient substance use sample. However, in this methadone maintained sample, those with poorer quality skills in response to certain high-risk situations at baseline appeared to improve their coping strategies following CBT4CBT compared to standard methadone
Rahmawati; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.; Hamidah, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi
The aim of this study was to explore the use of assessment strategy which can measure problem solving skills of pre-service teachers based on their cognitive style in basic physics course. The sample consisted of 95 persons (male = 15, female = 75). This study used an exploratory research with observation techniques by interview, questionnaire, and test. The results indicated that the lecturer only used paper-pencil test assessment strategy to measure pre-service teachers’ achievement and also used conventional learning strategy. It means that the lecturer did not measure pre-services’ thinking process in learning, like problem solving skills. One of the factors which can influence student problem solving skills is cognitive style as an internal factor. Field Dependent (FD) and Field Independent (FI) are two cognitive styles which were measured with using Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) test. The result showed that 82% of pre-service teachers were FD cognitive style and only 18% of pre-service teachers had FI cognitive style. Furthermore, these findings became the fundamental design to develop a problem solving assessment model to measure pre-service teachers’ problem solving skills and process in basic physics course.
Park, Heeyoung; Lombardino, Linda J
Processing speed deficits along with phonological awareness deficits have been identified as risk factors for dyslexia. This study was designed to examine the behavioral profiles of two groups, a younger (6-8 years) and an older (10-15 years) group of dyslexic children for the purposes of (1) evaluating the degree to which phonological awareness and processing speed deficits occur in the two developmental cohorts; (2) determining the strength of relationships between the groups' respective mean scores on cognitive tasks of phonological awareness and processing speed and their scores on component skills of reading; and (3) evaluating the degree to which phonological awareness and processing speed serve as concurrent predictors of component reading skills for each group. The mean scaled scores for both groups were similar on all but one processing speed task. The older group was significantly more depressed on a visual matching test of attention, scanning, and speed. Correlations between reading skills and the cognitive constructs were very similar for both age-groups. Neither of the two phonological awareness tasks correlated with either of the two processing speed tasks or with any of the three measures of reading. One of the two processing speed measures served as a concurrent predictor of word- and text-level reading in the younger, however, only the rapid naming measure functioned as a concurrent predictor of word reading in the older group. Conversely, phonological processing measures did not serve as concurrent predictors for word-level or text-level reading in either of the groups. Descriptive analyses of individual subjects' deficits in the domains of phonological awareness and processing speed revealed that (1) both linguistic and nonlinguistic processing speed deficits in the younger dyslexic children occurred at higher rates than deficits in phonological awareness and (2) cognitive deficits within and across these two domains were greater in the older
Bediou, Benoit; Adams, Deanne M; Mayer, Richard E; Tipton, Elizabeth; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne
The ubiquity of video games in today's society has led to significant interest in their impact on the brain and behavior and in the possibility of harnessing games for good. The present meta-analyses focus on one specific game genre that has been of particular interest to the scientific community-action video games, and cover the period 2000-2015. To assess the long-lasting impact of action video game play on various domains of cognition, we first consider cross-sectional studies that inform us about the cognitive profile of habitual action video game players, and document a positive average effect of about half a standard deviation (g = 0.55). We then turn to long-term intervention studies that inform us about the possibility of causally inducing changes in cognition via playing action video games, and show a smaller average effect of a third of a standard deviation (g = 0.34). Because only intervention studies using other commercially available video game genres as controls were included, this latter result highlights the fact that not all games equally impact cognition. Moderator analyses indicated that action video game play robustly enhances the domains of top-down attention and spatial cognition, with encouraging signs for perception. Publication bias remains, however, a threat with average effects in the published literature estimated to be 30% larger than in the full literature. As a result, we encourage the field to conduct larger cohort studies and more intervention studies, especially those with more than 30 hours of training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Ika Yulianti Siregar
Full Text Available The results of biology learning observation show that there are many constraints during the learning process in the class and consultation meeting between teacher and students. The think-pair-share-write based on hybrid learning was conducted to analyze the effect on metacognitive skills, creative thinking and learning outcomes. The research design was quasi experiment with pretest-posttest non-equivalent control group design. The independent variable is think-pair-share-write based on Hybrid learning model, while the dependent variables are metacognitive skills, creative thinking, and cognitive learning outcomes. Metacognitive skills are measured by using metacognitive rubrics. Creative thinking skills and cognitive learning outcomes are measured by using a description test. The data were taken by conducting pretest and posttest. The hypothesis test used was anakova with level of significance 0,05 (P <0,05, as the test result was significant then the test was continued to LSD. Before the anakova test, normality and homogeneity test were performed. The results showed that think-pair-share-write based on Hybrid Learning significantly affecting: 1 the metacognitive skills with F arithmetic of 183,472 and Sig. 0,000; 2 the creative thinking skill with F value of 325,111 and Sig. 0,000; 3 the cognitive learning outcomes with F arithmetic of 175.068 and Sig. 0,000.
Sakurai, Takeshi; Gamo, Nao J; Hikida, Takatoshi; Kim, Sun-Hong; Murai, Toshiya; Tomoda, Toshifumi; Sawa, Akira
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its connections with other brain areas are crucial for cognitive function. Cognitive impairments are one of the core symptoms associated with schizophrenia, and manifest even before the onset of the disorder. Altered neural networks involving PFC contribute to cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Both genetic and environmental risk factors affect the development of the local circuitry within PFC as well as development of broader brain networks, and make the system vulnerable to further insults during adolescence, leading to the onset of the disorder in young adulthood. Since spared cognitive functions correlate with functional outcome and prognosis, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments will have important implications for novel therapeutics for schizophrenia focusing on cognitive functions. Multidisciplinary approaches, from basic neuroscience to clinical studies, are required to link molecules, circuitry, networks, and behavioral phenotypes. Close interactions among such fields by sharing a common language on connectomes, behavioral readouts, and other concepts are crucial for this goal. PMID:26408506
Ivana Stasevic Karlicic
Full Text Available Background: The need for institutionalisation of elderly people derives from high rate of comorbidity and ageing, which result in the decrease of cognitive and functional capacities of future residents. Critical point in the procedure of accommodation of the people with dementia and other chronic illnesses is statement of willingness to be accommodated. Results of numerous studies point out that the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE can be used as a screening test for rapid clinical assessment of legal capacities. Method: The group of 91 examinees under legal guardianship protection has been compared with the group of 57 users not being under legal guardianship, on the bases of their cognitive status. The MMSE was used for evaluation of cognitive status. Results: Between the examined groups, a significant statistical difference in total MMSE score was found (F=19, 847; DF=2, 145; p<0.001. Subjects with no legal guardian had much higher values of total MMSE score compared to the subjects under legal guardianship. There was a statistically significant difference in the recurrence rate of cognitive status categories between the examined groups (chi-square=29, 822; p<0.001. Conclusion: The total MMSE score significantly correlates with decision making and proper interest supporting capacities, i.e. with placing subjects under any type of guardianship, which makes plausible to consider applying this instrument in order to make a more exact assessment of decision making capacity.
Suriano, Ferdinando; De Rango, Floriano; Popovski, Petar
This work considers a cognitive radio (secondary system) that operates under the interference of a WiMAX-like legacy (primary) system. The secondary terminals have knowledge of the codebooks used in the primary system and can apply Opportunistic Interference Cancellation (OIC): if the channel...
Leonard, Karen Ruth; Shea, Christine E.
We take a multidimensional perspective on the development of second language (L2) speaking ability and examine how changes in the underlying cognitive variables of linguistic knowledge and processing speed interact with complexity, fluency, and accuracy over the course of a 3-month Spanish study abroad session. Study abroad provides a unique…
Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.
Objective: This study evaluated the effects of sexual victimization history, rape myth acceptance, implicit attention, and recent learning on the cognitive processes underlying undergraduate women's explicit risk judgments. Method: Participants were 194 undergraduate women between 18 and 24 years of age. The sample was ethnically diverse and…
Objectives: The main objective of the research in this thesis was to investigate the psychological skills, state anxiety and coping of senior rugby players in South Africa. Methodology: The first manuscript (Chapter 2) was a literature review that investigated whether the coping model suggested by Moos and Shaefer (1993) could be applied to investigate the interaction between various psychological factors involved in the coping process, within a sports context. The model was ev...
Wadey, Ross; Hanton, Sheldon
This study examined the relationship between basic psychological skills usage (i.e., goal-setting, imagery, self-talk, and relaxation) and the intensity and directional dimensions of competitive anxiety. Semistructured interviews were used on a sample of 15 elite athletes (M age = 24.3 years, SD = 4.2) from a variety of team and individual sports. Findings revealed that the participants maintained the intensity of their anxiety response prior to competition and could deploy goal-setting, imagery, or self-talk to enable facilitative interpretations of anxiety-related symptoms to performance. Higher levels of self-confidence and an optimistic outlook toward forthcoming competition were also expressed. The underlying mechanisms perceived to be responsible for these effects included effort and motivation, attentional focus, and perceived control over the anxiety response.
Fink, Pamela K.
Two intelligent tutoring systems were developed. These tutoring systems are being used to study the effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems in training high performance tasks and the interrelationship of high performance and cognitive tasks. The two tutoring systems, referred to as the Console Operations Tutors, were built using the same basic approach to the design of an intelligent tutoring system. This design approach allowed researchers to more rapidly implement the cognitively based tutor, the OMS Leak Detect Tutor, by using the foundation of code generated in the development of the high performance based tutor, the Manual Select Keyboard (MSK). It is believed that the approach can be further generalized to develop a generic intelligent tutoring system implementation tool.
Sasaki, Norio; Somemura, Hironori; Nakamura, Saki; Yamamoto, Megumi; Isojima, Manabu; Shinmei, Issei; Horikoshi, Masaru; Tanaka, Katsutoshi
Stimulating communication is an important workplace issue. We investigated the effects of a brief communication skills training (CST) program based on the principles of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 206 white-collar workers. The intervention group underwent a 2-hour CST group training conducted by an occupational physician. The results of the intention-to-treat analysis using a mixed-effects model showed that there was a significant interaction between group and time observed for the item "thinking together to solve problems and issues" (P = 0.02). The effect size (Cohen d) was 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 0.62). The present study suggests that a brief CST based on the principles of CBT could improve the communication behavior of workers.
Miler, Krzysztof; Kuszewska, Karolina; Woyciechowski, Michał
Brain lateralization is hypothesized to improve the efficiency of information processing. Here, we found that some Myrmeleon bore antlion larvae showed individual asymmetry in righting from a supine to normal position over one side of their body, which can be considered a reflection of greater brain lateralization. We demonstrated that these behaviourally asymmetrical individuals showed improved learning abilities, providing novel evidence that brain lateralization leads to beneficial effects on cognitive functions. © 2017 The Author(s).
relates to the fundamental question of whether sheer repetition, as opposed to strategic cognitive processing, promotes more durable memory. 5. (Related to...the belief that sheer repetition and amount of effort exerted, during learning can "strengthen" a trace network so that it is more resistant to decay...such as playing a piano or piloting an aircraft. It may also be characteristic of the way that the knowledge of a subject-matter (domain) expert
Computer-Assisted Instruction to Personalize Arithmetic for Elementary School Children. Journal of Educational Psychology 1987, 79 (1), 72–78...You” Go in a Math Compare Problem? Journal of Educational Psychology 1997, 89 (3), 562–567. Doyle, A. C. The sign of four. Broadview Press, 1890...Between Emotional Interest and Cognitive Interest. Journal of Educational Psychology 89 (1), 92–102. Henderson, H. A.; Zahka, N. E.; Kojkowski, N. M
Milner, Rachel E
The practice of using images in teaching is widespread, and in science education images are used so extensively that some have argued they are now the "main vehicle of communication" (C. Ferreira, A. Arroio Problems Educ. 21st Century 2009, 16, 48-53). Although this phenomenon is especially notable in the field of biochemistry, we know little about the role and importance of images in communicating concepts to students in the classroom. This study reports the development of a scale to assess students' attitude toward biochemical images, particularly their willingness and ability to use the images to support their learning. In addition, because it is argued that images are central in the communication of biochemical concepts, we investigated three "learner differences" which might impact learning outcomes in this kind of classroom environment: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach. Overall, the students reported a positive attitude toward the images, the majority agreeing that they liked images and considered them useful. However, the participants also reported that verbal explanations were more important than images in helping them to understand the concepts. In keeping with this we found that there was no relationship between learning outcomes and the students' self-reported attitude toward images or visual cognitive skills. In contrast, learning outcomes were significantly correlated with the students' self-reported approach to learning. These findings suggest that images are not necessarily the main vehicle of communication in a biochemistry classroom and that verbal explanations and encouragement of a deep learning approach are important considerations in improving our pedagogical approach. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Full Text Available Introduction: Today, third wave therapy in psychotherapy puts special emphasis on the individuals’ awareness as well as their emotional and cognitive acceptance rather than challenging the cognitions. Therfore, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on cognitive emotion regulation in the addicted men under Methadone treatment. Method: The study population consisted of all the addicted men under Methadone treatment referring to an addiction treatment clinic in Isfahan in 2014-2015, out of which 24 addicted men were selected via convenience sampling method, and then were appointed randomly into two experimental and control groups (n= 12. Both groups filled Cognition Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. The therapeutic interventions based on aacceptance and commitment therapy were held for the experimental group for 8 sessions of one hour once a week. Ultimately, the collected data were analyzed applying SPSS software via ANCOVA method . Result: The findings of the present study demonstrated a significant positive impact of acceptance and commitment therapy on reduction of self blame, rumination, catastrophizing as well as blaming others. Moreover, a significant increase was observed in regard with the acceptance, positive refocus, refocus on planning, positive reappraisal and positive perspective. Conclusion: It was concluded that acceptance and commitment therapy seems to be beneficial to enhancing the emotion regulation of addicted men under Methadone treatment, which can be related to training the referrents to accept their thoughts and conditions.
Michaelis, Rosa; Andrews, Donna J; Reiter, Joel M; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido
A recent review of psychobehavioral therapy for epilepsy recommends case reports as a research design to explore specific psychological mediators of psychobehavioral interventions for epilepsy that address the bidirectional relationship between psychological states and seizures. The report was prepared according to the consensus-based CARE guidelines for standardized clinical case reporting. This is a case of a 16-year-old male individual with a diagnosed seizure disorder and learning disability who continued to have daytime and nighttime seizures on a regular basis despite exhausting of available conventional treatment options. A psychological assessment led to the working hypothesis that cognitive dissonance between fear of failure and high expectations of self had led to a "broken" self-image and active avoidance of responsibility that resulted in intense emotional distress which correlated with the occurrence of seizures. This working hypothesis resulted in a treatment plan that employed the acquisition of self-organizational skills and relaxation techniques as the main therapeutic strategy. Motivational strategies were employed to facilitate the regulation of lifestyle-related seizure precipitants. In this case, the acquisition of self-organizational skills and the development of seizure interruption techniques correlated with a clinically significant decrease of seizures. Methodological limitations of the interpretation of the presented data are discussed.
Full Text Available We report the case of a 10 year old patient diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and comorbid video game addiction, who was treated with medication combined with a novel cognitive training method based on video games called TCT method. A great risk of developing video game or internet addiction has been reported in children, especially in children with ADHD. Despite this risk, we hypothesize that the good use of these new technologies might be useful to develop new methods of cognitive training. The cognitive areas in which a greater improvement was observed through the use of video games were visuospatial working memory and fine motor skills. TCT method is a cognitive training method that enhances cognitive skills such as attention, working memory, processing speed, calculation ability, reasoning, and visuomotor coordination. The purpose of reviewing this case is to highlight that regular cognitive computerized training in ADHD patients may improve some of their cognitive symptoms and might be helpful for treating video game addiction.
Ahn, Heejung; Kim, Hyun-Young
This study is involved in designing high-fidelity simulations reflecting the Korean nursing education environment. In addition, it evaluated the simulations by nursing students' learning outcomes and perceptions of the simulation design features. A quantitative design was used in two separate phases. For the first phase, five nursing experts participated in verifying the appropriateness of two simulation scenarios that reflected the intended learning objectives. For the second phase, 69 nursing students in the third year of a bachelor's degree at a nursing school participated in evaluating the simulations and were randomized according to their previous course grades. The first phase verified the two simulation scenarios using a questionnaire. The second phase evaluated students' perceptions of the simulation design, self-confidence, and critical thinking skills using a quasi-experimental post-test design. ANCOVA was used to compare the experimental and control groups, and correlation coefficient analysis was used to determine the correlation among them. We created 2 simulation scenarios to integrate cognitive and psychomotor skills according to the learning objectives and clinical environment in Korea. The experimental group had significantly higher scores on self-confidence in the first scenario. The positive correlations between perceptions of the simulation design features, self-confidence, and critical thinking skill scores were statistically significant. Students with a more positive perception of the design features of the simulations had better learning outcomes. Based on this result, simulations need to be designed and implemented with more differentiation in order to be perceived more appropriately by students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cognitive radio communication can opportunistically access underutilized spectrum for emerging wireless applications. With interweave cognitive implementation, a secondary user (SU) transmits only if primary user does not occupy the channel and waits for transmission otherwise. Therefore, secondary packet transmission involves both transmission periods and waiting periods. The resulting extended delivery time (EDT) is critical to the throughput analysis of secondary system. In this paper, we study the EDT of secondary packet transmission with adaptive modulation under interweave implementation to facilitate the delay analysis of such cognitive radio system. In particular, we propose an analytical framework to derive the probability density functions of EDT considering random-length SU transmission and waiting periods. We also present selected numerical results to illustrate the mathematical formulations and to verify our analytical approach.
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Tolar, Tammy D.
The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of prealgebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early…
Webb, Christian A.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Dimidjian, Sona; Hollon, Steven D.; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Shelton, Richard C.
Objective: Previous research has found that therapist adherence to concrete, problem-focused cognitive therapy (CT) techniques predicts depressive symptom change (e.g., Feeley, DeRubeis, & Gelfand, 1999). More recently, Strunk, DeRubeis, Chui, and Alvarez (2007) demonstrated that in-session evidence of patients' use of CT skills was related to…
Shaarawy, Hanaa Youssef
Based on writing weekly academic journals and on Bloom's (1984) taxonomy of cognitive critical thinking skills, this article reports on a quasi-experiment where journal writing was an additional task to an academic writing course. The experiment was carried out with first year university students (semester two) in one of the Egyptian private…
Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.
The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…
Spinhoven, Philip; Huijbers, Marloes J.; Ormel, Johan; Speckens, Anne E. M.
Background: This study examined whether changes in mindfulness skills following Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) are predictive of long-term changes in personality traits. Methods: Using data from the MOMENT study, we included 278 participants with recurrent depression in remission
A.G. Candra Wicaksono
Full Text Available Hubungan Keterampilan Metakognitif dan Berpikir Kritis terhadap Hasil Belajar Kognitif Siswa SMA pada Pembelajaran Biologi dengan Strategi Reciprocal Teaching Abstract: The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between metacognitive and critical thinking skill toward student cognitive achievement in biology learning used reciprocal teaching strategy. The participant were 31 science class students of public senior high school of Lawang and 32 science class students of PGRI school Lawang. The data obtained from this research was pretes and postest score of student’s metacognitive skill, critical thinking and cognitive achievement. The data then analized by multiple regression analysis. The result of this research showed that there was correlation between between meracognitive and critical thinking skill toward student cognitive achievement in biology learning used reciprocal teaching strategy. Key Words: metacognitive skill, critical thinking, cognitive achievement, reciprocal teaching strategy Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap hubungan antara keterampilan metakognitif dan berpikir kritis terhadap hasil belajar kognitif siswa SMA dalam pembelajaran Biologi yang dibelajarkan dengan strategi reciprocal teaching. Penelitian ini melibatkan 31 siswa kelas XI IPA dari SMAN 1 Lawang dan 32 siswa kelas XI IPA dari SMA PGRI Lawang Kabupaten Malang. Data yang diambil dalam penelitian adalah data pretes dan postes keterampilan metakognitif, berpikir kritis dan hasil belajar beserta selisihnya. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis regresi berganda. Hasil analisis menunjukkan ada hubungan antara keterampilan metakognitif dan berpikir kritis terhadap hasil belajar kognitif siswa dalam strategi reciprocal teaching. Kata kunci: hasil belajar kognitif, keterampilan metakognitif, berpikir kritis, reciprocal teaching
Bediou, Benoît; Adams, Deanne M.; Mayer, Richard E.; Tipton, Elizabeth; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphné
The ubiquity of video games in today’s society has led to significant interest in their impact on the brain and behavior and in the possibility of harnessing games for good. The present meta-analyses focus on one specific game genre that has been of particular interest to the scientific community—action video games, and cover the period 2000–2015. To assess the long-lasting impact of action video game play on various domains of cognition, we first consider cross-sectional studies that inform ...
Javid, Saideh; Alavi, Hamid Reza; Fazilat Pour, Masood
Religious commitment is one of the many factors that affect individual's characteristics, including perceptions affections, emotions, interpersonal relationships, and aspirations. The purpose of the present study was to examine for the possible relationship between religious commitment with meta-cognitive skills and philosophical mindedness among the graduate students. The target population was graduate students of Kerman universities during the academic year 2011-2012. The sample includes 394 graduate students who were selected using stratified random sampling with proportional allocation. Standardized questionnaires were employed and completed by the individuals to measure religious commitment (with subscales of religious commitment, duality, and non-commitment), meta-cognitive skills (with the Cognitive and Affective Subscales), and philosophical mindedness (with subscales of comprehensiveness, penetration, and flexibility). According to the most important findings of the study, there was a significant relationship between subscale of religious commitment and both the subscales and the total score of metacognition. In addition, there was significant relationship between both the subscale of religious commitment and its total score with the subscales and the total score of philosophical mindedness. Moreover, there was significant and negative relationship between the subscale of religious duality with the subscales and the total score of philosophical mindedness. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis showed that religious commitment subscale was the significant predictor of Cognitive and Affective Subscale of meta-cognitive skills and its total score. The subscale of duality was also the most important and significant predicators of the subscales and total score of philosophical mindedness.
Full Text Available In a cross-sectional study 823 Finnish school children were tested to examine the relation between speed of performance in cognitive and linguistic tasks and second/foreign language reading and writing. Participants were Finnish-speakers with English as foreign language and Russian-speakers with Finnish as second language which made it possible to compare the results across these two language groups. The Finnish group was furthermore divided into three groups by age to see how speed develops with age and education. Groups were tested with a number of cognitive instruments that included measures of speed of performance. Overall, performance on the speed measures improved with age; often, the second language learners outperformed their foreign language peers of the same age. Regression analyses indicated that speed measures could predict from 20% to over 40% of performance in second/foreign language reading and writing tasks. Prediction was somewhat stronger for writing than reading. The best predictors were also somewhat different for the foreign and second language learners, as well as for the different age groups.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa9.13
Testing a model of science process skills acquisition: An interaction with parents' education, preferred language, gender, science attitude, cognitive development, academic ability, and biology knowledge
Germann, Paul J.
Path analysis techniques were used to test a hypothesized structural model of direct and indirect causal effects of student variables on science process skills. The model was tested twice using data collected at the beginning and end of the school year from 67 9th- and 10th-grade biology students who lived in a rural Franco-American community in New England. Each student variable was found to have significant effects, accounting for approximately 80% of the variance in science process skills achievement. Academic ability, biology knowledge, and language preference had significant direct effects. There were significant mediated effects by cognitive development, parents' education, and attitude toward science in school. The variables of cognitive development and academic ability had the greatest total effects on science process skills. Implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.
Backhaus, Samantha; Ibarra, Summer; Parrott, Devan; Malec, James
To compare the efficacy of 2 group treatments for persons with brain injury (BI) and their caregivers in promoting perceived self-efficacy (PSE) and emotional and neurobehavioral functioning. Randomized controlled trial. Outpatient BI rehabilitation. Subjects (N=38), including 19 with BI and 19 caregivers, participated in a BI coping skills group or a support group. BI coping skills is a manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT). CBT was compared with a structurally equivalent support group. Brain Injury Coping Skills Questionnaire (PSE), Brief Symptom Inventory-18 ([BSI-18]; emotional distress), and Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (neurobehavioral functions). There were no significant differences between survivors and caregivers on the Brain Injury Coping Skills Questionnaire and BSI-18; therefore, groups were combined during final analyses. Frontal Systems Behavior Scale caregiver data were used for analysis. Both groups showed significantly improved PSE between baseline and follow-up on repeated-measures analysis of variance, with the CBT group showing greater stabilization of change. There was no significant group by time interaction on measures of neurobehavioral functions, but the CBT group showed significant improvements at 3-month follow-up. No significant effects were found on the BSI-18. To our knowledge, no studies to date have been published comparing a CBT intervention with a support group in a BI population with caregiver participation. This study showed that given equivalent group structure, individuals with BI and caregivers may benefit from either type of intervention in enhancing PSE or maintaining emotional stability. However, there was a trend for individuals who received CBT to maintain the effects of improved PSE, whereas support group participants showed a trend for decline. This study offers a new conceptualization that with certain group dynamics and support, individuals with BI and caregivers may benefit similarly from either a
Furukawa, Toshi A; Horikoshi, Masaru; Fujita, Hirokazu; Tsujino, Naohisa; Jinnin, Ran; Kako, Yuki; Ogawa, Sei; Sato, Hirotoshi; Kitagawa, Nobuki; Shinagawa, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Yoshio; Imai, Hissei; Tajika, Aran; Ogawa, Yusuke; Akechi, Tatsuo; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Shimodera, Shinji; Watanabe, Norio; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Hasegawa, Akio
A strong and growing body of evidence has demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), either face-to-face, in person, or as self-help via the Internet, for depression. However, CBT is a complex intervention consisting of several putatively effective components, and how each component may or may not contribute to the overall effectiveness of CBT is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how the users of smartphone CBT use and benefit from various components of the program. This is a secondary analysis from a 9-week, single-blind, randomized controlled trial that has demonstrated the effectiveness of adjunctive use of smartphone CBT (Kokoro-App) over antidepressant pharmacotherapy alone among patients with drug-resistant major depressive disorder (total n=164, standardized mean difference in depression severity at week 9=0.40, J Med Internet Res). Kokoro-App consists of three cognitive behavioral skills of self-monitoring, behavioral activation, and cognitive restructuring, with corresponding worksheets to fill in. All activities of the participants learning each session of the program and completing each worksheet were uploaded onto Kokoro-Web, which each patient could use for self-check. We examined what use characteristics differentiated the more successful users of the CBT app from the less successful ones, split at the median of change in depression severity. A total of 81 patients with major depression were allocated to the smartphone CBT. On average, they completed 7.0 (standard deviation [SD] 1.4) out of 8 sessions of the program; it took them 10.8 (SD 4.2) days to complete one session, during which they spent 62 min (SD 96) on the app. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of sessions completed, time spent for the program, or the number of completed self-monitoring worksheets between the beneficiaries and the nonbeneficiaries. However, the former completed more behavioral activation
Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Alloway, Ross G; Wootan, Samantha
Learning outcomes are associated with a variety of environmental and cognitive factors, and the aim of the current study was to compare the predictive power of these factors in longitudinal outcomes. We recruited children in kindergarten and tested their learning outcomes 2 years later. In kindergarten, children completed tests of IQ, phonological awareness, and memory (sentence memory, short-term memory, and working memory). After 2 years, they took national assessments in reading, writing, and math. Working memory performance was not affected by socioeconomic status (SES), whereas IQ, phonological awareness, and sentence memory scores differed as a function of SES. A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that working memory and phonological awareness were better predictors of learning than any other factors tested, including SES. Educational implications include providing intervention during the early years to boost working memory and phonological awareness so as to prevent subsequent learning difficulties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill
Zhao, Jing; Kwok, Rosa K W; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen
Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These
Johnson, Jeffrey P.; Villard, Sarah; Kiran, Swathi
Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the static and dynamic relationships between impairment-level cognitive-linguistic abilities and activity-level functional communication skills in persons with aphasia (PWA). Method In Experiment 1, a battery of standardized assessments was administered to a group of PWA (N = 72) to examine associations between cognitive-linguistic ability and functional communication at a single time point. In Experiment 2, impairment-based treatment was administered to a subset of PWA from Experiment 1 (n = 39) in order to examine associations between change in cognitive-linguistic ability and change in function and associations at a single time point. Results In both experiments, numerous significant associations were found between scores on tests of cognitive-linguistic ability and a test of functional communication at a single time point. In Experiment 2, significant treatment-induced gains were seen on both types of measures in participants with more severe aphasia, yet cognitive-linguistic change scores were not significantly correlated with functional communication change scores. Conclusions At a single time point, cognitive-linguistic and functional communication abilities are associated in PWA. However, although changes on standardized assessments reflecting improvements in both types of skills can occur following an impairment-based therapy, these changes may not be significantly associated with each other. PMID:28196373
Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki; Nishimori, Kentaro; Di Taranto, Rocco
A cognitive radio can operate as a secondary system in a given spectrum. This operation should use limited power in order not to disturb the communication by primary spectrum user. Under such conditions, in this paper we investigate how to maximize the spectral efficiency in the secondary system. A secondary receiver observes a multiple access channel of two users, the secondary and the primary transmitter, respectively. We show that, for spectrally-efficient operation, the secondary system s...
Dodich, Alessandra; Carli, Giulia; Cerami, Chiara; Iannaccone, Sandro; Magnani, Giuseppe; Perani, Daniela
Cognitive reserve may delay disease onset and mitigate symptoms presentation in neurodegenerative dementias. Although high occupation levels can be associated with higher cognitive reserve in the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), it was never addressed how specific occupation profiles involving social interaction, executive and attention abilities can modulate neural reserve in bvFTD. We retrospectively included thirty-seven bvFTD patients with clinical-neuropsychological and FDG-PET brain metabolic data. We considered occupation levels according to 1) a 5-point scale and 2) the specific cognitive dimensions from the O*Net network database. We used the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the O*Net variables most representative of "worker" and "occupation" socio-cognitive skills to merge the best components describing such occupation profiles. We then performed regression analyses with brain metabolism using either 5-level occupation scale or the PCA specific profiles as independent variables, controlling for education and disease severity. According to the brain reserve hypothesis, higher occupation levels were associated with a more severe hypometabolism in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In addition, among the identified PCA profiles, social skills were associated with severe hypometabolism in medial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, and cognitive control in the left fronto-insular cortex. This study contributes to define the role of specific occupation profiles as proxy of cognitive reserve in bvFTD, providing the first evidence for social interaction and cognitive control skills in life-occupation activities as influencing factors of neural reserve against neurodegeneration in bvFTD. Jobs placing high demand on such abilities seem to act as protective factors in bvFTD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chan, Trista Wai Sze; Ahn, Woo-Young; Bates, John E; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Guillaume, Sebastien; Redgrave, Graham W; Danner, Unna N; Courtet, Philippe
This study examined the underlying processes of decision-making impairments in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). We deconstructed their performance on the widely used decision task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) into cognitive, motivational, and response processes using cognitive modeling analysis. We hypothesized that IGT performance would be characterized by impaired memory functions and heightened punishment sensitivity in AN, and by elevated sensitivity to reward as opposed to punishment in BN. We analyzed trial-by-trial data of IGT obtained from 224 individuals: 94 individuals with AN, 63 with BN, and 67 healthy comparison individuals (HC). The prospect valence learning model was used to assess cognitive, motivational, and response processes underlying IGT performance. Individuals with AN showed marginally impaired IGT performance compared to HC. Their performance was characterized by impairments in memory functions. Individuals with BN showed significantly impaired IGT performance compared to HC. They showed greater relative sensitivity to gains as opposed to losses than HC. Memory functions in AN were positively correlated with body mass index. This study identified differential impairments underlying IGT performance in AN and BN. Findings suggest that impaired decision making in AN might involve impaired memory functions. Impaired decision making in BN might involve altered reward and punishment sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Fault diagnosis for rolling bearings has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, few studies have focused on fault diagnosis for rolling bearings under variable conditions. This paper introduces a fault diagnosis method for rolling bearings under variable conditions based on visual cognition. The proposed method includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal data are transformed into a recurrence plot (RP, which is a two-dimensional image. Then, inspired by the visual invariance characteristic of the human visual system (HVS, we utilize speed up robust feature to extract fault features from the two-dimensional RP and generate a 64-dimensional feature vector, which is invariant to image translation, rotation, scaling variation, etc. Third, based on the manifold perception characteristic of HVS, isometric mapping, a manifold learning method that can reflect the intrinsic manifold embedded in the high-dimensional space, is employed to obtain a low-dimensional feature vector. Finally, a classical classification method, support vector machine, is utilized to realize fault diagnosis. Verification data were collected from Case Western Reserve University Bearing Data Center, and the experimental result indicates that the proposed fault diagnosis method based on visual cognition is highly effective for rolling bearings under variable conditions, thus providing a promising approach from the cognitive computing field.
Cheng, Yujie; Zhou, Bo; Lu, Chen; Yang, Chao
Fault diagnosis for rolling bearings has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, few studies have focused on fault diagnosis for rolling bearings under variable conditions. This paper introduces a fault diagnosis method for rolling bearings under variable conditions based on visual cognition. The proposed method includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal data are transformed into a recurrence plot (RP), which is a two-dimensional image. Then, inspired by the visual invariance characteristic of the human visual system (HVS), we utilize speed up robust feature to extract fault features from the two-dimensional RP and generate a 64-dimensional feature vector, which is invariant to image translation, rotation, scaling variation, etc. Third, based on the manifold perception characteristic of HVS, isometric mapping, a manifold learning method that can reflect the intrinsic manifold embedded in the high-dimensional space, is employed to obtain a low-dimensional feature vector. Finally, a classical classification method, support vector machine, is utilized to realize fault diagnosis. Verification data were collected from Case Western Reserve University Bearing Data Center, and the experimental result indicates that the proposed fault diagnosis method based on visual cognition is highly effective for rolling bearings under variable conditions, thus providing a promising approach from the cognitive computing field.
Seifert, Ludovic; Wattebled, Léo; Orth, Dominic; L'Hermette, Maxime; Boulanger, Jérémie; Davids, Keith
Using an ecological dynamics framework, this study investigated the generality and specificity of skill transfer processes in organisation of perception and action using climbing as a task vehicle. Fluency of hip trajectory and orientation was assessed using normalized jerk coefficients exhibited by participants as they adapted perception and action under varying environmental constraints. Twelve recreational climbers were divided into two groups: one completing a 10-m high route on an indoor climbing wall; a second undertaking a 10-m high route on an icefall in a top-rope condition. We maintained the same level of difficulty between these two performance environments. An inertial measurement unit was attached each climber's hips to collect 3D acceleration and 3D orientation data to compute jerk coefficient values. Video footage was used to record the ratio of exploratory/performatory movements. Results showed higher jerk coefficient values and number of exploratory movements for performance on the icefall route, perhaps due to greater functional complexity in perception and action required when climbing icefalls, which involves use of specific tools for anchorage. Findings demonstrated how individuals solve different motor problems, exploiting positive general transfer processes enabling participants to explore the pick-up of information for the perception of affordances specific to icefall climbing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of offending behaviour programs in forensic mental health settings is not well established. Thus this study aimed to evaluate the Reasoning and Rehabilitation Mental Health program (R&R2 MHP among a mentally disordered offender (MDO population. Methods A sample of 121 adult males drawn from 10 forensic mental health sites completed questionnaires at baseline and post-treatment to assess violent attitudes, locus of control, social problem-solving and anger. An informant measure of social and psychological functioning, including disruptive behaviour, was completed by unit staff at the same time. At three month follow-up patients completed again the violent attitudes and locus of control questionnaires. The data of 67 patients who participated in the group condition were compared with 54 waiting-list controls who received treatment as usual. Results 78% of group participants completed the program. In contrast to controls, significant treatment effects were found at outcome on self-reported measures of violent attitudes, rational problem-solving and anger cognitions. Improvements were endorsed by informant ratings of social and psychological functioning within the establishments. At follow-up significant treatment effects were found for both violent attitudes and locus of control. Conclusions R&R2 MHP was effective in a sample of MDOs and had a comparatively low drop-out rate. Future research should use a randomized controlled design.
Chun, Ji-Won; Park, Hae-Jeong; Kim, Dai Jin; Kim, Eosu; Kim, Jae-Jin
Conflict processing mediated by fronto-striatal regions may be influenced by emotional properties of stimuli. This study aimed to examine the effects of emotion repetition on cognitive control in a conflict-provoking situation. Twenty-one healthy subjects were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a sequential cognitive conflict task composed of emotional stimuli. The regional effects were analyzed according to the repetition or non-repetition of cognitive congruency and emotional valence between the preceding and current trials. Post-incongruence interference in error rate and reaction time was significantly smaller than post-congruence interference, particularly under repeated positive and non-repeated positive, respectively, and post-incongruence interference, compared to post-congruence interference, increased activity in the ACC, DLPFC, and striatum. ACC and DLPFC activities were significantly correlated with error rate or reaction time in some conditions, and fronto-striatal connections were related to the conflict processing heightened by negative emotion. These findings suggest that the repetition of emotional stimuli adaptively regulates cognitive control and the fronto-striatal circuit may engage in the conflict adaptation process induced by emotion repetition. Both repetition enhancement and repetition suppression of prefrontal activity may underlie the relationship between emotion and conflict adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rodriguez, Nathaniel; Bollen, Johan; Ahn, Yong-Yeol
Human history has been marked by social instability and conflict, often driven by the irreconcilability of opposing sets of beliefs, ideologies, and religious dogmas. The dynamics of belief systems has been studied mainly from two distinct perspectives, namely how cognitive biases lead to individual belief rigidity and how social influence leads to social conformity. Here we propose a unifying framework that connects cognitive and social forces together in order to study the dynamics of societal belief evolution. Each individual is endowed with a network of interacting beliefs that evolves through interaction with other individuals in a social network. The adoption of beliefs is affected by both internal coherence and social conformity. Our framework may offer explanations for how social transitions can arise in otherwise homogeneous populations, how small numbers of zealots with highly coherent beliefs can overturn societal consensus, and how belief rigidity protects fringe groups and cults against invasion from mainstream beliefs, allowing them to persist and even thrive in larger societies. Our results suggest that strong consensus may be insufficient to guarantee social stability, that the cognitive coherence of belief-systems is vital in determining their ability to spread, and that coherent belief-systems may pose a serious problem for resolving social polarization, due to their ability to prevent consensus even under high levels of social exposure. We argue that the inclusion of cognitive factors into a social model could provide a more complete picture of collective human dynamics.
Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Castillo, Alejandro; López-López, José A; Pina, Violeta; Puga, Jorge L; Campoy, Guillermo; González-Salinas, Carmen; Fuentes, Luis J
Student academic achievement has been positively related to further development outcomes, such as the attainment of higher educational, employment, and socioeconomic aspirations. Among all the academic competences, mathematics has been identified as an essential skill in the field of international leadership as well as for those seeking positions in disciplines related to science, technology, and engineering. Given its positive consequences, studies have designed trainings to enhance children's mathematical skills. Additionally, the ability to regulate and control actions and cognitions, i.e., executive functions (EF), has been associated with school success, which has resulted in a strong effort to develop EF training programs to improve students' EF and academic achievement. The present study examined the efficacy of a school computer-based training composed of two components, namely, working memory and mathematics tasks. Among the advantages of using a computer-based training program is the ease with which it can be implemented in school settings and the ease by which the difficulty of the tasks can be adapted to fit the child's ability level. To test the effects of the training, children's cognitive skills (EF and IQ) and their school achievement (math and language grades and abilities) were evaluated. The results revealed a significant improvement in cognitive skills, such as non-verbal IQ and inhibition, and better school performance in math and reading among the children who participated in the training compared to those children who did not. Most of the improvements were related to training on WM tasks. These findings confirmed the efficacy of a computer-based training that combined WM and mathematics activities as part of the school routines based on the training's impact on children's academic competences and cognitive skills.
Sánchez-Pérez, Noelia; Castillo, Alejandro; López-López, José A.; Pina, Violeta; Puga, Jorge L.; Campoy, Guillermo; González-Salinas, Carmen; Fuentes, Luis J.
Student academic achievement has been positively related to further development outcomes, such as the attainment of higher educational, employment, and socioeconomic aspirations. Among all the academic competences, mathematics has been identified as an essential skill in the field of international leadership as well as for those seeking positions in disciplines related to science, technology, and engineering. Given its positive consequences, studies have designed trainings to enhance children's mathematical skills. Additionally, the ability to regulate and control actions and cognitions, i.e., executive functions (EF), has been associated with school success, which has resulted in a strong effort to develop EF training programs to improve students' EF and academic achievement. The present study examined the efficacy of a school computer-based training composed of two components, namely, working memory and mathematics tasks. Among the advantages of using a computer-based training program is the ease with which it can be implemented in school settings and the ease by which the difficulty of the tasks can be adapted to fit the child's ability level. To test the effects of the training, children's cognitive skills (EF and IQ) and their school achievement (math and language grades and abilities) were evaluated. The results revealed a significant improvement in cognitive skills, such as non-verbal IQ and inhibition, and better school performance in math and reading among the children who participated in the training compared to those children who did not. Most of the improvements were related to training on WM tasks. These findings confirmed the efficacy of a computer-based training that combined WM and mathematics activities as part of the school routines based on the training's impact on children's academic competences and cognitive skills. PMID:29375442
Full Text Available Student academic achievement has been positively related to further development outcomes, such as the attainment of higher educational, employment, and socioeconomic aspirations. Among all the academic competences, mathematics has been identified as an essential skill in the field of international leadership as well as for those seeking positions in disciplines related to science, technology, and engineering. Given its positive consequences, studies have designed trainings to enhance children's mathematical skills. Additionally, the ability to regulate and control actions and cognitions, i.e., executive functions (EF, has been associated with school success, which has resulted in a strong effort to develop EF training programs to improve students' EF and academic achievement. The present study examined the efficacy of a school computer-based training composed of two components, namely, working memory and mathematics tasks. Among the advantages of using a computer-based training program is the ease with which it can be implemented in school settings and the ease by which the difficulty of the tasks can be adapted to fit the child's ability level. To test the effects of the training, children's cognitive skills (EF and IQ and their school achievement (math and language grades and abilities were evaluated. The results revealed a significant improvement in cognitive skills, such as non-verbal IQ and inhibition, and better school performance in math and reading among the children who participated in the training compared to those children who did not. Most of the improvements were related to training on WM tasks. These findings confirmed the efficacy of a computer-based training that combined WM and mathematics activities as part of the school routines based on the training's impact on children's academic competences and cognitive skills.
This article presents a modular activity on the neurobiology of sign language that engages undergraduate students in reading and analyzing the primary functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature. Drawing on a seed empirical article and subsequently published critique and rebuttal, students are introduced to a scientific debate concerning the functional significance of right-hemisphere recruitment observed in some fMRI studies of sign language processing. The activity requires minimal background knowledge and is not designed to provide students with a specific conclusion regarding the debate. Instead, the activity and set of articles allow students to consider key issues in experimental design and analysis of the primary literature, including critical thinking regarding the cognitive subtractions used in blocked-design fMRI studies, as well as possible confounds in comparing results across different experimental tasks. By presenting articles representing different perspectives, each cogently argued by leading scientists, the readings and activity also model the type of debate and dialogue critical to science, but often invisible to undergraduate science students. Student self-report data indicate that undergraduates find the readings interesting and that the activity enhances their ability to read and interpret primary fMRI articles, including evaluating research design and considering alternate explanations of study results. As a stand-alone activity completed primarily in one 60-minute class block, the activity can be easily incorporated into existing courses, providing students with an introduction both to the analysis of empirical fMRI articles and to the role of debate and critique in the field of neuroscience. PMID:26557797
Full Text Available An extensive body of work has focused on the processes underpinning perceptual-cognitive expertise. The majority of researchers have used film-based simulations to capture superior performance. We combined eye movement recording and verbal reports of thinking to explore the processes underpinning skilled performance in a complex, dynamic, and externally paced representative volleyball task involving in situ data collection. Altogether, 27 female volleyball players performed as centre backcourt defenders in simulated sessions while wearing an eye-tracking device. After each sequence, athletes were questioned concerning their perception of the situation. The visual search strategies employed by the highly-skilled players were more exploratory than those used by skilled players, involving more fixations to a greater number of locations. Highly-skilled participants spent more time fixating on functional spaces between two or more display areas, while the skilled participants fixated on the ball trajectory and specific players. Moreover, highly-skilled players generated more condition concepts with higher levels of sophistication than their skilled counterparts. Findings highlight the value of using representative task designs to capture performance in situ
Terides, Matthew D; Dear, Blake F; Fogliati, Vincent J; Gandy, Milena; Karin, Eyal; Jones, Michael P; Titov, Nickolai
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for clinical and subclinical symptoms of depression and general anxiety, and increases life satisfaction. Patients' usage of CBT skills is a core aspect of treatment but there is insufficient empirical evidence suggesting that skills usage behaviours are a mechanism of clinical change. This study investigated if an internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) intervention increased the frequency of CBT skills usage behaviours and if this statistically mediated reductions in symptoms and increased life satisfaction. A two-group randomised controlled trial was conducted comparing internet-delivered CBT (n = 65) with a waitlist control group (n = 75). Participants were individuals experiencing clinically significant symptoms of depression or general anxiety. Mixed-linear models analyses revealed that the treatment group reported a significantly higher frequency of skills usage, lower symptoms, and higher life satisfaction by the end of treatment compared with the control group. Results from bootstrapping mediation analyses revealed that the increased skills usage behaviours statistically mediated symptom reductions and increased life satisfaction. Although skills usage and symptom outcomes were assessed concurrently, these findings support the notion that iCBT increases the frequency of skills usage behaviours and suggest that this may be an important mechanism of change.
Al-Hilawani, Y A
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of using the Cognitive Behaviour Modification (CBM) technique on the subtraction skills of third grade hearing and deaf/hard-of-hearing students. The results indicated that the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students and the CBM and non-CBM hearing students made more progress in solving the subtraction problems than the non-CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students. The results also showed that there were no significant differences between the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing and the non-CBM hearing students; and there were no significant differences between the CBM and non-CBM hearing students. The results revealed that the CBM hearing students achieved significantly higher post-test scores than the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students. However, the CBM deaf/hard-of-hearing students obtained a significantly higher gain score compared to the CBM and non-CBM hearing students. Implications for teachers and suggestions for future research are discussed in this paper.
In this paper, we consider an underlay cognitive relaying network consisting of multiple secondary users and introduce a cooperative transmission protocol using a common relay to help with the communications between all secondary source-destination pairs for higher throughput and lower realization complexity. A whole relay-assisted transmission procedure is composed of multiple access phase and broadcast phase, where the relay is equipped with multiple antennas, and the secondary sources and destinations are single-antenna nodes. Considering the spectrum-sharing constraints on the secondary sources and the relay, we analyze the capacity behaviors of the underlay cognitive relaying network under study. The corresponding numerical results provide a convenient tool for the presented network design and substantiate a distinguishing feature of introduced design in that multiple secondary users\\' communications do not rely on multiple relays, hence allowing for a more efficient use of the radio resources. © 2011 IEEE.
Cooney, Patricia; Tunney, Conall; O'Reilly, Gary
Background: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is being increasingly adapted for use with people who have an intellectual disability. However, it remains unclear whether inherent cognitive deficits that are present in adults who have an intellectual disability preclude the use of cognitive-based therapies. This review aims to systematically…
Vangkilde, A; Jepsen, J M R; Schmock, H
-related symptoms. The aims of this study were to conduct a comprehensive investigation of social impairments at three different levels (function, skill, and cognition) and their interrelationship and to determine to what degree the social impairments correlate to subclinical levels of negative and positive...... symptoms, respectively, in a young cohort of 22q11.2DS not diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: The level of social impairment was addressed using questionnaires and objective measures of social functioning (The Adaptive Behavior Assessment System), skills (Social Responsiveness Scale), and cognition...... (The Awareness of Social Inference Test and CANTAB Emotional Recognition Task), and the presence of subclinical symptoms of schizophrenia were evaluated using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes in a cross-sectional case-control study of 29 cases and 29 controls, aged 12 to 25 years...
Boseck, Justin J; Davis, Andrew S; Cassady, Jerrell C; Finch, W Holmes; Gelder, Barbara C
Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) often present with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which can complicate diagnosis and treatment planning. This study investigated the cognitive and adaptive profiles of 81 children with ADHD/FASD and 147 children with ADHD. Multivariate analysis of variance and follow-up discriminant analysis indicated that the two groups had similar profiles on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, although the children with comorbid ADHD/FASD demonstrated significantly more impairment in verbal ability, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed, and overall adaptive skills. The results suggested that when compared with children with ADHD alone, children with ADHD/FASD exhibit significantly more impaired cognitive processing and adaptive skill deficits that are essential for school success and healthy social, behavioral, and emotional functioning. Research evaluating the profiles of these groups is likely to facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis and intervention.
Christensen, Thomas Nordahl; Nielsen, Iben Gammelgaard; Stenager, Elsebeth; Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Lindschou, Jane; Nordentoft, Merete; Eplov, Lene Falgaard
Individual Placement and Support (IPS) appears to be an effective vocational intervention for obtaining competitive employment for people with severe mental illness. However, no IPS studies or trials have been conducted in Denmark, a country characterized by a specialized labor market with a higher minimum wage and fewer entry-level jobs in comparison with other countries such as the US. Furthermore, long-term job retention and economic self-sufficiency have not been clearly demonstrated. Integrating methods such as cognitive remediation and work-related social skills training may be ways to address these issues. The trial design is an investigator-initiated, randomized, assessor-blinded, multi-center trial. A total of 750 patients with severe mental illness will be randomly assigned into three groups: (1) IPS, (2) IPS enhanced with cognitive remediation and work-related social skills training, and (3) service as usual. The primary outcome is number of hours in competitive employment or education at 18-month follow-up. Secondary and exploratory outcomes are money earned, days to first employment, symptoms, functional level, self-esteem, and self-efficacy at 18-month follow-up. Thirty- and 60-month follow-ups will be register-based. This will be one of the largest randomized trials investigating IPS to date. The trial will be conducted with high methodological quality in order to reduce the risk of bias. If the results of this trial show that IPS, or IPS enhanced with cognitive remediation and work-related social skills training, is superior to service as usual, this will support preliminary evidence. Furthermore, it will show that the method is generalizable to a variety of labor markets and welfare systems and provide important knowledge about the effect of adding cognitive remediation and social skills training to the IPS intervention. ClinicalTrials registration number: NCT01722344 (registered 2 Nov. 2012).
This Rigorosum Thesis work puts mind to questions how to effectively work with adolescents they were diagnosed with Aspereger's Syndrome. Based on author-led concrete development project, it proves the high efficiency of cognitive behavior techniques for the social learning and the training and improvement of communication skills or additionally for problem behavior solving. Together with those frequently used tools it shows other opportunities how to raise efficiency - especially of Kaizen p...
Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Xing, Shihui; Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E
Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the processes they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language process impairments. To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of commonly used aphasia tests. Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. The principal components analysis yielded 4 dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not commonly associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language processing. An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies 4 independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the processes underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual's specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities.
Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pokorny, Florian B.; Zhang, Dajie; Landerl, Karin; Körner, Christof; Pernkopf, Franz; Pock, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa; Marschik, Peter B.
The present study aimed to define differences between silent and oral reading with respect to spatial and temporal eye movement parameters. Eye movements of 22 German-speaking adolescents (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were recorded while reading an age-appropriate text silently and orally. Preschool cognitive abilities were assessed at the participants’ age of 5;7 (years;months) using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The participants’ reading speed and reading comprehension at the age of 13;6 (years;months) were determined using a standardized inventory to evaluate silent reading skills in German readers (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6–12). The results show that (i) reading mode significantly influenced both spatial and temporal characteristics of eye movement patterns; (ii) articulation decreased the consistency of intraindividual reading performances with regard to a significant number of eye movement parameters; (iii) reading skills predicted the majority of eye movement parameters during silent reading, but influenced only a restricted number of eye movement parameters when reading orally; (iv) differences with respect to a subset of eye movement parameters increased with reading skills; (v) an overall preschool cognitive performance score predicted reading skills at the age of 13;6 (years;months), but not eye movement patterns during either silent or oral reading. However, we found a few significant correlations between preschool performances on subscales of sequential and simultaneous processing and eye movement parameters for both reading modes. Overall, the findings suggest that eye movement patterns depend on the reading mode. Preschool cognitive abilities were more closely related to eye movement patterns of oral than silent reading, while reading skills predicted eye movement patterns during silent reading, but less so during oral reading. PMID:28151950
Guo, Rui; He, Qian; Shi, Junxin; Gong, Jie; Wang, Hongxing; Wang, Zengzhen
Drug abuse continues to be a serious public health threat worldwide. Most drug abuse prevention research has been conducted with predominantly American or European adolescent populations. Little is known about approaches that work best to prevent the initiation of Chinese adolescent drug use. For targeting risk factors of drug initiation in Chinese adolescents, a school-based health intervention program named "Cognition-Motivation-Emotional Intelligence-Resistance Skills" (CMER) was developed to enhance cognition upon drug use, to decrease motivation of drug use and to improve emotional adjusting and drug resistance skills in this study. A total of 798 students from 3 senior high schools in Wuhan, a city in central China, were assigned randomly to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received the CMER program in which knowledge, development of positive attitude and motivation towards drugs and training of peer resistance skills were basic elements. The immediate impact was compared by measuring the above mentioned elements prior to and three-month after the training session. Students from both groups were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic items, self-reported drug use behavior, cognition, attitude, and motivation associated with the initiation of drug use and resistance skills. Three months after the intervention, significant effects were found on "illegal substance use at least once" (P0.05). It was concluded that the CMER program, which significantly increased the knowledge of drugs and peer resistance skills, was effective in the drug abuse prevention in a sample of school students in Wuhan, China.
Renden, Peter G; Landman, Annemarie; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D
We investigated whether officers with additional martial arts training experience performed better in arrest and self-defence scenarios under low and high anxiety and were better able to maintain performance under high anxiety than officers who just rely on regular police training. We were especially interested to find out whether training once a week would already lead to better performance under high anxiety. Officers with additional experience in kickboxing or karate/jiu-jitsu (training several times per week), or krav maga (training once a week) and officers with no additional experience performed several arrest and self-defence skills under low and high anxiety. Results showed that officers with additional experience (also those who trained once a week) performed better under high anxiety than officers with no additional experience. Still, the additional experience did not prevent these participants from performing worse under high anxiety compared to low anxiety. Implications for training are discussed. Practitioner summary: Dutch police officers train their arrest and self-defence skills only four to six hours per year. Our results indicate that doing an additional martial arts training once a week may lead to better performance under anxiety, although it cannot prevent that performance decreases under high anxiety compared to low anxiety.
Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof
This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis of caregiver completion of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). The children were classified into three cognitive groups: (a) Normal intelligence; (b) Developmental delay; and (c) Intellectual disability. Autism symptom severity was measured by the Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC), and adaptive functioning by the Daily Living Skills (DLS) and Socialization (Soc) subscales from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. For each of five CDI variables (Phrases understood, Words understood, Words produced, Gestures and actions, and Language use), the contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability was examined. Cognition and age explained about half or more of the variance in the four verbal language CDI variables, but only about one fourth of the variance in the non-verbal communication variable Gestures and actions. Severity of autism symptoms and the two adaptive measures (DLS and Soc) each only accounted for a few percent more of the variance in the four CDI language variables; however, for Gestures and actions, an additional 11-21% of the variance was accounted for. In conclusion, for children with ASD, receptive and expressive language is mainly related to cognitive level, whereas non-verbal communication skills seem to also be related to severity of autism symptoms and adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mokri, H; Avila-Funes, J A; Le Goff, L; Ruiz-Arregui, L; Gutierrez Robledo, L M; Amieva, H
Beyond the well-known effect of educational level on cognitive performances, the present study investigates the specific effect of literacy acquisition independently of education. A sample of 175 unschooled elderly participants was selected from a larger Mexican population-based cohort study. The sample of 175 subjects who never went to school was divided in two groups: 109 who never acquired literacy skills and 66 who declared having acquired reading and writing abilities. Cognitive performances on commonly used tests (mini mental state examination, Isaacs set test, free and cued selective reminding test and clock-drawing test) were compared between the two groups taking into account several potentially confounding factors. The participants with reading and writing skills performed better than their counterparts in most tests, even though no difference was observed for the Isaacs Set Test and the delayed recall of the free and cued selective reminding test. Writing and reading skills in elderly people with no formal education influence performances in very commonly used test. Not only educational level but also literacy acquisition should be taken into account when conducting cognitive assessment in very low educated elderly people.
Afonso, José; Garganta, Jêlio; McRobert, Allistair; Williams, Andrew M; Mesquita, Isabel
An extensive body of work has focused on the processes underpinning perceptual-cognitive expertise. The majority of researchers have used film-based simulations to capture superior performance. We combined eye movement recording and verbal reports of thinking to explore the processes underpinning skilled performance in a complex, dynamic, and externally paced representative volleyball task involving in situ data collection. Altogether, 27 female volleyball players performed as centre backcourt defenders in simulated sessions while wearing an eye-tracking device. After each sequence, athletes were questioned concerning their perception of the situation. The visual search strategies employed by the highly-skilled players were more exploratory than those used by skilled players, involving more fixations to a greater number of locations. Highly-skilled participants spent more time fixating on functional spaces between two or more display areas, while the skilled participants fixated on the ball trajectory and specific players. Moreover, highly-skilled players generated more condition concepts with higher levels of sophistication than their skilled counterparts. Findings highlight the value of using representative task designs to capture performance in situ. Key pointsDecision-making in complex sports relies deeply on perceptual-cognitive expertise. In turn, the effect of expertise is highly dependent on the nature and complexity of the task.Nonetheless, most researchers use simple tasks in their research designs, risking not capturing performance in a meaningful way. We proposed to use a live action setting with a complex task design, representative of real world situations.We combined eye movement registration with collection of immediate retrospective verbal reports. Although the two data sets are not directly comparable, they may be used in a complementary manner, providing a deeper and fuller understanding of the processes underpinning superior performance.Highly-skilled
Jin, Hui; Wei, Xin; Duan, Peiran; Guo, Yuying; Wang, Wenxia
We investigated how Chinese physics teachers structured classroom discourse to support the cognitive and social aspects of inquiry-based science learning. Regarding the cognitive aspect, we examined to what extent the cognitive processes underlying the scientific skills and the disciplinary reasoning behind the content knowledge were taught.…
The Comparison of Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy Based on Coping Skills and Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Improvement of Emotional Regulation Strategies and Relapse Prevention
Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy based on coping skills (CBT and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT in improvement of emotional regulation strategies and prevention of relapse. Method: The method of the present study was semi-experimental research design (pre-test-post-test with witness group. For sampling 45 substance abuse people who had referred to addiction treatment centers were selected and assigned to three groups of cognitive behavior therapy, methadone maintenance treatment and witness group randomly. The participants in all three groups completed the emotional intelligence questionnaire before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed by covariance method. Results: The results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and witness group led to significant improvement of emotional regulation in substance abusers, but there was no significant difference between the methadone maintenance treatment group and control group. Also, the rate of relapse in individuals who assigned to cognitive-behavior therapy group in comparison to methadone maintenance therapy and the witness group was significantly lower, but there was no significant difference between methadone therapy and witness. Conclusion: Cognitive-behavior therapy was an effective treatment that can change the cognitive and behavioral variables related to substance abuse, such as emotional regulation strategies. Thus, results suggested that drug abuse treatment programs must target these mediator variables.
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA and low (LA. HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio, and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy. Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.
Leff, Daniel Richard; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Athanasiou, Thanos; Karimyan, Vahe; Elwell, Clare; Wong, John; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara W
To test the hypothesis that fatigue-induced performance decline in surgical residents is associated with changes in brain function as detected by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Surgical residents (n = 7) participated in a prospective study involving 2-hourly objective measurements of neurocognitive skill (arithmetic calculations using Nintendo "brain training"), technical performance (surgical knot tying on a trainer, and monitoring time taken, path length and number of movements), and introspective fatigue (questionnaire-based) across 10 hours of acute sleep deprivation (10:00 PM to 8:00 PM. Simultaneously, changes in cortical oxyhemoglobin (HbO₂), deoxyhemoglobin (HHb), and total hemoglobin (HbT), inferring prefrontal function, were recorded by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Arithmetic performance remained stable despite increasing levels of subject fatigue (time: P = 0.07, errors: P = 0.70, efficiency: P = 0.58). Technical skill improved between the first (10:00 PM and the second (12:00 AM sessions (P technical drills. Stimulus type (0: cognitive, 1: technical) was found to be an independent predictor of changes in cortical excitation (HbO₂: P sleep-deprived resident more than well-learned technical skills. Performing cognitive skills at night, such as decision making, may depend upon enhanced prefrontal recruitment indicative of a focused attentional strategy and/or compensation to sleep deprivation. Further work should focus on determining whether errors in performance are associated with attentional lapses and failure of cortical compensation.
Donna M. Evon, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV infection are needed to attenuate the impact of extrahepatic symptoms, comorbid conditions, and treatment side effects on HCV health outcomes. We adapted empirically-supported interventions for similar patient populations to develop a Cognitive Behavioral Coping Skills group intervention for HCV patients (CBCS-HCV undergoing treatment. The objectives of this paper are to describe the research activities associated with CBCS-HCV development and pilot testing, including: (1 formative work leading to intervention development; (2 preliminary study protocol; and (3 pilot feasibility testing of the intervention and study design. Formative work included a literature review, qualitative interviews, and adaption, development, and review of study materials. A preliminary study protocol is described. We evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT of the CBCS-HCV with 12 study participants in Wave 1 testing to examine: (a feasibility of intervention delivery; (b patient acceptability; (c recruitment, enrollment, retention; (d feasibility of conducting a RCT; (d therapist protocol fidelity; and (e feasibility of data collection. Numerous lessons were learned. We found very high rates of data collection, participant attendance, engagement, retention and acceptability, and therapist protocol fidelity. We conclude that many aspects of the CBCS-HCV intervention and study protocol were highly feasible. The greatest challenge during this Wave 1 pilot study was efficiency of participant enrollment due to changes in standard of care treatment. These findings informed two additional waves of pilot testing to examine effect sizes and potential improvements in clinical outcomes, with results forthcoming.
In this paper, we present a robust joint relay precoder design and transceiver power allocation for a cognitive radio network under imperfect channel state information. The secondary (or cognitive) network consists of multiple pairs of single-antenna transceiver nodes and a non-regenerative two-way relay with multiple antennas which aids the intra-pair communication process of the transceiver nodes. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) while guaranteeing that the interference to the PU receiver is maintained below a specified threshold. The proposed robust design is based on the minimization of the sum mean-square error (MSE) of the transceiver nodes under constraints on the secondary users\\' transmit powers and interference to PU the receiver. Though the original problem is non-convex, we show that the proposed design can be solved using alternating optimization of convex subproblems which have analytic or efficient numerical solutions. We illustrate the performance of the proposed designs through some selected numerical simulations. © 2013 IEEE.
Andrew P. Smith
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that both experimentally induced upper respiratory tract illnesses (URTIs and naturally occurring URTIs influence mood and performance. The present study investigated possible cognitive mechanisms underlying the URTI-performance changes. Those who developed a cold (N = 47 had significantly faster, but less accurate, performance than those who remained healthy (N = 54. Illness had no effect on manipulations designed to influence encoding, response organisation (stimulus-response compatilibility or response preparation. Similarly, there was no evidence that different components of working memory were impaired. Overall, the present research confirms that URTIs can have an effect on performance efficiency. Further research is required to identify the physiological and behavioral mechanisms underlying these effects.
Ledford, Jennifer R.; King, Seth; Harbin, Emilee R.; Zimmerman, Kathleen N.
Social skills interventions designed to increase pro-social interactions for individuals with autism spectrum disorders are critical, but the relative effectiveness of these interventions is not well understood. More than 250 single-case design studies in 113 articles were reviewed and described in terms of participants, settings, arrangements,…
Levy, Kimberly M.; Ainsleigh, Susan A.; Hunsinger-Harris, Melissa L.
Drowning is a leading cause of unintentional death among children worldwide. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at higher risk for incidents of drowning then their non-disabled peers. Mastering water safety skills, such as underwater submersion, has been associated with a decreased risk for incidents of drowning. Using a combined…
van Esch, R.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371571502; de Haan, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074405624
Summary The central purpose of this evaluation is to determine if and how the Skillful Parenting Program (SPP) effects the parenting of its participants. In addition, it aims to determine how the parenting program was adapted to the West Kenyan setting, and how the specific content and processes of
According to the ecological embodied cognition approach, cognition and language develop through real-time body-environment interactions. These ongoing interactions, in which children explore the environment, are the basis for the development of cognition and language. The attainment of motor
Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie; Bédard, Denis; Desrosiers, Johanne
Clinical reasoning, a critical skill influenced by education and practice context, determines how occupational therapists teach transfer skills. Teaching strategies affect intervention efficacy. Although knowledge about the way teaching strategies are chosen could help improve interventions, few studies have considered this aspect. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the clinical reasoning process of occupational therapists underlying the choice of strategies to teach older adults transfer skills. A grounded theory study was carried out with eleven community occupational therapists recruited in six Health and Social Services Centres in Québec, Canada. Data were collected through observations of teaching situations (n = 31), in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 12) and memos, and were analysed using constant comparative methods. Memos were also used to raise codes to conceptual categories, leading to an integrative framework. Rigour was assured by following scientific criteria for qualitative studies. The integrative framework includes the clinical reasoning process, consisting of eight stages, and its factors of influence. These factors are internal (experiences and elements of personal context) and external (type of transfer, clients' and their environment's characteristics and practice context). The clinical reasoning process underlying the choice of strategies to teach transfer skills was conceptualised into an integrative framework. Such a framework supports clinicians' reflective practice, highlights the importance of theory and practice of pedagogy in occupational therapists' education, and encourages consideration and better documentation of the possible influence of practice context on teaching interventions. As such, this integrative framework could improve occupational therapists' transfer skill interventions with older adults. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Schneider, Maiko A; Spritzer, Poli M; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Fontanari, Anna M V; Carneiro, Marina; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Costa, Angelo B; da Silva, Dhiordan C; Schwarz, Karine; Anes, Maurício; Tramontina, Silza; Lobato, Maria I R
remained unchanged in the GD girl during pubertal suppression with GnRHa for 28 months, which may be related to the reduced serum testosterone levels and/or to the patient's baseline low average cognitive performance.Global performance on the Weschler scale was slightly lower during pubertal suppression compared to baseline, predominantly due to a reduction in operational memory. Either a baseline of low average cognition or the hormonal status could play a role in cognitive performance during pubertal suppression. The voice pattern during the follow-up seemed to reflect testosterone levels under suppression by GnRHa treatment.
Didimus Tanah Boleng
Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Script dan Think-Pair-Share terhadap Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis, Sikap Sosial, dan Hasil Belajar Kognitif Biologi Siswa SMA Multietnis Abstract: Biological learning process with multiethnic students requires a learning models which allow students to work independently, to work together in small groups, and to share with other groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of learning models, ethnicity, and the interaction of learning model and ethnic on critical thinking skills, social attitudes, and cognitive achievement. This quasi experimental study was conducted in 11th grade of Natural Science Class Highschool students with six ethnicaly and Junior Highschool National score groups consisted of 132 samples. The results of Covarian Analysis showed that the learning models significantly affected the social attitudes and increased the critical thinking skills and cognitive achievement. Ethnicity significantly affected the social attitudes and cognitive achievement. Interaction of learning models and ethnicity significantly affected students social attitudes. Key Words: cooperative script, think-pair-share, critical thinking skills, social attitudes, biology cognitive achievement, multiethnic students Abstrak: Pengelolaan proses pembelajaran biologi pada siswa multietnis memerlukan model pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa bekerja mandiri, bekerja sama dalam kelompok kecil, dan berbagi dengan kelompok lain. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pembelajaran, etnis, serta interaksi model pembelajaran dan etnis terhadap keterampilan berpikir kritis, sikap sosial, dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi siswa. Penelitian eksperimen semu ini dilakukan di kelas XI IPA SMA dengan sampel sebanyak 132 orang siswa terbagi dalam enam kelas yang homogen berdasarkan etnis dan nilai ujian nasional SMP siswa. Hasil analisis data dengan menggunakan Analisis Kovarian menunjukkan bahwa model
Oldrati, Viola; Colombo, Barbara; Antonietti, Alessandro
Visuospatial skills can be enhanced thanks to specific intervention programs, but the additional benefits of neuromodulation on these skills have not been fully investigated yet, although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has demonstrated to boost the effects of cognitive trainings. When combining cognitive intervention with neuromodulation, the time-window of tDCS application in relation to task execution has to be taken into account since it has been shown to affect stimulation outcomes. The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the influence of tDCS in enhancing the effects of a training for visuospatial skills. We hypothesized that tDCS applied during training execution (online) would improve the cognitive performance at a larger extent than tDCS applied before training execution (offline). Participants received anodal tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during (online) or before (offline) the completion of the training. A control sham condition was included. Visuospatial abilities were measured 24 h before (day 1, pre-test) and 24 h after (day 3, post-test) the stimulation and training session (day 2). tDCS enhanced gains for mental folding performance when applied during the execution of the training (online). Participants' mental rotation and mental folding performance improved from pre-test to post-test regardless of the stimulation condition. However participants in the online tDCS condition showed the largest improvement in mental folding performance. Findings indicate that tDCS enhanced the effects of the training when applied during its execution, showing cumulative positive aftereffects on visuospatial performance 24 h after the stimulation session. The time-dependent effect points out the importance of the time-window of tDCS application in influencing behavior when combined with cognitive programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study was an attempt to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy in reducing depression and obsessive rumination among women under methadone treatment. Method: A quasi-experimental research design along with pretest-posttest design and a control group were employed to conduct this study. Considering inclusion criteria, a total of 24 female substance abusers who were under methadone treatment were selected from Omide Farda and Javeneh Sabz clinics in Mashhad via purposive sampling method. The experimental group received eight training sessions of mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy, while the control group did not receive any intervention. Two scales, namely obsessive rumination scale and Beck’s depression questionnaire were used for data collection purposes. Results: Results of analysis of covariance showed that mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy has reduced obsessive rumination and depression scores. Conclusion: Mindfulness-based group cognitive therapy can be included in intervention programs for substance abusers.
Kenneth R. Paap
Full Text Available The hypothesis that coordinating two or more languages leads to an enhancement in executive functioning has been intensely studied for the past decade with very mixed results. The purpose of this review and analysis is to consider why it has been (and will continue to be difficult to discover the brain mechanisms underlying any cognitive benefits to bilingualism. Six reasons are discussed: 1 the phenomenon may not actually exist; 2 the cognitive neuroscientists investigating bilingual advantages may have been studying the wrong component of executive functioning; 3 most experiments use risky small numbers of participants and are underpowered; 4 the neural differences between groups do not align with the behavioral differences; 5 neural differences sometimes suffer from valence ambiguity, that is, disagreements whether “more” implies better or worse functioning and 6 neural differences often suffer from kind ambiguity, that is, disagreements regarding what type of mental events the pattern of activation in a region-of-interest actually reflects.
Full Text Available While the hippocampus (HPC has been classically studied for its role in learning and memory, there is significant support for a role of the HPC in regulating emotional behavior. Emerging research suggests these functions may be segregated along the dorsoventral (DV axis of the HPC. In addition to this regional heterogeneity, within the HPC, the dentate gyrus (DG is one of two areas in the adult brain where stem cells continuously give rise to new neurons. This process can influence and be modulated by the emotional state of the animal, suggesting that adult neurogenesis within the DG may contribute to psychiatric disorders and cognitive abilities. Yet, the exact mechanism by which these newborn neurons influence behavior remains unknown. Here, we will examine the contribution of hippocampal neurogenesis to the output of the HPC, and suggest that the role of neurogenesis may vary along the DV axis. Next, we will review literature indicating that anatomical connectivity varies along the DV axis of the HPC, and that this underlies the functional segregation along this axis. This analysis will allow us to synthesize novel hypotheses for the differential contribution of the HPC to cognition and mood.
Zammar, Samer G; Hamade, Youssef J; Aoun, Rami James N; El Tecle, Najib E; El Ahmadieh, Tarek Y; Adelson, P David; Kurpad, Shekar N; Harrop, James S; Hodge, Heather; Mishra, Ramesh C; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Rezai, Ali R; Sahkla, Suresh K; Sattur, Mithun G; Selden, Nathan R; Sharan, Ashwini D; Resnick, Daniel K; Bendok, Bernard R
To assess the impact of a simulation-based educational curriculum of 4 modules on neurosurgical trainees at the Neurological Societies of India annual meeting, which was held in Mumbai, India, in December 2013. We developed a microanastomosis, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), posterior cervical fusion (PCF), and durotomy repair and their corresponding objective assessment scales. Each module was divided into 3 components: 1) a before didactic cognitive knowledge and technical skills testing, 2) a didactic lecture, and 3) an after didactic cognitive knowledge and technical skills testing. We compared the trainees' cognitive and technical scores from the before and after testing phases. Wilcoxon sum rank test was used to test statistical significance. The incorporation of a simulation-based educational program into neurosurgical education curriculum has faced a number of barriers. It is essential to develop and assess the success and feasibility of simulation-based modules on neurosurgical residents. The knowledge test median scores increased from 60%, 69% to 72%, and 60% to 80%, 85%, 90%, and 75% on the microanastomosis, ACDF, PCF, and durotomy modules, respectively (P technical proficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Keyes, Katherine; Hamilton, Ava; Hanson, Gregory; Bitfoi, Adina; Golitz, Dietmar; Koç, Ceren; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Pez, Ondine
Background Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills. Methods Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health Europe project conducted in six European Union countries (youth ages 6–11, n = 3195). Child mental health was assessed by parents and teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and by children themselves with the Dominic Interactive. Child video game usage was reported by the parents. Teachers evaluated academic functioning. Multivariable logistic regressions were used. Results 20 % of the children played video games more than 5 h per week. Factors associated with time spent playing video games included being a boy, being older, and belonging to a medium size family. Having a less educated, single, inactive, or psychologically distressed mother decreased time spent playing video games. Children living in Western European countries were significantly less likely to have high video game usage (9.66 vs 20.49 %) though this was not homogenous. Once adjusted for child age and gender, number of children, mothers age, marital status, education, employment status, psychological distress, and region, high usage was associated with 1.75 times the odds of high intellectual functioning (95 % CI 1.31–2.33), and 1.88 times the odds of high overall school competence (95 % CI 1.44–2.47). Once controlled for high usage predictors, there were no significant associations with any child self-reported or mother- or teacher-reported mental health problems. High usage was associated with decreases in peer relationship problems [OR 0.41 (0.2–0.86) and in prosocial deficits (0.23 (0.07, 0.81)]. Conclusions Playing video games may have positive effects on young children. Understanding the mechanisms
Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Keyes, Katherine; Hamilton, Ava; Hanson, Gregory; Bitfoi, Adina; Golitz, Dietmar; Koç, Ceren; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Pez, Ondine
Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills. Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health Europe project conducted in six European Union countries (youth ages 6-11, n = 3195). Child mental health was assessed by parents and teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and by children themselves with the Dominic Interactive. Child video game usage was reported by the parents. Teachers evaluated academic functioning. Multivariable logistic regressions were used. 20 % of the children played video games more than 5 h per week. Factors associated with time spent playing video games included being a boy, being older, and belonging to a medium size family. Having a less educated, single, inactive, or psychologically distressed mother decreased time spent playing video games. Children living in Western European countries were significantly less likely to have high video game usage (9.66 vs 20.49 %) though this was not homogenous. Once adjusted for child age and gender, number of children, mothers age, marital status, education, employment status, psychological distress, and region, high usage was associated with 1.75 times the odds of high intellectual functioning (95 % CI 1.31-2.33), and 1.88 times the odds of high overall school competence (95 % CI 1.44-2.47). Once controlled for high usage predictors, there were no significant associations with any child self-reported or mother- or teacher-reported mental health problems. High usage was associated with decreases in peer relationship problems [OR 0.41 (0.2-0.86) and in prosocial deficits (0.23 (0.07, 0.81)]. Playing video games may have positive effects on young children. Understanding the mechanisms through which video game use may stimulate
Stingone, Jeanette A; Pandey, Om P; Claudio, Luz; Pandey, Gaurav
Data-driven machine learning methods present an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of multiple air pollutants on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to apply a two-stage, data-driven approach to identify associations between air pollutant exposure profiles and children's cognitive skills. Data from 6900 children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of children born in 2001 and followed through kindergarten, were linked to estimated concentrations of 104 ambient air toxics in the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment using ZIP code of residence at age 9 months. In the first-stage, 100 regression trees were learned to identify ambient air pollutant exposure profiles most closely associated with scores on a standardized mathematics test administered to children in kindergarten. In the second-stage, the exposure profiles frequently predicting lower math scores were included within linear regression models and adjusted for confounders in order to estimate the magnitude of their effect on math scores. This approach was applied to the full population, and then to the populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas. Our first-stage results in the full population suggested children with low trichloroethylene exposure had significantly lower math scores. This association was not observed for children living in urban communities, suggesting that confounding related to urbanicity needs to be considered within the first-stage. When restricting our analysis to populations living in urban and highly-populated urban areas, high isophorone levels were found to predict lower math scores. Within adjusted regression models of children in highly-populated urban areas, the estimated effect of higher isophorone exposure on math scores was -1.19 points (95% CI -1.94, -0.44). Similar results were observed for the overall population of urban children. This data-driven, two-stage approach can be applied to other
De Neys, Wim; Schaeken, Walter
The present study introduces dual task methodology to test opposing psychological processing predictions concerning the nature of implicatures in pragmatic theories. Implicatures routinely arise in human communication when hearers interpret utterances pragmatically and go beyond the logical meaning of the terms. The neo-Gricean view (e.g., Levinson, 2000) assumes that implicatures are generated automatically whereas relevance theory (Sperber & Wilson, 1986/1995) assumes that implicatures are effortful and not automatic. Participants were presented a sentence verification task with underinformative sentences that have the potential to produce scalar implicatures like Some oaks are trees. Depending on the nature of the interpretation of Some (logical or pragmatic) the sentence is judged true or false. Executive cognitive resources were experimentally burdened by the concurrent memorization of complex dot patterns during the interpretation process. Results showed that participants made more logical and fewer pragmatic interpretations under load. Findings provide direct support for the relevance theory view.
The Effectiveness of Training in Communicative Skills Training with A Cognitive – Behaviorist Approach on Spouses ’Marital Adjustment and the Prevention of Addicts from Relapsing in Male Addicts in Isfahan
Findings: The result showed that training in communicative skills with a cognitive-behaviorist approach influences positively general adjustment. No positive effect was noticed in marital satisfaction and mutual correlation factors. There is positive effect of training skills on mutual agreement and love expression factors. Furthermore, the prevention of addicts from relapsing in male addicts, the number of relapse in control group is more than experimental group but this different was not significant. Results: In general, communicative skills training with a cognitive – behaviorist approach effects spouses adjustment of male addicts.
I conducted a mixed method study to examine: How, if at all, does middle school students' understanding of the conservation of mass develop as they engage in two different chemistry curricula (an interactive chemistry curriculum, DESIGNS, aimed at helping them to understand the conservation of mass and another presenting the same concepts from a traditional approach)? How do they feel about participating in the science activities, and how, if at all, do their feelings relate to their learning? I used the framework of the Dynamic Skills theory (Fischer, 1980) as a lens through which to understand their thinking and feelings and any changes in them. The study was conducted in two Massachusetts public schools. In each school, one class followed the DESIGNS curriculum (DESIGNS II, in press), while the other followed a traditional chemistry curriculum. Each teacher in the study taught two science classes and used the DESIGNS curriculum in one class and the traditional curriculum in the other. Seventy three middle school students from the two schools participated in this study. The data was gathered through (a) a concept assessment questionnaire and (b) affective response survey (both were administered before, during, and at the end of the curriculum). Additionally, qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 selected students (four from each class) twice (before and after the curriculum). The quantitative analysis revealed that students in the DESIGNS group demonstrated greater conceptual change, on average, as compared to the traditional group. In addition, pretest score and mother's education were also found to be associated with students' learning. The pretest score was negatively associated with the conceptual gain (the lower the pretest score the higher the gain), whereas mother's education had a positive relationship with conceptual understanding. A comparison of students' affective response to their respective curriculum showed that students felt more positive
Schietecatte, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Warreyn, Petra
It is generally accepted that joint attention skills are impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, social preference, attention disengagement and intention understanding, assumed to be associated with the development of joint attention, are explored in relation to joint attention skills in children with ASD at the…
Monkong, L; Pongpanich, S; Viwatwongkasem, C; Chantavanich, S; Wongpiromsarn, Y; Katz, L S
Many methodologies to decrease stress in adolescents have been introduced and implemented. However, it seems that the problems in their physical, mental, emotional, and learning conditions still exist, especially for long-term. The proposed program with some booster was used to solve the long run problems. To examine the effectiveness of program developed from cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent coping with stress. A quasi-experimental research in two groups is used to modify theoretical concepts of cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent coping with stress. The students of secondary schools in Nakhon Sawan Province Thailand were the target population. Two schools were randomly chosen, one for control and the other for experiment. The sample size of 84 students was randomly selected and requested to be volunteers and 44 volunteers were trained on concept of thinking, strategies to resolve the problem and control emotion for 5 days and booster in school for 9 months in every fortnight and was measured 5 times, before and after interventions at 3rd, 6th and 9th months. We used independent t-test, paired t-test, analysis of variance and covariance for data analysis. There were no difference in the mean of summation of knowledge, attitude and practice of pre-test score between treatment and control group (P = 0.124). After the training program, the volunteers showed significant improvement of knowledge, attitude and practice (P cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent enabled the participants to improve knowledge, attitude and practice in coping with stress.
Full Text Available Background: One of the main challenges in methadone maintenance treatment is relapse and lack of sustainability on treatment. Therefore, considering the effective factors in this regard and reducing it through psychological interventions as an adjunct to medication is necessary. Objective: The current study aimed to determine the effectiveness of communication skill training based on cognitive-behavioral model on communication patterns and recurrent relapse in drug dependent couples. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental intervention with pretest-posttest and control group in 2013 which carried on 40 couple referred to public addiction treatment center of Qazvin city. These people had troubled communication patterns and were selected using convenience sampling and were divided into two groups of intervention and control, randomly. Two groups were assessed by relapse prediction scale (RPS and structured clinical interview for DSM (SCID-I for men and communication pattern questionnaire (CPQ for couples in pre and post-test. Intervention group received 9 two hours sessions of communication skill training based on cognitive-behavioral model. Data were analyzed using Levin and Box tests and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Findings: The difference between the intervention and control groups in the constructive communication pattern with 51% (p<0/05, in mutual avoidance pattern with 61% (p<0/0001 and in the demand / withdraw pattern with 45% (p<0/05 was statistically significant. Also, the difference between the two groups in the rate of relapse with 64% (p<0/0001 was statistically significant. Conclusion: According to the findings it seems group training of communication skill based on cognitive-behavioral model can improve the communication patterns in drug-dependent couples, as well as prevents relapse in men.
Full Text Available The article examines the structure of the game space as a factor, providing formation of creativity which in its turn is regarded as personal competence in preschool children. The data obtained by the author contribute to the general knowledge about age dynamics and typology of skills that are gained by children in the process of shaping of their playing competences. They also demonstrate the deficit of child development in conditions of artificial gaming environment, lacking natural components. The article also contains a big number of pictures, showing the functional capacities of different playgrounds, tabular figures, and volumetric methodical applicationы. The present comparative qualitative analysis is aimed at mapping cognitive skills, formed in preschool children in case they spend more time on the playgrounds, equipped with the elements of natural origin (natural or artificial ( metal elements.
Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francinus; de Sonneville, Leonardus; van der Meere, Jacob; Huijbregts, S; Bosch, Annet M.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C. G. J.; Hofstede, Floris C.; de Vries, Maaike C.; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Langendonk, Janneke G.
OBJECTIVE: Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and
Jahja, Rianne; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; de Sonneville, Leo M. J.; van der Meere, Jaap J.; Bosch, Annet M.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M. Estela; Brouwers, Martijn C. G. J.; Hofstede, Floris C.; de Vries, Maaike C.; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; van der Ploeg, Ans T.; Langendonk, Janneke G.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.
Early treatment of phenylketonuria (ET-PKU) prevents mental retardation, but many patients still show cognitive and mood problems. In this study, it was investigated whether ET-PKU-patients have specific phenylalanine (Phe-)related problems with respect to social-cognitive functioning and social
Haji, Faizal A.; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam
As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance…
Lin, Tsung-Jen; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Oei, Tian Po; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Chen, Chung-Hey
Effectiveness of the condensed Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training Group (DBTSTG) was compared to the Cognitive Therapy Group (CTG) in reducing depression and suicide reattempt, and modifying emotion regulation strategies among those with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Eighty-two depressed BPD college students with a suicidal history within the past six-months were randomly allocated to DBTSTG or CTG. Both groups had similar reductions in suicide reattempts and depression after the intervention and 6-month follow-ups. However, the CTG showed improvements in cognitive errors, but the DBTSTG revealed increases in acceptance and decreases in suppression scores. Both groups were effective in decreasing depression and suicide reattempt in BPD college students, probably through increasing adaptive antecedent-focused or response-focused strategies of emotion regulation, respectively.
Spinhoven, Philip; Huijbers, Marloes J; Ormel, Johan; Speckens, Anne E M
This study examined whether changes in mindfulness skills following Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) are predictive of long-term changes in personality traits. Using data from the MOMENT study, we included 278 participants with recurrent depression in remission allocated to Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). Mindfulness skills were measured with the FFMQ at baseline, after treatment and at 15-month follow-up and personality traits with the NEO-PI-R at baseline and follow-up. For 138 participants, complete repeated assessments of mindfulness and personality traits were available. Following MBCT participants manifested significant improvement of mindfulness skills. Moreover, at 15-month follow-up participants showed significantly lower levels of neuroticism and higher levels of conscientiousness. Large improvements in mindfulness skills after treatment predicted the long-term changes in neuroticism but not in conscientiousness, while controlling for use of maintenance antidepressant medication, baseline depression severity and change in depression severity during follow-up (IDS-C). In particular improvements in the facets of acting with awareness predicted lower levels of neuroticism. Sensitivity analyses with multiple data imputation yielded similar results. Uncontrolled clinical study with substantial attrition based on data of two randomized controlled trials. The design of the present study precludes to establish whether there is any causal association between changes in mindfulness and subsequent changes in neuroticism. MBCT could be a viable intervention to directly target one of the most important risk factors for onset and maintenance of recurrent depression and other mental disorders, i.e. neuroticism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sewell, Justin L; Boscardin, Christy K; Young, John Q; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S
Cognitive load theory, focusing on limits of the working memory, is relevant to medical education; however, factors associated with cognitive load during procedural skills training are not well characterized. The authors sought to determine how features of learners, patients/tasks, settings, and supervisors were associated with three types of cognitive load among learners performing a specific procedure, colonoscopy, to identify implications for procedural teaching. Data were collected through an electronically administered survey sent to 1,061 U.S. gastroenterology fellows during the 2014-2015 academic year; 477 (45.0%) participated. Participants completed the survey immediately following a colonoscopy. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, the authors identified sets of features associated with intrinsic, extraneous, and germane loads. Features associated with intrinsic load included learners (prior experience and year in training negatively associated, fatigue positively associated) and patient/tasks (procedural complexity positively associated, better patient tolerance negatively associated). Features associated with extraneous load included learners (fatigue positively associated), setting (queue order positively associated), and supervisors (supervisor engagement and confidence negatively associated). Only one feature, supervisor engagement, was (positively) associated with germane load. These data support practical recommendations for teaching procedural skills through the lens of cognitive load theory. To optimize intrinsic load, level of experience and competence of learners should be balanced with procedural complexity; part-task approaches and scaffolding may be beneficial. To reduce extraneous load, teachers should remain engaged, and factors within the procedural setting that may interfere with learning should be minimized. To optimize germane load, teachers should remain engaged.
Shaw, Emma P; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Hendershot, Brad D; Pruziner, Alison L; Miller, Matthew W; Hatfield, Bradley D; Gentili, Rodolphe J
Previous work focused on cognitive workload assessment suggests EEG spectral content and component amplitudes of the event-related potential (ERP) waveform may index mental effort and attentional reserve, respectively. Although few studies have assessed attentional reserve and mental effort during upper-extremity performance, none have employed a combined approach to measure cognitive workload during locomotion. Therefore, by systematically considering ERPs, spectral content and importantly their combination, this study aimed to examine whether concurrent changes in spectral content and ERPs could collectively serve as an index of cognitive workload during locomotion. Specifically, ERP and EEG biomarkers were assessed as participants performed a cognitive task under two levels of difficulty (easy or hard) and two conditions (seated or walking). Changes in attentional reserve and mental effort appeared to collectively index cognitive workload under varying demands due to changes in task difficulty or performance conditions. This work can inform cognitive workload assessment in patient populations with gait deficiencies for future applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lai, Chih-Jou; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Yang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Chuang, Ya-Chin; Niu, Dau-Ming
Most patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease die in early infancy before beginning enzyme replacement therapy, which has made it difficult to evaluate the impact of Pompe disease on cognitive development. Patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease can survive with enzyme replacement therapy, and physicians can evaluate cognitive development in these patients. We established an effective newborn screening program with quick clinical diagnostic criteria. Cognitive and motor development were evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. The patients who were treated very early demonstrate normal cognitive development with no significant change in cognition during this period (P = .18 > .05). The cognitive development was positively correlated with motor development (r = 0.533, P = .011). The results indicated that very early enzyme replacement therapy could protect cognitive development in patients with infantile-onset Pompe disease up to 24 months of age. © The Author(s) 2016.
Suh, Irene H; LaGrange, Chad A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun
Distractions are recognized as a significant factor affecting performance in safety critical domains. Although operating rooms are generally full of distractions, the effect of distractions on robot-assisted surgical (RAS) performance is unclear. Our aim was to investigate the effect of distractions on RAS performance using both objective and subjective measures. Fifteen participants performed a knot-tying task using the da Vinci Surgical System and were exposed to 3 distractions: (1) passive distraction entailed listening to noise with a constant heart rate, (2) active distraction included listening to noise and acknowledging a change of random heart rate from 60 to 120 bpm, and (3) interactive distraction consisted of answering math questions. The objective kinematics of the surgical instrument tips were used to evaluate performance. Electromyography (EMG) of the forearm and hand muscles of the participants were collected. The median EMG frequency (EMG(fmed)) and the EMG envelope (EMG(env)) were analyzed. NASA Task Load Index and Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery score were used to evaluate the subjective performance. One-way repeated analysis of variance was applied to examine the effects of distraction on skills performance. Spearman's correlations were conducted to compare objective and subjective measures. Significant distraction effect was found for all objective kinematics measures (P < .05). There were significant distraction effects for EMG measures (EMG(env), P < .004; EMG(fmed), P = .031). Significant distraction effects were also found for subjective measurements. Distraction impairs surgical skills performance and increases muscle work. Understanding how the surgeons cope with distractions is important in developing surgical education. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available In this paper outage performance of a secondary user (SU is evaluated under amplify and forward (AF relay selection scheme with an imperfect channel state information (CSIwhile sharing spectrum in an underlay cognitive radio network (CRN. In underlay, the SU coexists with primary user (PU in the same band provided the interference produced by SU at the PU receiver is below the interference threshold of PU which limits the transmission power of SU and coverage area. Relays help to improve the performance of SU in underlay. However relays are also constrained in transmit power due to interference constraint imposed by PU. Closed form expression of the outage probability of SU with maximum transmit power constraint of relay under imperfect CSI is derived. A scaling factor based power control is used for the SU transmitter and the relay in order to maintain the interference constraint at PU receiver due to imperfect CSI. The impact of different parameters viz. correlation coefficient, channel estimation error, tolerable interference threshold, number of relays and the maximum transmit power constraint of relay on SU performance is investigated. A MATLAB based test bed has also been developed to carry out simulation in order to validate the theoretical result.
Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th grade to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1, we tested these adolescents’ decision-making using the Iowa Gambling Task and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the one-year follow-up (Time 2. The Expectancy-Valence (EV Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains versus losses; (ii a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes versus past experiences; and (iii a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population.
Wehby, George L; Trujillo, Antonio J
We examine disparities in early child cognitive and receptive-expressive skills by ethnic ancestry among infants aged 3-24 months from Brazil and Argentina. We employ unique data on the neurodevelopment of children who were seeking routine well-child care at a set of pediatric clinics in these countries. The sample included children who had normal birth outcomes and no major health complications, allowing us to focus on variation in neurodevelopment among children without major physical health limitations. The physicians attending the pediatric clinics were trained in administering the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener, a standardized instrument used to screen an infant's risk of neurodevelopmental problems on various domains of abilities. We evaluate disparities in overall neurodevelopmental scores and risk for neurodevelopmental problems as well as in cognitive functioning and receptive-expressive neurodevelopment. We also examine the extent to which household demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and geographic location explain these disparities. We find large gaps in both cognitive and receptive-expressive neurodevelopment by ancestry. In Brazil, children of African ancestry have lower scores on both cognitive and receptive-expressive domains and on overall neurodevelopment than children of European ancestry. In Argentina, children of Native ancestry have lower scores on these outcomes than children of European ancestry. These gaps however are largely explained by differences in geographic location and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of policies that reduce socioeconomic and geographic disparities in social capital and economic development for eliminating ethnic disparities in infant neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hora, Matthew T.; Blackburn Cohen, Chelsea A.
The employability of college students is one of postsecondary education's most pressing concerns in the United States and China, especially when it comes to the possible over-production of bachelor's trained students and "skills gaps" where jobs go unfilled due to inadequately prepared graduates. In response, policymakers are focusing on…
Scerbo, Mark W; Bliss, James P; Schmidt, Elizabeth A; Hanner-Bailey, Hope S; Weireter, Leonard J
The present study examined the performance of a surgical procedure under simulated combat conditions. Eleven residents performed a cricothyroidotomy on a mannequin-based simulator in a fully immersive virtual environment running a combat simulation with a virtual sniper under both day and night time lighting conditions. The results showed that completion times improved between the first and second attempt and that differences between day and night time conditions were minimal. However, three participants were killed by the virtual sniper before completing the procedure. These results suggest that some participants' ability to allocate attention to the task and their surroundings was inappropriate even under simulated hazardous conditions. Further, this study shows that virtual environments offer the chance to study a wider variety of medical procedures performed under an unlimited number of conditions.
Hulsman, R. L.; Mollema, E. D.; Hoos, A. M.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Donnison-Speijer, J. D.
BACKGROUND A computer-assisted assessment (CAA) program for communication skills designated ACT was developed using the objective structured video examination (OSVE) format. This method features assessment of cognitive scripts underlying communication behaviour, a broad range of communication
Klindt, David; Devaine, Marie; Daunizeau, Jean
Mentalizing or Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e., the ability to recognize what people think or feel, is a crucial component of human social intelligence. It has been recently proposed that ToM can be decomposed into automatic and controlled neurocognitive components, where only the latter engage executive functions (e.g., working memory, inhibitory control and task switching). Critical here is the notion that such dual processes are expected to follow different developmental dynamics. In this work, we provide novel experimental evidence for this notion. We report data gathered from about thirty thousand participants of a massive web poll of people's cognitive skills, which included ToM and executive functions. We show that although the maturation of executive functions occurs in synchrony (around 20 years of age), this is not the case for different mentalizing competences, which either mature before (for elementary ToM constituents) or after (for higher-level ToM). In addition, we show that inter-individual differences in executive functions predict variability in higher-level ToM skills from the onset of adulthood onwards, i.e., after the complete maturation of executive functions. Taken together, these results indicate that the relative contribution of ToM's controlled component significantly changes with age. In particular, this implies that, over the lifespan, people may rely upon distinct cognitive architectures when reading others' minds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Tolar, Tammy D.
The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of pre-algebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of grade 2; and pre-algebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of grade 4. Important similarities in pathways were identified, but path analysis also indicated that language comprehension is more critical for later word-problem solving than pre-algebraic knowledge. We conclude that pathways in development of these forms of 4th-grade mathematics performance are more alike than different, but demonstrate the need to fine-tune instruction for strands of the mathematics curriculum in ways that address individual students’ foundational mathematics skills or cognitive processes. PMID:27786534
Fuchs, Lynn S; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Powell, Sarah R; Cirino, Paul T; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L; Seethaler, Pamela M; Tolar, Tammy D
The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of prealgebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of Grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of Grade 2; and prealgebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of Grade 4. Important similarities in pathways were identified, but path analysis also indicated that language comprehension is more critical for later word-problem solving than prealgebraic knowledge. We conclude that pathways in development of these forms of 4th-grade mathematics performance are more alike than different, but demonstrate the need to fine-tune instruction for strands of the mathematics curriculum in ways that address individual students' foundational mathematics skills or cognitive processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Tran, Phuoc; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri
The use of computers in the home has become very common among young children. This paper reviews research on the effects of informal computer use and identifies potential pathways through which computers may impact children's development. Based on the evidence reviewed, we present the following guidelines to arrange informal computer experiences that will promote the development of children's academic, cognitive and social skills: (1) children should be encouraged to use computers for moderate amounts of time (2-3 days a week for an hour or two per day) and (2) children's use of computers should (a) include non-violent action-based computer games as well as educational games, (b) not displace social activities but should instead be arranged to provide opportunities for social engagement with peers and family members and (c) involve content with pro-social and non-violent themes. We conclude the paper with questions that must be addressed in future research. This paper reviews research on the effects of informal computer use on children's academic, cognitive and social skills. Based on the evidence presented, we have presented guidelines to enable parents, teachers and other adults to arrange informal computer experiences so as to maximise their potential benefit for children's development.
Kosmidis, Mary H; Bozikas, Vasilis P; Zafiri, Maria; Karavatos, Athanasios
We explored the hypothesis that, while sensitive to different aspects of executive functioning in patients with schizophrenia, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the Stroop Test also measure the same construct, namely, inhibitory control. Specifically, our goal was to confirm and extend previous findings [A. Rossi, E. Daneluzzo, P. Mattei, M. Bustini, M. Cassachia, P. Stratta, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Stroop performance in schizophrenia: a shared construct, Neurosci. Lett. 226 (1997) 87-90] by demonstrating the independence of this construct from other abilities necessary to successfully perform the tasks. More importantly, we sought to improve on this previous study by eliminating the influence of the variance of speed of responding. We examined 55 patients with schizophrenia and initially found that performance on the Stroop Color-Word condition could, indeed, be predicted only by the percentage of perseverative errors on the WCST, and not variables reflective of other cognitive skills, thus replicating and extending previous findings. Once we removed the influence of speed of responding from our measure, however, thus isolating the inhibitory process, this finding disappeared. Therefore, our findings highlight the importance of isolating the individual components of interest from complex measures before drawing conclusions regarding the cognitive processes underlying particular test performance.
Metcalfe, Arron W S; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Menon, Vinod
Baddeley and Hitch's multi-component working memory (WM) model has played an enduring and influential role in our understanding of cognitive abilities. Very little is known, however, about the neural basis of this multi-component WM model and the differential role each component plays in mediating arithmetic problem solving abilities in children. Here, we investigate the neural basis of the central executive (CE), phonological (PL) and visuo-spatial (VS) components of WM during a demanding mental arithmetic task in 7-9 year old children (N=74). The VS component was the strongest predictor of math ability in children and was associated with increased arithmetic complexity-related responses in left dorsolateral and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortices as well as bilateral intra-parietal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus in posterior parietal cortex. Critically, VS, CE and PL abilities were associated with largely distinct patterns of brain response. Overlap between VS and CE components was observed in left supramarginal gyrus and no overlap was observed between VS and PL components. Our findings point to a central role of visuo-spatial WM during arithmetic problem-solving in young grade-school children and highlight the usefulness of the multi-component Baddeley and Hitch WM model in fractionating the neural correlates of arithmetic problem solving during development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koga, Shunsuke; Parks, Adam; Uitti, Ryan J; van Gerpen, Jay A; Cheshire, William P; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Dickson, Dennis W
The objectives of this study were to elucidate any potential association between α-synuclein pathology and cognitive impairment and to determine the profile of cognitive impairment in multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients. To do this, we analyzed the clinical and pathologic features in autopsy-confirmed MSA patients. We retrospectively reviewed medical records, including neuropsychological test data, in 102 patients with autopsy-confirmed MSA in the Mayo Clinic brain bank. The burden of glial cytoplasmic inclusions and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions were semiquantitatively scored in the limbic regions and middle frontal gyrus. We also assessed concurrent pathologies potentially causing dementia including Alzheimer's disease, hippocampal sclerosis, and cerebrovascular pathology. Of 102 patients, 33 (32%) were documented to have cognitive impairment. Those that received objective testing, deficits primarily in processing speed and attention/executive functions were identified, which suggests a frontal-subcortical pattern of dysfunction. Of these 33 patients with cognitive impairment, 8 patients had concurrent pathologies of dementia. MSA patients with cognitive impairment had a greater burden of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the dentate gyrus than patients without cognitive impairment, both including and excluding patients with concurrent pathologies of dementia. The cognitive deficits observed in this study were more evident on neuropsychological assessment than with cognitive screens. Based on these findings, we recommend that clinicians consider more in-depth neuropsychological assessments if patients with MSA present with cognitive complaints. Although we did not identify the correlation between cognitive deficits and responsible neuroanatomical regions, a greater burden of neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the limbic regions was associated with cognitive impairment in MSA. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016
Liebherr, Magnus; Weiland-Breckle, Hanna; Grewe, Tanja; Schumacher, Petra B
We often walk around when we have to think about something, but suddenly stop when we are confronted with a demanding cognitive task, such as calculating 1540*24. While previous neurophysiological research investigated cognitive and motor performance separately, findings that combine both are rare. To get a deeper understanding of the influence of motor demands as well as the difficulty of a simultaneously performed cognitive task, we investigated 20 healthy individuals. Participants performed two cognitive tasks with different levels of difficulty while sitting or standing on one leg. In addition to behavioral data, we recorded the electroencephalogram from 26Ag/AgCI scalp electrodes. The critical time-windows, predefined by visual inspection, yielded an early (200-300 ms, P2) and a subsequent positivity (350-500 ms, P3). Statistical analysis of the early time window registered a motor × cognition interaction. Resolution of this interaction revealed an effect of the cognitive task in the one-legged stance motor condition, with a more pronounced positivity for the difficult task. No significant differences between cognitive tasks emerged for the simple motor condition. The time-window between 350 and 500 ms registered main effects of the motor task and a trend for the cognitive task. While the influence of cognitive task difficulty (in the P3) is in accordance with previous studies, the motor task effect is specific to one-legged stance (cf. no effects for running in previous research). The motor-cognition interaction found in the P2 indicates that the more difficult motor task (one-legged stance) facilitates cognitive task performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Al-Kadi, Azzam S; Donnon, Tyrone
Advances in simulation technologies have enhanced the ability to introduce the teaching and learning of laparoscopic surgical skills to novice students. In this meta-analysis, a total of 18 randomized controlled studies were identified that specifically looked at training novices in comparison with a control group as it pertains to knowledge retention, time to completion and suturing and knotting skills. The combined random-effect sizes (ESs) showed that novice students who trained on laparoscopic simulators have considerably developed better laparoscopic suturing and knot tying skills (d = 1.96, p < 0.01), conducted fewer errors (d = 2.13, p < 0.01), retained more knowledge (d = 1.57, p < 0.01) than their respective control groups, and were significantly faster on time to completion (d = 1.98, p < 0.01). As illustrated in corresponding Forest plots, the majority of the primary study outcomes included in this meta-analysis show statistically significant support (p < 0.05) for the use of laparoscopic simulators for novice student training on both knowledge and advanced surgical skill development (28 of 35 outcomes, 80%). The findings of this meta-analysis support strongly the use of simulators for teaching laparoscopic surgery skills to novice students in surgical residency programs.
Li, Su-yun; Zhang, Li-jian; Liu, Bing
With new acupuncture and moxibustion as the study object, based on the basic composition of acupuncture-moxibustion theory, from 3 aspects of meridian-acupoint theory, acupuncture-moxibustion method theory and acupuncture-moxibustion treatment theory, under the background of western medicine, ZHU Lian's different opinions on theory and method of acupuncture and moxibustion were discussed. It was believed by ZHU Lian that the distribution of 14-meridians was approximately identical to that of nerves, so with modern neuroanatomy knowledge to understand the meaning of acupoint; the acupuncture function could be explained from the angle of neurophysiology. Clinical diagnosis and treatment method could be established by modern classification methods of diseases. ZHU Lian's cognition that was different from traditional theory and method of acupuncture and moxibustion was combined with updated physiology and anatomy knowledge at that time, and was involved with Pavlov's advanced nerve theory, so she firstly put forward the opinion that acupuncture therapy can't work without the involvement of cerebral cortex.
Rogé, Joceline; Ndiaye, Daniel; Aillerie, Isabelle; Aillerie, Stéphane; Navarro, Jordan; Vienne, Fabrice
The aim of this study was to evaluate the visibility of cyclists for motorists in a simulated car driving task. In several cases involving collisions between cars and cyclists, car drivers failed to detect the latter in time to avoid collision because of their low conspicuity. 2 groups of motorists (29.2 years old), including 12 cyclist-motorists and 13 non-cyclist-motorists, performed a vulnerable road user detection task in a car-driving simulator. They had to detect cyclists and pedestrians in an urban setting and evaluate the realism of the cyclists, the traffic, the city, the infrastructure, the car driven and the situations. Cyclists appeared in critical situations derived from previous accounts given by injured cyclists and from cyclists' observations in real-life situations. Cyclist's levels of visibility for car drivers were either high or low in these situations according to the cyclists. Realism scores were similar and high in both groups. Cyclist-motorists had fewer collisions with cyclists and detected cyclists at a greater distance in all situations, irrespective of cyclist visibility. Several mechanisms underlying the cognitive conspicuity of cyclists for car drivers were considered. The attentional selection of a cyclist in the road environment during car driving depends on top-down processing. We consider the practical implications of these results for the safety of vulnerable road users and future directions of research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In addressing the issue of taking full advantage of the shared spectrum under imposed limitations in a cognitive radio (CR) network, we exploit a cross-layer design for the communications of secondary users (SUs), which combines adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) at the physical layer with truncated automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol at the data link layer. To achieve high spectral efficiency (SE) while maintaining a target packet loss probability (PLP), switching among different transmission modes is performed to match the time-varying propagation conditions pertaining to the secondary link. Herein, by minimizing the SU\\'s packet error rate (PER) with each transmission mode subject to the spectrum-sharing constraints, we obtain the optimal power allocation at the secondary transmitter (ST) and then derive the probability density function (pdf) of the received SNR at the secondary receiver (SR). Based on these statistics, the SU\\'s packet loss rate and average SE are obtained in closed form, considering transmissions over block-fading channels with different distributions. Our results quantify the relation between the performance of a secondary link exploiting the cross-layer-designed adaptive transmission and the interference inflicted on the primary user (PU) in CR networks. © 1967-2012 IEEE.
Monyak, R E; Emerson, D; Schoenfeld, B P; Zheng, X; Chambers, D B; Rosenfelt, C; Langer, S; Hinchey, P; Choi, C H; McDonald, T V; Bolduc, F V; Sehgal, A; McBride, S M J; Jongens, T A
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an undertreated neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by low intelligence quotent and a wide range of other symptoms including disordered sleep and autism. Although FXS is the most prevalent inherited cause of intellectual disability, its mechanistic underpinnings are not well understood. Using Drosophila as a model of FXS, we showed that select expression of dfmr1 in the insulin-producing cells (IPCs) of the brain was sufficient to restore normal circadian behavior and to rescue the memory deficits in the fragile X mutant fly. Examination of the insulin signaling (IS) pathway revealed elevated levels of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2) in the IPCs and elevated IS in the dfmr1 mutant brain. Consistent with a causal role for elevated IS in dfmr1 mutant phenotypes, the expression of dfmr1 specifically in the IPCs reduced IS, and genetic reduction of the insulin pathway also led to amelioration of circadian and memory defects. Furthermore, we showed that treatment with the FDA-approved drug metformin also rescued memory. Finally, we showed that reduction of IS is required at different time points to rescue circadian behavior and memory. Our results indicate that insulin misregulation underlies the circadian and cognitive phenotypes displayed by the Drosophila fragile X model, and thus reveal a metabolic pathway that can be targeted by new and already approved drugs to treat fragile X patients.
Ankur S. Kang
Full Text Available Land mobile communication is burdened with typical propagation constraints due to the channel characteristics in radio systems.Also,the propagation characteristics vary form place to place and also as the mobile unit moves,from time to time.Hence,the tramsmission path between transmitter and receiver varies from simple direct LOS to the one which is severely obstructed by buildings,foliage and terrain.Multipath propagation and shadow fading effects affect the signal strength of an arbitrary Transmitter-Receiver due to the rapid fluctuations in the phase and amplitude of signal which also determines the average power over an area of tens or hundreds of meters.Shadowing introduces additional fluctuations,so the received local mean power varies around the area –mean.The present section deals with the performance analysis of fifth generation wireless cognitive radio network on the basis of signal and interference level based k coverage probability under the shadow fading effects.
Morbelli, S.; Perneczky, R.; Drzezga, A.; Frisoni, G. B.; Caroli, A.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Ossenkoppele, R.; Guedj, E.; Didic, M.; Brugnolo, A.; Naseri, M.; Sambuceti, G.; Pagani, M.; Nobili, F.
This project aimed to investigate the metabolic basis for resilience to neurodegeneration (cognitive reserve) in highly educated patients with prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Sixty-four patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment who later converted to AD dementia during follow-up,
Gillen, Mark C.
Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…
Nicolay, Anne-Catherine; Poncelet, Martine
First-language (L1) and second-language (L2) lexical development has been found to be strongly associated with phonological processing abilities such as phonological short-term memory (STM), phonological awareness, and speech perception. Lexical development also seems to be linked to attentional and executive skills such as auditory attention, flexibility, and response inhibition. The aim of this four-wave longitudinal study was to determine to what extent L2 vocabulary acquired through the particular school context of early L2 immersion education is linked to the same cognitive abilities. A total of 61 French-speaking 5-year-old kindergartners who had just been enrolled in English immersion classes were administered a battery of tasks assessing these three phonological processing abilities and three attentional/executive skills. Their English vocabulary knowledge was measured 1, 2, and 3 school years later. Multiple regression analyses showed that, among the assessed phonological processing abilities, phonological STM and speech perception, but not phonological awareness, appeared to underlie L2 vocabulary acquisition in this context of an early L2 immersion school program, at least during the first steps of acquisition. Similarly, among the assessed attentional/executive skills, auditory attention and flexibility, but not response inhibition, appeared to be involved during the first steps of L2 vocabulary acquisition in such an immersion school context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seibert, Jeffrey M.
This paper describes an assessment instrument being developed to trace the emergence of social-communication skills leading to language and the neo-Piagetian model that is directing the assessment construction efforts. The model is a structural stage model, based on the writings and research of Uzgiris (1976), McCall, Eichorn & Hogarty (1977),…
Malinowsky, Camilla; Fallahpour, Mandana; Lund, Maria Larsson; Nygård, Louise; Kottorp, Anders
In order to develop supporting interventions for people demonstrating problems ET use, a detailed level of description of strengths and deficits is needed. To explore clusters of specific performance skill required when using ET, and to evaluate if and in what way such clusters are associated with age, gender, diagnosis, and types of ETs managed. A secondary analysis of 661 data records from 203 heterogeneous samples of participants using the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META) was used. Ward's method and a hierarchical tree cluster analysis were used to determine and define the skill clusters. Four distinct clusters of performance skill item profiles were found, across the 661 data records. These were then, based on each individuals' cluster profiles in managing ET, categorized into two groups. The two groups were associated with, diagnosis and type of ETs managed. The findings support a more dyadic person-ET approach in evaluation of ET management. The information from the skill clusters can be used to develop targeted intervention guides for occupational therapy and healthcare.
Duncan, Amie W.; Bishop, Somer L.
Daily living skills standard scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-2nd edition were examined in 417 adolescents from the Simons Simplex Collection. All participants had at least average intelligence and a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regressions were used to examine the prevalence and…
Uysal, Murat Pasa
Teaching object-oriented programming (OOP) is a difficult task, especially to the beginners. First-time learners also find it difficult to understand. Although there is a considerable amount of study on the cognitive dimension, a few study points out its physiological meaning. Moreover, it has been suggested that neuroscientific studies and…
Saad, Sawsan; Dandashi, Amal; Aljaam, Jihad M.; Saleh, Moataz
A multimedia-based learning system to teach children with intellectual disabilities (ID) the basic living and science concepts is proposed. The tutorials' development is pedagogically based on Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning combined with Skinner's Operant Conditioning Model. Two types of tutorials are proposed. In the first type;…
Stein, Faith S.; And Others
Recent advances have been made in facilitating implementation of Ausubel's advance organizer strategy. One reason Ausubel's approach has not been widely adopted is its lack of specificity about how to relate what is to be learned to what has already been assimilated within the cognitive structure. The use of subsumptive sequencing, coordinate…
Cogo, Martina Gaia; Rota, Stefania; Fusco, Maria Letizia; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferri, Francesca; Appollonio, Ildebrando Marco; Isella, Valeria
Impairment of decision making in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis is still controversial, and its neuropsychological correlates have never been explored thoroughly, especially in patients with minimal physical and cognitive deficits. In the present study we investigated the cognitive underpinnings of decision making under ambiguous and explicit conditions in patients with very mild relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, using a dice and a card gambling game. The study sample included 60 patients and 35 healthy subjects. In the Game of Dice Task, winning and losing probabilities are obvious to the subject, while in the Iowa Gambling Task they are initially ambiguous and have to be gradually identified. Performance at the two tasks was correlated with scores obtained at tests investigating cognitive processing speed, memory, language and executive functions. Patients' performance did not differ from that of controls at either gambling task. There was only a trend for them to be significantly slower than healthy subjects in progressively recognizing advantageous decks in the Iowa Gambling Task. While the Game of Dice was unrelated to neuropsychological tests, predictors of performance at the Iowa task were Letter Fluency and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test for the initial, under-ambiguity, trials and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test for the last, purely under-risk, trials. Our results suggest that high-functioning patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis are substantially capable of making advantageous decisions, even if they may be slower in processing options and shifting strategy when selection criteria are not explicit.
Kana, Rajesh K; Sartin, Emma B; Stevens, Carl; Deshpande, Hrishikesh D; Klein, Christopher; Klinger, Mark R; Klinger, Laura Grofer
The social communication impairments defining autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be built upon core deficits in perspective-taking, language processing, and self-other representation. Self-referential processing entails the ability to incorporate self-awareness, self-judgment, and self-memory in information processing. Very few studies have examined the neural bases of integrating self-other representation and semantic processing in individuals with ASD. The main objective of this functional MRI study is to examine the role of language and social brain networks in self-other processing in young adults with ASD. Nineteen high-functioning male adults with ASD and 19 age-sex-and-IQ-matched typically developing (TD) control participants made "yes" or "no" judgments of whether an adjective, presented visually, described them (self) or their favorite teacher (other). Both ASD and TD participants showed significantly increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during self and other processing relative to letter search. Analyses of group differences revealed significantly reduced activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), and left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) in ASD participants, relative to TD controls. ASD participants also showed significantly weaker functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) with several brain areas while processing self-related words. The LIFG and IPL are important regions functionally at the intersection of language and social roles; reduced recruitment of these regions in ASD participants may suggest poor level of semantic and social processing. In addition, poor connectivity of the ACC may suggest the difficulty in meeting the linguistic and social demands of this task in ASD. Overall, this study provides new evidence of the altered recruitment of the neural networks underlying language and social cognition in ASD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliability of quantitative gait assessment while dual-tasking (walking while doing a secondary task such as talking in people with cognitive impairment is unknown. Dual-tasking gait assessment is becoming highly important for mobility research with older adults since better reflects their performance in the basic activities of daily living. Our purpose was to establish the test-retest reliability of assessing quantitative gait variables using an electronic walkway in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI under single and dual-task conditions. Methods The gait performance of 11 elderly individuals with MCI was evaluated using an electronic walkway (GAITRite® System in two sessions, one week apart. Six gait parameters (gait velocity, step length, stride length, step time, stride time, and double support time were assessed under two conditions: single-task (sG: usual walking and dual-task (dG: counting backwards from 100 while walking. Test-retest reliability was determined using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Gait variability was measured using coefficient of variation (CoV. Results Eleven participants (average age = 76.6 years, SD = 7.3 were assessed. They were high functioning (Clinical Dementia Rating Score = 0.5 with a mean Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE score of 28 (SD = 1.56, and a mean Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA score of 22.8 (SD = 1.23. Under dual-task conditions, mean gait velocity (GV decreased significantly (sGV = 119.11 ± 20.20 cm/s; dGV = 110.88 ± 19.76 cm/s; p = 0.005. Additionally, under dual-task conditions, higher gait variability was found on stride time, step time, and double support time. Test-retest reliability was high (ICC>0.85 for the six parameters evaluated under both conditions. Conclusion In older people with MCI, variability of time-related gait parameters increased with dual-tasking suggesting cognitive control of gait performance. Assessment of quantitative gait
Full Text Available Cognitive Radio has proven as a optimum technique for getting improved spectrum utilization by sharing the radio spectrum with licensed primary users opportunistically. The cognitive radio is a new paradigm to overcome the persisting problem of spectrum underutilization.Seeing the everincreasing demand of wireless applications,the radio sp ectrum is a valuable resource and in cognitive radio systems,trustworthy spectrum sensing techniques are required to avoid any harmful interference to the primary users.As cognitive radio possess the capability to utilise the unused spectrum holes or white spaces so,there is a tremendous need to scan the large range of spectrum either for interference management or for primary receiver detection.Dynamic Spectrum Access techniques need to be implemented for the sake of better radio resource management and computational complexity analysis of multirate filter bank cognitive radio,where BER and Eb/No are the performance metrics or governing parameters to affect the system performance using polyphase filter bank.The present paper deals with the study of effect of variation of number of subchannels M at fix overlapping factor K of polyphase component of Filter Bank Multicarrier cognitive radio in terms of prototype filter length at Lp=K*M .
Bugos, Jennifer; Jacobs, Edward
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a composition program, Composers in Public Schools (CiPS), on cognitive skills essential for academic success. The underlying hypothesis is that composition instruction will promote creative expression and increase performance on music-specific skills such as music reading, as well as foster…
Pio Alfredo Di Tore
Full Text Available The perspective-taking skills require the ability to manipulate spatial reference systems and are the basis of the empathetic process. Empathy, in its relations with space representation and manipulation of spatial reference systems, is the investigation subject of this work, whose aim is the design of a videogame aimed at the measurement of the player's perspective taking skills. The idea of creating a video game on perspective taking is based on a classic Piagetian task, the three mountains problem, object of recent attention by the Italian scientific community that is involved in research in education. The current stage of the project has produced a video game, now in alpha testing release. The article discusses the software theoretical framework (spatial theory of empathy, describes the choices made in the design stage and comment on first results obtained during the alpha testing.
Full Text Available The ability of decision making plays a highly relevant role in our survival, but is adversely affected during the process of aging. The present review aims to provide a better understanding of age-related differences in decision making and the role of cognitive and emotional factors in this context. We reviewed the literature about age-effects on decision-making performance, focusing on decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In decisions under ambiguous risks, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, decisions are based on the experiences with consequences. In this case, many articles have attributed age-related impairments in decision making to changes in emotional and somatic reward- and punishment processing. In decisions under objective risks, as measured for example by the Game of Dice Task, decisions can be based on explicit information about risks and consequences. In this case, age-related changes have been attributed mainly to a cognitive decline, particularly impaired executive functions. However, recent findings challenge these conclusions. The present review summarizes neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings of age-related differences in decision making under ambiguous and objective risk. In this context, the relevance of learning, but also of cognitive and emotional contributors – responsible for age-related differences in decision making – are additionally pointed out.
Tutoring is a proces of support in education. Researches has shown many positive effects of tutoring, for example higher academic achievements and motivation, develop interpersonal relationships, improving communication skills, confidence in their own abilities, etc. It is important to stress that the positive effects are shown in tutors and tutees as well. There are various forms of tutoring. In this Master’s thesis, I systematically set and operationalized peer tutoring persons who are invo...
Tino Stöckel; Kathrin Wunsch; Charmayne M. L. Hughes; Charmayne M. L. Hughes
Anticipatory motor planning abilities mature as children grow older, develop throughout childhood and are likely to be stable till the late sixties. In the seventh decade of life, motor planning performance dramatically declines, with anticipatory motor planning abilities falling to levels of those exhibited by children. At present, the processes enabling successful anticipatory motor planning in general, as do the cognitive processes mediating these age-related changes, remain elusive. Thus,...
Krassel, Karl Fritjof; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke
the analysis contingent on cognitive and non-cognitive skills measured before entering the labor market. In this way we can measure both whether cognitive and/or non-cognitive skills relate to earnings and employment rate as well as how important the timing of acquiring skills are for outcomes on the labor...... market. Overall we find that cognitive skills are important for both earnings and employment rate but that the timing of the acquisition of the skills is of less importance. On the contrary, non-cognitive skills are important for earnings independent on whether the worker had high or low cognitive skills......Using matched PISA and PIAAC data from Denmark, we investigate the return to cognitive and non-cognitive skills with respect to labor market outcomes. We measure cognitive and non-cognitive skills at childhood and when the respondents have entered the labor market. Hence, we are able to split up...
Coleman, Jaumeiko J; Frymark, Tobi; Franceschini, Nicole M; Theodoros, Deborah G
This is a systematic review of assessment and treatment of cognitive and communicative abilities of individuals with acquired brain injury via telepractice versus in person. The a priori clinical questions were informed by previous research that highlights the importance of considering any functional implications of outcomes, determining disorder- and setting-specific concerns, and measuring the potential impact of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data on interpretation of findings. A literature search of multiple databases (e.g., PubMed) was conducted using key words and study inclusion criteria associated with the clinical questions. Ten group studies were accepted that addressed assessment of motor speech, language, and cognitive impairments; assessment of motor speech and language activity limitations/participation restrictions; and treatment of cognitive impairments and activity limitations/participation restrictions. In most cases, equivalence of outcomes was noted across service delivery methods. Limited findings, lack of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data, and heterogeneity of assessments and interventions precluded robust evaluation of clinical implications for telepractice equivalence and the broader area of telepractice efficacy. Future research is needed that will build upon current knowledge through replication. In addition, further evaluation at the impairment and activity limitation/participation restriction levels is needed.
Wang, Bo; Zhan, Siyan; Gong, Ting; Lee, Liming
iron therapy on measures of psychomotor development and cognitive function within 30 days of commencement of therapy. We could pool data from five trials. The pooled difference in pre- to post-treatment change in Bayley Scale Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) between iron and placebo groups was -1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) -4.56 to 2.06, P value = 0.65; I(2) = 33% for heterogeneity, random-effects meta-analysis; low quality evidence) and in Bayley Scale Mental Development Index (MDI) was 1.04 (95% CI -1.30 to 3.39, P value = 0.79; I(2) = 31% for heterogeneity, random-effects meta-analysis; low quality evidence).Two studies, including 160 randomised children with IDA, examined the effects of iron therapy on measures of psychomotor development and cognitive function more than 30 days after commencement of therapy. One of the studies reported the mean number of skills gained after two months of iron therapy using the Denver Developmental Screening Test. The intervention group gained 0.8 (95% CI -0.18 to 1.78, P value = 0.11, moderate quality of evidence) more skills on average than the control group. The other study reported that the difference in pre- to post-treatment change in Bayley Scale PDI between iron-treated and placebo groups after four months was 18.40 (95% CI 10.16 to 26.64, P value psychomotor development or cognitive function within 30 days after commencement of therapy. The effect of longer-term treatment remains unclear. There is an urgent need for further large randomised controlled trials with long-term follow-up.
Jorie M. Colbert-Getz
Full Text Available Purpose: The situational judgment test (SJT shows promise for assessing the non-cognitive skills of medical school applicants, but has only been used in Europe. Since the admissions processes and education levels of applicants to medical school are different in the United States and in Europe, it is necessary to obtain validity evidence of the SJT based on a sample of United States applicants. Methods: Ninety SJT items were developed and Kane’s validity framework was used to create a test blueprint. A total of 489 applicants selected for assessment/interview day at the University of Utah School of Medicine during the 2014-2015 admissions cycle completed one of five SJTs, which assessed professionalism, coping with pressure, communication, patient focus, and teamwork. Item difficulty, each item’s discrimination index, internal consistency, and the categorization of items by two experts were used to create the test blueprint. Results: The majority of item scores were within an acceptable range of difficulty, as measured by the difficulty index (0.50-0.85 and had fair to good discrimination. However, internal consistency was low for each domain, and 63% of items appeared to assess multiple domains. The concordance of categorization between the two educational experts ranged from 24% to 76% across the five domains. Conclusion: The results of this study will help medical school admissions departments determine how to begin constructing a SJT. Further testing with a more representative sample is needed to determine if the SJT is a useful assessment tool for measuring the non-cognitive skills of medical school applicants.
Choi, Yoon Young; Maeda, Takahiro; Fujii, Hajime; Yokozawa, Takako; Kim, Hyun Young; Cho, Eun Ju; Shibamoto, Takayuki
Alzheimer's disease is an age-dependent progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in impairments of memory and cognitive function. It is hypothesized that oligonol has ameliorative effects on memory impairment and reduced cognitive functions in mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by amyloid β(25-35) (Aβ(25-35)) injection. The protective effect of an oligonol against Aβ(25-35)-induced memory impairment was investigated in an in vivo Alzheimer's mouse model. The aggregation of Aβ25-35 was induced by incubation at 37°C for 3 days before injection into mice brains (5 nmol/mouse), and then oligonol was orally administered at 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight for 2 weeks. Memory and cognition were observed in T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. The group injected with Aβ(25-35) showed impairments in both recognition and memory. However, novel object recognition and new route awareness abilities were dose dependently improved by the oral administration of oligonol. In addition, the results of the Morris water maze test indicated that oligonol exerted protective activity against cognitive impairment induced by Aβ(25-35). Furthermore, nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated by Aβ(25-35), whereas oligonol treatment significantly decreased nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys. The present results suggest that oligonol improves Aβ(25-35)-induced memory deficit and cognition impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the survey of social skills training by cognitive behavioral group in the increase of girls’ self-esteem and assertiveness with addicted parents in Isfahan. Method: 20 students with addicted parents who had the lowest rate of assertiveness were selected by semi-experimental method in third to fifth grades. Randomly research projects pre-test-post-test control group. Questionnaire to measure assertiveness and assertiveness Gmbryl and Richie Esteem Questionnaire to measure students' self-esteem was used. After the pre-test training program assertiveness over 10 weeks, each week, one session, lasting from one hour and half and at the end of the test was performed after 40 days in both groups re-testing were results using software spss case were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on one factor was used. Results: The results showed that participants in the program and self-assertiveness therapy increased. These results were confirmed in a follow up phase. Conclusion: the training of social skills speeds up assertiveness and self-esteem of students.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy on craving, symptoms of depression and anxiety among the patients under MMT. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 opiate addicts under MMT were selected out of all the patients referring to Iranian National Center of Addiction Studies on a judgmental sampling method and were randomly allocated to two experimental and control groups. In experimental group, a total sum of 8 sessions (one session per week of cognitive behavioral group therapy were delivered. The main theme of these sessions were efficient management of craving, negative mood and anxiety. Data were gathered with different questionnaires including the questionnaire of demographic data, RPS for craving assessment, BDI-II for depression and BAI for anxiety. Different methods of statistical analysis were implemented. Results: The results indicated that post test and follow-up scores of craving index were decreased significantly (P<0.05. Depression and Anxiety scores showed significant decrease as well. Discussion: Considering the above mentioned findings, we concluded that cognitive-behavioral group therapy was effective in significantly decreasing craving and symptoms of anxiety and depression in opiate addicts under MMT.
Full Text Available Nowadays, improvement of thinking skills of students is one of the universally supported aims in the majority of medical schools. This study aims to design longitudinal theme of reasoning, problem-solving and decision-making into the undergraduate medical curriculum at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. A participatory approach was applied to design the curriculum during 2009-2011. The project was conducted by the contribution of representatives of both basic and clinical faculty members, students and graduates at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The first step toward integrating cognitive skills into the curriculum was to assemble a taskforce of different faculty and students, including a wide variety of fields with multidisciplinary expertise using nonprobability sampling and the snowball method. Several meetings with the contribution of experts and some medical students were held to generate the draft of expected outcomes. Subsequently, the taskforce also determined what content would fit best into each phase of the program and what teaching and assessment methods would be more appropriate for each outcome. After a pilot curriculum with a small group of second-year medical students, we implemented this program for all first-year students since 2011 at TUMS. Based on findings, the teaching of four areas, including scientific and critical thinking skills (Basic sciences, problem-solving and reasoning (Pathophysiology, evidence-based medicine (Clerkship, and clinical decision-making (Internship were considered in the form of a longitudinal theme. The results of this study could be utilized as a useful pattern for integration of psycho-social subjects into the medical curriculum.
Gardner, Aimee K; Clanton, Jesse; Jabbour, Ibrahim I; Scott, Lauren; Scott, Daniel J; Russo, Michael A
A common strategy to increase learner engagement is to interweave educational material with interesting but slightly tangential tidbits of information (eg, "war stories" and funny anecdotes), known as seductive details. Our objective was to examine the impact of seductive details on initial acquisition and transfer of basic laparoscopic surgical skills. Novices (first- to fourth-year medical students) were randomized into control (N = 47) or seductive details (N = 42) groups. Curricula consisted of a baseline skills assessment (Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery Task 1), instructional video on intracorporeal laparoscopic suturing (Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery Task 5), multiple choice quiz, practice, and assessment on both primary and transfer tasks. Two separate instructional videos were used for Task 5; 20% of the seductive details group's instructional video consisted of seductive details, whereas the control group's video included no seductive details. Participants completed questionnaires of mental workload and task engagement after training. We also conducted a mediation analysis, which is a statistical approach to identify causal paths among a group of variables. Baseline skill scores (control: 112 ± 52; standard deviation: 118 ± 56; 0 = lowest possible score; 600 = highest possible score) and knowledge scores (control: 76 ± 19; standard deviation: 74 ± 16; 0 = lowest possible score; 100 = highest possible score) were similar for both groups. The control group demonstrated better (higher) performance on both the primary (434 ± 193 vs 399 ± 133, P Mental workload, as measured by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index, was more demanding (higher) for the seductive details group (3.8 ± 0.5 vs 3.4 ± 0.7, P mental workload for trainees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ho, S Shaun; Gonzalez, Richard D; Abelson, James L; Liberzon, Israel
Decision making (DM) in the context of others often entails complex cognition-emotion interaction. While the literature suggests that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), striatum, and amygdala are involved in valuation-based DM and hippocampus in context processing, how these neural mechanisms subserve the integration of cognitive and emotional values in a social context remains unclear. In this study we addressed this gap by systematically manipulating cognition-emotion interaction in a social DM context, when the participants played a card game with a hypothetical opponent in a behavioral study (n=73) and a functional magnetic-resonance-imaging study (n=16). We observed that payoff-based behavioral choices were influenced by emotional values carried by face pictures and identified neurocircuits involved in cognitive valuation, emotional valuation, and concurrent cognition-emotion value integration. Specifically, while the vmPFC, amygdala, and ventral striatum were all involved in both cognitive and emotional domains of valuation, these regions played dissociable roles in social DM. The payoff-dependent responses in vmPFC and amygdala, but not ventral striatum, were moderated by the social context. Furthermore, the vmPFC, but not amygdala, not only encoded the opponent's gains as if self's losses, but also represented a "final common currency" during valuation-based decisions. The extent to which emotional input influenced choices was associated with the functional connectivity between the value-signaling amygdala and value integrating vmPFC, and also with the functional connectivity between the context-setting hippocampus and value-signaling amygdala and ventral striatum. These results identify brain pathways through which emotion shapes subjective values in a social DM context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bei, Bei; Wiley, Joshua F.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Trinder, John
implications for interventions. Citation: Bei B, Wiley JF, Allen NB, Trinder J. A cognitive vulnerability model of sleep and mood in adolescents under naturalistically restricted and extended sleep opportunities. SLEEP 2015;38(3):453–461. PMID:25325471
Candiani, Juan; Markus, A.
Building on the knowledge-based view of the firm and organizational design perspective we explore how socio-cognitive structures within organizations impact the success of recombinant innovation. We introduce the efficiency- redundancy paradox – knowledge creation requires efficient internal
Christoph S Herrmann
Full Text Available Brain oscillations of different frequencies have been associated with a variety of cognitive functions. Convincing evidence supporting those associations has been provided by studies using intracranial stimulation, pharmacological interventions and lesion studies. The emergence of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS now allows to modulate brain oscillations directly. Particularly, tACS offers the unique opportunity to causally link brain oscillations of a specific frequency range to cognitive processes, because it uses sinusoidal currents that are bound to one frequency only. Using tACS allows to modulate brain oscillations and in turn to influence cognitive processes, thereby demonstrating the causal link between the two. Here, we review findings about the physiological mechanism of tACS and studies that have used tACS to modulate basic motor and sensory processes as well as higher cognitive processes like memory, ambiguous perception, and decision making.
Michelusi, Nicolò; Popovski, Petar; Zorzi, Michele
This paper introduces a novel technique that enables access by a cognitive secondary user (SU) to a spectrum occupied by an incumbent primary user (PU) that employs Type-I hybrid automatic retransmission request (ARQ). The technique allows the SU to perform selective retransmissions of SU data pa...
In this paper, we present distributed two-way relay beamformer designs for a cognitive radio network (CRN) in which a pair of cognitive (or secondary) transceiver nodes communicate with each other assisted by a set of cognitive two-way relay nodes. The secondary nodes share the spectrum with a licensed primary user (PU) node, and each node is assumed to be equipped with a single transmit/receive antenna. The interference to the PU resulting from the transmission from the cognitive nodes is kept below a specified limit. First, we consider relay beamformer designs assuming the availability of perfect channel state information (CSI). For this case, a mean-square error (MSE)-constrained beamformer that minimizes the total relay transmit power, and an MSE-balancing beamformer with a constraint on the total relay transmit power are proposed. Next, we consider relay beamformer designs assuming that the available CSI is imperfect. For this case too, we consider the same problems as those in the case of perfect CSI, and propose beamformer designs that are robust to the errors in the CSI. We show that the proposed designs can be reformulated as convex optimization problems that can be solved efficiently. Through numerical simulations, we illustrate the performance of the proposed designs. © 2011 IEEE.
Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz
The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.
Papadopoulos, Timothy C.
Examines the relationship between phonological and cognitive tasks with beginning reading acquisition. Uses two teaching techniques for tasks given first-grade students in Cyprus (n=50) and Greece (n=50). Reports differences were revealed in word-decoding accuracy, Greek students showed a higher linguistic ability, and successive processing and…
Markus, C.R.; Panhuysen, G.; Jonkman, L.M.; Bachman, M.
Cognitive performance has been found to decline after exposure to stress, particularly in stress-prone subjects. The present study investigated whether a carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor (CR/PP) diet, which may enhance cerebral serotonin function in stress-prone subjects due to increases in the
Sørensen, L. B.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Petersen, R. A.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We previously found that the OPUS School Meal Study improved reading and increased errors related to inattention and impulsivity. This study explored whether the cognitive effects differed according to gender, household education and reading proficiency at baseline.SUBJECTS......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We previously found that the OPUS School Meal Study improved reading and increased errors related to inattention and impulsivity. This study explored whether the cognitive effects differed according to gender, household education and reading proficiency at baseline....... Interactions were evaluated using mixed models. Analyses included 739 children.RESULTS: At baseline, boys and children from households without academic education were poorer readers and had a higher d2-error%. Effects on dietary intake were similar in subgroups. However, the effect of the intervention on test...... outcomes was stronger in boys, in children from households with academic education and in children with normal/good baseline reading proficiency. Overall, this resulted in increased socioeconomic inequality in reading performance and reduced inequality in impulsivity. Contrary to this, the gender...
Gernsbacher, M A; Faust, M E
We investigated whether the cognitive mechanism of suppression underlies differences in adult comprehension skill. Less skilled comprehenders reject less efficiently the inappropriate meanings of ambiguous words (e.g., the playing card vs. garden tool meaning of spade), the incorrect forms of homophones (e.g., patients vs. patience), the highly typical but absent members of scenes (e.g., a tractor in a farm scene), and words superimposed on pictures or pictures surrounding words. However, less skilled comprehenders are not less cognizant of what is contextually appropriate; in fact, they benefit from a biasing context just as much (and perhaps more) as more skilled comprehenders do. Thus, less skilled comprehenders do not have difficulty enhancing contextually appropriate information. Instead, we suggest that less skilled comprehenders suffer from a less efficient suppression mechanism, which we conclude is an important component of general comprehension skill.
Gentili, Rodolphe J; Jaquess, Kyle J; Shuggi, Isabelle M; Shaw, Emma P; Oh, Hyuk; Lo, Li-Chuan; Tan, Ying Ying; Domingues, Clayton A; Blanco, Justin A; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Miller, Matthew W; Hatfield, Bradley D
A novel ERP approach was proposed to index variations in mental workload, particularly in attentional reserve, which is complementary to EEG spectral content thought to reflect mental effort. To our knowledge, no study has assessed mental effort and attentional reserve simultaneously in EEG gel-based and, importantly, dry systems, which are particularly well suited for real-world settings. Therefore, by systematically considering ERP, EEG spectral, and importantly the combination of both, this study examined if a small set of dry EEG electrodes could detect changes in both spectral and ERP metrics to assess the mental workload under various challenges with a similar fidelity to their gel-based counterparts in a laboratory setting. By employing both EEG gel-based and dry systems, the ERP and spectral markers were computed while participants executed a visuomotor task under three levels of challenge. For both EEG systems, more challenging levels of difficulty were associated with concomitant changes in ERP amplitude, and spectral power reflected a reduction of the attentional reserve and an increase in cognitive-motor effort, respectively. Those variations in attentional reserve and cognitive-motor effort collectively indexed mental workload with nearly identical fidelity for both gel-based and dry EEG systems. These findings promise to assess the mental workload in situations where the use of dry EEG systems could be advantageously employed to examine human cognitive-motor performance. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Brzozowska, Inga; Sikorska, Iwona
The literature review regarding potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old, is presented. In this article, cognitive aspects of development include acquisition of language, attention, learning and later school performance. The constant increase of children's access to television is noted, indicating that 60% of infants and toddlers watch TV regularly for 1-2 hours per day. The review included 40 articles and book chapters of significant such as Anderson, Barr, Christakis, Zimmerman, Meltzoff, Courage, Setliff, Troseth. The data was selected from electronic databases of scientific publications: Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and Humanities Full Text (H.W. Wilson) available in Poland. Cited articles provide evidence of the negative impact of exposure to television, media and video on the cognitive functioning of children under 3 years old. The potential impact of watching TV for difficulties in ability to focus attention appears as a core danger. Furthermore, studies suggest a possible connection between early exposure to television and ADHD as well as difficulties with language acquisition, learning and poorer school results.
Chen, Peng-Zhi; He, Wen-Juan; Zhu, Zhi-Ru; E, Guo-Ji; Xu, Gang; Chen, De-Wei; Gao, Yu-Qi
Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) at high altitudes leads to a wide range of cognitive impairments which can handicap human normal activities and performances. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) of the brain are pivotal to synaptic plasticity and cognition. Besides, insult-induced up-regulation of A 2A R regulates neuroinflammation and therefore induces brain damages in various neuropathological processes. The present study was designed to determine whether A 2A R-mediate neuroinflammation involves in cognitive impairments under acute HH. A 2A R knock-out and wild-type male mice were exposed to a simulated altitude of 8000 m for 7 consecutive days in a hypobaric chamber and simultaneously received behavioral tests including Morris water maze test and open filed test. A 2A R expression, the activation of microglia and the production of TNF-α were evaluated in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively. Behavioral tests showed that acute HH exposure caused the dysfunction of spatial memory and mood, while genetic inactivation of A 2A R attenuated the impairment of spatial memory but not that of mood. Double-labeled immunofluorescence showed that A 2A Rs were mainly expressed on microglia and up-regulated in the hippocampus of acute HH model mice. Acute HH also induced the accumulation of microglia and increased production of TNF-α in the hippocampus, which could be markedly inhibited by A 2A R inactivation. These findings indicate that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation triggered by A 2A R activation involves in acute HH-induced spatial memory impairment and that A 2A R could be a new target for the pharmacotherapy of cognitive dysfunction at high altitudes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ahluwalia, Vishwadeep; Wade, James B; White, Melanie B; Gilles, HoChong S; Heuman, Douglas M; Fuchs, Michael; Gavis, Edith A; Fagan, Andrew; Thacker, Leroy R; Sterling, Richard K; Stravitz, Richard Todd; Puri, Puneet; Sanyal, Arun J; Siddiqui, Muhammad S; Matherly, Scott; Luketic, Velimir; Steinberg, Joel; Moeller, Frederick Gerard; Bajaj, Jasmohan S
There is evidence of brain recovery on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) early postliver transplant (LT), but the longer-term impact is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the change in brain MRI parameters, cognition, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between 6 and 12 months post-LT. Listed cirrhotics underwent cognitive, HRQOL and brain MRI pre-LT, 6 months (post-LT1), and 1-year (post-LT2) post-LT. Assessment of MRI changes between visits was performed for ammonia-associated metabolite changes using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, white matter changes using tract-based spatial statistics analysis on diffusion tensor imaging data and grey matter changes using voxel-based morphometry analysis on 3D high resolution T1-weighted images. Forty-five patients were included, of which 23 were tested at all visits. Cognitive and HRQOL scores improved between all visits compared with pre-LT values. This trend continued on magnetic resonance spectroscopy with reduced glutamine + glutamate and higher myoinositol, choline between pre-LT/post-LT1 but lower degrees of improvement between post-LT1/post-LT2. On diffusion tensor imaging, mean diffusivity, linear diffusivity and mode of anisotropy continued to increase in the posterior internal capsule at both post-LT visits. On voxel-based morphometry, a continued increase was seen in basal ganglia grey matter between both post-LT visits was seen. HRQOL and cognition continue to improve compared with pre-LT values up to 1 year post-LT, although the rate of improvement slows down after 6 months. Grey matter increase is steady over time at 1 year although changes in ammonia-related metabolites and white matter integrity improve at a slower pace at 1 year post-LT.
Full Text Available Learning to modulate one’s own brain activity is the fundament of neurofeedback (NF applications. Besides the neural networks directly involved in the generation and modulation of the neurophysiological parameter being specifically trained, more general determinants of NF efficacy such as self-referential processes and cognitive control have been frequently disregarded. Nonetheless, deeper insight into these cognitive mechanisms and their neuronal underpinnings sheds light on various open NF related questions concerning individual differences, brain-computer interface (BCI illiteracy as well as a more general model of NF learning. In this context, we investigated the neuronal substrate of these more general regulatory mechanisms that are engaged when participants believe that they are receiving NF. Twenty healthy participants (40-63 years, 10 female performed a sham NF paradigm during fMRI scanning. All participants were novices to NF-experiments and were instructed to voluntarily modulate their own brain activity based on a visual display of moving color bars. However, the bar depicted a recording and not the actual brain activity of participants. Reports collected at the end of the experiment indicate that participants were unaware of the sham feedback. In comparison to a passive watching condition, bilateral insula, anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor and dorsomedial and lateral prefrontal area were activated when participants actively tried to control the bar. In contrast, when merely watching moving bars, increased activation in the left angular gyrus was observed. These results show that the intention to control a moving bar is sufficient to engage a broad frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular network involved in cognitive control. The results of the present study indicate that tasks such as those generally employed in NF training recruit the neuronal correlates of cognitive control even when only sham NF is presented.
Ninaus, Manuel; Kober, Silvia E; Witte, Matthias; Koschutnig, Karl; Stangl, Matthias; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme
Learning to modulate one's own brain activity is the fundament of neurofeedback (NF) applications. Besides the neural networks directly involved in the generation and modulation of the neurophysiological parameter being specifically trained, more general determinants of NF efficacy such as self-referential processes and cognitive control have been frequently disregarded. Nonetheless, deeper insight into these cognitive mechanisms and their neuronal underpinnings sheds light on various open NF related questions concerning individual differences, brain-computer interface (BCI) illiteracy as well as a more general model of NF learning. In this context, we investigated the neuronal substrate of these more general regulatory mechanisms that are engaged when participants believe that they are receiving NF. Twenty healthy participants (40-63 years, 10 female) performed a sham NF paradigm during fMRI scanning. All participants were novices to NF-experiments and were instructed to voluntarily modulate their own brain activity based on a visual display of moving color bars. However, the bar depicted a recording and not the actual brain activity of participants. Reports collected at the end of the experiment indicate that participants were unaware of the sham feedback. In comparison to a passive watching condition, bilateral insula, anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor and dorsomedial and lateral prefrontal areas were activated when participants actively tried to control the bar. In contrast, when merely watching moving bars, increased activation in the left angular gyrus was observed. These results show that the intention to control a moving bar is sufficient to engage a broad frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular network involved in cognitive control. The results of the present study indicate that tasks such as those generally employed in NF training recruit the neuronal correlates of cognitive control even when only sham NF is presented.
N. Tafaghodi Khajavi
Full Text Available In this paper, we aim at deriving the outage rates achieved by the primary user due spectrum sensing in a cognitive radio network, that we call sensing-induced primary outage rates. To reach this goal, in the first step, instead of classical spectrum sensing techniques that evaluate sensing performance only based on correct detection of the presence of the primary user’s signal, we propose a modified framework that also takes into account the correct detection of the absence of primary user’s signal for spectrum sensing performance evaluation. In a second step, we derive the information rates achieved by the coexistence of a primary and a cognitive network. In the last step, assuming slow fading sensing channels, we derive the sensing-induced primary outage rates, i.e., outage rates achieved by the primary network in the presence of a CR with imperfect spectrum sensing, characterized by a given miss-detection probability. Numerical results show that the proposed spectrum sensing outperforms conventional spectrum sensing techniques in terms of primary signal outage rates and total achievable throughputs, without any increase in the cognitive radio complexity.
Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi
Spectrum sensing is the first and main step for cognitive radio systems to achieve an efficient use of the spectrum. Cooperation among cognitive radio users is a technique employed to improve the sensing performance by exploiting the diversity between the sensing channels to overcome the fading and shadowing effects which allows reduction of miss-detection and false alarm probabilities. Information can be exchanged between cooperating users in different formats from the binary hard information to the full soft information. Quantized information has shown its efficiency as a trade-off between binary hard and full soft for other cooperative schemes, in this paper, we investigate the use of quantized information between cooperating cognitive users. We derive closed-form expressions of the cooperative average false alarm and detection probabilities over fading channels for a generalized system model with not necessarily identical average sensing Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and imperfect reporting channels. Numerical simulations allow us to conclude a tradeoff between the quantization size and the reporting energy in order to achieve the optimal cooperative error probability. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.
Cecilia U D Stenfors
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751 and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. CROSS/SECTIONAL RESULTS: High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT demands, under qualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and over qualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. PROSPECTIVE RESULTS: Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and under qualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively
María Soledad Ramírez Montoya
Full Text Available El artículo presenta un estudio de casos múltiples de la implementación, a gran escala, de un proyecto de aprendizaje móvil. El proyecto se implementó con 3.000 estudiantes de primer semestre de profesional en dos campus de una institución educativa privada de México. El objetivo fue analizar los recursos de aprendizaje móvil de cuatro cursos para identificar cómo se trataba de promover el desarrollo de habilidades cognitivas en los estudiantes. Se utilizaron entrevistas a través de «focus group», encuestas, análisis de documentos y observación no intrusiva. Los datos fueron analizados en forma cuantitativa y cualitativa y se relacionaron con el sustento teórico de las dos variables conceptuales que guiaron este estudio: aprendizaje móvil –mLearning– y habilidades cognitivas. Los resultados indicaron que el uso de recursos mLearning modifica el ambiente de aprendizaje al convertir cualquier escenario en un ambiente innovador y colaborativo; que el diseño de los recursos mLearning debe sustentarse en teorías y estrategias educativas para ser efectivos y que la naturaleza de la materia y el tipo de recurso están relacionados a las habilidades cognitivas que se desarrollan. Además se encontró que aunque los estudiantes no están conscientes de ello, los recursos mLearning y el uso de dispositivos móviles los apoyan en estrategias que promueven el desarrollo de las habilidades cognitivas como solución de problemas, toma de decisiones, pensamiento crítico, pensamiento creativo y «melioration».This article presents a multiple case study carried out when mobile learning (mLearning was first introduced to 3.000 freshmen of two university campuses in Mexico. The objective was to analyze mLearning resources in four courses to identify how they help develop cognitive skills in students. Focus group interviews, surveys, document analysis and non-intrusive observation were used. The data was analyzed quantitatively and
Sørensen, L B; Damsgaard, C T; Petersen, R A; Dalskov, S-M; Hjorth, M F; Dyssegaard, C B; Egelund, N; Tetens, I; Astrup, A; Lauritzen, L; Michaelsen, K F
We previously found that the OPUS School Meal Study improved reading and increased errors related to inattention and impulsivity. This study explored whether the cognitive effects differed according to gender, household education and reading proficiency at baseline. This is a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing Nordic school meals with packed lunch from home (control) for 3 months each among 834 children aged 8 to 11 years. At baseline and at the end of each dietary period, we assessed children's performance in reading, mathematics and the d2-test of attention. Interactions were evaluated using mixed models. Analyses included 739 children. At baseline, boys and children from households without academic education were poorer readers and had a higher d2-error%. Effects on dietary intake were similar in subgroups. However, the effect of the intervention on test outcomes was stronger in boys, in children from households with academic education and in children with normal/good baseline reading proficiency. Overall, this resulted in increased socioeconomic inequality in reading performance and reduced inequality in impulsivity. Contrary to this, the gender difference decreased in reading and increased in impulsivity. Finally, the gap between poor and normal/good readers was increased in reading and decreased for d2-error%. The effects of healthy school meals on reading, impulsivity and inattention were modified by gender, household education and baseline reading proficiency. The differential effects might be related to environmental aspects of the intervention and deserves to be investigated further in future school meal trials.
Hooker, Christine I; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; Vinogradov, Sophia
Cognitive remediation training has been shown to improve both cognitive and social cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia, but the mechanisms that support this behavioral improvement are largely unknown. One hypothesis is that intensive behavioral training in cognition and/or social cognition restores the underlying neural mechanisms that support targeted skills. However, there is little research on the neural effects of cognitive remediation training. This study investigated whether a 50 h (10-week) remediation intervention which included both cognitive and social cognitive training would influence neural function in regions that support social cognition. Twenty-two stable, outpatient schizophrenia participants were randomized to a treatment condition consisting of auditory-based cognitive training (AT) [Brain Fitness Program/auditory module ~60 min/day] plus social cognition training (SCT) which was focused on emotion recognition [~5-15 min per day] or a placebo condition of non-specific computer games (CG) for an equal amount of time. Pre and post intervention assessments included an fMRI task of positive and negative facial emotion recognition, and standard behavioral assessments of cognition, emotion processing, and functional outcome. There were no significant intervention-related improvements in general cognition or functional outcome. fMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Specifically, in comparison to CG, AT+SCT participants had a greater pre-to-post intervention increase in postcentral gyrus activity during emotion recognition of both positive and negative emotions. Furthermore, among all participants, the increase in postcentral gyrus activity predicted behavioral improvement on a standardized test of emotion processing (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Results indicate that combined cognition and social cognition training impacts neural mechanisms that support social cognition skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All
Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy on depression and craving beliefs of abusers under methadone maintenance treatment, who referred to addiction treatment clinics of Bushehr city. Methods The statistical population of this research included all abusers, who referred to the addiction treatment centers (clinics of Bushehr city. In regards to the research objectives, sampling was purposive and random. By referring to the addiction treatment clinics of Bushehr city, drug abusers were invited to participate in the study. The participants firstly completed the Beck depression inventory and craving questionnaire. Then, drug abusers with scores one standard deviation higher than the mean score of the Beck depression index and one standard deviation higher than the mean score of craving beliefs index, were selected. From this group, 20 qualified individuals were selected and divided randomly to two groups (experiment and control groups and only the experimental group was intervened. After the intervention, both groups took part in the post-test. Data obtained from the research was analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results Results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of depression and temping beliefs (P < 0.0001. In other words, the results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy reduces depression and improves craving beliefs of abusers under methadone maintenance treatment. Conclusions The results emphasize the importance of the use of these interventions in abusers under methadone maintenance treatment and provide new horizons in clinical interventions.
Full Text Available Circadian and homeostatic sleep-wake regulatory processes interact in a fine tuned manner to modulate human cognitive performance. Dampening of the circadian alertness signal and attenuated deterioration of psychomotor vigilance in response to elevated sleep pressure with aging change this interaction pattern. As evidenced by neuroimaging studies, both homeostatic sleep pressure and circadian sleep-wake promotion impact on cognition-related cortical and arousal-promoting subcortical brain regions including the thalamus, the anterior hypothalamus and the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC. However, how age- related changes in circadian and homeostatic processes impact on the cerebral activity subtending waking performance remains largely unexplored. Post-mortem studies point to neuronal degeneration in the SCN and age-related modifications to aging in the arousal-promoting LC. Alongside, cortical frontal brain areas are particularly susceptible both to aging and misalignment between circadian and homeostatic processes. In this perspective, we summarise and discuss here the potential neuroanatomical networks underlying age-related changes in circadian and homeostatic modulation of waking performance, ranging from basic arousal to higher order cognitive behaviours.
Shewade, Hemant D; Aggarwal, Arun K; Bharti, Bhavneet
To assess the skills (diagnostic/counseling) of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) trained workers; and to assess the degree of agreement between the physician and the IMNCI trained workers of Raipurrani block, district Panchkula, India, to classify sick under-five children in field. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Raipurrani in the outpatient departments of the community health centre and one primary health centre in 2010. Workers from health department and Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) were assessed in this study. They received IMNCI training in 2006, with 1 day refresher training in 2009. Investigator noted his observations using a skill assessment checklist. Under-five child observations were the unit of study. Sixteen IMNCI trained workers made 128 child observations. Considering color-coded categorization under IMNCI, agreement with investigator (Kappa) was intermediate; red and yellow categorizations had poor agreement. Morbidity-wise agreement (Kappa) was poor for possible serious bacterial infection, feeding problem, respiratory problem and anemia. Considering final diagnosis, investigator and IMNCI trained worker completely agreed in 45 % child observations. All symptoms were asked only in 15 %. Skills were poor overall for young infants. For children between 2 mo to 5 y, danger signs, neck stiffness, edema, wasting and pallor were checked in <40 % observations. Immunization card was asked for in 20 % observations. IMNCI trained workers performed well in all aspects of counseling, except follow up. Training without effective implementation plans will not result in long term skill retention.
Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman
Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Beck, Anne; Heinz, Adrienne J; Heinz, Andreas
Alcohol-related violence, a longstanding, serious, and pervasive social problem, has provided researchers from diverse disciplines with a model to study individual differences in aggressive and violent behavior. Of course, not all alcohol consumers will become aggressive after drinking and similarly, not all individuals with alcohol use disorders will exhibit such untoward behavior. Rather, the relationship is best conceptualized as complex and indirect and is influenced by a constellation of social, cognitive, and biological factors that differ greatly from one person to the next. Animal experiments and human studies have elucidated how these mechanisms and processes explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between acute and chronic alcohol consumption and aggressive behavior. Further, the rich body of literature on alcohol-related aggression has allowed for identification of several potential high-yield targets for clinical intervention, e.g., cognitive training for executive dysfunction; psychopharmacology targeting affect and threat perception, which may also generalize to other psychiatric conditions characterized by aggressive behavior. Here we aim to integrate pertinent findings, derived from different methodological approaches and theoretical models, which explain heterogeneity in aggressive responses to alcohol. A translational platform is provided, highlighting common factors linking alcohol and aggression that warrant further, interdisciplinary study in order to reduce the devastating social impact of this phenomenon.
Oedekoven, Christiane S H; Jansen, Andreas; Keidel, James L; Kircher, Tilo; Leube, Dirk
Associative memory is essential to everyday activities, such as the binding of faces and corresponding names to form single bits of information. However, this ability often becomes impaired with increasing age. The most important neural substrate of associative memory is the hippocampus, a structure crucially implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main aim of this study was to compare neural correlates of associative memory in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an at-risk state for AD. We used fMRI to investigate differences in brain activation and connectivity between young controls (n = 20), elderly controls (n = 32) and MCI patients (n = 21) during associative memory retrieval. We observed lower hippocampal activation in MCI patients than control groups during a face-name recognition task, and the magnitude of this decrement was correlated with lower associative memory performance. Further, increased activation in precentral regions in all older adults indicated a stronger involvement of the task positive network (TPN) with age. Finally, functional connectivity analysis revealed a stronger link of hippocampal and striatal components in older adults in comparison to young controls, regardless of memory impairment. In elderly controls, this went hand-in-hand with a stronger activation of striatal areas. Increased TPN activation may be linked to greater reliance on cognitive control in both older groups, while increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the striatum may suggest dedifferentiation, especially in elderly controls.
Rolls, Edmund T; Deco, Gustavo
The relatively random spiking times of individual neurons provide a source of noise in the brain. We show how this noise interacting with altered depth in the basins of attraction of networks involved in short-term memory, attention, and episodic memory provide an approach to understanding some of the cognitive changes in normal aging. The effects of the neurobiological changes in aging that are considered include reduced synaptic modification and maintenance during learning produced in part through reduced acetylcholine in normal aging, reduced dopamine which reduces NMDA-receptor mediated effects, reduced noradrenaline which increases cAMP and thus shunts excitatory synaptic inputs, and the effects of a reduction in acetylcholine in increasing spike frequency adaptation. Using integrate-and-fire simulations of an attractor network implementing memory recall and short-term memory, it is shown that all these changes associated with aging reduce the firing rates of the excitatory neurons, which in turn reduce the depth of the basins of attraction, resulting in a much decreased probability in maintaining in short-term memory what has been recalled from the attractor network. This stochastic dynamics approach opens up new ways to understand and potentially treat the effects of normal aging on memory and cognitive functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henley, Jeremy M.; Wilkinson, Kevin A.
Even in healthy individuals there is an inexorable agerelated decline in cognitive function. This is due, in large part, to reduced synaptic plasticity caused by changes in the molecular composition of the postsynaptic membrane. AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are glutamate-gated cation channels that mediate the overwhelming majority of fast excitatory transmission in the brain. Changes in AMPAR number and/or function are a core feature of synaptic plasticity and age-related cognitive decline, AMPARs are highly dynamic proteins that are subject to highly controlled trafficking, recycling, and/or degradation and replacement. This active regulation of AMPAR synthesis, targeting, synaptic dwell time, and degradation is fundamentally important for memory formation and storage. Further, aberrant AMPAR trafficking and consequent detrimental changes in synapses are strongly implicated in many brain diseases, which represent a vast social and economic burden. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the molecular and cellular AMPA receptor trafficking events that control synaptic responsiveness and plasticity, and highlight what is known currently known about how these processes change with age and disease. PMID:23576886